WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain potentials indications

  1. Brain potentials indicate immediate use of prosodic cues in natural speech processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, K; Alter, K; Friederici, A D

    1999-02-01

    Spoken language, in contrast to written text, provides prosodic information such as rhythm, pauses, accents, amplitude and pitch variations. However, little is known about when and how these features are used by the listener to interpret the speech signal. Here we use event-related brain potentials (ERP) to demonstrate that intonational phrasing guides the initial analysis of sentence structure. Our finding of a positive shift in the ERP at intonational phrase boundaries suggests a specific on-line brain response to prosodic processing. Additional ERP components indicate that a false prosodic boundary is sufficient to mislead the listener's sentence processor. Thus, the application of ERP measures is a promising approach for revealing the time course and neural basis of prosodic information processing.

  2. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC) Brain Potential Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental ...

  3. Event-related brain potentials as indices of mental workload and attentional allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Arthur F.; Donchin, Emanuel; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past decade considerable strides were made in explicating the antecedant conditions necessary for the elicitation, and the modulation of the amplitude and latency, of a number of components of the event-related brain potential (ERP). The focus of this report is on P300. The degree to which the psychophysiological measures contribute to issues in two real-world domains (communication devices for the motor impaired and the assessment of mental workload of aircraft pilots) are examined.

  4. Acoustic noise alters selective attention processes as indicated by direct current (DC) brain potential changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

    2014-09-26

    Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes). This study investigated brain direct current (DC) potential shifts-which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation-of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest-besides some limitations-that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested "attention shift". Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  5. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC Brain Potential Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Trimmel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes. This study investigated brain direct current (DC potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  6. Brainstem Evoked Potential Indices of Subcortical Auditory Processing After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Werff, Kathy R; Rieger, Brian

    The primary aim of this study was to assess subcortical auditory processing in individuals with chronic symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) by measuring auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to standard click and complex speech stimuli. Consistent with reports in the literature of auditory problems after mTBI (despite normal-hearing thresholds), it was hypothesized that individuals with mTBI would have evidence of impaired neural encoding in the auditory brainstem compared to noninjured controls, as evidenced by delayed latencies and reduced amplitudes of ABR components. We further hypothesized that the speech-evoked ABR would be more sensitive than the click-evoked ABR to group differences because of its complex nature, particularly when recorded in a background noise condition. Click- and speech-ABRs were collected in 32 individuals diagnosed with mTBI in the past 3 to 18 months. All mTBI participants were experiencing ongoing injury symptoms for which they were seeking rehabilitation through a brain injury rehabilitation management program. The same data were collected in a group of 32 age- and gender-matched controls with no history of head injury. ABRs were recorded in both left and right ears for all participants in all conditions. Speech-ABRs were collected in both quiet and in a background of continuous 20-talker babble ipsilateral noise. Peak latencies and amplitudes were compared between groups and across subgroups of mTBI participants categorized by their behavioral auditory test performance. Click-ABR results were not significantly different between the mTBI and control groups. However, when comparing the control group to only those mTBI subjects with measurably decreased performance on auditory behavioral tests, small differences emerged, including delayed latencies for waves I, III, and V. Similarly, few significant group differences were observed for peak amplitudes and latencies of the speech-ABR when comparing at the whole group level

  7. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words : temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, Hein T.; Wijers, Albertus A.; Mars, Rogier B.; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Stowe, Laurie A.

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that

  8. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words: temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schie, H.T. van; Wijers, A.A.; Mars, R.B.; Benjamins, J.S.; Stowe, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that

  9. The oxidation states and chemical environments of iron and zinc as potential indicators of brain tumour malignancy grade - preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandzilak, Aleksandra; Czyzycki, Mateusz; Wrobel, Pawel; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena; Radwanska, Edyta; Adamek, Dariusz; Lankosz, Marek

    2013-11-01

    Despite the enormous advances in medicine, brain tumours are still among the lesser-known types of tumours and carry the worst prognoses. Transition metals are believed to play an essential role in carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the average oxidation state and trends in the changes in the chemical environment of iron and zinc contained in healthy and neoplastic tissues of the human brain. For this purpose, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy was used, which enables the study of disordered matter. The samples were taken intraoperatively and then immediately frozen to slow down chemical processes. Sixteen tumour samples with various malignancy grades were studied as well as one control sample. For each sample four to eight spectra were recorded, with a shift between them not greater than 0.2 eV. In all of the samples, iron occurred in compounds with both Fe(2+) and Fe(3+). However, the ratio of Fe(ii) to Fe(iii) content in the tissue visibly increased with the tumour malignancy grade. The change in the oxidation state of iron did not correlate with the hypoxia level of the tissues. Analysis of EXAFS spectra of zinc atoms showed that the chemical environment of zinc atoms differed with the tumour malignancy grade. Additionally, cryogenic conditions were found to produce positive results in studies of biological samples, whose form under such conditions is close to their native state, without preparation-caused artefacts.

  10. Diffuse light reflectance signals as potential indicators of loss of viability in brain tissue due to hypoxia: charge-coupled-device-based imaging and fiber-based measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Nishidate, Izumi; Uozumi, Yoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Sato, Shunichi

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue is highly vulnerable to ischemia/hypoxia, and real-time monitoring of its viability is important. By fiber-based measurements for rat brain, we previously observed a unique triphasic reflectance change (TRC) after a certain period of time after hypoxia. After TRC, rats could not be rescued, suggesting that TRC can be used as an indicator of loss of brain tissue viability. In this study, we investigated this diffuse-reflectance change due to hypoxia in three parts. First, we developed and validated a theoretical method to quantify changes in the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients involved in TRC. Second, we performed charge-coupled-device-based reflectance imaging of the rat brain during hypoxia followed by reoxygenation to examine spatiotemporal characteristics of the reflectance and its correlation with reversibility of brain tissue damage. Third, we made simultaneous imaging and fiber-based measurement of the reflectance for the rat to compare signals obtained by these two modalities. We observed a nontriphasic reflectance change by the imaging, and it was associated with brain tissue viability. We found that TRC measured by the fibers preceded the reflectance-signal change captured by the imaging. This time difference is attributable to the different observation depths in the brain with these two methods.

  11. Evoked brain potentials and disability in brain-damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, M; Hall, K; Hopkins, K; Belleza, T; Berrol, S; Reynolds, G

    1977-08-01

    Various measures of evoked brain potential abnormality (EPA) were correlated with disability ratings (DR) for 35 brain-damaged patients. EPA data consisted of judgements of abnormality of ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral responses to auditory and visual stimuli reflecting activity in the brain stem, subcortex and cortex. DR data were obtained from a scale developed for this study to quantize and categorize patients with a wide range of disabilities from coma to normal functioning. EPA scores based on visual and auditory cortical responses showed significantly positive correlations with degree of disability. Visual response correlation was .49, auditory .38 and combined visual and auditory .51. It was concluded that EPA measures can reflect disability independently of clinical information. They are useful in assessing brain function in general and, specifically, in assessing impairment of sensory function. The evoked potential technique was particularly useful in patients who were not able to participate fully in their own examination. There were indications that the technique may also be valuable in monitoring progress and in predicting clinical outcome in brain-damaged patients.

  12. Regional Differentiation of Human Potential Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Veniaminovich Lokosov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is the interregional analysis of human potential. In comparison with the quality of life of the population, the quality of population itself is studied far less. The article presents an expanded characteristic of human potential in seven directions: economic activity, demographic processes, physical health, cultural potential, social health, educational potential and the attitude of the population to the environment. On the basis of statistics for 2008–2012 years, 63 indicators of human potential for all directions are selected. In the final result, the correlation analysis has led to the substantiation of the system of indicators consisting of 10 indicators. Three economic and seven social indicators characterizing human potential are included into this system. On the basis of the indicators by means of hierarchical agglomerative methods of cluster analysis, a classification of the Russian regions is carried out in two versions: with economic indicators and without them. The result of the calculations is a stable temporal typology of regions by indicators of human potential covering 74.4 % of the population of Russia. The article provides a substantial interpretation of dividing regions into groups, identifies the strengths and weaknesses of each cluster, shows the specific features of the regions included into the clusters. The obtained results can be used in the development of measures for the reduction of the interregional inequality in terms of human potential. It is possible to define what measures can be effective by studying the strategic directions of the development of regions in the cluster which is the most successful regarding the characteristics of human potential.

  13. Quantifying indices of potential competitiveness and browse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of indices of potential competition with grass and browse productivity of single-stemmed Acacia karroo trees, using various trunk and canopy parameters, was evaluated on the basis of the variance accounted for by each of four operators and the repeatability for all operators. Potential competitiveness and ...

  14. Dissociated brain potentials for two calculation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenbo; Liu, Dianzhi; He, Weiqi; Tao, Weidong; Luo, Yuejia

    2009-03-04

    Event-related brain potentials were used to investigate the shortcut calculation strategy and nonshortcut calculation strategy in performing addition using mental arithmetic. Results showed that the shortcut calculation strategy elicited a larger P220 than the nonshortcut calculation strategy in the 180-280 ms. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (shortcut calculation minus nonshortcut calculation) indicated that a generator was localized in the posterior cingulate cortex, which reflected the evaluation effect of number in the use of the shortcut strategy. In the 320-500 ms time window, a greater N400 was found in the nonshortcut calculation as compared with the shortcut calculation. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave indicated that a generator was localized in the anterior cingulate cortex. The N400 might reflect the greater working memory load.

  15. Timing of potential and metabolic brain energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korf, Jakob; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert

    2007-01-01

    The temporal relationship between cerebral electro-physiological activities, higher brain functions and brain energy metabolism is reviewed. The duration of action potentials and transmission through glutamate and GABA are most often less than 5 ms. Subjects may perform complex psycho-physiologic...

  16. Timing of potential and metabolic brain energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, Jakob; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert

    2007-01-01

    The temporal relationship between cerebral electro-physiological activities, higher brain functions and brain energy metabolism is reviewed. The duration of action potentials and transmission through glutamate and GABA are most often less than 5 ms. Subjects may perform complex psycho-physiological

  17. The present indication and future of deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Asakawa, Tetsuya; Koizumi, Shinichiro; Saitoh, Osamu; Namba, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    The use of electrical stimulation to treat pain in human disease dates back to ancient Rome or Greece. Modern deep brain stimulation (DBS) was initially applied for pain treatment in the 1960s, and was later used to treat movement disorders in the 1990s. After recognition of DBS as a therapy for central nervous system (CNS) circuit disorders, DBS use showed drastic increase in terms of adaptability to disease and the patient's population. More than 100,000 patients have received DBS therapy worldwide. The established indications for DBS are Parkinson's disease, tremor, and dystonia, whereas global indications of DBS expanded to other neuronal diseases or disorders such as neuropathic pain, epilepsy, and tinnitus. DBS is also experimentally used to manage cognitive disorders and psychiatric diseases such as major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Tourette's syndrome, and eating disorders. The importance of ethics and conflicts surrounding the regulation and freedom of choice associated with the application of DBS therapy for new diseases or disorders is increasing. These debates are centered on the use of DBS to treat new diseases and disorders as well as its potential to enhance ability in normal healthy individuals. Here we present three issues that need to be addressed in the future: (1) elucidation of the mechanisms of DBS, (2) development of new DBS methods, and (3) miniaturization of the DBS system. With the use of DBS, functional neurosurgery entered into the new era that man can manage and control the brain circuit to treat intractable neuronal diseases and disorders.

  18. Brain-Based Indices for User System Symbiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Veltman, J.A.; Grootjen, M.

    2010-01-01

    The future generation user system interfaces need to be user-centric which goes beyond user-friendly and includes understanding and anticipating user intentions. We introduce the concept of operator models, their role in implementing user-system symbiosis, and the usefulness of brain-based indices

  19. Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic…

  20. Potential Moderators of Physical Activity on Brain Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina L. Leckie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive decline is linked to numerous molecular, structural, and functional changes in the brain. However, physical activity is a promising method of reducing unfavorable age-related changes. Physical activity exerts its effects on the brain through many molecular pathways, some of which are regulated by genetic variants in humans. In this paper, we highlight genes including apolipoprotein E (APOE, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT along with dietary omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, as potential moderators of the effect of physical activity on brain health. There are a growing number of studies indicating that physical activity might mitigate the genetic risks for disease and brain dysfunction and that the combination of greater amounts of DHA intake with physical activity might promote better brain function than either treatment alone. Understanding whether genes or other lifestyles moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive health is necessary for delineating the pathways by which brain health can be enhanced and for grasping the individual variation in the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on the brain and cognition. There is a need for future research to continue to assess the factors that moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive function.

  1. Light-scattering signal may indicate critical time zone to rescue brain tissue after hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Uozumi, Yoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Miya; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2011-02-01

    A light-scattering signal, which is sensitive to cellular/subcellular structural integrity, is a potential indicator of brain tissue viability because metabolic energy is used in part to maintain the structure of cells. We previously observed a unique triphasic scattering change (TSC) at a certain time after oxygen/glucose deprivation for blood-free rat brains; TSC almost coincided with the cerebral adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion. We examine whether such TSC can be observed in the presence of blood in vivo, for which transcranial diffuse reflectance measurement is performed for rat brains during hypoxia induced by nitrogen gas inhalation. At a certain time after hypoxia, diffuse reflectance intensity in the near-infrared region changes in three phases, which is shown by spectroscopic analysis to be due to scattering change in the tissue. During hypoxia, rats are reoxygenated at various time points. When the oxygen supply is started before TSC, all rats survive, whereas no rats survive when the oxygen supply is started after TSC. Survival is probabilistic when the oxygen supply is started during TSC, indicating that the period of TSC can be regarded as a critical time zone for rescuing the brain. The results demonstrate that light scattering signal can be an indicator of brain tissue reversibility.

  2. Upgoing thumb sign: A sensitive indicator of brain involvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachinski, Vladimir; Alsubaie, Rasha; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza

    2017-07-25

    To assess the frequency of this finding in patients with minor stroke and TIAs compared to those with stroke mimics and to evaluate the level of agreement between examiners to detect an upgoing thumb sign. We previously reported an upgoing thumb sign as a subtle clinical finding in patients with transient ischemic attacks or minor stroke. In this study conducted between March 2016 and October 2016 at the Stroke Prevention Clinic at University Hospital, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada, participants were examined independently by stroke faculty and fellows who were blinded to each other's findings. The frequency of the upgoing thumb sign in patients with minor or threatened stroke was compared to that in patients with stroke mimics, and the level of agreement between examiners and clinical findings was assessed with the Cohen κ test. The upgoing thumb sign was observed more frequently in those with minor stroke/TIA than in those with stroke mimics (p = 0.001). A substantial level of agreement between examiners was recorded in the detection of the thumb sign (κ: right 0.71, left 0.78). In addition, an upgoing thumb sign showed a substantial level of agreement with the patient's symptoms (examiner 1: κ = 0.65, p thumb sign is a sensitive and reliable indicator of brain involvement. This examination is noninvasive, easy, reliable, and highly compatible with and confirmatory of the patient's symptoms. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Event-related potentials indicate bi-hemispherical changes in speech sound processing during aphasia rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Frank; Reinvang, Ivar

    2007-10-01

    To investigate changes in brain activation related to tone and speech sound processing during aphasia rehabilitation. Longitudinal study investigating patients with stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury 3 and 7 months post-injury. Eight patients with aphasia, reflecting a wide range of auditory comprehension impairment. Token test and Norwegian Basic Aphasia Assessment were used to measure auditory comprehension function. Brain event-related potentials were recorded in passive paradigms with harmonically rich tones and syllables in order to obtain the mismatch negativity component that reflects automatic stimulus discrimination. In an active syllable discrimination paradigm, stimulus feature integration (N1), attended stimulus discrimination and classification (N2), and target detection (P3) were studied. Auditory comprehension scores improved approximately 10% during the observation period. Ipsilesional frontal P3- and N2-amplitude increased significantly. A significant shift in topographical distribution from the contralesional to the ipsilesional hemisphere was observed for the N2 component. The study of individual waveforms indicates inter-individual differences in reorganization after brain injury. Hemispherical distribution of brain activation correlating with speech sound processing in aphasia can change during the first months after brain injury. Event-related potentials are a potentially useful method for detecting individual activation patterns relevant to recovery in aphasia rehabilitation.

  4. Do resting brain dynamics predict oddball evoked-potential?

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    Lee Tien-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oddball paradigm is widely applied to the investigation of cognitive function in neuroscience and in neuropsychiatry. Whether cortical oscillation in the resting state can predict the elicited oddball event-related potential (ERP is still not clear. This study explored the relationship between resting electroencephalography (EEG and oddball ERPs. The regional powers of 18 electrodes across delta, theta, alpha and beta frequencies were correlated with the amplitude and latency of N1, P2, N2 and P3 components of oddball ERPs. A multivariate analysis based on partial least squares (PLS was applied to further examine the spatial pattern revealed by multiple correlations. Results Higher synchronization in the resting state, especially at the alpha spectrum, is associated with higher neural responsiveness and faster neural propagation, as indicated by the higher amplitude change of N1/N2 and shorter latency of P2. None of the resting quantitative EEG indices predict P3 latency and amplitude. The PLS analysis confirms that the resting cortical dynamics which explains N1/N2 amplitude and P2 latency does not show regional specificity, indicating a global property of the brain. Conclusions This study differs from previous approaches by relating dynamics in the resting state to neural responsiveness in the activation state. Our analyses suggest that the neural characteristics carried by resting brain dynamics modulate the earlier/automatic stage of target detection.

  5. Plasticity during Early Brain Development Is Determined by Ontogenetic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Lidzba, Karen; Pavlova, Marina A; Wilke, Marko; Staudt, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Two competing hypotheses address neuroplasticity during early brain development: the "Kennard principle" describes the compensatory capacities of the immature developing CNS as superior to those of the adult brain, whereas the "Hebb principle" argues that the young brain is especially sensitive to insults. We provide evidence that these principles are not mutually exclusive. Following early brain lesions that are unilateral, the brain can refer to homotopic areas of the healthy hemisphere. This potential for reorganization is unique to the young brain but available only when, during ontogenesis of brain development, these areas have been used for the functions addressed. With respect to motor function, ipsilateral motor tracts can be recruited, which are only available during early brain development. Language can be reorganized to the right after early left hemispheric lesions, as the representation of the language network is initially bilateral. However, even in these situations, compensatory capacities of the developing brain are found to have limitations, probably defined by early determinants. Thus, plasticity and adaptivity are seen only within ontogenetic potential; that is, axonal or cortical structures cannot be recruited beyond early developmental possibilities. The young brain is probably more sensitive and vulnerable to lesions when these are bilateral. This is shown here for bilateral periventricular white matter lesions that clearly have an impact on cortical architecture and function, thus probably interfering with early network building. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. [Forensic application of brainstem auditory evoked potential in patients with brain concussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xing-Bin; Li, Sheng-Yan; Huang, Si-Xing; Ma, Ke-Xin

    2008-12-01

    To investigate changes of brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) in patients with brain concussion. Nineteen patients with brain concussion were studied with BAEP examination. The data was compared to the healthy persons reported in literatures. The abnormal rate of BAEP for patients with brain concussion was 89.5%. There was a statistically significant difference between the abnormal rate of patients and that of healthy persons (Pbrain concussion was 73.7%, indicating dysfunction of the brainstem in those patients. BAEP might be helpful in forensic diagnosis of brain concussion.

  7. The Potential of Using Brain Images for Authentication

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    Fanglin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric recognition (also known as biometrics refers to the automated recognition of individuals based on their biological or behavioral traits. Examples of biometric traits include fingerprint, palmprint, iris, and face. The brain is the most important and complex organ in the human body. Can it be used as a biometric trait? In this study, we analyze the uniqueness of the brain and try to use the brain for identity authentication. The proposed brain-based verification system operates in two stages: gray matter extraction and gray matter matching. A modified brain segmentation algorithm is implemented for extracting gray matter from an input brain image. Then, an alignment-based matching algorithm is developed for brain matching. Experimental results on two data sets show that the proposed brain recognition system meets the high accuracy requirement of identity authentication. Though currently the acquisition of the brain is still time consuming and expensive, brain images are highly unique and have the potential possibility for authentication in view of pattern recognition.

  8. COLIPHAGES AS POTENTIAL VIRAL INDICATORS OF FECAL POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Stephanie D. In press. Coliphages as Potential Viral Indicators of Fecal Pollution (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems of the Gulf of Mexico and Southeastern United States, 6-9 October ...

  9. The Present Indication and Future of Deep Brain Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Asakawa, Tetsuya; KOIZUMI, SHINICHIRO; Saitoh, Osamu; Namba, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    The use of electrical stimulation to treat pain in human disease dates back to ancient Rome or Greece. Modern deep brain stimulation (DBS) was initially applied for pain treatment in the 1960s, and was later used to treat movement disorders in the 1990s. After recognition of DBS as a therapy for central nervous system (CNS) circuit disorders, DBS use showed drastic increase in terms of adaptability to disease and the patient’s population. More than 100,000 patients have received DBS therapy w...

  10. Modeling and analysis of extracellular field potentials in the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Lindén, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In order to model processes occuring in the brain it is necessary to have reliable measures of neural activity, with a clear intepretation rooted in the biophysics of the neural tissue. One of the most important probes of neural activity is the measurement of extracellular field potentials. The potential picked up by an electrode placed inside the brain is typically filtered in to two distinct frequency bands: the high-frequency part (>500 Hz) captures the spiking output of nearby cells (term...

  11. Conceptual framework for bioeconomic potential indicators in Danube Delta

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    Butu M.,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The regional bioeconomic potential takes into consideration many sectors of the economy that use renewable biological resources. The plants are one of the main resources for the most sectors - food, health, environment, materials and energy. The assessment of bioeconomic potential involves the modeling of the biological and economical aspects. Establishing the indicators involved in the study of this aspect requires a “what we have and what we need” analysis. We started with the development of a database of plants to facilitate an easy access to information for all interested scientist from related research fields.

  12. Educational games for brain health: revealing their unexplored potential through a neurocognitive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissler, Patrick; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Schrader, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Educational games link the motivational nature of games with learning of knowledge and skills. Here, we go beyond effects on these learning outcomes. We review two lines of evidence which indicate the currently unexplored potential of educational games to promote brain health: First, gaming with specific neurocognitive demands (e.g., executive control), and second, educational learning experiences (e.g., studying foreign languages) improve brain health markers. These markers include cognitive ability, brain function, and brain structure. As educational games allow the combination of specific neurocognitive demands with educational learning experiences, they seem to be optimally suited for promoting brain health. We propose a neurocognitive approach to reveal this unexplored potential of educational games in future research.

  13. Educational games for brain health: revealing their unexplored potential through a neurocognitive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eFissler

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Educational games link the motivational nature of games with learning of knowledge and skills. Here, we go beyond effects on these learning outcomes. We review two lines of evidence which indicate the currently unexplored potential of educational games to promote brain health: First, gaming with specific neurocognitive demands (e.g., executive control, and second, educational learning experiences (e.g., studying foreign languages improve brain health markers. These markers include cognitive ability, brain function, and brain structure. As educational games allow the combination of specific neurocognitive demands with educational learning experiences, they seem to be optimally suited for promoting brain health. We propose a neurocognitive approach to reveal this unexplored potential of educational games in future research.

  14. Finding behavioral and network indicators of brain vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava eLevit Binnun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience research has usually focused on identifying protective factors associated with specific stress conditions (e.g., war, trauma or psychopathologies (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder. Implicit in this research is the concept that resilience is a global construct, invariant to the unfavorable circumstances or the psychopathologies that may develop (i.e., the mechanisms underlying the resilience of an individual in all cases are expected to be similar. Here we contribute to the understanding of resilience—and its counterpart, vulnerability—by employing an approach that makes use of this invariant quality. We outline two main characteristics that we would expect from indicators of a vulnerable state: that they should appear across disorders regardless of specific circumstances, and that they should appear much before the disorder is evident. Next, we identify two sets of factors that exhibit this pattern of association with psychopathological states. The first was a set of low-level sensory, motor and regulatory irregularities that have been reported across the clinical literature; we suggest that these can serve as behavioral indicators of a vulnerable state. The second was the set of aberrations in network metrics that have been reported in the field of systems neuroscience; we suggest that these can serve as network indicators of a vulnerable state. Finally, we explore how behavioral indicators may be related to network indicators and discuss the clinical and research-related implications of our work.

  15. Alexithymia and the brain potential P300

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermond, B.; Righart, R.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Moormann, P.P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The P300 is an event-related potential occurring at about 300 ms post-stimulus. The P300 covaries in amplitude with the perceived significance of the stimulus as well as with its emotional valence. Alexithymia refers to severe reductions in the cognitive as well as affective components

  16. Potential of Nonlinear Ultrasonic Indicators for Nondestructive Testing of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Payan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of a growing need for safety and reliability in Civil Engineering, acoustic methods of nondestructive testing provide answers to a real industrial need. Linear indicators (wave speed and attenuation exhibit a limited sensitivity, unlike nonlinear ones which usually have a far greater dynamic range. This paper illustrates the potential of these indicators, and evaluates its potential for in situ applications. Concrete, a structurally heterogeneous and volumetrically, mechanically damaged material, is an example of a class of materials that exhibit strong multiple scattering as well as significant elastic nonlinear response. In the context of stress monitoring in pre-stressed structures, we show that intense scattering can be applied to robustly determine velocity changes at progressively increasing applied stress using coda wave interferometry and thereby extract nonlinear coefficients. In a second part, we demonstrate the high sensitivity of nonlinear parameters to thermal damage as regard with linear ones. Then, the influence of water content and porosity on these indicators is quantified allowing to uncouple the effect of damage from environmental or structural parameters.

  17. Potentials for Soil Enzyme as Indicators of Ecological Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senwo, Z. N.; Manu, A.; Coleman, T. L.

    1997-01-01

    Activity measurements of selected soil enzymes (cellulase, glucosidase, amidohydrolase, phosphatase, arylsulfatase) involved in carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur cycling in the biosphere, hold potential as early and sensitive indicators of soil ecological stress and restoration, These measurements are advantageous because the procedures are simple, rapid, and reproducible over time. Enzyme activities are sensitive to short-term changes in soil and kind-use management. Enzyme activities have also been observed to be closely related to soil organic matter proposed as an index of soil quality.

  18. Decade of the Brain 1990--2000: Maximizing human potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The US Decade of the Brain offers scientists throughout the Federal Government a unique opportunity to advance and apply scientific knowledge about the brain and nervous system. During the next 10 years, scientists hope to maximize human potential through studies of human behavior, senses and communication, learning and memory, genetic/chemical alterations, and environmental interactions. Progress in these areas should lead to reductions in mortality from brain and nervous system disorders and to improvements in the quality of life. This report identifies nine research areas that could form the basis of an integrated program in the brain and behavioral sciences. A chart summarizing the Federal activities in these nine areas may be found at the back of the report. In addition, three areas that span the nine research areas -- basic research, technology and international activities -- are considered.

  19. Redox potential: An indicator of site productivity in forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi, Toktam; Prescott, Cindy; Lavkulich, Les

    2010-05-01

    Redox potential (Eh) is an integrated soil measurement that reflects several environmental conditions in the soil associated with aeration, moisture and carbon (organic matter) dynamics. Its measurement can be related to water table fluctuations, precipitation and landscape gradients, organic matter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics, biological diversity and plant species distribution. Redox is an excellent indicator of soil biological processes, as it is largely a reflection of microbial activities which to a large extent govern carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling. Redox thus serves as an ecological indicator of site productivity at the ecosystem scale and may be used for management purposes as its magnitude can be altered by activities such as harvesting and drainage. A threshold value of 300 mv has been documented as the critical value below which anaerobic conditions in the soil develop. However, redox measurements and its impacts on ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling and productivity, especially in forest ecosystems, have not received the attention that this "master" variable deserves, On northern Vancouver Island, Canada, regenerating stands of western redcedar-western hemlock (CH) sites exhibit symptoms of nutrient deficiencies and slow growth, but this phenomenon does not occur on adjacent western hemlock- amabalis fir (HA) sites. We tested the hypothesis that differences in nutrient supply and distribution of plant species was caused by differences in moisture regime and redox potential. Redox potential, pH, soil aeration depth (steel rods), organic matter thickness, bulk density, soil carbon store, plant species distribution and richness were measured at five old-growth and five 10-year-old cutover blocks. Results of investigations confirmed that CH forests were wetter, had redox values lower than the critical 300mv and a shallower aerated zone, compared with adjacent regenerating HA sites. Fifty percent of the CH plots had redox values

  20. Ambiguous words in sentences: brain indices for native and non-native disambiguation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston-Güttler, Kerrie E; Friederici, Angela D

    2007-02-27

    In the present study, we compare how native speakers and second language learners process homonyms (such as bank and jam) in sentence context during a late processing phase that involves selection of the appropriate meaning. With both participant groups, we conducted a combined reaction time (RT)/event-related brain potential (ERP) lexical decision experiment with a long stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) of 800 ms. Related primes were homonyms at the end of sentences with a context biasing one of the homonym meanings, and targets reflected the contextually appropriate or inappropriate meaning. Both RT and ERP semantic priming in the N400 component revealed that for both natives and learners, only contextually appropriate meanings were primed, or still active, late in processing. The results indicate that L2 learners show similar, though slower, homonym processing mechanisms to those of native speakers of a language, and that both groups can achieve disambiguation based on semantic context.

  1. Potential brain dead organ donation in neurocritical care mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatenkova, Vera; Bradac, Ondrej; Suchomel, Petr

    2017-05-11

    Mortality is a marker of quality in neurocritical care, but it also provides potential for donors after brain death (DBD) following irreversible acute brain damage. The aim of this study was to analyse the neurointensive care unit (NICU) mortality rate and recovery of potential DBD. We performed a 10-year prospective observational cohort computer database analysis of 6138 acute neurological and neurosurgical patients (pts, 58.2% male, mean: age 55.9±14.7 years, body weight 78.3±15.6 kg, body mass index 26.9±4.7, NICU stay 3.8±5.3 days): 3462 (56.4%) pts with brain disease (mostly stroke 43.2%, tumour 31.1%, trauma 13.6%); 10.3% pts with internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis; 32.6% pts with spine diseases, and others. Mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score on admission was 10.63±5.2 and Glasgow Coma Scale on admission was 13.79±2.51. There were 159 (2.6%) cases of mortality with a significantly higher mortality rate in pts with brain diseases (95.6% of deceased pts, p<0.001) than in ICA stenosis (0.6%), spine (1.9%) and from others (1.9%). There were 23 (14.5%) pts with clinical signs of brain death, of whom 13 (56.5%) became donors. The main reasons for non-recovery of potential donors were hemodynamic instability (16.7%) and family reluctance (12.5%). The study showed that our NICU mortality was 2.6%. There were relatively few clinical signs of brain death and not all potential donors were recovered.

  2. [State dependent modification of auditory brain stem potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, R; Rebentisch, E

    1984-11-01

    It is well known, amplitudes and latencies of auditory brain stem potentials are almost independent of viligance state. Contrary to that, simple cognitive requirements effect amplitude changes (enhancement of variance, amplitude reduction) in a part 2/3) of the subjects.

  3. P300 brain potential among workers exposed to organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente E. Moen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SUMMARYThe P300 component of the auditory event-related brain potential was examined in a group of 11workers exposed to low levels of organic solvents in a paint factory and 11 unexposed controls beforeand after 3 weeks of summer vacation. The P300 latency time was found to be prolonged among theexposed workers compared to the reference group before the summer vacation, and to be significantlylonger before the vacation than after in the exposed group.The P300 component was also examined in a group of 85 seamen from chemical tankers, experiencingpeak exposures to organic solvents. They were compared to a reference group of unexposedseamen. Comparing these two groups, no difference was found in the P300 latency time. No relationshipbetween the P300 latency time and exposure was found in a multiple regression analysis, includingthe variables age, alcohol consumption, smoking and cerebral concussions.The study indicates the occurrence of an acute biological effect in the nervous system related toorganic solvent exposure, expressed by prolonged P300 latency time. This was found at very lowexposure levels and should be studied further.

  4. Is myelin basic protein a potential biomarker of brain cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavialova, M G; Shevchenko, V E; Nikolaev, E N; Zgoda, V G

    2017-08-01

    Myelin basic protein is a potential biomarker for the central nervous system diseases in which the myelin sheath is destroyed. Using pseudo-selected reaction monitoring and the method of standard additions, we have measured the myelin basic protein level in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurotrauma (n = 6), chronic neurodegenerative diseases (n = 2) and brain cancer (n = 5). Myelin basic protein was detected only in four out of five cerebrospinal fluid samples of patients with brain cancer. The cerebrospinal fluid myelin basic protein level ranged from 3.7 to 8.8 ng ml-1. We suggest that monitoring of myelin basic protein in cerebrospinal fluid can serve as a diagnostic test for the brain cancer.

  5. Deep two-photon brain imaging with a red-shifted fluorometric Ca2+ indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischbirek, Carsten; Birkner, Antje; Jia, Hongbo; Sakmann, Bert; Konnerth, Arthur

    2015-09-08

    In vivo Ca2+ imaging of neuronal populations in deep cortical layers has remained a major challenge, as the recording depth of two-photon microscopy is limited because of the scattering and absorption of photons in brain tissue. A possible strategy to increase the imaging depth is the use of red-shifted fluorescent dyes, as scattering of photons is reduced at long wavelengths. Here, we tested the red-shifted fluorescent Ca2+ indicator Cal-590 for deep tissue experiments in the mouse cortex in vivo. In experiments involving bulk loading of neurons with the acetoxymethyl (AM) ester version of Cal-590, combined two-photon imaging and cell-attached recordings revealed that, despite the relatively low affinity of Cal-590 for Ca2+ (Kd=561 nM), single-action potential-evoked Ca2+ transients were discernable in most neurons with a good signal-to-noise ratio. Action potential-dependent Ca2+ transients were recorded in neurons of all six layers of the cortex at depths of up to -900 µm below the pial surface. We demonstrate that Cal-590 is also suited for multicolor functional imaging experiments in combination with other Ca2+ indicators. Ca2+ transients in the dendrites of an individual Oregon green 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-1 (OGB-1)-labeled neuron and the surrounding population of Cal-590-labeled cells were recorded simultaneously on two spectrally separated detection channels. We conclude that the red-shifted Ca2+ indicator Cal-590 is well suited for in vivo two-photon Ca2+ imaging experiments in all layers of mouse cortex. In combination with spectrally different Ca2+ indicators, such as OGB-1, Cal-590 can be readily used for simultaneous multicolor functional imaging experiments.

  6. Human brain EEG indices of emotions: delineating responses to affective vocalizations by measuring frontal theta event-related synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkedal, Marni Y V; Rossi, John; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    At present there is no direct brain measure of basic emotional dynamics from the human brain. EEG provides non-invasive approaches for monitoring brain electrical activity to emotional stimuli. Event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis, based on power shifts in specific frequency bands, has some potential as a method for differentiating responses to basic emotions as measured during brief presentations of affective stimuli. Although there appears to be fairly consistent theta ERS in frontal regions of the brain during the earliest phases of processing affective auditory stimuli, the patterns do not readily distinguish between specific emotions. To date it has not been possible to consistently differentiate brain responses to emotion-specific affective states or stimuli, and some evidence to suggests the theta ERS more likely measures general arousal processes rather than yielding veridical indices of specific emotional states. Perhaps cortical EEG patterns will never be able to be used to distinguish discrete emotional states from the surface of the brain. The implications and limitations of such approaches for understanding human emotions are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring potential social influences on brain potentials during anticipation of tactile stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guannan; Saby, Joni N; Drew, Ashley R; Marshall, Peter J

    2017-03-15

    This study explored interpersonal influences on electrophysiological responses during the anticipation of tactile stimulation. It is well-known that broad, negative-going potentials are present in the event-related potential (ERP) between a forewarning cue and a tactile stimulus. It has also been shown that the alpha-range mu rhythm shows a lateralized desynchronization over central electrode sites during anticipation of tactile stimulation of the hand. The current study used a tactile discrimination task in which a visual cue signaled that an upcoming stimulus would either be delivered 1500ms later to the participant's hand, to a task partner's hand, or to neither person. For the condition in which participants anticipated the tactile stimulation to their own hand, a negative potential (contingent negative variation, CNV) was observed in the ERP at central sites in the 1000ms prior to the tactile stimulus. Significant mu rhythm desynchronization was also present in the same time window. The magnitudes of the ERPs and of the mu desynchronization were greater in the contralateral than in the ipsilateral hemisphere prior to right hand stimulation. Similar ERP and EEG changes were not present when the visual cue indicated that stimulation would be delivered to the task partner or to neither person. The absence of social influences during anticipation of tactile stimulation, and the relationship between the two brain signatures of anticipatory attention (CNV and mu rhythm) are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Different brain potentials evoked at distinct phases of rule learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuhong; Cao, Bihua; Gao, Heming; Kuang, Li; Li, Hong

    2012-09-01

    The neural mechanisms of rule learning are of interest to cognitive neuroscientists, but the time course of rule induction and the related brain potential remain unclear. In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured during the distinct phases of rule induction. Participants in two experiments were presented with a series of Arabic numbers and were asked to detect the hidden rules. The ERP results revealed that (a) the rule-discovery trials elicited a larger P3 component than the nondiscovery trials, reflecting the initial identification of the regularity of number series, and (b) when a new instance was incongruent with the previously acquired rule, a larger N2 and enhanced late positive component were elicited, reflecting the process of mismatch detection and the updating of working memory context. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Potential pressure indicators for fishing, and their data requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet, G.J.; Quirijns, F.J.; Robinson, L.; Greenstreet, S.P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Indicators of fishing pressure are necessary to support an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). We present a framework that distinguishes four levels of pressure indicators that move from being a simple description of anthropogenic activity to more precisely describing the actual

  10. Therapeutic Potential of Curcumin for the Treatment of Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil V. Klinger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain malignancies currently carry a poor prognosis despite the current multimodal standard of care that includes surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. As new therapies are desperately needed, naturally occurring chemical compounds have been studied for their potential chemotherapeutic benefits and low toxicity profile. Curcumin, found in the rhizome of turmeric, has extensive therapeutic promise via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative properties. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo data have shown it to be an effective treatment for brain tumors including glioblastoma multiforme. These effects are potentiated by curcumin’s ability to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest, activation of apoptotic pathways, induction of autophagy, disruption of molecular signaling, inhibition of invasion, and metastasis and by increasing the efficacy of existing chemotherapeutics. Further, clinical data suggest that it has low toxicity in humans even at large doses. Curcumin is a promising nutraceutical compound that should be evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of human brain tumors.

  11. Deep brain stimulation in Huntington's disease: assessment of potential targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mayur; Deogaonkar, Milind

    2015-05-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder that has very few effective therapeutic interventions. Since the disease has a defined neural circuitry abnormality, neuromodulation could be an option. Case reports, original research, and animal model studies were selected from the databases of Medline and PubMed. All related studies published up to July 2014 were included in this review. The following search terms were used: "Deep brain stimulation," "DBS," "thalamotomy," "pallidal stimulation," and "Huntington's Disease," "HD," "chorea," or "hyperkinetic movement disorders." This review examines potential nodes in the HD circuitry that could be modulated using deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy. With rapid evolution of imaging and ability to reach difficult targets in the brain with refined DBS technology, some phenotypes of HD could potentially be treated with DBS in the near future. Further clinical studies are warranted to validate the efficacy of neuromodulation and to determine the most optimal target for HD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential Indications for Tissue Engineering in Temporomandibular Joint Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salash, Jean R; Hossameldin, Reem H; Almarza, Alejandro J; Chou, Joli C; McCain, Joseph P; Mercuri, Louis G; Wolford, Larry M; Detamore, Michael S

    2016-04-01

    Musculoskeletal tissue engineering has advanced to the stage where it has the capability to engineer temporomandibular joint (TMJ) anatomic components. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of literature identifying specific indications for the use of TMJ tissue engineering solutions. The objective of this study was to establish an initial set of indications and contraindications for the use of engineered tissues for replacement of TMJ anatomic components. There was consensus among the authors that the management of patients requiring TMJ reconstruction as the result of 1) irreparable condylar trauma, 2) developmental or acquired TMJ pathology in skeletally immature patients, 3) hyperplasia, and 4) documented metal hypersensitivities could be indications for bioengineered condyle and ramus TMJ components. There was consensus that Wilkes stage III internal derangement might be an indication for use of a bioengineered TMJ disc or possibly even a disc-like bioengineered "fossa liner." However, there was some controversy as to whether TMJ arthritic disease (e.g., osteoarthritis) and reconstruction after failed alloplastic devices should be indications. Further research is required to determine whether tissue-engineered TMJ components could be a viable option for such cases. Contraindications for the use of bioengineered TMJ components could include patients with TMJ disorders and multiple failed surgeries, parafunctional oral habits, persistent TMJ infection, TMJ rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosis unless the underlying pathology can be resolved. Biomedical engineers must appreciate the specific indications that might warrant TMJ bioengineered structures, so that they avoid developing technologies in search of problems that might not exist for patients and clinicians. Instead, they should focus on identifying and understanding the problems that need resolution and then tailor technologies to address those specific situations. The aforementioned indications and

  13. Dissociation of Category-Learning Systems via Brain Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Morrison

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging evidence has suggested that categories can often be learned via either an explicit rule-based mechanism critically dependent on medial temporal and prefrontal brain regions, or via an implicit information-integration mechanism relying on the basal ganglia. In this study, participants viewed sine-wave gratings (i.e., Gabor patches that varied on two dimensions and learned to categorize them via trial-by-trial feedback. Two different stimulus distributions were used; one was intended to encourage an explicit rule-based process and the other an implicit information-integration process. We monitored brain activity with scalp electroencephalography (EEG while each participant (1 passively observed stimuli represented of both distributions, (2 categorized stimuli from one distribution, and, one week later, (3 categorized stimuli from the other distribution. Categorization accuracy was similar for the two distributions. Subtractions of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs for correct and incorrect trials were used to identify neural differences in rule-based and information-integration categorization processes. We identified an occipital brain potential that was differentially modulated by categorization condition accuracy at an early latency (150 - 250 ms, likely reflecting the degree of holistic processing. A stimulus-locked late positive complex associated with explicit memory updating was modulated by accuracy in the rule-based, but not the information-integration task. Likewise, a feedback-locked P300 ERP associated with expectancy was correlated with performance only in the rule-based, but not the information-integration condition. These results provide additional evidence for distinct brain mechanisms supporting rule-based versus implicit information-integration category learning and use.

  14. The Vocabulary of Brain Potentials: Inferring Cognitive Events from Brain Potentials in Operational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    Iconix T’scope, and the usual array of tones can be generated. A unique feature is a bimanual electronic dynamometer with which the force exerted by...A typical experiment has the subjects squeeze one or the other of the dynamometers with the right or the left hand. Scalp potentials associated... wrist ground. The band pass of the amplifier system was set for a time constant of 0.8 second and an upper half-amplitude fre- quercy of 35

  15. Seagrass epiphytes: useful indicator, potential biological criterion, or forlorn hope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epiphytes on seagrasses have been studied for more than 50 years, and proposed as an indicator of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment for over 30 years. Epiphytes have been correlated with seagrass declines, causally related to nutrient additions in both field and mesocosm experim...

  16. A potential individual cell malignancy indicator: focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weina; Lear, Kevin L.

    2011-03-01

    The label-free technique of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) utilizes the optical transmission spectrum of a cell in a microfluidic Fabry-Pérot (F-P) cavity to distinguish cells from cancerous cell lines and baseline normal blood cells. The classification between canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cancer cells and monocytes in canine normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) had been demonstrated with 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity. Now with a new optical model that treats the cell settled at the bottom of the cavity as a thin lens, the focal length of cells was extracted and used as an individual cell malignancy indicator.

  17. Potential indications for somatostatin analogs in Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaldi, G; Polenta, B; Cardinaletti, M; Boscaro, M

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, somatostatin analogs have been proposed and used in the diagnosis and therapy in Cushing's syndrome (CS). In these last few years, the potential therapeutic effects of somatostain analogs have been studied in different aspects of CS. The strong expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTR) type 5 in human corticotroph cells and the demonstrated efficacy of SOM230, a novel multi-ligand somatostatin analog, in inhibiting ACTH release in vitro suggest that this new drug may be effective in the treatment of ACTH hypersecretion. Very preliminary in vivo results suggest that SOM230 could be a promising drug in medical therapy for patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Prolonged treatment and more data will be needed in order to evaluate its long-term therapeutic efficacy.

  18. Continuous Force Decoding from Deep Brain Local Field Potentials for Brain Computer Interfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed A; Tan, Huiling; Brown, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Current Brain Computer Interface (BCI) systems are limited by relying on neuronal spikes and decoding limited to kinematics only. For a BCI system to be practically useful, it should be able to decode brain information on a continuous basis with low latency. This study investigates if force can be decoded from local field potentials (LFP) recorded with deep brain electrodes located at the Subthalamic nucleus (STN) using data from 5 patients with Parkinson's disease, on a continuous basis with low latency. A Wiener-Cascade (WC) model based decoder was proposed using both time-domain and frequency-domain features. The results suggest that high gamma band (300-500Hz) activity, in addition to the beta (13-30Hz) and gamma band (55-90Hz) activity is the most informative for force prediction but combining all features led to better decoding performance. Furthermore, LFP signals preceding the force output by up to 1256 milliseconds were found to be predictive of the force output.

  19. Fetal functional brain age assessed from universal developmental indices obtained from neuro-vegetative activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hoyer

    Full Text Available Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS. Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n = 113 recordings in quiet sleep, n = 286 in active sleep, and n = 29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4-40.3 weeks of gestation preclassified in quiet sleep (n = 113, 63 females and active sleep (n = 286, 145 females state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5. The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R(2 of training and validation set of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications. We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA

  20. Cyclohexane, a potential drug of abuse with pernicious effects for the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar eGonzalez-Perez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclohexane is a volatile solvent used as a harmless substitute for dangerous organic solvents in several products, such as paint thinners, gasoline and adhesives. Many of these products are used as drugs of abuse and can severely damage neural tissue and impair neurological functions. However, there is very little information on the effects of cyclohexane on the brain. In humans, cyclohexane produces headaches, sleepiness, dizziness, limb weakness, motor changes and verbal memory impairment. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated behavioral alterations, reactive gliosis, microglial reactivity and oxidative stress in the brains of cyclohexane-exposed animals. This indicates that cyclohexane may represent a potential problem for public health. Therefore, studies are needed to clarify the neurobiological effects of this volatile compound, including the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurotoxicity, and to minimize the human health risk posed by the intentional or accidental inhalation of this potential drug of abuse.

  1. Potential risk factors for developing heterotopic ossification in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, P.J. van; Martina, J.D.; Vos, P.E.; Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Hendricks, H.T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current preliminary study is intended to provide additional data on the potential roles that brain injury severity, concomitant orthopaedic trauma, and specific intensive care complicating

  2. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for the Support of a Potential Organ Donor with a Fatal Brain Injury before Brain Death Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Wook Chang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of available organ donors is a significant problem and various efforts have been made to avoid the loss of organ donors. Among these, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO has been introduced to help support and manage potential donors. Many traumatic brain injury patients have healthy organs that might be eligible for donation for transplantation. However, the condition of a donor with a fatal brain injury may rapidly deteriorate prior to brain death determination; this frequently results in the loss of eligible donors. Here, we report the use of venoarterial ECMO to support a potential donor with a fatal brain injury before brain death determination, and thereby preserve donor organs. The patient successfully donated his liver and kidneys after brain death determination.

  3. Longitudinal sleep EEG trajectories indicate complex patterns of adolescent brain maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Irwin; Campbell, Ian G

    2013-02-15

    New longitudinal sleep data spanning ages 6-10 yr are presented and combined with previous data to analyze maturational trajectories of delta and theta EEG across ages 6-18 yr in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. NREM delta power (DP) increased from age 6 to age 8 yr and then declined. Its highest rate of decline occurred between ages 12 and 16.5 yr. We attribute the delta EEG trajectories to changes in synaptic density. Whatever their neuronal underpinnings, these age curves can guide research into the molecular-genetic mechanisms that underlie adolescent brain development. The DP trajectories in NREM and REM sleep differed strikingly. DP in REM did not initially increase but declined steadily from age 6 to age 16 yr. We hypothesize that the DP decline in REM reflects maturation of the same brain arousal systems that eliminate delta waves in waking EEG. Whereas the DP age curves differed in NREM and REM sleep, theta age curves were similar in both, roughly paralleling the age trajectory of REM DP. The different maturational curves for NREM delta and theta indicate that they serve different brain functions despite having similar within-sleep dynamics and responses to sleep loss. Period-amplitude analysis of NREM and REM delta waveforms revealed that the age trends in DP were driven more by changes in wave amplitude rather than incidence. These data further document the powerful and complex link between sleep and brain maturation. Understanding this relationship would shed light on both brain development and the function of sleep.

  4. Cyclosporine A kinetics in brain cell cultures and its potential of crossing the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellwon, P; Culot, M; Wilmes, A; Schmidt, T; Zurich, M G; Schultz, L; Schmal, O; Gramowski-Voss, A; Weiss, D G; Jennings, P; Bal-Price, A; Testai, E; Dekant, W

    2015-12-25

    There is an increasing need to develop improved systems for predicting the safety of xenobiotics. However, to move beyond hazard identification the available concentration of the test compounds needs to be incorporated. In this study cyclosporine A (CsA) was used as a model compound to assess the kinetic profiles in two rodent brain cell cultures after single and repeated exposures. CsA induced-cyclophilin B (Cyp-B) secretion was also determined as CsA-specific pharmacodynamic endpoint. Since CsA is a potent p-glycoprotein substrate, the ability of this compound to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was also investigated using an in vitro bovine model with repeated exposures up to 14 days. Finally, CsA uptake mechanisms were studied using a parallel artificial membrane assay (PAMPA) in combination with a Caco-2 model. Kinetic results indicate a low intracellular CsA uptake, with no marked bioaccumulation or biotransformation. In addition, only low CsA amounts crossed the BBB. PAMPA and Caco-2 experiments revealed that CsA is mostly trapped to lipophilic compartments and exits the cell apically via active transport. Thus, although CsA is unlikely to enter the brain at cytotoxic concentrations, it may cause alterations in electrical activity and is likely to increase the CNS concentration of other compounds by occupying the BBBs extrusion capacity. Such an integrated testing system, incorporating BBB, brain culture models and kinetics could be applied for assessing neurotoxicity potential of compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Therapeutic potential of systemic brain rejuvenation strategies for neurodegenerative disease [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana M. Horowitz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases are a devastating group of conditions that cause progressive loss of neuronal integrity, affecting cognitive and motor functioning in an ever-increasing number of older individuals. Attempts to slow neurodegenerative disease advancement have met with little success in the clinic; however, a new therapeutic approach may stem from classic interventions, such as caloric restriction, exercise, and parabiosis. For decades, researchers have reported that these systemic-level manipulations can promote major functional changes that extend organismal lifespan and healthspan. Only recently, however, have the functional effects of these interventions on the brain begun to be appreciated at a molecular and cellular level. The potential to counteract the effects of aging in the brain, in effect rejuvenating the aged brain, could offer broad therapeutic potential to combat dementia-related neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. In particular, results from heterochronic parabiosis and young plasma administration studies indicate that pro-aging and rejuvenating factors exist in the circulation that can independently promote or reverse age-related phenotypes. The recent demonstration that human umbilical cord blood similarly functions to rejuvenate the aged brain further advances this work to clinical translation. In this review, we focus on these blood-based rejuvenation strategies and their capacity to delay age-related molecular and functional decline in the aging brain. We discuss new findings that extend the beneficial effects of young blood to neurodegenerative disease models. Lastly, we explore the translational potential of blood-based interventions, highlighting current clinical trials aimed at addressing therapeutic applications for the treatment of dementia-related neurodegenerative disease in humans.

  6. A decade of emerging indications: deep brain stimulation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngerman, Brett E; Chan, Andrew K; Mikell, Charles B; McKhann, Guy M; Sheth, Sameer A

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an emerging treatment option for an expanding set of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Despite growing enthusiasm, the patterns and implications of this rapid adoption are largely unknown. National trends in DBS surgery performed for all indications between 2002 and 2011 are reported. METHODS Using a national database of hospital discharges, admissions for DBS for 14 indications were identified and categorized as either FDA approved, humanitarian device exempt (HDE), or emerging. Trends over time were examined, differences were analyzed by univariate analyses, and outcomes were analyzed by hierarchical regression analyses. RESULTS Between 2002 and 2011, there were an estimated 30,490 discharges following DBS for approved indications, 1647 for HDE indications, and 2014 for emerging indications. The volume for HDE and emerging indications grew at 36.1% annually in comparison with 7.0% for approved indications. DBS for emerging indications occurred at hospitals with more neurosurgeons and neurologists locally, but not necessarily at those with the highest DBS caseloads. Patients treated for HDE and emerging indications were younger with lower comorbidity scores. HDE and emerging indications were associated with greater rates of reported complications, longer lengths of stay, and greater total costs. CONCLUSIONS DBS for HDE and emerging indications underwent rapid growth in the last decade, and it is not exclusively the most experienced DBS practitioners leading the charge to treat the newest indications. Surgeons may be selecting younger and healthier patients for their early experiences. Differences in reported complication rates warrant further attention and additional costs should be anticipated as surgeons gain experience with new patient populations and targets.

  7. Sentence verification and event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, J; Miyata, Y; Yagi, A

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the decision process affected scalp recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs). ERPs were recorded while 10 subjects evaluated the veracity of four types of Japanese sentences; true-affirmative (TA), true-negative (TN), false-affirmative (FA), and false-negative (FN). Each sentence was presented visually, one word at a time in the following order: Subject (S); object (O); and verb (V). This order of words, which is normal in Japanese grammar, allowed the ERP waveforms associated with semantic mismatch between the S and O occurring in the middle of the sentence to be separated from those elicited by the decision concerning the sentence's truth or falsity occurring at the end of the sentence. Semantic mismatch was associated with a negative component (N310) following the O-word. In addition, P3s were elicited by sentence final words. Affirmative sentences elicited larger P3s than did negative sentences, and true sentences elicited earlier P3s than did false sentences. P3s were smaller in amplitude when they followed a mismatch between the S and O words. The result suggested that by using Japanese sentences, it may be possible to examine sentence-level rather than word-level processes.

  8. Brain potentials index executive functions during random number generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppich, Gregor; Däuper, Jan; Dengler, Reinhard; Johannes, Sönke; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2004-06-01

    The generation of random sequences is considered to tax different executive functions. To explore the involvement of these functions further, brain potentials were recorded in 16 healthy young adults while either engaging in random number generation (RNG) by pressing the number keys on a computer keyboard in a random sequence or in ordered number generation (ONG) necessitating key presses in the canonical order. Key presses were paced by an external auditory stimulus to yield either fast (1 press/800 ms) or slow (1 press/1300 ms) sequences in separate runs. Attentional demands of random and ordered tasks were assessed by the introduction of a secondary task (key-press to a target tone). The P3 amplitude to the target tone of this secondary task was reduced during RNG, reflecting the greater consumption of attentional resources during RNG. Moreover, RNG led to a left frontal negativity peaking 140 ms after the onset of the pacing stimulus, whenever the subjects produced a true random response. This negativity could be attributed to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and was absent when numbers were repeated. This negativity was interpreted as an index for the inhibition of habitual responses. Finally, in response locked ERPs a negative component was apparent peaking about 50 ms after the key-press that was more prominent during RNG. Source localization suggested a medial frontal source. This effect was tentatively interpreted as a reflection of the greater monitoring demands during random sequence generation.

  9. Tracking hierarchical processing in morphological decomposition with brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavric, Aureliu; Elchlepp, Heike; Rastle, Kathleen

    2012-08-01

    One important debate in psycholinguistics concerns the nature of morphological decomposition processes in visual word recognition (e.g., darkness = {dark} + {-ness}). One theory claims that these processes arise during orthographic analysis and prior to accessing meaning (Rastle & Davis, 2008), and another argues that these processes arise through greater temporal overlap between the activation of orthographic and semantic information (Feldman, O'Connor, & Moscoso del Prado Martín, 2009). This issue has been the subject of intense debate in studies using masked priming but has yet to be resolved unequivocally. The present study takes another approach to resolving this controversy by examining brain potentials as participants made lexical decisions to unprimed morphological (darkness), pseudomorphological (corner), and nonmorphological (brothel) stimuli. Results revealed a difference from ∼190 ms between the nonmorphological condition and the other 2 conditions (which showed no differentiation), a likely correlate of morphological processing reliant exclusively on orthography. Only 60-70 ms later was there evidence of the activation of semantic information, when the pseudomorphological condition diverged from the other 2 conditions. These results provide unambiguous support for a hierarchical model of morphological processing whereby decomposition is based initially on orthographic analysis and is only later constrained by semantic information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Potential Use of Nanomedicine for Drug Delivery Across the Blood-Brain Barrier in Healthy and Diseased Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruozi, Barbara; Belletti, Daniela; Pederzoli, Francesca; Forni, Flavio; Vandelli, Maria Angela; Tosi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The research of efficacious non-invasive therapies for the treatment of brain diseases represents a huge challenge, as people affected by disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) will significantly increase. Moreover, the blood-brain barrier is a key factor in hampering a number of effective drugs to reach the CNS. This review is therefore focusing on possible interventions of nanomedicine-based approaches in selected diseases affecting the CNS. A wide overview of the most outstanding results on preclinical evaluations of the potential of nanomedicine in brain diseases (i.e. brain tumor, Alzheimer, Parkinson, epilepsy and others) is given, with highlights on the data with relevant interest and real possibility in translation from bench-to-bedside. Moreover, a critical evaluation on the rationale in planning nanosystems to target specific brain pathologies is described, opening the path to a more structured and pathology-tailored design of nanocarriers.

  11. Brain Potentials for Derivational Morphology: An ERP Study of Deadjectival Nominalizations in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Viktoria; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Clahsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates brain potentials to derived word forms in Spanish. Two experiments were performed on derived nominals that differ in terms of their productivity and semantic properties but are otherwise similar, an acceptability judgment task and a reading experiment using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in which correctly and…

  12. Brain stimulation: Neuromodulation as a potential treatment for motor recovery following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, E; Kinley-Cooper, S K; Weber, R A; Adkins, D L

    2016-06-01

    There is growing evidence that electrical and magnetic brain stimulation can improve motor function and motor learning following brain damage. Rodent and primate studies have strongly demonstrated that combining cortical stimulation (CS) with skilled motor rehabilitative training enhances functional motor recovery following stroke. Brain stimulation following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is less well studied, but early pre-clinical and human pilot studies suggest that it is a promising treatment for TBI-induced motor impairments as well. This review will first discuss the evidence supporting brain stimulation efficacy derived from the stroke research field as proof of principle and then will review the few studies exploring neuromodulation in experimental TBI studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:Brain injury and recovery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The role of gangliosides in brain development and the potential benefits of perinatal supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jennifer M; Rice, Gregory E; Mitchell, Murray D

    2013-11-01

    The maternal diet provides critical nutrients that can influence fetal and infant brain development and function. This review highlights the potential benefits of maternal dietary ganglioside supplementation on fetal and infant brain development. English-language systematic reviews, preclinical studies, and clinical studies were obtained through searches on PubMed. Reports were selected if they included benefits and harms of maternal ganglioside supplementation during pregnancy or ganglioside-supplemented formula after pregnancy. The potential benefits of ganglioside supplementation were explored by investigating the following: (1) their role in neural development, (2) their therapeutic use in neural injury and disease, (3) their presence in human breast milk, and (4) their use as a dietary supplement during or after pregnancy. Preclinical studies indicate that ganglioside supplementation at high doses (1% of total dietary intake) can significantly increase cognitive development and body weight when given prenatally. However, lower ganglioside supplementation doses have no beneficial cognitive effects, even when given throughout pregnancy and lactation. In human clinical trials, infants given formula supplemented with gangliosides showed increased cognitive development and an increase in ganglioside content. Ganglioside supplementation may promote brain development and function in offspring when administered at the optimum dosage. We propose that prenatal maternal dietary supplementation with gangliosides throughout pregnancy may promote greater long-term effects on brain development and function. Before this concept can be encouraged in preconception clinics, future research and clinical trials are needed to confirm the ability of dietary gangliosides to improve cognitive development, but available results already encourage this area of research. © 2013.

  14. Transcranial Doppler Systolic Flow Index and ICP-Derived Cerebrovascular Reactivity Indices in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick A; Cardim, Danilo; Donnelly, Joseph; Menon, David K; Czosnyka, Marek; Smielewski, Peter

    2017-12-18

    The purpose of our study was to explore relationships between transcranial Doppler (TCD) indices of cerebrovascular reactivity and those derived from intracranial pressure (ICP). Goals included: A) confirming previously described co-variance patterns of TCD/ICP indices, and B) describing thresholds for systolic flow index (Sx; correlation between systolic flow velocity [FVs] and cerebral perfusion pressure [CPP]) associated with outcome. In a retrospective cohort of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients: with TCD and ICP monitoring, we calculated various continuous indices of cerebrovascular reactivity: A) ICP (pressure reactivity index [PRx]: correlation between ICP and mean arterial pressure [MAP]; PAx: correlation between pulse amplitude of ICP [AMP] and MAP; RAC: correlation between AMP and CPP) and B) TCD (mean flow index [Mx]: correlation between mean flow velocity [FVm] and CPP; Mx_a: correlation between FVm and MAP; Sx: correlation between FVs and CPP; Sx_a: correlation between FVs and MAP; Dx: correlation between diastolic flow velocity [FVd] and CPP; Dx_a: correlation between FVd and MAP). We assessed the relationships via various statistical techniques, including: principal component analysis, agglomerative hierarchal clustering, and k-means cluster analysis (KMCA). We performed sequential χ2 testing to define thresholds associated with outcome for Sx/Sx_a. Outcome was assessed at 6 months via dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS): A) Favorable (GOS 4 or 5) versus Unfavorable (GOS 3 or less), B) Alive versus Dead. We analyzed 410 recordings in 347 patients. All analyses confirmed our previously described co-variance of Sx/Sx_a with ICP-derived indices. Sx displayed thresholds of -0.15 for unfavorable outcome (p < 0.0001) and -0.20 for mortality (p < 0.0001). Sx_a displayed thresholds of +0.05 (p = 0.019) and -0.10 (p = 0.0001) for alive/dead and favorable/unfavorable outcomes. TCD systolic indices are most closely associated with ICP

  15. Intrinsic brain indices of verbal working memory capacity in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM is central to the acquisition of knowledge and skills throughout childhood and adolescence. While numerous behavioral and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have examined WM development, few have used resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI. Here, we present a systematic R-fMRI examination of age-related differences in the neural indices of verbal WM performance in a cross-sectional pediatric sample (ages: 7–17; n = 68, using data-driven approaches. Verbal WM capacity was measured with the digit span task, a commonly used educational and clinical assessment. We found distinct neural indices of digit span forward (DSF and backward (DSB performance, reflecting their unique neuropsychological demands. Regardless of age, DSB performance was related to intrinsic properties of brain areas previously implicated in attention and cognitive control, while DSF performance was related to areas less commonly implicated in verbal WM storage (precuneus, lateral visual areas. From a developmental perspective, DSF exhibited more robust age-related differences in brain–behavior relationships than DSB, and implicated a broader range of networks (ventral attention, default, somatomotor, limbic networks – including a number of regions not commonly associated with verbal WM (angular gyrus, subcallosum. These results highlight the importance of examining the neurodevelopment of verbal WM and of considering regions beyond the “usual suspects”.

  16. Memory performance-related dynamic brain connectivity indicates pathological burden and genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevenco, Frances C; Preti, Maria G; van Bergen, Jiri M G; Hua, Jun; Wyss, Michael; Li, Xu; Schreiner, Simon J; Steininger, Stefanie C; Meyer, Rafael; Meier, Irene B; Brickman, Adam M; Leh, Sandra E; Gietl, Anton F; Buck, Alfred; Nitsch, Roger M; Pruessmann, Klaas P; van Zijl, Peter C M; Hock, Christoph; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Unschuld, Paul G

    2017-03-31

    The incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) strongly relates to advanced age and progressive deposition of cerebral amyloid-beta (Aβ), hyperphosphorylated tau, and iron. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cerebral dynamic functional connectivity and variability of long-term cognitive performance in healthy, elderly subjects, allowing for local pathology and genetic risk. Thirty seven participants (mean (SD) age 74 (6.0) years, Mini-Mental State Examination 29.0 (1.2)) were dichotomized based on repeated neuropsychological test performance within 2 years. Cerebral Aβ was measured by 11C Pittsburgh Compound-B positron emission tomography, and iron by quantitative susceptibility mapping magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at an ultra-high field strength of 7 Tesla (7T). Dynamic functional connectivity patterns were investigated by resting-state functional MRI at 7T and tested for interactive effects with genetic AD risk (apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-ε4 carrier status). A relationship between low episodic memory and a lower expression of anterior-posterior connectivity was seen (F(9,27) = 3.23, p < 0.008), moderated by ApoE-ε4 (F(9,27) = 2.22, p < 0.005). Inherent node-strength was related to local iron (F(5,30) = 13.2; p < 0.022). Our data indicate that altered dynamic anterior-posterior brain connectivity is a characteristic of low memory performance in the subclinical range and genetic risk for AD in the elderly. As the observed altered brain network properties are associated with increased local iron, our findings may reflect secondary neuronal changes due to pathologic processes including oxidative stress.

  17. Brain microRNAs and insights into biological functions and therapeutic potential of brain enriched miRNA-128.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlakha, Yogita K; Saini, Neeru

    2014-02-21

    MicroRNAs, the non-coding single-stranded RNA of 19-25 nucleotides are emerging as robust players of gene regulation. Plethora of evidences support that the ability of microRNAs to regulate several genes of a pathway or even multiple cross talking pathways have significant impact on a complex regulatory network and ultimately the physiological processes and diseases. Brain being a complex organ with several cell types, expresses more distinct miRNAs than any other tissues. This review aims to discuss about the microRNAs in brain development, function and their dysfunction in brain tumors. We also provide a comprehensive summary of targets of brain specific and brain enriched miRNAs that contribute to the diversity and plasticity of the brain. In particular, we uncover recent findings on miRNA-128, a brain-enriched microRNA that is induced during neuronal differentiation and whose aberrant expression has been reported in several cancers. This review describes the wide spectrum of targets of miRNA-128 that have been identified till date with potential roles in apoptosis, angiogenesis, proliferation, cholesterol metabolism, self renewal, invasion and cancer progression and how this knowledge might be exploited for the development of future miRNA-128 based therapies for the treatment of cancer as well as metabolic diseases.

  18. Epigenetic Modifications, Alcoholic Brain and Potential Drug Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangra, Ashok; Sriram, Chandra Shaker; Pandey, Suryanarayan; Choubey, Priyansha; Rajput, Prabha; Saroha, Babita; Bezbaruah, Babul Kumar; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-10-01

    Acute and chronic alcohol exposure evidently influences epigenetic changes, both transiently and permanently, and these changes in turn influence a variety of cells and organ systems throughout the body. Many of the alcohol-induced epigenetic modifications can contribute to cellular adaptations that ultimately lead to behavioral tolerance and alcohol dependence. The persistence of behavioral changes demonstrates that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. The research activities over the past years have demonstrated a crucial role of epigenetic mechanisms in causing long lasting and transient changes in the expression of several genes in diverse tissues, including brain. This has stimulated recent research work that is aimed at characterizing the influence of epigenetic regulatory events in mediating the long lasting and transient effects of alcohol abuse on the brain in humans and animal models of alcohol addiction. In this study, we update our current understanding of the impact of alcohol exposure on epigenetic mechanisms in the brain and refurbish the knowledge of epigenetics in the direction of new drugs development.

  19. Association of functional magnetic resonance imaging indices with postoperative language outcomes in patients with primary brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Bornali; Penwarden, Amy; Wood, Joel M; Gallagher, Thomas A; Andreoli, Matthew J; Voss, Jed; Meier, Timothy; Nair, Veena A; Kuo, John S; Field, Aaron S; Moritz, Chad; Meyerand, M Elizabeth; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2013-04-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) has the potential to be a useful presurgical planning tool to treat patients with primary brain tumor. In this study the authors retrospectively explored relationships between language-related postoperative outcomes in such patients and multiple factors, including measures estimated from task fMRI maps (proximity of lesion to functional activation area, or lesion-to-activation distance [LAD], and activation-based language lateralization, or lateralization index [LI]) used in the clinical setting for presurgical planning, as well as other factors such as patient age, patient sex, tumor grade, and tumor volume. Patient information was drawn from a database of patients with brain tumors who had undergone preoperative fMRI-based language mapping of the Broca and Wernicke areas. Patients had performed a battery of tasks, including word-generation tasks and a text-versus-symbols reading task, as part of a clinical fMRI protocol. Individually thresholded task fMRI activation maps had been provided for use in the clinical setting. These clinical imaging maps were used to retrospectively estimate LAD and LI for the Broca and Wernicke areas. There was a relationship between postoperative language deficits and the proximity between tumor and Broca area activation (the LAD estimate), where shorter LADs were related to the presence of postoperative aphasia. Stratification by tumor location further showed that for posterior tumors within the temporal and parietal lobes, more bilaterally oriented Broca area activation (LI estimate close to 0) and a shorter Wernicke area LAD were associated with increased postoperative aphasia. Furthermore, decreasing LAD was related to decreasing LI for both Broca and Wernicke areas. Preoperative deficits were related to increasing patient age and a shorter Wernicke area LAD. Overall, LAD and LI, as determined using fMRI in the context of these paradigms, may be useful indicators of postsurgical outcomes. Whereas tumor

  20. MicroRNAs in Brain Metastases: Potential Role as Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Alsidawi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases remain a daunting adversary that negatively impact patient survival. Metastatic brain tumors affect up to 45% of all cancer patients with systemic cancer and account for ~20% of all cancer-related deaths. A complex network of non-coding RNA molecules, microRNAs (miRNAs, regulate tumor metastasis. The brain micro-environment modulates metastatic tumor growth; however, defining the precise genetic events that promote metastasis in the brain niche represents an important, unresolved problem. Understanding these events will reveal disease-based targets and offer effective strategies to treat brain metastases. Effective therapeutic strategies based upon the biology of brain metastases represent an urgent, unmet need with immediate potential for clinical impact. Studies have demonstrated the ability of miRNAs to distinguish normal from cancerous cells, primary from secondary brain tumors, and correctly categorize metastatic brain tumor tissue of origin based solely on miRNA profiles. Interestingly, manipulation of miRNAs has proven effective in cancer treatment. With the promise of reduced toxicity, increased efficacy and individually directed personalized anti-cancer therapy, using miRNA in the treatment of metastatic brain tumors may prove very useful and improve patient outcome. In this review, we focus on the potential of miRNAs as diagnostic and therapeutic targets for the treatment of metastatic brain lesions.

  1. Future potential of MRI-guided focused ultrasound brain surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colen, Rivka R; Jolesz, Ferenc A

    2010-08-01

    Magnetic resonance image-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) has surfaced as a viable noninvasive image-guided therapeutic method that integrates focused ultrasound (FUS), the therapeutic component, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the image guidance module, into a real-time therapy delivery system with closed-loop control of energy delivery. The main applications for MRgFUS of the brain are thermal ablations for brain tumors and functional neurosurgery, and nonthermal, nonablative uses for disruption of the blood brain barrier (BBB) or blood clot and hematoma dissolution by liquification. The disruption of the BBB by FUS can be used for targeted delivery of chemotherapy and other therapeutic agents. MRI is used preoperatively for target definition and treatment planning, intraoperatively for procedure monitoring and control, and postoperatively for validating treatment success. Although challenges still remain, this integrated noninvasive therapy delivery system is anticipated to change current treatment paradigms in neurosurgery and the clinical neurosciences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Linking binge alcohol-induced neurodamage to brain edema and potential aquaporin-4 upregulation: evidence in rat organotypic brain slice cultures and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripathirathan, Kumar; Brown, James; Neafsey, Edward J; Collins, Michael A

    2009-02-11

    Brain edema and derived oxidative stress potentially are critical events in the hippocampal-entorhinal cortical (HEC) neurodegeneration caused by binge alcohol (ethanol) intoxication and withdrawal in adult rats. Edema's role is based on findings that furosemide diuretic antagonizes binge alcohol-dependent brain overhydration and neurodamage in vivo and in rat organotypic HEC slice cultures. However, evidence that furosemide has significant antioxidant potential and knowledge that alcohol can cause oxidative stress through non-edemic pathways has placed edema's role in question. We therefore studied three other diuretics and a related non-diuretic that, according to our oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) assays or the literature, possess minimal antioxidant potential. Acetazolamide (ATZ), a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor/diuretic with negligible ORAC effectiveness and, interestingly, an aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel inhibitor, prevented alcohol-dependent tissue edema and neurodegeneration in HEC slice cultures. Likewise, in binge alcohol-intoxicated rats, ATZ suppressed brain edema while inhibiting neurodegeneration. Torasemide, a loop diuretic lacking furosemide's ORAC capability, also prevented alcohol-induced neurodamage in HEC slice cultures. However, bumetanide (BUM), a diuretic blocker of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) channels, and L-644, 711, a nondiuretic anion channel inhibitor--both lacking antioxidant capabilities as well as reportedly ineffective against alcohol-dependent brain damage in vivo--reduced neither alcohol-induced neurotoxicity nor (with BUM) edema in HEC slices. Because an AQP4 blocker (ATZ) was neuroprotective, AQP4 expression in the HEC slices was examined and found to be elevated by binge alcohol. The results further indicate that binge ethanol-induced brain edema/swelling, potentially associated with AQP4 upregulation, may be important in consequent neurodegeneration that could derive from neuroinflammatory processes, for example, membrane

  3. Jugular venous overflow of noradrenaline from the brain: a neurochemical indicator of cerebrovascular sympathetic nerve activity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David A; Lambert, Gavin; Secher, Niels H; Raven, Peter B; van Lieshout, Johannes; Esler, Murray D

    2009-01-01

    A novel neurochemical method was applied for studying the activity of sympathetic nerves in the human cerebral vascular system. The aim was to investigate whether noradrenaline plasma kinetic measurements made with internal jugular venous sampling reflect cerebrovascular sympathetic activity. A database was assembled of fifty-six healthy subjects in whom total body noradrenaline spillover (indicative of whole body sympathetic nervous activity), brain noradrenaline spillover and brain lipophlic noradrenaline metabolite (3,4-dihydroxyphenolglycol (DHPG) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG)) overflow rates were measured. These measurements were also made following ganglion blockade (trimethaphan, n= 6), central sympathetic inhibition (clonidine, n= 4) and neuronal noradrenaline uptake blockade (desipramine, n= 13) and in a group of patients (n= 9) with pure autonomic failure (PAF). The mean brain noradrenline spillover and brain noradrenaline metabolite overflow in healthy subjects were 12.5 ± 1.8, and 186.4 ± 25 ng min−1, respectively, with unilateral jugular venous sampling for both. Total body noradrenaline spillover was 605.8 ng min−1± 34.4 ng min−1. As expected, trimethaphan infusion lowered brain noradrenaline spillover (P= 0.03), but perhaps surprisingly increased jugular overflow of brain metabolites (P= 0.01). Suppression of sympathetic nervous outflow with clonidine lowered brain noradrenaline spillover (P= 0.004), without changing brain metabolite overflow (P= 0.3). Neuronal noradrenaline uptake block with desipramine lowered the transcranial plasma extraction of tritiated noradrenaline (P= 0.001). The PAF patients had 77% lower brain noradrenaline spillover than healthy recruits (P= 0.06), indicating that in them sympathetic nerve degeneration extended to the cerebral circulation, but metabolites overflow was similar to healthy subjects (P= 0.3). The invariable discordance between noradrenline spillover and noradrenaline metabolite overflow

  4. Behavioral and Brain Activity Indices of Cognitive Control Deficits in Binge Drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Molnar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking is prevalent among young adults and is a public issue of increasing importance. Its initiation and maintenance are associated with deficits in the capacity to inhibit automatic processing in favor of non-habitual responses. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine behavioral and brain activity indices of cognitive control during the Stroop task as a function of binge drinking. Heavy episodic drinkers (HED reported consuming 5+/6+ drinks in two hours at least five times in the past six months and were compared to light drinkers (LED who reported two or fewer binge episodes but were matched on demographics, intelligence and family history of alcoholism. Greater conflict-induced activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and thalamus was observed in HED participants and it was positively correlated with alcohol intake and alcohol-related harmful consequences. HEDs maintained intact accuracy but at a cost of prolonged reaction times to high-conflict trials and increased ratings of task difficulty. Greater activation of the areas implicated in cognitive control is consistent with compensatory network expansion to meet higher cognitive demands. These results provide further insight into degradation of cognitive control in HEDs which may benefit development of detection and prevention strategies.

  5. Deep brain stimulation and ablation for obsessive compulsive disorder: evolution of contemporary indications, targets and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Travis S; Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M; Stanford, Arielle D; Foote, Kelly D; Okun, Michael S

    2014-06-01

    Surgical therapy for treatment-resistant obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) remains an effective option for well-selected patients managed within a multidisciplinary setting. Historically, lesions within the limbic system have been used to control both obsessive thoughts and repetitive compulsions associated with this disease. We discuss classical targets as well as contemporary neuromodulatory approaches that have been shown to provide symptomatic relief. Recently, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior limb of the internal capsule/ventral striatum received Conformité Européene (CE) mark and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals for treatment of intractable OCD. Remarkably, this is the first such approval for neurosurgical intervention in a strictly psychiatric indication in modern times. This target is discussed in detail along with alternative targets currently being proposed. We close with a discussion of gamma knife capsulotomy, a modality with deep historical roots. Further directions in the surgical treatment of OCD will require better preoperative predictors of postoperative responses, optimal selection of individualized targets, and rigorous reporting of adverse events and standardized outcomes. To meet these challenges, centers must be equipped with a multidisciplinary team and patient-centered approach to ensure adequate screening and follow up of patients with this difficult-to-treat condition.

  6. Air quality indicators from the Environmental Performance Index: potential use and limitations in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Garland, Rebecca M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available way to achieve communication to stakeholders in a simplified, yet scientifically defensible manner. Air quality indicators and their source data from the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) were interrogated to understand their potential use in South...

  7. Broad-Band Visually Evoked Potentials: Re(convolution in Brain-Computer Interfacing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordy Thielen

    Full Text Available Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs allow users to control devices and communicate by using brain activity only. BCIs based on broad-band visual stimulation can outperform BCIs using other stimulation paradigms. Visual stimulation with pseudo-random bit-sequences evokes specific Broad-Band Visually Evoked Potentials (BBVEPs that can be reliably used in BCI for high-speed communication in speller applications. In this study, we report a novel paradigm for a BBVEP-based BCI that utilizes a generative framework to predict responses to broad-band stimulation sequences. In this study we designed a BBVEP-based BCI using modulated Gold codes to mark cells in a visual speller BCI. We defined a linear generative model that decomposes full responses into overlapping single-flash responses. These single-flash responses are used to predict responses to novel stimulation sequences, which in turn serve as templates for classification. The linear generative model explains on average 50% and up to 66% of the variance of responses to both seen and unseen sequences. In an online experiment, 12 participants tested a 6 × 6 matrix speller BCI. On average, an online accuracy of 86% was reached with trial lengths of 3.21 seconds. This corresponds to an Information Transfer Rate of 48 bits per minute (approximately 9 symbols per minute. This study indicates the potential to model and predict responses to broad-band stimulation. These predicted responses are proven to be well-suited as templates for a BBVEP-based BCI, thereby enabling communication and control by brain activity only.

  8. The stingless bee species, Scaptotrigona aff. depilis, as a potential indicator of environmental pesticide contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Rosa, Annelise; I'Anson Price, Robbie; Ferreira Caliman, Maria Juliana; Pereira Queiroz, Elisa; Blochtein, Betina; Sílvia Soares Pires, Carmen; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-08-01

    Neonicotinoids have the potential to enter the diet of pollinators that collect resources from contaminated plants. The species Scaptotrigona aff. depilis (Moure, 1942) can be a useful indicator of the prevalence of these chemicals in the environment. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the authors devised a protocol for neonicotinoid residue extraction and detected the presence of neonicotinoids in the bee bodies. Thus, the authors consider this species to be a potential indicator of environmental contamination. © 2015 SETAC.

  9. Diffuse traumatic brain injury induces prolonged immune dysregulation and potentiates hyperalgesia following a peripheral immune challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Rachel K; Ellis, Gavin I; Harrison, Jordan L; Bachstetter, Adam D; Corder, Gregory F; Van Eldik, Linda J; Taylor, Bradley K; Marti, Francesc; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Nociceptive and neuropathic pain occurs as part of the disease process after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans. Central and peripheral inflammation, a major secondary injury process initiated by the traumatic brain injury event, has been implicated in the potentiation of peripheral nociceptive pain. We hypothesized that the inflammatory response to diffuse traumatic brain injury potentiates persistent pain through prolonged immune dysregulation. To test this, adult, male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to midline fluid percussion brain injury or to sham procedure. One cohort of mice was analyzed for inflammation-related cytokine levels in cortical biopsies and serum along an acute time course. In a second cohort, peripheral inflammation was induced seven days after surgery/injury with an intraplantar injection of carrageenan. This was followed by measurement of mechanical hyperalgesia, glial fibrillary acidic protein and Iba1 immunohistochemical analysis of neuroinflammation in the brain, and flow cytometric analysis of T-cell differentiation in mucosal lymph. Traumatic brain injury increased interleukin-6 and chemokine ligand 1 levels in the cortex and serum that peaked within 1-9 h and then resolved. Intraplantar carrageenan produced mechanical hyperalgesia that was potentiated by traumatic brain injury. Further, mucosal T cells from brain-injured mice showed a distinct deficiency in the ability to differentiate into inflammation-suppressing regulatory T cells (Tregs). We conclude that traumatic brain injury increased the inflammatory pain associated with cutaneous inflammation by contributing to systemic immune dysregulation. Regulatory T cells are immune suppressors and failure of T cells to differentiate into regulatory T cells leads to unregulated cytokine production which may contribute to the potentiation of peripheral pain through the excitation of peripheral sensory neurons. In addition, regulatory T cells are identified as a potential target for

  10. Conveying the concept of movement in music: An event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linshu; Jiang, Cunmei; Wu, Yingying; Yang, Yufang

    2015-10-01

    This study on event-related brain potential investigated whether music can convey the concept of movement. Using a semantic priming paradigm, natural musical excerpts were presented to non-musicians, followed by semantically congruent or incongruent pictures that depicted objects either in motion or at rest. The priming effects were tested in object decision and implicit recognition tasks to distinguish the effects of automatic conceptual activation from response competition. Results showed that in both tasks, pictures that were incongruent to preceding musical excerpts elicited larger N400 than congruent pictures, suggesting that music can prime the representations of movement concepts. Results of the multiple regression analysis showed that movement expression could be well predicted by specific acoustic and musical features, indicating the associations between music per se and the processing of iconic musical meaning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Parafoveal X-masks interfere with foveal word recognition: Evidence from fixation-related brain potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eHutzler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe boundary paradigm, in combination with parafoveal masks, is the main technique for studying parafoveal preprocessing during reading. The rationale is that the masks (e.g., strings of X’s prevent parafoveal preprocessing, but do not interfere with foveal processing. A recent study, however, raised doubts about the neutrality of parafoveal masks. In the present study, we explored this issue by means of fixation-related brain potentials (FRPs. Two FRP conditions presented rows of 5 words. The task of the participant was to judge whether the final word of a list was a new word, or whether it was a repeated (i.e., old word. The critical manipulation was that the final word was X-masked during parafoveal preview in one condition, whereas another condition presented a valid preview of the word. In two additional event-related brain potential (ERP conditions, the words were presented serially with no parafoveal preview available; in one of the conditions with a fixed timing, in the other word presentation was self-paced by the participants. Expectedly, the valid-preview FRP condition elicited the shortest processing times. Processing times did not differ between the two ERP conditions indicating that cognitive readiness during self-paced processing can be ruled out as an alternative explanation for differences in processing times between the ERP and the FRP conditions. The longest processing times were found in the X-mask FRP condition indicating that parafoveal X-masks interfere with foveal word recognition.

  12. A Method for Removal of Deep Brain Stimulation Artifact from Local Field Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xing; Chen, Yue; Feng, Yuan; Ma, Bozhi; Hao, Hongwei; Li, Luming

    2016-09-26

    This article presents a signal processing method for the electrophysiology simultaneously recorded during deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a research tool. Regarding the local field potential (LFP) signals recorded during stimulation, a novel method was proposed for removal of stimulation artifacts caused by the much stronger stimulating pulse compared to typical LFP. This artifact suppression method was tested and evaluated in an in vitro situation. The results indicate that the stimulation artifacts are well suppressed by this method. Secondly, this method was tested in vivo in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. It was used to process the LFP signals recorded intraoperatively from PD patients to preliminarily explore the quantitative dependencies of beta band synchronization variations in the subthalamic nucleus (STNs) on the applied DBS parameters, including stimulation voltage, frequency and pulse width. The results confirm that DBS therapy can suppress excessive beta frequency activity and that the degree of attenuation increases with increasing DBS voltage within a range of 1 to 3 V and increasing DBS frequency within a range of 60 to 120 Hz. The proposed artifact suppression method provides technical support for exploring the direct effect of electrical stimulation on the brain activities.

  13. Identifying the null subject: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demestre, J; Meltzer, S; García-Albea, J E; Vigil, A

    1999-05-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during spoken language comprehension to study the on-line effects of gender agreement violations in controlled infinitival complements. Spanish sentences were constructed in which the complement clause contained a predicate adjective marked for syntactic gender. By manipulating the gender of the antecedent (i.e., the controller) of the implicit subject while holding constant the gender of the adjective, pairs of grammatical and ungrammatical sentences were created. The detection of such a gender agreement violation would indicate that the parser had established the coreference relation between the null subject and its antecedent. The results showed a complex biphasic ERP (i.e., an early negativity with prominence at anterior and central sites, followed by a centroparietal positivity) in the violating condition as compared to the non-violating conditions. The brain reacts to NP-adjective gender agreement violations within a few hundred milliseconds of their occurrence. The data imply that the parser has properly coindexed the null subject of an infinitive clause with its antecedent.

  14. Brain energy metabolism spurns fatty acids as fuel due to their inherent mitotoxicity and potential capacity to unleash neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Peter; Reiser, Georg

    2017-10-01

    The brain uses long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to a negligible extent as fuel for the mitochondrial energy generation, in contrast to other tissues that also demand high energy. Besides this generally accepted view, some studies using cultured neural cells or whole brain indicate a moderately active mitochondrial β-oxidation. Here, we corroborate the conclusion that brain mitochondria are unable to oxidize fatty acids. In contrast, the combustion of liver-derived ketone bodies by neural cells is long-known. Furthermore, new insights indicate the use of odd-numbered medium-chain fatty acids as valuable source for maintaining the level of intermediates of the citric acid cycle in brain mitochondria. Non-esterified LCFAs or their activated forms exert a large variety of harmful side-effects on mitochondria, such as enhancing the mitochondrial ROS generation in distinct steps of the β-oxidation and therefore potentially increasing oxidative stress. Hence, the question arises: Why do in brain energy metabolism mitochondria selectively spurn LCFAs as energy source? The most likely answer are the relatively higher content of peroxidation-sensitive polyunsaturated fatty acids and the low antioxidative defense in brain tissue. There are two remarkable peroxisomal defects, one relating to α-oxidation of phytanic acid and the other to uptake of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) which lead to pathologically high tissue levels of such fatty acids. Both, the accumulation of phytanic acid and that of VLCFAs give an enlightening insight into harmful activities of fatty acids on neural cells, which possibly explain why evolution has prevented brain mitochondria from the equipment with significant β-oxidation enzymatic capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Origins of Word Learning: Brain Responses of 3-Month-Olds Indicate Their Rapid Association of Objects and Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Manuela; Friederici, Angela D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored the origins of word learning in early infancy. Using event-related potentials (ERP) we monitored the brain activity of 3-month-old infants when they were repeatedly exposed to several initially novel words paired consistently with each the same initially novel objects or inconsistently with different objects. Our results…

  16. A Donation After Circulatory Death Program Has the Potential to Increase the Number of Donors After Brain Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Andrew R; Manara, Alex; Bramhall, Simon; Cartmill, Maria; Gardiner, Dale; Neuberger, James

    2016-02-01

    Donation after circulatory death has been responsible for 75% of the increase in the numbers of deceased organ donors in the United Kingdom. There has been concern that the success of the donation after circulatory death program has been at the expense of donation after brain death. The objective of the study was to ascertain the impact of the donation after circulatory death program on donation after brain death in the United Kingdom. Retrospective cohort study. A national organ procurement organization. Patients referred and assessed as donation after circulatory death donors in the United Kingdom between October and December 2013. None. A total of 257 patients were assessed for donation after circulatory death. Of these, 193 were eligible donors. Three patients were deemed medically unsuitable following surgical inspection, 56 patients did not proceed due to asystole, and 134 proceeded to donation. Four donors had insufficient data available for analysis. Therefore, 186 cases were analyzed in total. Organ donation would not have been possible in 79 of the 130 actual donors if donation after circulatory death was not available. Thirty-six donation after circulatory death donors (28% of actual donors) were judged to have the potential to progress to brain death if withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment had been delayed by up to a further 36 hours. A further 15 donation after circulatory death donors had brain death confirmed or had clinical indications of brain death with clear mitigating circumstances in all but three cases. We determined that the maximum potential donation after brain death to donation after circulatory death substitution rate observed was 8%; however due to mitigating circumstances, only three patients (2%) could have undergone brain death testing. The development of a national donation after circulatory death program has had minimal impact on the number of donation after brain death donors. The number of donation after brain death donors

  17. Effects of Spaceflight on Astronaut Brain Structure as Indicated on MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Donna R; Albrecht, Moritz H; Collins, Heather R; Asemani, Davud; Chatterjee, A Rano; Spampinato, M Vittoria; Zhu, Xun; Chimowitz, Marc I; Antonucci, Michael U

    2017-11-02

    There is limited information regarding the effects of spaceflight on the anatomical configuration of the brain and on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare images of 18 astronauts' brains before and after missions of long duration, involving stays on the International Space Station, and of 16 astronauts' brains before and after missions of short duration, involving participation in the Space Shuttle Program. Images were interpreted by readers who were unaware of the flight duration. We also generated paired preflight and postflight MRI cine clips derived from high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of 12 astronauts after long-duration flights and from 6 astronauts after short-duration flights in order to assess the extent of narrowing of CSF spaces and the displacement of brain structures. We also compared preflight ventricular volumes with postflight ventricular volumes by means of an automated analysis of T 1 -weighted MRIs. The main prespecified analyses focused on the change in the volume of the central sulcus, the change in the volume of CSF spaces at the vertex, and vertical displacement of the brain. Narrowing of the central sulcus occurred in 17 of 18 astronauts after long-duration flights (mean flight time, 164.8 days) and in 3 of 16 astronauts after short-duration flights (mean flight time, 13.6 days) (Pbrain after all long-duration flights (12 astronauts) but not after short-duration flights (6 astronauts) and narrowing of CSF spaces at the vertex after all long-duration flights (12 astronauts) and in 1 of 6 astronauts after short-duration flights. Three astronauts in the long-duration group had optic-disk edema, and all 3 had narrowing of the central sulcus. A cine clip was available for 1 of these 3 astronauts, and the cine clip showed upward shift of the brain. Narrowing of the central sulcus, upward shift of the brain, and narrowing of CSF spaces at the vertex occurred frequently and predominantly in

  18. EDUCATIONAL POTENTIAL OF DEVELOPMENT: INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS ON THE BASIS OF STATISTICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bychkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Using information WEF, UNDP, OECD investigated differences in the characteristics of education as a factor of competitiveness and level of development of countries, formed the group of OECD countries and their partners, significantly differ in indicators of education, studied Russian position among OECD countries and BRICS, formulated conclusions about ways of improving the educational potential of the country

  19. A step into the anarchist’s mind: examining political attitudes and ideology through event-related brain potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hiel, Alain; Pattyn, Sven; Onraet, Emma; Severens, Els

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates patterns of event-related brain potentials following the presentation of attitudinal stimuli among political moderates (N = 12) and anarchists (N = 11). We used a modified oddball paradigm to investigate the evaluative inconsistency effect elicited by stimuli embedded in a sequence of contextual stimuli with an opposite valence. Increased late positive potentials (LPPs) of extreme political attitudes were observed. Moreover, this LPP enhancement was larger among anarchists than among moderates, indicating that an extreme political attitude of a moderate differs from an extreme political attitude of an anarchist. The discussion elaborates on the meaning of attitude extremity for moderates and extremists. PMID:21421734

  20. Combined neuroimaging and gene expression analysis of the genetic basis of brain plasticity indicates across species homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinai, Yonatan; Wolf, Lior; Assaf, Yaniv

    2014-12-01

    Brain plasticity and memory formation depend on the expression of a large number of genes. This relationship had been studied using several experimental approaches and researchers have identified genes regulating plasticity through a variety of mechanisms. Despite this effort, a great deal remains unknown regarding the role of different genes in brain plasticity. Previous studies usually focused on specific brain structures and many of the genes influencing plasticity have yet to be identified. In this work, we integrate results of in vivo neuroimaging studies of plasticity with whole-brain gene expression data for the study of neuroplasticity. Brain regions, found in the imaging study to be involved in plasticity, are first spatially mapped to the anatomical framework of the genetic database. Feature ranking methods are then applied to identify genes that are differentially expressed in these regions. We find that many of our highly ranked genes are involved in synaptic transmission and that some of these genes have been previously associated with learning and memory. We show these results to be consistent when applying our method to gene expression data from four human subjects. Finally, by performing similar experiments in mice, we reveal significant cross species correlation in the ranking of genes. In addition to the identification of plasticity related candidate genes, our results also demonstrate the potential of data integration approaches as a tool to link high level phenomena such as learning and memory to underlying molecular mechanisms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Evaluating climate change mitigation potential of hydrochars: compounding insights from three different indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Brooks, Jennifer; Renz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    beet, fava bean, onion and lucerne) and two different countries (Spain and Germany), and used three different indicators of climate change: global warming potential (GWP), global temperature change potential (GTP), and climate tipping potential (CTP). We found that although climate change benefits (GWP......) from just sequestration and temporary storage of carbon are sufficient to outweigh impacts stemming from hydrochar production and transportation to the field, even greater benefits stem from replacing climate-inefficient biowaste management treatment options, like composting in Spain. By contrast......-term climatic target, the tipping point corresponding to an atmospheric GHG concentration of 450 ppm CO2 equivalents, unless hydrochar stability in the soil is optimized. Our results highlight the need for considering complementary perspectives that different climate change indicators offer, and overall provide...

  2. Identifying potential indicators of conservation value using natural heritage occurrence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Peter B; Penskar, Michael R; Schools, Edward H; Enander, Helen D

    2006-02-01

    Conservation planning based on the occurrence of rare species has been criticized as being too limited in scope to conserve biodiversity as a whole. Conversely, planning based on indicator taxa may lack sufficient focus to conserve those species in greatest need of conservation. An alternative approach is to identify a variety of species at risk that are associated with areas of conservation value, which is defined based on species-independent characteristics. We identified potential indicators of conservation value using occurrence data on species at risk and independent information on conservation value that incorporated indices of ecosystem integrity. We propose a taxonomically diverse group of indicator species that are strongly associated with areas of exceptional ecosystem integrity, to serve as a focus for further research and in planning for biodiversity conservation. We identify potential indicator species by defining a null model in which species at risk are equally associated with areas of high ecosystem integrity, then by conducting randomization tests to identify noncompliant species in the state of Michigan, USA. Areas of high ecosystem integrity are selected using criteria to flag (1) secure biotic communities with structural integrity and few exotic species, (2) natural areas subjected to expert review, (3) contiguous relict areas of forest interior, (4) contiguous areas of unmodified wetland, and (5) all these areas combined. We determine the spatial occurrence of species at risk using data from Michigan's statewide Natural Heritage database. The potential indicators include plants, insects, and birds. Their species identity and distribution of occurrences varies with the five scenarios, and together the species broadly cover the entire state. These species at risk, many of which occur throughout the Great Lakes region, may be used to identify additional areas potentially high in conservation value and to monitor their conservation. The ecological

  3. Performance Enhancement at the Cost of Potential Brain Plasticity: Neural Ramifications of Nootropic Drugs in the Healthy Developing Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly R. Urban

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive enhancement is perhaps one of the most intriguing and controversial topics in neuroscience today. Currently, the main classes of drugs used as potential cognitive enhancers include psychostimulants (methylphenidate, amphetamine, but wakefulness-promoting agents (modafinil and glutamate activators (ampakine are also frequently used. Pharmacologically, substances that enhance the components of the memory/learning circuits - dopamine, glutamate (neuronal excitation, and/or norepinephrine - stand to improve brain function in healthy individuals beyond their baseline functioning. In particular, non-medical use of prescription stimulants such as methylphenidate and illicit use of psychostimulants for cognitive enhancement have seen a recent rise among teens and young adults in schools and college campuses. However, this enhancement likely comes with a neuronal, as well as ethical, cost. Altering glutamate function via the use of psychostimulants may impair behavioral flexibility, leading to the development and/or potentiation of addictive behaviors. Furthermore, dopamine and norepinephrine do not display linear effects; instead, their modulation of cognitive and neuronal function maps on an inverted-U curve. Healthy individuals run the risk of pushing themselves beyond optimal levels into hyperdopaminergic and hypernoradrenergic states, thus vitiating the very behaviors they are striving to improve. Finally, recent studies have begun to highlight potential damaging effects of stimulant exposure in healthy juveniles. This review explains how the main classes of cognitive enhancing drugs affect the learning and memory circuits, and highlights the potential risks and concerns in healthy individuals, particularly juveniles and adolescents. We emphasize the performance enhancement at the potential cost of brain plasticity that is associated with the neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain.

  4. Performance enhancement at the cost of potential brain plasticity: neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Kimberly R; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive enhancement is perhaps one of the most intriguing and controversial topics in neuroscience today. Currently, the main classes of drugs used as potential cognitive enhancers include psychostimulants (methylphenidate (MPH), amphetamine), but wakefulness-promoting agents (modafinil) and glutamate activators (ampakine) are also frequently used. Pharmacologically, substances that enhance the components of the memory/learning circuits-dopamine, glutamate (neuronal excitation), and/or norepinephrine-stand to improve brain function in healthy individuals beyond their baseline functioning. In particular, non-medical use of prescription stimulants such as MPH and illicit use of psychostimulants for cognitive enhancement have seen a recent rise among teens and young adults in schools and college campuses. However, this enhancement likely comes with a neuronal, as well as ethical, cost. Altering glutamate function via the use of psychostimulants may impair behavioral flexibility, leading to the development and/or potentiation of addictive behaviors. Furthermore, dopamine and norepinephrine do not display linear effects; instead, their modulation of cognitive and neuronal function maps on an inverted-U curve. Healthy individuals run the risk of pushing themselves beyond optimal levels into hyperdopaminergic and hypernoradrenergic states, thus vitiating the very behaviors they are striving to improve. Finally, recent studies have begun to highlight potential damaging effects of stimulant exposure in healthy juveniles. This review explains how the main classes of cognitive enhancing drugs affect the learning and memory circuits, and highlights the potential risks and concerns in healthy individuals, particularly juveniles and adolescents. We emphasize the performance enhancement at the potential cost of brain plasticity that is associated with the neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain.

  5. Determinants of deposit potential as inverse liquidity indicator of commercial banks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević-Avdalović Snežana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify determinants of liquidity of commercial banks in the Republic of Serbia, observing the macroeconomic and banking-specific indicators, or micro-economic indicators which were analyzed by descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis from 2008 to 2014. The correlation for the observed variables is calculated from 140 samples for internal and external independent variables of impact to the dependent variable - liquidity measured by indicator of deposits. The subject of research is the process of optimization model reducing the factors of liquidity to variables that have the most significant impact on liquidity indicator measured by deposit potential. Results of the model show that liquidity of banks is dominantly determined by the size of banks assets. With growth of the assets, banks are exposed to a greater risk of liquidity. The increase in capital adequacy ratio has a positive effect on the liquidity of banks. Net interest margin is positively correlated with the indicator of deposit potential which indicates a negative impact on the liquidity of banks as well as the ratio of operating expenses to operating income.

  6. Potential palliative care quality indicators in heart disease patients: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Atsushi; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Kawai, Fujimi; Niwa, Koichiro; Utsunomiya, Akemi; Kohsaka, Shun; Kohno, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Takayama, Morimasa; Anzai, Toshihisa

    2017-10-01

    In spite of the increasing interest in palliative care for heart disease, data on the detailed methods of palliative care and its efficacy specifically in heart disease are still lacking. A structured PubMed literature review revealed no quality indicators of palliative care in heart disease. Therefore, we performed a narrative overview of the potential quality indicators in heart disease by reviewing previous literature concerning quality indicators in cancer patients. We summarize seven potential categories of quality indicators in heart disease: (1) presence and availability of a palliative care unit, palliative care team, and outpatient palliative care; (2) human resources such as number of skilled staff; (3) infrastructure; (4) presence and frequency of documentation or family survey; (5) patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) data and disease-specific patient quality of life such as The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ); (6) questionnaires and interviews about the quality of palliative care after death, including bereaved family surveys; and (7) admission-related outcomes such as place of death and intensive care unit length of stay. Although detailed measurements of palliative care quality have not been validated in heart disease, many indicators developed in cancer patients might also be applicable to heart disease. This new categorization might be useful to determine quality indicators in heart disease patients. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A systematic review of psychiatric indications for deep brain stimulation, with focus on major depressive and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naesström, Matilda; Blomstedt, Patric; Bodlund, Owe

    2016-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation is a treatment under investigation for a range of psychiatric disorders. It has shown promising results for therapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Other indications under investigation include Tourette's syndrome, anorexia nervosa and substance use disorders. To review current studies on psychiatric indications for deep brain stimulation (DBS), with focus on OCD and MDD. A systematic search was carried out in MEDLINE, and the literature was searched to identify studies with DBS for psychiatric disorders. The identified studies were analysed based on patient characteristics, treatment results and adverse effects of DBS. A total of 52 papers met the inclusion criteria and described a total of 286 unique patients treated with DBS for psychiatric indications; 18 studies described 112 patients treated with DBS for OCD in six different anatomical targets, while nine studies presented 100 patients with DBS for MDD in five different targets. DBS may show promise for treatment-resistant OCD and MDD but the results are limited by small sample size and insufficient randomized controlled data. Deep brain stimulation for OCD has received United States Food and Drug Administration approval. Other psychiatric indications are currently of a purely experimental nature.

  8. [Changes in the morphometric indices of the microvascular bed of the brain in experimental hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, T B; Rodionov, I M; Shinkarenko, V S

    1984-09-01

    Brain stem microvessels up to 15 microns in diameter of spontaneously hypertensive rats and rats with experimental renal hypertension were investigated in histological sections with the aid of a texture analysis system. Hypertensive animals showed a reduction in the vascular diameter per unit volume of cerebral tissue, in the mean vascular diameter as well as in the area occupied by the vessels, thus attesting to the lessened density of brain vascularization. The proportion of the vessels measuring from 6 to 15 microns in diameter per unit volume of cerebral tissue decreased whereas the proportion of the vessels measuring up to 5 microns in diameter remained unchanged. The characteristics under study demonstrated the same line of changes in both spontaneous and experimental renal hypertension.

  9. Negative brain potentials elicited by an unexpected color patch or word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, J; Yagi, A

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a physical stimulus that deviates from a semantic context can elicit the N400 component of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). ERPs were recorded while 12 students judged the veracity of a simple statement (e.g., red/is not/blue) presented with the order of subject (S), object (O), and verb (V), which is normal in Japanese grammar. In one condition, S was a color patch and O was a word representing the color, while in the other condition, S was a color name and O was a patch. In both conditions, a late additional negative potential was elicited by the O stimulus when it was mismatched with S. In addition, the negativities elicited by the incongruous color patch and word had the same morphology and scalp distribution. The results indicate that not only a word but a physical stimulus which deviates from a semantic context can elicit the N400 component.

  10. Air quality indicators from the Environmental Performance Index: potential use and limitations in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Garland

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In responding to deteriorating air quality, many countries, including South Africa, have implemented national programmes that aim to manage and regulate ambient air quality, and the emissions of air pollutants. One aspect within these management strategies is effective communication to stakeholders, including the general public, with regard to the state and trend of ambient air quality in South Africa. Currently, information on ambient air quality is communicated through ambient mass concentration values, as well as number of exceedances of South African National Ambient Standards. However, these do not directly communicate the potential impact on human health and the ecosystem. To this end, the use of air quality indicators is seen as a potential way to achieve communication to stakeholders in a simplified, yet scientifically defensible manner. Air quality indicators and their source data from the Environmental Performance Index (EPI were interrogated to understand their potential use in South Africa. An assessment of four air quality indicators, together with their source data, showed improvements in air quality over the time period studied, though the input data do have uncertainties. The source data for the PM indicators, which came from a global dataset, underestimated the annual PM2.5 concentrations in the Highveld Priority Area and Vaal Triangle Airshed Priority Area over the time period studied (2009-2014 by ~3.7 times. This highlights a key limitation of national-scale indicators and input data, that while the data used by the EPI are a well-thought out estimate of a country’s air quality profile, they remain a generalised estimate. The assumptions and uncertainty inherent in such an ambitious global-wide attempt make the estimates inaccurate for countries without proper emissions tracking and accounting and few monitoring stations, such as South Africa. Thus, the inputs and resultant indicators should be used with caution until such

  11. The dissolved organic matter as a potential soil quality indicator in arable soils of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filep, Tibor; Draskovits, Eszter; Szabó, József; Koós, Sándor; László, Péter; Szalai, Zoltán

    2015-07-01

    Although several authors have suggested that the labile fraction of soils could be a potential soil quality indicator, the possibilities and limitations of using the dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction for this purpose have not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that DOM is an adequate indicator of soil quality. To test this, the soil quality indices (SQI) of 190 arable soils from a Hungarian dataset were estimated, and these values were compared to DOM parameters (DOC and SUVA254). A clear difference in soil quality was found between the soil types, with low soil quality for arenosols (average SQI 0.5) and significantly higher values for gleysols, vertisols, regosols, solonetzes and chernozems. The SQI-DOC relationship could be described by non-linear regression, while a linear connection was observed between SQI and SUVA. The regression equations obtained for the dataset showed only one relatively weak significant correlation between the variables, for DOC (R (2) = 0.157(***); n = 190), while non-significant relationships were found for the DOC and SUVA254 values. However, an envelope curve operated with the datasets showed the robust potential of DOC to indicate soil quality changes, with a high R (2) value for the envelope curve regression equation. The limitations to using the DOM fraction of soils as a quality indicator are due to the contradictory processes which take place in soils in many cases.

  12. The potential for bio-mediators and biomarkers in pediatric traumatic brain injury and neurocritical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M. Kochanek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomarkers of brain injury in pediatric neurocritical care has been explored for at least 15 years. Two general lines of research on biomarkers in pediatric brain injury have been pursued, 1 studies of bio-mediators in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of children after traumatic brain injury (TBI to explore the components of the secondary injury cascades in an attempt to identify potential therapeutic targets and 2 studies of the release of structural proteins into the CSF, serum, or urine in order to diagnose, monitor, and/or prognosticate in patients with TBI or other pediatric neurocritical care conditions. Unique age-related differences in brain biology, disease processes, and clinical applications mandate the development and testing of brain injury bio-mediators and biomarkers specifically in pediatric neurocritical care applications. Finally, although much of the early work on biomarkers of brain injury in pediatrics has focused on TBI, new applications are emerging across a wide range of applications specifically for pediatric neurocritical care including abusive head trauma, cardiopulmonary arrest, septic shock, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, hydrocephalus, and cardiopulmonary bypass. The potential scope of the utility of biomarkers in pediatric neurocritical care is thus also discussed.

  13. Routine repeat head CT may not be indicated in patients on anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy following mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammack, Kevin C; Sadler, Charlotte; Guo, Yueyang; Ramaswamy, Raja S; Farid, Nikdokht

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation recommendations for patients on anticoagulant and antiplatelet (ACAP) therapy that present after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) are controversial. At our institution, an initial noncontrast head computed tomography (HCT) is performed, with a subsequent HCT performed six hours later to exclude delayed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). This study was performed to evaluate the yield and advisability of this approach. We performed a retrospective review of subjects undergoing evaluation for ICH after mild TBI in patients on ACAP therapy between January of 2012 and April of 2013. We assessed for the frequency of ICH on both the initial noncontrast HCT and on the routine six-hour follow-up HCT. Additionally, chart review was performed to evaluate the clinical implications of ICH, when present, and to interrogate whether pertinent clinical and laboratory data may predict the presence of ICH prior to imaging. We used multivariate generalized linear models to assess whether presenting Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), loss of consciousness (LOC), neurological or physical examination findings, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, platelet count, or specific ACAP regimen predicted ICH. 144 patients satisfied inclusion criteria. Ten patients demonstrated initial HCT positive for ICH, with only one demonstrating delayed ICH on the six-hour follow-up HCT. This patient was discharged without any intervention required or functional impairment. Presenting GCS deviation (pclopidogrel (p=0.003), aspirin (p=0.03) or combination regimen (p=0.004) use were more commonly seen in patients with ICH. Routine six-hour follow-up HCT is likely not indicated in patients on ACAP therapy, as our study suggests clinically significant delayed ICH does not occur. Additionally, presenting GCS deviation, LOC, neurological examination findings, clopidogrel, aspirin or combination regimen use may predict ICH, and, in the absence of these findings, HCT may

  14. Is sex an indicator of prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancelliere, Carol; Donovan, James; David Cassidy, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective to determine sex differences in the recovery and prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in adults and children. Data Sources We analyzed all scientifically admissible primary studies in the World Health Organization (WHO) (n=120) and International Collaboration on Mild...... relating to sex was prioritized according to design as exploratory or confirmatory, and a best-evidence synthesis was conducted. After MTBI, females may have a higher risk of epilepsy (children, young adults) and suicide, and use more health care services; males may be at higher risk for schizophrenia...

  15. Intraoperative radiotherapy in early stage breast cancer: potential indications and evidence to date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, A M

    2015-01-01

    Following early results of recent studies of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in the adjuvant treatment of patients with early breast cancer, the clinical utility of IORT is a subject of much recent debate within the breast oncology community. This review describes the intraoperative techniques available, the potential indications and the evidence to date pertaining to local control and toxicity. We also discuss any implications for current practice and future research. PMID:25734489

  16. Surplus Cost Potential as a Life Cycle Impact Indicator for Metal Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa D.M. Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the evaluation of product life cycles, methods to assess the increase in scarcity of resources are still under development. Indicators that can express the importance of an increase in scarcity of metals extracted include surplus ore produced, surplus energy required, and surplus costs in the mining and the milling stage. Particularly the quantification of surplus costs per unit of metal extracted as an indicator is still in an early stage of development. Here, we developed a method that quantifies the surplus cost potential of mining and milling activities per unit of metal extracted, fully accounting for mine-specific differences in costs. The surplus cost potential indicator is calculated as the average cost increase resulting from all future metal extractions, as quantified via cumulative cost-tonnage relationships. We tested the calculation procedure with 12 metals and platinum-group metals as a separate group. We found that the surplus costs range six orders of magnitude between the metals included, i.e., between $0.01–$0.02 (iron and $13,533–$17,098 (rhodium USD (year 2013 per kilogram of metal extracted. The choice of the reserve estimate (reserves vs. ultimate recoverable resource influenced the surplus costs only to a limited extent, i.e., between a factor of 0.7 and 3.2 for the metals included. Our results provide a good basis to regularly include surplus cost estimates as resource scarcity indicator in life cycle assessment.

  17. Focused ultrasound delivery of Raman nanoparticles across the blood-brain barrier: Potential for targeting experimental brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Roberto Jose; McVeigh, Patrick Z.; O’Reilly, Meaghan A.; Burrell, Kelly; Bebenek, Matthew; Smith, Christian; Etame, Arnold; Zadeh, Gelareh; Hynynen, Kullervo; Wilson, Brian C.; Rutka, James T.

    2014-01-01

    Spectral mapping of nanoparticles with surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) capability in the near-infrared range is an emerging molecular imaging technique. We used magnetic resonance image-guided transcranial focused ultrasound (TcMRgFUS) to reversibly disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB) adjacent to brain tumor margins in rats. Glioma cells were found to internalize SERS capable nanoparticles of 50 nm or 120 nm physical diameter. Surface coating with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody or non-specific human immunoglobulin G, resulted in enhanced cell uptake of nanoparticles in-vitro compared to nanoparticles with methyl terminated 12-unit polyethylene glycol surface. BBB disruption permitted the delivery of SERS capable spherical 50 or 120 nm gold nanoparticles to the tumor margins. Thus, nanoparticles with SERS imaging capability can be delivered across the BBB non-invasively using TcMRgFUS and have the potential to be used as optical tracking agents at the invasive front of malignant brain tumors. PMID:24374363

  18. The bidirectional gut-brain-microbiota axis as a potential nexus between traumatic brain injury, inflammation, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundman, Mark H; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Subbian, Vignesh; Chou, Ying-Hui

    2017-11-01

    As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS). Specifically, we will examine the extent to which the bidirectional influence of the gut-brain axis modulates the complex biological processes occurring at the time of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and over the days, months, and years that follow. In addition to local enteric signals originating in the gut, it is well accepted that gastrointestinal (GI) physiology is highly regulated by innervation from the CNS. Conversely, emerging data suggests that the function and health of the CNS is modulated by the interaction between 1) neurotransmitters, immune signaling, hormones, and neuropeptides produced in the gut, 2) the composition of the gut microbiota, and 3) integrity of the intestinal wall serving as a barrier to the external environment. Specific to TBI, existing pre-clinical data indicates that head injuries can cause structural and functional damage to the GI tract, but research directly investigating the neuronal consequences of this intestinal damage is lacking. Despite this void, the proposed mechanisms emanating from a damaged gut are closely implicated in the inflammatory processes known to promote neuropathology in the brain following TBI, which suggests the gut-brain axis may be a therapeutic target to reduce the risk of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy and other neurodegenerative diseases following TBI. To better appreciate how various peripheral

  19. Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Functional MRI of Early Evidences of Brain Plasticity after Hemodialysis Session by Helixone Membrane of Patients with Indices of Adrenal Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujraf, Saïd; Belaïch, Rachida; Housni, Abdelkhalek; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Tizniti, Siham; Sqalli, Tarik; Benzagmout, Mohammed

    2017-05-01

    Various alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function have been described in patients with chronic renal failure. Nevertheless, controversial evidences were stated about the association between adrenal function deficiency (AD) and hemodialysis (HD). The goal of this paper was to estimate indirect indices of the adrenal gland dysfunction which is potentially influenced by oxidative stress (OS) that still generates brain plasticity and reorganization of the functional control. Two male patients undergoing HD by the synthetic Helixone membrane for more than 6 months at the HD Center of the University Hospital of Fez, Fez, Morocco, were recruited. They underwent identical assessment immediately before and after the full HD session; this consisted of a blood ionogram revealing rates of sodium and calcium, and brain blood oxygenation level-dependent functional MRI (BOLD-fMRI) using a motor paradigm in block design. The blood ionogram revealed hypercalcemia and hyponatremia in both patients. Both biological assessment and BOLD-fMRI study results revealed a high level of OS that induced activation of a significantly large brain volume area suggesting the occurrence of possible brain plasticity and functional control reorganization induced by free radicals and enhanced by AD. The occurrence of brain plasticity and functional control reorganization was demonstrated in both patients studied who were undergoing HD by BOLD-fMRI with a notable sensitivity; this plasticity is induced by elevated OS occasioned by HD technique itself and probably amplified by AD. Similar results were found in a previous study performed on the same patients undergoing HD by a polysulfone membrane.

  20. Blockage of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 inhibits brain edema in middle cerebral artery occlusion mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinghui eJie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain edema is an important pathological process during stroke. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4 causes an up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in lung tissue. MMP can digest the endothelial basal lamina to destroy blood brain barrier, leading to vasogenic brain edema. Herein, we tested whether TRPV4-blockage could inhibit brain edema through inhibiting MMPs in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO mice. We found that the brain water content and Evans blue extravasation at 48 h post-MCAO were reduced by a TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047. The increased MMP-2/9 protein in hippocampus of MCAO mice was attenuated by HC-067046, but only the increased MMP-9 activity was blocked by HC-067047. The loss of zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1 and occludin protein in MCAO mice was also attenuated by HC-067047. Moreover, MMP-2/9 protein increased in mice treated with a TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A, but only MMP-9 activity was increased by GSK1016790A. Finally, ZO-1 and occludin protein was decreased by GSK1016790A, which was reversed by an MMP-9 inhibitor. We conclude that blockage of TRPV4 may inhibit brain edema in cerebral ischemia through inhibiting MMP-9 activation and the loss of tight junction protein.

  1. (De-)Accentuation and the Processing of Information Status: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Stefan; Schumacher, Petra B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports on a perception experiment in German that investigated the neuro-cognitive processing of information structural concepts and their prosodic marking using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Experimental conditions controlled the information status (given vs. new) of referring and non-referring target expressions (nouns vs.…

  2. Atypical Brain Responses to Reward Cues in Autism as Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohls, Gregor; Peltzer, Judith; Schulte-Ruther, Martin; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Social motivation deficit theories suggest that children with autism do not properly anticipate and appreciate the pleasure of social stimuli. In this study, we investigated event-related brain potentials evoked by cues that triggered social versus monetary reward anticipation in children with autism. Children with autism showed attenuated P3…

  3. Perceptual Shift in Bilingualism: Brain Potentials Reveal Plasticity in Pre-Attentive Colour Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Dering, Benjamin; Wiggett, Alison; Kuipers, Jan-Rouke; Thierry, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    The validity of the linguistic relativity principle continues to stimulate vigorous debate and research. The debate has recently shifted from the behavioural investigation arena to a more biologically grounded field, in which tangible physiological evidence for language effects on perception can be obtained. Using brain potentials in a colour…

  4. Genetic Correlation Between the P300 Event-Related Brain Potential and the EEG Power Spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anokhin, A.P.; van Baal, G.C.M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Grant, J.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated moderate heritability of the P300 component of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and high heritability of background electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectrum. However, it is unclear whether EEG and ERPs are influenced by common or independent genetic factors.

  5. Morphological Encoding in German Children's Language Production: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Anna; Fleischhauer, Elisabeth; Clahsen, Harald

    2017-01-01

    This study reports developmental changes in morphological encoding across late childhood. We examined event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during the silent production of regularly vs. irregularly inflected verb forms (viz. "-t" vs. "-n" participles of German) in groups of eight- to ten-year-olds, eleven- to…

  6. Temporal Dynamics of Late Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, Karsten; White, Erin J.; Drury, John E.

    2009-01-01

    The ways in which age of acquisition (AoA) may affect (morpho)syntax in second language acquisition (SLA) are discussed. We suggest that event-related brain potentials (ERPs) provide an appropriate online measure to test some such effects. ERP findings of the past decade are reviewed with a focus on recent and ongoing research. It is concluded…

  7. The potential of multilateral analyses of neuronal activities in future brain-machine interface research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Current brain-machine interfaces are based on the implicit assumption that information encoded by neuronal activities does not change despite some recent physiological studies indicating that information encoded by neuronal activities changes. Here, we highlight the necessity for advanced decoding of neuronal activities. Especially, we discuss the advantages of multilateral analyses of neuronal activities, including synchronization and variability.

  8. Tactile event-related potentials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): Implications for brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvoni, S; Konicar, L; Prats-Sedano, M A; Garcia-Cossio, E; Genna, C; Volpato, C; Cavinato, M; Paggiaro, A; Veser, S; De Massari, D; Birbaumer, N

    2016-01-01

    We investigated neurophysiological brain responses elicited by a tactile event-related potential paradigm in a sample of ALS patients. Underlying cognitive processes and neurophysiological signatures for brain-computer interface (BCI) are addressed. We stimulated the palm of the hand in a group of fourteen ALS patients and a control group of ten healthy participants and recorded electroencephalographic signals in eyes-closed condition. Target and non-target brain responses were analyzed and classified offline. Classification errors served as the basis for neurophysiological brain response sub-grouping. A combined behavioral and quantitative neurophysiological analysis of sub-grouped data showed neither significant between-group differences, nor significant correlations between classification performance and the ALS patients' clinical state. Taking sequential effects of stimuli presentation into account, analyses revealed mean classification errors of 19.4% and 24.3% in healthy participants and ALS patients respectively. Neurophysiological correlates of tactile stimuli presentation are not altered by ALS. Tactile event-related potentials can be used to monitor attention level and task performance in ALS and may constitute a viable basis for future BCIs. Implications for brain-computer interface implementation of the proposed method for patients in critical conditions, such as the late stage of ALS and the (completely) locked-in state, are discussed. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Developing a composite indicator to measure civic participatory potential in two Chinese societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether there is evidence in Hong Kong and Taiwan students’ early attitudes to civic participation that suggests they will adopt radical forms of civic participation and whether civic participatory potential of students from these two Chinese societies differed in early adolescence. To achieve these purposes, we used a Rasch measurement approach to construct comparable profiles. In doing so, we adopted conceptual and empirical approaches to construct a composite indicator and then tested validity and reliability of this indicator for the two societies, respectively. Such an approach is based on the assumption that reliable and accurate measurement is essential for theorizing the results of empirical studies. The data from the 2009 International Civics and Citizenship Education Study were also used for comparing the potential participation profiles. The results suggested that the unidimensional profile has good item fit and model fit for both societies, thereby valid and reliable. Preliminary findings suggest that inclination towards radical action can be identified during early adolescence and students from the two Chinese societies differed in civic participatory potential. Taiwanese students appear to be more radical than Hong Kong students while maintaining less positive attitudes to conventional forms of citizenship engagement.

  10. Potential antioxidant compounds in Mallotus species fingerprints. Part I: indication, using linear multivariate calibration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tistaert, C; Dejaegher, B; Nguyen Hoai, N; Chataigné, G; Rivière, C; Nguyen Thi Hong, V; Chau Van, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J; Vander Heyden, Y

    2009-09-01

    Some Mallotus species are used in traditional medicine in Vietnam and China. Some also show interesting activities, such as antioxidant and cytotoxic ones. Combining fingerprint technology with data-handling techniques allows indicating the peaks potentially responsible for given activities. In this study it is aspired to indicate from chromatographic fingerprints the peaks potentially responsible for the antioxidant activity of several Mallotus species. Relevant information was extracted using linear multivariate calibration techniques, both before and after alignment of the fingerprints with correlation optimized warping (COW). From the studied techniques, Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression is least recommended as it made an inadequate variable selection. Principal Component Regression theoretically can take largely varying variables uncorrelated to the antioxidant activity into account. However, in practice in the actual case study this problem was limited. These problems in principle do not occur using Partial Least Squares (PLS) models. Of the tested PLS methods, Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures was preferred because of its simplicity, reproducibility, reduced model complexity and improved interpretability of the regression coefficients, yielding a clearer view on the individual contribution of the compounds. Furthermore, reducing analysis times from 60 min to 35 and 22.5 min resulted in the same main compounds, indicated responsible for the antioxidant activity. Models built after alignment by COW did not result in additional information.

  11. Error-related EEG potentials generated during simulated brain-computer interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrez, Pierre W; del R Millan, José

    2008-03-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are prone to errors in the recognition of subject's intent. An elegant approach to improve the accuracy of BCIs consists in a verification procedure directly based on the presence of error-related potentials (ErrP) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded right after the occurrence of an error. Several studies show the presence of ErrP in typical choice reaction tasks. However, in the context of a BCI, the central question is: "Are ErrP also elicited when the error is made by the interface during the recognition of the subject's intent?"; We have thus explored whether ErrP also follow a feedback indicating incorrect responses of the simulated BCI interface. Five healthy volunteer subjects participated in a new human-robot interaction experiment, which seem to confirm the previously reported presence of a new kind of ErrP. However, in order to exploit these ErrP, we need to detect them in each single trial using a short window following the feedback associated to the response of the BCI. We have achieved an average recognition rate of correct and erroneous single trials of 83.5% and 79.2%, respectively, using a classifier built with data recorded up to three months earlier.

  12. Therapeutic Potential of Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells on Brain Damage of a Model of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Nikravesh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human cord blood-derived stem cells are a rich source of stem cells as well as precursors. With regard to the researchers have focused on the therapeutic potential of stem cell in the neurological disease such as stroke, the aim of this study was the investiga-tion of the therapeutic effects of human cord blood-derived stem cells in cerebral ischemia on rat. Methods: This study was carried out on young rats. Firstly, to create a laboratory model of ischemic stroke, carotid artery of animals was occluded for 30 minutes. Then, umbilical cord blood cells were isolated and labeled using bromodeoxyuridine and 2×105 cells were injected into the experimental group via the tail vein. Rats with hypoxic condi-tions were used as a sham group. A group of animals did not receive any injection or sur-geries were used as a control. Results: Obtained results were evaluated based on behavior-al responses and immunohistochemistry, with emphasis on areas of putamen and caudate nucleus in the control, sham and experimental groups. Our results indicated that behavioral recovery was observed in the experimental group compared to the either the sham or the control group. However, histological studies demonstrated a low percent of tissue injury in the experimental group in comparison with the sham group. Conclusion: Stem cell trans-plantation is beneficial for the brain tissue reparation after hypoxic ischemic cell death.

  13. The event-related brain potential as an index of attention allocation in complex displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, C. D.; Heffley, E. F.; Kramer, A. F.; Donchin, E.

    1980-01-01

    The advantages of employing the event-related brain potential (ERP) in the assessment of allocation of attention in dynamic environments are discussed. Three experiments are presented in which the P300 component of the ERP is demonstrated to be a useful index of subjects' locus of attention. The first two experiments were concerned with the allocation of attention during discrete and continuous visual monitoring tasks. The results indicated that a P300 was elicited only by stimuli to which the subject had to attend in order to perform successfully the task. The third experiment was conducted to assess the sensitivity of P300 to the manner in which attention is allocated to different aspects of a display during the performance of a 3-dimensional target acquisition task. The amplitude of the P300 was found to reflect differences between two levels of workload, as well as the task relevance of the stimuli. The results of the experiments are discussed in terms of their utility in the evaluation of the design of man-machine systems as well as in the study of the allocation of attention in operational environments.

  14. Fossil midges and palaeosalinity: potential as indicators of hydrological balance and sea-level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Markus L.; Walker, Ian R.

    2006-08-01

    Saline lakes possess midge communities whose composition reflects the range in annual salt concentration fluctuations within the lake basin. Chironomid remains accumulating in such lakes may be used as archives for reconstructing past salinity changes. Quantitative palaeosalinity reconstructions are now available for lakes in parts of Canada and Africa. In arid and semi-arid regions, much potential exists for relating these midge-inferred salinities to past changes in climate. Salinities at these sites may reflect past hydrological changes, especially changes in evaporation/precipitation balance. Recent analyses of coastal lakes in Norway demonstrate that midge fossils are also potentially useful indicators of sea-level changes. Limitations to midge-inferred palaeosalinity reconstructions include non-climate reasons for changes in salinity, such as variation in ionic input and local hydrology, and additional influences on community composition, such as midge habitat preferences, selective predation, and metal toxicity.

  15. Chemical and structural indicators for large redox potentials in Fe-based positive electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melot, Brent C; Scanlon, David O; Reynaud, Marine; Rousse, Gwenaëlle; Chotard, Jean-Noël; Henry, Marc; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2014-07-23

    Li-ion batteries have enabled a revolution in the way portable consumer-electronics are powered and will play an important role as large-scale electrochemical storage applications like electric vehicles and grid-storage are developed. The ability to identify and design promising new positive insertion electrodes will be vital in continuing to push Li-ion technology to its fullest potential. Utilizing a combination of computational tools and structural analysis, we report new indicators which will facilitate the recognition of phases with the desired redox potential. Most importantly of these, we find there is a strong correlation between the presence of Li ions sitting in close-proximity to the redox center of polyanionic phases and the open circuit voltage in Fe-based cathodes. This common structural feature suggests that the bonding associated with Li may have a secondary inductive effect which increases the ionic character of Fe bonds beyond what is typically expected based purely on arguments of electronegativity associated with the polyanionic group. This correlation is supported by ab initio calculations which show the Bader charge increases (reflecting an increased ionicity) in a nearly linear fashion with the experimental cell potentials. These features are demonstrated to be consistent across a wide variety of compositions and structures and should help to facilitate the design of new, high-potential, and environmentally sustainable insertion electrodes.

  16. Global to local genetic diversity indicators of evolutionary potential in tree species within and outside forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Lars; Aravanopoulos, Filippos; Bennadji, Zohra

    2014-01-01

    , trends and potentials of the world's tree genetic resources to support sustainable growth. The state of the genetic diversity will be based on trends in population distributions and diversity patterns for selected species. The productivity of the genetic resource of trees in current use will reflect...... distributions (patterns of genetic variation of key adaptive traits in the ecological space) of selected species is a realistic way of assessing the trend of intra-specific variation, and thus provides a state indicator of tree genetic diversity also able to reflect possible pressures threatening genetic...

  17. Brain evoked potential use in a physical medicine and rehabilitation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, M; Hopkins, K; Hall, K; Belleza, T; Berrol, S

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to explore the use of evoked potential (EP) procedure on a head injury unit in a Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. The method employed both auditory and visual stimulation presented bilaterally to various patients. Recordings of the brain's responses to such stimulation were obtained. Results permitted evaluation of brain stem, subcortical and cortical functioning, ipsilaterally, contralaterally, and bilaterally. EP data provided useful information for patient assessment and rehabilitation planning for head injured patients--particularly for those who were unable to cooperate in their own examination.

  18. Clinically Relevant Pharmacological Strategies That Reverse MDMA-Induced Brain Hyperthermia Potentiated by Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Ren, Suelynn; Wakabayashi, Ken T; Baumann, Michael H; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    MDMA-induced hyperthermia is highly variable, unpredictable, and greatly potentiated by the social and environmental conditions of recreational drug use. Current strategies to treat pathological MDMA-induced hyperthermia in humans are palliative and marginally effective, and there are no specific pharmacological treatments to counteract this potentially life-threatening condition. Here, we tested the efficacy of mixed adrenoceptor blockers carvedilol and labetalol, and the atypical antipsychotic clozapine, in reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia. We injected rats with a moderate non-toxic dose of MDMA (9 mg/kg) during social interaction, and we administered potential treatment drugs after the development of robust hyperthermia (>2.5 °C), thus mimicking the clinical situation of acute MDMA intoxication. Brain temperature was our primary focus, but we also simultaneously recorded temperatures from the deep temporal muscle and skin, allowing us to determine the basic physiological mechanisms of the treatment drug action. Carvedilol was modestly effective in attenuating MDMA-induced hyperthermia by moderately inhibiting skin vasoconstriction, and labetalol was ineffective. In contrast, clozapine induced a marked and immediate reversal of MDMA-induced hyperthermia via inhibition of brain metabolic activation and blockade of skin vasoconstriction. Our findings suggest that clozapine, and related centrally acting drugs, might be highly effective for reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia in emergency clinical situations, with possible life-saving results.

  19. Clinically Relevant Pharmacological Strategies That Reverse MDMA-Induced Brain Hyperthermia Potentiated by Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Ren, Suelynn; Wakabayashi, Ken T; Baumann, Michael H; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    MDMA-induced hyperthermia is highly variable, unpredictable, and greatly potentiated by the social and environmental conditions of recreational drug use. Current strategies to treat pathological MDMA-induced hyperthermia in humans are palliative and marginally effective, and there are no specific pharmacological treatments to counteract this potentially life-threatening condition. Here, we tested the efficacy of mixed adrenoceptor blockers carvedilol and labetalol, and the atypical antipsychotic clozapine, in reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia. We injected rats with a moderate non-toxic dose of MDMA (9 mg/kg) during social interaction, and we administered potential treatment drugs after the development of robust hyperthermia (>2.5 °C), thus mimicking the clinical situation of acute MDMA intoxication. Brain temperature was our primary focus, but we also simultaneously recorded temperatures from the deep temporal muscle and skin, allowing us to determine the basic physiological mechanisms of the treatment drug action. Carvedilol was modestly effective in attenuating MDMA-induced hyperthermia by moderately inhibiting skin vasoconstriction, and labetalol was ineffective. In contrast, clozapine induced a marked and immediate reversal of MDMA-induced hyperthermia via inhibition of brain metabolic activation and blockade of skin vasoconstriction. Our findings suggest that clozapine, and related centrally acting drugs, might be highly effective for reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia in emergency clinical situations, with possible life-saving results. PMID:26105141

  20. Electrophysiological brain indices of risk behavior modification induced by contingent feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megías, Alberto; Torres, Miguel Angel; Catena, Andrés; Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio

    2018-01-09

    The main aim of this research was to study the effects of response feedback on risk behavior and the neural and cognitive mechanisms involved, as a function of the feedback contingency. Sixty drivers were randomly assigned to one of three feedback groups: contingent, non-contingent and no feedback. The participants' task consisted of braking or not when confronted with a set of risky driving situations, while their electroencephalographic activity was continuously recorded. We observed that contingent feedback, as opposed to non-contingent feedback, promoted changes in the response bias towards safer decisions. This behavioral modification implied a higher demand on cognitive control, reflected in a larger amplitude of the N400 component. Moreover, the contingent feedback, being predictable and entailing more informative value, gave rise to smaller SPN and larger FRN scores when compared with non-contingent feedback. Taken together, these findings provide a new and complex insight into the neurophysiological basis of the influence of feedback contingency on the processing of decision-making under risk. We suggest that response feedback, when contingent upon the risky behavior, appears to improve the functionality of the brain mechanism involved in decision-making and can be a powerful tool for reducing the tendency to choose risky options in risk-prone individuals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Inter-hemispheric wave propagation failures in traumatic brain injury are indicative of callosal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Daniel P; Laguë-Beauvais, Maude; Sharma, Gaurav; Farivar, Reza

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 3.2-5.3 million Americans live with the consequences of a traumatic brain injury (TBI), making TBI one of the most common causes of disability in the world. Visual deficits often accompany TBI but physiological and anatomical evidence for injury in mild TBI is lacking. Axons traversing the corpus callosum are particularly vulnerable to TBI. Hemifield representations of early visual areas are linked by bundles of fibers that together cross the corpus callosum while maintaining their topographic relations. Given the increased vulnerability of the long visual axons traversing the corpus callosum, we hypothesized that inter-hemispheric transmission for vision will be impaired following mild TBI. Using the travelling wave paradigm (Wilson, Blake, & Lee 2001), we measured inter-hemispheric transmission in terms of both speed and propagation failures in 14 mild TBI patients and 14 age-matched controls. We found that relative to intra-hemispheric waves, inter-hemispheric waves were faster and that the inter-hemispheric propagation failures were more common in TBI patients. Furthermore, the transmission failures were topographically distributed, with a bias towards greater failures for transmission across the upper visual field. We discuss the results in terms of increased local inhibition and topographically-selective axonal injury in mild TBI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ketogenic diets: an historical antiepileptic therapy with promising potentialities for the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balietti, Marta; Casoli, Tiziana; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Giorgetti, Belinda; Aicardi, Giorgio; Fattoretti, Patrizia

    2010-07-01

    Ketogenic diets (KDs), successfully used in the therapy of paediatric epilepsy for nearly a century, have recently shown beneficial effects also in cancer, obesity, diabetes, GLUT 1 deficiencies, hypoxia-ischemia, traumatic brain injuries, and neurodegeneration. The latter achievement designates aged individuals as optimal recipients, but concerns derive from possible age-dependent differences in KDs effectiveness. Indeed, the main factors influencing ketone bodies utilization by the brain (blood levels, transport mechanisms, catabolic enzymes) undergo developmental changes, although several reports indicate that KDs maintain some efficacy during adulthood and even during advanced aging. Encouraging results obtained in patients affected by age-related neurodegenerative diseases have prompted new interest on KDs' effect on the aging brain, also considering the poor efficacy of therapies currently used. However, recent morphological evidence in synapses of late-adult rats indicates that KDs consequences may be even opposite in different brain regions, likely depending on neuronal vulnerability to age. Thus, further studies are needed to design KDs specifically indicated for single neurodegenerative diseases, and to ameliorate the balance between beneficial and adverse effects in aged subjects. Here we review clinical and experimental data on KDs treatments, focusing on their possible use during pathological aging. Proposed mechanisms of action are also reported and discussed. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A comment on Farwell : brain fingerprinting: a comprehensive tutorial review of detection of concealed information with event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.H.; Ben-Shakhar, G.; Verschuere, B.; Donchin, E.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent issue of Cognitive Neurodynamics Farwell (Cogn Neurodyn 6:115-154, 2012) published a comprehensive tutorial review of the use of Event Related Brain Potentials (ERP) in the detection of concealed information. Farwell’s review covered much of his own work employing his ‘‘brain

  4. Assessment of abuse potential of benzodiazepines from a prescription database using 'doctor shopping' as an indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradel, Vincent; Delga, Catherine; Rouby, Frank; Micallef, Joëlle; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2010-07-01

    Benzodiazepines are widely used for different purposes because of their pharmacological properties, but their abuse potential may represent a limitation to their use. Data suggest that this abuse potential may vary between products and available dosages. Doctor shopping (the simultaneous use of several physicians by a patient) is one of the most important ways in which prescription drugs, in particular benzodiazepines, are diverted. To assess the potential for abuse of several benzodiazepines using doctor shopping in a French administrative area as a proxy for abuse. All prescriptions reimbursed during the year 2003 in Haute-Garonne, France (one million inhabitants) for benzodiazepines that were available in ambulatory care through community pharmacies as solid oral forms were extracted from a reimbursement database. The benzodiazepines were alprazolam (0.25 mg, 0.50 mg), bromazepam 6 mg, clonazepam 2 mg, clorazepate (5 mg, 10 mg, 50 mg), diazepam (1 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg), flunitrazepam 1 mg, lorazepam (1 mg, 2.5 mg) and tetrazepam 50 mg. For each patient, the quantities prescribed, dispensed and obtained by doctor shopping (i.e. overlap between prescriptions from different prescribers) were computed. Benzodiazepines were compared using their 'doctor shopping indicator' (DSI, the percentage of each drug obtained through doctor shopping among the total reimbursed quantity). About 128 000 patients received at least one benzodiazepine during the year. Four groups of benzodiazepines were identified according to their abuse potential: very high abuse potential (flunitrazepam, DSI = 42.8%); high abuse potential (diazepam 10 mg, DSI = 3.2%; clorazepate 50 mg, DSI = 2.7%); intermediate abuse potential (alprazolam 0.50 mg, bromazepam, clonazepam, DSI ranging from 1.8% to 1.9%); and low abuse potential (other benzodiazepines and dosages, DSI ranging from 0.3% to 1.1%). The DSI can be used to assess the relative abuse liability of benzodiazepines and to detect signals of new

  5. Case studies on genetically modified organisms (GMOs): Potential risk scenarios and associated health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Barbara; Stockhofe, Norbert; Wal, Jean-Michel; Weesendorp, Eefke; Lallès, Jean-Paul; van Dijk, Jeroen; Kok, Esther; De Giacomo, Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Onori, Roberta; Brera, Carlo; Bikker, Paul; van der Meulen, Jan; Gijs, Kleter

    2017-08-30

    Within the frame of the EU-funded MARLON project, background data were reviewed to explore the possibility of measuring health indicators during post-market monitoring for potential effects of feeds, particularly genetically modified (GM) feeds, on livestock animal health, if applicable. Four case studies (CSs) of potential health effects on livestock were framed and the current knowledge of a possible effect of GM feed was reviewed. Concerning allergenicity (CS-1), there are no case-reports of allergic reactions or immunotoxic effects resulting from GM feed consumption as compared with non-GM feed. The likelihood of horizontal gene transfer (HGT; CS-2) of GMO-related DNA to different species is not different from that for other DNA and is unlikely to raise health concerns. Concerning mycotoxins (CS-3), insect-resistant GM maize may reduce fumonisins contamination as a health benefit, yet other Fusarium toxins and aflatoxins show inconclusive results. For nutritionally altered crops (CS-4), the genetic modifications applied lead to compositional changes which require special considerations of their nutritional impacts. No health indicators were thus identified except for possible beneficial impacts of reduced mycotoxins and nutritional enhancement. More generally, veterinary health data should ideally be linked with animal exposure information so as to be able to establish cause-effect relationships. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. An observational study of direct oral anticoagulant awareness indicating inadequate recognition with potential for patient harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaiya, A; Lurie, B; Watt, B; McDonald, L; Greaves, M; Watson, H G

    2016-05-01

    Essentials Ignorance of direct oral anticoagulants' effects on coagulation tests may be a safety issue. An electronic questionnaire was sent to prescribers in NHS Grampian with 143 respondents. We found widespread evidence of inappropriate interpretation of the clinical scenarios given. The study suggests potential for patient harm due to lack of knowledge and education is required. Background Lack of awareness of the nature of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) combined with the poor correlation between routine coagulation test prolongation and the activity of these drugs represents a potential for patient harm. Objectives To establish the level of awareness of the different DOACs, and to assess whether prescribers were able to recognize the state of anticoagulation in a hypothetical patient. Methods and results An electronic questionnaire was sent by email to prescribers in our health board. Among 143 respondents, we found significant differences in awareness of the currently licensed drugs. Of the respondents, 88%, 80% and 50%, respectively, recognized rivaroxaban, dabigatran, and apixaban. When provided with a routine clinical situation, only 13.5%, 17.5% and 16.8%, respectively, recognized that the hypothetical patient was anticoagulated, and only 55-58% recognized that it was unsafe to proceed with an invasive procedure. Conclusion These results indicate a significant risk for patient harm related to lack of knowledge about this new group of frequently used drugs, and indicate that additional education and training on this subject are required. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  7. The prolactin receptor as a therapeutic target in human diseases: browsing new potential indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, Vincent; Touraine, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) signaling has emerged as a relevant target in breast and prostate cancers. This has encouraged various laboratories to develop compounds targeting the PRL receptor (PRLR). As the latter is widely distributed, it is timely to address whether other conditions could also benefit from such inhibitors. The authors briefly overview the two classes of PRLR blockers, which involve: i) PRL-core based analogs that have been validated as competitive antagonists in various preclinical models, and ii) anti-PRLR neutralizing antibodies that are currently in clinical Phase I for advanced breast and prostate cancers. The main purpose of this review is to discuss the multiple organs/diseases that may be considered as potential targets/indications for such inhibitors. This is done in light of reports suggesting that PRLR expression/signaling is increased in disease, and/or that systemic or locally elevated PRL levels correlate with (or promote) organ pathogenesis. The two immediate challenges in the field are i) to provide the scientific community with potent anti-prolactin receptor antibodies to map prolactin receptor expression in target organs, and ii) to take advantage of the availability of functionally validated PRLR blockers to establish the relevance of these potential indications in humans.

  8. Records of medical malpractice litigation: a potential indicator of health-care quality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan; Li, Niying; Jiang, Mengsi; Dear, Keith; Hsieh, Chee-Ruey

    2017-06-01

    To assess the characteristics and incidence of medical litigation in China and the potential usefulness of the records of such litigation as an indicator of health-care quality. We investigated 13 620 cases of medical malpractice litigation that ended between 2010 and 2015 and were reported to China's Supreme Court. We categorized each case according to location of the court, the year the litigation ended, the medical specialization involved, the severity of the reported injury, the type of allegation raised by the plaintiff - including any alleged shortcomings in the health care received - and the outcome of the litigation. The annual incidence of medical malpractice litigation increased from 75 in 2010 to 6947 in 2014. Most cases related to general surgery (1350 litigations), internal medicine (3500 litigations), obstetrics and gynaecology (1251 litigations) and orthopaedics (1283 litigations). Most of the reported injuries were either minor (1358 injuries) or fatal (4111 deaths). The most frequent allegation was of lack of consent or notification (1356 litigations), followed by misdiagnosis (1172 litigations), delay in treatment (1145 litigations) and alteration or forgery of medical records (975 litigations). Of the 11 014 plaintiffs with known litigation outcomes, 7482 (67.9%) received monetary compensation. Over our study period, the incidence of litigation over potential medical malpractice increased in China. As many of the cases related to alleged inadequacies in the quality of health care, records of medical malpractice litigation in China may be worth exploring as an indicator of health-care quality.

  9. TESTING THE POTENTIAL OF VEGETATION INDICES FOR LAND USE/COVER CLASSIFICATION USING HIGH RESOLUTION DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karakacan Kuzucu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable land use/land cover (LULC information obtained by remote sensing technology is necessary in many applications such as environmental monitoring, agricultural management, urban planning, hydrological applications, soil management, vegetation condition study and suitability analysis. But this information still remains a challenge especially in heterogeneous landscapes covering urban and rural areas due to spectrally similar LULC features. In parallel with technological developments, supplementary data such as satellite-derived spectral indices have begun to be used as additional bands in classification to produce data with high accuracy. The aim of this research is to test the potential of spectral vegetation indices combination with supervised classification methods and to extract reliable LULC information from SPOT 7 multispectral imagery. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, the Ratio Vegetation Index (RATIO, the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI were the three vegetation indices used in this study. The classical maximum likelihood classifier (MLC and support vector machine (SVM algorithm were applied to classify SPOT 7 image. Catalca is selected region located in the north west of the Istanbul in Turkey, which has complex landscape covering artificial surface, forest and natural area, agricultural field, quarry/mining area, pasture/scrubland and water body. Accuracy assessment of all classified images was performed through overall accuracy and kappa coefficient. The results indicated that the incorporation of these three different vegetation indices decrease the classification accuracy for the MLC and SVM classification. In addition, the maximum likelihood classification slightly outperformed the support vector machine classification approach in both overall accuracy and kappa statistics.

  10. Testing the Potential of Vegetation Indices for Land Use/cover Classification Using High Resolution Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakacan Kuzucu, A.; Bektas Balcik, F.

    2017-11-01

    Accurate and reliable land use/land cover (LULC) information obtained by remote sensing technology is necessary in many applications such as environmental monitoring, agricultural management, urban planning, hydrological applications, soil management, vegetation condition study and suitability analysis. But this information still remains a challenge especially in heterogeneous landscapes covering urban and rural areas due to spectrally similar LULC features. In parallel with technological developments, supplementary data such as satellite-derived spectral indices have begun to be used as additional bands in classification to produce data with high accuracy. The aim of this research is to test the potential of spectral vegetation indices combination with supervised classification methods and to extract reliable LULC information from SPOT 7 multispectral imagery. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Ratio Vegetation Index (RATIO), the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) were the three vegetation indices used in this study. The classical maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) and support vector machine (SVM) algorithm were applied to classify SPOT 7 image. Catalca is selected region located in the north west of the Istanbul in Turkey, which has complex landscape covering artificial surface, forest and natural area, agricultural field, quarry/mining area, pasture/scrubland and water body. Accuracy assessment of all classified images was performed through overall accuracy and kappa coefficient. The results indicated that the incorporation of these three different vegetation indices decrease the classification accuracy for the MLC and SVM classification. In addition, the maximum likelihood classification slightly outperformed the support vector machine classification approach in both overall accuracy and kappa statistics.

  11. Psychopathological characteristics of bipolar and unipolar depression - potential indicators of bipolarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motovsky, Branislav; Pecenak, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Establishing whether a depressive episode is part of a unipolar or bipolar disorder is essential for treatment planning. Over recent years, a growing number of publications have discussed psychopathological characteristics that might serve as indicators of bipolarity in patients with a history of depression dominated by unipolar symptoms. Our primary aim was to verify the adequacy of these indicators in contributing to a precise diagnosis in everyday clinical practice. We investigated 104 patients diagnosed with major depressive episode at the time of examination. 52 patients had major depressive disorder and 52 patients had bipolar disorder. The patients were then assessed for the presence of potential bipolarity indicators: psychomotor slowing, self-view (self-blaming, feelings of worthlessness), hypersomnia, increased appetite, leaden paralysis/loss of physical energy, weight increase, interpersonal sensitivity, and early morning insomnia, using the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. We analysed the correlations between these indicators and the presence of unipolar or bipolar affective disorder. Psychomotor slowing, self-blaming/feelings of worthlessness, increased appetite, leaden paralysis/loss of physical energy, and weight increase were significantly more frequent in bipolar depression than in unipolar depression (p<0.05). Early morning insomnia was significantly more frequent in unipolar depression (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant correlation between hypersomnia or interpersonal sensitivity and either of the affective disorders. It would be worthwhile identifying the relative importance of clinical indicators for probable BP in large-scale prospective studies. These would contribute to the better diagnostic assessment of major depressive episodes and therapeutic decision-making.

  12. Self-Report and Brain Indicators of Impaired Emotion Regulation in the Broad Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, Kristel; Van Strien, Jan W.

    2017-01-01

    Although not used as a diagnostic criterion, impaired emotion regulation is frequently observed in autism. The present study examined self-reported use of emotion regulation strategies in individuals scoring low or high on autistic traits. In addition, the late positive potential, which is sensitive to emotional arousal, was used to examine the…

  13. Jugular venous overflow of noradrenaline from the brain: a neurochemical indicator of cerebrovascular sympathetic nerve activity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, D.A.; Lambert, G.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    )) overflow rates were measured. These measurements were also made following ganglion blockade (trimethaphan, n = 6), central sympathetic inhibition (clonidine, n = 4) and neuronal noradrenaline uptake blockade (desipramine, n = 13) and in a group of patients (n = 9) with pure autonomic failure (PAF...... = 0.3). Neuronal noradrenaline uptake block with desipramine lowered the transcranial plasma extraction of tritiated noradrenaline (P = 0.001). The PAF patients had 77% lower brain noradrenaline spillover than healthy recruits (P = 0.06), indicating that in them sympathetic nerve degeneration extended...

  14. Prostaglandin E2 Indicates Therapeutic Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Daniel J; Prabhakara, Karthik S; Toledano-Furman, Naama; Bhattarai, Deepa; Chen, Qingzheng; DiCarlo, Bryan; Smith, Philippa; Triolo, Fabio; Wenzel, Pamela L; Cox, Charles S; Olson, Scott D

    2017-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is soon predicted to become the third leading cause of death and disability worldwide. After the primary injury, a complex set of secondary injuries develops hours and days later with prolonged neuroinflammation playing a key role. TBI and other inflammatory conditions are currently being treated in preclinical and clinical trials by a number of cellular therapies. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are of great interest due to their widespread usage, safety, and relative ease to isolate and culture. However, there has been a wide range in efficacy reported using MSC clinically and in preclinical models, likely due to differences in cell preparations and a significant amount of donor variability. In this study, we seek to find a correlation between in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy. We designed assays to explore the responsiveness of MSC to immunological cues to address the immunomodulatory properties of MSC, one of their primary modes of therapeutic activity in TBI. Our results showed intrinsic differences in the immunomodulatory capacity of MSC preparations from different bone marrow and amniotic fluid donors. This difference mirrored the therapeutic capacity of the MSC in an experimental model of TBI, an effect confirmed using siRNA knockdown of COX2 followed by overexpressing COX2. Among the immunomodulatory factors assessed, the therapeutic benefit correlated with the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) by MSC prior to treatment, suggesting that measurement of PGE2 could be a very useful potency marker to create an index of predicted efficacy for preparations of MSC to treat TBI. Stem Cells 2017;35:1416-1430. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  15. Cytogenomic profiling of breast cancer brain metastases reveals potential for repurposing targeted therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia; Michelhaugh, Sharon K; Wijesinghe, Priyanga; Dyson, Greg; Kruger, Adele; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Choi, Lydia; Alosh, Baraa; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Mittal, Sandeep

    2015-06-10

    Breast cancer brain metastases remain a significant clinical problem. Chemotherapy is ineffective and a lack of treatment options result in poor patient outcomes. Targeted therapeutics have proven to be highly effective in primary breast cancer, but lack of molecular genomic characterization of metastatic brain tumors is hindering the development of new treatment regimens. Here we contribute to fill this void by reporting on gene copy number variation (CNV) in 10 breast cancer metastatic brain tumors, assayed by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Results were compared to a list of cancer genes verified by others to influence cancer. Cancer gene aberrations were identified in all specimens and pathway-level analysis was applied to aggregate data, which identified stem cell pluripotency pathway enrichment and highlighted recurring, significant amplification of SOX2, PIK3CA, NTRK1, GNAS, CTNNB1, and FGFR1. For a subset of the metastatic brain tumor samples (n = 4) we compared patient-matched primary breast cancer specimens. The results of our CGH analysis and validation by alternative methods indicate that oncogenic signals driving growth of metastatic tumors exist in the original cancer. This report contributes support for more rapid development of new treatments of metastatic brain tumors, the use of genomic-based diagnostic tools and repurposed drug treatments.

  16. Routine Repeat Head CT may not be Indicated in Patients on Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Therapy Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCammack, Kevin C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation recommendations for patients on anticoagulant and antiplatelet (ACAP therapy that present after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI are controversial. At our institution, an initial noncontrast head computed tomography (HCT is performed, with a subsequent HCT performed six hours later to exclude delayed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH. This study was performed to evaluate the yield and advisability of this approach. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of subjects undergoing evaluation for ICH after mild TBI in patients on ACAP therapy between January of 2012 and April of 2013. We assessed for the frequency of ICH on both the initial noncontrast HCT and on the routine six-hour follow-up HCT. Additionally, chart review was performed to evaluate the clinical implications of ICH, when present, and to interrogate whether pertinent clinical and laboratory data may predict the presence of ICH prior to imaging. We used multivariate generalized linear models to assess whether presenting Glasgow Coma Score (GCS, loss of consciousness (LOC, neurological or physical examination findings, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, platelet count, or specific ACAP regimen predicted ICH. Results: 144 patients satisfied inclusion criteria. Ten patients demonstrated initial HCT positive for ICH, with only one demonstrating delayed ICH on the six-hour follow-up HCT. This patient was discharged without any intervention required or functional impairment. Presenting GCS deviation (p<0.001, LOC (p=0.04, neurological examination findings (p<0.001, clopidogrel (p=0.003, aspirin (p=0.03 or combination regimen (p=0.004 use were more commonly seen in patients with ICH. Conclusion: Routine six-hour follow-up HCT is likely not indicated in patients on ACAP therapy, as our study suggests clinically significant delayed ICH does not occur. Additionally, presenting GCS deviation, LOC, neurological examination

  17. Enhanced Dentate Neurogenesis after Brain Injury Undermines Long-Term Neurogenic Potential and Promotes Seizure Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Neuberger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal dentate gyrus is a focus of enhanced neurogenesis and excitability after traumatic brain injury. Increased neurogenesis has been proposed to aid repair of the injured network. Our data show that an early increase in neurogenesis after fluid percussion concussive brain injury is transient and is followed by a persistent decrease compared with age-matched controls. Post-injury changes in neurogenesis paralleled changes in neural precursor cell proliferation and resulted in a long-term decline in neurogenic capacity. Targeted pharmacology to restore post-injury neurogenesis to control levels reversed the long-term decline in neurogenic capacity. Limiting post-injury neurogenesis reduced early increases in dentate excitability and seizure susceptibility. Our results challenge the assumption that increased neurogenesis after brain injury is beneficial and show that early post-traumatic increases in neurogenesis adversely affect long-term outcomes by exhausting neurogenic potential and enhancing epileptogenesis. Treatments aimed at limiting excessive neurogenesis can potentially restore neuroproliferative capacity and limit epilepsy after brain injury.

  18. The microbiota-gut-brain axis and its potential therapeutic role in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Zhou, J-M

    2016-06-02

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a series of neurodevelopmental disorders that are characterized by deficits in both social and cognitive functions. Although the exact etiology and pathology of ASD remain unclear, a disorder of the microbiota-gut-brain axis is emerging as a prominent factor in the generation of autistic behaviors. Clinical studies have shown that gastrointestinal symptoms and compositional changes in the gut microbiota frequently accompany cerebral disorders in patients with ASD. A disturbance in the gut microbiota, which is usually induced by a bacterial infection or chronic antibiotic exposure, has been implicated as a potential contributor to ASD. The bidirectional microbiota-gut-brain axis acts mainly through neuroendocrine, neuroimmune, and autonomic nervous mechanisms. Application of modulators of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, such as probiotics, helminthes and certain special diets, may be a promising strategy for the treatment of ASD. This review mainly discusses the salient observations of the disruptions of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in the pathogenesis of ASD and reveals its potential therapeutic role in autistic deficits. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. LINKING MOTOR-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIALS AND VELOCITY PROFILES IN MULTI-JOINT ARM REACHING MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julià L Amengual

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of the movement related brain potentials (MRPBs needs accurate technical approaches to disentangle the specific patterns of bran activity during the preparation and execution of movements. During the last forty years, synchronizing the electromiographic activation (EMG of the muscle with the electrophysiological recordings (EEG has been commonly ussed for these purposes. However, new clinical approaches in the study of motor diseases and rehabilitation suggest the demand of new paradigms that might go further into the study of the brain activity associated with the kinematics of movement. As a response to this call, we have used a 3-D hand tracking system with the aim to record continuously the position of an ultrasonic sender located on the hand during the performance of multi-joint self-pace movements. We synchronized the time-series of position of velocity of the sender with the EEG recordings, obtaining specific patterns of brain activity as a function of the fluctuations of the kinematics during the natural movement performance. Additionally, the distribution of the brain activity during the preparation and execution phases of movement was similar that reported previously using the EMG, suggesting the validity of our technique. We claim that this paradigm could be usable in patients because of its simplicity and the potential knowledge that can be extracted from clinical protocols.

  20. Linking Binge Alcohol-Induced Neurodamage to Brain Edema and Potential Aquaporin-4 Upregulation: Evidence in Rat Organotypic Brain Slice Cultures and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Sripathirathan, Kumar; Brown, James; Neafsey, Edward J.; Collins, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Brain edema and derived oxidative stress potentially are critical events in the hippocampal-entorhinal cortical (HEC) neurodegeneration caused by binge alcohol (ethanol) intoxication and withdrawal in adult rats. Edema's role is based on findings that furosemide diuretic antagonizes binge alcohol–dependent brain overhydration and neurodamage in vivo and in rat organotypic HEC slice cultures. However, evidence that furosemide has significant antioxidant potential and knowledge that alcohol can...

  1. A systems biology strategy to identify molecular mechanisms of action and protein indicators of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenggang; Boutté, Angela; Yu, Xueping; Dutta, Bhaskar; Feala, Jacob D; Schmid, Kara; Dave, Jitendra; Tawa, Gregory J; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

    2015-02-01

    The multifactorial nature of traumatic brain injury (TBI), especially the complex secondary tissue injury involving intertwined networks of molecular pathways that mediate cellular behavior, has confounded attempts to elucidate the pathology underlying the progression of TBI. Here, systems biology strategies are exploited to identify novel molecular mechanisms and protein indicators of brain injury. To this end, we performed a meta-analysis of four distinct high-throughput gene expression studies involving different animal models of TBI. By using canonical pathways and a large human protein-interaction network as a scaffold, we separately overlaid the gene expression data from each study to identify molecular signatures that were conserved across the different studies. At 24 hr after injury, the significantly activated molecular signatures were nonspecific to TBI, whereas the significantly suppressed molecular signatures were specific to the nervous system. In particular, we identified a suppressed subnetwork consisting of 58 highly interacting, coregulated proteins associated with synaptic function. We selected three proteins from this subnetwork, postsynaptic density protein 95, nitric oxide synthase 1, and disrupted in schizophrenia 1, and hypothesized that their abundance would be significantly reduced after TBI. In a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury rat model of severe TBI, Western blot analysis confirmed our hypothesis. In addition, our analysis recovered 12 previously identified protein biomarkers of TBI. The results suggest that systems biology may provide an efficient, high-yield approach to generate testable hypotheses that can be experimentally validated to identify novel mechanisms of action and molecular indicators of TBI. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Neurocognitive impairment of mental rotation in major depressive disorder: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu; Ma, Wentao; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lai-Qi; Zhang, Zhijun; Wu, Xingqu; Deng, Zihe

    2014-08-01

    Mental rotation performance may be used as an index of mental slowing or bradyphrenia and may reflect speed of motor preparation. Previous studies suggest that major depressive disorder (MDD) presents correlates of impaired behavioral performance for mental rotation and psychomotor disturbance. Very little is known about the electrophysiological mechanism underlying this deficit. The present study was the first to investigate the event-related brain potential (ERP) correlates of mental rotation and their mental slowing or bradyphrenia in MDD. ERPs were recorded while we tested 25 MDD patients and 26 healthy controls by evaluating the performance of MDD patients on hand and letter rotation tasks at different orientations, and their 400-to-600-msec time window was measured and analyzed for latencies and peak amplitudes over the electrodes. First, individuals with MDD were slower and made more errors in mentally rotating hands and letters than healthy controls did, and individuals with MDD exhibited a greater difference in response times and errors than controls did between hands and letters. Second, the mean peak amplitude was significantly lower and the mean latency was significantly longer in the 400-to-600-msec time window at the parietal site in the hand tasks in MDD patients than in controls, but this was not seen in the letter task, with only lower mean peak amplitude. MDD patients present the absence of a typical mental rotation function for the amplitude of the rotation-related negativity in the hand and letter tasks. Third, the scalp activity maps in MDD patients exhibited the absence of activation in the left parietal site for the mental rotation of hands, as shown in healthy participants. In contrast, their brain activation for the letter task was similar to those of healthy participants. These data suggest that mental imagery of hands and letters relies on different cognitive and neural mechanisms and indicate that the left posterior parietal lobe is a

  3. Biochemical indications of cerebral ischaemia and mitochondrial dysfunction in severe brain trauma analysed with regard to type of lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Schalén, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The study focuses on three questions related to the clinical usefulness of microdialysis in severe brain trauma: (1) How frequently is disturbed cerebral energy metabolism observed in various types of lesions? (2) How often does the biochemical pattern indicate cerebral ischaemia and mitochondrial......), cerebral haemorrhagic contusion (CHC) and no mass lesion (NML). Altogether about 150,000 biochemical analyses were performed during the initial 96 h after trauma. Compromised aerobic metabolism occurred during 38 % of the study period. The biochemical pattern indicating mitochondrial dysfunction was more...... common than that of ischaemia. In EDH and NML aerobic metabolism was generally close to normal. In SDH or CHC it was often severely compromised. Mortality was increased in SDH with impaired aerobic metabolism, while CHC did not exhibit a similar relation. Compromised energy metabolism is most frequent...

  4. MR cholangiopancreatography: technique, potential indications, and diagnostic features of benign, postoperative, and malignant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D. [Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Grossholz, M. [Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Mentha, G. [Department of Surgery, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Peyer, R. de [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Terrier, F. [Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this article is to review technical aspects, discuss potential clinical indications for MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and demonstrate the spectrum of diagnostic findings in benign, postoperative, and malignant conditions. We describe our current imaging protocol in comparison with other available techniques. Using a non-breath-hold, heavily T2-weighted fast-spin-echo (FSE) sequence with or without respiratory gating we obtained coronal and axial source images and maximum intensity projections (MIPs) in 102 patients with suspected abnormalities of the biliary or pancreatic ducts. Based on this series we demonstrate the diagnostic appearance of a variety of benign, postoperative, and malignant conditions of the biliary and pancreatic ducts and discuss potential clinical indications for MRCP. The non-breath-hold FSE technique enables a consistent image quality even in patients who cannot cooperate well. Respiratory gating increased the rate of diagnostic examinations from 79 to 95 %. Acquisition of coronal and axial source images enables detection of bile duct stones as small as 2 mm, although calculi that are impacted and not surrounded by hyperintense bile may sometimes be difficult to detect. The MIP reconstructions help to determine the level of obstruction in malignant jaundice, delineate anatomical variants and malformations, and to diagnose inflammatory conditions, e. g., sclerosing cholangitis, the Mirizzi syndrome and inflammatory changes in the main pancreatic duct. The MRCP technique also correctly demonstrates the morphology of bilio-enteric or bilio-biliary anastomoses. Because MRCP provides sufficient diagnostic information in a wide range of benign and malignant biliary and pancreatic disorders, it could obviate diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in many clinical settings. The ERCP technique may be increasingly reserved for patients in whom nonsurgical interventional procedures are anticipated. (orig

  5. Phenology of Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on cranberry and blueberry indicates potential for gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Melissa A; Fitzpatrick, Sheila M; Roitberg, Bernard D

    2012-08-01

    Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a pest of cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon (Aiton) (Ericales: Ericaceae), and highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum (L.) (Ericales: Ericaceae), in North America. In British Columbia, Canada, D. oxycoccana was first found on highbush blueberry in 1991 and then on cranberry seven years later. Because many cranberry and highbush blueberry farms are adjacent to one another, we hypothesized that D. oxycoccana was moving from highbush blueberry onto cranberry. Cranberry and highbush blueberry differ in phenology, and adaptation to these different phenologies may result in host races or cryptic species on these two crops. We recognized the alternative hypothesis that D. oxycoccana had arrived as immature stages with cranberry vines imported from another region of North America. During spring and summer, we recorded the phenology of D. oxycoccana and the development of plant shoots from three cranberry and three highbush blueberry farms to determine whether the opportunity exists for successful movement of D. oxycoccana between the two crops. Our results show that D. oxycoccana from cranberry and highbush blueberry overlap in phenology for much of the season, indicating a high potential for movement and gene flow. However, differences were seen in number of larvae per shoot, location of pupae, and heat unit accumulation during larval development suggesting that instead there may be the potential for host race or cryptic species formation.

  6. Antioxidant Potential of a Polyherbal Antimalarial as an Indicator of Its Therapeutic Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protus Arrey Tarkang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf, Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves, used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, total phenolic content (TPC, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP methods and, in vivo, Nefang (100 and 500 mg kg−1 activity was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation by the malondialdehyde and total proteins assays were carried out. P. guajava, M. indica leaf, and bark extracts had the highest antioxidant properties in all three assays, with no statistically significant difference. Rats treated with the carbon tetrachloride had a statistically significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (P<0.05 and increase in malondialdehyde activity, total protein levels, and liver and renal function markers, whereas rats treated with Nefang showed increased levels in the former and dose-dependent decrease towards normal levels in the later. These results reveal the constituent plants of Nefang that contribute to its in vivo antioxidant potential. This activity is a good indication of the therapeutic potential of Nefang.

  7. National valuation of monarch butterflies indicates an untapped potential for incentive-based conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Loomis, John B.; Ries, Leslie; Oberhauser, Karen; Semmens, Darius; Semmens, Brice; Butterfield, Bruce; Bagstad, Ken; Goldstein, Josh; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2013-01-01

    The annual migration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) has high cultural value and recent surveys indicate monarch populations are declining. Protecting migratory species is complex because they cross international borders and depend on multiple regions. Understanding how much, and where, humans place value on migratory species can facilitate market-based conservation approaches. We performed a contingent valuation study of monarchs to understand the potential for such approaches to fund monarch conservation. The survey asked U.S. respondents about the money they would spend, or have spent, growing monarch-friendly plants, and the amount they would donate to monarch conservation organizations. Combining planting payments and donations, the survey indicated U.S. households valued monarchs as a total one-time payment of $4.78–$6.64 billion, levels similar to many endangered vertebrate species. The financial contribution of even a small percentage of households through purchases or donations could generate new funding for monarch conservation through market-based approaches.

  8. Defining indicators to motorize block valves aiming to reduce potential leakage applied to OSBRA pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, L.F.G. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Sousa, A.G.; Castro, N.C.; Spagnolo, R. [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The discussion about motorizing block valves is a constant point being brought up when it is intended to control or reduce the amount of liquid leaking in the event of a pipe rupture. During the pipeline's project stage the installation of blocking valves along the pipeline must be taken into consideration to meet the operation and maintenance requirements as well as to reduce the potential amounts of volume being leaked. In existing pipelines, the main concern is the definition of which valves are candidates to be motorized. In both situations criteria should be established to define this choice. A math algorithm was developed to define the potential leakage due to gravity along the pipeline profile where the influence of a valve over another is verified, as well as the contribution of the check valves existing in the pipeline. The present work defines a parameter based on the extension protected by the valve and the reduction of the potential leakage. This parameter is then fed to a worksheet where the efficiency indicators are calculated to each valve eligible to be motorized. It also takes into consideration factors relative to the valve location, such as the environmental sensitivity, risk assessment, social diagnosis and device's proximity to contingency resources. Finally, after considering all the above aspects, it's possible to come up with a final classification, recommending specific valves to be prioritized on an eventual process of motorization adequacies. This methodology was applied, experimentally on a pipe segment of TRANSPETRO's Sao Paulo-Brasilia pipeline - OSBRA , where it proved to be an important technological and management tool. (author)

  9. Responsivity to dyslexia training indexed by the N170 amplitude of the brain potential elicited by word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga González, G; Žarić, G; Tijms, J; Bonte, M; Blomert, L; Leppänen, P; van der Molen, M W

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined training effects in dyslexic children on reading fluency and the amplitude of N170, a negative brain-potential component elicited by letter and symbol strings. A group of 18 children with dyslexia in 3rd grade (9.05±0.46years old) was tested before and after following a letter-speech sound mapping training. A group of 20 third-grade typical readers (8.78±0.35years old) performed a single time on the same brain potential task. The training was differentially effective in speeding up reading fluency in the dyslexic children. In some children, training had a beneficial effect on reading fluency ('improvers') while a training effect was absent in others ('non-improvers'). Improvers at pre-training showed larger N170 amplitude to words compared to non-improvers. N170 amplitude decreased following training in improvers but not in non-improvers. But the N170 amplitude pattern in improvers continued to differ from the N170 amplitude pattern across hemispheres seen in typical readers. Finally, we observed a positive relation between the decrease in N170 amplitude and gains in reading fluency. Collectively, the results that emerged from the present study indicate the sensitivity of N170 amplitude to reading fluency and its potential as a predictor of reading fluency acquisition. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A study of the landslide potential along the mountain road using environmental indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Utilization of slope land in recent years is rapid as a result of the dense population and limit of land resources in Taiwan. Therefore, mountain road plays an essential role for the necessity of human life. However, landslide disaster resulting in road failure occurred frequently in Taiwan on the slope land due to earthquake and typhoon. Previous studies found that the extreme rainfall coupled with the property of fragile geology could cause landslide. Nevertheless, the landslide occurrence might be affected by the drainage of the road side ditches. Taiwan Highway No.21 in Chi-Shan watershed and the forest roads located in Xiao-Lin Village, which failure during the hit of Typhoon Morakot in 2009, were selected for exploring the potential of vulnerable to landslides. Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) and Road Curvature (RC) were extracted along the road to indicate the potential sites which are vulnerable to slope failure. The surface runoff diverted by the road side ditches could spoil the sites with high RC due to the straight movement characteristics of the diverted runoff and cause the downslope collapse. The sites with higher mean value and lower standard deviation of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the SPOT imagery taken in dry and/or rainy seasons could be implied as the vegetation stands showing highly buffer effects in environmental stress due to having deeper soil layer, and are hardly interfered by the drought. The stands located in such sites once collapsed are often resulting in huge volumes of debris. Drainage Density (DD) index could be applied as the degrees of geologic fragile in the slope land. A road across the sites with higher mean value and lower standard deviation of NDVI and/or higher DD should be paid more attention because of having highly vulnerable to deep seated landslide. This study is focusing on extracting and analyzing the environmental indices such as TWI, RC, NDVI and DD for exploring the slope stability

  11. Adaptive decoding using local field potentials in a brain-machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa So; Libedinsky, Camilo; Kai Keng Ang; Wee Chiek Clement Lim; Kyaw Kyar Toe; Cuntai Guan

    2016-08-01

    Brain-machine interface (BMI) systems have the potential to restore function to people who suffer from paralysis due to a spinal cord injury. However, in order to achieve long-term use, BMI systems have to overcome two challenges - signal degeneration over time, and non-stationarity of signals. Effects of loss in spike signals over time can be mitigated by using local field potential (LFP) signals for decoding, and a solution to address the signal non-stationarity is to use adaptive methods for periodic recalibration of the decoding model. We implemented a BMI system in a nonhuman primate model that allows brain-controlled movement of a robotic platform. Using this system, we showed that LFP signals alone can be used for decoding in a closed-loop brain-controlled BMI. Further, we performed offline analysis to assess the potential implementation of an adaptive decoding method that does not presume knowledge of the target location. Our results show that with periodic signal and channel selection adaptation, decoding accuracy using LFP alone can be improved by between 5-50%. These results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing unsupervised adaptive methods during asynchronous decoding of LFP signals for long-term usage in a BMI system.

  12. Affective Aspects of Perceived Loss of Control and Potential Implications for Brain-Computer Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Grissmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most brain-computer interfaces (BCIs focus on detecting single aspects of user states (e.g., motor imagery in the electroencephalogram (EEG in order to use these aspects as control input for external systems. This communication can be effective, but unaccounted mental processes can interfere with signals used for classification and thereby introduce changes in the signal properties which could potentially impede BCI classification performance. To improve BCI performance, we propose deploying an approach that potentially allows to describe different mental states that could influence BCI performance. To test this approach, we analyzed neural signatures of potential affective states in data collected in a paradigm where the complex user state of perceived loss of control (LOC was induced. In this article, source localization methods were used to identify brain dynamics with source located outside but affecting the signal of interest originating from the primary motor areas, pointing to interfering processes in the brain during natural human-machine interaction. In particular, we found affective correlates which were related to perceived LOC. We conclude that additional context information about the ongoing user state might help to improve the applicability of BCIs to real-world scenarios.

  13. Identification of multi-targeted anti-migraine potential of nystatin and development of its brain targeted chitosan nanoformulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotra, Priti; Thakur, Aman; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Shailendra Kumar

    2017-03-01

    The complex pathophysiology involved in migraine necessitates the drug treatment to act on several receptors simultaneously. The present investigation was an attempt to discover the unidentified anti-migraine activity of the already marketed drugs. Shared featured pharmacophore modeling was employed for this purpose on six target receptors (β2 adrenoceptor, Dopamine D3, 5HT1B, TRPV1, iGluR5 kainate and CGRP), resulting in the generation of five shared featured pharmacophores, which were further subjected to virtual screening of the ligands obtained from Drugbank database. Molecular docking, performed on the obtained hit compounds from virtual screening, indicated nystatin to be the only active lead against the receptors iGluR5 kainate receptor (1VSO), CGRP (3N7R), β2 adrenoceptor (3NYA) and Dopamine D3 (3PBL) with a high binding energy of -11.1, -10.9, -10.2 and -12kcal/mole respectively. The anti-migraine activity of nystatin was then adjudged by fabricating its brain targeted chitosan nanoparticles. Its brain targeting efficacy, analyzed qualitatively by confocal laser scanning microscopy, demonstrated a significant amount of drug reaching the brain. The pharmacodynamic models on Swiss male albino mice revealed significant anti-migraine activity of the nanoformulation. The present study reports for the first time the therapeutic potential of nystatin in migraine management, hence opening avenues for its future exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Smooth pursuit eye movement preferentially facilitates motor-evoked potential elicited by anterior-posterior current in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Ae, Minori; Ogura, Nana; Komuratani, Sayo; Sano, Chisa; Shiomi, Keigo; Morita, Yuji; Yokoyama, Haruka

    2014-03-26

    Neural interaction between the eye and hand movement centers must be a critical part of the mechanism underlying eye-hand coordination. One of the previous findings supporting this view is smooth pursuit eye movement-induced suppression of motor-evoked potential (MEP) in the hand muscles. The purpose of this study was to determine which descending volleys contributing to MEP are preferentially modulated by smooth pursuit eye movement. MEP in the first dorsal interosseous muscle was elicited by different directions of current in the brain during the steady-state phase of smooth pursuit eye movement. Smooth pursuit eye movement facilitated MEP elicited by anterior-posterior (AP) current, but this effect was not seen in MEP elicited by lateromedial or posterior-anterior current. Latency of MEP elicited by AP current was significantly longer than latencies of MEPs elicited by other directions of current, indicating that AP current in the brain predominantly elicited later I-waves. We conclude that smooth pursuit eye movement in the steady-state phase preferentially facilitates MEP predominantly elicited by later I-waves generated by AP current in the brain.

  15. [Pain assessment of tracheal suctioning on brain injury patients by pain behavioral indicator scale (ESCID)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, C; Murillo-Pérez, M A; Morales-Sánchez, C; Torrente-Vela, S; Orejana-Martín, M; García-Iglesias, M; Cuenca-Solanas, M; Alted-López, E

    2014-01-01

    To assess pain response on patients with moderate to severe head injury before a common nursing procedure: tracheal suctioning. An observational longitudinal pilot study with consecutive sampling performed from September to December of 2012. Pain was assessed by a pain behavioral indicator scale 5 minutes before, meanwhile and 15 minutes after tracheal suctioning the days 1, 3 and 6 of their intensive care unit (ICU) stay, as well as a non-painful procedure: rubbing with gauze the forearm of the patient. Pseudo-analgesia and hemodynamic variables were also recorded. Descriptive analysis of the variables, inferential statistics with t-student and Anova with SPSS 17.0; statistical tests were considered significant if the critical level observed was less than 5% (P.05) were shown. Data for the painless procedure were significantly different on day 6 (P<.05) CONCLUSION: During tracheal suctioning in patients with head injury in the first 6 days in the ICU, objective mild-moderate pain according to ESCID scale has been detected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  16. Steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) performance under different perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşcan, Zafer; Nikulin, Vadim V

    2018-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigms are usually tested when environmental and biological artifacts are intentionally avoided. In this study, we deliberately introduced different perturbations in order to test the robustness of a steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based BCI. Specifically we investigated to what extent a drop in performance is related to the degraded quality of EEG signals or rather due to increased cognitive load. In the online tasks, subjects focused on one of the four circles and gave feedback on the correctness of the classification under four conditions randomized across subjects: Control (no perturbation), Speaking (counting loudly and repeatedly from one to ten), Thinking (mentally counting repeatedly from one to ten), and Listening (listening to verbal counting from one to ten). Decision tree, Naïve Bayes and K-Nearest Neighbor classifiers were used to evaluate the classification performance using features generated by canonical correlation analysis. During the online condition, Speaking and Thinking decreased moderately the mean classification accuracy compared to Control condition whereas there was no significant difference between Listening and Control conditions across subjects. The performances were sensitive to the classification method and to the perturbation conditions. We have not observed significant artifacts in EEG during perturbations in the frequency range of interest except in theta band. Therefore we concluded that the drop in the performance is likely to have a cognitive origin. During the Listening condition relative alpha power in a broad area including central and temporal regions primarily over the left hemisphere correlated negatively with the performance thus most likely indicating active suppression of the distracting presentation of the playback. This is the first study that systematically evaluates the effects of natural artifacts (i.e. mental, verbal and audio perturbations) on SSVEP-based BCIs. The

  17. Language and motor mapping during resection of brain arteriovenous malformations: indications, feasibility, and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarrós, Andreu; Young, William L; McDermott, Michael W; Lawton, Michael T

    2011-03-01

    Microsurgical resection of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) located in the language and motor cortex is associated with the risk of neurological deterioration, yet electrocortical stimulation mapping has not been widely used. To demonstrate the usefulness of intraoperative mapping with language/motor AVMs. During an 11-year period, mapping was used in 12 of 431 patients (2.8%) undergoing AVM resection (5 patients with language and 7 patients with motor AVMs). Language mapping was performed under awake anesthesia and motor mapping under general anesthesia. Identification of a functional cortex enabled its preservation in 11 patients (92%), guided dissection through overlying sulci down to the nidus in 3 patients (25%), and influenced the extent of resection in 4 patients (33%). Eight patients (67%) had complete resections. Four patients (33%) had incomplete resections, with circumferentially dissected and subtotally disconnected AVMs left in situ, attached to areas of eloquence and with preserved venous drainage. All were subsequently treated with radiosurgery. At follow-up, 6 patients recovered completely, 3 patients were neurologically improved, and 3 patients had new neurological deficits. Indications for intraoperative mapping include preoperative functional imaging that identifies the language/motor cortex adjacent to the AVM; larger AVMs with higher Spetzler-Martin grades; and patients presenting with unruptured AVMs without deficits. Mapping identified the functional cortex, promoted careful tissue handling, and preserved function. Mapping may guide dissection to AVMs beneath the cortical surface, and it may impact the decision to resect the AVM completely. More conservative, subtotal circumdissections followed by radiosurgery may be an alternative to observation or radiosurgery alone in patients with larger language/motor cortex AVMs.

  18. Transient brain activity explains the spectral content of steady-state visual evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Antoine; Vialatte, François; Dreyfus, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) are widely used in the design of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). A lot of effort has therefore been devoted to find a fast and reliable way to detect SSVEPs. We study the link between transient and steady-state VEPs and show that it is possible to predict the spectral content of a subject's SSVEPs by simulating trains of transient VEPs. This could lead to a better understanding of evoked potentials as well as to better performances of SSVEP-based BCIs, by providing a tool to improve SSVEP detection algorithms.

  19. Convection-enhanced drug delivery to the brain: therapeutic potential and neuropathological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Neil U; Gill, Steven S; Love, Seth

    2014-03-01

    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) describes a direct method of drug delivery to the brain through intraparenchymal microcatheters. By establishing a pressure gradient at the tip of the infusion catheter in order to exploit bulk flow through the interstitial spaces of the brain, CED offers a number of advantages over conventional drug delivery methods-bypass of the blood-brain barrier, targeted distribution through large brain volumes and minimization of systemic side effects. Despite showing early promise, CED is yet to fulfill its potential as a mainstream strategy for the treatment of neurological disease. Substantial research effort has been dedicated to optimize the technology for CED and identify the parameters, which govern successful drug distribution. It seems likely that successful clinical translation of CED will depend on suitable catheter technology being used in combination with drugs with optimal physicochemical characteristics, and on neuropathological analysis in appropriate preclinical models. In this review, we consider the factors most likely to influence the success or failure of CED, and review its application to the treatment of high-grade glioma, Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). © 2013 International Society of Neuropathology.

  20. A tubulin alpha 8 mouse knockout model indicates a likely role in spermatogenesis but not in brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine P Diggle

    Full Text Available Tubulin alpha 8 (Tuba8 is the most divergent member of the highly conserved alpha tubulin family, and uniquely lacks two key post-translational modification sites. It is abundantly expressed in testis and muscle, with lower levels in the brain. We previously identified homozygous hypomorphic TUBA8 mutations in human subjects with a polymicrogyria (PMG syndrome, suggesting its involvement in development of the cerebral cortex. We have now generated and characterized a Tuba8 knockout mouse model. Homozygous mice were confirmed to lack Tuba8 protein in the testis, but did not display PMG and appeared to be neurologically normal. In response to this finding, we re-analyzed the human PMG subjects using whole exome sequencing. This resulted in identification of an additional homozygous loss-of-function mutation in SNAP29, suggesting that SNAP29 deficiency, rather than TUBA8 deficiency, may underlie most or all of the neurodevelopmental anomalies in these subjects. Nonetheless, in the mouse brain, Tuba8 specifically localised to the cerebellar Purkinje cells, suggesting that the human mutations may affect or modify motor control. In the testis, Tuba8 localisation was cell-type specific. It was restricted to spermiogenesis with a strong acrosomal localization that was gradually replaced by cytoplasmic distribution and was absent from spermatozoa. Although the knockout mice were fertile, the localisation pattern indicated that Tuba8 may have a role in spermatid development during spermatogenesis, rather than as a component of the mature microtubule-rich flagellum itself.

  1. REM sleep as a potential indicator of hyperarousal in psychophysiological and paradoxical insomnia sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérusse, Alexandra D; Pedneault-Drolet, Maude; Rancourt, Christine; Turcotte, Isabelle; St-Jean, Geneviève; Bastien, Célyne H

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to study REM sleep macrostructure and microstructure as potential indicators of hyperarousal in insomnia by comparing good sleepers (GS) and insomnia sufferers (INS) (subdivided into psychophysiological "PSY-I" and paradoxical "PARA-I"). Cross-sectional comparisons of GS, PSY-I and PARA-I. Participants slept for 4 consecutive nights in the laboratory where PSG was recorded. Nights 2 and 3 were combined to compare REM sleep between groups. Thirty-nine PSY-I, 27 PARA-I and 47 GS completed the study, comprising home questionnaires, clinical interviews and night PSG recordings. All participants were aged between 25 and 55 and met inclusion criteria for either PSY-I, PARA-I or GS. Results showed no between group differences on REM sleep macrostructure. As for REM sleep microstructure, PSY-I had an increased number of wake intrusions compared to PARA-I (p=.03). Subjective SE, TST and TWT were significantly correlated with the duration of REM sleep (REMD; p≤.002) and with the proportion of REM sleep for PARA-I (p≤.06). REM sleep macrostructure does not seem to be an adequate indicator of hyperarousal in insomnia. However, the number of wake intrusions in REM could be used to differentiate PSY-I from PARA-I and could reflect the heightened arousal of the former group. Relationships between REM sleep duration and proportion could be linked to dream imagery activity, especially in PARA-I. Further investigations are needed to identify variables that could reflect hyperarousal and differentiate insomnia types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The VCS parameters: Potential hematological indicators for predicting antituberculosis drug-induced neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tian; Gu, Delin; Zhu, Yihua; Shi, Junwei; Xu, Dongsheng; Cao, Xingjian

    2016-08-01

    The morphological changes in activated neutrophils associated with antituberculosis drugs can be measured by volume, conductivity, and scatter (VCS) technology on the Coulter LH750 hematology analyzer. We conducted the current study to further validate the clinical usefulness of the neutrophil VCS parameters in predicting drug-induced neutropenia. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 52 patients with drug-induced neutropenia, 309 patients without any abnormal CBC, and 237 healthy controls. The mean neutrophil volume (MNV) with its distribution width (NDW) and the mean neutrophil scatter (MNS) were studied. We observed a significant increase in the MNV and NDW as well as a significant decrease in the MNS in neutropenia patients approximately one week prior to development of neutropenia compared to healthy controls as well as to case controls. In addition, the delta MNV and delta MNS were respectively correlated well with delta absolute neutrophil counts when neutropenia occurred. The ROC curve analyses showed that the MNV、NDW and MNS had larger areas under curves compared to conventional parameters. With a cutoff of 150.15 for the MNV, a sensitivity of 84.4% and specificity of 75.7% were achieved prior to neutropenia. The neutrophil VCS parameters may be clinically useful as potential hematological indicators for predicting antituberculosis drug-induced neutropenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental inoculation study indicates swine as a potential host for Hendra virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingyi; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Weingartl, Hana M.

    2010-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a zoonotic virus from the family Paramyxoviridae causing fatal disease in humans and horses. Five-week-old Landrace pigs and 5-month-old Gottingen minipigs were inoculated with approximately 107 plaque forming units per animal. In addition to fever and depression exhibited in all infected pigs, one of the two Landrace pigs developed respiratory signs at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi) and one of the Gottingen minipigs developed respiratory signs at 5 dpi and mild neurological signs at 7 dpi. Virus was detected in all infected pigs at 2–5 dpi from oral, nasal, and rectal swabs and at 3–5 dpi from ocular swabs by real-time RT-PCR targeting the HeV M gene. Virus titers in nasal swab samples were as high as 104.6 TCID50/mL. The viral RNA was mainly distributed in tissues from respiratory and lymphoid systems at an early stage of infection and the presence of virus was confirmed by virus isolation. Pathological changes and immunohistochemical staining for viral antigen were consistent with the tissue distribution of the virus. This new finding indicates that pigs are susceptible to HeV infections and could potentially play a role as an intermediate host in transmission to humans. PMID:20167195

  4. Enhanced Delivery of Gold Nanoparticles with Therapeutic Potential for Targeting Human Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etame, Arnold B.

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) remains a major challenge to the advancement and application of systemic anti-cancer therapeutics into the central nervous system. The structural and physiological delivery constraints of the BBB significantly limit the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy, thereby making systemic administration a non-viable option for the vast majority of chemotherapy agents. Furthermore, the lack of specificity of conventional systemic chemotherapy when applied towards malignant brain tumors remains a major shortcoming. Hence novel therapeutic strategies that focus both on targeted and enhanced delivery across the BBB are warranted. In recent years nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as attractive vehicles for efficient delivery of targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. In particular, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gained prominence in several targeting applications involving systemic cancers. Their enhanced permeation and retention within permissive tumor microvasculature provide a selective advantage for targeting. Malignant brain tumors also exhibit transport-permissive microvasculature secondary to blood brain barrier disruption. Hence AuNPs may have potential relevance for brain tumor targeting. However, the permeation of AuNPs across the BBB has not been well characterized, and hence is a potential limitation for successful application of AuNP-based therapeutics within the central nervous system (CNS). In this dissertation, we designed and characterized AuNPs and assessed the role of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the physical and biological properties of AuNPs. We established a size-dependent permeation profile with respect to core size as well as PEG length when AuNPs were assessed through a transport-permissive in-vitro BBB. This study was the first of its kind to systematically examine the influence of design on permeation of AuNPs through transport-permissive BBB. Given the significant delivery limitations through the non

  5. Measuring complex behaviors of local oscillatory networks in deep brain local field potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongzhi; Geng, Xinyi; Li, Luming; Stein, John F; Aziz, Tipu Z; Green, Alexander L; Wang, Shouyan

    2016-05-01

    Multiple oscillations emerging from the same neuronal substrate serve to construct a local oscillatory network. The network usually exhibits complex behaviors of rhythmic, balancing and coupling between the oscillations, and the quantification of these behaviors would provide valuable insight into organization of the local network related to brain states. An integrated approach to quantify rhythmic, balancing and coupling neural behaviors based upon power spectral analysis, power ratio analysis and cross-frequency power coupling analysis was presented. Deep brain local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the thalamus of patients with neuropathic pain and dystonic tremor. t-Test was applied to assess the difference between the two patient groups. The rhythmic behavior measured by power spectral analysis showed significant power spectrum difference in the high beta band between the two patient groups. The balancing behavior measured by power ratio analysis showed significant power ratio differences at high beta band to 8-20 Hz, and 30-40 Hz to high beta band between the patient groups. The coupling behavior measured by cross-frequency power coupling analysis showed power coupling differences at (theta band, high beta band) and (45-55 Hz, 70-80 Hz) between the patient groups. The study provides a strategy for studying the brain states in a multi-dimensional behavior space and a framework to screen quantitative characteristics for biomarkers related to diseases or nuclei. The work provides a comprehensive approach for understanding the complex behaviors of deep brain LFPs and identifying quantitative biomarkers for brain states related to diseases or nuclei. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating Zeta Potential and the Calcite/Aragonite Ratio as Potential Success Indicators for Magnetic Water Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The potential benefits of anti-scale magnetic treatment (AMT) are not realized or reliably predicted because the factors measuring performance of magnetic treatment have either not been identified or are poorly defined...

  7. Proteomics analysis after traumatic brain injury in rats: the search for potential biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ding

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies of protein expression after traumatic brain injury (TBI have identified biomarkers for diagnosing or determining the prognosis of TBI. In this study, we searched for additional protein markers of TBI using a fluid perfusion impact device to model TBI in S-D rats. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to identify differentially expressed proteins. After proteomic analysis, we detected 405 and 371 protein spots within a pH range of 3-10 from sham-treated and contused brain cortex, respectively. Eighty protein spots were differentially expressed in the two groups and 20 of these proteins were identified. This study validated the established biomarkers of TBI and identified potential biomarkers that could be examined in future work.

  8. Movement decoding using neural synchronization and inter-hemispheric connectivity from deep brain local field potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, K A; Mace, M; Lutman, M E; Stein, J; Liu, X; Aziz, T; Vaidyanathan, R; Wang, S

    2015-10-01

    Correlating electrical activity within the human brain to movement is essential for developing and refining interventions (e.g. deep brain stimulation (DBS)) to treat central nervous system disorders. It also serves as a basis for next generation brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). This study highlights a new decoding strategy for capturing movement and its corresponding laterality from deep brain local field potentials (LFPs). LFPs were recorded with surgically implanted electrodes from the subthalamic nucleus or globus pallidus interna in twelve patients with Parkinson's disease or dystonia during a visually cued finger-clicking task. We introduce a method to extract frequency dependent neural synchronization and inter-hemispheric connectivity features based upon wavelet packet transform (WPT) and Granger causality approaches. A novel weighted sequential feature selection algorithm has been developed to select optimal feature subsets through a feature contribution measure. This is particularly useful when faced with limited trials of high dimensionality data as it enables estimation of feature importance during the decoding process. This novel approach was able to accurately and informatively decode movement related behaviours from the recorded LFP activity. An average accuracy of 99.8% was achieved for movement identification, whilst subsequent laterality classification was 81.5%. Feature contribution analysis highlighted stronger contralateral causal driving between the basal ganglia hemispheres compared to ipsilateral driving, with causality measures considerably improving laterality discrimination. These findings demonstrate optimally selected neural synchronization alongside causality measures related to inter-hemispheric connectivity can provide an effective control signal for augmenting adaptive BMIs. In the case of DBS patients, acquiring such signals requires no additional surgery whilst providing a relatively stable and computationally inexpensive control

  9. Multiple blood-brain barrier transport mechanisms limit bumetanide accumulation, and therapeutic potential, in the mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römermann, Kerstin; Fedrowitz, Maren; Hampel, Philip; Kaczmarek, Edith; Töllner, Kathrin; Erker, Thomas; Sweet, Douglas H; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2017-05-01

    There is accumulating evidence that bumetanide, which has been used over decades as a potent loop diuretic, also exerts effects on brain disorders, including autism, neonatal seizures, and epilepsy, which are not related to its effects on the kidney but rather mediated by inhibition of the neuronal Na-K-Cl cotransporter isoform NKCC1. However, following systemic administration, brain levels of bumetanide are typically below those needed to inhibit NKCC1, which critically limits its clinical use for treating brain disorders. Recently, active efflux transport at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been suggested as a process involved in the low brain:plasma ratio of bumetanide, but it is presently not clear which transporters are involved. Understanding the processes explaining the poor brain penetration of bumetanide is needed for developing strategies to improve the brain delivery of this drug. In the present study, we administered probenecid and more selective inhibitors of active transport carriers at the BBB directly into the brain of mice to minimize the contribution of peripheral effects on the brain penetration of bumetanide. Furthermore, in vitro experiments with mouse organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3)-overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary cells were performed to study the interaction of bumetanide, bumetanide derivatives, and several known inhibitors of Oats on Oat3-mediated transport. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that the uptake and efflux of bumetanide at the BBB is much more complex than previously thought. It seems that both restricted passive diffusion and active efflux transport, mediated by Oat3 but also organic anion-transporting polypeptide (Oatp) Oatp1a4 and multidrug resistance protein 4 explain the extremely low brain concentrations that are achieved after systemic administration of bumetanide, limiting the use of this drug for targeting abnormal expression of neuronal NKCC1 in brain diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. Cortical EEG oscillations and network connectivity as efficacy indices for assessing drugs with cognition enhancing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnaou, A; Huysmans, H; Jacobs, T; Drinkenburg, W H I M

    2014-11-01

    Synchronization of electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations represents a core mechanism for cortical and subcortical networks, and disturbance in neural synchrony underlies cognitive processing deficits in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the effects of cognition enhancers (donepezil, rivastigmine, tacrine, galantamine and memantine), which are approved for symptomatic treatment of dementia, on EEG oscillations and network connectivity in conscious rats chronically instrumented with epidural electrodes in different cortical areas. Next, EEG network indices of cognitive impairments with the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine were modeled. Lastly, we examined the efficacy of cognition enhancers to normalize those aberrant oscillations. Cognition enhancers elicited systematic ("fingerprint") enhancement of cortical slow theta (4.5-6 Hz) and gamma (30.5-50 Hz) oscillations correlated with lower activity levels. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a compact cluster that corresponds to shared underlying mechanisms as compared to different drug classes. Functional network connectivity revealed consistent elevated coherent slow theta activity in parieto-occipital and between interhemispheric cortical areas. In rats instrumented with depth hippocampal CA1-CA3 electrodes, donepezil elicited similar oscillatory and coherent activities in cortico-hippocampal networks. When combined with scopolamine, the cognition enhancers attenuated the leftward shift in coherent slow delta activity. Such a consistent shift in EEG coherence into slow oscillations associated with altered slow theta and gamma oscillations may underlie cognitive deficits in scopolamine-treated animals, whereas enhanced coherent slow theta and gamma activity may be a relevant mechanism by which cognition enhancers exert their beneficial effect on plasticity and cognitive processes. The findings underscore that PCA and network connectivity are valuable tools to

  11. Trehalose as an indicator of desiccation stress in Drosophila melanogaster larvae: A potential marker of anhydrobiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorat, Leena J. [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Gaikwad, Sushama M. [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Nath, Bimalendu B., E-mail: bbnath@unipune.ac.in [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report confirming anhydrobiosis in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis and accumulation in larvae that hydrolyzed on rehydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis in concert with the enzymes involved in trehalose metabolism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of trehalose hydrolysis in presence of a specific trehalase inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose proposed as a reliable marker for biomonitoring of climate change studies. -- Abstract: In the current scenario of global climate change, desiccation is considered as one of the major environmental stressors for the biota exposed to altered levels of ambient temperature and humidity. Drosophila melanogaster, a cosmopolitan terrestrial insect has been chosen as a humidity-sensitive bioindicator model for the present study since its habitat undergoes frequent stochastic and/or seasonally aggravated dehydration regimes. We report here for the first time the occurrence of anhydrobiosis in D. melanogaster larvae by subjecting them to desiccation stress under laboratory conditions. Larvae desiccated for ten hours at <5% relative humidity could enter anhydrobiosis and could revive upon rehydration followed by resumption of active metabolism. As revealed by FTIR and HPLC analyzes, our findings strongly indicated the synthesis and accumulation of trehalose in the desiccating larvae. Biochemical measurements pointed out the desiccation-responsive trehalose metabolic pathway that was found to be coordinated in concert with the enzymes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase and trehalase. Further, an inhibitor-based experimental approach using deoxynojirimycin, a specific trehalase inhibitor, demonstrated the pivotal role of trehalose in larval anhydrobiosis of D. melanogaster. We therefore propose trehalose as a potential marker for the assessment of anhydrobiosis in Drosophila. The present findings thus add

  12. A pilot study of potential brain donor satisfaction and attitudes towards telephone assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Helen; Hayes, Gillian M; Highton-Williamson, Elizabeth; Nurock, Shirley; Hanbury, Dave; Francis, Paul T

    2017-12-01

    Test the feasibility of assessing cognition, psychiatric symptoms and daily living skills of potential brain donors by telephone and compare satisfaction and attitudes across telephone and face-to-face assessment. Data were collected from 108 healthy participants from the Brains for Dementia Research cohort. Purposive sampling was used to assess feasibility and a randomised control trial design compared satisfaction and attitudes towards telephone and face-to-face assessment. Non-parametric tests were conducted to compare groups, and logistic regression was performed to assess the relationship between satisfaction and participant characteristics. Of the 80 participants offered telephone assessment, 67 (83.8%) agreed, 2 (2.5%) had a significant hearing impairment, 4 (5.0%) had potential memory problems and 7 (8.7%) declined. On average, telephone assessments lasted 38 min and duration was negatively associated with Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-Modified scores (p = 0.001) and positively associated with age (p = 0.040), Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores (p = 0.019), Geriatric Depression Scale (p = 0.035) and Global Deterioration Scale (p = 0.022). Satisfaction was high in respect to organisational and personal aspects; ratings did not differ significantly across telephone and face-to-face assessment groups and were not related to socio-demographic characteristics. Participants undergoing telephone assessment were significantly more likely to hold positive attitudes towards this mode of assessment. Telephone assessment is feasible, time-efficient and acceptable to healthy, potential brain donors. When used with other assessment modes and within the context of established contact, telephone assessment offers greater flexibility to researchers and participants and represents an effective mechanism for overcoming the challenges of growing, ageing cohorts and uncertain resources. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016

  13. Feasibility, safety, and potential demand of emergent brain magnetic resonance imaging of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Ono

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Our study found the potential demand of brain MRI of patients with CIEDs in emergency situations compared with scheduled scanning, which was shown to be feasible and safe for the diagnosis and treatment of an acute stroke.

  14. Brain functions after sports-related concussion: insights from event-related potentials and functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Nadia; Saluja, Rajeet Singh; Chen, Jen-Kai; Bottari, Carolina; Johnston, Karen; Ptito, Alain

    2010-10-01

    The high incidence of concussions in contact sports and their impact on brain functions are a major cause for concern. To improve our understanding of brain functioning after sports-related concussion, advanced functional assessment techniques, namely event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have been recently used in research studies. Contrary to neuropsychological tests that measure verbal and/or motor responses, ERPs and fMRI assess the neural activities associated with cognitive/behavioral demands, and thus provide access to better comprehension of brain functioning. In fact, ERPs have excellent temporal resolution, and fMRI identifies the involved structures during a task. This article describes ERP and fMRI techniques and reviews the results obtained with these tools in sports-related concussion. Although these techniques are not yet readily available, they offer a unique clinical approach, particularly for complex cases (ie, athletes with multiple concussions, chronic symptoms) and objective measures that provide valuable information to guide management and return-to-play decision making.

  15. Decoding of Human Movements Based on Deep Brain Local Field Potentials Using Ensemble Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Islam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decoding neural activities related to voluntary and involuntary movements is fundamental to understanding human brain motor circuits and neuromotor disorders and can lead to the development of neuromotor prosthetic devices for neurorehabilitation. This study explores using recorded deep brain local field potentials (LFPs for robust movement decoding of Parkinson’s disease (PD and Dystonia patients. The LFP data from voluntary movement activities such as left and right hand index finger clicking were recorded from patients who underwent surgeries for implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes. Movement-related LFP signal features were extracted by computing instantaneous power related to motor response in different neural frequency bands. An innovative neural network ensemble classifier has been proposed and developed for accurate prediction of finger movement and its forthcoming laterality. The ensemble classifier contains three base neural network classifiers, namely, feedforward, radial basis, and probabilistic neural networks. The majority voting rule is used to fuse the decisions of the three base classifiers to generate the final decision of the ensemble classifier. The overall decoding performance reaches a level of agreement (kappa value at about 0.729±0.16 for decoding movement from the resting state and about 0.671±0.14 for decoding left and right visually cued movements.

  16. AI Reloaded: Objectives, Potentials, and Challenges of the Novel Field of Brain-Like Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Velik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of Artificial Intelligence (AI is to make machines – particularly computers – do things that require intelligence when done by humans. In the last 60 years, AI has significantly progressed and today forms an important part of industry and technology. However, despite the many successes, fundamental questions concerning the creation of human-level intelligence in machines still remain open and will probably not be answerable when continuing on the current, mainly mathematic-algorithmically-guided path of AI. With the novel discipline of
    Brain-Like Artificial Intelligence, one potential way out of this dilemma has been suggested. Brain-Like AI aims at analyzing and deciphering the working mechanisms of the brain and translating this knowledge into implementable AI architectures with the objective to develop in this way more efficient, flexible, and capable technical systems This article aims at giving a review about this young and still heterogeneous and dynamic research field.

  17. Brain-state dependent uncoupling of BOLD and local field potentials in laminar olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ling; Li, Bo; Wu, Ruiqi; Li, Anan; Xu, Fuqiang

    2014-09-19

    The neural activities of the olfactory bulb (OB) can be modulated significantly by internal brain states. While blood oxygenation level dependent functional MRI (BOLD-fMRI) has been extensively applied to study OB in small animals, the relationship between BOLD signals and electrophysiological signals remains to be elucidated. Our recent study has revealed a complex relationship between BOLD and local field potentials (LFP) signals in different OB layers during odor stimulation. However, no study has been performed to compare these two types of signals under global brain states. Here, the changes of BOLD and LFP signals in the glomerular, mitral cell, and granular cell layers of the OB under different brain states, which were induced by different concentrations of isoflurane, were sequentially acquired using electrode array and high-resolution MRI. It was found that under deeper anesthesia, the LFP powers in all layers were decreased but the BOLD signals were unexpectedly increased. Furthermore, the decreases of LFP powers were layer-independent, but the increases of BOLD signal were layer-specific, with the order of glomerular>mitral cell>granular cell layer. The results provide new evidence that the direct neural activity levels might not be correlated well with BOLD signals in some cases, and remind us that cautions should be taken to use BOLD signals as the index of neural activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Music-Acoustic Signals Controlled by Subject's Brain Potentials in the Correction of Unfavorable Functional States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotchev, A I; Bondar, A T; Bakhchina, A V; Parin, S B; Polevaya, S A; Radchenko, G S

    2016-01-01

    Literature review and the results of own studies on the development and experimental testing of musical EEG neurofeedback technology are presented. The technology is based on exposure of subjects to music or music-like signals that are organized in strict accordance with the current values of brain potentials of the patient. The main attention is paid to the analysis of the effectiveness of several versions of the technology, using specific and meaningful for the individual narrow-frequency EEG oscillators during the correction of unfavorable changes of the functional state.

  19. Wait, treat and see: echocardiographic monitoring of brain-dead potential donors with stunned heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casartelli Marilena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart transplantation is limited by a severe donor organ shortage. Potential donors with brain death (BD and left ventricular dysfunction due to neurogenic stunning are currently excluded from donation – although such abnormalities can be reversible with aggressive treatment including Hormonal Treatment (HT and deferred organ retrieval. Aim To assess the recovery of left ventricular dysfunction in potential brain-dead donors with hemodynamic instability treated by aggressive treatment and HT. Methods In a single-center, observational study design, we evaluated 15 consecutive brain-dead potential donors (DBD (8 males, age = 48 ± 15 years with hemodynamic instability. All underwent standard hemodynamic monitoring and transthoracic 2-dimensional echo (2-DE with assessment of Ejection Fraction (EF. Measurements were obtained before BD and after BD within 6 h, at 24 h and within 48 h. HT (with insulin, methylprednisolone, vasopressin and T3 was started as soon as possible to treat hemodynamic instability and avoid administration of norepinephrine (NE. Eligible potential heart donors underwent coronary angiography. Results After HT, we observed a normalization of hemodynamic conditions with improvement of mean arterial pressure (pre = 68 ± 8 mmHg vs post = 83 ± 13 mmHg, p 2 vs post 3.7 ± 1.2 L/min/m2, p , coronary artery stenosis was present in 2 of the 10 consented donors. Eight hearts were uneventfully transplanted. No early graft failure occurred and all eight recipients were alive at 6-month follow-up. Conclusion In BD donors, intensive treatment including HT is associated with improvement of regional and global LV function and reverse remodeling detectable by transthoracic 2DE. Donor hearts with recovered LV function may be eligible for uneventful heart transplant. The wait (in brain death, treat (with HT and see (with 2D echo strategy can help rescue organs suitable for

  20. Wildlife Abundance and Diversity as Indicators of Tourism Potential in Northern Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbach, Christiaan W.; Whitesell, Carolyn; Somers, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife tourism can provide economic incentives for conservation. Due to the abundance of wildlife and the presence of charismatic species some areas are better suited to wildlife tourism. Our first objective was to develop criteria based on wildlife abundance and diversity to evaluate tourism potential in the Northern Conservation Zone of Botswana. Secondly we wanted to quantify and compare tourism experiences in areas with high and low tourism potential. We used aerial survey data to estimate wildlife biomass and diversity to determine tourism potential, while data from ground surveys quantified the tourist experience. Areas used for High Paying Low Volume tourism had significantly higher mean wildlife biomass and wildlife diversity than the areas avoided for this type of tourism. Only 22% of the Northern Conservation Zone has intermediate to high tourism potential. The areas with high tourism potential, as determined from the aerial survey data, provided tourists with significantly better wildlife sightings (ground surveys) than the low tourism potential areas. Even Low Paying tourism may not be economically viable in concessions that lack areas with intermediate to high tourism potential. The largest part of the Northern Conservation Zone has low tourism potential, but low tourism potential is not equal to low conservation value. Alternative conservation strategies should be developed to complement the economic incentive provided by wildlife-based tourism in Botswana. PMID:26308859

  1. Wildlife Abundance and Diversity as Indicators of Tourism Potential in Northern Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan W Winterbach

    Full Text Available Wildlife tourism can provide economic incentives for conservation. Due to the abundance of wildlife and the presence of charismatic species some areas are better suited to wildlife tourism. Our first objective was to develop criteria based on wildlife abundance and diversity to evaluate tourism potential in the Northern Conservation Zone of Botswana. Secondly we wanted to quantify and compare tourism experiences in areas with high and low tourism potential. We used aerial survey data to estimate wildlife biomass and diversity to determine tourism potential, while data from ground surveys quantified the tourist experience. Areas used for High Paying Low Volume tourism had significantly higher mean wildlife biomass and wildlife diversity than the areas avoided for this type of tourism. Only 22% of the Northern Conservation Zone has intermediate to high tourism potential. The areas with high tourism potential, as determined from the aerial survey data, provided tourists with significantly better wildlife sightings (ground surveys than the low tourism potential areas. Even Low Paying tourism may not be economically viable in concessions that lack areas with intermediate to high tourism potential. The largest part of the Northern Conservation Zone has low tourism potential, but low tourism potential is not equal to low conservation value. Alternative conservation strategies should be developed to complement the economic incentive provided by wildlife-based tourism in Botswana.

  2. High temporal discounters overvalue immediate rewards rather than undervalue future rewards: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniawsky, Avital S; Holroyd, Clay B

    2013-03-01

    Impulsivity is characterized in part by heightened sensitivity to immediate relative to future rewards. Although previous research has suggested that "high discounters" in intertemporal choice tasks tend to prefer immediate over future rewards because they devalue the latter, it remains possible that they instead overvalue immediate rewards. To investigate this question, we recorded the reward positivity, a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) associated with reward processing, with participants engaged in a task in which they received both immediate and future rewards and nonrewards. The participants also completed a temporal discounting task without ERP recording. We found that immediate but not future rewards elicited the reward positivity. High discounters also produced larger reward positivities to immediate rewards than did low discounters, indicating that high discounters relatively overvalued immediate rewards. These findings suggest that high discounters may be more motivated than low discounters to work for monetary rewards, irrespective of the time of arrival of the incentives.

  3. A Bright and Fast Red Fluorescent Protein Voltage Indicator That Reports Neuronal Activity in Organotypic Brain Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed S; Farhi, Samouil L; Zhao, Yongxin; Brinks, Daan; Zou, Peng; Ruangkittisakul, Araya; Platisa, Jelena; Pieribone, Vincent A; Ballanyi, Klaus; Cohen, Adam E; Campbell, Robert E

    2016-02-24

    Optical imaging of voltage indicators based on green fluorescent proteins (FPs) or archaerhodopsin has emerged as a powerful approach for detecting the activity of many individual neurons with high spatial and temporal resolution. Relative to green FP-based voltage indicators, a bright red-shifted FP-based voltage indicator has the intrinsic advantages of lower phototoxicity, lower autofluorescent background, and compatibility with blue-light-excitable channelrhodopsins. Here, we report a bright red fluorescent voltage indicator (fluorescent indicator for voltage imaging red; FlicR1) with properties that are comparable to the best available green indicators. To develop FlicR1, we used directed protein evolution and rational engineering to screen libraries of thousands of variants. FlicR1 faithfully reports single action potentials (∼3% ΔF/F) and tracks electrically driven voltage oscillations at 100 Hz in dissociated Sprague Dawley rat hippocampal neurons in single trial recordings. Furthermore, FlicR1 can be easily imaged with wide-field fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate that FlicR1 can be used in conjunction with a blue-shifted channelrhodopsin for all-optical electrophysiology, although blue light photoactivation of the FlicR1 chromophore presents a challenge for applications that require spatially overlapping yellow and blue excitation. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362459-15$15.00/0.

  4. Ceriodaphnia dubia as a potential bio-indicator for assessing acute aluminum oxide nanoparticle toxicity in fresh water environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Humayun, Ahmed; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    .... The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer...

  5. UNAIDS ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator: promoting sexual networks to reduce potential biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available UNAIDS proposed a set of core indicators for monitoring changes in the worldwide AIDS epidemic. This paper explores the validity and effectiveness of the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator, which is only partially captured with current available data. The paper also suggests an innovative approach for collecting more informative data that can be used to provide an accurate measure of the UNAIDS's ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator. Specifically, the paper addresses three major limitations associated with the indicator when it is measured with respondents’ sexual behaviors. First, the indicator assumes that a person's risk of contracting HIV/AIDS/STIs is merely a function of his/her own sexual behavior. Second, the indicator does not account for a partner's sexual history, which is very important in assessing an individual's risk level. Finally, the 12-month period used to define a person's risks can be misleading, especially because HIV/AIDS theoretically has a period of latency longer than a year. The paper concludes that, programmatically, improvements in data collection are a top priority for reducing the observed bias in the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator.

  6. A realistic assessment of the indicator potential of butterflies and other charismatic taxonomic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Erica; Murphy, Dennis D

    2009-10-01

    Charismatic groups of animals and plants often are proposed as sentinels of environmental status and trends. Nevertheless, many claims that a certain taxonomic group can provide more-general information on environmental quality are not evaluated critically. To address several of the many definitions of indicator species, we used butterflies to explore in some detail the attributes that affect implementation of indicators generically. There probably are few individual species, or sets of species, that can serve as scientifically valid, cost-effective measures of the status or trend of an environmental phenomenon that is difficult to measure directly. Nevertheless, there are species with distributions, abundances, or demographic characteristics that are responsive to known environmental changes. In this context, single or multiple species can serve as indicators when targets are defined explicitly, ecological relationships between the target and the putative indicators are well understood, and data are sufficient to differentiate between deterministic and stochastic responses. Although these situations exist, they are less common than might be apparent from an extensive and often confounded literature on indicators. Instead, the public appeal of charismatic groups may be driving much of their acclaim as indicators. The same taxon may not be appropriate for marketing a general conservation mission and for drawing strong inference about specific environmental changes. To provide insights into the progress of conservation efforts, it is essential to identify scientific and practical criteria for selection and application of indicators and then to examine whether a given taxonomic group meets those criteria.

  7. Potential brain death organ donors - challenges and prospects: A single center retrospective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Al-Maslamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ donation after brain death (BD is a major source for obtaining transplantable organs for patients with end-stage organ disease (ESOD. This retrospective, descriptive study was carried out on all potential BD patients admitted in different intensive care units (ICUs of the Hamad medical Corporation (HMC, Doha, Qatar during a period from January 2011 to April 2012. Our aim was to evaluate various demographic criteria and challenges of organ donation among potential BD organ donors and plan a strategy to improve the rate of organ donation in Qatar. Various aspects of BD patients in the ICUs and their possible effects on organ donation were studied. The time intervals analyzed to determine the possible causes of delay of organ retrieval were: time of diagnosing fixed dilated pupils in the ICU, to performing the first BD test, then to the second BD test, to family approach, to organ retrieval and/or circulatory death (CD without organ retrieval. There were a total of 116 potential BD organ donors of whom 96 (82.75% were males and 20 (17.25% were females. Brain hemorrhage and head injury contributed to 37 (31.9% and 32 (27.6% BD cases, respectively. Time interval between diagnosing fixed dilated pupil and performing the first test of BD was delayed >24 h in 79% of the cases and between the first and second BD tests was >6 h in 70.8% of the cases. This delay is not compatible with the Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC policy for BD diagnosis and resulted in a low number of organs retrieved. BD organ donation, a potential source for organs to save patients with ESOD has several pitfalls and every effort should be made to increase the awareness of the public as well as medical personnel to optimize donation efficacy.

  8. The endocochlear potential as an indicator of reticular lamina integrity after noise exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlemiller, Kevin K; Kaur, Tejbeer; Warchol, Mark E; Withnell, Robert H

    2018-02-01

    The endocochlear potential (EP) provides part of the electrochemical drive for sound-driven currents through cochlear hair cells. Intense noise exposure (110 dB SPL, 2 h) differentially affects the EP in three inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6 [B6], CBA/J [CBA], BALB/cJ [BALB]) (Ohlemiller and Gagnon, 2007, Hearing Research 224:34-50; Ohlemiller et al., 2011, JARO 12:45-58). At least for mice older than 3 mos, B6 mice are unaffected, CBA mice show temporary EP reduction, and BALB mice may show temporary or permanent EP reduction. EP reduction was well correlated with histological metrics for injury to stria vascularis and spiral ligament, and little evidence was found for holes or tears in the reticular lamina that might 'short out' the EP. Thus we suggested that the genes and processes that underlie the strain EP differences primarily impact cochlear lateral wall, not the organ of Corti. Our previous work did not test the range of noise exposure conditions over which strain differences apply. It therefore remained possible that the relation between exposure severity and acute EP reduction simply has a higher exposure threshold in B6 mice compared to CBA and BALB. We also did not test for age dependence. It is well established that young adult animals are especially vulnerable to noise-induced permanent threshold shifts (NIPTS). It is unknown, however, whether heightened vulnerability of the lateral wall contributes to this condition. The present study extends our previous work to multiple noise exposure levels and durations, and explicitly compares young adult (6-7 wks) and older mice (>4 mos). We find that the exposure level-versus-acute EP relation is dramatically strain-dependent, such that B6 mice widely diverge from both CBA and BALB. For all three strains, however, acute EP reduction is greater in young mice. Above 110 dB SPL, all mice exhibited rapid and severe EP reduction that is likely related to tearing of the reticular lamina. By contrast, EP

  9. Grammatical number agreement processing using the visual half-field paradigm: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmer, Laura; Coulson, Seana; Kutas, Marta

    2014-02-01

    Despite indications in the split-brain and lesion literatures that the right hemisphere is capable of some syntactic analysis, few studies have investigated right hemisphere contributions to syntactic processing in people with intact brains. Here we used the visual half-field paradigm in healthy adults to examine each hemisphere's processing of correct and incorrect grammatical number agreement marked either lexically, e.g., antecedent/reflexive pronoun ("The grateful niece asked herself/*themselves…") or morphologically, e.g., subject/verb ("Industrial scientists develop/*develops…"). For reflexives, response times and accuracy of grammaticality decisions suggested similar processing regardless of visual field of presentation. In the subject/verb condition, we observed similar response times and accuracies for central and right visual field (RVF) presentations. For left visual field (LVF) presentation, response times were longer and accuracy rates were reduced relative to RVF presentation. An event-related brain potential (ERP) study using the same materials revealed similar ERP responses to the reflexive pronouns in the two visual fields, but very different ERP effects to the subject/verb violations. For lexically marked violations on reflexives, P600 was elicited by stimuli in both the LVF and RVF; for morphologically marked violations on verbs, P600 was elicited only by RVF stimuli. These data suggest that both hemispheres can process lexically marked pronoun agreement violations, and do so in a similar fashion. Morphologically marked subject/verb agreement errors, however, showed a distinct LH advantage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIPOLAR AND UNIPOLAR DEPRESSION - POTENTIAL INDICATORS OF BIPOLARITY

    OpenAIRE

    Motovsky, Branislav; Pecenak, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Establishing whether a depressive episode is part of a unipolar or bipolar disorder is essential for treatment planning. Over recent years, a growing number of publications have discussed psychopathological characteristics that might serve as indicators of bipolarity in patients with a history of depression dominated by unipolar symptoms. Our primary aim was to verify the adequacy of these indicators in contributing to a precise diagnosis in everyday clinical practice. ...

  11. The effect of brain death protocol duration on potential donor losses due to cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Glauco Adrieno; Slaviero, Tiago Amaral; Montemezzo, Artur; Lingiardi, Gabriel Torres; de Souza, Fernanda Carolina Cani; Carnin, Tiago Costa; Soares, Diego Roberto; Hachiya, Alisson Hideto; Ferraz, Letícia Lopes; de Andrade, Joel

    2016-11-01

    The severe inflammatory reaction that occurs after brain death (BD) tends to amplify over time, contributing to cardiovascular deterioration and occurrence of cardiac arrest (CA). Our purpose is to evaluate the effect of BD protocol duration (BDPD) on potential donor losses due to CA. This retrospective analysis included potential donors reported during the period from May 2012 to April 2014. The risk of losses due to CA was analyzed to identify the chronological threshold at which the probability of loss due to CA increases. Three hundred and eighty-four potential donors were analyzed. There was a greater chance of CA after a 30-hour threshold (OR 1.67, 95% CI: 1.38-1.83), and the lowest risk of was identified for the range from 12 to 30 hours (OR 0.32, 95% CI: 0.19-0.52). Multivariate analysis identified the following variables as being associated with lower occurrence of CA: BDPD between 12 and 30 hours, management of a potential donor inside the intensive care unit, and the adherence to a goal-directed protocol. A long duration between the first clinical test for BD diagnosis and the procurement of organs may be an important risk factor for the occurrence of cardiac arrest in deceased potential donors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Potential of Systems Thinking in Teacher Reform as Theorized for the Teaching Brain Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    The teaching brain is a dynamic system that is in constant interaction with the learning brain. If we fail to explore the teaching brain we will continue to design educational reform policies that ignore the most important lens in the classroom: the teachers'. Master teachers recognize their perspective and leverage their teaching brains to embody…

  13. Paediatric traumatic brain injury: Presentation, prognostic indicators and Outcome analysis from a tertiary care center in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujjan, Badar; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Babar; Bakhshi, Saqib Kamran; Bari, Muhammad Ehsan

    2016-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. This study was conducted to report the presentation, management, outcomes and prognostic indicators in a large series of patients from a tertiary care centre in a developing country. It is a review of prospectively collected data of paediatric patients with TBI admitted at our centre between July 2010 and December 2013. A total of 291 patients with a mean age of 7.2±5.0 years were dichotomised into survivors and non-survivors, and variables were compared between the two groups. The mean post-resuscitation Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score was 11.6±3.9, mean Marshall Score was 2.26±0.95 and the mean revised trauma score at presentation was 10.58±1.7. Younger age, lower GCS score after resuscitation, lower revised trauma score, absent cisterns on imaging, associated subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and a lower Marshall score were associated with higher mortality.

  14. Effects of ketamine and propofol on motor evoked potentials elicited by intracranial microstimulation during deep brain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havan eFurmaga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Few preclinical or clinical studies have evaluated the effect of anesthetics on motor evoked potentials (MEPs, either alone or in the presence of conditioning stimuli such as deep brain stimulation (DBS. In this study we evaluated the effect of two commonly used anesthetic agents, propofol and ketamine, on MEPs elicited by intra-cortical microstimulation of the motor cortex in a rodent model with and without DBS of the dentatothalamocortical (DTC pathway. The effects of propofol anesthesia on MEP amplitudes during DTC DBS were found to be highly dose dependent. Standard-, but not high-, dose propofol potentiated the facilitatory effects of 30 Hz DTC DBS on MEPs. This facilitation was sustained and phase-dependent, indicating that, compared to high dose propofol, standard dose propofol has a beta-band excitatory effect on cortical networks. In contrast, ketamine anesthetic demonstrated a monotonic relationship with increasing frequencies of stimulation, such that the highest frequency of stimulation resulted in the greatest MEP amplitude. Ketamine also showed phase dependency but less pronounced than standard dose propofol. The results underscore the importance of better understanding the complex effects of anesthetics on cortical networks and exogenous stimuli. Choice of anesthetic agents and dosing may significantly confound or even skew research outcomes, including experimentation in novel DBS indications and paradigms.

  15. Task-dependent signal variations in EEG error-related potentials for brain-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrate, I.; Montesano, L.; Minguez, J.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. A major difficulty of brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is dealing with the noise of EEG and its signal variations. Previous works studied time-dependent non-stationarities for BCIs in which the user’s mental task was independent of the device operation (e.g., the mental task was motor imagery and the operational task was a speller). However, there are some BCIs, such as those based on error-related potentials, where the mental and operational tasks are dependent (e.g., the mental task is to assess the device action and the operational task is the device action itself). The dependence between the mental task and the device operation could introduce a new source of signal variations when the operational task changes, which has not been studied yet. The aim of this study is to analyse task-dependent signal variations and their effect on EEG error-related potentials.Approach. The work analyses the EEG variations on the three design steps of BCIs: an electrophysiology study to characterize the existence of these variations, a feature distribution analysis and a single-trial classification analysis to measure the impact on the final BCI performance.Results and significance. The results demonstrate that a change in the operational task produces variations in the potentials, even when EEG activity exclusively originated in brain areas related to error processing is considered. Consequently, the extracted features from the signals vary, and a classifier trained with one operational task presents a significant loss of performance for other tasks, requiring calibration or adaptation for each new task. In addition, a new calibration for each of the studied tasks rapidly outperforms adaptive techniques designed in the literature to mitigate the EEG time-dependent non-stationarities.

  16. Weather indicators for insured hailstorm damage to motor vehicles and potential climate change impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botzen, W.J.W.; Bouwer, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Projections of the potential effects of climate change on damage caused by local extreme weather events are important for the design of appropriate policies for greenhouse gas emission reduction and insurers' adaptation responses to changing risks. This study estimates the relationships between

  17. The application of genetic indicators in wild populations: Potential and pitfalls for genetic monitoring [Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Pierson; Gordon Luikart; Michael Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    The genetic aspects of biodiversity and conservation have been long recognised as important to the viability of populations and evolutionary potential of species (Lande 1988). Yet incorporating genetic considerations into conservation, management, and decision making has lagged behind this recognition (Mace et al. 2003; Laikre et al. 2010). Gene-level (genetic...

  18. Neck fat volume as a potential indicator of difficult intubation: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo Del Buono

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: According to the literature, our results confirmed that there is still no single element that can predict a difficult intubation. Although no statistical significance was found, the AFV and FV have shown to have a potential predictive role for difficult intubation. Further studies with bigger samples are advisable to confirm this encouraging result.

  19. Mapping the Potentially Affected Fraction (PAF) of species as an indicator of generic toxic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepper O; Meent D van de; ECO

    1997-01-01

    The Potentially Affected Fraction (PAF) is the fraction of species exposed above the no-effect concentration (NOEC). The PAF is a measure that allows a comparison in toxic stress between substances and areas. In the report the PAF is calculated for four heavy metals (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc)

  20. Identifying Student Potential for ICT Entrepreneurship Using Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kevin A.; Andersen, Barry K.; Davidge-Pitts, Jennifer; Ostensen-Saunders, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Literature relating to personality and entrepreneurship has focused primarily on personality characteristics of traditional entrepreneurs. The focus of this study was on personality characteristics and temperaments of potential Information and Communication Technology (ICT) entrepreneurs. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the…

  1. Comparison of arabidopsis stomatal density mutants indicates variation in water stress responses and potential epistatic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneka S. Lawson; Paula M. Pijut; Charles H. Michler

    2014-01-01

    Recent physiological analysis of Arabidopsis stomatal density (SD) mutants indicated that SD was not the major factor controlling aboveground biomass accumulation. Despite the general theory that plants with fewer stomata have limited biomass acquisition capabilities, epf1 and several other Arabidopsis mutants varied significantly in leaf fresh...

  2. Gyrineum natator: A potential indicator of imposex along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vishwakiran, Y.; Anil, A.C.; Venkat, K.; Sawant, S.S.

    .E., Bryan, G.W., Pascoe, P.L., Burt, G.R., 1987. The use of the dog-whelk, Nucella lapillus, as an indicator of tributyltin (TBT) contamination. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 67, 507–523. Gibbs, P.E., Bryan, G.W., Pascoe, P.L., Burt, G.R., 1990. Reproductive...

  3. Hydrologic indicators of hot spots and hot moments of mercury methylation potential along river corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael B.; Harrison, Lee R.; Donovan, Patrick M.; Blum, Joel D.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of metals and other contaminants in river-floodplain corridors is controlled by microbial activity responding to dynamic redox conditions. Riverine flooding thus has the potential to affect speciation of redox-sensitive metals such as mercury (Hg). Therefore, inundation history over a period of decades potentially holds information on past production of bioavailable Hg. We investigate this within a Northern California river system with a legacy of landscape-scale 19th century hydraulic gold mining. We combine hydraulic modeling, Hg measurements in sediment and biota, and first-order calculations of mercury transformation to assess the potential role of river floodplains in producing monomethylmercury (MMHg), a neurotoxin which accumulates in local and migratory food webs. We identify frequently inundated floodplain areas, as well as floodplain areas inundated for long periods. We quantify the probability of MMHg production potential (MPP) associated with hydrology in each sector of the river system as a function of the spatial patterns of overbank inundation and drainage, which affect long-term redox history of contaminated sediments. Our findings identify river floodplains as periodic, temporary, yet potentially important, loci of biogeochemical transformation in which contaminants may undergo change during limited periods of the hydrologic record. We suggest that inundation is an important driver of MPP in river corridors and that the entire flow history must be analyzed retrospectively in terms of inundation magnitude and frequency in order to accurately assess biogeochemical risks, rather than merely highlighting the largest floods or low-flow periods. MMHg bioaccumulation within the aquatic food web in this system may pose a major risk to humans and waterfowl that eat migratory salmonids, which are being encouraged to come up these rivers to spawn. There is a long-term pattern of MPP under the current flow regime that is likely to be

  4. EEG potentials associated with artificial grammar learning in the primate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaheri, Adam; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Milne, Alice E; Wilson, Benjamin; Alter, Kai; Petkov, Christopher I

    2015-09-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) has identified human brain potentials elicited by Artificial Grammar (AG) learning paradigms, which present participants with rule-based sequences of stimuli. Nonhuman animals are sensitive to certain AGs; therefore, evaluating which EEG Event Related Potentials (ERPs) are associated with AG learning in nonhuman animals could identify evolutionarily conserved processes. We recorded EEG potentials during an auditory AG learning experiment in two Rhesus macaques. The animals were first exposed to sequences of nonsense words generated by the AG. Then surface-based ERPs were recorded in response to sequences that were 'consistent' with the AG and 'violation' sequences containing illegal transitions. The AG violations strongly modulated an early component, potentially homologous to the Mismatch Negativity (mMMN), a P200 and a late frontal positivity (P500). The macaque P500 is similar in polarity and time of occurrence to a late EEG positivity reported in human AG learning studies but might differ in functional role. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term, stable behavior of local field potentials during brain machine interface use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Michael R; Flint, Robert D; Wright, Zachary A; Slutzky, Marc W

    2013-01-01

    Local field potentials (LFPs) have the potential to provide robust, long-lasting control signals for brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). Moreover, they have been hypothesized to be a stable signal source. Here we assess the long-term stability of LFPs and multi-unit spikes (MSPs) in two monkeys using both LFP-based and MSP-based, biomimetic BMIs to control a computer cursor. The monkeys demonstrated highly accurate performance using both the LFP- and MSP-based BMIs. This performance remained high for 11 and 6 months, respectively, without adapting or retraining. We evaluated the stability of the LFP features and MSPs themselves by building, in each session, linear decoders of the BMI-controlled cursor velocity using single features or single MSPs. We then used these single-feature decoders to decode BMI-controlled cursor velocity in the last session. Many of the LFP features and MSPs showed stably-high correlations with the cursor velocity over the entire study period. This implies that the monkeys were able to maintain a stable mapping between either motor cortical field potentials or multi-spike potentials and BMI-controlled outputs.

  6. On the Potential of Surfers to Monitor Environmental Indicators in the Coastal Zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J W Brewin

    Full Text Available The social and economic benefits of the coastal zone make it one of the most treasured environments on our planet. Yet it is vulnerable to increasing anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Coastal management aims to mitigate these pressures while augmenting the socio-economic benefits the coastal region has to offer. However, coastal management is challenged by inadequate sampling of key environmental indicators, partly due to issues relating to cost of data collection. Here, we investigate the use of recreational surfers as platforms to improve sampling coverage of environmental indicators in the coastal zone. We equipped a recreational surfer, based in the south west United Kingdom (UK, with a temperature sensor and Global Positioning System (GPS device that they used when surfing for a period of one year (85 surfing sessions. The temperature sensor was used to derive estimates of sea-surface temperature (SST, an important environmental indicator, and the GPS device used to provide sample location and to extract information on surfer performance. SST data acquired by the surfer were compared with data from an oceanographic station in the south west UK and with satellite observations. Our results demonstrate: (i high-quality SST data can be acquired by surfers using low cost sensors; and (ii GPS data can provide information on surfing performance that may help motivate data collection by surfers. Using recent estimates of the UK surfing population, and frequency of surfer participation, we speculate around 40 million measurements on environmental indicators per year could be acquired at the UK coastline by surfers. This quantity of data is likely to enhance coastal monitoring and aid UK coastal management. Considering surfing is a world-wide sport, our results have global implications and the approach could be expanded to other popular marine recreational activities for coastal monitoring of environmental indicators.

  7. On the Potential of Surfers to Monitor Environmental Indicators in the Coastal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Robert J W; de Mora, Lee; Jackson, Thomas; Brewin, Thomas G; Shutler, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    The social and economic benefits of the coastal zone make it one of the most treasured environments on our planet. Yet it is vulnerable to increasing anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Coastal management aims to mitigate these pressures while augmenting the socio-economic benefits the coastal region has to offer. However, coastal management is challenged by inadequate sampling of key environmental indicators, partly due to issues relating to cost of data collection. Here, we investigate the use of recreational surfers as platforms to improve sampling coverage of environmental indicators in the coastal zone. We equipped a recreational surfer, based in the south west United Kingdom (UK), with a temperature sensor and Global Positioning System (GPS) device that they used when surfing for a period of one year (85 surfing sessions). The temperature sensor was used to derive estimates of sea-surface temperature (SST), an important environmental indicator, and the GPS device used to provide sample location and to extract information on surfer performance. SST data acquired by the surfer were compared with data from an oceanographic station in the south west UK and with satellite observations. Our results demonstrate: (i) high-quality SST data can be acquired by surfers using low cost sensors; and (ii) GPS data can provide information on surfing performance that may help motivate data collection by surfers. Using recent estimates of the UK surfing population, and frequency of surfer participation, we speculate around 40 million measurements on environmental indicators per year could be acquired at the UK coastline by surfers. This quantity of data is likely to enhance coastal monitoring and aid UK coastal management. Considering surfing is a world-wide sport, our results have global implications and the approach could be expanded to other popular marine recreational activities for coastal monitoring of environmental indicators.

  8. Facial attractiveness modulates early and late event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheid, Katja; Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner

    2007-09-01

    Facial attractiveness is of high importance for human interaction and communication, and everyday experience suggests that the mere aspect of a face elicits spontaneous appraisal of attractiveness. However, little is known about the time course of brain responses related to this process. In the present study, event-related brain potentials were recorded during attractiveness classification of facial portraits that were standardized with respect to facial expression. The faces were either preceded by another face of high or low attractiveness or by an affectively neutral object. Attractive as opposed to non-attractive target faces elicited an early posterior negativity (EPN; approximately 250 ms) and a late parietal positivity (LPC; 400-600 ms), which were not modulated by affectively congruent prime faces. Elevated LPC activity had previously been shown in response to attractive versus non-attractive faces, possibly reflecting task-related evaluative processes. An enhanced EPN had been reported for faces with emotional compared to neutral emotional expression, and related to facilitated selection of emotional information. Extending these findings, our study is the first to report an attractiveness-related ERP modulation prior to the LPC, suggesting that appraising facial attractiveness starts already at processing stages associated with stimulus selection.

  9. BRAF inhibitors and radiotherapy for melanoma brain metastases: potential advantages and disadvantages of combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Mudit; Patel, Kirtesh R; Danish, Hasan H; Lawson, David H; Khan, Mohammad K

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive malignancy that frequently spreads to the brain, resulting in rapid deterioration in both quality and quantity of life. Historically, treatment options for melanoma brain metastases (MBM) have predominantly consisted of surgery and radiotherapy. While these options can help provide local control, the majority of patients still develop intracranial progression. Indeed, novel therapeutic options, including molecularly targeted agents and immunotherapy, have improved outcomes and are now changing the role of radiotherapy. Up to 50% of melanomas contain an activating BRAF mutation, resulting in hyperactive cellular proliferation and survival. Drugs that target BRAF have been introduced for the treatment of metastatic melanoma and offer hope in improving disease outcomes; however, many of these trials either excluded or had a limited amount of patients with MBM. Recent studies have revealed that melanoma cell lines become more radiosensitive following BRAF inhibition, thus providing a potential synergistic mechanism when combining BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) and radiotherapy. However, neurotoxicity concerns also exist with this combination. This article reviews the efficacy and limitations of BRAFi therapy for MBM, describes current evidence for combining BRAFis with radiation, discusses the rationale and evidence for combination modalities, and highlights emerging clinical trials specifically investigating this combination in MBM.

  10. No impact of deep brain stimulation on fear-potentiated startle in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M.P. Baas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST, we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS could be the result of the modulation of contextual anxiety. However, the effect of DBS in this region on contextual anxiety is as of yet unknown. Thus, the current study investigated the effect of DBS on contextual anxiety in an experimental threat of shock paradigm. Eight patients with DBS treatment for severe OCD were tested in a double-blind crossover design with randomly assigned two-week periods of active and sham stimulation. DBS resulted in significant decrease of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, anxiety and depression. However, even though the threat manipulation resulted in a clear context potentiated startle effect, none of the parameters derived from the startle recordings was modulated by the DBS. This suggests that DBS in the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating anxiety symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder without modulating the startle circuitry. We hypothesize that the anxiety symptoms present in OCD are likely distinct from the pathological brain circuits in defensive states of other anxiety disorders.

  11. No impact of deep brain stimulation on fear-potentiated startle in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Johanna M P; Klumpers, Floris; Mantione, Mariska H; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke C; Schuurman, P Richard; Mazaheri, Ali; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST), we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS could be the result of the modulation of contextual anxiety. However, the effect of DBS in this region on contextual anxiety is as of yet unknown. Thus, the current study investigated the effect of DBS on contextual anxiety in an experimental threat of shock paradigm. Eight patients with DBS treatment for severe OCD were tested in a double-blind crossover design with randomly assigned 2-week periods of active and sham stimulation. DBS resulted in significant decrease of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, anxiety, and depression. However, even though the threat manipulation resulted in a clear context-potentiated startle effect, none of the parameters derived from the startle recordings was modulated by the DBS. This suggests that DBS in the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating anxiety symptoms of OCD without modulating the startle circuitry. We hypothesize that the anxiety symptoms present in OCD are likely distinct from the pathological brain circuits in defensive states of other anxiety disorders.

  12. Errare machinale est: the use of error-related potentials in brain-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Sobolewski, Aleksander; Millán, José del R.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize errors is crucial for efficient behavior. Numerous studies have identified electrophysiological correlates of error recognition in the human brain (error-related potentials, ErrPs). Consequently, it has been proposed to use these signals to improve human-computer interaction (HCI) or brain-machine interfacing (BMI). Here, we present a review of over a decade of developments toward this goal. This body of work provides consistent evidence that ErrPs can be successfully detected on a single-trial basis, and that they can be effectively used in both HCI and BMI applications. We first describe the ErrP phenomenon and follow up with an analysis of different strategies to increase the robustness of a system by incorporating single-trial ErrP recognition, either by correcting the machine's actions or by providing means for its error-based adaptation. These approaches can be applied both when the user employs traditional HCI input devices or in combination with another BMI channel. Finally, we discuss the current challenges that have to be overcome in order to fully integrate ErrPs into practical applications. This includes, in particular, the characterization of such signals during real(istic) applications, as well as the possibility of extracting richer information from them, going beyond the time-locked decoding that dominates current approaches. PMID:25100937

  13. Errare machinale est: The use of error-related potentials in brain-machine interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo eChavarriaga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize errors is crucial for efficient behavior. Numerous studies have identified electrophysiological correlates of error recognition in the human brain (error-related potentials, ErrPs. Consequently, it has been proposed to use these signals to improve human-computer interaction (HCI or brain-machine interfacing (BMI. Here, we present a review of over a decade of developments towards this goal. This body of work provides consistent evidence that ErrPs can be successfully detected on a single-trial basis, and that they can be effectively used in both HCI and BMI applications.We first describe the ErrP phenomenon and follow up with an analysis of different strategies to increase the robustness of a system by incorporating single-trial ErrP recognition, either by correcting the machine's actions or by providing means for its error-based adaptation. These approaches can be applied both when the user employs traditional HCI input devices or in combination with another BMI channel.Finally, we discuss the current challenges that have to be overcome in order to fully integrate ErrPs into practical applications. This includes, in particular, the characterization of such signals during real(istic applications, as well as the possibility of extracting richer information from them, going beyond the time-locked decoding that dominates current approaches.

  14. Errare machinale est: the use of error-related potentials in brain-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Sobolewski, Aleksander; Millán, José Del R

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize errors is crucial for efficient behavior. Numerous studies have identified electrophysiological correlates of error recognition in the human brain (error-related potentials, ErrPs). Consequently, it has been proposed to use these signals to improve human-computer interaction (HCI) or brain-machine interfacing (BMI). Here, we present a review of over a decade of developments toward this goal. This body of work provides consistent evidence that ErrPs can be successfully detected on a single-trial basis, and that they can be effectively used in both HCI and BMI applications. We first describe the ErrP phenomenon and follow up with an analysis of different strategies to increase the robustness of a system by incorporating single-trial ErrP recognition, either by correcting the machine's actions or by providing means for its error-based adaptation. These approaches can be applied both when the user employs traditional HCI input devices or in combination with another BMI channel. Finally, we discuss the current challenges that have to be overcome in order to fully integrate ErrPs into practical applications. This includes, in particular, the characterization of such signals during real(istic) applications, as well as the possibility of extracting richer information from them, going beyond the time-locked decoding that dominates current approaches.

  15. The Brain Drain Potential of Students in the African Health and Nonhealth Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Crush

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The departure of health professionals to Europe and North America is placing an intolerable burden on public health systems in many African countries. Various retention, recall, and replacement policies to ameliorate the impact of this brain drain have been suggested, none of which have been particularly successful to date. The key question for the future is whether the brain drain of health sector skills is likely to continue and whether the investment of African countries in training health professionals will continue to be lost through emigration. This paper examines the emigration intentions of trainee health professionals in six Southern African countries. The data was collected by the Southern African Migration Program (SAMP in a survey of final-year students across the region which included 651 students training for the health professions. The data also allows for the comparison of health sector with other students. The analysis presented in this paper shows very high emigration potential amongst all final-year students. Health sector students do show a slightly higher inclination to leave than those training to work in other sectors. These findings present a considerable challenge for policy makers seeking to encourage students to stay at home and work after graduation.

  16. Petrographic and major elements results as indicator of the geothermal potential in Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indarto, S.; Setiawan, I.; Kausar, A.; Permana, dan H.

    2018-02-01

    Geothermal manifestations existed in West Java (Cilayu, Papandayan Mountain, Telagabodas, Karaha, Tampomas Mountain), Central Java (Slamet Mountain, Dieng) and East Java (Argopuro Mountain) show a difference in their mineral and geochemical compositions. The petrographic analysis of volcanic rocks from Garut (West Java) are basalt, andesite basaltic and andesite. However, based on SiO2 vs K2O value, those volcanic rocks have wide ranges of fractionated magma resulting basalt – basaltic andesite to dacitic in composition rather than those of Slamet Mountain, Dieng, and Argopuro Mountain areas which have a narrower range of fractionation magma resulting andesite basaltic and andesite in compositions. The volcanic rocks from Garut show tholeiitic affinity and calc-alkaline affinity. The geothermal potential of Java is assumed to be related to the magma fractionation level. Geothermal potential of West Java (Garut) is higher than that of Central Java (Slamet Mountain, Dieng) and East Java (Argopuro Mountain).

  17. Ennoblement Due to Biofilms: Indicator for Potential Corrosion and Source of Electrical Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    conclusion was challenged by Chandrasekaran and Dexter [19] who suggested that Epit for a stainless steel covered by a biofilm might be different from that...presence of a biofilm dramatically increased the current density required to polarize stainless steel to a potential of -400mV (vs. saturated calomel...available on-line monitoring tech- nique [38] and device [39] for biofilm development uses a probe made up of a series of identical stainless steel discs

  18. Growth Indicators of a 48-Clone Sugar Cane Population (Saccharum spp. with Forage Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoslen Fernández Gálvez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine growth indicators in a 48-clone sugar cane population, with promising phenotypical features for forage production. The following indicators were assessed: leaf area (A, leaf area index (LA1; leaf area ratio (LAR; specific leaf area (SLA; leaf weight ratio (LWR; crop growth rate (CGR; net assimilation rate (NAR; relative growth rate in weight (RGR; biomass production speed (G; leaf area duration (LAD; and biomass duration (Z, monthly (187 - 370 days. The minimum, the mean, the maximum values, and the population variance were determined for all cutting ages and the variables assessed. The results achieved have provided quantitative values that can be used as reference for selection and assessment of forage genotypes for ruminant nutrition.

  19. Quantitative MRI analysis of the brain after twenty-two years of neuromyelitis optica indicates focal tissue damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aradi, Mihaly; Koszegi, Edit; Orsi, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term effect of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) on the brain is not well established. METHODS: After 22 years of NMO, a patient's brain was examined by quantitative T1- and T2-weighted mono- and biexponential diffusion and proton spectroscopy. It was compared to 3 cases with short......, and they were also not quantitatively different from the controls. CONCLUSION: After NMO of 22-year duration, metabolic changes, altered diffusivity and magnetic resonance relaxation features of patchy brain areas may suggest tissue damage in NAWM that persist for at least 6 months....

  20. Climate risk management based on climate modes and indices - the potential in Australian agribusinesses

    OpenAIRE

    Best, Peter; Stone, Roger; Sosenko, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Global and hemispheric climate indicators have proved useful in many countries for characterising intra- and inter-annual variability in climate processes, agricultural output and biomass production. They also form the basis of successful seasonal climate and production prediction systems for the probability distributions of allied parameters such as rainfall or crop yield. Climate risk management via derivative, insurance or bond instruments has only recently incorporated non-local climate p...

  1. Chemical and Biological Attributes of Selected Periodontopathogens as Potential Indicators of Periodontal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-22

    established (4). A recent report (5) indicates that immunosuppressed individuals, such as patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus have...documentation and occurrence of putative periodontopathic bacteria in human immunodeficiency virus -associated periodontal disease. J. Periodontol. 62...1758. 31. Obta, K., K. Makinen, and W. J. Loesche. 1986. Purification and 7. Cheng, S. L., R. Sibo, T. Chen- Quee , J. L. Johnson, W. R. characterization

  2. Potential applications of image-guided radiotherapy for brain metastases and glioblastoma to improve patient quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Phong Nguyen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM and brain metastasis remains a challenge because of the poor survival and the potential for brain damage following radiation. Despite concurrent chemotherapy and radiation dose escalation, local recurrence remains the predominant pattern of failure in GBM most likely secondary to repopulation of cancer stem cells. Even though radiotherapy is highly effective for local control of radio-resistant tumors such as melanoma and renal cell cancer, systemic disease progression is the cause of death in most patients with brain metastasis. Preservation of quality of life of cancer survivors is the main issue for patients with brain metastasis. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT by virtue of precise radiation dose delivery may reduce treatment time of patients with GBM without excessive toxicity and potentially improve neurocognitive function with preservation of local control in patients with brain metastasis. Future prospective trials for primary brain tumors or brain metastasis should include IGRT to assess its efficacy to improve patient quality of life.

  3. Characterizing Brain Iron Deposition in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping: A Potential Biomarker

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yawen; Ge, Xin; Han, Xu; Cao, Wenwei; Wang, Yao; Ding, Weina; Cao, Mengqiu; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Qun; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Jianrong

    2017-01-01

    The presence and pattern of iron accumulation in subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) and their effects on cognition have rarely been investigated. We aimed to examine brain iron deposition in svMCI subjects using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). Moreover, we aimed to investigate the correlation between brain iron deposition and the severity of cognitive impairment as indicated by z-scores. We recruited 20 subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) patients who f...

  4. Steady State Visual Evoked Potential Based Brain-Computer Interface for Cognitive Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergren, Nicolai; Bendtsen, Rasmus L.; Kjær, Troels W.

    2016-01-01

    decline is important. Cognitive decline may be detected using fullyautomated computerized assessment. Such systems will provide inexpensive and widely available screenings of cognitive ability. The aim of this pilot study is to develop a real time steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer...... interface (BCI) for neurological cognitive assessment. It is intended for use by patients who suffer from diseases impairing their motor skills, but are still able to control their gaze. Results are based on 11 healthy test subjects. The system performance have an average accuracy of 100% ± 0%. The test...... subjects achieved an information transfer rate (ITR) of 14:64 bits/min ± 7:63 bits=min and a subject test performance of 47:22% ± 34:10%. This study suggests that BCI may be applicable in practice as a computerized cognitive assessment tool. However, many improvements are required for the system...

  5. CT Perfusion in Acute Stroke: "Black Holes" on Time-to-Peak Image Maps Indicate Unsalvageable Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Ruairi; Shankar, Jai Jai Shiva

    2016-11-01

    CT perfusion is becoming important in acute stroke imaging to determine optimal patient-management strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive value of time-to-peak image maps and, specifically, a phenomenon coined a "black hole" for assessing infarcted brain tissue at the time of scan. Acute stroke patients were screened for the presence of black holes and their follow-up imaging (noncontrast CT or MR) was reviewed to assess for infarcted brain tissue. Of the 23 patients with signs of acute ischemia on CT perfusion, all had black holes. The black holes corresponded with areas of infarcted brain on follow-up imaging (specificity 100%). Black holes demonstrated significantly lower cerebral blood volumes (P Black holes on time-to-peak image maps represent areas of unsalvageable brain. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  6. THE METHODOLOGY OF DEVELOPING VALUE INDICATORS TO INTEGRALLY ASSESS RESOURCE POTENTIAL IN AGRICULTURAL UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena TIMOFTI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of increasing the economic efficiency of resource use in agricultural production is very important. Its solution directly depends on the economic security of the country and its constant supply with agricultural products.There are three basic factors in agricultural production: nature (land, labour and capital, which have differentmeasure units. Comparability is necessary to express the value of the integral potential that gives the possibility totake into account the main resources involved in producing and obtaining results from the agricultural sector.

  7. Indication to renal biopsy in DM2 patients: potential role of intrarenal resistive index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insalaco, Monica; Zamboli, Pasquale; Floccari, Fulvio; Marrocco, Fulvio; Andrulli, Simeone; Logias, Francesco; Di Lullo, Luca; Fiorini, Fulvio; Granata, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is generally based, rather than on histological confirmation, on clinical criteria (long history of diabetes, presence of proteinuria, diabetic retinopathy or peripheral neuropathy). This clinical approach has perhaps limited utility in DM2 patients, because only 50% of them show microvascular complications in presence of nephropathy. Eco-colour-Doppler sampling of interlobular renal arteries and determination of their resistance indices (RI), was proposed in the differential diagnosis of numerous nephropathies. Aim of this study was to evaluate whether RI can be useful in discerning non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD), in order to better define indications to perform renal biopsy among proteinuric DM2 patients. All patients were submitted to: echo-colour-Doppler study of renal vessels; systematic screening for diabetic retinopathy; needle renal biopsy. RI resulted to be significantly higher in diabetic glomerulosclerosis (GSD) group as compared with NDRD group, while no significant difference was found with respect to NDRDs overlapping GSD (overlapping group). The last one showed however median RI significantly higher than isolated NDRD group. Normalized chi square Pearson for the hypothesis that RI can predict GSD resulted 0.73, while it resulted 0.43 for the hypothesis that diabetic retinopathy can predict GSD. Echo-colour-Doppler can significantly contribute, more than the other parameters proposed (nephritic or nephrotic syndrome, hematuria, diabetic retinopathy), to the identification of underlying nephropathy in DM2 subjects. In the light of our experience, it seems that the detection of RI values > 0.72 suggests the diagnosis of GSD or mixed forms, reducing the indications to renal biopsy only in presence of values < 0.72.

  8. Main effect and interactions of brain regions and gender in the calculation of volumetric asymmetry indices in healthy human brains: ANCOVA analyses of in vivo 3T MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Rios, Camilo; Suarez-May, Marcela A; Favila, Rafel; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika

    2013-12-01

    Macroanatomical right-left hemispheric differences in the brain are termed asymmetries, although there is no clear information on the global influence of gender and brain-regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the main effects and interactions of these variables on the measurement of volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs). Forty-seven healthy young-adult volunteers (23 males, 24 females) agreed to undergo brain magnetic resonance imaging in a 3T scanner. Image post processing using voxel-based volumetry allowed the calculation of 54 VAIs from the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes, limbic system, basal ganglia, and cerebellum for each cerebral hemisphere. Multivariate ANCOVA analysis calculated the main effects and interactions on VAIs of gender and brain regions controlling the effect of age. The only significant finding was the main effect of brain regions (F (6, 9373.605) 44.369, P power of 1.0), with no significant interaction between gender and brain regions (F (6, 50.517) .239, P = .964). Volumetric asymmetries are present across all brain regions, with larger values found in the limbic system and parietal lobe. The absence of a significant influence of gender and age in the evaluation of the numerous measurements generated by multivariate analyses in this study should not discourage researchers to report and interpret similar results, as this topic still deserves further assessment. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Nonspatial intermodal selective attention is mediated by sensory brain brain areas: Evidence from event-related potential.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, A.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the question of whether inter-and intramodal forms of attention are reflected in activation of the same or different brain areas. ERPs were recorded while Ss (aged 18-41 yrs) were presented a random sequence of visual and auditory stimuli. They were instructed to attend to nonspatial

  10. Coupling of transient near infrared photonic with magnetic nanoparticle for potential dissipation-free biomedical application in brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Vidya; Atluri, V. S. R.; Tomitaka, A.; Shah, P.; Nagasetti, A.; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, S.; El-Hage, N.; McGoron, A.; Takemura, Y.; Nair, M.

    2016-07-01

    Combined treatment strategies based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with near infrared ray (NIR) biophotonic possess tremendous potential for non-invasive therapeutic approach. Nonetheless, investigations in this direction have been limited to peripheral body region and little is known about the potential biomedical application of this approach for brain. Here we report that transient NIR exposure is dissipation-free and has no adverse effect on the viability and plasticity of major brain cells in the presence or absence superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The 808 nm NIR laser module with thermocouple was employed for functional studies upon NIR exposure to brain cells. Magnetic nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic laser scattering (DLS), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Brain cells viability and plasticity were analyzed using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing system, cytotoxicity evaluation, and confocal microscopy. When efficacious non-invasive photobiomodulation and neuro-therapeutical targeting and monitoring to brain remain a formidable task, the discovery of this dissipation-free, transient NIR photonic approach for brain cells possesses remarkable potential to add new dimension.

  11. Representations in human visual short-term memory : an event-related brain potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, P; Smid, HGOM; Heinze, HJ

    1999-01-01

    Behavioral measures and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 12 subjects while performing three delayed matching-to-sample tasks. The task instructions indicated whether stimulus locations, shapes or conjunctions of locations and shapes had to be memorized and matched against a probe.

  12. Classification of Physiology Indicators for the Automatic Detection of Potentially Hazardous Physiological States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Damousis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In EU-funded project HUMABIO, physiological signals are used as biometrics for security purposes. Data are collected via electrode sensors that are attached to the body of the subject and are obtrusive to some degree. In order to maximize the obtained information and the benefits from the use of obtrusive, physiological sensors, the collected data are processed to also detect abnormal physiology states that may endanger the subjects and those around them during critical operations. Three abnormal states are studied: drug and alcohol consumption and sleep deprivation. For the classification of the physiology, four state-of-the-art techniques were compared, support vector machines, fuzzy expert systems, neural networks, and Gaussian mixture models. The results reveal that there is significant potential on the automatic detection of potentially hazardous physiology states without the need for a human supervisor and that such a system could be included at installations such as nuclear factories to enhance safety by reducing the possibility of human operator related accidents.

  13. Potential Lung Nodules Identification for Characterization by Variable Multistep Threshold and Shape Indices from CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT is an important imaging modality. Physicians, surgeons, and oncologists prefer CT scan for diagnosis of lung cancer. However, some nodules are missed in CT scan. Computer aided diagnosis methods are useful for radiologists for detection of these nodules and early diagnosis of lung cancer. Early detection of malignant nodule is helpful for treatment. Computer aided diagnosis of lung cancer involves lung segmentation, potential nodules identification, features extraction from the potential nodules, and classification of the nodules. In this paper, we are presenting an automatic method for detection and segmentation of lung nodules from CT scan for subsequent features extraction and classification. Contribution of the work is the detection and segmentation of small sized nodules, low and high contrast nodules, nodules attached with vasculature, nodules attached to pleura membrane, and nodules in close vicinity of the diaphragm and lung wall in one-go. The particular techniques of the method are multistep threshold for the nodule detection and shape index threshold for false positive reduction. We used 60 CT scans of “Lung Image Database Consortium-Image Database Resource Initiative” taken by GE medical systems LightSpeed16 scanner as dataset and correctly detected 92% nodules. The results are reproducible.

  14. Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, Andreas [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: aklumpp@uni-hohenheim.de; Ansel, Wolfgang [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Klumpp, Gabriele [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Calatayud, Vicent [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, c/Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Garrec, Jean Pierre [INRA Nancy, Laboratoire Pollution Atmospherique, 54280 Champenoux (France); He Shang [INRA Nancy, Laboratoire Pollution Atmospherique, 54280 Champenoux (France); Penuelas, Josep [Unitat Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Ed. C, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ribas, Angela [Unitat Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Ed. C, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ro-Poulsen, Helge [Botanical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 2D, 1353 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Rasmussen, Stine [Botanical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 2D, 1353 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Sanz, Maria Jose [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, c/Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Vergne, Phillippe [ENS Lyon and Lyon Botanical Garden, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2006-02-15

    Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was applied to examine the genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Cuttings of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 were exposed to ambient air at 65 monitoring sites in 10 conurbations employing a standardised methodology. The tests revealed an elevated genotoxic potential mainly at those urban sites which were exposed to severe car traffic emissions. This bioassay proved to be a suitable tool to detect local 'hot spots' of mutagenic air pollution in urban areas. For its use in routine monitoring programmes, however, further standardisation of cultivation and exposure techniques is recommended in order to reduce the variability of results due to varying environmental conditions. - The Tradescantia micronucleus test can be used to assess genotoxic potential at urban sites.

  15. Potential clinical relevance of the 'little brain' on the mammalian heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A

    2008-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the heart possesses a nervous system intrinsic to it that represents the final relay station for the co-ordination of regional cardiac indices. This 'little brain' on the heart is comprised of spatially distributed sensory (afferent), interconnecting (local circuit) and motor (adrenergic and cholinergic efferent) neurones that communicate with others in intrathoracic extracardiac ganglia, all under the tonic influence of central neuronal command and circulating catecholamines. Neurones residing from the level of the heart to the insular cortex form temporally dependent reflexes that control overlapping, spatially determined cardiac indices. The emergent properties that most of its components display depend primarily on sensory transduction of the cardiovascular milieu. It is further hypothesized that the stochastic nature of such neuronal interactions represents a stabilizing feature that matches cardiac output to normal corporal blood flow demands. Thus, with regard to cardiac disease states, one must consider not only cardiac myocyte dysfunction but also the fact that components within this neuroaxis may interact abnormally to alter myocyte function. This review emphasizes the stochastic behaviour displayed by most peripheral cardiac neurones, which appears to be a consequence of their predominant cardiac chemosensory inputs, as well as their complex functional interconnectivity. Despite our limited understanding of the whole, current data indicate that the emergent properties displayed by most neurones comprising the cardiac neuroaxis will have to be taken into consideration when contemplating the targeting of its individual components if predictable, long-term therapeutic benefits are to accrue.

  16. Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants......, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was applied to examine the genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Cuttings of Tradescantia clone #4430 were exposed to ambient air at 65 monitoring sites in 10 conurbations employing a standardised methodology. The tests revealed an elevated genotoxic potential mainly...... at those urban sites which were exposed to severe car traffic emissions. This bioassay proved to be a suitable tool to detect local ‘hot spots' of mutagenic air pollution in urban areas. For its use in routine monitoring programmes, however, further standardisation of cultivation and exposure techniques...

  17. Platelet-Rich Plasma in Androgenic Alopecia: Indications, Technique, and Potential Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneini, Elie M; Beauvais, Daniel; Castiglione, Concetta; Ferneini, Moniek V

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injected into the scalp for the management of androgenic alopecia. A literature review was performed to evaluate the benefits of PRP in androgenic alopecia. Hair restoration has been increasing. PRP's main components of platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor have the potential to stimulate hard and soft tissue wound healing. In general, PRP showed a benefit on patients with androgenic alopecia, including increased hair density and quality. Currently, different PRP preparations are being used with no standard technique. This review found beneficial effects of PRP on androgenic alopecia. However, more rigorous study designs, including larger samples, quantitative measurements of effect, and longer follow-up periods, are needed to solidify the utility of PRP for treating patients with androgenic alopecia. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nocturnal Risks-High Bat Activity in the Agricultural Landscape Indicates Potential Pesticide Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Stahlschmidt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although agriculture dominates much of Europe's landscape, there is virtually no information on foraging activity of bats in different crops. Additionally little is known about pesticide exposure of bats and related effects and there are currently no specific regulatory requirements to include bats in European Union pesticide risk assessments for the registration of these chemicals although other mammals are considered. To evaluate the potential pesticide exposure of bats, we studied bat diversity and activity as well as the availability of aerial prey insects in different crops and semi-natural habitats in south-western Germany in a landscape dominated by agriculture. In 300 accumulated sampling nights more than 24,000 bat call sequences were acoustically recorded and, in parallel, almost 110,000 insects of suitable prey sizes were sampled by light traps. A total of 14 bat species were recorded, among them the locally rare and for Germany critically endangered northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii and the barbastelle (Barbastella barbastellum, all of them also occurring over agricultural fields. In comparison to agricultural habitats, higher activity levels in forest sites were only found for Myotis species but not for species of the genera Pipistrellus, Eptesicus and Nyctalus. There were no significant differences in the availability of aerial nocturnal insects between forest, meadow and agricultural habitats. Comparing the different agricultural crops, significantly fewer bat call sequences and lower numbers of nocturnal insects were collected above the vineyards compared to orchards, cereal and vegetable fields. Highest activity levels of all bat species were recorded above agricultural fields situated next to forests. Given the high bat activity levels recorded at several agricultural sites, among them orchard and vegetable fields both known for their high pesticide inputs, and the availability of suitable prey insects, we conclude that

  19. Neck fat volume as a potential indicator of difficult intubation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Buono, Romualdo; Sabatino, Lorenzo; Greco, Federico

    2018-01-01

    Direct laryngoscopy is the gold standard of the airway management in patients without predicted difficulties. If unpredicted difficulties are encountered instead, different algorithms to follow have been developed. To date, no single predictor is sufficiently valid. In clinical practice, it is used a combination of them to enhance the estimate, and despite the variety of parameters used, not all the difficult intubations are predicted. The aim of this work is to retrospectively analyze neck computed tomography scans of 37 patients who have had tracheal intubation and search for anatomic neck fat compartments that correlate with the intubation difficulty, and eventually find a suitable, clinical parameter that can potentially enhance the prediction of a difficult airway when used in combination of the preexisting scores. the patients are divided by direct laryngoscopy view into two groups: Group A ( n = 31): Normal airway, with a Cormack Lehane, Score I or II; Group B ( n = 6): Difficult airway, with a Cormack Lehane Score III or IV. In the zone of interest, it was measured the neck volume parameter and other subparameters. Despite a positive trend is shown for anterior fat volume (AFV) ( P = 0.23) and fat volume (FV) ( P = 0.28), statistically significant differences ( P < 0.05) were not found between Group A and B in any of the measurements acquired. According to the literature, our results confirmed that there is still no single element that can predict a difficult intubation. Although no statistical significance was found, the AFV and FV have shown to have a potential predictive role for difficult intubation. Further studies with bigger samples are advisable to confirm this encouraging result.

  20. Variations in Environmental Signals in Tree-Ring Indices in Trees with Different Growth Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Hafner

    Full Text Available We analysed two groups of Quercus robur trees, growing at nearby plots with different micro-location condition (W-wet and D-dry in the floodplain Krakovo forest, Slovenia. In the study we compared the growth response of two different tree groups to environmental variables, the potential signal stored in earlywood (EW structure and the potential difference of the information stored in carbon isotope discrimination of EW and latewood (LW. For that purpose EW and LW widths and carbon isotope discrimination for the period 1970-2008 AD were measured. EW and LW widths were measured on stained microscopic slides and chronologies were standardised using the ARSTAN program. α-cellulose was extracted from pooled EW and LW samples and homogenized samples were further analysed using an elemental analyser and IRMS. We discovered that W oaks grew significantly better over the whole analysed period. The difference between D and W oaks was significant in all analysed variables with the exception of stable carbon isotope discrimination in latewood. In W oaks, latewood widths correlated with summer (June to August climatic variables, while carbon isotope discrimination was more connected to River Krka flow during the summer. EW discrimination correlated with summer and autumn River Krka flow of the previous year, while latewood discrimination correlated with flow during the current year. In the case of D oaks, the environmental signal appears to be vague, probably due to less favourable growth conditions resulting in markedly reduced increments. Our study revealed important differences in responses to environmental factors between the two oak groups of different physiological conditions that are preconditioned by environmental stress. Environmental information stored in tree-ring features may vary, even within the same forest stand, and largely depends on the micro-environment. Our analysis confirmed our assumptions that separate EW and LW analysis of widths and

  1. The Genus Neoceratium (Planktonic Dinoflagellates as a Potential Indicator of Ocean Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Tunin-Ley

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the planktonic dinoflagellates, the species-rich genus Neoceratium has particularly remarkable features that include its easily recognizable outline and large size. This ubiquitous genus shows consistent presence in all plankton samples and has been a model for numerous studies since the end of the 19th century. It has already been described as a good candidate to monitor water masses and describe ocean circulation. We argue that the sensitivity displayed by Neoceratium to water temperature also makes it relevant as an indicator of ocean warming. The advantages and interests of using Neoceratium species to monitor climate change on a large scale are reassessed in view of recent advances in understanding their biology and ecology.

  2. The Autonomous Stress Indicator for Remotely Monitoring Power System State and Watching for Potential Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geza Joos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The proposed Autonomous Stress Indicator (ASI is a device that monitors the contents of the protection relays on a suspect weak power system bus and generates a performance level related to the degree of system performance degradation or instability. This gives the system operators some time (minutes to take corrective action. In a given operating area there would not likely be a need for an ASI on every bus. Note that the ASI does not trip any breakers; it is an INFORMATION ONLY device. An important feature is that the system operator can subsequently interrogate the ASI to determine the factor(s that led to the performance level that has been initially annunciated, thereby leading to a course of action. This paper traces the development of the ASI which is an ongoing project. The ASI could be also described as a stress-alert device whose function is to alert the System Operator of a stressful condition at its location. The characteristics (or essential qualities of this device are autonomy, selectivity, accuracy and intelligence. These will fulfill the requirements of the recommendation of the Canada –US Task Force in the August 2003 system collapse. Preliminary tests on the IEEE 39-bus model indicate that the concept has merit and development work is in progress. While the ASI can be applied to all power system operating conditions, its principal application is to the degraded state of the system where the System Operator must act to restore the system to the secure state before it migrates to a stage of collapse. The work of ASI actually begins with the Areas of Vulnerability and ends with the Predictive Module as described in detail in this paper. An application example of a degraded system using the IEEE 39-bus system is included.

  3. Menopausal symptoms among breast cancer patients: a potential indicator of favorable prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    Full Text Available Menopausal symptoms have been suggested to be an indicator of better prognosis among patients treated for breast cancer, because women who experience these symptoms usually have a lower level of estrogen. We tested this hypothesis in a population-based, prospective cohort study involving 4,842 women with stage 0 to III primary breast cancer who were enrolled in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study between March 2002 and April 2006, were aged 20 to 75 years, and were recruited 6 months post-diagnosis. They were followed-up by in-person surveys and record linkages with the vital statistics registry. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of menopausal symptoms at baseline with breast cancer recurrence. Approximately 56% of patients experienced at least one menopausal symptom, including hot flashes, night sweats, and/or vaginal dryness at baseline. During a median follow-up period of 5.3 years, 720 women had a recurrence. Experiencing hot flashes or having ≥2 menopausal symptoms was associated with lower risk of recurrence among premenopausal women (hazard ratio [HR]=0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.96 for hot flashes; 0.73, 0.56-0.96 for ≥2 menopausal symptoms. Lower recurrence risk in relation to hot flashes was also observed among women who were not overweight/obese (HR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.64-0.99, those with relatively low waist-to-hip ratio (WHR (HR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.97, and those who used tamoxifen (HR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.58-0.98. Consistently experiencing multiple menopausal symptoms was associated with lower recurrence risk among women with low WHR or who used tamoxifen. This large, population-based cohort study of women with breast cancer confirms that experiencing menopausal symptoms is an indicator of favorable breast cancer prognosis.

  4. Multi-Analytical Approach Reveals Potential Microbial Indicators in Soil for Sugarcane Model Systems.

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    Acacio Aparecido Navarrete

    Full Text Available This study focused on the effects of organic and inorganic amendments and straw retention on the microbial biomass (MB and taxonomic groups of bacteria in sugarcane-cultivated soils in a greenhouse mesocosm experiment monitored for gas emissions and chemical factors. The experiment consisted of combinations of synthetic nitrogen (N, vinasse (V; a liquid waste from ethanol production, and sugarcane-straw blankets. Increases in CO2-C and N2O-N emissions were identified shortly after the addition of both N and V to the soils, thus increasing MB nitrogen (MB-N and decreasing MB carbon (MB-C in the N+V-amended soils and altering soil chemical factors that were correlated with the MB. Across 57 soil metagenomic datasets, Actinobacteria (31.5%, Planctomycetes (12.3%, Deltaproteobacteria (12.3%, Alphaproteobacteria (12.0% and Betaproteobacteria (11.1% were the most dominant bacterial groups during the experiment. Differences in relative abundance of metagenomic sequences were mainly revealed for Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia with regard to N+V fertilization and straw retention. Differential abundances in bacterial groups were confirmed using 16S rRNA gene-targeted phylum-specific primers for real-time PCR analysis in all soil samples, whose results were in accordance with sequence data, except for Gammaproteobacteria. Actinobacteria were more responsive to straw retention with Rubrobacterales, Bifidobacteriales and Actinomycetales related to the chemical factors of N+V-amended soils. Acidobacteria subgroup 7 and Opitutae, a verrucomicrobial class, were related to the chemical factors of soils without straw retention as a surface blanket. Taken together, the results showed that MB-C and MB-N responded to changes in soil chemical factors and CO2-C and N2O-N emissions, especially for N+V-amended soils. The results also indicated that several taxonomic groups of bacteria, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and

  5. Multi-Analytical Approach Reveals Potential Microbial Indicators in Soil for Sugarcane Model Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Diniz, Tatiana Rosa; Braga, Lucas Palma Perez; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Zacarias; Franchini, Julio Cezar; Rossetto, Raffaella; Edwards, Robert Alan; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the effects of organic and inorganic amendments and straw retention on the microbial biomass (MB) and taxonomic groups of bacteria in sugarcane-cultivated soils in a greenhouse mesocosm experiment monitored for gas emissions and chemical factors. The experiment consisted of combinations of synthetic nitrogen (N), vinasse (V; a liquid waste from ethanol production), and sugarcane-straw blankets. Increases in CO2-C and N2O-N emissions were identified shortly after the addition of both N and V to the soils, thus increasing MB nitrogen (MB-N) and decreasing MB carbon (MB-C) in the N+V-amended soils and altering soil chemical factors that were correlated with the MB. Across 57 soil metagenomic datasets, Actinobacteria (31.5%), Planctomycetes (12.3%), Deltaproteobacteria (12.3%), Alphaproteobacteria (12.0%) and Betaproteobacteria (11.1%) were the most dominant bacterial groups during the experiment. Differences in relative abundance of metagenomic sequences were mainly revealed for Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia with regard to N+V fertilization and straw retention. Differential abundances in bacterial groups were confirmed using 16S rRNA gene-targeted phylum-specific primers for real-time PCR analysis in all soil samples, whose results were in accordance with sequence data, except for Gammaproteobacteria. Actinobacteria were more responsive to straw retention with Rubrobacterales, Bifidobacteriales and Actinomycetales related to the chemical factors of N+V-amended soils. Acidobacteria subgroup 7 and Opitutae, a verrucomicrobial class, were related to the chemical factors of soils without straw retention as a surface blanket. Taken together, the results showed that MB-C and MB-N responded to changes in soil chemical factors and CO2-C and N2O-N emissions, especially for N+V-amended soils. The results also indicated that several taxonomic groups of bacteria, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and

  6. Dermatologic surgery in children: an update on indication, anesthesia, analgesia and potential perioperative complications.

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    Crisan, Diana; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Kastler, Sabine; Crisan, Maria; Manea, Avram; Wagner, Katja; Schneider, Lars Alexander

    2018-02-12

    Children undergoing dermatosurgical procedures require, unlike adults, particular attention; the administration of various analgesics, anesthetics or sedatives requires a thorough knowledge of drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Furthermore, there are concerns that drugs used for sedation/general anesthesia may result in anesthetic/analgesic complications in children undergoing surgery, with a risk of impaired mental development. Based on our clinical experience and a literature review, we illustrate the most commonly used analgesic, anesthetic and sedative drugs in pediatric dermatosurgery, and identify risk factors and complications following dermatosurgical procedures. Topical anesthetics can be used in children for superficial dermatologic procedures or prior to infiltration anesthesia. Maximum recommended doses based on body weight should be calculated in order to avoid overdosage of local anesthetics. General anesthesia in dermatosurgery is considered safe and has a low rate of side effects. However, caution is advised in children under the age of one due to potential long-term neurological side-effects. NSAIDs and opioids play a significant role in analgesia for children. This article reviews currently available data on analgesia, anesthesia and complications that may arise in pediatric dermatosurgery. These data may be useful in optimizing the safety and quality of care and in improving parent counseling. © 2018 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs: developing survey items to measure awareness

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    McNeill Ann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1 the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2 the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented.

  8. Obesity - an indication for GLP-1 treatment? Obesity pathophysiology and GLP-1 treatment potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torekov, S S; Madsbad, S; Holst, J J

    2011-08-01

    Obesity is common and associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality; therefore, treatment is of great interest. At present, bariatric surgery is the only truly successful treatment of severe obesity. Mimicking one of the effects of bariatric surgery, namely the increased secretion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, by artificially increasing the levels of GLP-1 might prove successful as obesity treatment. Recent studies have shown that GLP-1 is a physiological regulator of appetite and food intake. The effect on food intake and satiety is preserved in obese subjects and GLP-1 may therefore have a therapeutic potential. The GLP-1 analogues result in a moderate average weight loss, which is clinically relevant in relation to reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Inspired by the hormone profile after gastric bypass, a future strategy in obesity drug development could be to combine several hormones, and thereby produce a superior appetite suppressing hormone profile that may result in a weight loss exceeding that seen in single-agent trials. In conclusion, with the GLP-1 analogues combining a moderate weight loss with beneficial effects on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, it seems that we are on the right track for future treatment of obesity. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  9. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of dioxopyrrolopyrroles as potential low-affinity fluorescent Ca2+ indicators

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    Nesibe Avcıbaşi

    2004-01-01

    1,4-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione (DPP3 have been synthesized and evaluated for their Ca2+ binding properties via fluorimetric titrations. The in vitro dissociation constant Kd measured at 21 ∘C in 100 mM KCl buffered solution, pH 7.05, for the Ca2+ –DPP1 complex is 10 μM; for Ca2+ –DPP2 and Ca2+ –DPP3 a Kd value of 20 μM is found. All three indicators form 1 : 1 complexes with Ca2+. The fluorescence quantum yields of the uncomplexed forms of DPP1, DPP2 and DPP3 are 1.2×10−2, 3.4×10−2 and 3.6×10−2, respectively. After binding to Ca2+ these values increase to 4.8×10−2, 5.0×10−2 and 5.1×10−2, respectively.

  10. The on-line processing of socio-emotional information in prototypical scenarios: inferences from brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuthold, Hartmut; Filik, Ruth; Murphy, Kirsty; Mackenzie, Ian G

    2012-04-01

    Little is known about the time course of the mechanisms involved in the on-line processing of socio-emotional information. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate this issue using vignettes that described prototypical, social scenarios. An initial sentence established the social context and the following target sentence ended with a critical word that informed the reader of the character's socio-emotional response to the situation. Critical words that mismatched rather than matched with a character's expected feelings elicited a larger ERP negativity (N400) ~200-500 ms after word onset, followed by a larger frontal positivity. Dipole source modeling results indicated that an anterior temporal lobe source accounted for the N400-like effect, which we attribute to the increased demands of integrating general knowledge about social situations (e.g. scripts) with personal- and context-specific information. An additional mediofrontal source contributed to the later ERP effect and presumably reflects high-level mindreading functions. Together, these findings indicate that readers rapidly infer and evaluate on-line a character's likely socio-emotional response based on the prototypical information provided by the text.

  11. Postoperative Stereotactic Radiosurgery Without Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases: Potential Role of Preoperative Tumor Size

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    Hartford, Alan C., E-mail: Alan.C.Hartford@Hitchcock.org [Section of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Paravati, Anthony J. [Section of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Spire, William J. [Section of Neurosurgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Li, Zhongze [Biostatistics Shared Resource, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Jarvis, Lesley A. [Section of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Fadul, Camilo E. [Section of Hematology/Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Rhodes, C. Harker [Department of Pathology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Erkmen, Kadir [Section of Neurosurgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Friedman, Jonathan [Department of Surgery, Texas A and M College of Medicine, College Station, Texas (United States); Gladstone, David J. [Section of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Hug, Eugen B. [ProCure, New York, New York (United States); Roberts, David W.; Simmons, Nathan E. [Section of Neurosurgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy following resection of a brain metastasis increases the probability of disease control at the surgical site. We analyzed our experience with postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as an alternative to whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), with an emphasis on identifying factors that might predict intracranial disease control and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed all patients through December 2008, who, after surgical resection, underwent SRS to the tumor bed, deferring WBRT. Multiple factors were analyzed for time to intracranial recurrence (ICR), whether local recurrence (LR) at the surgical bed or “distant” recurrence (DR) in the brain, for time to WBRT, and for OS. Results: A total of 49 lesions in 47 patients were treated with postoperative SRS. With median follow-up of 9.3 months (range, 1.1-61.4 months), local control rates at the resection cavity were 85.5% at 1 year and 66.9% at 2 years. OS rates at 1 and 2 years were 52.5% and 31.7%, respectively. On univariate analysis (preoperative) tumors larger than 3.0 cm exhibited a significantly shorter time to LR. At a cutoff of 2.0 cm, larger tumors resulted in significantly shorter times not only for LR but also for DR, ICR, and salvage WBRT. While multivariate Cox regressions showed preoperative size to be significant for times to DR, ICR, and WBRT, in similar multivariate analysis for OS, only the graded prognostic assessment proved to be significant. However, the number of intracranial metastases at presentation was not significantly associated with OS nor with other outcome variables. Conclusions: Larger tumor size was associated with shorter time to recurrence and with shorter time to salvage WBRT; however, larger tumors were not associated with decrements in OS, suggesting successful salvage. SRS to the tumor bed without WBRT is an effective treatment for resected brain metastases, achieving local control particularly for tumors up to

  12. Transcriptome profiling indicating canine parvovirus type 2a as a potential immune activator.

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    Fan, Xu-Xu; Gao, Yuan; Shu, Long; Wei, Yan-Quan; Yao, Xue-Ping; Cao, Sui-Zhong; Peng, Guang-Neng; Liu, Xiang-Tao; Sun, Shi-Qi

    2016-12-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2a (CPV-2a) is a variant of CPV-2, which is a highly contagious pathogen causing severe gastroenteritis and death in young dogs. However, how CPV-2 participates in cell regulation and immune response remains unknown. In this study, persistently infected MDCK cells were generated through culture passage of the CPV-2a-infected cells for ten generations. Our study showed that CPV-2a induces cell proliferation arrest and cell morphology alternation before the fourth generation, whereas, the cell morphology returns to normal after five times of passages. PCR detection of viral VP2 gene demonstrated that CPV-2a proliferate with cell passage. An immunofluorescence assay revealed that CPV-2a particles were mainly located in the cell nuclei of MDCK cell. Then transcriptome microarray revealed that gene expression pattern of MDCK with CPV-2a persistent infection is distinct compared with normal cells. Gene ontology annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway analysis demonstrated that CPV-2a infection induces a series of membrane-associated genes expression, including many MHC protein or MHC-related complexes. These genes are closely related to signaling pathways of virus-host interaction, including antigen processing and presentation pathway, intestinal immune network, graft-versus-host disease, and RIG-I-like helicases signaling pathway. In contrast, the suppressed genes mediated by CPV-2a showed low enrichment in any category, and were only involved in pathways linking to synthesis and metabolism of amino acids, which was confirmed by qPCR analysis. Our studies indicated that CPV-2a is a natural immune activator and has the capacity to activate host immune responses, which could be used for the development of antiviral strategy and biomaterial for medicine.

  13. Perceived Accessibility of Public Transport as a Potential Indicator of Social Inclusion

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    Katrin Lättman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Perceived accessibility has been acknowledged as an important aspect of transport policy since the 70s. Nevertheless, very few empirical studies have been conducted in this field. When aiming to improve social inclusion, by making sustainable transport modes accessible to all, it is important to understand the factors driving perceived accessibility. Unlike conventional accessibility measures, perceived accessibility focuses on the perceived possibilities and ease of engaging in preferred activities using different transport modes. We define perceived accessibility in terms of how easy it is to live a satisfactory life with the help of the transport system, which is not necessarily the same thing as the objective standard of the system. According to previous research, perceived accessibility varies with the subjectively-rated quality of the mode of transport. Thus, improvements in quality (e.g. trip planning, comfort, or safety increase the perceived accessibility and make life easier to live using the chosen mode of transport. This study (n=750 focuses on the perceived accessibility of public transport, captured using the Perceived Accessibility Scale PAC (Lättman, Olsson, & Friman, 2015. More specifically, this study aims to determine how level of quality affects the perceived accessibility in public transport. A Conditional Process Model shows that, in addition to quality, feeling safe and frequency of travel are important predictors of perceived accessibility. Furthermore, elderly and those in their thirties report a lower level of perceived accessibility to their day-to-day activities using public transport. The basic premise of this study is that subjective experiences may be as important as objective indicators when planning and designing for socially inclusive transport systems.

  14. Comparison of Two Old Phytochemicals versus Two Newly Researched Plant-Derived Compounds: Potential for Brain and Other Relevant Ailments.

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    Wang, Chun-Mei; Liang, Willmann; Yew, D T

    2014-01-01

    Among hundreds of formulae of Chinese herbal prescriptions and recently extracted active components from the herbs, some of which had demonstrated their functions on nervous system. For the last decade or more, Gingko biloba and Polygala tenuifolia were widely studied for their beneficial effects against damage to the brain. Two compounds extracted from Apium graveolens and Rhizoma coptidis, butylphthalide and berberine, respectively, received much attention recently as potential neuroprotective agents. In this review, the two traditionally used herbs and the two relatively new compounds will be discussed with regard to their potential advantages in alleviating brain and other relevant ailments.

  15. Comparison of Two Old Phytochemicals versus Two Newly Researched Plant-Derived Compounds: Potential for Brain and Other Relevant Ailments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Mei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among hundreds of formulae of Chinese herbal prescriptions and recently extracted active components from the herbs, some of which had demonstrated their functions on nervous system. For the last decade or more, Gingko biloba and Polygala tenuifolia were widely studied for their beneficial effects against damage to the brain. Two compounds extracted from Apium graveolens and Rhizoma coptidis, butylphthalide and berberine, respectively, received much attention recently as potential neuroprotective agents. In this review, the two traditionally used herbs and the two relatively new compounds will be discussed with regard to their potential advantages in alleviating brain and other relevant ailments.

  16. Perivascular Mesenchymal Stem Cells From the Adult Human Brain Harbor No Instrinsic Neuroectodermal but High Mesodermal Differentiation Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojewski, Xenia; Srimasorn, Sumitra; Rauh, Juliane; Francke, Silvan; Wobus, Manja; Taylor, Verdon; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Hallmeyer-Elgner, Susanne; Kirsch, Matthias; Schwarz, Sigrid; Schwarz, Johannes; Storch, Alexander; Hermann, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Brain perivascular cells have recently been identified as a novel mesodermal cell type in the human brain. These cells reside in the perivascular niche and were shown to have mesodermal and, to a lesser extent, tissue-specific differentiation potential. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely proposed for use in cell therapy in many neurological disorders; therefore, it is of importance to better understand the "intrinsic" MSC population of the human brain. We systematically characterized adult human brain-derived pericytes during in vitro expansion and differentiation and compared these cells with fetal and adult human brain-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) and adult human bone marrow-derived MSCs. We found that adult human brain pericytes, which can be isolated from the hippocampus and from subcortical white matter, are-in contrast to adult human NSCs-easily expandable in monolayer cultures and show many similarities to human bone marrow-derived MSCs both regarding both surface marker expression and after whole transcriptome profile. Human brain pericytes showed a negligible propensity for neuroectodermal differentiation under various differentiation conditions but efficiently generated mesodermal progeny. Consequently, human brain pericytes resemble bone marrow-derived MSCs and might be very interesting for possible autologous and endogenous stem cell-based treatment strategies and cell therapeutic approaches for treating neurological diseases. Perivascular mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) recently gained significant interest because of their appearance in many tissues including the human brain. MSCs were often reported as being beneficial after transplantation in the central nervous system in different neurological diseases; therefore, adult brain perivascular cells derived from human neural tissue were systematically characterized concerning neural stem cell and MSC marker expression, transcriptomics, and mesodermal and inherent neuroectodermal differentiation

  17. The real-time link between person perception and action: brain potential evidence for dynamic continuity.

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    Freeman, Jonathan B; Ambady, Nalini; Midgley, Katherine J; Holcomb, Phillip J

    2011-01-01

    Using event-related potentials, we investigated how the brain extracts information from another's face and translates it into relevant action in real time. In Study 1, participants made between-hand sex categorizations of sex-typical and sex-atypical faces. Sex-atypical faces evoked negativity between 250 and 550 ms (N300/N400 effects), reflecting the integration of accumulating sex-category knowledge into a coherent sex-category interpretation. Additionally, the lateralized readiness potential revealed that the motor cortex began preparing for a correct hand response while social category knowledge was still gradually evolving in parallel. In Study 2, participants made between-hand eye-color categorizations as part of go/no-go trials that were contingent on a target's sex. On no-go trials, although the hand did not actually move, information about eye color partially prepared the motor cortex to move the hand before perception of sex had finalized. Together, these findings demonstrate the dynamic continuity between person perception and action, such that ongoing results from face processing are immediately and continuously cascaded into the motor system over time. The preparation of action begins based on tentative perceptions of another's face before perceivers have finished interpreting what they just saw. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  18. Cognitive function, P3a/P3b brain potentials, and cortical thickness in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine B; Fischl, Bruce; Reinvang, Ivar

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between the P3a/P3b brain potentials, cortical thickness, and cognitive function in aging. Thirty-five younger and 37 older healthy participants completed a visual three-stimuli oddball ERP (event-related potential)-paradigm, a battery of neuropsychological tests, and MRI scans. Groups with short vs. long latency, and low vs. high amplitude, were compared on a point by point basis across the entire cortical mantle. In the young, thickness was only weakly related to P3. In the elderly, P3a amplitude effects were found in parietal areas, the temporoparietal junction, and parts of the posterior cingulate cortex. P3b latency was especially related to cortical thickness in large frontal regions. Path models with the whole sample pooled together were constructed, demonstrating that cortical thickness in the temporoparietal cortex predicted P3a amplitude, which in turn predicted executive function, and that thickness in orbitofrontal cortex predicted P3b latency, which in turn predicted fluid function. When age was included in the model, the relationship between P3 and cognitive function vanished, while the relationship between regional cortical thickness and P3 remained. It is concluded that thickness in specific cortical areas correlates with scalp recorded P3a/P3b in elderly, and that these relationships differentially mediate higher cognitive function. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Characteristics of local field potentials correlate with pain relief by deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongzhi; Luo, Huichun; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu Z; Wang, Shouyan

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the link between neuronal activity recorded from the sensory thalamus and periventricular gray/periaqueductal gray (PVAG) and pain relief by deep brain stimulation (DBS). Local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the sensory thalamus and PVAG post-operatively from ten patients with neuropathic pain. The LFPs were quantified using spectral and time-frequency analysis, the relationship between the LFPs and pain relief was quantified with nonlinear correlation analysis. The theta oscillations of both sensory thalamus and PVAG correlated inversely with pain relief. The high beta oscillations in the sensory thalamus and the alpha oscillations in the PVAG correlated positively with pain relief. Moreover, the ratio of high-power duration to low-power duration of theta band activity in the sensory thalamus and PVAG correlated inversely with pain relief. The duration ratio at the high beta band in the sensory thalamus correlated positively with pain relief. Our results reveal distinct neuronal oscillations at the theta, alpha, and beta frequencies correlating with pain relief by DBS. The study provides quantitative measures for predicting the outcomes of neuropathic pain relief by DBS as well as potential biomarkers for developing adaptive stimulation strategies. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous functional near-infrared brain imaging and event-related potential studies of Stroop effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jiahuan; Li, Ting; Zhang, Zhongxing; Gong, Hui

    2009-02-01

    Functional near-infrared brain imaging (fNIRI) and event-related potential (ERP) were used simultaneous to detect the prefrontal cortex (PFC) which is considered to execute cognitive control of the subjects while performing the Chinese characters color-word matching Stroop task with event-related design. The fNIRI instrument is a portable system operating at three wavelengths (735nm & 805nm &850nm) with continuous-wave. The event-related potentials were acquired by Neuroscan system. The locations of optodes corresponding to the electrodes were defined four areas symmetrically. In nine native Chinese-speaking fit volunteers, fNIRI measured the hemodynamic parameters (involving oxy-/deoxy- hemoglobin) changes when the characteristic waveforms (N500/P600) were recorded by ERP. The interference effect was obvious as a longer reaction time for incongruent than congruent and neutral stimulus. The responses of hemodynamic and electrophysiology were also stronger during incongruent compared to congruent and neutral trials, and these results are similar to those obtained with fNIRI or ERP separately. There are high correlations, even linear relationship, in the two kinds of signals. In conclusion, the multi-modality approach combining of fNIRI and ERP is feasible and could obtain more cognitive function information with hemodynamic and electrophysiology signals. It also provides a perspective to prove the neurovascular coupling mechanism.

  1. Time and frequency-dependent modulation of local field potential synchronization by deep brain stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton B McCracken

    Full Text Available High-frequency electrical stimulation of specific brain structures, known as deep brain stimulation (DBS, is an effective treatment for movement disorders, but mechanisms of action remain unclear. We examined the time-dependent effects of DBS applied to the entopeduncular nucleus (EP, the rat homolog of the internal globus pallidus, a target used for treatment of both dystonia and Parkinson's disease (PD. We performed simultaneous multi-site local field potential (LFP recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats to assess the effects of high-frequency (HF, 130 Hz; clinically effective, low-frequency (LF, 15 Hz; ineffective and sham DBS delivered to EP. LFP activity was recorded from dorsal striatum (STR, ventroanterior thalamus (VA, primary motor cortex (M1, and the stimulation site in EP. Spontaneous and acute stimulation-induced LFP oscillation power and functional connectivity were assessed at baseline, and after 30, 60, and 90 minutes of stimulation. HF EP DBS produced widespread alterations in spontaneous and stimulus-induced LFP oscillations, with some effects similar across regions and others occurring in a region- and frequency band-specific manner. Many of these changes evolved over time. HF EP DBS produced an initial transient reduction in power in the low beta band in M1 and STR; however, phase synchronization between these regions in the low beta band was markedly suppressed at all time points. DBS also enhanced low gamma synchronization throughout the circuit. With sustained stimulation, there were significant reductions in low beta synchronization between M1-VA and STR-VA, and increases in power within regions in the faster frequency bands. HF DBS also suppressed the ability of acute EP stimulation to induce beta oscillations in all regions along the circuit. This dynamic pattern of synchronizing and desynchronizing effects of EP DBS suggests a complex modulation of activity along cortico-BG-thalamic circuits underlying the therapeutic

  2. Time and frequency-dependent modulation of local field potential synchronization by deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Clinton B; Kiss, Zelma H T

    2014-01-01

    High-frequency electrical stimulation of specific brain structures, known as deep brain stimulation (DBS), is an effective treatment for movement disorders, but mechanisms of action remain unclear. We examined the time-dependent effects of DBS applied to the entopeduncular nucleus (EP), the rat homolog of the internal globus pallidus, a target used for treatment of both dystonia and Parkinson's disease (PD). We performed simultaneous multi-site local field potential (LFP) recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats to assess the effects of high-frequency (HF, 130 Hz; clinically effective), low-frequency (LF, 15 Hz; ineffective) and sham DBS delivered to EP. LFP activity was recorded from dorsal striatum (STR), ventroanterior thalamus (VA), primary motor cortex (M1), and the stimulation site in EP. Spontaneous and acute stimulation-induced LFP oscillation power and functional connectivity were assessed at baseline, and after 30, 60, and 90 minutes of stimulation. HF EP DBS produced widespread alterations in spontaneous and stimulus-induced LFP oscillations, with some effects similar across regions and others occurring in a region- and frequency band-specific manner. Many of these changes evolved over time. HF EP DBS produced an initial transient reduction in power in the low beta band in M1 and STR; however, phase synchronization between these regions in the low beta band was markedly suppressed at all time points. DBS also enhanced low gamma synchronization throughout the circuit. With sustained stimulation, there were significant reductions in low beta synchronization between M1-VA and STR-VA, and increases in power within regions in the faster frequency bands. HF DBS also suppressed the ability of acute EP stimulation to induce beta oscillations in all regions along the circuit. This dynamic pattern of synchronizing and desynchronizing effects of EP DBS suggests a complex modulation of activity along cortico-BG-thalamic circuits underlying the therapeutic effects of

  3. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Masahiko; Shutara, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Kazumi [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Nagata, Ken

    1998-07-01

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6{+-}3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  4. Carbamazepine as indicator for potential short-term contamination of karst springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doummar, J.; Baierl, M.; Noedler, K.; Licha, T.; Sauter, M.; Geyer, T.

    2012-04-01

    Karst aquifers are complex systems which vulnerability is very difficult to assess mainly because of the duality of recharge processes and duality of flow. Recharge to a karst aquifer occurs as diffuse or concentrated (sinkholes and dolines). Moreover, karst aquifers are formed by an unsaturated zone comprising soil, epikarst and unsaturated rock matrix, and a saturated zone formed of highly permeable conduits and low permeability matrix storage. In the case of contamination of groundwater by wastewater effluent polluted water can be either transported rapidly and have short term major risk on spring water quality or infiltrate into fractured rock matrix and therefore have a long term effect on the water quality. In order to identify the risk of wastewater infiltrating into an aquifer, researches have focused to date on the identification of indicative wastewater markers. Carbamazepine (CBZ) was frequently detected in surface water as well as in effluents of sewage treatment plants, as less than 10% of carbamazepine are usually eliminated during sewage treatment. Moreover, CBZ is not attenuated in aquifers (Heberer, 2002), is unlikely degradable or adsorbed, and can be detected in groundwater (Clara et al., 2004). Therefore, CBZ is considered to be fairly persistent in groundwater (Tixier et al., 2003), and is consequently regarded as an effective wastewater marker. In this case study, the Jeita spring in Lebanon (spring discharge: 1-20 m3/s) was monitored and sampled for major ions and micro-pollutants following a combined precipitation/snowmelt events. A total of 28 samples (major ions and micro-pollutants) were taken over a total sampling time of 16 days at interval varying between 4 and 24 hours. Based on the variation with time of discharge and electrical conductivity (monitored every 20 minutes) as well as the concentrations of the major ions, a conceptual model showing the response of the aquifer compartments to the precipitation event was generated. A

  5. Developing alternative indices of reproductive potential for use in fisheries management : Case studies for stocks spanning an information gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshall, C.T.; O'Brien, L.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2003-01-01

    sufficient data to reconstruct a time series of total eggproduction (TEP), whereas, the remaining stocks were limited to estimating proxies for stockreproductive potential. For some of the case studies the alternative indices explained a higheramount of recruitment variation than did SSB. Other case studies...

  6. Risk indicators and potential risk factors for caries in 5-year-olds of different ethnic groups in Amsterdam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, G.H.; Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Horst, G. ter; Filedt Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was threefold: first, to assess the oral health of Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Dutch and "other" 5-yr-old children living in Amsterdam; second, to identify risk indicators for caries, in addition to ethnicity; and third, to identify potential risk factors related to

  7. Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Martyniuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and express-assessment. Material: in the research 47 first and second year girl students participated, who belonged to main health group. Results: we distributed the girl students into three groups: 14.89% of them were included in group with “safe” health condition; 34.04% - in group of “third state”; 51.06% were related to group with “ dangerous” health condition. We established that dangerous level was characterized by energy potential of below middle and low level. It is accompanied by accelerated processes of organism’s age destructions and tension of regulation mechanisms. Conclusions: the received results permit to further develop and generalize the data of students’ health’s assessment by indicators of adaptation potentials, biological age and physical health’s condition.

  8. Alternative functions of the brain transsulfuration pathway represent an underappreciated aspect of brain redox biochemistry with significant potential for therapeutic engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kenneth; Denton, Travis T

    2015-01-01

    Scientific appreciation for the subtlety of brain sulfur chemistry has lagged, despite understanding that the brain must maintain high glutathione (GSH) to protect against oxidative stress in tissue that has both a high rate of oxidative respiration and a high content of oxidation-prone polyunsaturated fatty acids. In fact, the brain was long thought to lack a complete transsulfuration pathway (TSP) for cysteine synthesis. It is now clear that not only does the brain possess a functional TSP, but brain TSP enzymes catalyze a rich array of alternative reactions that generate novel species including the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and the atypical amino acid lanthionine (Lan). Moreover, TSP intermediates can be converted to unusual cyclic ketimines via transamination. Cell-penetrating derivatives of one such compound, lanthionine ketimine (LK), have potent antioxidant, neuroprotective, neurotrophic, and antineuroinflammatory actions and mitigate diverse neurodegenerative conditions in preclinical rodent models. This review will explore the source and function of alternative TSP products, and lanthionine-derived metabolites in particular. The known biological origins of lanthionine and its ketimine metabolite will be described in detail and placed in context with recent discoveries of a GSH- and LK-binding brain protein called LanCL1 that is proving essential for neuronal antioxidant defense; and a related LanCL2 homolog now implicated in immune sensing and cell fate determinations. The review will explore possible endogenous functions of lanthionine metabolites and will discuss the therapeutic potential of lanthionine ketimine derivatives for mitigating diverse neurological conditions including Alzheimer׳s disease, stroke, motor neuron disease, and glioma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in cerebral blood flow and psychometric indicators in veterans with early forms of chronic brain ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilenko Т.М.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal is to study the cerebral blood flow and psychometric characteristics in veterans of Afghanistan with early forms of chronic brain ischemia. Material and Methods. The study included 74 veterans of the Afghan war aged from 45 to 55 years: group 1, 28 people with NPNKM; Group 2-28 patients with circulatory encephalopathy stage 1; group 3-18 healthy persons. Doppler examination of cerebral vessels was carried out on the unit «Smart-lite». Reactive and personal anxiety of patients was assessed using the scale of Spielberger, evaluation of the quality of life through the test SAN. Determining the level of neuroticism and psychoticism was conducted by the scale of neuroticism and psy-choticism. Results: The study of cerebral blood flow in the Afghan war veterans showed signs of insolvency of carotid and carotid-basilar anastomoses, hypoperfusion phenomenon with the depletion of autoregulation, violation of the outflow of venous blood at the level of the microvasculature, accompanied by cerebral arteries spasm. More than 40% of patients with early forms of chronic brain ischemia had high personal anxiety, low levels of well-being and activity, with maximum expression of dyscirculatory hypoxia. Conclusion. Readaptation of veterans of Afghanistan is accompanied by the changes in psychometric performance and the formation of the earliest forms of brain chronic ischemia associated with inadequate hemodynamics providing increased functional activity of the brain and the inefficiency of compensatory-adaptive reactions.

  10. Proteomic identification of nitrated brain proteins in traumatic brain-injured rats treated postinjury with gamma-glutamylcysteine ethyl ester: insights into the role of elevation of glutathione as a potential therapeutic strategy for traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Tanea T; Owen, Joshua; Pierce, William M; Sebastian, Andrea; Sullivan, Patrick G; Butterfield, D Allan

    2009-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs suddenly and has damaging effects to the brain that are dependent on the severity of insult. Symptoms can be mild, moderate, or severe. Oxidative damage is associated with traumatic brain injury through reactive oxygen/nitrogen species production. One such species, peroxynitrite, is elevated in TBI brain tissue (Orihara et al. [2001] Forensic Sci. Int. 123:142-149; Deng et al. [2007] Exp. Neurol. 205:154-165). Peroxynitrite can react with carbon dioxide and decompose to produce NO(2) and carbonate radicals, which in turn can lead to 3-nitrotyrosine, an index of protein nitration. Gamma-glutamylcysteine ethyl ester (GCEE) is an ethyl ester moiety of gamma-glutamylcysteine, an agent that up-regulates glutathione (GSH) production in brain (Drake et al. [2002] J. Neurosci. Res. 68:776-784). Many preclinical studies of TBI have employed pretreatment of animals with proposed beneficial agents prior to the injury itself. However, in the real world of TBI, treatment begins postinjury. Hence, insights into agents that improve outcome following injury are desperately needed. This study is one of the first to investigate a potential GSH-based therapy for TBI postinjury. Protein carbonyls, an index of protein oxidation, were significantly elevated in brain of animals subjected to TBI. However, if, after TBI, GCEE was administered i.p., protein carbonyl levels were significantly reduced. Similarly, 3-nitrotyrosine levels were elevated in brain following TBI but significantly decreased following TBI if GCEE was administered i.p. Redox proteomics analysis showed that several brain proteins were nitrated after TBI. However, if GCEE was given i.p. following TBI, many of these proteins were protected from nitration. The results are encouraging and are discussed with reference to potential therapeutic strategies for TBI involving elevated GSH. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Potential new approaches for the development of brain imaging agents for single-photon applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Srivastava, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes new strategies for the brain-specific delivery of radionuclides that can be used to evaluate regional cerebral perfusion by single photon imaging techniques. A description of several examples of interesting new strategies that have recently been reported is presented. A new approach at this institution for the brain-specific delivery of radioiodinated iodophenylalkyl-substituted dihyronicotinamide systems is described which shows good brain uptake and retention in preliminary studies in rats. Following transport into the brain these agents appear to undergo facile intracerebral oxidation to the quaternized analogues which do not recross the intact blood-brain barrier and so are effectively trapped in the brain. 49 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Transfontanellar Duplex Brain Ultrasonography Resistive Indices as a Prognostic Tool in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Before and After Treatment with Therapeutic Hypothermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Gwendolyn J; Burton, V Joanna; Poretti, Andrea; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Tekes, Aylin; Seyfert, Donna; Parkinson, Charlamaine; Leppert, Mary; Allen, Marilee; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Northington, Frances J; Johnston, Michael V

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Prior to therapeutic hypothermia (i.e., cooling), transfontanellar duplex brain sonography resistive indices (RI) were studied as bedside non-invasive measures of cerebral hemodynamics in neonates who suffered from hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We compared pre- and post-cooling RI values and examined the relationships between RI values and specific long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. STUDY DESIGN Transfontanellar duplex brain sonography, including RI, were obtained for 28 neonates prior to brain cooling and for 20 neonates following brain cooling. All RI values were sampled in the anterior cerebral artery at the beginning of each ultrasound study. Neurodevelopmental assessment was conducted between ages 20-32 months with the Mullen Scale of Early Learning. The relationships between pre- and post-cooling RI and cognitive and motor outcomes were studied. RESULT Neonates with RI values 0.60. Lower RI values were associated with specific neurodevelopmental deficits in motor skill attainment. CONCLUSION Pre- and post-cooling transfontanellar duplex brain sonography RI values may be a useful prognostic tool, in conjunction with other clinical information, for neonates diagnosed with HIE. The results of this study suggest that further study of the prognostic value of RI values for short- and long-term outcomes is warranted. PMID:26609871

  13. Indices of adrenal deficiency involved in brain plasticity and functional control reorganization in hemodialysis patients with polysulfone membrane: BOLD-fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaïch, Rachida; Boujraf, Saïd; Benzagmout, Mohammed; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Housni, Abdelkhalek; Batta, Fatima; Tizniti, Siham; Magoul, Rabia; Sqalli, Tarik

    2016-06-01

    This work purpose was to estimate the implication of suspected adrenal function deficiencies, which was influenced by oxidative stress (OS) that are generating brain plasticity, and reorganization of the functional control. This phenomenon was revealed in two-hemodialysis patients described in this paper. Blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) revealed a significant activation of the motor cortex. Hemodialysis seems to originate an inflammatory state of the cerebral tissue reflected by increased OS, while expected to decrease since hemodialysis eliminates free radicals responsible for OS. Considering adrenal function deficiencies, sensitivity to OS and assessed hyponatremia and hypercalcemia, adrenal function deficiencies is strongly suspected in both patients. This probably contributes to amplify brain plasticity and a reorganization of functional control after hemodialysis that is compared to earlier reported studies. Brain plasticity and functional control reorganization was revealed by BOLD-fMRI with a remarkable sensitivity. Brain plastic changes are originated by elevated OS associating indices of adrenal function deficiencies. These results raise important issues about adrenal functional deficiencies impact on brain plasticity in chronic hemodialysis-patients. This motivates more global studies of plasticity induced factors in this category of patients including adrenal functional deficiencies and OS.

  14. Editorial: Music, Brain, and Rehabilitation: Emerging Therapeutic Applications and Potential Neural Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Särkämö, Teppo; Altenmüller, Eckart; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Peretz, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Music is an important source of enjoyment, learning, and well-being in life as well as a rich, powerful, and versatile stimulus for the brain. With the advance of modern neuroimaging techniques during the past decades, we are now beginning to understand better what goes on in the healthy brain when we listen, play, think, and feel music and how the structure and function of the brain can change as a result of musical training and expertise. In the healthy brain, there is already mounting evid...

  15. Toward FRP-Based Brain-Machine Interfaces-Single-Trial Classification of Fixation-Related Potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Finke

    Full Text Available The co-registration of eye tracking and electroencephalography provides a holistic measure of ongoing cognitive processes. Recently, fixation-related potentials have been introduced to quantify the neural activity in such bi-modal recordings. Fixation-related potentials are time-locked to fixation onsets, just like event-related potentials are locked to stimulus onsets. Compared to existing electroencephalography-based brain-machine interfaces that depend on visual stimuli, fixation-related potentials have the advantages that they can be used in free, unconstrained viewing conditions and can also be classified on a single-trial level. Thus, fixation-related potentials have the potential to allow for conceptually different brain-machine interfaces that directly interpret cortical activity related to the visual processing of specific objects. However, existing research has investigated fixation-related potentials only with very restricted and highly unnatural stimuli in simple search tasks while participant's body movements were restricted. We present a study where we relieved many of these restrictions while retaining some control by using a gaze-contingent visual search task. In our study, participants had to find a target object out of 12 complex and everyday objects presented on a screen while the electrical activity of the brain and eye movements were recorded simultaneously. Our results show that our proposed method for the classification of fixation-related potentials can clearly discriminate between fixations on relevant, non-relevant and background areas. Furthermore, we show that our classification approach generalizes not only to different test sets from the same participant, but also across participants. These results promise to open novel avenues for exploiting fixation-related potentials in electroencephalography-based brain-machine interfaces and thus providing a novel means for intuitive human-machine interaction.

  16. The Feasibility and Potential Impact of Brain Training Games on Cognitive and Emotional Functioning in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Paula M; Curtis, Ashley F; Branscombe-Caird, Laura M; Comrie, Janna K; Murtha, Susan J E

    2017-11-30

    To investigate whether a commercially available brain training program is feasible to use with a middle-aged population and has a potential impact on cognition and emotional well-being (proof of concept). Fourteen participants (ages 46-55) completed two 6-week training conditions using a crossover (counterbalanced) design: (1) experimental brain training condition and (2) active control "find answers to trivia questions online" condition. A comprehensive neurocognitive battery and a self-report measure of depression and anxiety were administered at baseline (first time point, before training) and after completing each training condition (second time point at 6 weeks, and third time point at 12 weeks). Cognitive composite scores were calculated for participants at each time point. Study completion and protocol adherence demonstrated good feasibility of this brain training protocol in healthy middle-aged adults. Exploratory analyses suggested that brain training was associated with neurocognitive improvements related to executive attention, as well as improvements in mood. Overall, our findings suggest that brain training programs are feasible in middle-aged cohorts. We propose that brain training games may be linked to improvements in executive attention and affect by promoting cognitive self-efficacy in middle-aged adults.

  17. An event-related brain potential study of visual selective attention to conjunctions of color and shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, HGOM; Jakob, A; Heinze, HJ

    What cognitive processes underlie event-related brain potential (ERP) effects related to visual multidimensional selective attention and how are these processes organized? We recorded ERPs when participants attended to one conjunction of color, global shape and local shape and ignored other

  18. Responsivity to dyslexia training indexed by the N170 amplitude of the brain potential elicited by word reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraga González, G.; Žarić, G.; Tijms, J.; Bonte, M.; Blomert, L.; Leppänen, P.; van der Molen, M.W.

    The present study examined training effects in dyslexic children on reading fluency and the amplitude of N170, a negative brain-potential component elicited by letter and symbol strings. A group of 18 children with dyslexia in 3rd grade (9.05 ± 0.46 years old) was tested before and after following a

  19. On the Automaticity of Emotion Processing in Words and Faces: Event-Related Brain Potentials Evidence from a Superficial Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rellecke, Julian; Palazova, Marina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which emotional aspects of stimuli are processed automatically is controversial. Here, we assessed the automatic elicitation of emotion-related brain potentials (ERPs) to positive, negative, and neutral words and facial expressions in an easy and superficial face-word discrimination task, for which the emotional valence was…

  20. Indicators of Potential Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Murshed, Syed

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSummary: This paper focuses on the main factors that contribute to the dangers of violent internal conflict erupting, or re-igniting after a peace has been concluded. The conflict literature has identified greed and grievance as the principle causes of conflict. But for either of them to take the form of large-scale violence there must be other factors at work, specifically a weakening of the ʻsocial contractʼ. Such a viable social contract can be sufficient to restrain opportunis...

  1. Indicators of Potential Conflict.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSummary: This paper focuses on the main factors that contribute to the dangers of violent internal conflict erupting, or re-igniting after a peace has been concluded. The conflict literature has identified greed and grievance as the principle causes of conflict. But for either of them to

  2. Predictors of Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury: New Insight Using Receiver Operating Curve Indices and Bayesian Network Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Zador

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury remains a global health problem. Understanding the relative importance of outcome predictors helps optimize our treatment strategies by informing assessment protocols, clinical decisions and trial designs. In this study we establish importance ranking for outcome predictors based on receiver operating indices to identify key predictors of outcome and create simple predictive models. We then explore the associations between key outcome predictors using Bayesian networks to gain further insight into predictor importance.We analyzed the corticosteroid randomization after significant head injury (CRASH trial database of 10008 patients and included patients for whom demographics, injury characteristics, computer tomography (CT findings and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GCS were recorded (total of 13 predictors, which would be available to clinicians within a few hours following the injury in 6945 patients. Predictions of clinical outcome (death or severe disability at 6 months were performed using logistic regression models with 5-fold cross validation. Predictive performance was measured using standardized partial area (pAUC under the receiver operating curve (ROC and we used Delong test for comparisons. Variable importance ranking was based on pAUC targeted at specificity (pAUCSP and sensitivity (pAUCSE intervals of 90-100%. Probabilistic associations were depicted using Bayesian networks.Complete AUC analysis showed very good predictive power (AUC = 0.8237, 95% CI: 0.8138-0.8336 for the complete model. Specificity focused importance ranking highlighted age, pupillary, motor responses, obliteration of basal cisterns/3rd ventricle and midline shift. Interestingly when targeting model sensitivity, the highest-ranking variables were age, severe extracranial injury, verbal response, hematoma on CT and motor response. Simplified models, which included only these key predictors, had similar performance (pAUCSP = 0.6523, 95% CI: 0

  3. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for brain metastases from lung cancer. Evaluation of indications and predictors of local control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Takeaki [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Radiation Oncology, Hyogo (Japan); Seirei Mikatahara General Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Shizuoka (Japan); Yamada, Kazunari; Isogai, Kenta; Tonosaki, Yoshihiro [Seirei Mikatahara General Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Shizuoka (Japan); Harada, Aya [Kobe Minimum Invasive Cancer Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Hyogo (Japan); Demizu, Yusuke [Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hyogo (Japan); Miyawaki, Daisuke; Yoshida, Kenji; Ejima, Yasuo; Sasaki, Ryohei [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Radiation Oncology, Hyogo (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) for brain metastases (BMs) from lung cancer, and to explore prognostic factors associated with local control (LC) and indication. We evaluated patients who were treated with linac-based HSRT for BMs from lung cancer. Lesions treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the same patients during the same periods were analysed and compared with HSRT in terms of LC or toxicity. There were 53 patients with 214 lesions selected for this analysis (HSRT: 76 lesions, SRS: 138 lesions). For HSRT, the median prescribed dose was 35 Gy in 5 fractions. The 1-year LC rate was 83.6 % in HSRT; on multivariate analysis, a planning target volume (PTV) of <4 cm{sup 3}, biologically effective dose (BED{sub 10}) of ≥51 Gy, and adenocarcinoma were significantly associated with better LC. Moreover, in PTVs ≥ 4 cm{sup 3}, there was a significant difference in LC between BED{sub 10} < 51 Gy and ≥ 51 Gy (p = 0.024). On the other hand, in PTVs < 4 cm{sup 3}, both HSRT and SRS had good LC with no significant difference (p = 0.195). Radiation necrosis emerged in 5 of 76 lesions (6.6 %) treated with HSRT and 21 of 138 (15.2 %) lesions treated with SRS (p = 0.064). Linac-based HSRT was safe and effective for BMs from lung cancer, and hence might be particularly useful in or near an eloquent area. PTV, BED{sub 10}, and pathological type were significant prognostic factors. Furthermore, in BMs ≥ 4 cm{sup 3}, a dose of BED ≥ 51 Gy should be considered. (orig.) [German] Beurteilung von Wirksamkeit und Toxizitaet einer hypofraktionierten stereotaktischen Strahlentherapie (HSRT) zur Behandlung von Hirnmetastasen (HM) eines Lungenkarzinoms und Erforschung von mit der lokalen Kontrolle (LK) und der Indikation assoziierten Prognosefaktoren. Analysiert wurden Daten von Patienten (n = 53), die sich einer Linearbeschleuniger-basierten HSRT unterzogen (mit HSRT behandelte Laesionen n = 76; Median der

  4. Mechanical characterization of human brain tumors from patients and comparison to potential surgical phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Daniel C; Rubiano, Andrés; Dyson, Kyle; Simmons, Chelsey S

    2017-01-01

    While mechanical properties of the brain have been investigated thoroughly, the mechanical properties of human brain tumors rarely have been directly quantified due to the complexities of acquiring human tissue. Quantifying the mechanical properties of brain tumors is a necessary prerequisite, though, to identify appropriate materials for surgical tool testing and to define target parameters for cell biology and tissue engineering applications. Since characterization methods vary widely for soft biological and synthetic materials, here, we have developed a characterization method compatible with abnormally shaped human brain tumors, mouse tumors, animal tissue and common hydrogels, which enables direct comparison among samples. Samples were tested using a custom-built millimeter-scale indenter, and resulting force-displacement data is analyzed to quantify the steady-state modulus of each sample. We have directly quantified the quasi-static mechanical properties of human brain tumors with effective moduli ranging from 0.17-16.06 kPa for various pathologies. Of the readily available and inexpensive animal tissues tested, chicken liver (steady-state modulus 0.44 ± 0.13 kPa) has similar mechanical properties to normal human brain tissue while chicken crassus gizzard muscle (steady-state modulus 3.00 ± 0.65 kPa) has similar mechanical properties to human brain tumors. Other materials frequently used to mimic brain tissue in mechanical tests, like ballistic gel and chicken breast, were found to be significantly stiffer than both normal and diseased brain tissue. We have directly compared quasi-static properties of brain tissue, brain tumors, and common mechanical surrogates, though additional tests would be required to determine more complex constitutive models.

  5. Mechanical characterization of human brain tumors from patients and comparison to potential surgical phantoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C Stewart

    Full Text Available While mechanical properties of the brain have been investigated thoroughly, the mechanical properties of human brain tumors rarely have been directly quantified due to the complexities of acquiring human tissue. Quantifying the mechanical properties of brain tumors is a necessary prerequisite, though, to identify appropriate materials for surgical tool testing and to define target parameters for cell biology and tissue engineering applications. Since characterization methods vary widely for soft biological and synthetic materials, here, we have developed a characterization method compatible with abnormally shaped human brain tumors, mouse tumors, animal tissue and common hydrogels, which enables direct comparison among samples. Samples were tested using a custom-built millimeter-scale indenter, and resulting force-displacement data is analyzed to quantify the steady-state modulus of each sample. We have directly quantified the quasi-static mechanical properties of human brain tumors with effective moduli ranging from 0.17-16.06 kPa for various pathologies. Of the readily available and inexpensive animal tissues tested, chicken liver (steady-state modulus 0.44 ± 0.13 kPa has similar mechanical properties to normal human brain tissue while chicken crassus gizzard muscle (steady-state modulus 3.00 ± 0.65 kPa has similar mechanical properties to human brain tumors. Other materials frequently used to mimic brain tissue in mechanical tests, like ballistic gel and chicken breast, were found to be significantly stiffer than both normal and diseased brain tissue. We have directly compared quasi-static properties of brain tissue, brain tumors, and common mechanical surrogates, though additional tests would be required to determine more complex constitutive models.

  6. Mechanical characterization of human brain tumors from patients and comparison to potential surgical phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiano, Andrés; Dyson, Kyle; Simmons, Chelsey S.

    2017-01-01

    While mechanical properties of the brain have been investigated thoroughly, the mechanical properties of human brain tumors rarely have been directly quantified due to the complexities of acquiring human tissue. Quantifying the mechanical properties of brain tumors is a necessary prerequisite, though, to identify appropriate materials for surgical tool testing and to define target parameters for cell biology and tissue engineering applications. Since characterization methods vary widely for soft biological and synthetic materials, here, we have developed a characterization method compatible with abnormally shaped human brain tumors, mouse tumors, animal tissue and common hydrogels, which enables direct comparison among samples. Samples were tested using a custom-built millimeter-scale indenter, and resulting force-displacement data is analyzed to quantify the steady-state modulus of each sample. We have directly quantified the quasi-static mechanical properties of human brain tumors with effective moduli ranging from 0.17–16.06 kPa for various pathologies. Of the readily available and inexpensive animal tissues tested, chicken liver (steady-state modulus 0.44 ± 0.13 kPa) has similar mechanical properties to normal human brain tissue while chicken crassus gizzard muscle (steady-state modulus 3.00 ± 0.65 kPa) has similar mechanical properties to human brain tumors. Other materials frequently used to mimic brain tissue in mechanical tests, like ballistic gel and chicken breast, were found to be significantly stiffer than both normal and diseased brain tissue. We have directly compared quasi-static properties of brain tissue, brain tumors, and common mechanical surrogates, though additional tests would be required to determine more complex constitutive models. PMID:28582392

  7. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Cecotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available New paradigms are required in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI systems for the needs and expectations of healthy people. To solve this issue, we explore the emerging field of cooperative BCIs, which involves several users in a single BCI system. Contrary to classical BCIs that are dependent on the unique subject’s will, cooperative BCIs are used for problem solving tasks where several people shall be engaged by sharing a common goal. Similarly as combining trials over time improves performance, combining trials across subjects can significantly improve performance compared with when only a single user is involved. Yet, cooperative BCIs may only be used in particular settings, and new paradigms must be proposed to efficiently use this approach. The possible benefits of using several subjects are addressed, and compared with current single-subject BCI paradigms. To show the advantages of a cooperative BCI, we evaluate the performance of combining decisions across subjects with data from an event-related potentials (ERP based experiment where each subject observed the same sequence of visual stimuli. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to achieve a mean AUC superior to 0.95 with 10 subjects and 3 electrodes on each subject, or with 4 subjects and 6 electrodes on each subject. Several emerging challenges and possible applications are proposed to highlight how cooperative BCIs could be efficiently used with current technologies and leverage BCI applications.

  8. Optimal digital filters for long-latency components of the event-related brain potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwell, L A; Martinerie, J M; Bashore, T R; Rapp, P E; Goddard, P H

    1993-05-01

    A fundamentally important problem for cognitive psychophysiologists is selection of the appropriate off-line digital filter to extract signal from noise in the event-related brain potential (ERP) recorded at the scalp. Investigators in the field typically use a type of finite impulse response (FIR) filter known as moving average or boxcar filter to achieve this end. However, this type of filter can produce significant amplitude diminution and distortion of the shape of the ERP waveform. Thus, there is a need to identify more appropriate filters. In this paper, we compare the performance of another type of FIR filter that, unlike the boxcar filter, is designed with an optimizing algorithm that reduces signal distortion and maximizes signal extraction (referred to here as an optimal FIR filter). We applied several different filters of both types to ERP data containing the P300 component. This comparison revealed that boxcar filters reduced the contribution of high-frequency noise to the ERP but in so doing produced a substantial attenuation of P300 amplitude and, in some cases, substantial distortions of the shape of the waveform, resulting in significant errors in latency estimation. In contrast, the optimal FIR filters preserved P300 amplitude, morphology, and latency and also eliminated high-frequency noise more effectively than did the boxcar filters. The implications of these results for data acquisition and analysis are discussed.

  9. The role of event-related brain potentials in assessing central auditory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alain, Claude; Tremblay, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    The perception of complex acoustic signals such as speech and music depends on the interaction between peripheral and central auditory processing. As information travels from the cochlea to primary and associative auditory cortices, the incoming sound is subjected to increasingly more detailed and refined analysis. These various levels of analyses are thought to include low-level automatic processes that detect, discriminate and group sounds that are similar in physical attributes such as frequency, intensity, and location as well as higher-level schema-driven processes that reflect listeners' experience and knowledge of the auditory environment. In this review, we describe studies that have used event-related brain potentials in investigating the processing of complex acoustic signals (e.g., speech, music). In particular, we examine the role of hearing loss on the neural representation of sound and how cognitive factors and learning can help compensate for perceptual difficulties. The notion of auditory scene analysis is used as a conceptual framework for interpreting and studying the perception of sound.

  10. Meditation (Vipassana) and the P3a event-related brain potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, B Rael; Polich, John

    2009-04-01

    A three-stimulus auditory oddball series was presented to experienced Vipassana meditators during meditation and a control thought period to elicit event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in the two different mental states. The stimuli consisted of a frequent standard tone (500 Hz), an infrequent oddball tone (1000 Hz), and an infrequent distracter (white noise), with all stimuli passively presented through headphones and no task imposed. The strongest meditation compared to control state effects occurred for the distracter stimuli: N1 amplitude from the distracter was reduced frontally during meditation; P2 amplitude from both the distracter and oddball stimuli were somewhat reduced during meditation; P3a amplitude from the distracter was reduced during meditation. The meditation-induced reduction in P3a amplitude was strongest in participants reporting more hours of daily meditation practice and was not evident in participants reporting drowsiness during their experimental meditative session. The findings suggest that meditation state can decrease the amplitude of neurophysiologic processes that subserve attentional engagement elicited by unexpected and distracting stimuli. Consistent with the aim of Vipassana meditation to reduce cognitive and emotional reactivity, the state effect of reduced P3a amplitude to distracting stimuli reflects decreased automated reactivity and evaluative processing of task irrelevant attention-demanding stimuli.

  11. Sensory gating revisited: relation between brain oscillations and auditory evoked potentials in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhaus-Dumke, Anke; Mueller, Ralf; Faigle, Ulrich; Klosterkoetter, Joachim

    2008-02-01

    Disturbances of auditory information processing have repeatedly been shown in schizophrenia. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurophysiological underpinnings of habituation in auditory processing and its disturbance in schizophrenia we used three different approaches to analyze auditory evoked responses, namely phase-locking (PL) analyses, single trial amplitudes, and averaged event-related potentials (P50 and N100). Given that brain oscillations reflect the neuronal correlates of information processing we hypothesized that PL and amplitudes reflect even more essential parts of auditory processing than the averaged ERP responses. In 32 schizophrenia patients and 32 matched controls EEG was continuously recorded using an auditory paired click paradigm. PL of the lower frequency bands (alpha and theta) was significantly reduced in patients whereas no significant differences were present in higher frequencies (gamma and beta). Alpha and theta PL and amplitudes showed a marked increase after the first click and to a minor degree after the second one. This habituation was more prominent in controls whereas in schizophrenia patients the response to both clicks differed only slightly. N100 suppression was significantly reduced in schizophrenia patients whereas no group differences were present with respect to the P50. This corresponded to the finding that gamma mostly contributed to the prediction of the P50 response and theta mostly to the N100 response. Our data showed that analyzing phase and amplitude in single trials provides more information on auditory information processing and reflects differences between schizophrenia patients and controls better than analyzing the averaged ERP responses.

  12. [Synchronization and propagation of electrical potentials in neural networks of the brain cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, V G; Zaĭchenko, M I

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the published data the scheme is proposed which explains the spread and synhronization of oscillatory activity in cortex. The main property of the neocortex is the existence of vertically oriented functional columns. Within and between the neuronal columns exist a feedforward and feedback morphological and functional connections. At the certain conditions inside the single module temporal windows are created using inhibitory process, and a synchronized activity can be generated of variable frequency (oscillations). The activity in the columns is enhanced by the synchronous involvement of great amount of neurons which is expressed in the form of local field potentials of high amplitude. Further the information about arisen in a single generator activity is transmitted through direct links to the nearby generator or to the group of such generators. In the nearby generator the activity increases and is transferred to the next generator. At the same time the signal is transmitted through feedback to the primary generator, and the activity is terminated until the next cycle will be initiated and so on along the cortex. The most important notion is that in the transfer of activity from one generator to another is involved a small number of elements. The major part of recorded oscillations of different frequency or epileptiform discharges, is not transmitted via the brain, but is generated in each module according to the characteristics transferred to it. The generation of epileptiform spikes occurs in cases when balance of inhibition determined by GABA A and GABA B receptors is disturbed.

  13. Emotional Granularity Effects on Event-Related Brain Potentials during Affective Picture Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja Y; Lindquist, Kristen A; Nam, Chang S

    2017-01-01

    There is debate about whether emotional granularity, the tendency to label emotions in a nuanced and specific manner, is merely a product of labeling abilities, or a systematic difference in the experience of emotion during emotionally evocative events. According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion (CAT) (Barrett, 2006), emotional granularity is due to the latter and is a product of on-going temporal differences in how individuals categorize and thus make meaning of their affective states. To address this question, the present study investigated the effects of individual differences in emotional granularity on electroencephalography-based brain activity during the experience of emotion in response to affective images. Event-related potentials (ERP) and event-related desynchronization and synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis techniques were used. We found that ERP responses during the very early (60-90 ms), middle (270-300 ms), and later (540-570 ms) moments of stimulus presentation were associated with individuals' level of granularity. We also observed that highly granular individuals, compared to lowly granular individuals, exhibited relatively stable desynchronization of alpha power (8-12 Hz) and synchronization of gamma power (30-50 Hz) during the 3 s of stimulus presentation. Overall, our results suggest that emotional granularity is related to differences in neural processing throughout emotional experiences and that high granularity could be associated with access to executive control resources and a more habitual processing of affective stimuli, or a kind of "emotional complexity." Implications for models of emotion are also discussed.

  14. Idle state classification using spiking activity and local field potentials in a brain computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jordan J; Tien, Rex N; Inoue, Yoh; Schwartz, Andrew B

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies of intracortical brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have often focused on or compared the use of spiking activity and local field potentials (LFPs) for decoding kinematic movement parameters. Conversely, using these signals to detect the initial intention to use a neuroprosthetic device or not has remained a relatively understudied problem. In this study, we examined the relative performance of spiking activity and LFP signals in detecting discrete state changes in attention regarding a user's desire to actively control a BCI device. Preliminary offline results suggest that the beta and high gamma frequency bands of LFP activity demonstrated a capacity for discriminating idle/active BCI control states equal to or greater than firing rate activity on the same channel. Population classifier models using either signal modality demonstrated an indistinguishably high degree of accuracy in decoding rest periods from active BCI reach periods as well as other portions of active BCI task trials. These results suggest that either signal modality may be used to reliably detect discrete state changes on a fine time scale for the purpose of gating neural prosthetic movements.

  15. Cognitive event-related potentials and brain magnetic resonance imaging in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, T; Ikeda, T; Uyama, E; Uchino, M; Okabe, H; Ando, M

    1994-10-01

    Auditory and visual cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) were investigated in 14 patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM) and in 36 normal controls. In the HAM patients, the latencies of P300 and N200 by the auditory tone method were significantly delayed, and N100 by the auditory click method was significantly delayed in latency. No abnormal ERP components were observed with visual methods. While these auditory abnormal ERPs were present in the HAM patients, there was no evidence of visual abnormal ERPs. Abnormal lesions on the white matter were evident at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 6 (75%) of 8 patients. There was no correlation between MRI lesions and the abnormalities of ERPs, but there was a significant correlation between bifrontal index on MRI and P300 amplitudes at Cz and Pz sites by auditory tone method. In one patient, atrophy of bilateral parietal lobes was seen on MRI and P300 latencies delayed using various methods. Therefore, the possibility that electrophysiological cognitive impairment in patients with HAM is related to brain atrophy rather than to white matter lesions requires attention.

  16. Instrumentation to Record Evoked Potentials for Closed-Loop Control of Deep Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Alexander R.; Grill, Warren M.

    2012-01-01

    Closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems offer promise in relieving the clinical burden of stimulus parameter selection and improving treatment outcomes. In such a system, a feedback signal is used to adjust automatically stimulation parameters and optimize the efficacy of stimulation. We explored the feasibility of recording electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) during DBS for use as a feedback control signal. A novel instrumentation system was developed to suppress the stimulus artifact and amplify the small magnitude, short latency ECAP response during DBS with clinically relevant parameters. In vitro testing demonstrated the capabilities to increase the gain by a factor of 1,000x over a conventional amplifier without saturation, reduce distortion of mock ECAP signals, and make high fidelity recordings of mock ECAPs at latencies of only 0.5 ms following DBS pulses of 50 to 100 μs duration. Subsequently, the instrumentation was used to make in vivo recordings of ECAPs during thalamic DBS in cats, without contamination by the stimulus artifact. The signal characteristics were similar across three experiments, suggesting common neural activation patterns. The ECAP recordings enabled with this novel instrumentation may provide insight into the type and spatial extent of neural elements activated during DBS, and could serve as feedback control signals for closed-loop systems. PMID:22255894

  17. Subliminal Emotional Words Impact Syntactic Processing: Evidence from Performance and Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jiménez-Ortega

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that syntactic processing can be affected by emotional information and that subliminal emotional information can also affect cognitive processes. In this study, we explore whether unconscious emotional information may also impact syntactic processing. In an Event-Related brain Potential (ERP study, positive, neutral and negative subliminal adjectives were inserted within neutral sentences, just before the presentation of the supraliminal adjective. They could either be correct (50% or contain a morphosyntactic violation (number or gender disagreements. Larger error rates were observed for incorrect sentences than for correct ones, in contrast to most studies using supraliminal information. Strikingly, emotional adjectives affected the conscious syntactic processing of sentences containing morphosyntactic anomalies. The neutral condition elicited left anterior negativity (LAN followed by a P600 component. However, a lack of anterior negativity and an early P600 onset for the negative condition were found, probably as a result of the negative subliminal correct adjective capturing early syntactic resources. Positive masked adjectives in turn prompted an N400 component in response to morphosyntactic violations, probably reflecting the induction of a heuristic processing mode involving access to lexico-semantic information to solve agreement anomalies. Our results add to recent evidence on the impact of emotional information on syntactic processing, while showing that this can occur even when the reader is unaware of the emotional stimuli.

  18. Time-Shift Correlation Algorithm for P300 Event Related Potential Brain-Computer Interface Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Chou, Hung-Chyun; Chen, Chien-Hsiu; Lin, Yi-Tseng; Kuo, Chung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI). The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN), and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM) and accuracy-recognition mode (AM), were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR). When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints.

  19. Time-Shift Correlation Algorithm for P300 Event Related Potential Brain-Computer Interface Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chi Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI. The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN, and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM and accuracy-recognition mode (AM, were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR. When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints.

  20. Brain catalase mediates potentiation of social recognition memory produced by ethanol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Héctor M; Miquel, Marta; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2005-09-01

    The involvement of catalase in ethanol-induced locomotion has been clearly proven. However, studies addressing the role of this enzyme in the effects that ethanol exerts on memory are lacking. In the present study, the social recognition test (SRT) was used to evaluate ethanol effects on memory. In this test, the reduction in investigation time of a juvenile conspecific, when this social stimulus is presented for the second time, is considered a reliable index of memory. Exploration ratios (ER) were calculated to evaluate the recognition capacity of mice. Ethanol (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5g/kg, i.p.) was administered immediately after the first juvenile presentation, and 2h later the juvenile was re-exposed to the adult. Additionally, adult mice received aminotriazole (AT) or sodium azide (two catalase inhibitors) 5h or 30 min before juvenile presentation, respectively. Ethanol (1.0 and 1.5g/kg) was able to reduce ER, indicating an improving effect on memory. This improvement was prevented by either AT or sodium azide pre-treatment. However, neither AT nor sodium azide attenuated the memory-enhancing capacity of NMDA or nicotine, suggesting a specific interaction between catalase inhibitors and ethanol in their effects on memory. The present results suggest that brain catalase activity could mediate the memory-enhancing capacity of ethanol and add further support to the idea that this enzyme mediates some of the psychopharmacological effects produced by ethanol.

  1. P300 Event-Related Potentials Differentiate Better Performing Individuals With Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Study of Semantic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tara M; Hill, Benjamin D; Evans, Kelli J; Tiffin, Shelby; Stanley, Nicholas; Fields, Kelly; Russ, Katherine; Bindele, Huybrechts Frazier; Gordon-Hickey, Susan

    To measure the effect of traumatic brain injury on the cognitive processing of words, as measured by the P300, in a semantic categorization task. Eight adults with a history of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury and 8 age- and gender-matched controls. A pilot study measuring cognitive event-related potentials in response to word pairs that were either in same or different semantic categories. The P300 (P3b) component of the auditory event-related potential and neuropsychological assessment. Two patterns of P300 amplitude related to brain injury were observed. Participants with poorer performance on neuropsychological tests exhibited reduced P300 amplitude as compared to controls but showed the typical P300 parietal scalp distribution. In contrast, better performing participants demonstrated robust P300 amplitude but a substantially altered scalp distribution, characterized by the recruitment of anterior brain regions in addition to parietal activation. The recruitment of frontal areas after traumatic brain injury may represent compensatory neural mechanisms utilized to successfully maximize task performance. The P300 in a semantic processing paradigm may be a sensitive marker of neural plasticity that could be used to improve functional outcomes in cognitive remediation paradigms.

  2. Acute stress potentiates brain response to milkshake as a function of body weight and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenga, K J; Sinha, R; Small, D M

    2013-02-01

    Stress is associated with an increased intake of palatable foods and with weight gain, particularly in overweight women. Stress, food and body mass index (BMI) have been separately shown to affect amygdala activity. However, it is not known whether stress influences amygdala responses to palatable foods, and whether this response is associated with chronic stress or BMI. A total of 14 overweight and obese women participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan as they consumed a palatable milkshake during script-driven, autobiographical, guided imagery of stressful and neutral-relaxing scenarios. We report that a network including insula, somatomotor mouth area, ventral striatum and thalamus responds to milkshake receipt, but none of these areas are affected by stress. In contrast, whereas the left amygdala responds to milkshake irrespective of condition, the right amygdala responds to milkshake only under stressful conditions. Moreover, this right amygdala response is positively associated with basal cortisol levels, an objective measure of chronic stress. We also found a positive relationship between BMI and stress-related increased response to milkshake in the orbitofrontal cortex(OFC). These results demonstrate that acute stress potentiates response to food in the right amygdala and OFC as a function of chronic stress and body weight, respectively. This suggests that the influence of acute stress in potentiating amygdala and OFC responses to food is dependent upon individual factors like BMI and chronic stress. We conclude that BMI and chronic stress play a significant role in brain response to food and in stress-related eating.

  3. Routine Repeat Head CT may not be Indicated in Patients on Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Therapy Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    McCammack, Kevin C.; Sadler, Charlotte; Guo, Yueyang; Ramaswamy, Raja S.; Farid, Nikdokht

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluation recommendations for patients on anticoagulant and antiplatelet (ACAP) therapy that present after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) are controversial. At our institution, an initial noncontrast head computed tomography (HCT) is performed, with a subsequent HCT performed six hours later to exclude delayed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). This study was performed to evaluate the yield and advisability of this approach. Methods: We performed a retrospe...

  4. Different Brain Wave Patterns and Cortical Control Abilities in Relation to Different Creative Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Han; Tseng, Chao-Yuan; Tsai, Arthur Chih-Hsin; Huang, Andrew Chih-Wei; Lin, Wei-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary understanding of brain functions provides a way to probe into the mystery of creativity. However, the prior evidence regarding the relationship between creativity and brain wave patterns reveals inconsistent conclusions. One possible reason might be that the means of selecting creative individuals in the past has varied in each study.…

  5. Brain-behavioral adaptability predicts response to cognitive behavioral therapy for emotional disorders: A person-centered event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P; MacNamara, Annmarie; Kennedy, Amy E; Hajcak, Greg; Phan, K Luan; Klumpp, Heide

    2017-06-23

    Single-trial-level analyses afford the ability to link neural indices of elaborative attention (such as the late positive potential [LPP], an event-related potential) with downstream markers of attentional processing (such as reaction time [RT]). This approach can provide useful information about individual differences in information processing, such as the ability to adapt behavior based on attentional demands ("brain-behavioral adaptability"). Anxiety and depression are associated with maladaptive information processing implicating aberrant cognition-emotion interactions, but whether brain-behavioral adaptability predicts response to psychotherapy is not known. We used a novel person-centered, trial-level analysis approach to link neural indices of stimulus processing to behavioral responses and to predict treatment outcome. Thirty-nine patients with anxiety and/or depression received 12 weeks of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Prior to treatment, patients performed a speeded reaction-time task involving briefly-presented pairs of aversive and neutral pictures while electroencephalography was recorded. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that larger LPPs predicted slower responses on subsequent trials, suggesting that increased attention to the task-irrelevant nature of pictures interfered with reaction time on subsequent trials. Whereas using LPP and RT averages did not distinguish CBT responders from nonresponders, in trial-level analyses individuals who demonstrated greater ability to benefit behaviorally (i.e., faster RT) from smaller LPPs on the previous trial (greater brain-behavioral adaptability) were more likely to respond to treatment and showed greater improvements in depressive symptoms. These results highlight the utility of trial-level analyses to elucidate variability in within-subjects, brain-behavioral attentional coupling in the context of emotion processing, in predicting response to CBT for emotional disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  6. Aggregation of sparse linear discriminant analyses for event-related potential classification in brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Guoxu; Jin, Jing; Zhao, Qibin; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2014-02-01

    Two main issues for event-related potential (ERP) classification in brain-computer interface (BCI) application are curse-of-dimensionality and bias-variance tradeoff, which may deteriorate classification performance, especially with insufficient training samples resulted from limited calibration time. This study introduces an aggregation of sparse linear discriminant analyses (ASLDA) to overcome these problems. In the ASLDA, multiple sparse discriminant vectors are learned from differently l1-regularized least-squares regressions by exploiting the equivalence between LDA and least-squares regression, and are subsequently aggregated to form an ensemble classifier, which could not only implement automatic feature selection for dimensionality reduction to alleviate curse-of-dimensionality, but also decrease the variance to improve generalization capacity for new test samples. Extensive investigation and comparison are carried out among the ASLDA, the ordinary LDA and other competing ERP classification algorithms, based on different three ERP datasets. Experimental results indicate that the ASLDA yields better overall performance for single-trial ERP classification when insufficient training samples are available. This suggests the proposed ASLDA is promising for ERP classification in small sample size scenario to improve the practicability of BCI.

  7. Social identity-based motivation modulates attention bias toward negative information: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalan, Benoît; Boitout, Alexis; Veujoz, Mathieu; Leleu, Arnaud; Germain, Raymonde; Personnaz, Bernard; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that people readily pay more attention to negative than to positive and/or neutral stimuli. However, evidence from recent studies indicated that such an attention bias to negative information is not obligatory but sensitive to various factors. Two experiments using intergroup evaluative tasks (Study 1: a gender-related groups evaluative task and Study 2: a minimal-related groups evaluative task) was conducted to determine whether motivation to strive for a positive social identity - a part of one's self-concept - drives attention toward affective stimuli. Using the P1 component of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) as a neural index of attention, we confirmed that attention bias toward negative stimuli is not mandatory but it can depend on a motivational focus on affective outcomes. Results showed that social identity-based motivation is likely to bias attention toward affectively incongruent information. Thereby, early onset processes - reflected by the P1 component - appeared susceptible to top-down attentional influences induced by the individual's motivation to strive for a positive social identity.

  8. Design, synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity study of benzodiazepine-mustard conjugates as potential brain anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of two pharmacological entities in a single compound has been utilized as a promising drug design strategy for site-specificity. So two nitrogen mustard agents were synthesized by conjugating mustard with the benzodiazepine nucleus in the hope to obtain central nervous system (CNS antitumor agents. The benzodiazepine part is aimed to serve as a CNS active carrier enabling the alkylating moiety to cross the BBB by altering its physicochemical properties. Structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, NMR (1H & 13C, mass spectral and elemental studies. The benzodiazepine-mustard conjugates are oily at room temperature and quite stable when stored in refrigerator for 2 months. Both compounds when evaluated for NBP alkylating activity against chlorambucil, proved to be active alkylating agents. The compounds were markedly active when subjected to in vitro biological evaluation using an MTT colorimetric assay against four human cancer cell lines (A-549, COLO 205, U-87 MG and IMR-32. The physicochemical ADME studies were also analyzed using Qikprop 2.5 tools of Schodinger software which further indicates that both compounds can be potential candidates for the treatment of brain tumor.

  9. Phonological abilities in literacy-impaired children: Brain potentials reveal deficient phoneme discrimination, but intact prosodic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Männel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Intact phonological processing is crucial for successful literacy acquisition. While individuals with difficulties in reading and spelling (i.e., developmental dyslexia are known to experience deficient phoneme discrimination (i.e., segmental phonology, findings concerning their prosodic processing (i.e., suprasegmental phonology are controversial. Because there are no behavior-independent studies on the underlying neural correlates of prosodic processing in dyslexia, these controversial findings might be explained by different task demands. To provide an objective behavior-independent picture of segmental and suprasegmental phonological processing in impaired literacy acquisition, we investigated event-related brain potentials during passive listening in typically and poor-spelling German school children. For segmental phonology, we analyzed the Mismatch Negativity (MMN during vowel length discrimination, capturing automatic auditory deviancy detection in repetitive contexts. For suprasegmental phonology, we analyzed the Closure Positive Shift (CPS that automatically occurs in response to prosodic boundaries. Our results revealed spelling group differences for the MMN, but not for the CPS, indicating deficient segmental, but intact suprasegmental phonological processing in poor spellers. The present findings point towards a differential role of segmental and suprasegmental phonology in literacy disorders and call for interventions that invigorate impaired literacy by utilizing intact prosody in addition to training deficient phonemic awareness.

  10. Circulating Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells (cBMECs) as Potential Biomarkers of the Blood–Brain Barrier Disorders Caused by Microbial and Non-Microbial Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Hua; Cao, Hong; Zhang, Aimin; Jong, Ambrose

    2013-01-01

    Despite aggressive research, central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury caused by microbial infection, stroke, abused drugs [e.g., methamphetamine (METH) and nicotine], and other pathogenic insults, remain the world's leading cause of disabilities. In our previous work, we found that dysfunction of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), which are a major component of the BBB, could be caused by nicotine, meningitic pathogens and microbial factors, including HIV-1 virulence factors gp41 and gp120. One of the most challenging issues in this area is that there are no available cell-based biomarkers in peripheral blood for BBB disorders caused by microbial and non-microbial insults. To identify such cellular biomarkers for BBB injuries, our studies have shown that mice treated with nicotine, METH and gp120 resulted in increased blood levels of CD146+(endothelial marker)/S100B+ (brain marker) circulating BMECs (cBMECs) and CD133+[progenitor cell (PC) marker]/CD146+ endothelial PCs (EPCs), along with enhanced Evans blue and albumin extravasation into the brain. Nicotine and gp120 were able to significantly increase the serum levels of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1) (a new BBB marker) as well as S100B in mice, which are correlated with the changes in cBMECs and EPCs. Nicotine- and meningitic E. coli K1-induced enhancement of cBMEC levels, leukocyte migration across the BBB and albumin extravasation into the brain were significantly reduced in alpha7 nAChR knockout mice, suggesting that this inflammatory regulator plays an important role in CNS inflammation and BBB disorders caused by microbial and non-microbial factors. These results demonstrated that cBMECs as well as EPCs may be used as potential cell-based biomarkers for indexing of BBB injury. PMID:23637989

  11. Circulating brain microvascular endothelial cells (cBMECs) as potential biomarkers of the blood-brain barrier disorders caused by microbial and non-microbial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-He; Wang, Lin; Chi, Feng; Wu, Chun-Hua; Cao, Hong; Zhang, Aimin; Jong, Ambrose

    2013-01-01

    Despite aggressive research, central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury caused by microbial infection, stroke, abused drugs [e.g., methamphetamine (METH) and nicotine], and other pathogenic insults, remain the world's leading cause of disabilities. In our previous work, we found that dysfunction of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), which are a major component of the BBB, could be caused by nicotine, meningitic pathogens and microbial factors, including HIV-1 virulence factors gp41 and gp120. One of the most challenging issues in this area is that there are no available cell-based biomarkers in peripheral blood for BBB disorders caused by microbial and non-microbial insults. To identify such cellular biomarkers for BBB injuries, our studies have shown that mice treated with nicotine, METH and gp120 resulted in increased blood levels of CD146+(endothelial marker)/S100B+ (brain marker) circulating BMECs (cBMECs) and CD133+[progenitor cell (PC) marker]/CD146+ endothelial PCs (EPCs), along with enhanced Evans blue and albumin extravasation into the brain. Nicotine and gp120 were able to significantly increase the serum levels of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1) (a new BBB marker) as well as S100B in mice, which are correlated with the changes in cBMECs and EPCs. Nicotine- and meningitic E. coli K1-induced enhancement of cBMEC levels, leukocyte migration across the BBB and albumin extravasation into the brain were significantly reduced in alpha7 nAChR knockout mice, suggesting that this inflammatory regulator plays an important role in CNS inflammation and BBB disorders caused by microbial and non-microbial factors. These results demonstrated that cBMECs as well as EPCs may be used as potential cell-based biomarkers for indexing of BBB injury.

  12. Circulating brain microvascular endothelial cells (cBMECs as potential biomarkers of the blood-brain barrier disorders caused by microbial and non-microbial factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-He Huang

    Full Text Available Despite aggressive research, central nervous system (CNS disorders, including blood-brain barrier (BBB injury caused by microbial infection, stroke, abused drugs [e.g., methamphetamine (METH and nicotine], and other pathogenic insults, remain the world's leading cause of disabilities. In our previous work, we found that dysfunction of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs, which are a major component of the BBB, could be caused by nicotine, meningitic pathogens and microbial factors, including HIV-1 virulence factors gp41 and gp120. One of the most challenging issues in this area is that there are no available cell-based biomarkers in peripheral blood for BBB disorders caused by microbial and non-microbial insults. To identify such cellular biomarkers for BBB injuries, our studies have shown that mice treated with nicotine, METH and gp120 resulted in increased blood levels of CD146+(endothelial marker/S100B+ (brain marker circulating BMECs (cBMECs and CD133+[progenitor cell (PC marker]/CD146+ endothelial PCs (EPCs, along with enhanced Evans blue and albumin extravasation into the brain. Nicotine and gp120 were able to significantly increase the serum levels of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1 (a new BBB marker as well as S100B in mice, which are correlated with the changes in cBMECs and EPCs. Nicotine- and meningitic E. coli K1-induced enhancement of cBMEC levels, leukocyte migration across the BBB and albumin extravasation into the brain were significantly reduced in alpha7 nAChR knockout mice, suggesting that this inflammatory regulator plays an important role in CNS inflammation and BBB disorders caused by microbial and non-microbial factors. These results demonstrated that cBMECs as well as EPCs may be used as potential cell-based biomarkers for indexing of BBB injury.

  13. Exploring the potential for using drug indications to prevent look-alike and sound-alike drug errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Alqahtani, Saad; Schiff, Gordon

    2017-10-01

    Look-alike, sound-alike (LASA) drug names are a cause of medication errors with resulting patient harm and healthcare costs. This study assessed to which extent the use of the generic drug name, therapeutic class, health problem, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved indications might be used to differentiate LASA drug pairs. We collected information about LASA drug pairs reported by the FDA to have look-alike sound-alike similarities. To assess potential for differentiating LASA drug pairs, we compared the following drug characteristics: generic name, therapeutic class, health problem, and FDA-approved indication. For the 33 FDA reported LASA drug pairs we identified a total of 432 FDA-approved indications. Using the generic name, therapeutic class, health problem and drug indication we were able to differentiate 8 (24.2%), 24 (72.7%), 25 (75.8%) and 26 (78.8%), respectively of the 33 LASA drug pairs. Using the generic name, therapeutic class, and health problem we were able to distinguish 31 (7.2%), 212 (49.1%), and 269 (62.3%), respectively of the 432 FDA-approved indications for the LASA drug pairs. Including the FDA-approved indication in the drug prescription may be used to differentiate LASA drug pairs and thus, prevent wrong drug medication errors.

  14. Dogs cannot bark: event-related brain responses to true and false negated statements as indicators of higher-order conscious processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Cornelia; Kübler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level) and prime-target expressions (word level). Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences), target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600-1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients.

  15. Potential brain language reorganization in a boy with refractory epilepsy; an fNIRS–EEG and fMRI comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phetsamone Vannasing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of a presurgical investigation for a resection of a tumor located in the left temporal brain region, we evaluated pre- and postsurgical language lateralization in a right-handed boy with refractory epilepsy. In this study, we compared functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS results obtained while the participant performed expressive and receptive language tasks with those obtained using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. This case study illustrates the potential for NIRS to contribute favorably to the localization of language functions in children with epilepsy and cognitive or behavioral problems and its potential advantages over fMRI in presurgical assessment. Moreover, it suggests that fNIRS is sensitive in localizing an atypical language network or potential brain reorganization related to epilepsy in young patients.

  16. Biochemical leaf traits as indicators of tolerance potential in tree species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest against oxidative environmental stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Solange E; Bulbovas, Patricia; Lima, Marcos E L; Domingos, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    The tolerance potential against the oxidative injury in native plants from forest ecosystems affected by environmental stressors depends on how efficiently they keep their pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Great variations in plant tolerance are expected, highlighting the higher relevance of measuring biochemical leaf trait indicators of oxidative injury in species with similar functions in the forest than in single species. The use of this functional approach seems very useful in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest because it still holds high plant diversity and was the focus of this study. We aimed at determining the tolerance potential of tree species from the Atlantic Forest remnants in SE Brazil against multiple oxidative environmental stressors. We assumed that pioneer tree species are more tolerant against oxidative stress than non-pioneer tree species and that their tolerance potential vary spatially in response to distinct combined effects of oxidative environmental stressors. The study was carried out in three Atlantic Forest remnants, which differ in physiognomy, species composition, climatic characteristics and air pollution exposure. Leaves of three pioneer and three non-pioneer species were collected from each forest remnant during wet (January 2015) and dry periods (June 2015), for analyses of non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants and oxidative injury indicators. Both hypotheses were confirmed. The pioneer tree species displayed biochemical leaf traits (e.g. high levels of ascorbic acid, glutathione and carotenoids and lower lipid peroxidation) that indicate their higher potential tolerance against oxidative environmental stressors than non-pioneer species. The biochemical leaf traits of both successional groups of species varied between the forest remnants, in response to a linear combination of oxidative environmental stressors, from natural (relative humidity and temperature) and anthropogenic sources (ozone and nitrogen dioxide). Copyright © 2016

  17. Time is of the Essence: A Review of Electroencephalography (EEG) and Event-Related Brain Potentials (ERPs) in Language Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beres, Anna M

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of electroencephalography (EEG) over a century ago has changed the way we understand brain structure and function, in terms of both clinical and research applications. This paper starts with a short description of EEG and then focuses on the event-related brain potentials (ERPs), and their use in experimental settings. It describes the typical set-up of an ERP experiment. A description of a number of ERP components typically involved in language research is presented. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of using ERPs in language research are discussed. EEG has an extensive use in today's world, including medical, psychology, or linguistic research. The excellent temporal resolution of EEG information allows one to track a brain response in milliseconds and therefore makes it uniquely suited to research concerning language processing.

  18. Large-scale, high-resolution electrophysiological imaging of field potentials in brain slices with microelectronic multielectrode arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrea, E; Maccione, A; Medrihan, L; Nieus, T; Ghezzi, D; Baldelli, P; Benfenati, F; Berdondini, L

    2012-01-01

    Multielectrode arrays (MEAs) are extensively used for electrophysiological studies on brain slices, but the spatial resolution and field of recording of conventional arrays are limited by the low number of electrodes available. Here, we present a large-scale array recording simultaneously from 4096 electrodes used to study propagating spontaneous and evoked network activity in acute murine cortico-hippocampal brain slices at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. We demonstrate that multiple chemically induced epileptiform episodes in the mouse cortex and hippocampus can be classified according to their spatio-temporal dynamics. Additionally, the large-scale and high-density features of our recording system enable the topological localization and quantification of the effects of antiepileptic drugs in local neuronal microcircuits, based on the distinct field potential propagation patterns. This novel high-resolution approach paves the way to detailed electrophysiological studies in brain circuits spanning spatial scales from single neurons up to the entire slice network.

  19. Temporal Profile of Microtubule-Associated Protein 2: A Novel Indicator of Diffuse Brain Injury Severity and Early Mortality after Brain Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Linda; Robicsek, Steven A; Brophy, Gretchen M; Wang, Kevin K W; Hannay, H Julia; Heaton, Shelley; Schmalfuss, Ilona; Gabrielli, Andrea; Hayes, Ronald L; Robertson, Claudia S

    2018-01-01

    This study compared cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) from adult patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) with uninjured controls over 10 days, and examined the relationship between MAP-2 concentrations and acute clinical and radiologic measures of injury severity along with mortality at 2 weeks and over 6 months. This prospective study, conducted at two Level 1 trauma centers, enrolled adults with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score ≤8) requiring a ventriculostomy, as well as controls. Ventricular CSF was sampled from each patient at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, and 240 h following TBI and analyzed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for MAP-2 (ng/mL). Injury severity was assessed by the GCS score, Marshall Classification on computed tomography (CT), Rotterdam CT score, and mortality. There were 151 patients enrolled-130 TBI and 21 control patients. MAP-2 was detectable within 6 h of injury and was significantly elevated compared with controls (p < 0.001) at each time-point. MAP-2 was highest within 72 h of injury and decreased gradually over 10 days. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for deciphering TBI versus controls at the earliest time-point CSF was obtained was 0.96 (95% CI 0.93-0.99) and for the maximal 24-h level was 0.98 (95% CI 0.97-1.00). The area under the curve for initial MAP-2 levels predicting 2-week mortality was 0.80 at 6 h, 0.81 at 12 h, 0.75 at 18 h, 0.75 at 24 h, and 0.80 at 48 h. Those with Diffuse Injury III-IV had much higher initial (p = 0.033) and maximal (p = 0.003) MAP-2 levels than those with Diffuse Injury I-II. There was a graded increase in the overall levels and peaks of MAP-2 as the degree of diffuse injury increased within the first 120 h post-injury. These data suggest that early levels of MAP-2 reflect severity of diffuse brain injury and predict 2-week mortality in TBI patients. These

  20. Advancing the detection of steady-state visual evoked potentials in brain-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Alqumsan, Mohammad; Peer, Angelika

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Spatial filtering has proved to be a powerful pre-processing step in detection of steady-state visual evoked potentials and boosted typical detection rates both in offline analysis and online SSVEP-based brain-computer interface applications. State-of-the-art detection methods and the spatial filters used thereby share many common foundations as they all build upon the second order statistics of the acquired Electroencephalographic (EEG) data, that is, its spatial autocovariance and cross-covariance with what is assumed to be a pure SSVEP response. The present study aims at highlighting the similarities and differences between these methods. Approach. We consider the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) method as a basis for the theoretical and empirical (with real EEG data) analysis of the state-of-the-art detection methods and the spatial filters used thereby. We build upon the findings of this analysis and prior research and propose a new detection method (CVARS) that combines the power of the canonical variates and that of the autoregressive spectral analysis in estimating the signal and noise power levels. Main results. We found that the multivariate synchronization index method and the maximum contrast combination method are variations of the CCA method. All three methods were found to provide relatively unreliable detections in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes. CVARS and the minimum energy combination methods were found to provide better estimates for different SNR levels. Significance. Our theoretical and empirical results demonstrate that the proposed CVARS method outperforms other state-of-the-art detection methods when used in an unsupervised fashion. Furthermore, when used in a supervised fashion, a linear classifier learned from a short training session is able to estimate the hidden user intention, including the idle state (when the user is not attending to any stimulus), rapidly, accurately and reliably.

  1. Asynchronous gaze-independent event-related potential-based brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloise, Fabio; Aricò, Pietro; Schettini, Francesca; Salinari, Serenella; Mattia, Donatella; Cincotti, Febo

    2013-10-01

    In this study a gaze independent event related potential (ERP)-based brain computer interface (BCI) for communication purpose was combined with an asynchronous classifier endowed with dynamical stopping feature. The aim was to evaluate if and how the performance of such asynchronous system could be negatively affected in terms of communication efficiency and robustness to false positives during the intentional no-control state. The proposed system was validated with the participation of 9 healthy subjects. A comparison was performed between asynchronous and synchronous classification technique outputs while users were controlling the same gaze independent BCI interface. The performance of both classification techniques were assessed both off-line and on-line by means of the efficiency metric introduced by Bianchi et al. (2007). This latter metric allows to set a different misclassification cost for wrong classifications and abstentions. Robustness was evaluated as the rate of false positives occurring during voluntary no-control states. The asynchronous classifier did not exhibited significantly higher accuracy or lower error rate with respect to the synchronous classifier (accuracy: 74.66% versus 87.96%, error rate: 7.11% versus 12.04% respectively). However, the on-line and off-line analysis revealed that the communication efficiency was significantly improved (pinterface is a promising solution to be further explored in order to increase the general usability of ERP-based BCI systems designed for severely disabled people with an impairment of the voluntary control of eye movements. In fact, the asynchronous classifier can improve communication efficiency automatically adapting the number of stimulus repetitions to the current user's state and suspending the control if he/she does not intend to select an item. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Corticosteroids in the management of brain-dead potential organ donors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, S; Amiel, J-A; Desgroseilliers, M; Williamson, D R; Thiboutot, Z; Serri, K; Perreault, M M; Marsolais, P; Frenette, A J

    2014-09-01

    Summary Current guidelines recommend the administration of hormonal combination therapy including immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids to donors with low left ventricular ejection fractions and to consider hormonal therapy administration to all donors. However, these recommendations are largely based on observational data. The aim of this systematic review (SR) was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in brain-dead potential organ donors. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from the earliest accessible date up to March 2013 with a qualified librarian. Studies comparing the effects of any corticosteroid with those of placebo, standard treatment, or another active comparator were sought. Two independent reviewers evaluated each citation retrieved and selected studies independently and in duplicate. A third independent reviewer resolved any disagreement. Outcomes included donor haemodynamics and oxygenation, organ procurement, recipient survival, and graft survival. This review included 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 14 observational studies. The majority used methylprednisolone and often combined it with other hormonal therapies. Ten out of the 11 RCTs yielded neutral results. However, in observational studies, use of corticosteroids generally resulted in improved donor haemodynamics and oxygenation status, increased organ procurement, and improved recipient and graft survival. Overall quality of included studies was poor, as most of them presented high risks of confounding. This SR highlights the low quality and conflicting evidence supporting the routine use of corticosteroids in the management of organ donors. A large trial evaluating the effect of corticosteroids on outcomes such as organ recovery and graft survival is warranted. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Time jitter of somatosensory evoked potentials in recovery from hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Hu, Yong; Valentin, Nicolas; Geocadin, Romergryko G; Thakor, Nitish V; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2011-10-15

    Impaired neural conductivity shown by delayed latency and reduced amplitude of characteristic peaks in somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), has been used to monitor hypoxic-ischemic brain injury after cardiac arrest (CA). However, rather than characteristic peak deferral and suppression, the time jitter of the peak in SSEP related with time-variant neurological abnormalities is diminished by the commonly used ensemble average method. This paper utilizes the second order blind identification (SOBI) technique to extract characteristic peak information from one trial of SSEPs. Sixteen male Wistar rats were subjected to 7 or 9 min of asphyxial CA (n=8 per group). The SSEPs from median nerve stimulation were recorded for 4h after CA and then for 15 min periods at 24, 48 and 72 h. Neurological outcomes were evaluated by neurologic deficit score (NDS) at 72 h post-CA. The SSEP signal was analyzed offline with SOBI processing in Matlab. The N10 feature of SSEP was compared between good (NDS≥50) and bad (NDS<50) outcomes. After processed by SOBI, the N10 detection rate was significantly increased (p<0.001) from 90 min post-CA. Statistical difference of the latency variance of the N10 between good and bad outcome groups existed at 24, 48 and 72 h post-CA (p≤0.001). Our study is the first application using SOBI detecting variance in neural signals like SSEP. N10 latency variance, related with neurophysiological dysfunction, increased after hypoxic-ischemic injury. The SOBI technique is an efficient method in the identification of peak detection and offers a favorable alternative to reveal the neural transmission variation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain Network Activation Analysis Utilizing Spatiotemporal Features for Event Related Potentials Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaki Stern

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to introduce an improved tool for automated classification of event-related potentials (ERPs using spatiotemporally parcellated events incorporated into a functional brain network activation (BNA analysis. The auditory oddball ERP paradigm was selected to demonstrate and evaluate the improved tool. Methods: The ERPs of each subject were decomposed into major dynamic spatiotemporal events. Then, a set of spatiotemporal events representing the group was generated by aligning and clustering the spatiotemporal events of all individual subjects. The temporal relationship between the common group events generated a network, which is the spatiotemporal reference BNA model. Scores were derived by comparing each subject’s spatiotemporal events to the reference BNA model and were then entered into a support vector machine classifier to classify subjects into relevant subgroups. The reliability of the BNA scores (test-retest repeatability using intraclass correlation and their utility as a classification tool were examined in the context of Target-Novel classification. Results: BNA intraclass correlation values of repeatability ranged between 0.51 and 0.82 for the known ERP components N100, P200 and P300. Classification accuracy was high when the trained data were validated on the same subjects for different visits (AUCs 0.93 and 0.95. The classification accuracy remained high for a test group recorded at a different clinical center with a different recording system (AUCs 0.81, 0.85 for 2 visits. Conclusion: The improved spatiotemporal BNA analysis demonstrates high classification accuracy. The BNA analysis method holds promise as a tool for diagnosis, follow-up and drug development associated with different neurological conditions.

  5. Emotional Granularity Effects on Event-Related Brain Potentials during Affective Picture Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja Y.; Lindquist, Kristen A.; Nam, Chang S.

    2017-01-01

    There is debate about whether emotional granularity, the tendency to label emotions in a nuanced and specific manner, is merely a product of labeling abilities, or a systematic difference in the experience of emotion during emotionally evocative events. According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion (CAT) (Barrett, 2006), emotional granularity is due to the latter and is a product of on-going temporal differences in how individuals categorize and thus make meaning of their affective states. To address this question, the present study investigated the effects of individual differences in emotional granularity on electroencephalography-based brain activity during the experience of emotion in response to affective images. Event-related potentials (ERP) and event-related desynchronization and synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis techniques were used. We found that ERP responses during the very early (60–90 ms), middle (270–300 ms), and later (540–570 ms) moments of stimulus presentation were associated with individuals’ level of granularity. We also observed that highly granular individuals, compared to lowly granular individuals, exhibited relatively stable desynchronization of alpha power (8–12 Hz) and synchronization of gamma power (30–50 Hz) during the 3 s of stimulus presentation. Overall, our results suggest that emotional granularity is related to differences in neural processing throughout emotional experiences and that high granularity could be associated with access to executive control resources and a more habitual processing of affective stimuli, or a kind of “emotional complexity.” Implications for models of emotion are also discussed. PMID:28392761

  6. Natural speech comprehension in bipolar disorders: an event-related brain potential study among manic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermolacce, Michel; Faugère, Mélanie; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Belzeaux, Raoul; Maurel, Muriel; Naudin, Jean; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Vion-Dury, Jean

    2014-04-01

    Thought and language disturbances are crucial clinical features in Bipolar Disorders (BD), and constitute a fundamental basis for social cognition. In BD, clinical manifestations such as disorganization and formal thought disorders may play a role in communication disturbances. However, only few studies have explored language disturbances in BD at a neurophysiological level. Two main Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs) have been used in language comprehension research: the N400 component, elicited by incongruous word with the preceding semantic context, and the Late Positive Component (LPC), associated with non-specifically semantic and more general cognitive processes. Previous studies provided contradictory results regarding N400 in mood disorders, showing either preserved N400 in depression or dysthymia, or altered N400 in BD during semantic priming paradigm. The aim of our study was to explore N400 and LPC among patients with BD in natural speech conditions. ERPs from 19 bipolar type I patients with manic or hypomanic symptomatology and 19 healthy controls were recorded. Participants were asked to listen to congruous and incongruous complete sentences and to judge the match between the final word and the sentence context. Behavioral results and ERPs data were analyzed. At the behavioral level, patients with BD show worst performances than healthy participants. At the electrophysiological level, our results show preserved N400 component in BD. LPC elicited under natural speech conditions shows preserved amplitude but delayed latency in difference waves. Small size of samples, absence of schizophrenic group and medication status. In contrast with the only previous N400 study in BD that uses written semantic priming, our results show a preserved N400 component in ecological and natural speech conditions among patients with BD. Possible implications in terms of clinical specificity are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Excessive early-life dietary exposure: a potential source of elevated brain iron and a risk factor for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dominic J; Cardoso, Bárbara Rita; Raven, Erika P; Double, Kay L; Finkelstein, David I; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Iron accumulates gradually in the ageing brain. In Parkinson's disease, iron deposition within the substantia nigra is further increased, contributing to a heightened pro-oxidant environment in dopaminergic neurons. We hypothesise that individuals in high-income countries, where cereals and infant formulae have historically been fortified with iron, experience increased early-life iron exposure that predisposes them to age-related iron accumulation in the brain. Combined with genetic factors that limit iron regulatory capacity and/or dopamine metabolism, this may increase the risk of Parkinson's diseases. We propose to (a) validate a retrospective biomarker of iron exposure in children; (b) translate this biomarker to adults; (c) integrate it with in vivo brain iron in Parkinson's disease; and (d) longitudinally examine the relationships between early-life iron exposure and metabolism, brain iron deposition and Parkinson's disease risk. This approach will provide empirical evidence to support therapeutically addressing brain iron deposition in Parkinson's diseases and produce a potential biomarker of Parkinson's disease risk in preclinical individuals.

  8. ABCC9/SUR2 in the brain: implications for hippocampal sclerosis of aging and a potential therapeutic target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter T.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Wang, Wang-Xia; Ighodaro, Eseosa; Artiushin, Sergey; Nichols, Colin G.; Fardo, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The ABCC9 gene and its polypeptide product, SUR2, are increasingly implicated in human neurologic disease, including prevalent diseases of the aged brain. SUR2 proteins are a component of the ATP-sensitive potassium (“KATP”) channel, a metabolic sensor for stress and/or hypoxia that has been shown to change in aging. The KATP channel also helps regulate the neurovascular unit. Most brain cell types express SUR2, including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, vascular smooth muscle, pericytes, and endothelial cells. Thus it is not surprising that ABCC9 gene variants are associated with risk for human brain diseases. For example, Cantu syndrome is a result of ABCC9 mutations; we discuss neurologic manifestations of this genetic syndrome. More common brain disorders linked to ABCC9 gene variants include hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging), sleep disorders, and depression. HS-Aging is a prevalent neurological disease with pathologic features of both neurodegenerative (aberrant TDP-43) and cerebrovascular (arteriolosclerosis) disease. As to potential therapeutic intervention, the human pharmacopeia features both SUR2 agonists and antagonists, so ABCC9/SUR2 may provide a “druggable target”, relevant perhaps to both HS-Aging and Alzheimer’s disease. We conclude that more work is required to better understand the roles of ABCC9/SUR2 in the human brain during health and disease conditions. PMID:26226329

  9. SSRIs and the female brain--potential for utilizing steroid-stimulating properties to treat menstrual cycle-linked dysphorias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovick, Thelma

    2013-12-01

    One unexpected property of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is their ability, at doses well below those that effect 5-HT systems, to raise brain concentrations of neuroactive steroids such as the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone. In women, rapid withdrawal from allopregnanolone when progesterone secretion drops sharply in the late luteal phase precipitates menstrual cycle-linked disorders such as premenstrual syndrome and catamenial epilepsy. Short-term, low-dose fluoxetine during the late luteal phase has the potential to prevent the development of such disorders, by raising brain allopregnanolone concentration. In female rats, withdrawal from allopregnanolone, as ovarian progesterone secretion falls rapidly in the late diestrus phase (similar to late luteal phase in women), induces upregulation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors on GABAergic neurons in brain regions involved in mediating anxiety-like behaviors. The functional consequence of this receptor plasticity is disinhibition of principal neurons, hyperexcitable neuronal circuitry and increased behavioral responsiveness to anxiogenic stress. These withdrawal responses were prevented by short-term treatment with fluoxetine during the late diestrus phase, which raised brain allopregnanolone concentration, so blunting the rapid physiological fall. The steroid-stimulating properties of fluoxetine offer untapped opportunities for developing new treatments for menstrual cycle-linked disorders in women, which are precipitated by abrupt falls in brain concentration of allopregnanolone.

  10. Identification and analysis of signaling networks potentially involved in breast carcinoma metastasis to the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    Full Text Available Brain is a common site of breast cancer metastasis associated with significant neurologic morbidity, decreased quality of life, and greatly shortened survival. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underpinning brain colonization by breast carcinoma cells are poorly understood. Here, we used 2D-DIGE (Difference in Gel Electrophoresis proteomic analysis followed by LC-tandem mass spectrometry to identify the proteins differentially expressed in brain-targeting breast carcinoma cells (MB231-Br compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cell line. Between the two cell lines, we identified 12 proteins consistently exhibiting greater than 2-fold (p<0.05 difference in expression, which were associated by the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA with two major signaling networks involving TNFα/TGFβ-, NFκB-, HSP-70-, TP53-, and IFNγ-associated pathways. Remarkably, highly related networks were revealed by the IPA analysis of a list of 19 brain-metastasis-associated proteins identified recently by the group of Dr. A. Sierra using MDA-MB-435-based experimental system (Martin et al., J Proteome Res 2008 7:908-20, or a 17-gene classifier associated with breast cancer brain relapse reported by the group of Dr. J. Massague based on a microarray analysis of clinically annotated breast tumors from 368 patients (Bos et al., Nature 2009 459: 1005-9. These findings, showing that different experimental systems and approaches (2D-DIGE proteomics used on brain targeting cell lines or gene expression analysis of patient samples with documented brain relapse yield highly related signaling networks, suggest strongly that these signaling networks could be essential for a successful colonization of the brain by metastatic breast carcinoma cells.

  11. Intracerebral transplants of primary muscle cells: a potential 'platform' for transgene expression in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, S.; Schultz, E.; Wolff, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    After the transplantation of rat primary muscle cells into the caudate or cortex of recipient rats, the muscle cells were able to persist for at least 6 months. Muscle cells transfected with expression plasmids prior to transplantation were able to express reporter genes in the brains for at least 2 months. These results suggest that muscle cells might be a useful 'platform' for transgene expression in the brain.

  12. Role of Human Breast Cancer Related Protein versus P-Glycoprotein as an Efflux Transporter for Benzylpenicillin: Potential Importance at the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangfang; Wu, Qian; Li, Chen; Liu, Ling; Du, Kun; Shen, Jin; Wu, Yuqin; Zhao, Xiaofen; Zhao, Mei; Bao, Lingyun; Gao, Jin; Keep, Richard F; Xiang, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    While the blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain by controlling the access of solutes and toxic substances to brain, it also limits drug entry to treat central nervous system disorders. Many drugs are substrates for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters at the BBB that limit their entry into the brain. The role of those transporters in limiting the entry of the widely prescribed therapeutic, benzylpenicillin, has produced conflicting results. This study investigated the possible potential involvement of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), two ABC transporters, in benzylpenicillin transport at BBB in human using MDCKII cells overexpressing those transporters as well as pharmacological inhibition. MDCKII cells overexpressing human BCRP (MDCKII-BCRP) but not those overexpressing human P-gp (MDCKII-MDR cells) had reduced [3H]benzylpenicillin uptake. Similarly, inhibiting BCRP increased [3H]benzylpenicillin uptake in MDCKII-BCRP cells, while inhibiting P-gp in MDCKII-MDR cells had no effect on uptake although there was evidence that benzylpenicillin is a substrate for canine P-gp. While inhibiting BCRP affected [3H]benzylpenicillin cell concentrations it did not affect transepithelial flux in MDCKII-BCRP cells. In summary, the results indicate that human BCRP and not human P-gp is involved in benzylpenicillin transport. However, targeting BCRP alone was not sufficient to alter transepithelial flux in MDCKII cells. Whether it would be sufficient to alter blood-to-brain flux at the human BBB remains to be investigated.

  13. Banking (on) the brain: from consent to authorisation and the transformative potential of solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Shawn H E; Mcmahon, Aisling

    2014-01-01

    Modern technologies and biomedicine ambitions have given rise to new models of medical research, including population biobanking. One example of biobanking is brain banking, which refers to the collection and storage of brain and spinal cord samples for research into neurological diseases. Obviously, brain banking involves taking brains and tissue from deceased people, a fact which complicates the role of recruiters and makes consent a poor tool for stakeholders. After contextualising brain banking and considering the public health issues at stake, this article explores the legal definitions and demands of, and actual processes around, consent in England/Wales/Northern Ireland and authorisation in Scotland, articulating and evaluating their conceptual and practical differences. It then argues for an expanded but improved operation of 'authorisation' in the brain banking (and broader biobanking) setting, adopting 'solidarity' as our foundation and the improvement of the 'public good' our objective. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A Bright and Fast Red Fluorescent Protein Voltage Indicator That Reports Neuronal Activity in Organotypic Brain Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed S.; Farhi, Samouil L.; Zhao, Yongxin; Brinks, Daan; Zou, Peng; Ruangkittisakul, Araya; Platisa, Jelena; Pieribone, Vincent A.; Ballanyi, Klaus; Cohen, Adam E.; Campbell, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging of voltage indicators based on green fluorescent proteins (FPs) or archaerhodopsin has emerged as a powerful approach for detecting the activity of many individual neurons with high spatial and temporal resolution. Relative to green FP-based voltage indicators, a bright red-shifted FP-based voltage indicator has the intrinsic advantages of lower phototoxicity, lower autofluorescent background, and compatibility with blue-light-excitable channelrhodopsins. Here, we report a bri...

  15. Tic related local field potentials in the thalamus and the effect of deep brain stimulation in Tourette syndrome: Report of three cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bour, L. J.; Ackermans, L.; Foncke, E. M. J.; Cath, D.; van der Linden, C.; Visser Vandewalle, V.; Tijssen, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Three patients with intractable Tourette syndrome (TS) underwent thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS). To investigate the role of thalamic electrical activity in tic generation, local field potentials (LFP), EEG and EMG simultaneously were recorded. Event related potentials and event related

  16. Tic related local field potentials in the thalamus and the effect of deep brain stimulation in Tourette syndrome: Report of three cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bour, L.J.; Ackermans, L.; Foncke, E.M.J.; Cath, D.; van der Linden, C.; Vandewalle, V.V.; Tijssen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Three patients with intractable Tourette syndrome (TS) underwent thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS). To investigate the role of thalamic electrical activity in tic generation, local field potentials (LFP), EEG and EMG simultaneously were recorded. Methods: Event related potentials and

  17. Tic related local field potentials in the thalamus and the effect of deep brain stimulation in Tourette syndrome : Report of three cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bour, L. J.; Ackermans, L.; Foncke, E. M. J.; Cath, D.; van der Linden, C.; Vandewalle, V. Visser; Tijssen, M. A.

    Objective: Three patients with intractable Tourette syndrome (TS) underwent thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS). To investigate the role of thalamic electrical activity in tic generation, local field potentials (LFP), EEG and EMG simultaneously were recorded. Methods: Event related potentials and

  18. Simultaneous detection of P300 and steady-state visually evoked potentials for hybrid brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combaz, Adrien; Van Hulle, Marc M

    2015-01-01

    We study the feasibility of a hybrid Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) combining simultaneous visual oddball and Steady-State Visually Evoked Potential (SSVEP) paradigms, where both types of stimuli are superimposed on a computer screen. Potentially, such a combination could result in a system being able to operate faster than a purely P300-based BCI and encode more targets than a purely SSVEP-based BCI. We analyse the interactions between the brain responses of the two paradigms, and assess the possibility to detect simultaneously the brain activity evoked by both paradigms, in a series of 3 experiments where EEG data are analysed offline. Despite differences in the shape of the P300 response between pure oddball and hybrid condition, we observe that the classification accuracy of this P300 response is not affected by the SSVEP stimulation. We do not observe either any effect of the oddball stimulation on the power of the SSVEP response in the frequency of stimulation. Finally results from the last experiment show the possibility of detecting both types of brain responses simultaneously and suggest not only the feasibility of such hybrid BCI but also a gain over pure oddball- and pure SSVEP-based BCIs in terms of communication rate.

  19. Regional muscle tissue saturation is an indicator of global inadequate circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass: a randomized porcine study using muscle, intestinal and brain tissue metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Sisse Anette; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Sørensen, Preben; Andreasen, Jan Jesper; Larsson, Anders; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen

    2017-04-01

    Muscle tissue saturation (StO2) measured with near-infrared spectroscopy has generally been considered a measurement of the tissue microcirculatory condition. However, we hypothesized that StO2 could be more regarded as a fast and reliable measure of global than of regional circulatory adequacy and tested this with muscle, intestinal and brain metabolomics at normal and two levels of low cardiopulmonary bypass blood flow rates in a porcine model. Twelve 80 kg pigs were connected to normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with a blood flow of 60 mL/kg/min for one hour, reduced randomly to 47.5 mL/kg/min (Group I) or 35 mL/kg/min (Group II) for one hour followed by one hour of 60 mL/kg/min in both groups. Regional StO2 was measured continuously above the musculus gracilis (non-cannulated leg). Metabolomics were obtained by brain tissue oxygen monitoring system (Licox) measurements of the brain and microdialysis perfusate from the muscle, intestinal mucosa and brain. A non-parametric statistical method was used. The systemic parameters showed profound systemic ischaemia during low CPB blood flow. StO2 did not change markedly in Group I, but in Group II, StO2 decreased immediately when blood flow was reduced and, furthermore, was not restored despite blood flow being normalized. Changes in the metabolomics from the muscle, colon and brain followed the changes in StO2. We found, in this experimental cardiopulmonary bypass model, that StO2 reacted rapidly when the systemic circulation became inadequate and, furthermore, reliably indicate insufficient global tissue perfusion even when the systemic circulation was restored after a period of systemic hypoperfusion.

  20. Corrosion and Scaling Potential in Drinking Water Distribution of Babol, Northern Iran Based on the Scaling and Corrosion Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoliman Amouei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Corrosion and scaling play undesirable effects on transmission and distribution system of drinking water. The aim of this study was to assess the corrosion and scaling potential of drinking water resources in Babol city, Iran. Materials and Methods: Totally, 54 water samples were collected from 27 wells in spring and autumn. Calcium hardness, pH, total alkalinity, total dissolved solids, and temperature were measured, using standard methods. The Langelier, Rayzner, Puckhorius, Larson and aggressive indices were calculated and data were analyzed by SPSS 19. To compare the mean values of each index, the results were analyzed using t-test. Results: The range of temperature, pH, TDS, total alkalinity and calcium hardness were 16-24°c; 6.8-7.89; 445-1331 mg/l; 322.9-396 mg/l and 250.50-490 mg/l, respectively. The mean of Langelier and Ryznar indices in drinking water samples in spring and autumn was 0.14, 0.15; 7.28 and 7.35, respectively. The mean of Puckhorius and Larson indices in these seasons was 11.9, 11.95 and 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. The mean of aggressive index was 6.17 and 6.27, respectively. Overall, 82.2%, 100%, 94.6%, 100% and 85.7% of water samples were corrosive based on the Langelier, Ryznar, Puckhorius, Larson and aggressive indices, respectively. Conclusion: According to these results, drinking water of Babol city has corrosion potential. Therefore, the water quality should be controlled based on pH, alkalinity and hardness parameters, along with the use of corrosion resisting materials and pipes in drinking water distribution systems.

  1. Syntactic comprehension in Parkinson's disease: Investigating early automatic and late integrational processes using event-related brain potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Friederici, A; Kotz, S; Werheid, K.; Hein, G; Von Cramon, D

    2003-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has been associated with a general impairment of procedures and with an impairment of syntactic procedures in particular. The present study investigated comprehension processes in PD using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). PD patients and controls listened to sentences that were either correct or syntactically or semantically incorrect. The language-related ERP component correlated with semantic processes (N400) was present in both groups. In the syntactic domain...

  2. The on-line processing of socio-emotional information in prototypical scenarios: inferences from brain potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Leuthold, Hartmut; Filik, Ruth; Murphy, Kirsty; Mackenzie, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the time course of the mechanisms involved in the on-line processing of socio-emotional information. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate this issue using vignettes that described prototypical, social scenarios. An initial sentence established the social context and the following target sentence ended with a critical word that informed the reader of the character’s socio-emotional response to the situation. Critical words that mismatched rather th...

  3. The Effects of Video Games on Cognition and Brain Structure: Potential Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Tahireh A; Foussias, George; Zawadzki, John A; Marshe, Victoria S; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Müller, Daniel J; Wong, Albert H C

    2015-09-01

    Video games are now a ubiquitous form of entertainment that has occasionally attracted negative attention. Video games have also been used to test cognitive function, as therapeutic interventions for neuropsychiatric disorders, and to explore mechanisms of experience-dependent structural brain changes. Here, we review current research on video games published from January 2011 to April 2014 with a focus on studies relating to mental health, cognition, and brain imaging. Overall, there is evidence that specific types of video games can alter brain structure or improve certain aspects of cognitive functioning. Video games can also be useful as neuropsychological assessment tools. While research in this area is still at a very early stage, there are interesting results that encourage further work in this field, and hold promise for utilizing this technology as a powerful therapeutic and experimental tool.

  4. Effects of live music therapy sessions on quality of life indicators, medications administered and hospital length of stay for patients undergoing elective surgical procedures for brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Darcy; Rumana, Christopher S; Nguyen, Judy; Jarred, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The physiological and psychological stress that brain tumor patients undergo during the entire surgical experience can considerably affect several aspects of their hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of live music therapy on quality of life indicators, amount of medications administered and length of stay for persons receiving elective surgical procedures of the brain. Subjects (N = 27) were patients admitted for some type of surgical procedure of the brain. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the control group receiving no music intervention (n = 13) or the experimental group receiving pre and postoperative live music therapy sessions (n = 14). Anxiety, mood, pain, perception of hospitalization or procedure, relaxation, and stress were measured using a self-report Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for each of the variables. The documented administration of postoperative pain medications; the frequency, dosage, type, and how it was given was also compared between groups. Experimental subjects live and interactive music therapy sessions, including a pre-operative session and continuing with daily sessions until the patient was discharged home. Control subjects received routine hospital care without any music therapy intervention. Differences in experimental pretest and posttest scores were analyzed using a Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Rank test. Results indicated statistically significant differences for 4 of the 6 quality of life measures: anxiety (p = .03), perception of hospitalization (p = .03), relaxation (p = .001), and stress (p = .001). No statistically significant differences were found for mood (p > .05) or pain (p > .05) levels. Administration amounts of nausea and pain medications were compared with a Two-Way ANOVA with One Repeated Measure resulting in no significant differences between groups and medications, F(1, 51) = 0.03; p > .05. Results indicate no significant differences between groups for length of stay (t = .97

  5. Startle potentiation to uncertain threat as a psychophysiological indicator of fear-based psychopathology: An examination across multiple internalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorka, Stephanie M; Lieberman, Lynne; Shankman, Stewart A; Phan, K Luan

    2017-01-01

    Heightened reactivity to uncertain threat (U-threat) is an important individual difference factor that may characterize fear-based internalizing psychopathologies (IPs) and distinguish them from distress/misery IPs. To date, however, the majority of existing research examining reactivity to U-threat has been within individuals with panic disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD) and no prior study has directly tested this hypothesis across multiple IPs. The current study therefore explored whether heightened reactivity to U-threat is a psychophysiological indicator of fear-based psychopathology across 5 groups: current (a) social anxiety disorder (SAD); (b) specific phobia (SP); (c) generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); (d) MDD; and (c) individuals with no history of psychopathology (controls). All 160 adults completed a well-validated threat-of-shock task designed to probe responses to predictable (P-) and U-threat. Startle eyeblink potentiation was recorded as an index of aversive arousal. Results indicated that individuals with SAD and SP evidenced greater startle potentiation to U-threat, but not P-threat, relative to individuals with GAD, MDD, and controls (who did not differ). The current findings, along with the prior panic disorder and MDD literature, suggest that heightened reactivity to U-threat is a psychophysiological indicator of fear-based disorders and could represent a neurobiological organizing principle for internalizing psychopathology. The findings also suggest that individuals with fear disorders generally display a hypersensitivity to uncertain aversive events, which could contribute to their psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Chromatographic Behaviour Predicts the Ability of Potential Nootropics to Permeate the Blood-Brain Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    FARSA, Oldřich

    2012-01-01

    The log BB parameter is the logarithm of the ratio of a compound?s equilibrium concentrations in the brain tissue versus the blood plasma. This parameter is a useful descriptor in assessing the ability of a compound to permeate the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study was to develop a Hansch-type linear regression QSAR model that correlates the parameter log BB and the retention time of drugs and other organic compounds on a reversed-phase HPLC containing an embedded amide moiety. The r...

  7. Functional characterization of brain tumors: An overview of the potential clinical value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, Arturo; Alfano, Bruno; Soricelli, Andrea; Tedeschi, Enrico; Mainolfi, Ciro; Covelli, Eugenio M.; Aloj, Luigi; Panico, Maria Rosaria; Bazzicalupo, Lucio; Salvatore, Marco

    1996-08-01

    Early detection and characterization are still challenging issues in the diagnostic approach to brain tumors. Among functional imaging techniques, a clinical role for positron emission tomography studies with [{sup 18}F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and for single photon emission computed tomography studies with [{sup 201}Tl]-thallium-chloride has emerged. The clinical role of magnetic resonance spectroscopy is still being defined, whereas functional magnetic resonance imaging seems able to provide useful data for presurgical localization of critical cortical areas. Integration of morphostructural information provided by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, with functional characterization and cyto-histologic evaluation of biologic markers, may assist in answering the open diagnostic questions concerning brain tumors.

  8. The Potential Liver, Brain, and Embryo Toxicity of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Xiaochuan; Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Lei; Sun, Li

    2017-01-01

    Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) has been widely used in industry and medicine. However, the safety of nano-TiO2 exposure remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the liver, brain, and embryo toxicity and the underlying mechanism of nano-TiO2 using mice models. The results showed that titanium was distributed to and accumulated in the heart, brain, spleen, lung, and kidney of mice after intraperitoneal (i.p.) nano-TiO2 exposure, in a dose-dependent manner. The organ/body weight rati...

  9. Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL as a Potential Indicator for Prevalence, Duration, and Severity of Staphylococcus aureus Osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of the difficult-to-treat osteomyelitis (OM. To better diagnose and manage S. aureus OM, especially for severe and long duration cases, indicators for risk prediction and severity evaluation are needed. Here, 139 clinical S. aureus isolates from orthopedic infections were divided into OM group (60 isolates from 60 OM patients and non-OM group (79 isolates from 79 non-OM patients. Molecular types, antimicrobial susceptibility, and virulence factor profiles were evaluated and compared between the two groups to identify potential indicators associated with the prevalence of S. aureus OM. Clinical manifestations and laboratory data were analyzed to identify indicators affecting OM duration and severity. We found that some sequence types were specific to OM infection. The pvl, bbp, and ebps genes were associated with S. aureus OM prevalence. The pvl, bbp, and sei genes were associated with relatively longer OM duration. Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL-positive S. aureus OM presented more serious inflammatory responses. Our results emphasize the significance of PVL in affecting the prevalence, duration, and severity of S. aureus OM. Diagnosing and monitoring PVL-related S. aureus OM may help direct better prognosis and treatment of these patients.

  10. Keen's Point for External Ventricular Drainage in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: An Uncommon Indication for An Old Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kevin T; Chavakula, Vamsidhar; Gormley, William B

    2017-06-01

    In cases of severe traumatic brain injury, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion though an external ventricular drain (EVD) is a proven method to assist in the control of elevated intracranial pressure. Under normal circumstances, the EVD is placed in a frontal location. However, in cases of multifocal intracranial injury and swelling, collapse of the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles leads to frequent failure of frontal CSF drainage. In this series we describe the utility of the Keen's point EVD as a safe alternative to maintain continuous CSF diversion for patients in whom frontal drainage is not feasible. Three patients (ages 30-46 years) with diffuse intracranial injury following severe trauma were admitted to our neurointensive care unit. One of these patients had decompressive craniectomy before transfer, while the other 2 patients did not undergo any surgical procedures. Each of these patients had severe refractory elevation of intracranial pressure and significant frontal swelling, ultimately necessitating bedside placement of a Keen's point EVD. In all cases, we were able to reliably maintain continuous CSF diversion for an extended period of time. There was 1 mortality due to the severity of initial injuries. In the remaining 2 patients, intracranial pressure was able to be normalized following placement of the Keen point EVD. The Keen point EVD is a viable option to maintain continuous CSF drainage in patients with diffuse intracranial injury and should be considered in patients whom a frontal EVD cannot reliably maintain continuous drainage of CSF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multifunctional nanoliposomes with curcumin-lipid derivative and brain targeting functionality with potential applications for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourtas, Spyridon; Lazar, Adina N; Markoutsa, Eleni; Duyckaerts, Charles; Antimisiaris, Sophia G

    2014-06-10

    With the objective to formulate multifunctional nanosized liposomes to target amyloid deposits in Alzheimer Disease (AD) brains, a lipid-PEG-curcumin derivative was synthesized and characterized. Multifunctional liposomes incorporating the curcumin derivative and additionally decorated with a Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) transport mediator (anti-Transferin antibody) were prepared and characterized. The fluorescence intensity of curcumin derivative was found to increase notably when the curcumin moiety was in the form of a diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA) salt. Both curcumin-derivative liposomes and curcumin-derivative Anti-TrF liposomes showed a high affinity for the amyloid deposits, on post-mortem brains samples of AD patients. The ability of both liposomes to delay Aβ1-42 peptide aggregation was confirmed by Thioflavin assay. However, the decoration of the curcumin-derivative liposomes with the Anti-TrF improved significantly the intake by the BBB cellular model. Results verify that the attachment of an antibody on the curcumin-liposome surface does not block deposit staining or prevention of Aβ aggregation, while the presence of the curcumin-PEG-lipid conjugate does not reduce their brain-targeting capability substantially, proving the potential of such multifunctional NLs for application in Alzheimer disease treatment and diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Cortical evoked potential and extracellular K+ and H+ at critical levels of brain ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, J; Symon, L; Branston, N M

    1977-01-01

    As shown previously, the electrical function of the brain is critically dependent on cerebral blood flow in the sense that reduction beyond an ischemic threshold of approximately 15 ml/100 gm per minute (approximately 35% of control) in the baboon leads to complete failure of the somatosensory...

  13. Blood-brain barrier leakage after status epilepticus in rapamycin-treated rats II : Potential mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Erwin A; Otte, Wim M; Wadman, Wytse J; Aronica, Eleonora; Kooij, Gijs; de Vries, Helga E; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Gorter, Jan A

    OBJECTIVE: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage may play a pro-epileptogenic role after status epilepticus. In the accompanying contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) study we showed that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin reduced BBB leakage and seizure

  14. Brain-potential analysis of visual word recognition in dyslexics and typically reading children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraga González, G.; Žarić, G.; Tijms, J.; Bonte, M.; Blomert, L.; van der Molen, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    The specialization of visual brain areas for fast processing of printed words plays an important role in the acquisition of reading skills. Dysregulation of these areas may be among the deficits underlying developmental dyslexia. The present study examines the specificity of word activation in

  15. Expanding the test set: Chemicals with potential to disrupt mammalian brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-throughput test methods including molecular, cellular, and alternative species-based assays that examine critical events of normal brain development are being developed for detection of developmental neurotoxcants. As new assays are developed, a "training set' of chemicals i...

  16. No impact of deep brain stimulation on fear-potentiated startle in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Johanna M P; Klumpers, Floris; Mantione, Mariska H; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke C; Schuurman, P Richard; Mazaheri, Ali; Denys, D.

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST), we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS

  17. No impact of deep brain stimulation on fear-potentiated startle in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Johanna M. P.; Klumpers, Floris; Mantione, Mariska H.; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke C.; Schuurman, P. Richard; Mazaheri, Ali; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminal's (BNST), we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS

  18. Nonspatial intermodal selective attention is mediated by sensory brain areas: Evidence from event-related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, Albert

    2001-01-01

    The present study focuses on the question of whether inter- and intramodal forms of attention are reflected in activation of the same or different brain areas. ERPs were recorded while subjects were presented a random sequence of visual and auditory stimuli. They were instructed to attend to

  19. Nonspatial intermodal selective attention is mediated by sensory brain areas: Evidence from event-related potential.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, A.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the question of whether inter-and intramodal forms of attention are reflected in activation of the same or different brain areas. ERPs were recorded while Ss (aged 18-41 yrs) were presented a random sequence of visual and auditory stimuli. They were instructed to attend to nonspatial

  20. No impact of deep brain stimulation on fear–potentiated startle in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Johanna M P; Klumpers, Floris; Mantione, Mariska H.; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke C.; Richard Schuurman, P.; Mazaheri, Ali; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST), we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS

  1. Brain Wave Analysis and School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barry; And Others

    The Brain Wave Analyzer (BWA Ertl 02) was used to measure the brain potentials of 110 public school children. Resulting scores were correlated with concurrent measures of school achievement. Results indicate that certain brain wave scores have relatively low correlations with school achievement compared to traditional intelligence measures but may…

  2. High-order interactions observed in multi-task intrinsic networks are dominant indicators of aberrant brain function in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plis, Sergey M; Sui, Jing; Lane, Terran; Roy, Sushmita; Clark, Vincent P; Potluru, Vamsi K; Huster, Rene J; Michael, Andrew; Sponheim, Scott R; Weisend, Michael P; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-11-15

    Identifying the complex activity relationships present in rich, modern neuroimaging data sets remains a key challenge for neuroscience. The problem is hard because (a) the underlying spatial and temporal networks may be nonlinear and multivariate and (b) the observed data may be driven by numerous latent factors. Further, modern experiments often produce data sets containing multiple stimulus contexts or tasks processed by the same subjects. Fusing such multi-session data sets may reveal additional structure, but raises further statistical challenges. We present a novel analysis method for extracting complex activity networks from such multifaceted imaging data sets. Compared to previous methods, we choose a new point in the trade-off space, sacrificing detailed generative probability models and explicit latent variable inference in order to achieve robust estimation of multivariate, nonlinear group factors ("network clusters"). We apply our method to identify relationships of task-specific intrinsic networks in schizophrenia patients and control subjects from a large fMRI study. After identifying network-clusters characterized by within- and between-task interactions, we find significant differences between patient and control groups in interaction strength among networks. Our results are consistent with known findings of brain regions exhibiting deviations in schizophrenic patients. However, we also find high-order, nonlinear interactions that discriminate groups but that are not detected by linear, pairwise methods. We additionally identify high-order relationships that provide new insights into schizophrenia but that have not been found by traditional univariate or second-order methods. Overall, our approach can identify key relationships that are missed by existing analysis methods, without losing the ability to find relationships that are known to be important. © 2013.

  3. F-coliphages, porcine adenovirus and porcine teschovirus as potential indicator viruses of fecal contamination for pork carcass processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tineke H; Muehlhauser, Victoria

    2017-01-16

    There are concerns about the zoonotic transmission of viruses through undercooked pork products. There is a lack of information on suitable indicator viruses for fecal contamination with pathogenic enteric viruses in the meat processing chain. The study compared the incidence and levels of contamination of hog carcasses with F-coliphages, porcine teschovirus (PTV), and porcine adenovirus (PAdV) at different stages of the dressing process to assess their potential as indicator viruses of fecal contamination. One hundred swab samples (200cm(2)) were collected from random sites on hog carcasses at 4 different stages of the dressing process and from retail pork over the span of a year from 2 pork processing plants (500/plant). Viable F-coliphages, PAdV DNA and PTV RNA were each detected on ≥99% of the incoming carcasses at both plants and were traceable through the pork processing chain. Significant correlations were observed between viable F-coliphages and PAdV DNA and between F-coliphages and PTV RNA but not between PAdV DNA and PTV RNA at the various stages of pork processing. Detection of viable F-coliphages was more sensitive than genomic copies of PAdV and PTV at low levels of contamination, making F-coliphages a preferred indicator in the pork slaughter process as it also provides an indication of infectivity. For plant A, F-RNA coliphages were detected in 25%, 63%, and 21% of carcass swabs after pasteurization, evisceration, and retail pork products, respectively. For plant B, F-coliphages were detected in 33%, 25%, and 13% of carcass swabs after skinning, evisceration, and retail pork samples, respectively. Viable F-RNA coliphages were genotyped. Viable F-RNA GII and GIII were generally not detected at the earlier stages of the slaughter process but they were detected on 13% of carcasses after evisceration and 2% of retail pork samples at plant A, which raises concerns of potential food handler contamination during pork processing. Consumers could be at risk

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of a Hydrogel with Controllable Electroosmosis: A Potential Brain Tissue Surrogate for Electrokinetic Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Amir H.; Cui, Jonathan J.; Guy, Yifat; Li, Ling; Weber, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    Electroosmosis is the bulk fluid flow initiated by application of an electric field to an electrolyte solution in contact with immobile objects with a non-zero ζ-potential such as the surface of a porous medium. Electroosmosis may be used to assist analytical separations. Several gel-based systems with varying electroosmotic mobilities have been made in this context. A method was recently developed to determine the ζ-potential of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC) as a representative model for normal brain tissue. The ζ-potential of the tissue is significant. However, determining the role of the ζ-potential in solute transport in tissue in an electric field is difficult because the tissue's ζ-potential cannot be altered. We hypothesized that mass transport properties, namely the ζ-potential and tortuosity, could be modulated by controlling the composition of a set of hydrogels. Thus, poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) gels were prepared with three compositions (by monomer weight percent): acrylamide/acrylic acid 100/0, 90/10, and 75/25. The ζ-potentials of these gels at pH 7.4 are distinctly different, and in fact vary approximately linearly with the weight percent of acrylic acid. We discovered that the 25% acrylic acid gel is a respectable model for brain tissue, as its ζ-potential is comparable to the OHSC. This series of gels permits the experimental determination of the importance of electrokinetic properties in a particular experiment or protocol. Additionally, tortuosities were measured electrokinetically and by evaluating diffusion coefficients. Hydrogels with well-defined ζ-potential and tortuosity may find utility in biomaterials, analytical separations, and as a surrogate model for OHSC and living biological tissues. PMID:21905710

  5. The Potential Liver, Brain, and Embryo Toxicity of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaochuan; Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Lei; Sun, Li

    2017-08-01

    Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) has been widely used in industry and medicine. However, the safety of nano-TiO2 exposure remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the liver, brain, and embryo toxicity and the underlying mechanism of nano-TiO2 using mice models. The results showed that titanium was distributed to and accumulated in the heart, brain, spleen, lung, and kidney of mice after intraperitoneal (i.p.) nano-TiO2 exposure, in a dose-dependent manner. The organ/body weight ratios of the heart, spleen, and kidney were significantly increased, and those of the brain and lung were decreased. High doses of nano-TiO2 significantly damaged the functions of liver and kidney and glucose and lipid metabolism, as showed in the blood biochemistry tests. Nano-TiO2 caused damages in mitochondria and apoptosis of hepatocytes, generation of reactive oxygen species, and expression disorders of protective genes in the liver of mice. We found ruptured and cracked nerve cells and inflammatory cell infiltration in the brain. We also found that the activities of constitutive nitric oxide synthases (cNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and acetylcholinesterase, and the levels of nitrous oxide and glutamic acid were changed in the brain after nano-TiO2 exposure. Ex vivo mouse embryo models exhibited developmental and genetic toxicity after high doses of nano-TiO2. The size of nano-TiO2 particles may affect toxicity, larger particles producing higher toxicity. In summary, nano-TiO2 exhibited toxicity in multiple organs in mice after exposure through i.p. injection and gavage. Our study may provide data for the assessment of the risk of nano-TiO2 exposure on human health.

  6. You know when: event-related potentials and theta/beta power indicate boundary prediction in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Castro, São Luís

    2014-03-01

    Neuroscientific and musicological approaches to music cognition indicate that listeners familiarized in the Western tonal tradition expect a musical phrase boundary at predictable time intervals. However, phrase boundary prediction processes in music remain untested. We analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) and event-related induced power changes at the onset and offset of a boundary pause. We made comparisons with modified melodies, where the pause was omitted and filled by tones. The offset of the pause elicited a closure positive shift (CPS), indexing phrase boundary detection. The onset of the filling tones elicited significant increases in theta and beta powers. In addition, the P2 component was larger when the filling tones started than when they ended. The responses to boundary omission suggest that listeners expected to hear a boundary pause. Therefore, boundary prediction seems to coexist with boundary detection in music segmentation.

  7. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by Using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jenny C; Eren, A Murat; Green, Hyatt C; Shanks, Orin C; Morrison, Hilary G; Vineis, Joseph H; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2015-10-01

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but the gut microbiota of humans and other animals contain organisms from an array of other taxonomic groups that might provide indicators of fecal pollution sources. To discern between human and nonhuman fecal sources, we compared the V6 regions of the 16S rRNA genes detected in fecal samples from six animal hosts to those found in sewage (as a proxy for humans). We focused on 10 abundant genera and used oligotyping, which can detect subtle differences between rRNA gene sequences from ecologically distinct organisms. Our analysis showed clear patterns of differential oligotype distributions between sewage and animal samples. Over 100 oligotypes of human origin occurred preferentially in sewage samples, and 99 human oligotypes were sewage specific. Sequences represented by the sewage-specific oligotypes can be used individually for development of PCR-based assays or together with the oligotypes preferentially associated with sewage to implement a signature-based approach. Analysis of sewage from Spain and Brazil showed that the sewage-specific oligotypes identified in U.S. sewage have the potential to be used as global alternative indicators of human fecal pollution. Environmental samples with evidence of prior human fecal contamination had consistent ratios of sewage signature oligotypes that corresponded to the trends observed for sewage. Our methodology represents a promising approach to identifying new bacterial taxa for MST applications and further highlights the potential of the family Lachnospiraceae to provide human-specific markers. In addition to source tracking applications, the patterns of the fine-scale population structure within fecal taxa suggest a fundamental relationship between bacteria and their hosts. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Overall multi-media persistence as an indicator of potential for population-level intake of environmental contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.

    2003-06-01

    Although it is intuitively apparent that population-level exposure to contaminants dispersed in the environment must related to the persistence of the contaminant, there has been little effort to formally quantify this link. In this paper we investigate the relationship between overall persistence in a multimedia environment and the population-level exposure as expressed by intake fraction (iF), which is the cumulative fraction of chemical emitted to the environment that is taken up by members of the population. We first confirm that for any given chemical contaminant and emission scenario the definition of iF implies that it is directly proportional to the overall multi-media persistence, P{sub OV}. We show that the proportionality constant has dimensions of time and represents the characteristic time for population intake (CTI) of the chemical from the environment. We then apply the CalTOX fate and exposure model to explore how P{sub OV} and CTI combine to determine the magnitude of iF. We find that CTI has a narrow range of possible values relative to P{sub OV} across multiple chemicals and emissions scenarios. We use data from the Canadian Environmental Protection Act Priority Substance List (PSL1) Assessments to show that exposure assessments based on empirical observation are consistent with interpretations from the model. The characteristic time for intake along different dominant exposure pathways is discussed. Results indicate that P{sub OV} derived from screening-level assessments of persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT) is a useful indicator of the potential for population-level exposure.

  9. [Loss of brain stem auditory evoked potential waves I and II during controlled hypotension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, G; Lang, M; Link, J; Schäfer, M; Schaffartzik, W; Eyrich, K; Bornfeld, N; Foerster, M H

    1995-11-01

    For surgical removal of a malignant choroid melanoma, it is necessary to reduce systolic blood pressure to around 50-60 mmHg in order to prevent choroidal haemorrhages. However, blood pressure reduction is associated with the risk of cerebral ischaemia. We report a patient with a malignant choroid melanoma in whom waves I and II of the brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) disappeared during surgery under controlled arterial hypotension and hypothermia (31.1 degrees C). The waves could be recorded again immediately after the mean arterial pressure was increased from 48 to 77 mmHg. The oesophageal temperature had dropped by 0.3 degrees C at this time. The 2-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) showed no irregularities during this time period. A bilateral, reversible, apparently blood-pressure-dependent loss of waves I and II during arterial hypotension despite a normal EEG has to our knowledge not been previously described in the literature. The isolated loss of waves I and II with maintenance of waves III, IV, and V is unusual. The literature contains reports of acoustic neurinoma patients in whom only wave V could be recorded. This is regarded as an indication of continued impulse conduction despite the loss of waves I to IV. Others have observed a patient with temporary and reversible loss of BAEP wave I due to vasospasm of the internal auditory artery that apparently occurred during or shortly after manipulation of the internal auditory meatus. Assuming anatomic peculiarities in the blood supply to the generators of the BAEP waves, a stenosis of the basilar artery could be considered as the cause of the bilateral reversible loss of waves I and II. Another potential source could be induced hypothermia, but this does not seem very likely because the patient's temperature was 0.3 degrees C lower at the return of the waves than at their loss.

  10. TVA–based assessment of attentional capacities – associations with age and indices of brain white matter microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eEspeseth

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the primary aims were to characterize the effects of age on basic components of visual attention derived from assessments based on a theory of visual attention (TVA in 325 healthy volunteers covering the adult lifespan (19-81 years. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate how age-related differences on TVA parameters are associated with white matter (WM microstructure as indexed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Finally, we explored how TVA parameter estimates were associated with complex, or multicomponent indices of processing speed (Digit-symbol substitution, DSS and fluid intelligence (gF. The results indicated that the TVA parameters for visual short-term memory capacity, K, and for attentional selectivity, α, were most strongly associated with age before the age of 50. However, in this age range, it was the parameter for processing speed, C, that was most clearly associated with DTI indices, in this case fractional anisotropy (FA, particularly in the genu and body of the corpus callosum. Furthermore, differences in the C parameter partially mediated differences in DSS within this age range. After the age of 50, the TVA parameter for the perceptual threshold, t0, as well as K, were most strongly related to participant age. Both parameters, but t0 more strongly so than K, were associated WM diffusivity, particularly in projection fibers such as the internal capsule, the sagittal stratum, and the corona radiata. Within this age range, t0 partially mediated age-related differences in gF. The results are consistent with, and provide novel empirical support for the neuroanatomical localization of TVA computations as outlined in the neuronal interpretation of TVA (NTVA. Furthermore, the results indicate that to understand the biological sources of age-related changes in processing speed and fluid cognition, it may be useful to employ methods that allow for computational fractionation of these multicomponent measures.

  11. Repetitive Traumatic Brain Injury and Development of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Potential Role for Biomarkers in Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Turner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE upon autopsy in a growing number of athletes and soldiers alike has resulted in increased awareness, by both the scientific/medical and lay communities, of the potential for lasting effects of repetitive traumatic brain injury. While we have come to better understand the clinical presentation and underlying pathophysiology of CTE, the diagnosis of CTE remains autopsy-based, which prevents adequate monitoring and tracking of the disease. The lack of established biomarkers or imaging modalities for diagnostic and prognostic purposes also prevents the development and implementation of therapeutic protocols. In this work the clinical history and pathologic findings associated with CTE are reviewed as well as imaging modalities that have demonstrated some promise for future use in the diagnosis and/or tracking of CTE or repetitive brain injury. Biomarkers under investigation are also discussed with particular attention to the timing of release and potential utility in situations of repetitive traumatic brain injury. Further investigation into imaging modalities and biomarker elucidation for the diagnosis of CTE is clearly both needed as well as warranted.

  12. Ceriodaphnia dubia as a Potential Bio-Indicator for Assessing Acute Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticle Toxicity in Fresh Water Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Humayun, Ahmed; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h) in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h) puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake) as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES) analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system. PMID:24040143

  13. Volatile fingerprint of Brazilian defective coffee seeds: corroboration of potential marker compounds and identification of new low quality indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, Aline T; Farah, Adriana

    2014-06-15

    In the present work, the volatile profiles of green and roasted Brazilian defective coffee seeds and their controls were characterised, totalling 159 compounds. Overall, defective seeds showed higher number and concentration of volatile compounds compared to those of control seeds, especially pyrazines, pyrroles and phenols. Corroborating our previous results, butyrolactone and hexanoic acid, previously considered as potential defective seeds' markers, were observed only in raw and roasted defective seeds, respectively, and not in control seeds. New compounds were suggested as potential defective seeds' markers: hexanoic acid (for raw and roasted defective seeds in general), butyrolactone (for raw defective seeds in general), and 3-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-hexadiene (for raw black seeds); β-linalool and 2-butyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (for roasted defective seeds in general), and 2-pentylfuran (for roasted black seeds). Additional compounds suggested as low quality indicators were 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine,2,3-butanediol and 4-ethylguaiacol, β-linalool, 2-,3-dimethylbutyl butanoate, 2-phenylethyl acetate, 2,3-butanedione, hexanedioic acid, guaiacol, 2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-1H-benzopyrrol, 3-methylpiperidine, 2-pentylpiperidine, 3-octen-2-one, 2-octenal, 2-pentylfuran and 2-butyl-3-methylpyrazine. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Ceriodaphnia dubia as a potential bio-indicator for assessing acute aluminum oxide nanoparticle toxicity in fresh water environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunandan Pakrashi

    Full Text Available Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system.

  15. Quantification of potential impurities by a stability indicating UV-HPLC method in niacinamide active pharmaceutical ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Saji; Bharti, Amber; Tharpa, Kalsang; Agarwal, Ashutosh

    2012-02-23

    A sensitive, stability indicating reverse phase UV-HPLC method has been developed for the quantitative determination of potential impurities of niacinamide active pharmaceutical ingredient. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on C18 stationary phase in isocratic mode using simple mobile phase. Forced degradation study confirmed that the newly developed method was specific and selective to the degradation products. Major degradation of the drug substance was found to occur under oxidative stress conditions to form niacinamide N-oxide. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, precision, linearity and accuracy. Regression analysis showed correlation coefficient value greater than 0.999 for niacinamide and its six impurities. Detection limit of impurities was in the range of 0.003-0.005% indicating the high sensitivity of the newly developed method. Accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery obtained between 93.3% and 113.3% for all impurities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Presowing treatments to breaking seed dormancy of Pterocarya stenoptera C. DC. as an indicator of potential invasiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Mihailo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Small-winged wingnut is a 12 to 20 metres tall, deciduous and fast growing tree with large substantial branches that spread as wide as the tree is tall. The 15 to 30 cm long winged fruit catkins, which turn brown in the autumn, are suspended below the branches. The species is not described by domestic authors in Serbia. The seed was introduced from Sofia (from the Arboretum of the Forestry University of Sofia, Bulgaria - Lesotehničeski universitet, Sofija, and subjected to classical stratification and naked stratification during the period of 1 and 2 months. Germination capacity varied among the treatments. The largest number of germinated seeds was observed in the shorter stratifications, (1 month the classical (56.5% and the naked (51.0% with no significant difference. The values of real germination of all treatments were between 69-88%. High value of RG, compared to GC, indicated that more than 40% of the seeds were empty. However, the results of the control as well as other parameters of seed germination clearly point to the fact that practically no deep embryo dormancy was observed, but the seed is recalcitrant and microbiotic. The results indicate a non-invasive character of the species in terms of reproductive potential.

  17. Potential Adverse Effects of Amphetamine Treatment on Brain and Behavior: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Steven M.; Kuczenski, Ronald; McCracken, James T.; London, Edythe D.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Amphetamine stimulants have been used medically since early in the twentieth century, but they have a high abuse potential and can be neurotoxic. Although they have long been used effectively to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, amphetamines are now being prescribed increasingly as maintenance therapy for ADHD and narcolepsy in adults, considerably extending the period of potential exposure. Effects of prolonged stimulant treatment have not been fully explored, and understanding such effects is a research priority 1. Because the pharmacokinetics of amphetamines differ between children and adults, reevaluation of the potential for adverse effects of chronic treatment of adults is essential. Findings Despite information on the effects of stimulants in laboratory animals, profound species differences in susceptibility to stimulant-induced neurotoxicity underscore the need for systematic studies of prolonged human exposure. Early amphetamine treatment has been linked to slowing in height and weight growth in some children. Because the number of prescriptions for amphetamines has increased several-fold over the past decade, an amphetamine-containing formulation is the most commonly prescribed stimulant in North America, and it is noteworthy that amphetamines are also the most abused prescription medications. Although early treatment does not increase risk for substance abuse, few studies have tracked the compliance and usage profiles of individuals who began amphetamine treatment as adults. Overall, there is concern about risk for slowed growth in young patients who are dosed continuously, and for substance abuse in patients first medicated in late adolescence or adulthood. Although most adult patients also use amphetamines effectively and safely, occasional case reports indicate that prescription use can produce marked psychological adverse events, including stimulant-induced psychosis. Assessments of central

  18. Assessing the performance of remotely-sensed flooding indicators and their potential contribution to early warning for leptospirosis in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledien, Julia; Sorn, Sopheak; Hem, Sopheak; Huy, Rekol; Buchy, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Cappelle, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Remote sensing can contribute to early warning for diseases with environmental drivers, such as flooding for leptospirosis. In this study we assessed whether and which remotely-sensed flooding indicator could be used in Cambodia to study any disease for which flooding has already been identified as an important driver, using leptospirosis as a case study. The performance of six potential flooding indicators was assessed by ground truthing. The Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) was used to estimate the Risk Ratio (RR) of being infected by leptospirosis when exposed to floods it detected, in particular during the rainy season. Chi-square tests were also calculated. Another variable-the time elapsed since the first flooding of the year-was created using MNDWI values and was also included as explanatory variable in a generalized linear model (GLM) and in a boosted regression tree model (BRT) of leptospirosis infections, along with other explanatory variables. Interestingly, MNDWI thresholds for both detecting water and predicting the risk of leptospirosis seroconversion were independently evaluated at -0.3. Value of MNDWI greater than -0.3 was significantly related to leptospirosis infection (RR = 1.61 [1.10-1.52]; χ2 = 5.64, p-value = 0.02, especially during the rainy season (RR = 2.03 [1.25-3.28]; χ2 = 8.15, p-value = 0.004). Time since the first flooding of the year was a significant risk factor in our GLM model (p-value = 0.042). These results suggest that MNDWI may be useful as a risk indicator in an early warning remote sensing tool for flood-driven diseases like leptospirosis in South East Asia.

  19. Assessing the performance of remotely-sensed flooding indicators and their potential contribution to early warning for leptospirosis in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ledien

    Full Text Available Remote sensing can contribute to early warning for diseases with environmental drivers, such as flooding for leptospirosis. In this study we assessed whether and which remotely-sensed flooding indicator could be used in Cambodia to study any disease for which flooding has already been identified as an important driver, using leptospirosis as a case study. The performance of six potential flooding indicators was assessed by ground truthing. The Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI was used to estimate the Risk Ratio (RR of being infected by leptospirosis when exposed to floods it detected, in particular during the rainy season. Chi-square tests were also calculated. Another variable-the time elapsed since the first flooding of the year-was created using MNDWI values and was also included as explanatory variable in a generalized linear model (GLM and in a boosted regression tree model (BRT of leptospirosis infections, along with other explanatory variables. Interestingly, MNDWI thresholds for both detecting water and predicting the risk of leptospirosis seroconversion were independently evaluated at -0.3. Value of MNDWI greater than -0.3 was significantly related to leptospirosis infection (RR = 1.61 [1.10-1.52]; χ2 = 5.64, p-value = 0.02, especially during the rainy season (RR = 2.03 [1.25-3.28]; χ2 = 8.15, p-value = 0.004. Time since the first flooding of the year was a significant risk factor in our GLM model (p-value = 0.042. These results suggest that MNDWI may be useful as a risk indicator in an early warning remote sensing tool for flood-driven diseases like leptospirosis in South East Asia.

  20. Evaluation of the evoked brain potentials of patients with asthenia and anxiety symptoms and the partial loss of sight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsira Abdryakhimova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Loss of sight, even partial, especially in adulthood, is accompanied by emotional, motivational and social consequences that directly affect the psychophysiological state of the individual himself, his communication in society and, often, the social status of the subject.  Methods. From the group of patients-volunteers (n=15 with a partial loss of sight of traumatic genesis two groups were formed for carrying out neurophysiological studies: with predominant asthenia and predominant anxiety. The controle group (CG constisted from patients of the same age (n=20 without psychiatric comorbidity. A study of acoustic event-related potentials of the brain (ERP was carried out in the oddball paradigm with the recording of the time and correctness of a simple sensorimotor reaction. Results. Comparative analysis of the asthenia group with the comparison group revealed a sufficient number of indicators of the ERP, which have significant statistical differences. The correctness of the sensorimotor reaction in this group was 98.3 ± 2.44%, whereas in the CG - 92.5 ± 5.74% (U [15; 20] = 62.5, p <0.01. The values of the amplitude of the early positivity of P1 in the asthenia group were 4.25 ± 3.312 μV, and in the CG -4.15 ± 7.933 μV (U [15, 20] = 50, p <0.001. The early negativity in that group was -2.78 ± 2.377 μV, and in the CG it was 10.55 ± 7.466 μV (U [15; 20] = 75; p <0.05.  Conclusion. In the asthenia group this is the correctness of the sensorimotor reaction and the amplitude of the components: P1, N1, P2, N2. In the anxiety group, such indicators were: latency period P1, intervals P1N1 and N2P3, amplitude swing P1N1. A specific marker of the asthenia group, distinguishing it from the CG, was the more positive values of the amplitude of the components P1, N1, P2, N2. Taking into account the low-frequency nature of the modulation of the amplitudes of these components (circa 2 Hz, it can be assumed that nonspecific brainstem

  1. Increasing the Contrast of the Brain MR FLAIR Images Using Fuzzy Membership Functions and Structural Similarity Indices in Order to Segment MS Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijar, Ahmad; Khayati, Rasoul; Peñalver Benavent, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Segmentation is an important step for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). This paper presents a new approach to the fully automatic segmentation of MS lesions in Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. With the aim of increasing the contrast of the FLAIR MR images with respect to the MS lesions, the proposed method first estimates the fuzzy memberships of brain tissues (i.e., the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT), and the lesion). The procedure for determining the fuzzy regions of their member functions is performed by maximizing fuzzy entropy through Genetic Algorithm. Research shows that the intersection points of the obtained membership functions are not accurate enough to segment brain tissues. Then, by extracting the structural similarity (SSIM) indices between the FLAIR MR image and its lesions membership image, a new contrast-enhanced image is created in which MS lesions have high contrast against other tissues. Finally, the new contrast-enhanced image is used to segment MS lesions. To evaluate the result of the proposed method, similarity criteria from all slices from 20 MS patients are calculated and compared with other methods, which include manual segmentation. The volume of segmented lesions is also computed and compared with Gold standard using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and paired samples t test. Similarity index for the patients with small lesion load, moderate lesion load and large lesion load was 0.7261, 0.7745 and 0.8231, respectively. The average overall similarity index for all patients is 0.7649. The t test result indicates that there is no statistically significant difference between the automatic and manual segmentation. The validated results show that this approach is very promising. PMID:23799015

  2. Increasing the contrast of the brain MR FLAIR images using fuzzy membership functions and structural similarity indices in order to segment MS lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Bijar

    Full Text Available Segmentation is an important step for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS. This paper presents a new approach to the fully automatic segmentation of MS lesions in Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR Magnetic Resonance (MR images. With the aim of increasing the contrast of the FLAIR MR images with respect to the MS lesions, the proposed method first estimates the fuzzy memberships of brain tissues (i.e., the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, the normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT, and the lesion. The procedure for determining the fuzzy regions of their member functions is performed by maximizing fuzzy entropy through Genetic Algorithm. Research shows that the intersection points of the obtained membership functions are not accurate enough to segment brain tissues. Then, by extracting the structural similarity (SSIM indices between the FLAIR MR image and its lesions membership image, a new contrast-enhanced image is created in which MS lesions have high contrast against other tissues. Finally, the new contrast-enhanced image is used to segment MS lesions. To evaluate the result of the proposed method, similarity criteria from all slices from 20 MS patients are calculated and compared with other methods, which include manual segmentation. The volume of segmented lesions is also computed and compared with Gold standard using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC and paired samples t test. Similarity index for the patients with small lesion load, moderate lesion load and large lesion load was 0.7261, 0.7745 and 0.8231, respectively. The average overall similarity index for all patients is 0.7649. The t test result indicates that there is no statistically significant difference between the automatic and manual segmentation. The validated results show that this approach is very promising.

  3. Increasing the contrast of the brain MR FLAIR images using fuzzy membership functions and structural similarity indices in order to segment MS lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijar, Ahmad; Khayati, Rasoul; Peñalver Benavent, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Segmentation is an important step for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). This paper presents a new approach to the fully automatic segmentation of MS lesions in Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. With the aim of increasing the contrast of the FLAIR MR images with respect to the MS lesions, the proposed method first estimates the fuzzy memberships of brain tissues (i.e., the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT), and the lesion). The procedure for determining the fuzzy regions of their member functions is performed by maximizing fuzzy entropy through Genetic Algorithm. Research shows that the intersection points of the obtained membership functions are not accurate enough to segment brain tissues. Then, by extracting the structural similarity (SSIM) indices between the FLAIR MR image and its lesions membership image, a new contrast-enhanced image is created in which MS lesions have high contrast against other tissues. Finally, the new contrast-enhanced image is used to segment MS lesions. To evaluate the result of the proposed method, similarity criteria from all slices from 20 MS patients are calculated and compared with other methods, which include manual segmentation. The volume of segmented lesions is also computed and compared with Gold standard using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and paired samples t test. Similarity index for the patients with small lesion load, moderate lesion load and large lesion load was 0.7261, 0.7745 and 0.8231, respectively. The average overall similarity index for all patients is 0.7649. The t test result indicates that there is no statistically significant difference between the automatic and manual segmentation. The validated results show that this approach is very promising.

  4. Motor-Evoked Potential Confirmation of Functional Improvement by Transplanted Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell in the Ischemic Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Jang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs on the motor pathway in the transient ischemic rat brain that were transplanted through the carotid artery, measuring motor-evoked potential (MEP in the four limbs muscle and the atlantooccipital membrane, which was elicited after monopolar and bipolar transcortical stimulation. After monopolar stimulation, the latency of MEP was significantly prolonged, and the amplitude was less reduced in the BMSC group in comparison with the control group (<.05. MEPs induced by bipolar stimulation in the left forelimb could be measured in 40% of the BMSC group and the I wave that was not detected in the control group was also detected in 40% of the BMSC group. Our preliminary results imply that BMSCs transplanted to the ischemic rat brain mediate effects on the functional recovery of the cerebral motor cortex and the motor pathway.

  5. Event-related brain potentials for goal-related power grips.

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    Jan Westerholz

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that neurophysiological activation during action planning depends on the orientation to initial or final action goals for precision grips. However, the neural signature for a distinct class of grasping, power grips, is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to differentiate between cerebral activity, by means of event-related potentials (ERPs, and its temporal organization during power grips executed with an emphasis on either the initial or final parts of movement sequences. In a grasp and transportation task, visual cues emphasized either the grip (the immediate goal or the target location (the final goal. ERPs differed between immediate and final goal-cued conditions, suggesting different means of operation dependent on goal-relatedness. Differences in mean amplitude occurred earlier for power grips than for recently reported precision grips time-locked to grasping over parieto-occipital areas. Time-locked to final object placement, differences occurred within a similar time window for power and precision grips over frontal areas. These results suggest that a parieto-frontal network of activation is of crucial importance for grasp planning and execution. Our results indicate that power grip preparation and execution for goal-related actions are controlled by similar neural mechanisms as have been observed during precision grips, but with a distinct temporal pattern.

  6. Random Number Generation and Executive Functions in Parkinson's Disease: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münte, Thomas F; Joppich, Gregor; Däuper, Jan; Schrader, Christoph; Dengler, Reinhard; Heldmann, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The generation of random sequences is considered to tax executive functions and has been reported to be impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD) previously. To assess the neurophysiological markers of random number generation in PD. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded in 12 PD patients and 12 age-matched normal controls (NC) while either engaging in random number generation (RNG) by pressing the number keys on a computer keyboard in a random sequence or in ordered number generation (ONG) necessitating key presses in the canonical order. Key presses were paced by an external auditory stimulus at a rate of 1 tone every 1800 ms. As a secondary task subjects had to monitor the tone-sequence for a particular target tone to which the number "0" key had to be pressed. This target tone occurred randomly and infrequently, thus creating a secondary oddball task. Behaviorally, PD patients showed an increased tendency to count in steps of one as well as a tendency towards repetition avoidance. Electrophysiologically, the amplitude of the P3 component of the ERP to the target tone of the secondary task was reduced during RNG in PD but not in NC. The behavioral findings indicate less random behavior in PD while the ERP findings suggest that this impairment comes about, because attentional resources are depleted in PD.

  7. Resting-State Functional Connectivity in the Infant Brain: Methods, Pitfalls, and Potentiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandler R. L. Mongerson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Early brain development is characterized by rapid growth and perpetual reconfiguration, driven by a dynamic milieu of heterogeneous processes. Postnatal brain plasticity is associated with increased vulnerability to environmental stimuli. However, little is known regarding the ontogeny and temporal manifestations of inter- and intra-regional functional connectivity that comprise functional brain networks. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI has emerged as a promising non-invasive neuroinvestigative tool, measuring spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal at rest that reflect baseline neuronal activity. Over the past decade, its application has expanded to infant populations providing unprecedented insight into functional organization of the developing brain, as well as early biomarkers of abnormal states. However, many methodological issues of rs-fMRI analysis need to be resolved prior to standardization of the technique to infant populations. As a primary goal, this methodological manuscript will (1 present a robust methodological protocol to extract and assess resting-state networks in early infancy using independent component analysis (ICA, such that investigators without previous knowledge in the field can implement the analysis and reliably obtain viable results consistent with previous literature; (2 review the current methodological challenges and ethical considerations associated with emerging field of infant rs-fMRI analysis; and (3 discuss the significance of rs-fMRI application in infants for future investigations of neurodevelopment in the context of early life stressors and pathological processes. The overarching goal is to catalyze efforts toward development of robust, infant-specific acquisition, and preprocessing pipelines, as well as promote greater transparency by researchers regarding methods used.

  8. Chromatographic Behaviour Predicts the Ability of Potential Nootropics to Permeate the Blood-Brain Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsa, Oldřich

    2013-01-01

    The log BB parameter is the logarithm of the ratio of a compound’s equilibrium concentrations in the brain tissue versus the blood plasma. This parameter is a useful descriptor in assessing the ability of a compound to permeate the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study was to develop a Hansch-type linear regression QSAR model that correlates the parameter log BB and the retention time of drugs and other organic compounds on a reversed-phase HPLC containing an embedded amide moiety. The retention time was expressed by the capacity factor log k′. The second aim was to estimate the brain’s absorption of 2-(azacycloalkyl)acetamidophenoxyacetic acids, which are analogues of piracetam, nefiracetam, and meclofenoxate. Notably, these acids may be novel nootropics. Two simple regression models that relate log BB and log k′ were developed from an assay performed using a reversed-phase HPLC that contained an embedded amide moiety. Both the quadratic and linear models yielded statistical parameters comparable to previously published models of log BB dependence on various structural characteristics. The models predict that four members of the substituted phenoxyacetic acid series have a strong chance of permeating the barrier and being absorbed in the brain. The results of this study show that a reversed-phase HPLC system containing an embedded amide moiety is a functional in vitro surrogate of the blood-brain barrier. These results suggest that racetam-type nootropic drugs containing a carboxylic moiety could be more poorly absorbed than analogues devoid of the carboxyl group, especially if the compounds penetrate the barrier by a simple diffusion mechanism. PMID:23641330

  9. Epigenetics, Stress, and Their Potential Impact on Brain Network Function: A Focus on the Schizophrenia Diatheses

    OpenAIRE

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Angela eBustamante; Harinder eRai; Monica eUddin

    2014-01-01

    The recent sociodevelopmental cognitive model of schizophrenia/psychosis is a highly influential and compelling compendium of research findings. Here, we present logical extensions to this model incorporating ideas drawn from epigenetic mediation of psychiatric disease, and the plausible effects of epigenetics on the emergence of brain network function and dysfunction in adolescence. We discuss how gene–environment interactions, effected by epigenetic mechanisms, might in particular mediate t...

  10. Potential Utility of Visually AcceSAble Rembrandt Images Assessment in Brain Astrocytoma Grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Wang, Min; Song, Jiacheng; Huang, DongYa; Hong, Xunning

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of multivariate factors of Visually AcceSAble Rembrandt Images (VASARI) in brain astrocytoma grading. Presurgical magnetic resonance images of 126 patients with brain astrocytomas (World Health Organization grade 2, n = 38; grade 3, n = 36; grade 4, n = 52) were rated by 2 neuroradiologists for tumor size, location, and tumor morphology by using a standardized imaging feature set VASARI. Significant differences were noted in 12 factors of VASARI including enhancement quality, enhancing proportion, noncontrast enhancing tumor proportion, necrosis proportion, edema proportion, hemorrhage, thickness of enhancing margin, definition of the enhancing margin, pial and ependymal invasion, enhanced tumor crossing midline, and satellites between brain astrocytoma grades (grades 1-IV, P astrocytoma, whereas edema proportion was an independent diagnostic factor in differentiating grade 2 and grade 3. Noncontrast enhancing tumor proportion was a predictive factor in the diagnosis of grade 4 astrocytoma. Receiver operating characteristic analysis illustrates edema proportion score higher than 2 with sensitivity of 86.1% in differentiating grade 2 and grade 3 astrocytoma. Noncontrast enhancing tumor proportion scores 4 or lower has high sensitivity (92.3%) but moderate specificity (50.0%) in differentiating grade 3 and grade 4 astrocytoma. Our data illustrate that magnetic resonance features of VASARI especially enhancement quality, edema proportion, and noncontrast enhancing tumor proportion provided precise and detailed information of astrocytoma grading and suggested that prediction of astrocytoma grading is based on VASARI as an adjunct to biopsy.

  11. Electroresponsive properties and membrane potential trajectories of three types of inspiratory neurons in the newborn mouse brain stem in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Champagnat, J; Denavit-Saubié, M

    1996-01-01

    with the aim of extending the classification of inspiratory neurons to include analysis of active membrane properties. 2. The slice generated a regular rhythmic motor output recorded as burst of action potentials on a XII nerve root with a peak to peak time of 11.5 +/- 3.4 s and a duration of 483 +/- 54 ms......1. The electrophysiological properties of inspiratory neurons were studied in a rhythmically active thick-slice preparation of the newborn mouse brain stem maintained in vitro. Whole cell patch recordings were performed from 60 inspiratory neurons within the rostral ventrolateral part of the slice...... (means +/- SD, n = 50). Based on the electroresponsive properties and membrane potential trajectories throughout the respiratory cycle, three types of inspiratory neurons could be distinguished. 3. Type-1 neurons were spiking in the interval between the inspiratory potentials (n = 9) or silent...

  12. Adherence to the Western Pattern Is Potentially an Unfavorable Indicator of Asthenozoospermia Risk: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Ghazaleh; Amirjannati, Naser; Rashidkhani, Bahram; Sadeghi, Mohammad-Reza; Baghestani, Ahmad-Reza; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and asthenozoospermia risk. In total, 107 incident asthenozoospermic men and 235 age-matched controls were interviewed through the infertility clinics in Tehran, Iran, from January 2012 to November 2013. Usual dietary intakes were collected using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and semen quality data were analyzed according to the fifth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis. The first tertile served as the reference category for regression analyses. In principal component analysis, 2 dietary patterns emerged: a "prudent pattern" (leafy green vegetables, yellow vegetables, other vegetables, tomatoes, fish and other seafood, fruits and natural fruit juices, legumes, whole grains, poultry, tea and coffee, low-fat dairy products, and vegetable oils) and a "Western pattern" (organ meats, red and processed meats, sugar, soft drinks and confectionary, pasta, rice and refined grains, potatoes, french fries and fast foods, high-fat dairy products, hydrogenated fats, mayonnaise and fatty sauces, and snacks). After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the highest tertile of the prudent pattern scores had 54% lower risk of asthenozoospermia compared to those in the lowest (p for trend: 0.003). Being in the highest tertile of the Western pattern was positively associated with asthenozoospermia risk (odds ratio [OR] = 2.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83-2.97). Our findings suggest that adherence to the Western pattern is potentially an unfavorable indicator of asthenozoospermia risk and a diet composed mainly of plant-based foods may be associated with a reduced risk.

  13. Depth and activity of carious lesions as indicators for the regenerative potential of dental pulp after intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørndal, Lars; Demant, Sune; Dabelsteen, Sally

    2014-04-01

    Studies on dental regeneration involving interventions for pulp therapy such as regeneration and revascularization procedures are promising for the injured tooth; however, a complete replication of the original pulp tissue does not seem to take place. In cases in which we wish to preserve or maintain parts of the pulp during treatment, it is apparent that the effectiveness of healing or biological regeneration is dependent on the degree of inflammation of the pulp tissue. Thus, the control or prevention of a pulp infection is still a major issue for the clinicians. Data indicate that the typical reason for performing endodontic treatment is deep caries. The biological concept of vital pulp therapy associated with deep caries takes the treatment and evaluation of the unexposed as well as the exposed pulp into account. Interestingly, the clinical diagnosis is typically the same. Deep caries with reversible pulpitis may receive differing treatments such as excavation procedures aiming to avoid pulp exposure or more pulp invasive treatments such as pulp capping or pulpotomy. This should not be the case. Consequently, huge treatment variation is noted among clinicians based on the same caries diagnosis. Which treatment should be selected? High-quality trials are needed, and it is important to obtain information on the actual lesion depth and an estimate of the lesion activity before treatment. These may be basic indicators for the regenerative potential of dental pulp. Recent clinical trials dealing with the treatment of deep caries lesion are discussed, including pulp invasive and noninvasive concepts, to attempt to solve the task of getting the best clinical outcome for adult patients. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain Stimulation in Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salling, Michael C; Martinez, Diana

    2016-11-01

    Localized stimulation of the human brain to treat neuropsychiatric disorders has been in place for over 20 years. Although these methods have been used to a greater extent for mood and movement disorders, recent work has explored brain stimulation methods as potential treatments for addiction. The rationale behind stimulation therapy in addiction involves reestablishing normal brain function in target regions in an effort to dampen addictive behaviors. In this review, we present the rationale and studies investigating brain stimulation in addiction, including transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. Overall, these studies indicate that brain stimulation has an acute effect on craving for drugs and alcohol, but few studies have investigated the effect of brain stimulation on actual drug and alcohol use or relapse. Stimulation therapies may achieve their effect through direct or indirect modulation of brain regions involved in addiction, either acutely or through plastic changes in neuronal transmission. Although these mechanisms are not well understood, further identification of the underlying neurobiology of addiction and rigorous evaluation of brain stimulation methods has the potential for unlocking an effective, long-term treatment of addiction.

  15. Brain potentials measured during a Go/NoGo task predict completion of substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Vaughn R; Fink, Brandi C; Maurer, J Michael; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; Wilber, Charles H; Jaffe, Adam J; Sidz, Anna; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D; Clark, Vincent P; Kiehl, Kent A

    2014-07-01

    U.S. nationwide estimates indicate that 50% to 80% of prisoners have a history of substance abuse or dependence. Tailoring substance abuse treatment to specific needs of incarcerated individuals could improve effectiveness of treating substance dependence and preventing drug abuse relapse. We tested whether pretreatment neural measures of a response inhibition (Go/NoGo) task would predict which individuals would or would not complete a 12-week cognitive behavioral substance abuse treatment program. Adult incarcerated participants (n = 89; women n = 55) who volunteered for substance abuse treatment performed a Go/NoGo task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Stimulus- and response-locked ERPs were compared between participants who completed (n = 68; women = 45) and discontinued (n = 21; women = 10) treatment. As predicted, stimulus-locked P2, response-locked error-related negativity (ERN/Ne), and response-locked error positivity (Pe), measured with windowed time-domain and principal component analysis, differed between groups. Using logistic regression and support-vector machine (i.e., pattern classifiers) models, P2 and Pe predicted treatment completion above and beyond other measures (i.e., N2, P300, ERN/Ne, age, sex, IQ, impulsivity, depression, anxiety, motivation for change, and years of drug abuse). Participants who discontinued treatment exhibited deficiencies in sensory gating, as indexed by smaller P2; error-monitoring, as indexed by smaller ERN/Ne; and adjusting response strategy posterror, as indexed by larger Pe. The combination of P2 and Pe reliably predicted 83.33% of individuals who discontinued treatment. These results may help in the development of individualized therapies, which could lead to more favorable, long-term outcomes. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  16. Brain morphometry predicts individual creative potential and the ability to combine remote ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendetowicz, David; Urbanski, Marika; Aichelburg, Clarisse; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    For complex mental functions such as creative thinking, inter-individual variability is useful to better understand the underlying cognitive components and brain anatomy. Associative theories propose that creative individuals have flexible semantic associations, which allows remote elements to be formed into new combinations. However, the structural brain variability associated with the ability to combine remote associates has not been explored. To address this question, we performed a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study and explored the anatomical connectivity of significant regions. We developed a Remote Combination Association Task adapted from Mednick's test, in which subjects had to find a solution word related to three cue words presented to them. In our adaptation of the task, we used free association norms to quantify the associative distance between the cue words and solution words, and we varied this distance. The tendency to solve the task with insight and the ability to evaluate the appropriateness of a proposed solution were also analysed. Fifty-four healthy volunteers performed this task and underwent a structural MRI. Structure-function relationships were analysed using regression models between grey matter (GM) volume and task performance. Significant clusters were mapped onto an atlas of white matter (WM) tracts. The ability to solve the task, which depended on the associative distance of the solution word, was associated with structural variation in the left rostrolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal regions; the left rostral prefrontal region was connected to distant regions through long-range pathways. By using a creative combination task in which the semantic distance between words varied, we revealed a brain network centred on the left frontal pole that appears to support the ability to combine information in new ways by bridging the semantic distance between pieces of information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Computed tomography as a tool to detect potential brain-dead donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelto-Rey, Jaume; Aldabó-Pallás, Teresa; Egea-Guerrero, Juan José; Vilches-Arenas, Ángel; Lara, Enrique Javier; Gordillo-Escobar, Elena

    2015-06-22

    To assess the ability of urgent head computed tomography (CT) scan screening to detect patients who can evolve to brain death (BD). Patients who underwent urgent head CT scan and meet the following criteria: midline shift greater than 5mm and/or decrease or absence of basal cisterns. A follow-up for 28 days of each patient was made. Epidemiological data (sex, age, cause of brain injury), clinical data (level of consciousness, severity index in the CT) and patient outcomes (death, BD, discharge or transfer) were recorded. This was a prospective observational study. One hundred and sixty-six patients were selected for study, with mean age 60.08 (SD 21.8) years. A percentage of 49.4 were men and the rest women. In the follow-up, 20,5% (n=34) had BD. In univariate analysis, intracerebral hemorrhage, Glasgow Coma Scale score less than 8 and alteration of basal cisterns were statistically significant in predicting BD (P<.05). Multivariate analysis showed that patients with compression of basal cisterns were 20 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.61 to 153.78; P=.004] times more likely to progress to brain death, while the absence there of 62.6 (95% CI 13.1 to 738.8; P<.001] times more. Our work shows that data as easy to interpret as compression/absence of basal cisterns can be a powerful tool for screening patients at risk for progression to BD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating Potential of MODIS-based Indices in Determining “Snow Gone” Stage over Forest-dominant Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdeep S. Sekhon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available “Snow gone” (SGN stage is one of the critical variables that describe the start of the official forest fire season in the Canadian Province of Alberta. In this paper, our objective is to evaluate the potential of MODIS-based indices for determining the SGN stage. Those included: (i enhanced vegetation index (EVI, (ii normalized difference water index (NDWI using the shortwave infrared (SWIR spectral bands centered at 1.64 µm (NDWI1.64µm and at 2.13 µm (NDWI2.13µm, and (iii normalized difference snow index (NDSI. These were calculated using the 500 m 8-day gridded MODIS-based composites of surface reflectance data (i.e., MOD09A1 v.005 for the period 2006–08. We performed a qualitative evaluation of these indices over two forest fire prone natural subregions in Alberta (i.e., central mixedwood and lower boreal highlands. In the process, we generated and compared the natural subregion-specific lookout tower sites average: (i temporal trends for each of the indices, and (ii SGN stage using the ground-based observations available from Alberta Sustainable Resource Development. The EVI-values were found to have large uncertainty at the onset of the spring and unable to predict the SGN stages precisely. In terms of NDSI, it showed earlier prediction capabilities. On the contrary, both of the NDWI’s showed distinct pattern (i.e., reached a minimum value before started to increase again during the spring in relation to observed SGN stages. Thus further analysis was carried out to determine the best predictor by comparing the NDWI’s predicted SGN stages with the ground-based observations at all of the individual lookout tower sites (approximately 120 in total across the study area. It revealed that NDWI2.13µm demonstrated better prediction capabilities (i.e., on an average approximately 90% of the observations fell within ±2 periods or ±16 days of deviation in comparison to NDWI1.64µm (i.e., on an average approximately 73% of the

  19. Concussion-Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Recoverable Injury with Potential for Serious Sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamins, Joshua; Giza, Christopher C

    2016-10-01

    Concussion is increasingly recognized as a major public health issue. Most patients will return to baseline and experience full recovery, although a subset experiences persistent symptoms. Newer animal models and imaging studies are beginning to demonstrate that metabolic and neurovascular resolution may actually take longer than symptomatic recovery. Repeat traumatic brain injury within the metabolic window of dysfunction may result in worsened symptoms and prolonged recovery. The true risk for second impact syndrome appears to be small, and development of cerebral edema after a mild impact may be related to genetic risks rather than serial impacts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Brain-behavior relations in infancy: integrative approaches to examining infant looking behavior and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D; Guy, Maggie W

    2012-01-01

    This article describes three approaches to conducting integrated research on brain-behavior relations in infancy. These approaches include: conducting an integrative study that tests the same cognitive construct using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures in separate experiments, measuring behavior and ERPs in different phases of the same experiment, and measuring behavior and ERPs simultaneously. We review studies that have utilized these approaches with a specific focus on research on infant visual attention and recognition memory, and discuss the application of cortical source localization with infant ERP data. Advantages and disadvantages of each approach are discussed and suggestions are made for future research.

  1. Histopathological and ultrastructural perturbations in tilapia liver as potential indicators of pollution in Lake Al-Asfar, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M

    2014-03-01

    Lake Al-Asfar (Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia) is under threat from contaminants released through human activities such as agriculture and urban and industrial developments. In the present study, histopathologic and ultrastructural changes in liver of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were analyzed to monitor the possible impact of pollution in Al-Asfar estuary. Heavy metals such as Ni, Fe, Zn, Co, Ba, Pb, and Cd were predominant in the lake water and far exceeded the international permissible limits. In fish samples, high prevalences of preneoplastic changes (50 %) and one case of cholangiocarcinoma were revealed in liver tissues. Cytological damage in fish hepatocytes included glycogen exhaustion, deformation of nuclear envelope, heterochromatin condensation, mitochondrial degeneration, vesiculation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, augmentation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and lysosomal proliferation. In conclusion, the observed biomarker responses were potential indicators of health impairment or disease in field fish populations, although there was no direct proof of a simple cause-effect relationship. This is the first biological effect assessment in Lake Al-Asfar using tilapia as suitable target species.

  2. Metrics of ozone risk assessment for Southern European forests: Canopy moisture content as a potential plant response indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, A.; Sicard, P.; Vitale, M.; Carriero, G.; Renou, C.; Paoletti, E.

    2015-11-01

    Present standards for protecting ecosystems from ozone (O3), such as AOT40, use atmospheric concentrations. A stomatal flux-based approach (Phytotoxic O3 Dose, PODY) has been suggested. We compared the spatial and temporal distribution of AOT40 and PODY - with and without a hourly threshold of uptake (POD1 and POD0) - for Pinus halepensis and Fagus sylvatica in South-eastern France and North-western Italy. Ozone uptake was simulated by including limitation due to soil water content, as this is an important parameter in water-limited environments. Both AOT40 and POD1 exceeded the critical levels suggested for forests. AOT40 suggested a larger O3 risk relative to PODY. No significant spatial and temporal difference occurred between POD1 and POD0. The use of POD0 in the assessment of ambient O3 risk for vegetation is thus recommended, because it is more biologically-meaningful than AOT40 and easier to be calculated than POD1. Canopy Moisture Content (CMC), a proxy of foliar water content, was modelled and tested as a potential plant O3 response indicator. CMC response to O3 was species-specific, and thus cannot be recommended in the epidemiology of O3 injury to forests.

  3. SPATIAL INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS OF SLOPE PROCESSES EXPERIMENTAL STUDY USING INDICATIVE POTENTIAL OF CHERNOBYL ORIGIN CESIUM-137

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Trofimets

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the authors's experimental data made it possible to discover that the Cesium-137 variability on the arable slope caused by geting sampling points in the area of block or interblock depressions that compose paleocryogenic polygonal-block microrelief. The surveys accomplished on experimental area were intended to clarify the Cesium-137 indicative potential for study of topsoil loss due to flushing. Estimation of the flushed topsoil thickness has been performed basing on comparison between the thickness of plow horizon in 1986 and current depth of Cesium-137 distribution. Two main problems were solved during research. First is the identification of erosion processes features within the elementary catchment areas with varying ruggedness degree. And the second is the detection of flush and accumulation features on the slopes of northern and southern exposure. Calculation of the Cesium-137 reserve in the modern plow horizon (0 - 20 cm with the catchment area and profile curvature modeling made it possible to derive the preliminary relationship formula between soil loss in the elementary catchment area thalwegs and profile curvature.

  4. Three tropical seagrasses as potential bio-indicators to trace metals in Xincun Bay, Hainan Island, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2012-03-01

    Concentrations of the trace metals Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn were measured in seawater, rhizosphere sediments, interstitial water, and the tissues of three tropical species of seagrasses ( Thalassia hemprichii, Enhalus acoroides and Cymodocea rotundata) from Xincun Bay of Hainan Island, South China. We analyzed different environmental compartments and the highest concentrations of Pb and Zn were found in the interstitial and seawater. The concentrations of Cd and Zn were significantly higher in blades compared with roots or rhizomes in T. hemprichii and E. acoroides, respectively. A metal pollution index (MPI) demonstrated that sediment, interstitial water, and seagrasses in the sites located nearest anthropogenic sources of pollution had the most abundant metal concentrations. There was obvious seasonal variation of these metals in the three seagrasses with higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in January and Cd in July. Furthermore, the relationships between metal concentrations in seagrasses and environmental compartments were positively correlated significantly. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) demonstrated that Cd from the tissues of the three seagrasses might be absorbed from the sediment by the roots. However, for C. rotundata, Zn is likely to be derived from the seawater through its blades. Therefore, the blades of T. hemprichii, E. acoroides and C. rotundata are potential bio-indicators to Cd content in sediment, and additionally Zn content ( C. rotundata only) in seawater.

  5. A multi-resolution approach to localize neural sources of P300 event-related brain potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, M; Katebi, S D; Rastgar, K; Azimifar, Z

    2016-09-01

    P300 is probably the most well-known component of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Using an oddball paradigm, a P300 component can be identified, that is, elicited by the target stimuli recognition. Since P300 is associated with attention and memory operations of the brain, investigation of this component can improve our understanding of these mechanisms. The present study is aimed at identifying the P300 generators in 30 healthy subjects aged 18-30 years using time-reduction region-suppression linearly constrained minimum variance (TR-LCMV) beamformer. In our study, TR-LCMV beamformer with multi-resolution approach is proposed, coarse-resolution space to find the approximated coherent source locations, fine-resolution space to estimate covariance matrix for dimension reduction of determined regions, and normal-resolution space to localize the P300 generators in the brain. Our results over simulated and real data showed that this approach is a suitable tool to the analysis of ERP fields with localizing superior and inferior frontal lobe, middle temporal gyrus, parietal lobe, and cingulate gyrus as the most prominent sources of P300. The result of P300 localization was finally compared with the other localization methods and it is demonstrated that enhanced performance is achieved. Our results showed that the P300 originates from a widespread neuronal network in the brain and not from a specific region. Our finding over simulated and real data demonstrated the ability of the TR-LCMV algorithm for P300 source localization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Frontal Lobe Hemodynamic Responses to Painful Stimulation: A Potential Brain Marker of Nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasted, Christopher M; Yücel, Meryem A; Steele, Sarah C; Peng, Ke; Boas, David A; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to examine patterns of both activation and deactivation that occur in the frontal lobe in response to noxious stimuli. The frontal lobe was selected because it has been shown to be activated by noxious stimuli in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. The brain region is located behind the forehead which is devoid of hair, providing a relative ease of placement for fNIRS probes on this area of the head. Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showing blood-oxygenation-level dependent changes in the frontal lobes, we evaluated functional near-infrared spectroscopy measures in response to two levels of electrical pain in awake, healthy human subjects (n = 10; male = 10). Each subject underwent two recording sessions separated by a 30-minute resting period. Data collected from 7 subjects were analyzed, containing a total of 38/36 low/high intensity pain stimuli for the first recording session and 27/31 pain stimuli for the second session. Our results show that there is a robust and significant deactivation in sections of the frontal cortices. Further development and definition of the specificity and sensitivity of the approach may provide an objective measure of nociceptive activity in the brain that can be easily applied in the surgical setting.

  7. Epigenetics, stress, and their potential impact on brain network function: a focus on the schizophrenia diatheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Bustamante, Angela; Rai, Harinder; Uddin, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The recent sociodevelopmental cognitive model of schizophrenia/psychosis is a highly influential and compelling compendium of research findings. Here, we present logical extensions to this model incorporating ideas drawn from epigenetic mediation of psychiatric disease, and the plausible effects of epigenetics on the emergence of brain network function and dysfunction in adolescence. We discuss how gene-environment interactions, effected by epigenetic mechanisms, might in particular mediate the stress response (itself heavily implicated in the emergence of schizophrenia). Next, we discuss the plausible relevance of this framework for adolescent genetic risk populations, a risk group characterized by vexing and difficult-to-explain heterogeneity. We then discuss how exploring relationships between epigenetics and brain network dysfunction (a strongly validated finding in risk populations) can enhance understanding of the relationship between stress, epigenetics, and functional neurobiology, and the relevance of this relationship for the eventual emergence of schizophrenia/psychosis. We suggest that these considerations can expand the impact of models such as the sociodevelopmental cognitive model, increasing their explanatory reach. Ultimately, integration of these lines of research may enhance efforts of early identification, intervention, and treatment in adolescents at-risk for schizophrenia.

  8. Further recovery in a potential treatment withdrawal case 10 years after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T M; Herbert, C M

    2004-09-01

    A young woman was rendered tetraplegic and anarthric as a result of a traumatic brain injury in 1993. Two years later, she was considered to be in a minimally conscious state and became the subject of legal debate in the UK with regard to withdrawal of artificial feeding and hydration. Before injury, she made a verbal advanced directive that she would not wish to continue living if ever becoming severely disabled. Neuropsychological assessment found statistically significant evidence for sentience and expression of a wish to live and the application to Court was withdrawn. Further meaningful recovery occurred between 7-10 years after injury. She now lives in the community with 24 hour care. She speaks, initiates conversation and actions, expresses clear and consistent preferences and has a spontaneous sense of humour. She uses an electric wheelchair, eats solid food and drinks through a straw. Her mood is variable and sometimes low. This case demonstrates the need for careful consideration of advanced directives and for specialist neuropsychological assessment in people with severe cognitive and communication difficulties. It supports the view that routine assessment and follow-up of people thought to be in minimally conscious states is important. In addition, it shows that recovery with reduction in disability and significant implications for quality of life can continue for at least 10 years after extremely severe traumatic brain injury. Copyright 2004 Taylor and Francis Ltd

  9. Epigenetics, stress and their potential impact on brain network function: A focus on the schizophrenia diatheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav A. Diwadkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent sociodevelopmental cognitive model of schizophrenia/psychosis is a highly influential and compelling compendium of research findings. Here we present logical extensions to this model incorporating ideas drawn from epigenetic mediation of psychiatric disease, and the plausible effects of epigenetics on the emergence of brain network function and dysfunction in adolescence. We discuss how gene-environment interactions, effected by epigenetic mechanisms, might in particular mediate the stress response (itself heavily implicated in the emergence of schizophrenia. Next, we discuss the plausible relevance of this framework for adolescent genetic risk populations, a risk group characterized by vexing and difficult-to-explain heterogeneity. We then discuss how exploring relationships between epigenetics and brain network dysfunction (a strongly validated finding in risk populations can enhance understanding of the relationship between stress, epigenetics and functional neurobiology, and the relevance of this relationship for the eventual emergence of schizophrenia/psychosis. We suggest that these considerations can expand the impact of models such as the sociodevelopmental cognitive model, increasing their explanatory reach. Ultimately, integration of these lines of research may enhance efforts of early identification, intervention and treatment in adolescents at risk for schizophrenia.

  10. Circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor and indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health: data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Golden

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides its well-established role in nerve cell survival and adaptive plasticity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is also involved in energy homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. Although BDNF is present in the systemic circulation, it is unknown whether plasma BDNF correlates with circulating markers of dysregulated metabolism and an adverse cardiovascular profile.To determine whether circulating BDNF correlates with indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health, we measured plasma BDNF levels in 496 middle-age and elderly subjects (mean age approximately 70, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Linear regression analysis revealed that plasma BDNF is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, regardless of age. In females, BDNF was positively correlated with BMI, fat mass, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, and inversely correlated with folate. In males, BDNF was positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, free thiiodo-thyronine (FT3, and bioavailable testosterone, and inversely correlated with sex-hormone binding globulin, and adiponectin.Plasma BDNF significantly correlates with multiple risk factors for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular dysfunction. Whether BDNF contributes to the pathogenesis of these disorders or functions in adaptive responses to cellular stress (as occurs in the brain remains to be determined.

  11. Effect of maternal micronutrients (folic acid and vitamin B12) and omega 3 fatty acids on indices of brain oxidative stress in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Suchitra; Sable, Pratiksha; Khaire, Amrita; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-03-01

    Our earlier studies have shown that a maternal diet imbalanced with micronutrients like folic acid, vitamin B12 has adverse effects on fatty acid metabolism, global methylation patterns and levels of brain neurotrophins in the offspring at birth. However, it is not clear if these effects are mediated through oxidative stress. The role of oxidative stress in influencing epigenetic mechanisms and thereby fetal programming is not well studied. Pregnant female rats were divided into six treatment groups at two levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B12. Omega 3 fatty acid supplementation was given to the vitamin B12 deficient groups. Following delivery, 8 dams from each group were randomly shifted back to control and the remaining 8 continued on the same treatment diet. Our results indicate for the first time that an imbalance in maternal micronutrients reduces the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (pacid supplementation normalizes the levels of GPx. Our data shows that maternal micronutrient imbalance adversely affects antioxidant defense mechanisms while omega 3 fatty acid supplementation ameliorates some of the negative effects. Our study throws light on the role of oxidative stress in fetal brain programming and consequential risk for neurodegenerative disorders in later life. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The potential for brain injury on selected surfaces used by cheerleaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Brenda J; Smith, Gary A

    2009-01-01

    Although playground surfaces have been investigated for fall impact attenuation, the surfaces that cheerleaders use have received little attention. To determine (1) the critical height for selected surfaces used by cheerleaders at or below which a serious head impact injury from a fall is unlikely to occur, (2) the critical heights for non-impact-absorbing surfaces for comparison purposes, and (3) the effect of soil moisture and grass height on g(max) (which is defined as the multiple of g [acceleration due to gravity at the earth's surface at sea level: ie, 32.2 feet x s(-1) x s(-1)] that represents the maximum deceleration experienced during an impact) and the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) at the critical height for a dry grass surface. Observational study. A local cheerleading gym, indoor locations within the authors' institution, and various outdoor locations. g(max), HIC, and critical height. Critical heights for the surfaces tested ranged from 0.5 ft (0.15 m) for concrete and vinyl tile installed over concrete to more than 11 ft (3.35 m) for a spring floor. Increases in grass height and soil moisture resulted in an increase in the critical height for grass surfaces. Only spring floors and 4-in (0.10-m)-thick landing mats placed on traditional foam floors had critical heights greater than 10.5 ft (3.20 m), thus providing enough impact-absorbing capacity for performance of 2-level stunts. The potential for serious head impact injuries can be minimized by increasing the shock-absorbing capacity of the surface, decreasing the height from which the person falls, or both. Cheerleaders and cheerleading coaches should use the critical heights reported in this study to compare the relative impact-absorbing capacities of the various surfaces tested, with critical height as an indicator of the impact-absorption capacity of the surface. The findings of this study can be used to select the most appropriate surface for the type of maneuver to be performed, based on the

  13. Bioavailability and soil-to-plant transfer factors as indicators of potentially toxic element contamination in agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, Paola, E-mail: paola.adamo@unina.it [Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli Federico II, via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Iavazzo, Pietro [Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli Federico II, via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Albanese, Stefano [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell' Ambiente e delle Risorse, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Napoli (Italy); Agrelli, Diana [Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli Federico II, via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); De Vivo, Benedetto; Lima, Annamaria [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell' Ambiente e delle Risorse, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-12-01

    Soil pollution in agricultural lands poses a serious threat to food safety, and suggests the need for consolidated methods providing advisory indications for soil management and crop production. In this work, the three-step extraction procedure developed by the EU Measurement and Testing Programme and two soil-to-plant transfer factors (relative to total and bioavailable concentration of elements in soil) were applied on polluted agricultural soils from southern Italy to obtain information on the retention mechanisms of metals in soils and on their level of translocation to edible vegetables. The study was carried out in the Sarno river plain of Campania, an area affected by severe environmental degradation potentially impacting the health of those consuming locally produced vegetables. Soil samples were collected in 36 locations along the two main rivers flowing into the plain. In 11 sites, lettuce plants were collected at the normal stage of consumption. According to Italian environmental law governing residential soils, and on the basis of soil background reference values for the study area, we found diffuse pollution by Be, Sn and Tl, of geogenic origin, Cr and Cu from anthropogenic sources such as tanneries and intensive agriculture, and more limited pollution by Pb, Zn and V. It was found that metals polluting soils as a result of human activities were mainly associated to residual, oxidizable and reducible phases, relatively immobile and only potentially bioavailable to plants. By contrast, the essential elements Zn and Cu showed a tendency to become more readily mobile and bioavailable as their total content in soil increased and were more easily transported to the edible parts of lettuce than other pollutants. According to our results, current soil pollution in the studied area does not affect the proportion of metals taken up by lettuce plants and there is a limited health risk incurred. - Highlights: • Soil pollution in an intensively farmed area of

  14. Brain wave correlates of attentional states: Event related potentials and quantitative EEG analysis during performance of cognitive and perceptual tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Frederick G.

    1993-01-01

    presented target stimulus. In addition to the task requirements, irrelevant tones were presented in the background. Research has shown that even though these stimuli are not attended, ERP's to them can still be elicited. The amplitude of the ERP waves has been shown to change as a function of a person's level of alertness. ERP's were also collected and analyzed for the target stimuli for each task. Brain maps were produced based on the ERP voltages for the different stimuli. In addition to the ERP's, a quantitative EEG (QEEG) was performed on the data using a fast Fourier technique to produce a power spectral analysis of the EEG. This analysis was conducted on the continuous EEG while the subjects were performing the tasks. Finally, a QEEG was performed on periods during the task when subjects indicated that they were in an altered state of awareness. During the tasks, subjects were asked to indicate by pressing a button when they realized their level of task awareness had changed. EEG epochs were collected for times just before and just after subjects made this reponse. The purpose of this final analysis was to determine whether or not subjective indices of level of awareness could be correlated with different patterns of EEG.

  15. The brain microvascular endothelium supports T cell proliferation and has potential for alloantigen presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Wheway

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells (EC form the inner lining of blood vessels and are positioned between circulating lymphocytes and tissues. Hypotheses have formed that EC may act as antigen presenting cells based on the intimate interactions with T cells, which are seen in diseases like multiple sclerosis, cerebral malaria (CM and viral neuropathologies. Here, we investigated how human brain microvascular EC (HBEC interact with and support the proliferation of T cells. We found HBEC to express MHC II, CD40 and ICOSL, key molecules for antigen presentation and co-stimulation and to take up fluorescently labeled antigens via macropinocytosis. In co-cultures, we showed that HBEC support and promote the proliferation of CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells, which both are key in CM pathogenesis, particularly following T cell receptor activation and co-stimulation. Our findings provide novel evidence that HBEC can trigger T cell activation, thereby providing a novel mechanism for neuroimmunological complications of infectious diseases.

  16. Overexpression of EZH2 is associated with the poor prognosis in osteosarcoma and function analysis indicates a therapeutic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ranran; Shen, Jacson; Gao, Yan; Zhou, Yubing; Yu, Zujiang; Hornicek, Francis; Kan, Quancheng; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a primary malignant bone tumor that has a poor prognosis due to local recurrence, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel potential therapeutic targets for osteosarcoma. Enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) is a member of the polycomb group of proteins, which has important functions in epigenetic silencing and cell cycle regulation. Overexpression of EZH2 has been found in several malignancies, however, its expression and the role of EZH2 in osteosarcoma is largely unknown. In this study, we examined EZH2 expression by immunohistochemistry in a large series of osteosarcoma tissues in association with tumor characteristics and patient outcomes. EZH2 expression was also analyzed in a microarray dataset of osteosarcoma. Results showed that higher expression of EZH2 was significantly associated with more aggressive tumor behavior and poor patient outcomes of osteosarcoma. We subsequently investigated the functional and therapeutic relevance of EZH2 as a target in osteosarcoma. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that EZH2 expression was significantly associated with more aggressive tumor behavior and poorer patient outcomes of osteosarcoma. EZH2 silencing by siRNA inhibited osteosarcoma cell growth, proliferation, migration, and invasion. Moreover, suppression of EZH2 attenuated cancer stem cell functions. Similar results were observed in osteosarcoma cells treated with EZH2 specific inhibitor 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), which exhausted cellular levels of EZH2. These results suggest that EZH2 is critical for the growth and metastasis of osteosarcoma, and an epigenetic therapy that pharmacologically targets EZH2 via specific inhibitors may constitute a novel approach to the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:27223261

  17. Feasibility, safety, and potential demand of emergent brain magnetic resonance imaging of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Maki; Suzuki, Makoto; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2017-10-01

    The feasibility, safety, and potential demand of emergent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) in emergency situations are unknown. We retrospectively compared emergent and scheduled MRI orders for patients with CIEDs at Kameda General Hospital, a tertiary hospital in Japan, from October 2012 to September 2016. We identified 11 emergent MRI orders via the emergency room and 38 scheduled MRI orders. Although the baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups, brain scanning was predominant in emergent scanning (p=0.002). The reasons for MRI and physicians who ordered it were also significantly different between the two groups (pMRI. The time from arrival at the emergency room to MRI was 144±29 min, and the time from the MRI order made by the cardiologist to its actual performance was 60±10 min. Four out of 9 patients had a diagnosis of acute stroke confirmed by emergent MRI, and two had emergent thrombolysis with a complete neurological recovery. All emergent scanning was conducted safely with no complications. Our study found the potential demand of brain MRI of patients with CIEDs in emergency situations compared with scheduled scanning, which was shown to be feasible and safe for the diagnosis and treatment of an acute stroke.

  18. Calcium-dependent plateau potentials in rostral ambiguus neurons in the newborn mouse brain stem in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Feldman, J L

    1997-01-01

    Calcium-dependent plateau potentials in rostral ambiguus neurons in the newborn mouse brain stem in vitro. J. Neurophysiol. 78: 2483-2492, 1997. The nucleus ambiguus contains vagal and glossopharyngeal motoneurons and preganglionic neurons involved in respiration, swallowing, vocalization......, and control of heart beat. Here we show that the rostral compact formation's ambiguus neurons, which control the esophageal phase of swallowing, display calcium-dependent plateau potentials in response to tetanic orthodromic stimulation or current injection. Whole cell recordings were made from visualized...... neurons in the rostral nucleus ambiguus using a slice preparation from the newborn mouse. Biocytin-labeling revealed dendritic trees with pronounced rostrocaudal orientations confined to the nucleus ambiguus, a morphological profile matching that of vagal motoneurons projecting to the esophagus. Single...

  19. Pyrolytic indices of diagenetic transformation of lignin as biogeochemical proxies for soil organic matter quality and C storage potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-González, Marco A.; Almendros, Gonzalo; Álvarez, Ana M.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Vila, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    The environmental factors involved in soil organic carbon sequestration remain unclear. The functional relationships between the macromolecular structure of the soil organic matter (SOM) and its resilience has been a constant in classical biogeochemical models. Other more recent hypotheses have postulated that preservation by soil minerals may play a chief role in the accumulation of stable SOM forms. However, additional experimental data are required to demonstrate a cause-to-effect relationship between preservation and stabilization. Some authors might consider that models neglecting the role of macromolecular structure are swapping cause and effect i.e., that SOM structurally flexible, weakly condensed and having 'open' structures is the one with high potential to interact with the soil mineral matrix, leading to stable microaggregates. In this study up to 35 topsoil samples (0-5 cm) were collected from different Spanish soils with contrasted values of organic C (the dependent variable), geological substrate and vegetation type. A wide array of uni- and multivariate chemometric models were applied to independent variables consisting of total abundances of the major aromatic compounds, i.e., alkylbenzenes and methoxyphenols released from whole soil samples using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). These two families of compounds were selected since they are classically considered to inform on the degree of microbial reworking of lignins, which is an important precursor of the aromatic moiety of the SOM. A series of pyrolytic surrogate indices (aiming to express SOM diagenetic transformation in relation to the original biogenic molecular composition) were especially successful in forecasting SOC, viz: a) ratio between alkylbenzenes and methoxyphenols, b) ratio between short-chain (C0-C4) and long-chain (>C4) alkylbenzenes, c) ratio between methoxyphenols and short-chain alkylbenzenes, and d) ratios between methoxyphenols with different side

  20. Aging alterations in whole-brain networks during adulthood mapped with the minimum spanning tree indices: The interplay of density, connectivity cost and life-time trajectory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, W.M.; van Diessen, E.; Paul, S.; Ramaswamy, R.; Rallabandi, V.P.S.; Stam, C.J.; Roy, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    The organizational network changes in the human brain across the lifespan have been mapped using functional and structural connectivity data. Brain network changes provide valuable insights into the processes underlying senescence. Nonetheless, the altered network density in the elderly severely

  1. Aging alterations in whole-brain networks during adulthood mapped with the minimum spanning tree indices : The interplay of density, connectivity cost and life-time trajectory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, Wim; van Diessen, Eric; Paul, Subhadip; Ramaswamy, Rajiv; Subramanyam Rallabandi, V. P.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Roy, Prasun K.

    2015-01-01

    The organizational network changes in the human brain across the lifespan have been mapped using functional and structural connectivity data. Brain network changes provide valuable insights into the processes underlying senescence. Nonetheless, the altered network density in the elderly severely

  2. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as a potential treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder associated with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve DJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available David J Eve,1 Martin R Steele,2 Paul R Sanberg,1 Cesar V Borlongan1 1Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, Morsani College of Medicine, 2Veterans Reintegration Steering Committee, Veterans Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA Abstract: Traumatic brain injury (TBI describes the presence of physical damage to the brain as a consequence of an insult and frequently possesses psychological and neurological symptoms depending on the severity of the injury. The recent increased military presence of US troops in Iraq and Afghanistan has coincided with greater use of improvised exploding devices, resulting in many returning soldiers suffering from some degree of TBI. A biphasic response is observed which is first directly injury-related, and second due to hypoxia, increased oxidative stress, and inflammation. A proportion of the returning soldiers also suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and in some cases, this may be a consequence of TBI. Effective treatments are still being identified, and a possible therapeutic candidate is hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT. Some clinical trials have been performed which suggest benefits with regard to survival and disease severity of TBI and/or PTSD, while several other studies do not see any improvement compared to a possibly poorly controlled sham. HBOT has been shown to reduce apoptosis, upregulate growth factors, promote antioxidant levels, and inhibit inflammatory cytokines in animal models, and hence, it is likely that HBOT could be advantageous in treating at least the secondary phase of TBI and PTSD. There is some evidence of a putative prophylactic or preconditioning benefit of HBOT exposure in animal models of brain injury, and the optimal time frame for treatment is yet to be determined. HBOT has potential side effects such as acute cerebral toxicity and more reactive oxygen species with long-term use, and therefore

  3. Identifying Indices of Happiness and Unhappiness Among Adults With Autism: Potential Targets for Behavioral Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Marsha B; Bentley, Erik; Inman, Amy; Lattimore, L. Perry

    2012-01-01

    Research is increasingly demonstrating the importance of monitoring indices of happiness as part of behavioral programs for individuals who have severe intellectual disabilities. We evaluated a practitioner-oriented process for identifying and validating individualized indices of this private event among three adults with autism who were nonvocal or minimally vocal. Caregiver surveys were administered to obtain agreement regarding behavior displayed when the individuals were happy and unhappy, as well as situations in which they were likely to experience happiness and unhappiness. Observations corroborated caregiver opinion in that participants displayed more happiness indices in situations reported to be accompanied by happiness, and for the most part, more unhappiness indices in reported unhappiness situations. Subsequent choices by each participant supported the validity of the individualized indices. Results are discussed regarding how identifying happiness indices can be a useful component of behavioral applications, as well as guidelines and cautions regarding use of the indices in routine practice. PMID:23326627

  4. Epileptic Activity Increases Cerebral Amino Acid Transport Assessed by 18F-Fluoroethyl-l-Tyrosine Amino Acid PET: A Potential Brain Tumor Mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Markus; Ebner, Yvonne; Riemenschneider, Markus J; Willuweit, Antje; McCoy, Mark; Egger, Barbara; Schröder, Michael; Wendl, Christina; Hellwig, Dirk; Grosse, Jirka; Menhart, Karin; Proescholdt, Martin; Fritsch, Brita; Urbach, Horst; Stockhammer, Guenther; Roelcke, Ulrich; Galldiks, Norbert; Meyer, Philipp T; Langen, Karl-Josef; Hau, Peter; Trinka, Eugen

    2017-01-01

    O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) PET is a well-established method increasingly used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and monitoring in gliomas. Epileptic activity, frequently occurring in glioma patients, can influence MRI findings. Whether seizures also affect (18)F-FET PET imaging is currently unknown. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to investigate the brain amino acid metabolism during epileptic seizures by (18)F-FET PET and to elucidate the pathophysiologic background. Ten patients with 11 episodes of serial seizures or status epilepticus, who underwent MRI and (18)F-FET PET, were studied. The main diagnosis was glioma World Health Organization grade II-IV (n = 8); 2 patients suffered from nonneoplastic diseases. Immunohistochemical assessment of LAT1/LAT2/CD98 amino acid transporters was performed in seizure-affected cortex (n = 2) and compared with glioma tissues (n = 3). All patients exhibited increased seizure-associated strict gyral (18)F-FET uptake, which was reversible in follow-up studies or negative shortly before and without any histologic or clinical signs of tumor recurrence. (18)F-FET uptake corresponded to structural MRI changes, compatible with cortical vasogenic and cytotoxic edema, partial contrast enhancement, and hyperperfusion. Patients with prolonged postictal symptoms lasting up to 8 wk displayed intensive and widespread (≥ 1 lobe) cortical (18)F-FET uptake. LAT1/LAT2/CD98 was strongly expressed in neurons and endothelium of seizure-affected brains and less in reactive astrocytosis. Seizure activity, in particular status epilepticus, increases cerebral amino acid transport with a strict gyral (18)F-FET uptake pattern. Such periictal pseudoprogression represents a potential pitfall of (18)F-FET PET and may mimic brain tumor. Our data also indicate a seizure-induced upregulation of neuronal, endothelial, and less astroglial LAT1/LAT2/CD98 amino acid transporter expression. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear

  5. Correction: Cecotti, H. and Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Cecotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper (Cecotti, H.; Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355: Due to an internal error, the reference numbers in the original published paper were not shown, and the error was not due to the authors. The former main text should be replaced as below.

  6. Proactive Complex Hormone Therapy in the Clinical Guideline for the Managing the Potential Donor Organs in BrainDead Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Konareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal of study: to improve hemodynamics, respiratory exchange and metabolism of potential donor organs by using combination of Lthyroxin, triiodothyronine, methylprednisolone, desmopressin acetate and insulin.Material and Methods: The clinical study included 98 potential donors (PD with confirmed diagnosis of brain death. Braindead PD were divided into two groups: the 1st group included 43 PD with traumatic brain injury; the 2nd group included 55 PD with a stroke. PD from the 1st and 2nd groups were divided into two subgroups: main subgroup (n=18 and n=30 included those who received Lthyroxine, triiodothyronine and dessom pressin orally; control subgroup (n=25 and n=25 included those who did not receive these drugs. Hemodynamics, electrolytes, biochemical parameters, respiratory exchange and free triiodothyronine and thyroxine in blood were determined during the study. Results and discussion: In the course of the intensive therapy in control subgroups of both groups of PD the doses of noradrenalin and dopamine were not changed. However, the doses of noradrenalin and dopamine were decreased significantly in main subgroups of both groups during the course of the hormone therapy. There were no significant changes in hemodynamics in PD from both control subgroups, whereas in main groups hemodynamics parameters were decreased due to hormone therapy. Significant changes of blood pressure were observed in the main subgroups. Despite exogenous administration, in the main subgroups T3 remained at the lower limit of norm, whereas T4 increased. Improved hemodynamics and gas exchange were revealed in PD following hormone therapy that was important for the blood flow in organs. Following transplantation, in recipients of organs from control subgroup of PD the rejections of the transplants were significantly more frequent than rejections of organs from PD which comprized the main subgroup receiving hormones.Conclusion. Hormone administration to

  7. Distribution and Potential Indicators of Hospitalized Cases of Neurocysticercosis and Epilepsy in Ecuador from 1996 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, Sarah; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Saegerman, Claude; Dorny, Pierre; Berkvens, Dirk; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is one of the most common signs of Neurocysticercosis (NCC). In this study, spatial and temporal variations in the incidence of hospitalized cases (IHC) of epilepsy and NCC in Ecuadorian municipalities were analyzed. Additionally, potential socio-economic and landscape indicators were evaluated in order to understand in part the macro-epidemiology of the Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis complex. Methodology Data on the number of hospitalized epilepsy and NCC cases by municipality of residence were obtained from morbidity-hospital systems in Ecuador. SatScan software was used to determine whether variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC in space and time. In addition, several socio-economic and landscape variables at municipality level were used to study factors intervening in the macro-epidemiology of these diseases. Negative Binomial regression models through stepwise selection and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) were used to explain the variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC. Principal findings Different clusters were identified through space and time. Traditional endemic zones for NCC and epilepsy, recognized in other studies were confirmed in our study. However, for both disorders more recent clusters were identified. Among municipalities, an increasing tendency for IHC of epilepsy, and a decreasing tendency for the IHC of NCC were observed over time. In contrast, within municipalities a positive linear relationship between both disorders was found. An increase in the implementation of systems for eliminating excrements would help to reduce the IHC of epilepsy by 1.00% (IC95%; 0.2%–1.8%) and by 5.12% (IC95%; 3.63%-6.59%) for the IHC of NCC. The presence of pig production was related to IHC of NCC. Conclusion/Significance Both disorders were related to the lack of an efficient system for eliminating excrements. Given the appearance of recent epilepsy clusters, these locations should be studied in depth to discriminate epilepsies due

  8. Distribution and Potential Indicators of Hospitalized Cases of Neurocysticercosis and Epilepsy in Ecuador from 1996 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin Ron-Garrido

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common signs of Neurocysticercosis (NCC. In this study, spatial and temporal variations in the incidence of hospitalized cases (IHC of epilepsy and NCC in Ecuadorian municipalities were analyzed. Additionally, potential socio-economic and landscape indicators were evaluated in order to understand in part the macro-epidemiology of the Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis complex.Data on the number of hospitalized epilepsy and NCC cases by municipality of residence were obtained from morbidity-hospital systems in Ecuador. SatScan software was used to determine whether variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC in space and time. In addition, several socio-economic and landscape variables at municipality level were used to study factors intervening in the macro-epidemiology of these diseases. Negative Binomial regression models through stepwise selection and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA were used to explain the variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC.Different clusters were identified through space and time. Traditional endemic zones for NCC and epilepsy, recognized in other studies were confirmed in our study. However, for both disorders more recent clusters were identified. Among municipalities, an increasing tendency for IHC of epilepsy, and a decreasing tendency for the IHC of NCC were observed over time. In contrast, within municipalities a positive linear relationship between both disorders was found. An increase in the implementation of systems for eliminating excrements would help to reduce the IHC of epilepsy by 1.00% (IC95%; 0.2%-1.8% and by 5.12% (IC95%; 3.63%-6.59% for the IHC of NCC. The presence of pig production was related to IHC of NCC.Both disorders were related to the lack of an efficient system for eliminating excrements. Given the appearance of recent epilepsy clusters, these locations should be studied in depth to discriminate epilepsies due to NCC from epilepsies due to other causes. Field

  9. Brain potentials predict learning, transmission and modification of an artificial symbolic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumaca, Massimo; Baggio, Giosuè

    2016-12-01

    It has recently been argued that symbolic systems evolve while they are being transmitted across generations of learners, gradually adapting to the relevant brain structures and processes. In the context of this hypothesis, little is known on whether individual differences in neural processing capacity account for aspects of 'variation' observed in symbolic behavior and symbolic systems. We addressed this issue in the domain of auditory processing. We conducted a combined behavioral and EEG study on 2 successive days. On day 1, participants listened to standard and deviant five-tone sequences: as in previous oddball studies, an mismatch negativity (MMN) was elicited by deviant tones. On day 2, participants learned an artificial signaling system from a trained confederate of the experimenters in a coordination game in which five-tone sequences were associated to affective meanings (emotion-laden pictures of human faces). In a subsequent game with identical structure, participants transmitted and occasionally changed the signaling system learned during the first game. The MMN latency from day 1 predicted learning, transmission and structural modification of signaling systems on day 2. Our study introduces neurophysiological methods into research on cultural transmission and evolution, and relates aspects of variation in symbolic systems to individual differences in neural information processing. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Differential Expression of FosB Proteins and Potential Target Genes in Select Brain Regions of Addiction and Depression Patients.

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    Paula A Gajewski

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to stress or drugs of abuse has been linked to altered gene expression throughout the body, and changes in gene expression in discrete brain regions are thought to underlie many psychiatric diseases, including major depressive disorder and drug addiction. Preclinical models of these disorders have provided evidence for mechanisms of this altered gene expression, including transcription factors, but evidence supporting a role for these factors in human patients has been slow to emerge. The transcription factor ΔFosB is induced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and hippocampus (HPC of rodents in response to stress or cocaine, and its expression in these regions is thought to regulate their "top down" control of reward circuitry, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc. Here, we use biochemistry to examine the expression of the FosB family of transcription factors and their potential gene targets in PFC and HPC postmortem samples from depressed patients and cocaine addicts. We demonstrate that ΔFosB and other FosB isoforms are downregulated in the HPC but not the PFC in the brains of both depressed and addicted individuals. Further, we show that potential ΔFosB transcriptional targets, including GluA2, are also downregulated in the HPC but not PFC of cocaine addicts. Thus, we provide the first evidence of FosB gene expression in human HPC and PFC in these psychiatric disorders, and in light of recent findings demonstrating the critical role of HPC ΔFosB in rodent models of learning and memory, these data suggest that reduced ΔFosB in HPC could potentially underlie cognitive deficits accompanying chronic cocaine abuse or depression.

  11. Guidelines for the assessment and acceptance of potential brain-dead organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Glauco Adrieno; Garcia, Valter Duro; Souza, Rafael Lisboa de; Franke, Cristiano Augusto; Vieira, Kalinca Daberkow; Birckholz, Viviane Renata Zaclikevis; Machado, Miriam Cristine; Almeida, Eliana Régia Barbosa de; Machado, Fernando Osni; Sardinha, Luiz Antônio da Costa; Wanzuita, Raquel; Silvado, Carlos Eduardo Soares; Costa, Gerson; Braatz, Vera; Caldeira Filho, Milton; Furtado, Rodrigo; Tannous, Luana Alves; Albuquerque, André Gustavo Neves de; Abdala, Edson

    2016-09-01

    Organ transplantation is the only alternative for many patients with terminal diseases. The increasing disproportion between the high demand for organ transplants and the low rate of transplants actually performed is worrisome. Some of the causes of this disproportion are errors in the identification of potential organ donors and in the determination of contraindications by the attending staff. Therefore, the aim of the present document is to provide guidelines for intensive care multi-professional staffs for the recognition, assessment and acceptance of potential organ donors.

  12. A brain-computer interface for potential non-verbal facial communication based on EEG signals related to specific emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Unlike assistive technology for verbal communication, the brain-machine or brain-computer interface (BMI/BCI) has not been established as a non-verbal communication tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Face-to-face communication enables access to rich emotional information, but individuals suffering from neurological disorders, such as ALS and autism, may not express their emotions or communicate their negative feelings. Although emotions may be inferred by looking at facial expressions, emotional prediction for neutral faces necessitates advanced judgment. The process that underlies brain neuronal responses to neutral faces and causes emotional changes remains unknown. To address this problem, therefore, this study attempted to decode conditioned emotional reactions to neutral face stimuli. This direction was motivated by the assumption that if electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used to detect patients' emotional responses to specific inexpressive faces, the results could be incorporated into the design and development of BMI/BCI-based non-verbal communication tools. To these ends, this study investigated how a neutral face associated with a negative emotion modulates rapid central responses in face processing and then identified cortical activities. The conditioned neutral face-triggered event-related potentials that originated from the posterior temporal lobe statistically significantly changed during late face processing (600-700 ms) after stimulus, rather than in early face processing activities, such as P1 and N170 responses. Source localization revealed that the conditioned neutral faces increased activity in the right fusiform gyrus (FG). This study also developed an efficient method for detecting implicit negative emotional responses to specific faces by using EEG signals. A classification method based on a support vector machine enables the easy classification of neutral faces that trigger specific individual emotions. In

  13. Cyanotoxins at low doses induce apoptosis and inflammatory effects in murine brain cells: Potential implications for neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Takser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanotoxins have been shown to be highly toxic for mammalian cells, including brain cells. However, little is known about their effect on inflammatory pathways. This study investigated whether mammalian brain and immune cells can be a target of certain cyanotoxins, at doses approximating those in the guideline levels for drinking water, either alone or in mixtures. We examined the effects on cellular viability, apoptosis and inflammation signalling of several toxins on murine macrophage-like RAW264.7, microglial BV-2 and neuroblastoma N2a cell lines. We tested cylindrospermopsin (CYN, microcystin-LR (MC-LR, and anatoxin-a (ATX-a, individually as well as their mixture. In addition, we studied the neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA and its isomer 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB, as well as the mixture of both. Cellular viability was determined by the MTT assay. Apoptosis induction was assessed by measuring the activation of caspases 3/7. Cell death and inflammation are the hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, our final step was to quantify the expression of a major proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α by ELISA. Our results show that CYN, MC-LR and ATX-a, but not BMAA and DAB, at low doses, especially when present in a mixture at threefold less concentrations than individual compounds are 3–15 times more potent at inducing apoptosis and inflammation. Our results suggest that common cyanotoxins at low doses have a potential to induce inflammation and apoptosis in immune and brain cells. Further research of the neuroinflammatory effects of these compounds in vivo is needed to improve safety limit levels for cyanotoxins in drinking water and food.

  14. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as a potential treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder associated with traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eve, David J; Steele, Martin R; Sanberg, Paul R; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) describes the presence of physical damage to the brain as a consequence of an insult and frequently possesses psychological and neurological symptoms depending on the severity of the injury. The recent increased military presence of US troops in Iraq and Afghanistan has coincided with greater use of improvised exploding devices, resulting in many returning soldiers suffering from some degree of TBI. A biphasic response is observed which is first directly injury-related, and second due to hypoxia, increased oxidative stress, and inflammation. A proportion of the returning soldiers also suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and in some cases, this may be a consequence of TBI. Effective treatments are still being identified, and a possible therapeutic candidate is hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). Some clinical trials have been performed which suggest benefits with regard to survival and disease severity of TBI and/or PTSD, while several other studies do not see any improvement compared to a possibly poorly controlled sham. HBOT has been shown to reduce apoptosis, upregulate growth factors, promote antioxidant levels, and inhibit inflammatory cytokines in animal models, and hence, it is likely that HBOT could be advantageous in treating at least the secondary phase of TBI and PTSD. There is some evidence of a putative prophylactic or preconditioning benefit of HBOT exposure in animal models of brain injury, and the optimal time frame for treatment is yet to be determined. HBOT has potential side effects such as acute cerebral toxicity and more reactive oxygen species with long-term use, and therefore, optimizing exposure duration to maximize the reward and decrease the detrimental effects of HBOT is necessary. This review provides a summary of the current understanding of HBOT as well as suggests future directions including prophylactic use and chronic treatment. PMID:27799776

  15. Using Event-Related Potentials to Study Perinatal Nutrition and Brain Development in Infants of Diabetic Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRegnier, Raye-Ann; Long, Jeffrey D.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Proper prenatal and postnatal nutrition is essential for optimal brain development and function. The early use of event-related potentials enables neuroscientists to study the development of cognitive function from birth and to evaluate the role of specific nutrients in development. Perinatal iron deficiency occurs in severely affected infants of diabetic mothers. In animal models, severe perinatal iron deficiency targets the explicit memory system of the brain. Cross-sectional ERP studies have shown that infants of diabetic mothers have impairments in recognition memory from birth through 8 months of age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate longitudinal development of recognition memory using ERPs in infants of diabetic mothers compared with control infants. Infants of diabetic mothers were divided into high and low risk status based upon their birthweights and iron status and compared with healthy control infants. Infants were tested in the newborn period for auditory recognition memory, at 6 months for visual recognition memory and at 8 months for cross modal memory. ERPs were evaluated for developmental changes in the slow waves that are thought to reflect memory and the Nc component that is thought to reflect attention. The results of the study showed differences in development between the IDMs and control infants in the development of the slow waves over the left anterior temporal leads and age-related patterns of development in the NC component. These results are consistent with animal models showing that perinatal iron deficiency affects the development of the memory networks of the brain. This study highlights the value of using ERPs to translate basic science information obtained from animal models to the development of the human infant. PMID:17559331

  16. Influence of P300 latency jitter on event related potential-based brain-computer interface performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, P.; Aloise, F.; Schettini, F.; Salinari, S.; Mattia, D.; Cincotti, F.

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Several ERP-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) that can be controlled even without eye movements (covert attention) have been recently proposed. However, when compared to similar systems based on overt attention, they displayed significantly lower accuracy. In the current interpretation, this is ascribed to the absence of the contribution of short-latency visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in the tasks performed in the covert attention modality. This study aims to investigate if this decrement (i) is fully explained by the lack of VEP contribution to the classification accuracy; (ii) correlates with lower temporal stability of the single-trial P300 potentials elicited in the covert attention modality. Approach. We evaluated the latency jitter of P300 evoked potentials in three BCI interfaces exploiting either overt or covert attention modalities in 20 healthy subjects. The effect of attention modality on the P300 jitter, and the relative contribution of VEPs and P300 jitter to the classification accuracy have been analyzed. Main results. The P300 jitter is higher when the BCI is controlled in covert attention. Classification accuracy negatively correlates with jitter. Even disregarding short-latency VEPs, overt-attention BCI yields better accuracy than covert. When the latency jitter is compensated offline, the difference between accuracies is not significant. Significance. The lower temporal stability of the P300 evoked potential generated during the tasks performed in covert attention modality should be regarded as the main contributing explanation of lower accuracy of covert-attention ERP-based BCIs.

  17. Tic related local field potentials in the thalamus and the effect of deep brain stimulation in Tourette syndrome: Report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bour, L J; Ackermans, L; Foncke, E M J; Cath, D; van der Linden, C; Visser Vandewalle, V; Tijssen, M A

    2015-08-01

    Three patients with intractable Tourette syndrome (TS) underwent thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS). To investigate the role of thalamic electrical activity in tic generation, local field potentials (LFP), EEG and EMG simultaneously were recorded. Event related potentials and event related spectral perturbations of EEG and LFP, event related cross-coherences between EEG/LFP and LFP/LFP were analyzed. As time locking events, the tic onsets were used. Spontaneous tics were compared to voluntary tic mimicking. The effect of tic suppression and DBS on thalamic LFPs was evaluated. All three patients showed time-locked and prior to onset of spontaneous motor tics thalamic synchronization and thalamo-cortical cross-coherence. Also in three patients, not time-locked to motor tics, increased intra-thalamic coherences in the 1-8Hz frequency band were found. In one patient it was demonstrated that voluntary mimicked tics were preceded by premotor cortical and thalamic potentials. In this patient unilateral thalamic DBS contralaterally decreased the background thalamic activity. The present study in three cases with TS shows that spontaneous tics in TS are preceded by repetitive coherent thalamo-cortical discharges, indicating that preceding a tic the basal ganglia circuits are "charged up", ultimately leading to a motor tic. Thalamic LFP recording may lead to more insight in underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in TS. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of the physical presence of co-players on perceived ostracism and event-related brain potentials in the cyberball paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Weschke

    Full Text Available The affective and cognitive mechanisms elicited by the experience of social exclusion-or ostracism-have recently been explored using behavioral and neurocognitive methods. Most of the studies took advantage of the Cyberball paradigm, a virtual ball tossing game with presumed co-players connected via the internet. Consistent behavioral findings indicate that exclusion obviously threatens fundamental social needs (belonging, self-esteem, meaningful existence, and control and lowers mood. In this study, we followed the question whether the credibility of the setting affects the processing of social exclusion. In contrast to a control group (standard Cyberball setup, co-players were physically present in an experimental group. Although the credibility of the virtual ball tossing game was significantly enhanced in the experimental group, self-reported negative mood and need threat were not enhanced compared to the control group. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs, however, indicated a differential processing of social exclusion. The N2 amplitude triggered by occasional ball receptions was significantly reduced in the experimental group. This effect was restricted for an early time range (130-210 ms, and did not extend to the following P3 components. The ERP effect in the N2 time range can be related to a differential social reward processing in ostracism if co-players are physically present. The lack of a corresponding correlate in the behavioral data indicates that some facets of ostracism processing are not covered by questionnaire data.

  19. Brain Games as a Potential Nonpharmaceutical Alternative for the Treatment of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzyn, Stacy C.; Hearrington, Doug; Martin, Tim; Randolph, Adriane B.

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed childhood neurobehavioral disorder, affecting approximately 5.5 million children, of which approximately 66% take ADHD medication daily. This study investigated a potential nonpharmaceutical alternative to address the academic engagement of 5th through 11th grade…

  20. Imminent brain death: Point of departure for potential heart-beating organ donor recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.J. de Groot (Yorick); N.E. Jansen (Nichon); J. Bakker (Jan); M.A. Kuiper (Michael); S. Aerdts (Stan); A.I.R. Maas (Andrew); E.F.M. Wijdicks (Eelco); H.A. van Leiden (Hendrik); A.J. Hoitsma (Andries); H.P.H. Kremer (Berry); E.J.O. Kompanje (Erwin)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: There is, in European countries that conduct medical chart review of intensive care unit (ICU) deaths, no consensus on uniform criteria for defining a potential organ donor. Although the term is increasingly being used in recent literature, it is seldom defined in detail. We

  1. An event-related brain potential correlate of visual short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, Peter; Talsma, D.; Wijers, Albertus; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Mulder, Gijsbertus

    1999-01-01

    EVENT-RELATED potentials (ERPs) were recorded as 12 subjects performed a delayed matching to sample task. We presented two bilateral abstract shapes and cued spatially which had to be memorized for a subsequent matching task: left, right or both. During memorization a posterior slow negative ERP

  2. Genetics of the human electroencephalogram (EEG) and event-related brain potentials (ERPs): a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    1994-01-01

    Twin and family studies of normal variation in the human electroencephalogram (EEG) and event related potentials (ERPs) are reviewed. Most of these studies are characterized by small sample sizes. However, by summarizing these studies in one paper, we may be able to gain some insight into the

  3. Cognitive Brain Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Maltreated Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Seth D.; Cicchetti, Dante; Klorman, Rafael; Brumaghim, Joan T.

    1997-01-01

    Recorded cognitive event-related potentials from maltreated and nonmaltreated children during presentations of happy, angry, or neutral facial expressions. Found that for nonmaltreated children, the average amplitude of P300 was comparable for responses to happy and neutral expressions. Maltreated children displayed larger P300 amplitude to…

  4. Peripheral administration of the soluble TNF inhibitor XPro1595 modifies brain immune cell profiles, decreases beta-amyloid plaque load, and rescues impaired long-term potentiation in 5xFAD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Kathryn P; Sompol, Pradoldej; Kannarkat, George T; Chang, Jianjun; Sniffen, Lindsey; Wildner, Mary E; Norris, Christopher M; Tansey, Malú G

    2017-06-01

    Clinical and animal model studies have implicated inflammation and peripheral immune cell responses in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Peripheral immune cells including T cells circulate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of healthy adults and are found in the brains of AD patients and AD rodent models. Blocking entry of peripheral macrophages into the CNS was reported to increase amyloid burden in an AD mouse model. To assess inflammation in the 5xFAD (Tg) mouse model, we first quantified central and immune cell profiles in the deep cervical lymph nodes and spleen. In the brains of Tg mice, activated (MHCII + , CD45 high , and Ly6C high ) myeloid-derived CD11b + immune cells are decreased while CD3 + T cells are increased as a function of age relative to non-Tg mice. These immunological changes along with evidence of increased mRNA levels for several cytokines suggest that immune regulation and trafficking patterns are altered in Tg mice. Levels of soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor (sTNF) modulate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and are increased in CSF and brain parenchyma post-mortem in AD subjects and Tg mice. We report here that in vivo peripheral administration of XPro1595, a novel biologic that sequesters sTNF into inactive heterotrimers, reduced the age-dependent increase in activated immune cells in Tg mice, while decreasing the overall number of CD4 + T cells. In addition, XPro1595 treatment in vivo rescued impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) measured in brain slices in association with decreased Aβ plaques in the subiculum. Selective targeting of sTNF may modulate brain immune cell infiltration, and prevent or delay neuronal dysfunction in AD. Immune cells and cytokines perform specialized functions inside and outside the brain to maintain optimal brain health; but the extent to which their activities change in response to neuronal dysfunction and degeneration is not well understood. Our findings indicate that neutralization of s

  5. Will the law come running? The potential role of "brain fingerprinting" in crime investigation and adjudication in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Kelly; McMahon, Marilyn

    2005-11-01

    A major feature of the Australian criminal justice system is that jurors assess witness credibility and are the ultimate finders of fact. Recognising the occasional fallibility of humans in detecting truth and deception, the jury's function may be assisted by highly regulated expert evidence about a variety of scientific techniques. A recent scientific development has been the invention of "brain fingerprinting" (BF) by Dr Larry Farwell in the United States. Brain fingerprinting measures brainwave functioning to detect awareness of crime-relevant information in order to distinguish between guilty and innocent suspects. This article considers whether BF could be used for crime investigation and adjudication in Australia. By examining the rules of expert evidence and the principles relating to "novel scientific evidence", the admissibility of BF in the various Australian jurisdictions is evaluated. The utility of BF in criminal investigations and counter-terrorism initiatives is also canvassed. The authors conclude that, at the present time, it is unlikely that expert testimony on BF will be admitted in Australian criminal trials. However, the technique potentially offers other benefits to the criminal justice system, thereby warranting its consideration as a "criminal and investigative tool of the future".

  6. Linking traumatic brain injury to chronic traumatic encephalopathy: identification of potential mechanisms leading to neurofibrillary tangle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon Peter; Turner, Ryan Coddington; Logsdon, Aric Flint; Bailes, Julian Edwin; Huber, Jason Delwyn; Rosen, Charles Lee

    2014-07-01

    Significant attention has recently been drawn to the potential link between head trauma and the development of neurodegenerative disease, namely chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The acute neurotrauma associated with sports-related concussions in athletes and blast-induced traumatic brain injury in soldiers elevates the risk for future development of chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as CTE. CTE is a progressive disease distinguished by characteristic tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and, occasionally, transactive response DNA binding protein 43 (TDP43) oligomers, both of which have a predilection for perivascular and subcortical areas near reactive astrocytes and microglia. The disease is currently only diagnosed postmortem by neuropathological identification of NFTs. A recent workshop sponsored by National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke emphasized the need for premortem diagnosis, to better understand disease pathophysiology and to develop targeted treatments. In order to accomplish this objective, it is necessary to discover the mechanistic link between acute neurotrauma and the development of chronic neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders such as CTE. In this review, we briefly summarize what is currently known about CTE development and pathophysiology, and subsequently discuss injury-induced pathways that warrant further investigation. Understanding the mechanistic link between acute brain injury and chronic neurodegeneration will facilitate the development of appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic options for CTE and other related disorders.

  7. Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Brain Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Dysfunction and Increases Oxidative Stress: A Potential Mechanism Involved in Cannabis-Related Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Wolff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis has potential therapeutic use but tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, its main psychoactive component, appears as a risk factor for ischemic stroke in young adults. We therefore evaluate the effects of THC on brain mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, key factors involved in stroke. Maximal oxidative capacities Vmax (complexes I, III, and IV activities, Vsucc (complexes II, III, and IV activities, Vtmpd (complex IV activity, together with mitochondrial coupling (Vmax/V0, were determined in control conditions and after exposure to THC in isolated mitochondria extracted from rat brain, using differential centrifugations. Oxidative stress was also assessed through hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production, measured with Amplex Red. THC significantly decreased Vmax (−71%; P<0.0001, Vsucc (−65%; P<0.0001, and Vtmpd (−3.5%; P<0.001. Mitochondrial coupling (Vmax/V0 was also significantly decreased after THC exposure (1.8±0.2 versus 6.3±0.7; P<0.001. Furthermore, THC significantly enhanced H2O2 production by cerebral mitochondria (+171%; P<0.05 and mitochondrial free radical leak was increased from 0.01±0.01 to 0.10±0.01% (P<0.001. Thus, THC increases oxidative stress and induces cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction. This mechanism may be involved in young cannabis users who develop ischemic stroke since THC might increase patient’s vulnerability to stroke.

  8. Orientation-reversal and phase-reversal visual evoked potentials in full-term infants with brain lesions: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, E; Braddick, O; Atkinson, J; Cowan, F; Anker, S; Andrew, R; Wattam-Bell, J; Rutherford, M; Counsell, S; Dubowitz, L

    1998-08-01

    The onset and maturation of visual cortical mechanisms can be recorded by using steady-state visual evoked potentials. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare orientation-reversal (OR) and phase-reversal (PH) VEP as indicators of the maturation of cortical function in a population of fullterm infants with brain lesions on neonatal MRI. Forty-six infants with brain lesions on neonatal MRI were tested on both PH and OR VEP at 8 reversals/second at the age of 5 months and, if the responses were not significant, at a lower temporal frequency (4 reversals/second). Children whose VEPs were not significant at 5 months were tested longitudinally at 6, 9, 12 and 18 months. The results showed that 23 of the 46 infants (50%) did not show significant responses at 5 months and that while in 7 of the 23 (14% of the whole cohort) the responses became significant between 5 and 12 months, in the other 16 infants (34%) the VEP responses were persistently abnormal. Children with focal lesions, such as focal infarction or haemorrhages, tended to show normal or only mildly delayed VEP while more generalised lesions, such as the ones seen in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy grade 2 and 3, tended to be associated with abnormal VEP responses. The involvement of the optic radiations and occipital cortex was not always associated with abnormal VEP responses but the concomitant involvement of the basal ganglia was always associated with abnormal VEP. We were also able to demonstrate that VEP can be also used as a prognostic indicator: while normal OR VEP are reliably associated with a normal visual and neurodevelopmental outcome, abnormal 4 OR or 8 PH at 5 months are consistently associated with abnormal outcome.

  9. Salivary testosterone as a potential indicator for risky behaviour associated with smoking-related peer pressure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Adi; Ghazali, Nur B; Said, Nadzirah M; Steele, Michael; Koh, David; Tuah, Nik A

    2016-04-09

    Early smoking is considered an indicator for risky behaviour in adolescents. Although social indicators predicting adolescent smoking are known, biological indicators have not been defined. This study aimed to establish whether salivary testosterone could be used as a "predictive biomarker" for smoking-associated peer pressure. Saliva samples were collected from Bruneian adolescents (aged 13-17 years) by the passive drool method. Salivary testosterone concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Salivary testosterone concentration and smoking-associated peer pressure indicators were compared between adolescent males and females and statistical significance was determined by an independent samples t-test. A significant positive relationship between smoking-associated peer pressure and salivary testosterone levels in adolescents was found. However, this relationship was not significant when males and females were considered separately. Our data suggest that students who have tried cigarette smoking and have friends who are cigarette smokers have higher salivary testosterone levels.

  10. Diatom Communities and Metrics as Indicators of Urbanization Effects on Streams and Potential Moderation by Landscape Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diatoms are very useful and important indicators of anthropogenic impacts on streams because they are the foundation of primary production and are responsive to nutrients, conductivity, and habitat conditions. We characterized relationships of diatom assemblages with water chemis...

  11. Expression of physiological sensation of anatomical patterns in wood: An event-related brain potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Sha Sha Song; Guang Jie Zhao

    2012-01-01

    The emotional and psychological activities associated with the visual perception of macroscopic and microscopic structure patterns of wood were investigated. The macroscopic and microscopic structure patterns of 18 different timber tree species of northeast China were selected as the research objects, and these were divided into eight categories for event-related potential analysis. The 30 effective subjects’ tasks were to watch the wood structure stimuli patterns and evaluate them on a 7-poi...

  12. Directional local field potentials: A tool to optimize deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkhauser, Gerd; Pogosyan, Alek; Debove, Ines; Nowacki, Andreas; Shah, Syed Ahmar; Seidel, Kathleen; Tan, Huiling; Brittain, John-Stuart; Petermann, Katrin; di Biase, Lazzaro; Oertel, Markus; Pollo, Claudio; Brown, Peter; Schuepbach, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Although recently introduced directional DBS leads provide control of the stimulation field, programing is time-consuming. Here, we validate local field potentials recorded from directional contacts as a predictor of the most efficient contacts for stimulation in patients with PD. Intraoperative local field potentials were recorded from directional contacts in the STN of 12 patients and beta activity compared with the results of the clinical contact review performed after 4 to 7 months. Normalized beta activity was positively correlated with the contact's clinical efficacy. The two contacts with the highest beta activity included the most efficient stimulation contact in up to 92% and that with the widest therapeutic window in 74% of cases. Local field potentials predict the most efficient stimulation contacts and may provide a useful tool to expedite the selection of the optimal contact for directional DBS. © 2017 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  13. Development of behavioral control: Analysis of performance and motor-related brain potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Radovčić-van de Laar, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation provides a behavioral and electrophysiological analysis of response activation and inhibition to uncover age-related changes in action control. The results indicate suboptimal action control in children and elderly that might cause failure to prevent inappropriate behavior in everyday life situations, especially under increased environmental demands. Over the course of development, people change their focus towards the behavior that appears to be for themselves of the most r...

  14. Orientation-modulated attention effect on visual evoked potential: Application for PIN system using brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilaiprasitporn, Theerawit; Yagi, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    This research demonstrates the orientation-modulated attention effect on visual evoked potential. We combined this finding with our previous findings about the motion-modulated attention effect and used the result to develop novel visual stimuli for a personal identification number (PIN) application based on a brain-computer interface (BCI) framework. An electroencephalography amplifier with a single electrode channel was sufficient for our application. A computationally inexpensive algorithm and small datasets were used in processing. Seven healthy volunteers participated in experiments to measure offline performance. Mean accuracy was 83.3% at 13.9 bits/min. Encouraged by these results, we plan to continue developing the BCI-based personal identification application toward real-time systems.

  15. Clinical Outcome and Characterization of Local Field Potentials in Holmes Tremor Treated with Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United St