WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain potentials indications

  1. Event-related brain potentials as indices of mental workload and attentional allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Arthur F.; Donchin, Emanuel; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past decade considerable strides were made in explicating the antecedant conditions necessary for the elicitation, and the modulation of the amplitude and latency, of a number of components of the event-related brain potential (ERP). The focus of this report is on P300. The degree to which the psychophysiological measures contribute to issues in two real-world domains (communication devices for the motor impaired and the assessment of mental workload of aircraft pilots) are examined.

  2. Science Letters: Brain natriuretic peptide: A potential indicator of cardiomyogenesis after autologous mesenchymal stem cell transplantation?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Nan; WANG Jian-an

    2006-01-01

    We observed in a pilot study that there was a transient elevation of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level shortly after the transplantation in the patient with ischemic heart failure, which is unexplainable by the simultaneous increase of the cardiac output and six-minute walk distance. Similar findings were observed in the phase I trial. We postulated on the basis of the finding of Fukuda in vitro that this transient elevation of BNP level against the improvement of cardiac function and exercise capacity might indicate cardiomyogenesis in patients after mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Further study is warranted to verify the hypothesis.

  3. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC Brain Potential Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Trimmel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes. This study investigated brain direct current (DC potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  4. Brain potentials indicate the effect of other observers' emotions on perceptions of facial attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yujing; Pan, Xuwei; Mo, Yan; Ma, Qingguo

    2016-03-23

    Perceptions of facial attractiveness are sensitive to emotional expression of the perceived face. However, little is known about whether the emotional expression on the face of another observer of the perceived face may have an effect on perceptions of facial attractiveness. The present study used event-related potential technique to examine social influence of the emotional expression on the face of another observer of the perceived face on perceptions of facial attractiveness. The experiment consisted of two phases. In the first phase, a neutral target face was paired with two images of individuals gazing at the target face with smiling, fearful or neutral expressions. In the second phase, participants were asked to judge the attractiveness of the target face. We found that a target face was more attractive when other observers positively gazing at the target face in contrast to the condition when other observers were negative. Additionally, the results of brain potentials showed that the visual positive component P3 with peak latency from 270 to 330 ms was larger after participants observed the target face paired with smiling individuals than the target face paired with neutral individuals. These findings suggested that facial attractiveness of an individual may be influenced by the emotional expression on the face of another observer of the perceived face. PMID:26601630

  5. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words: temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schie, H.T. van; Wijers, A.A.; Mars, R.B.; Benjamins, J.S.; Stowe, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that inv

  6. Inhalational anesthesia for organ procurement: potential indications for administering inhalational anesthesia in the brain-dead organ donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Laurie J

    2010-08-01

    Organs needed for transplantation far outweigh their availability. There is minimal research regarding perioperative care of the brain-dead organ donor during the procurement procedure. Current research attributes a great deal of organ damage to autonomic or sympathetic storm that occurs during brain death. Literature searches were performed with the terms brain death, organ donor, organ procurement, anesthesia and organ donor, anesthesia and brain death, anesthesia and organ procurement, inhalational anesthetics and organ procurement, and inhalational anesthetics and brain dead. Additional resources were obtained from reference lists of published articles. The literature review showed there is a lack of published studies researching the use of inhalational anesthetics in organ procurement. No studies have been published evaluating the effect of preconditioning with inhalational agents (administering 1.3 minimal alveolar concentration of an inhalational agent for the 20 minutes before periods of ischemia) in the brain-dead organ donor population. Further studies are required to determine if administration of inhalational anesthetics reduces catecholamine release occurring with surgical stimulation during the organ procurement procedure and whether this technique increases viability of transplanted organs. Anesthetic preconditioning before the ischemic period may reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury in transplanted organs, further increasing viability of transplanted organs. PMID:20879630

  7. Aerobic Fitness and Cognitive Development: Event-Related Brain Potential and Task Performance Indices of Executive Control in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Charles H.; Buck, Sarah M.; Themanson, Jason R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between aerobic fitness and executive control was assessed in 38 higher- and lower-fit children (M[subscript age] = 9.4 years), grouped according to their performance on a field test of aerobic capacity. Participants performed a flanker task requiring variable amounts of executive control while event-related brain potential…

  8. Timing of potential and metabolic brain energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korf, Jakob; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert

    2007-01-01

    The temporal relationship between cerebral electro-physiological activities, higher brain functions and brain energy metabolism is reviewed. The duration of action potentials and transmission through glutamate and GABA are most often less than 5 ms. Subjects may perform complex psycho-physiologic......The temporal relationship between cerebral electro-physiological activities, higher brain functions and brain energy metabolism is reviewed. The duration of action potentials and transmission through glutamate and GABA are most often less than 5 ms. Subjects may perform complex psycho...... functions. We introduce the concepts of potential and metabolic brain energy to distinguish trans-membrane gradients of ions or neurotransmitters and the capacity to generate energy from intra- or extra-cerebral substrates, respectively. Higher brain functions, such as memory retrieval, speaking......, consciousness and self-consciousness are so fast that their execution depends primarily on fast neurotransmission (in the millisecond range) and action-potentials. In other words: brain functioning requires primarily maximal potential energy. Metabolic brain energy is necessary to restore and maintain the...

  9. Biotechnological valorization potential indicator for lignocellulosic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luís C; Esteves, Maria P; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Gírio, Francisco M

    2007-12-01

    This report introduces the biotechnological valorization potential indicator (BVPI) concept, a metric to measure the degree of suitability of lignocellulosic materials to be used as feedstock in a biorefinery framework. This indicator groups the impact of the main factors influencing upgrade-ability, both the biological/chemical nature of the materials, and the economical, technological and geographical factors. The BVPI was applied to the identification of the most relevant opportunities and constraints pertaining to the lignocellulosic by-products from the Portuguese agro-industrial cluster. Several by-products were identified with a high valorization potential, e.g., rice husks, brewery's spent grain, tomato pomace, carob pulp, de-alcoholized grape bagasse, and extracted olive bagasse, that would greatly benefit from the further development of specific biotechnology processes, specifically concerning the upgrade of their hemicellulosic fraction. PMID:18061896

  10. The present indication and future of deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Asakawa, Tetsuya; Koizumi, Shinichiro; Saitoh, Osamu; Namba, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    The use of electrical stimulation to treat pain in human disease dates back to ancient Rome or Greece. Modern deep brain stimulation (DBS) was initially applied for pain treatment in the 1960s, and was later used to treat movement disorders in the 1990s. After recognition of DBS as a therapy for central nervous system (CNS) circuit disorders, DBS use showed drastic increase in terms of adaptability to disease and the patient's population. More than 100,000 patients have received DBS therapy worldwide. The established indications for DBS are Parkinson's disease, tremor, and dystonia, whereas global indications of DBS expanded to other neuronal diseases or disorders such as neuropathic pain, epilepsy, and tinnitus. DBS is also experimentally used to manage cognitive disorders and psychiatric diseases such as major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Tourette's syndrome, and eating disorders. The importance of ethics and conflicts surrounding the regulation and freedom of choice associated with the application of DBS therapy for new diseases or disorders is increasing. These debates are centered on the use of DBS to treat new diseases and disorders as well as its potential to enhance ability in normal healthy individuals. Here we present three issues that need to be addressed in the future: (1) elucidation of the mechanisms of DBS, (2) development of new DBS methods, and (3) miniaturization of the DBS system. With the use of DBS, functional neurosurgery entered into the new era that man can manage and control the brain circuit to treat intractable neuronal diseases and disorders. PMID:25925757

  11. Brain potentials related to the human penile erection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseti, J; Kropp, P; Bosinski, H A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the brain processes preceding penile responses. Electroencephalographic (EEG) potentials and penile circumference were recorded simultaneously while male subjects were exposed to visual sexual stimuli (VSS). The trials were sorted by the penile response of the subjects (erection, maintenance or detumescence). The corresponding EEG recordings were then subjected to independent component analysis. We found that 200 ms after VSS onset brain potentials differ according to the genital response to follow. Whereas early posterior negativity (EPN) was predominantly related to erection and maintenance, P3-like activity was found to precede detumescence. EPN indicates a more 'emotional' processing state of the brain, whereas P3-like activity related to detumescence indicates a more 'cognitive' processing state. The latter is assumed to reflect activity of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system. Further research should evaluate the contribution of P3-related brain activity to psychogenic erectile dysfunction. PMID:19587685

  12. Brain-Based Indices for User System Symbiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Veltman, J.A.; Grootjen, M.

    2010-01-01

    The future generation user system interfaces need to be user-centric which goes beyond user-friendly and includes understanding and anticipating user intentions. We introduce the concept of operator models, their role in implementing user-system symbiosis, and the usefulness of brain-based indices o

  13. Potential Moderators of Physical Activity on Brain Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina L. Leckie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive decline is linked to numerous molecular, structural, and functional changes in the brain. However, physical activity is a promising method of reducing unfavorable age-related changes. Physical activity exerts its effects on the brain through many molecular pathways, some of which are regulated by genetic variants in humans. In this paper, we highlight genes including apolipoprotein E (APOE, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT along with dietary omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, as potential moderators of the effect of physical activity on brain health. There are a growing number of studies indicating that physical activity might mitigate the genetic risks for disease and brain dysfunction and that the combination of greater amounts of DHA intake with physical activity might promote better brain function than either treatment alone. Understanding whether genes or other lifestyles moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive health is necessary for delineating the pathways by which brain health can be enhanced and for grasping the individual variation in the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on the brain and cognition. There is a need for future research to continue to assess the factors that moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive function.

  14. Future of brain stimulation: new targets, new indications, new technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariz, Marwan; Blomstedt, Patric; Zrinzo, Ludvic

    2013-11-01

    In the last quarter of a century, DBS has become an established neurosurgical treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia, and tremors. Improved understanding of brain circuitries and their involvement in various neurological and psychiatric illnesses, coupled with the safety of DBS and its exquisite role as a tool for ethical study of the human brain, have unlocked new opportunities for this technology, both for future therapies and in research. Serendipitous discoveries and advances in structural and functional imaging are providing abundant "new" brain targets for an ever-increasing number of pathologies, leading to investigations of DBS in diverse neurological, psychiatric, behavioral, and cognitive conditions. Trials and "proof of concept" studies of DBS are underway in pain, epilepsy, tinnitus, OCD, depression, and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, as well as in eating disorders, addiction, cognitive decline, consciousness, and autonomic states. In parallel, ongoing technological development will provide pulse generators with longer battery longevity, segmental electrode designs allowing a current steering, and the possibility to deliver "on-demand" stimulation based on closed-loop concepts. The future of brain stimulation is certainly promising, especially for movement disorders-that will remain the main indication for DBS for the foreseeable future-and probably for some psychiatric disorders. However, brain stimulation as a technique may be at risk of gliding down a slippery slope: Some reports indicate a disturbing trend with suggestions that future DBS may be proposed for enhancement of memory in healthy people, or as a tool for "treatment" of "antisocial behavior" and for improving "morality." PMID:24123327

  15. [123I] HIPDM as a brain perfusion indicator for SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism and kinetics of cerebral uptake of radioactive iodine labelled HIPDM were studied in vivo in rats to evaluate its potential usefulness for quantitative measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). The results demonstrate that a method for quantitative measurement of rCBF with iodine labelled HIPDM must take into account its metabolic degradation, diffusion limitations, and bidirectional flux across the blood-brain barrier. Clinical studies have demonstrated that its intracerebral distribution, as assessed by single photon emission tomography (SPECT), reflects the distribution of rCBF. These observations suggest that this molecule might be of potential usefulness for quantitative rCBF measurement with SPECT. (author)

  16. Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic…

  17. The potential of endogenous neurogenesis for brain repair and regeneration following traumatic brain injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability of persons under 45 years old in the United States, affecting over 1.5 million individuals each year. It had been th ought that recovery from such injuries is severely limited due to the inability of the adult bra in to replace damaged neurons. However, recent studies indicate that the mature mammalian central nervous system (CNS) has the potential to replenish damaged neurons by proliferation and neuronal differentiation of adult neural stem/progenitor cells residing in the neurogenic regions in the brain. Furthermore, increasing evidence indicates that these endogenous stem/progenitor cells may play regenerative and reparative roles in response to CNS injuries or diseases. In support of this notion, heightened levels of cell proliferation and neurogenesis have been ob-served in response to brain trauma or insults suggesting that the brain has the inherent potential to restore populations of damaged or destroyed neurons. This review will discuss the potential functions of adult neurogenesis and recent development of strategies aiming at harnessing this neurogenic capacity in order to repopulate and repair the injured brain.

  18. Animal imaging studies of potential brain damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatley, S. J.; Vazquez, M. E.; Rice, O.

    To date, animal studies have not been able to predict the likelihood of problems in human neurological health due to HZE particle exposure during space missions outside the Earth's magnetosphere. In ongoing studies in mice, we have demonstrated that cocaine stimulated locomotor activity is reduced by a moderate dose (120 cGy) of 1 GeV 56Fe particles. We postulate that imaging experiments in animals may provide more sensitive and earlier indicators of damage due to HZE particles than behavioral tests. Since the small size of the mouse brain is not well suited to the spatial resolution offered by microPET, we are now repeating some of our studies in a rat model. We anticipate that this will enable us to identify imaging correlates of behavioral endpoints. A specific hypothesis of our studies is that changes in the metabolic rate for glucose in striatum of animals will be correlated with alterations in locomotor activity. We will also evaluate whether the neuroprotective drug L-deprenyl reduces the effect of radiation on locomotor activity. In addition, we will conduct microPET studies of brain monoamine oxidase A and monoamine oxidase B in rats before and at various times after irradiation with HZE particles. The hypothesis is that monoamine oxidase A, which is located in nerve terminals, will be unchanged or decreased after irradiation, while monoamine oxidase B, which is located in glial cells, will be increased after irradiation. Neurochemical effects that could be measured using PET could in principle be applied in astronauts, in terms of detecting and monitoring subtle neurological damage that might have occurred during long space missions. More speculative uses of PET are in screening candidates for prolonged space missions (for example, for adequate reserve in critical brain circuits) and in optimizing medications to treat impairments after missions.

  19. Brain potentials related to corpus cavernosum electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseti, J; Bosinski, H A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the relation between electrical activity in the corpus cavernosum (CC), penile responses and brain processes. EEG potentials, penile circumference and electrical activity of the CC (CC-EMG) were recorded simultaneously while male subjects were exposed to visual sexual stimuli. The trials were sorted by the penile response of the subjects (erection, maintenance or detumescence). The corresponding EEG recordings were subjected to independent component analysis (ICA) and then correlated with CC activity. We found that CC activity was decreased in the case of erection. EEG activity was found to be correlated with CC activity in most cases at the same instant or with subsequent CC activity. EEG activity at early time points after stimulus onset (brain processing and (ii) autonomous input reaches the CC in fractions of a second after sexual stimulus onset. Our experimental paradigm should be used for the study of psychogenic erectile dysfunctions and could help in the development of an objective measurement of this disturbance. PMID:20336074

  20. Prognostic indices for brain metastases – usefulness and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieder Carsten

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This review addresses the strengths and weaknesses of 6 different prognostic indices, published since the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG developed and validated the widely used 3-tiered prognostic index known as recursive partitioning analysis (RPA classes, i.e. between 1997 and 2008. In addition, other analyses of prognostic factors in groups of patients, which typically are underrepresented in large trials or databases, published in the same time period are reviewed. Methods Based on a systematic literature search, studies with more than 20 patients were included. The methods and results of prognostic factor analyses were extracted and compared. The authors discuss why current data suggest a need for a more refined index than RPA. Results So far, none of the indices has been derived from analyses of all potential prognostic factors. The 3 most recently published indices, including the RTOG's graded prognostic assessment (GPA, all expanded from the primary 3-tiered RPA system to a 4-tiered system. The authors' own data confirm the results of the RTOG GPA analysis and support further evaluation of this tool. Conclusion This review provides a basis for further refinement of the current prognostic indices by identifying open questions regarding, e.g., performance of the ideal index, evaluation of new candidate parameters, and separate analyses for different cancer types. Unusual primary tumors and their potential differences in biology or unique treatment approaches are not well represented in large pooled analyses.

  1. The potential of neural transplantation for brain repair and regeneration following traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Sun

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a major health problem worldwide. Currently, there is no effective treatment to improve neural structural repair and functional recovery of patients in the clinic. Cell transplantation is a potential strategy to repair and regenerate the injured brain. This review article summarized recent de-velopment in cell transplantation studies for post-traumatic brain injury brain repair with varying types of cell sources. It also discussed the potential of neural transplantation to repair/promote recovery of the injured brain following traumatic brain injury.

  2. Do resting brain dynamics predict oddball evoked-potential?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tien-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oddball paradigm is widely applied to the investigation of cognitive function in neuroscience and in neuropsychiatry. Whether cortical oscillation in the resting state can predict the elicited oddball event-related potential (ERP is still not clear. This study explored the relationship between resting electroencephalography (EEG and oddball ERPs. The regional powers of 18 electrodes across delta, theta, alpha and beta frequencies were correlated with the amplitude and latency of N1, P2, N2 and P3 components of oddball ERPs. A multivariate analysis based on partial least squares (PLS was applied to further examine the spatial pattern revealed by multiple correlations. Results Higher synchronization in the resting state, especially at the alpha spectrum, is associated with higher neural responsiveness and faster neural propagation, as indicated by the higher amplitude change of N1/N2 and shorter latency of P2. None of the resting quantitative EEG indices predict P3 latency and amplitude. The PLS analysis confirms that the resting cortical dynamics which explains N1/N2 amplitude and P2 latency does not show regional specificity, indicating a global property of the brain. Conclusions This study differs from previous approaches by relating dynamics in the resting state to neural responsiveness in the activation state. Our analyses suggest that the neural characteristics carried by resting brain dynamics modulate the earlier/automatic stage of target detection.

  3. INDICATORS OF ESTIMATION THE SERVICE INDUSTRIES' MARKETING POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Iarmosh, O.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to examine the indicators of marketing potential’s evaluation for various enterprises and to analyze them for the commodity production enterprises and service sector. The contents of the enterprise’s marketing potential, the factors that form its structure are considered in the article. It’s analyzed the indicators impact, both instrumental and organizational components, on the marketing potential values for commodity production and service industries, working on...

  4. Brain Event-Related Potential Correlates of Concept Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    An irrelevant auditory probe procedure was used to evoke brain event-related potentials (ERPs) in 56 Navy recruits while they learned pulsed radar concepts presented to them in study booklets. A mastery test was administered to assess concept acquisition. The research issue was whether brain ERPs recorded while students are in the process of…

  5. Brain potentials to inflected adjectives: beyond storage and decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leminen, Alina; Clahsen, Harald

    2014-01-16

    This study uses event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate the temporal sequencing of structural (grammatical) and lexical (semantic) properties of complex words during language comprehension. Morphologically complex words do not only consist of stems and affixes (e.g., 'feel'+'-s'), but affixes also contain grammatical structure, viz. feature bundles specifying their morpho-syntactic functions (e.g., -s= [3rd person, singular, present tense]). We examined inflected adjectives of German, which consist of an unaltered stem plus a portmanteau affix encoding case, number and gender. The same group of 24 adult native speakers was tested in two cross-modal ERP priming experiments separately studying effects of lexical-semantic relatedness and related affixes. The results of these experiments revealed clearly distinct brain potentials. Prime-target overlap with respect to morpho-syntactic features was associated with a reduced positivity, whereas lexical-level priming led to a reduced negativity. The former was most pronounced between 200 and 300 ms and the latter in a later time window, between 300 and 400 ms. We interpret the reduced early positivity as reflecting ease of grammatical processing effort in case of primed (relative to unprimed) morpho-syntactic features and the reduced negativity as signaling facilitation in lexical retrieval for primed (compared to unprimed) words. Our ERP results indicate that grammatical information becomes available earlier than semantic information providing support for structure-first models of language processing. PMID:24161829

  6. The Present Indication and Future of Deep Brain Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; ASAKAWA, Tetsuya; KOIZUMI, SHINICHIRO; Saitoh, Osamu; Namba, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    The use of electrical stimulation to treat pain in human disease dates back to ancient Rome or Greece. Modern deep brain stimulation (DBS) was initially applied for pain treatment in the 1960s, and was later used to treat movement disorders in the 1990s. After recognition of DBS as a therapy for central nervous system (CNS) circuit disorders, DBS use showed drastic increase in terms of adaptability to disease and the patient’s population. More than 100,000 patients have received DBS therapy w...

  7. The potential of using brain images for authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin; Zhou, Zongtan; Shen, Hui; Hu, Dewen

    2014-01-01

    Biometric recognition (also known as biometrics) refers to the automated recognition of individuals based on their biological or behavioral traits. Examples of biometric traits include fingerprint, palmprint, iris, and face. The brain is the most important and complex organ in the human body. Can it be used as a biometric trait? In this study, we analyze the uniqueness of the brain and try to use the brain for identity authentication. The proposed brain-based verification system operates in two stages: gray matter extraction and gray matter matching. A modified brain segmentation algorithm is implemented for extracting gray matter from an input brain image. Then, an alignment-based matching algorithm is developed for brain matching. Experimental results on two data sets show that the proposed brain recognition system meets the high accuracy requirement of identity authentication. Though currently the acquisition of the brain is still time consuming and expensive, brain images are highly unique and have the potential possibility for authentication in view of pattern recognition. PMID:25126604

  8. Quercetin in brain diseases: Potential and limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dajas, Federico; Abin-Carriquiry, Juan Andrés; Arredondo, Florencia; Blasina, Fernanda; Echeverry, Carolina; Martínez, Marcela; Rivera, Felicia; Vaamonde, Lucía

    2015-10-01

    Quercetin is a ubiquitous flavonoid present in beverages, food and plants that has been demonstrated to have a role in the prevention of neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases. In neuronal culture, quercetin increases survival against oxidative insults. Antioxidation appears to be a necessary but not sufficient condition for its neuroprotective action and modulation of intracellular signaling and transcription factors, increasing the expression of antioxidant and pro survival proteins and modulating inflammation, appears as important for neuronal protection. Quercetin also regulates the activity of kinases, changing the phosphorylation state of target molecules, resulting in modulation of cellular function and gene expression. Concentrations of quercetin higher than 100 μM consistently show cytotoxic and apoptotic effects by its autoxidation and generation of toxic quinones. In vivo, results are controversial with some studies showing neuroprotection by quercetin and others not, requiring a drug delivery system or chronic treatments to show neuroprotective effects. The blood and brain bioavailability of free quercetin after ingestion is a complex and controversial process that produces final low concentrations, a fact that has led to suggestions that metabolites would be active by themselves and/or as pro-drugs that would release the active aglycone in the brain. Available studies show that in normal or low oxidative conditions, chronic treatments with quercetin contributes to re-establish the redox regulation of proteins, transcription factors and survival signaling cascades that promote survival. In the presence of highly oxidative conditions such as in an ischemic tissue, quercetin could become pro-oxidant and toxic. At present, evidence points to quercetin as a preventive molecule for neuropathology when administered in natural matrices such as vegetables and food. More research is needed to support its use as a lead compound in its free form in

  9. The Potential of the Human Connectome as a Biomarker of Brain Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Kaiser

    2013-01-01

    The human connectome at the level of fiber tracts between brain regions has been shown to differ in patients with brain disorders compared to healthy control groups. Nonetheless, there is a potentially large number of different network organizations for individual patients that could lead to cognitive deficits prohibiting correct diagnosis. Therefore changes that can distinguish groups might not be sufficient to diagnose the disease that an individual patient suffers from and to indicate the ...

  10. Potential of solid lipid nanoparticles in brain targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Indu Pal; Bhandari, Rohit; Bhandari, Swati; Kakkar, Vandita

    2008-04-21

    Brain is a delicate organ, isolated from general circulation and characterized by the presence of relatively impermeable endothelial cells with tight junctions, enzymatic activity and the presence of active efflux transporter mechanisms (like P-gp efflux). These formidable obstacles often impede drug delivery to the brain. As a result several promising molecules (showing a good potential in in vitro evaluation) are lost from the market for a mere consequence of lack of in vivo response probably because the molecule cannot reach the brain in a sufficient concentration. The options to tailor make molecules for brain, though open to the medical chemist, are a costly proposition in terms of money, manpower and time (almost 50 years). The premedial existing approaches for brain delivery like superficial and ventricular application of chemical or the application of chemicals to brain parenchyma are invasive and hence are less patient friendly, more laborious and require skill and could also damage the brain permanently. In view of these considerations novel drug delivery systems such as the nanoparticles are presently being explored for their suitability for targeted brain delivery. Nanoparticles are solid colloidal particles ranging in size from 1 to 1000 nm (<1 microm) and composed of macromolecular material. Nanoparticles could be polymeric or lipidic (SLNs). SLNs are taken up readily by the brain because of their lipidic nature. The bioacceptable and biodegradable nature of SLNs makes them less toxic as compared to polymeric nanoparticles. Supplemented with small size which prolongs the circulation time in blood, feasible scale up for large scale production and absence of burst effect makes them interesting candidates for study. In the present review we will discuss about the barriers to CNS drug delivery, strategies to bypass the blood-brain barrier and characterization methods of SLNs and their usefulness. The proposed mechanism of uptake, methods of prolonging the

  11. Brain potential changes in voluntary and passive movements in humans: readiness potential and reafferent potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhuber, Hans H; Deecke, Lüder

    2016-07-01

    A method of chronological data storage and reverse computation is described by which bio-electrical phenomena preceding 'spontaneous' events within the nervous system can be analysed if these events appear repeatedly and are capable of triggering a computer.Slow brain potentials accompanying voluntary and passive movements of the limbs were analysed by this method. These potentials were recorded from different points of the scalp from 12 healthy subjects in 94 experiments with more than 100 movements in each record. At times artifacts were superimposed upon cerebral potentials. The former were identified, and, as far as possible, eliminated.Voluntary hand or foot movements are preceded by a slowly increasing surface-negative cortical potential of 10-15 μV, called readiness potential. This potential is maximal over the contralateral precentral region, but shows bilateral spread and is larger over the frontal than over the occipital areas. The readiness potential increases with intentional engagement and is reduced by mental indifference of the subject.Voluntary movements are followed by a complex potential with an early positive phase that begins 30-90 msec after the onset of movement. The late potentials following voluntary movements are similar to those after passive movements. Both resemble the late bilateral components of the evoked potentials after electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves. Some variable differences between the early components of the potentials after the onset of active and passive movements require further investigation.No relation between the onset of voluntary movements and the phase of the alpha rhythm could be detected.Further applications of reverse computation are addressed. Similarities between the readiness potential and G. WALTER'S expectancy wave in conditioned reflexes, and the sources of artifacts through eye movements etc. are discussed. PMID:27392465

  12. Scale-Free Brain Networks Based on the Event-Related Potential during Visual Spatial Attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling; JIN Zhen-Lan

    2011-01-01

    @@ The human brain is thought of as one of the most complex dynamical systems in the universe.The network view of the dynamical system has emerged since the discovery of scale-free networks.Brain functional networks, which represent functional associations among brain regions, are extracted by measuring the temporal correlations from electroencephalogram data.We measure the topological properties of the brain functional network, including degree distribution, average degree, clustering coefficient and the shortest path length, to compare the networks of multi-channel event-related potential activity between visual spatial attention and unattention conditions.It is found that the degree distribution of the brain functional networks under both the conditions is a power law distribution, which reflects a scale-free property.Moreover, the scaling exponent of the attention condition is significantly smaller than that of the unattention condition.However, the degree distribution of equivalent random networks does not follow the power law distribution.In addition, the clustering coefficient of these random networks is smaller than those of brain networks, and the shortest path length of these random networks is large and comparable with those of brain networks.Our results, typical of scale-free networks, indicate that the scaling exponent of brain activity could reflect different cognitive processes.%The human brain is thought of as one of the most complex dynamical systems in the universe. The network view of the dynamical system has emerged since the discovery of scale-free networks. Brain functional networks, which represent functional associations among brain regions, are extracted by measuring the temporal correlations from electroencephalogram data. We measure the topological properties of the brain functional network, including degree distribution, average degree, clustering coefficient and the shortest path length, to compare the networks of multi-channel event

  13. Decade of the Brain 1990--2000: Maximizing human potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The US Decade of the Brain offers scientists throughout the Federal Government a unique opportunity to advance and apply scientific knowledge about the brain and nervous system. During the next 10 years, scientists hope to maximize human potential through studies of human behavior, senses and communication, learning and memory, genetic/chemical alterations, and environmental interactions. Progress in these areas should lead to reductions in mortality from brain and nervous system disorders and to improvements in the quality of life. This report identifies nine research areas that could form the basis of an integrated program in the brain and behavioral sciences. A chart summarizing the Federal activities in these nine areas may be found at the back of the report. In addition, three areas that span the nine research areas -- basic research, technology and international activities -- are considered.

  14. Potential of Nonlinear Ultrasonic Indicators for Nondestructive Testing of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Payan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of a growing need for safety and reliability in Civil Engineering, acoustic methods of nondestructive testing provide answers to a real industrial need. Linear indicators (wave speed and attenuation exhibit a limited sensitivity, unlike nonlinear ones which usually have a far greater dynamic range. This paper illustrates the potential of these indicators, and evaluates its potential for in situ applications. Concrete, a structurally heterogeneous and volumetrically, mechanically damaged material, is an example of a class of materials that exhibit strong multiple scattering as well as significant elastic nonlinear response. In the context of stress monitoring in pre-stressed structures, we show that intense scattering can be applied to robustly determine velocity changes at progressively increasing applied stress using coda wave interferometry and thereby extract nonlinear coefficients. In a second part, we demonstrate the high sensitivity of nonlinear parameters to thermal damage as regard with linear ones. Then, the influence of water content and porosity on these indicators is quantified allowing to uncouple the effect of damage from environmental or structural parameters.

  15. Common resting brain dynamics indicate a possible mechanism underlying zolpidem response in severe brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Shawniqua; Conte, Mary; Goldfine, Andrew; Noirhomme, Quentin; Gosseries, Olivia; Thonnard, Marie; Beattie, Bradley; Hersh, Jennifer; Katz, Douglas; Victor, Jonathan; Laureys, Steven; Schiff, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    eLife digest Some individuals who experience severe brain damage are left with disorders of consciousness. While they can appear to be awake, these individuals lack awareness of their surroundings and cannot respond to events going on around them. Few treatments are available, but a minority of patients show striking improvements in speech, alertness and movement in response to the sleeping pill zolpidem. Although the idea of a sleeping pill increasing consciousness is paradoxical, it is poss...

  16. Human brain EEG indices of emotions: delineating responses to affective vocalizations by measuring frontal theta event-related synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkedal, Marni Y V; Rossi, John; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    At present there is no direct brain measure of basic emotional dynamics from the human brain. EEG provides non-invasive approaches for monitoring brain electrical activity to emotional stimuli. Event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis, based on power shifts in specific frequency bands, has some potential as a method for differentiating responses to basic emotions as measured during brief presentations of affective stimuli. Although there appears to be fairly consistent theta ERS in frontal regions of the brain during the earliest phases of processing affective auditory stimuli, the patterns do not readily distinguish between specific emotions. To date it has not been possible to consistently differentiate brain responses to emotion-specific affective states or stimuli, and some evidence to suggests the theta ERS more likely measures general arousal processes rather than yielding veridical indices of specific emotional states. Perhaps cortical EEG patterns will never be able to be used to distinguish discrete emotional states from the surface of the brain. The implications and limitations of such approaches for understanding human emotions are discussed. PMID:21596060

  17. Anaphoric Reference to Quantified Antecedents: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filik, Ruth; Leuthold, Hartmut; Moxey, Linda M.; Sanford, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    We report an event-related brain potential (ERP) study examining how readers process sentences containing anaphoric reference to quantified antecedents. Previous studies indicate that positive (e.g. "many") and negative (e.g. "not many") quantifiers cause readers to focus on different sets of entities. For example in "Many of the fans attended the…

  18. An abnormal resting-state functional brain network indicates progression towards Alzheimer’s disease*****

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Xiang; Hao Guo; Rui Cao; Hong Liang; Junjie Chen

    2013-01-01

    Brain structure and cognitive function change in the temporal lobe, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex of patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease, and brain network-connection strength, network efficiency, and nodal attributes are abnormal. However, existing research has only analyzed the differences between these patients and normal controls. In this study, we constructed brain networks using resting-state functional MRI data that was extracted from four populations mal controls, patients with early mild cognitive impairment, patients with late mild cognitive impairment, and patients with Alzheimer’s disease) using the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative data set. The aim was to analyze the characteristics of resting-state functional neural networks, and to observe mild cognitive impairment at different stages before the transformation to Alzheimer’s disease. Results showed that as cognitive deficits increased across the four groups, the shortest path in the rest-ing-state functional network gradual y increased, while clustering coefficients gradual y decreased. This evidence indicates that dementia is associated with a decline of brain network efficiency. In tion, the changes in functional networks revealed the progressive deterioration of network function across brain regions from healthy elderly adults to those with mild cognitive impairment and Alzhei-mer’s disease. The alterations of node attributes in brain regions may reflect the cognitive functions in brain regions, and we speculate that early impairments in memory, hearing, and language function can eventual y lead to diffuse brain injury and other cognitive impairments.

  19. P300 brain potential among workers exposed to organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente E. Moen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SUMMARYThe P300 component of the auditory event-related brain potential was examined in a group of 11workers exposed to low levels of organic solvents in a paint factory and 11 unexposed controls beforeand after 3 weeks of summer vacation. The P300 latency time was found to be prolonged among theexposed workers compared to the reference group before the summer vacation, and to be significantlylonger before the vacation than after in the exposed group.The P300 component was also examined in a group of 85 seamen from chemical tankers, experiencingpeak exposures to organic solvents. They were compared to a reference group of unexposedseamen. Comparing these two groups, no difference was found in the P300 latency time. No relationshipbetween the P300 latency time and exposure was found in a multiple regression analysis, includingthe variables age, alcohol consumption, smoking and cerebral concussions.The study indicates the occurrence of an acute biological effect in the nervous system related toorganic solvent exposure, expressed by prolonged P300 latency time. This was found at very lowexposure levels and should be studied further.

  20. Common resting brain dynamics indicate a possible mechanism underlying zolpidem response in severe brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shawniqua T; Conte, Mary M; Goldfine, Andrew M; Noirhomme, Quentin; Gosseries, Olivia; Thonnard, Marie; Beattie, Bradley; Hersh, Jennifer; Katz, Douglas I; Victor, Jonathan D; Laureys, Steven; Schiff, Nicholas D

    2013-01-01

    Zolpidem produces paradoxical recovery of speech, cognitive and motor functions in select subjects with severe brain injury but underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In three diverse patients with known zolpidem responses we identify a distinctive pattern of EEG dynamics that suggests a mechanistic model. In the absence of zolpidem, all subjects show a strong low frequency oscillatory peak ∼6–10 Hz in the EEG power spectrum most prominent over frontocentral regions and with high coherence (∼0.7–0.8) within and between hemispheres. Zolpidem administration sharply reduces EEG power and coherence at these low frequencies. The ∼6–10 Hz activity is proposed to arise from intrinsic membrane properties of pyramidal neurons that are passively entrained across the cortex by locally-generated spontaneous activity. Activation by zolpidem is proposed to arise from a combination of initial direct drug effects on cortical, striatal, and thalamic populations and further activation of underactive brain regions induced by restoration of cognitively-mediated behaviors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01157.001 PMID:24252875

  1. Prognostic indices in stereotactic radiotherapy of brain metastases of non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to analyze the long-term clinical outcome and to identify prognostic factors after Linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) on patients with brain metastases (BM) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We performed a retrospective analysis of survival on 90 patients who underwent SRS or FSRT of intracranial NSCLC metastases between 04/2004 and 05/2014 that had not undergone prior surgery or whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for BM. Follow-up data was analyzed until May 2015. Potential prognostic factors were examined in univariable and multivariable analyses. The Golden Grading System (GGS), the disease-specific graded prognostic assessment (DS-GPA), the RADES II prognostic index as well as the NSCLC-specific index proposed by Rades et al. in 2013 (NSCLC-RADES) were calculated and their predictive values were tested in univariable analysis. The median follow-up time of the surviving patients was 14 months. The overall survival (OS) rate was 51 % after 6 months and 29.9 % after 12 months. Statistically significant factors of better OS after univariable analysis were lower International Union Against Cancer (UICC) stage at first diagnosis, histology of adenocarcinoma, prior surgery of the primary tumor and lower total BM volume. After multivariable analysis adenocarcinoma histology remained a significant factor; higher Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) and the presence of extracranial metastases (ECM) were also significant. The RADES II and the NSCLC-RADES indices were significant predictors of OS. However, the NSCLC-RADES failed to differentiate between intermediate- and low-risk patients. The DS-GPA and GGS were not statistically significant predictors of survival in univariable analysis. The ideal prognostic index has not been defined yet. We believe that more specific indices will be developed in the future. Our results indicate that the histologic subtype of NSCLC could add to the prognostic

  2. Potentials and limitations of hazard indices for the determination of risk potentials of disposed toxic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazard indices are often used for the determination of risk potentials arising from the geological disposal of toxic wastes. They are based on simplified models for the calculation of potential health effects caused by the wastes. The attractiveness of hazard indices lies in their simplicity which nevertheless results in reliable data on necessary isolation times and the most toxic nuclides of a waste. They also make possible comparisons of the potential risks of different wastes. After a discussion of the processes that control the behavior of toxic wastes in the environment after a failure of the geological barriers, a new hazard index is presented. Originally developed for nuclear wastes, it is the first which involves the joint consideration of the composition of a waste, the probability for transport of waste nuclides to man, their toxicity, and the time-dependent changes of the risk potentials which are caused by radioactive buildup and decay processes after the waste has entered the biosphere. The new hazard index makes possible the calculation of risk potentials at a given time of release and time period of concern thereafter. Sample calculations for different nuclear wastes show the importance of the model improvements on resulting time-dependent risk potentials. Applicability of the new hazard index to non-nuclear wastes is described. Potentials and limitations of comparative risk assessments using hazard indices are discussed. (author)

  3. Pedophilic brain potential responses to adult erotic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Verner; Impey, Danielle; Fisher, Derek; Delpero, Emily; Fedoroff, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive mechanisms associated with the relative lack of sexual interest in adults by pedophiles are poorly understood and may benefit from investigations examining how the brain processes adult erotic stimuli. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERP) to investigate the time course of the explicit processing of erotic, emotional, and neutral pictures in 22 pedophilic patients and 22 healthy controls. Consistent with previous studies, early latency anterior ERP components were highly selective for erotic pictures. Although the ERPs elicited by emotional stimuli were similar in patients and controls, an early frontal positive (P2) component starting as early as 185 ms was significantly attenuated and slow to onset in pedophilia, and correlated with a clinical measure of cognitive distortions. Failure of rapid attentional capture by erotic stimuli suggests a relative reduction in early processing in pedophilic patients which may be associated with relatively diminished sexual interest in adults. PMID:26683083

  4. Dissociation of Category-Learning Systems via Brain Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Morrison

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging evidence has suggested that categories can often be learned via either an explicit rule-based mechanism critically dependent on medial temporal and prefrontal brain regions, or via an implicit information-integration mechanism relying on the basal ganglia. In this study, participants viewed sine-wave gratings (i.e., Gabor patches that varied on two dimensions and learned to categorize them via trial-by-trial feedback. Two different stimulus distributions were used; one was intended to encourage an explicit rule-based process and the other an implicit information-integration process. We monitored brain activity with scalp electroencephalography (EEG while each participant (1 passively observed stimuli represented of both distributions, (2 categorized stimuli from one distribution, and, one week later, (3 categorized stimuli from the other distribution. Categorization accuracy was similar for the two distributions. Subtractions of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs for correct and incorrect trials were used to identify neural differences in rule-based and information-integration categorization processes. We identified an occipital brain potential that was differentially modulated by categorization condition accuracy at an early latency (150 - 250 ms, likely reflecting the degree of holistic processing. A stimulus-locked late positive complex associated with explicit memory updating was modulated by accuracy in the rule-based, but not the information-integration task. Likewise, a feedback-locked P300 ERP associated with expectancy was correlated with performance only in the rule-based, but not the information-integration condition. These results provide additional evidence for distinct brain mechanisms supporting rule-based versus implicit information-integration category learning and use.

  5. Potential pressure indicators for fishing, and their data requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet, G.J.; Quirijns, F.J.; Robinson, L.; Greenstreet, S.P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Indicators of fishing pressure are necessary to support an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). We present a framework that distinguishes four levels of pressure indicators that move from being a simple description of anthropogenic activity to more precisely describing the actual press

  6. Correlating learning and memory improvements to long-term potentiation in patients with brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingfu Peng; Qian Yu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Brain injury patients often exhibit learning and memory functional deficits.Long-term potentiation(LTP)is a representative index for studying learning and memory cellular models; the LTP index correlates to neural plasticity. OBJECTIVE:This study was designed to investigate correlations of learning and memory functions to LTP in brain injury patients,and to summarize the research advancements in mechanisms underlying brain functional improvements after rehabilitation intervention. RETRIEVAL STRATEGY:Using the terms "brain injuries,rehabilitation,learning and memory,long-term potentiation",manuscripts that were published from 2000-2007 were retrieved from the PubMed database.At the same time,manuscripts published from 2000-2007 were also retrieved from the Database of Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodicals with the same terms in the Chinese language.A total of 64 manuscripts were obtained and primarily screened.Inclusion criteria:studies on learning and memory,as well as LTP in brain injury patients,and studies focused on the effects of rehabilitation intervention on the two indices; studies that were recently published or in high-impact journals.Exclusion criteria:repetitive studies.LITERATURE EVALUATION:The included manuscripts primarily focused on correlations between learning and memory and LTP,the effects of brain injury on learning and memory,as well as LTP,and the effects of rehabilitation intervention on learning and memory after brain injury.The included 39 manuscripts were clinical,basic experimental,or review studies. DATA SYNTHESIS:Learning and memory closely correlates to LTP.The neurobiological basis of learning and memory is central nervous system plasticity,which involves neural networks,neural circuits,and synaptic connections,in particular,synaptic plasticity.LTP is considered to be an ideal model for studying synaptic plasticity,and it is also a classic model for studying neural plasticity of learning and memory.Brain injury

  7. Indications for brain CT scan in patients with minor head injury

    OpenAIRE

    M Saboori; J Ahmadi

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Minor head injury is the most common type of head injury. Despite its high prevalence and a lot of studies, there is much controversies about the management of these patients. We performed this study to find indications for brain CT scan according to clinical signs and symptoms. METHODS: We did this prospective cohort study in two university hospitals (Alzahra and Kashani) for one year enrolling 682 consecutive patients with minor head injury (GCS = 15) and recording all clin...

  8. Selective indications for the use of praziquantel in the treatment of brain cysticercosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, D; Cruz-Segura, H; Mateos-Gomez, H; Zenteno Alanis, G

    1987-01-01

    The selective use of praziquantel for the treatment of brain cysticercosis in human beings is described, based upon the results of clinical tests conducted during a 2 year period. Forty patients with clinical diagnosis of cysticercosis, confirmed and documented by CT, were treated. They are divided into four groups, representative of the various forms of the disease. The results assessed by clinical evaluation and sequential CT, give a ten point criterion of the indications for praziquantel.

  9. Seagrass epiphytes: useful indicator, potential biological criterion, or forlorn hope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epiphytes on seagrasses have been studied for more than 50 years, and proposed as an indicator of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment for over 30 years. Epiphytes have been correlated with seagrass declines, causally related to nutrient additions in both field and mesocosm experim...

  10. Auditory event-related brain potentials for an early discrimination between normal and pathological brain aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juliana Dushanova; Mario Christov

    2013-01-01

    The brain as a system with gradually decreasing resources maximizes its chances by reorganizing neural networks to ensure efficient performance. Auditory event-related potentials were recorded in 28 healthy volunteers comprising 14 young and 14 elderly subjects in auditory discrimination motor task (low frequency tone – right hand movement and high frequency tone – left hand movement). The amplitudes of the sensory event-related potential components (N1, P2) were more pronounced with increasing age for either tone and this effect for P2 amplitude was more pronounced in the frontal region. The latency relationship of N1 between the groups was tone-dependent, while that of P2 was tone-independent with a prominent delay in the elderly group over all brain regions. The amplitudes of the cognitive components (N2, P3) diminished with increasing age and the hemispheric asymmetry of N2 (but not for P3) reduced with increasing age. Prolonged N2 latency with increasing age was widespread for either tone while between-group difference in P3 latency was tone-dependent. High frequency tone stimulation and movement requirements lead to P3 delay in the elderly group. The amplitude difference of the sensory components between the age groups could be due to a general greater alertness, less expressed habituation, or decline in the ability to retreat attentional resources from the stimuli in the elderly group. With aging, a neural circuit reorganization of the brain activity affects the cognitive processes. The approach used in this study is useful for an early discrimination between normal and pathological brain aging for early treatment of cognitive alterations and dementia.

  11. Fetal functional brain age assessed from universal developmental indices obtained from neuro-vegetative activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hoyer

    Full Text Available Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS. Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n = 113 recordings in quiet sleep, n = 286 in active sleep, and n = 29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4-40.3 weeks of gestation preclassified in quiet sleep (n = 113, 63 females and active sleep (n = 286, 145 females state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5. The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R(2 of training and validation set of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications. We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA

  12. [The transition of deep brain stimulation from disease specific to symptom specific indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    The success of chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) and electrical neuro-network modulation (ENM) to address neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders has led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and also other worldwide regulatory agencies to grant approval for the use of DBS in specific disorders. In the United States, DBS is FDA approved for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and for dystonia. OCD and dystonia have been approved under a mechanism referred to as a humanitarian device exemption (HDE). However, as the field of DBS and ENM evolve there has been a shift in practice patterns from targeting diseases to targeting specific and disabling symptoms. This shift has been driving interdisciplinary DBS boards to collect, and to address symptom profiles in all potential DBS candidates. Based on a specific symptom profile, a strategic and personalized medicine approach can be undertaken. The personalized approach will take into consideration the brain target, a unilateral versus a bilateral procedure, and the potential for use of more than one DBS lead per brain hemisphere. Additionally, a personalized approach to DBS will also facilitate improved pre-operative medication adjustments, as well as optimal post-operative medication, behavioral, and device management. PMID:23196455

  13. Mapping neuroplastic potential in brain-damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbet, Guillaume; Maheu, Maxime; Costi, Emanuele; Lafargue, Gilles; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-03-01

    It is increasingly acknowledged that the brain is highly plastic. However, the anatomic factors governing the potential for neuroplasticity have hardly been investigated. To bridge this knowledge gap, we generated a probabilistic atlas of functional plasticity derived from both anatomic magnetic resonance imaging results and intraoperative mapping data on 231 patients having undergone surgery for diffuse, low-grade glioma. The atlas includes detailed level of confidence information and is supplemented with a series of comprehensive, connectivity-based cluster analyses. Our results show that cortical plasticity is generally high in the cortex (except in primary unimodal areas and in a small set of neural hubs) and rather low in connective tracts (especially associative and projection tracts). The atlas sheds new light on the topological organization of critical neural systems and may also be useful in predicting the likelihood of recovery (as a function of lesion topology) in various neuropathological conditions-a crucial factor in improving the care of brain-damaged patients. PMID:26912646

  14. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Indicates a Disturbed Brain Iron Homeostasis in Neuromyelitis Optica – A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado, Vanessa; Rueda, Fernanda; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Juergen R.; Tukamoto, Gustavo; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Schweser, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and can be associated with oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate brain iron in patients with Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), a quantitative iron-sensitive MRI technique. 12 clinically confirmed NMO patients (6 female and 6 male; age 35.4y±14.2y) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (7 female and 5 male; age 33.9±11.3y) underwent MRI of the brain at 3 Tesla. Quantitative maps of the effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*) and magnetic susceptibility were calculated and a blinded ROI-based group comparison analysis was performed. Normality of the data and differences between patients and controls were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t-test, respectively. Correlation with age was studied using Spearman’s rank correlation and an ANCOVA-like analysis. Magnetic susceptibility values were decreased in the red nucleus (p0.95; between -15 and -22 ppb depending on reference region) with a trend toward increasing differences with age. R2* revealed significantly decreased relaxation in the optic radiations of five of the 12 patients (p<0.0001; -3.136±0.567 s-1). Decreased relaxation in the optic radiation is indicative for demyelination, which is in line with previous findings. Decreased magnetic susceptibility in the red nucleus is indicative for a lower brain iron concentration, a chemical redistribution of iron into less magnetic forms, or both. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the pathological cause or consequence of this finding. PMID:27171423

  15. Biologically controlled minerals as potential indicators of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D. E.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Kaneshiro, E.

    1991-01-01

    Minerals can be produced and deposited either by abiotic or biologic means. Regardless of their origin, mineral crystals reflect the environment conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, chemical composition, and redox potential) present during crystal formation. Biologically-produced mineral crystals are grown or reworked under the control of their host organism and reflect an environment different from the abiotic environment. In addition, minerals of either biologic or abiotic origin have great longevities. For these reasons, biologically produced minerals have been proposed as biomarkers. Biomarkers are key morphological, chemical, and isotopic signatures of living systems that can be used to determine if life processes have occurred. Studies of biologically controlled minerals produced by the protist, Paramecium tetraurelia, were initiated since techniques have already been developed to culture them and isolate their crystalline material, and methods are already in place to analyze this material. Two direct crystalline phases were identified. One phase, whose chemical composition is high in Mg, was identified as struvite. The second phase, whose chemical composition is high in Ca, has not been previously found occurring naturally and may be considered a newly discovered material. Analyses are underway to determine the characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of minerals formed abiotically, but with the same chemical composition.

  16. Cyclohexane, a potential drug of abuse with pernicious effects for the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar eGonzalez-Perez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclohexane is a volatile solvent used as a harmless substitute for dangerous organic solvents in several products, such as paint thinners, gasoline and adhesives. Many of these products are used as drugs of abuse and can severely damage neural tissue and impair neurological functions. However, there is very little information on the effects of cyclohexane on the brain. In humans, cyclohexane produces headaches, sleepiness, dizziness, limb weakness, motor changes and verbal memory impairment. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated behavioral alterations, reactive gliosis, microglial reactivity and oxidative stress in the brains of cyclohexane-exposed animals. This indicates that cyclohexane may represent a potential problem for public health. Therefore, studies are needed to clarify the neurobiological effects of this volatile compound, including the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurotoxicity, and to minimize the human health risk posed by the intentional or accidental inhalation of this potential drug of abuse.

  17. On the transmission of partial information: inferences from movement-related brain potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, A.; Bashore, T. R.; Coles, M. G.; Donchin, E.; Meyer, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Results are reported from a new paradigm that uses movement-related brain potentials to detect response preparation based on partial information. The paradigm uses a hybrid choice-reaction go/nogo procedure in which decisions about response hand and whether to respond are based on separate stimulus attributes. A lateral asymmetry in the movement-related brain potential was found on nogo trials without overt movement. The direction of this asymmetry depended primarily on the signaled response hand rather than on properties of the stimulus. When the asymmetry first appeared was influenced by the time required to select the signaled hand, and when it began to differ on go and nogo trials was influenced by the time to decide whether to respond. These findings indicate that both stimulus attributes were processed in parallel and that the asymmetry reflected preparation of the response hand that began before the go/nogo decision was completed.

  18. Cyclohexane, a Potential Drug of Abuse with Pernicious Effects on the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Ordonez, Tania; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Cyclohexane is a volatile solvent used as a harmless substitute for dangerous organic solvents in several products, such as paint thinners, gasoline and adhesives. Many of these products are used as drugs of abuse and can severely damage neural tissue and impair neurological functions. However, there is very little information on the effects of cyclohexane on the brain. In humans, cyclohexane produces headaches, sleepiness, dizziness, limb weakness, motor changes, and verbal memory impairment. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated behavioral alterations, reactive gliosis, microglial reactivity, and oxidative stress in the brains of cyclohexane-exposed animals. This indicates that cyclohexane may represent a potential problem for public health. Therefore, studies are needed to clarify the neurobiological effects of this volatile compound, including the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurotoxicity, and to minimize the human health risk posed by the intentional or accidental inhalation of this potential drug of abuse. PMID:26779017

  19. 99mTc-HMPAO perfusion indices and brain-mapping in stroke patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the purpose of the study to establish correlations between 99mTc-HMPAO (hexamethylpropylenaminoxym) perfusion indices and changes in brain-mapping among patients with acute stroke. Forty-six patients with definitely proved stroke syndrome are investigated in the first 72 hours and 15 days after the onset of cerebrovascular accident using clinical, neuro-physiological and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT methods. Regional and hemispheric perfusion asymmetry correlate with the brain-mapping cerebral disturbance (p < 0.001). In patients presenting focal hypoperfusion there is a significant correlation between perfusion indices and local EEG disturbance (r = 0.87). The dynamic study demonstrates a significant correlation between perfusion indices and electrical cerebral disturbance in the first 72 hours after the onset of the cerebrovascular accident. Fifteen days later no such correlation is documented. The obtained results demonstrate the essential practical bearing of 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT indices on the objective assessment of perfusion hemispheric and regional asymmetry in stroke patients, and the possibility of being used for indirect estimation of the regional cerebral blood flow in acute stroke patients against the background of visual and quantitative EEG changes (author)

  20. Action prediction based on anticipatory brain potentials during simulated driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliliardali, Zahra; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Gheorghe, Lucian Andrei; Millán, José del R.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The ability of an automobile to infer the driver’s upcoming actions directly from neural signals could enrich the interaction of the car with its driver. Intelligent vehicles fitted with an on-board brain-computer interface able to decode the driver’s intentions can use this information to improve the driving experience. In this study we investigate the neural signatures of anticipation of specific actions, namely braking and accelerating. Approach. We investigated anticipatory slow cortical potentials in electroencephalogram recorded from 18 healthy participants in a driving simulator using a variant of the contingent negative variation (CNV) paradigm with Go and No-go conditions: count-down numbers followed by ‘Start’/‘Stop’ cue. We report decoding performance before the action onset using a quadratic discriminant analysis classifier based on temporal features. Main results. (i) Despite the visual and driving related cognitive distractions, we show the presence of anticipatory event related potentials locked to the stimuli onset similar to the widely reported CNV signal (with an average peak value of -8 μV at electrode Cz). (ii) We demonstrate the discrimination between cases requiring to perform an action upon imperative subsequent stimulus (Go condition, e.g. a ‘Red’ traffic light) versus events that do not require such action (No-go condition; e.g. a ‘Yellow’ light); with an average single trial classification performance of 0.83 ± 0.13 for braking and 0.79 ± 0.12 for accelerating (area under the curve). (iii) We show that the centro-medial anticipatory potentials are observed as early as 320 ± 200 ms before the action with a detection rate of 0.77 ± 0.12 in offline analysis. Significance. We show for the first time the feasibility of predicting the driver’s intention through decoding anticipatory related potentials during simulated car driving with high recognition rates.

  1. Brain potentials index executive functions during random number generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppich, Gregor; Däuper, Jan; Dengler, Reinhard; Johannes, Sönke; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2004-06-01

    The generation of random sequences is considered to tax different executive functions. To explore the involvement of these functions further, brain potentials were recorded in 16 healthy young adults while either engaging in random number generation (RNG) by pressing the number keys on a computer keyboard in a random sequence or in ordered number generation (ONG) necessitating key presses in the canonical order. Key presses were paced by an external auditory stimulus to yield either fast (1 press/800 ms) or slow (1 press/1300 ms) sequences in separate runs. Attentional demands of random and ordered tasks were assessed by the introduction of a secondary task (key-press to a target tone). The P3 amplitude to the target tone of this secondary task was reduced during RNG, reflecting the greater consumption of attentional resources during RNG. Moreover, RNG led to a left frontal negativity peaking 140 ms after the onset of the pacing stimulus, whenever the subjects produced a true random response. This negativity could be attributed to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and was absent when numbers were repeated. This negativity was interpreted as an index for the inhibition of habitual responses. Finally, in response locked ERPs a negative component was apparent peaking about 50 ms after the key-press that was more prominent during RNG. Source localization suggested a medial frontal source. This effect was tentatively interpreted as a reflection of the greater monitoring demands during random sequence generation. PMID:15140558

  2. Anisotropic Anomalous Diffusion assessed in the human brain by scalar invariant indices

    CERN Document Server

    De Santis, S; Bozzali, M; Maraviglia, B; Macaluso, E; Capuani, S

    2010-01-01

    A new method to investigate anomalous diffusion in human brain is proposed. The method has been inspired by both the stretched-exponential model proposed by Hall and Barrick (HB) and DTI. Quantities extracted using HB method were able to discriminate different cerebral tissues on the basis of their complexity, expressed by the stretching exponent gamma and of the anisotropy of gamma across different directions. Nevertheless, these quantities were not defined as scalar invariants like mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy, which are eigenvalues of the diffusion tensor. We hypotesize instead that the signal may be espressed as a simple stretched-exponential only along the principal axes of diffusion, while in a generic direction the signal is modeled as a combination of three different stretched-exponentials. In this way, we derived indices to quantify both the tissue anomalous diffusion and its anisotropy, independently of the reference frame of the experiment. We tested and compare our new method with DT...

  3. Event-related potentials indicate context effect in reading ambiguous words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchoubey, Boris; El-Khoury, Sylvain

    2014-10-29

    The aim of the study was a comparison of lexical and contextual factors in understanding ambiguous words in German. First, a sample of native speakers selected 56 words having maximally strong differences between a dominant and a subordinate meaning. After this, another sample from the same population was visually presented with sentences that activated dominant or subordinate meanings of the words and were accompanied by probes associated with dominant or subordinate meanings. This resulted in a crossed design with two factors: sentence dominant vs. sentence subordinate and probe dominant vs. probe subordinate. An analysis of event-related brain potentials revealed a large, long-lasting and highly-significant N400 wave whenever the meaning of the probe was incongruent with the meaning of the sentence and the lack of this wave whenever the two meanings were congruent. In the typical N400 space and time, the effect was independent of whether the lexical word meaning was dominant or subordinate. At other sites and times, however (e.g., at lateral frontal electrodes F7/F8, and after 700ms), the congruence effect was significant after dominant sentences only. The data indicate that lexical factors have a rather limited influence on the activation of a particular meaning of ambiguous words. A strong context can virtually override even a very strong difference in the preference for different meanings. PMID:25463139

  4. "Brain sex differentiation" in teleosts: Emerging concepts with potential biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian; Sudhakumari, Cheni-Chery; Mamta, Sajwan-Khatri; Raghuveer, Kavarthapu; Swapna, Immani; Murugananthkumar, Raju

    2015-09-01

    "Brain sex differentiation" in teleosts is a contentious topic of research as most of the earlier reports tend to suggest that gonadal sex differentiation drives brain sex differentiation. However, identification of sex-specific marker genes in the developing brain of teleosts signifies brain-gonadal interaction during early sexual development in lower vertebrates. In this context, the influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-gonadotropin (GTH) axis on gonadal sex differentiation, if any requires in depth analysis. Presence of seabream (sb) GnRH immunoreactivity (ir-) in the brain of XY Nile tilapia was found as early as 5days post hatch (dph) followed by qualitative reduction in the preoptic area-hypothalamus region. In contrast, in the XX female brain a steady ir- of sbGnRH was evident from 15dph. Earlier studies using sea bass already implied the importance of hypothalamic gonadotropic axis completion during sex differentiation period. Such biphasic pattern of localization was also seen in pituitary GTHs using heterologous antisera in tilapia. However, more recent analysis in the same species could not detect any sexually dimorphic pattern using homologous antisera for pituitary GTHs. Detailed studies on the development of hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal axis in teleosts focusing on hypothalamic monoamines (MA) and MA-related enzymes demonstrated sex-specific differential expression of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) in the early stages of developing male and female brains of tilapia and catfish. The changes in Tph expression was in agreement with the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxytryptophan in the preoptic area-hypothalamus. Considering the stimulatory influence of 5-HT on GnRH and GTH release, it is possible to propose a network association between these correlates during early development, which may bring about brain sex dimorphism in males. A recent study from our laboratory during female brain sex development demonstrated high expression of

  5. Anticipatory Processing in the Brain on the Perception of Müller-Lyer Illusionary Figures—A Brain Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shusaku; Sasaki, Shuntaro; Hirakawa, Masato; Hiwaki, Osamu

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the brain potential in relation with the recognition of Müller-Lyer (ML) illusionary figure, which was a famous optical illusion. Although it is frequently assumed that the ML illusionary effect could be derived from its geometrical construction, it derives the same length miss-estimation effect on the sense of touch; haptic illusion. Moreover it occurs in people who are blindfolded or congenital blind. Thus somehow higher information processing than the optical one within the brain could be expected to involve with the recognition of ML figure while few brain studies have demonstrated it. We then investigated the brain waves under subjects' perceiving ML illusionary figure. As a result the marked difference of the brain potential between ML and the control condition around the midline of parietal brain, where the multi-modal perception information was thought to associate within the brain, was observed. This result implies that the anticipatory processing on the perception of ML illusionary figures would be derived by integrating multi-sensory information.

  6. Brain Potentials for Derivational Morphology: An ERP Study of Deadjectival Nominalizations in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Viktoria; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Clahsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates brain potentials to derived word forms in Spanish. Two experiments were performed on derived nominals that differ in terms of their productivity and semantic properties but are otherwise similar, an acceptability judgment task and a reading experiment using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in which correctly and…

  7. Event-related brain potentials in emotion perception research, individual cognitive assessment and brain-computer interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bostanov, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    All of the experimental and theoretical work presented in this dissertation has been inspired by the general idea of applying event-related brain potential (ERP) measurement and assessment for practical purposes: cognitive diagnostics and Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) for paralyzed people. In Chapter 1, two new ERP paradigms are introduced, which were developed for the diagnostics of a particular cognitive function, the recognition of affective prosody. The affective state of a speaker ...

  8. Brain stimulation: Neuromodulation as a potential treatment for motor recovery following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, E; Kinley-Cooper, S K; Weber, R A; Adkins, D L

    2016-06-01

    There is growing evidence that electrical and magnetic brain stimulation can improve motor function and motor learning following brain damage. Rodent and primate studies have strongly demonstrated that combining cortical stimulation (CS) with skilled motor rehabilitative training enhances functional motor recovery following stroke. Brain stimulation following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is less well studied, but early pre-clinical and human pilot studies suggest that it is a promising treatment for TBI-induced motor impairments as well. This review will first discuss the evidence supporting brain stimulation efficacy derived from the stroke research field as proof of principle and then will review the few studies exploring neuromodulation in experimental TBI studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:Brain injury and recovery. PMID:26855256

  9. Perspectives and Potential of the Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSSATTO, G. G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI, also known as Brain-Machine Interface, is a system that allows for the interaction between the user and its surroundings using control signals generated by his brain activity. The improvement of the research on BCI correlates mainly with the advances of Neurophisiology and Computer Science. Initial research was dedicated to the development of devices for the communication of individuals who lost voluntary muscle control but had no cognitive impairment. Nowadays, we find applications in the fields of mobility, communication and the treatment of diseases of user who may or may not have movement impairment. Considering the expansion scenario of the BCI applications, this paper presents a pedagogical description of the recent publication on this field of study. Hence, we descrive the basic concepts related to this research area, as well as some of its applications and limitations.

  10. Potential application of hydrogen in traumatic and surgical brain injury, stroke and neonatal hypoxia-ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Eckermann Jan M; Krafft Paul R; Shoemaker Lorelei; Lieberson Robert E; Chang Steven D; Colohan Austin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This article summarized findings of current preclinical studies that implemented hydrogen administration, either in the gas or liquid form, as treatment application for neurological disorders including traumatic brain injury (TBI), surgically induced brain injury (SBI), stroke, and neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain insult (HI). Most reviewed studies demonstrated neuroprotective effects of hydrogen administration. Even though anti-oxidative potentials have been reported in several studi...

  11. Deep brain stimulation and ablation for obsessive compulsive disorder: evolution of contemporary indications, targets and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Travis S; Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M; Stanford, Arielle D; Foote, Kelly D; Okun, Michael S

    2014-06-01

    Surgical therapy for treatment-resistant obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) remains an effective option for well-selected patients managed within a multidisciplinary setting. Historically, lesions within the limbic system have been used to control both obsessive thoughts and repetitive compulsions associated with this disease. We discuss classical targets as well as contemporary neuromodulatory approaches that have been shown to provide symptomatic relief. Recently, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior limb of the internal capsule/ventral striatum received Conformité Européene (CE) mark and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals for treatment of intractable OCD. Remarkably, this is the first such approval for neurosurgical intervention in a strictly psychiatric indication in modern times. This target is discussed in detail along with alternative targets currently being proposed. We close with a discussion of gamma knife capsulotomy, a modality with deep historical roots. Further directions in the surgical treatment of OCD will require better preoperative predictors of postoperative responses, optimal selection of individualized targets, and rigorous reporting of adverse events and standardized outcomes. To meet these challenges, centers must be equipped with a multidisciplinary team and patient-centered approach to ensure adequate screening and follow up of patients with this difficult-to-treat condition. PMID:24099662

  12. Integrating Terrain and Vegetation Indices for Identifying Potential Soil Erosion Risk Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arabinda Sharma

    2010-01-01

    The present paper offers an innovative method to monitor the change in soil erosion potential by integrating terrain and vegetation indices derived from remote sensing data. Three terrain indices namely, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI) and slope length factor (LS), were derived from the digital elevation model. Normalized vegetation index (NDVI) was derived for the year 1988 and 2004 using remote sensing images. K-mean clustering was performed on staked indices to categorize the study area into four soil erosion potential classes. The validation of derived erosion potential map using USLE model showed a good agreement. Results indicated that there was a significant change in the erosion potential of the watershed and a gradual shifting of lower erosion potential class to next higher erosion potential class over the study period.

  13. The Substitute Brain and the Potential of the Gel Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pomfret, Roland; Miranpuri, Gurwattan; Sillay, Karl

    2013-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to review the recent history of the use of agarose gels. Although originally confined to electrophoresis work, agarose gels have proven themselves useful to a number of disciplines in the modern world, which includes brain infusion studies for research involving the treatment of various neurological conditions, such as Parkinson’s Disease. In reviewing the relevant research leading up to the modern day, this paper attempts to track agarose gels through their stag...

  14. Error-related EEG potentials in brain-computer interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrez, Pierre W.

    2007-01-01

    People with severe motor disabilities (spinal cord injury (SCI), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), etc.) but with intact brain functions are somehow prisoners of their own body. They need alternative ways of communication and control to interact with their environment in their everyday life. These new tools are supposed to increase their quality of life by giving these people the opportunity to recover part of their independence. Therefore, these alternative ways have to be reliable and er...

  15. Perceiving musical scale structures. A cross-cultural event-related brain potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Christiane

    2003-11-01

    In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) are used to investigate the processing of musical scale structures from a cross-cultural perspective. ERP reactions reveal that universal listening strategies per se are modified by culture. PMID:14681138

  16. Some observations indicating a low brain uptake of [3H]Nle11-Substance P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies concerning the problem of whether an exogenous neuropeptide is able to enter the brain tissue were extended to the undecapeptide Substance P (SP). The amount of radioactivity 15 s after intracarotid injection of [3H]Nle11-SP or [14C]inulin was determined in 18 brain regions and the anterior pituitary of male rats. As compared to the reference [14C]inulin, the amount of radioactivity was higher after [3H]Nle11-SP injection (0.233 +- 0.039%, p < 0.001). Statistically significant differences could be found particularly in cortical and caudal areas as well as in the circumventricular organs studied. These observations do not refute the assumption that a low brain uptake of the labelled neuropeptide occurred due to an accumulation within structures of the blood-brain barrier and/or a penetration of the barrier system. (author)

  17. The Co-Metabolism within the Gut-Brain Metabolic Interaction: Potential Targets for Drug Treatment and Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrenovich, Mark; Flückiger, Rudolf; Sykes, Lorraine; Donskey, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    We know that within the complex mammalian gut is any number of metabolic biomes. The gut has been sometimes called the "second brain" within the "gut-brain axis". A more informative term would be the gut-brain metabolic interactome, which is coined here to underscore the relationship between the digestive system and cognitive function or dysfunction as the case may be. Co-metabolism between the host and the intestinal microbiota is essential for life's processes. How diet, lifestyle, antibiotics and other factors shape the gut microbiome constitutes a rapidly growing area of research. Conversely, the gut microbiome also affects mammalian systems. Metabolites of the gut-brain axis are potential targets for treatment and drug design since the interaction or biochemical interplay results in net metabolite production or end-products with either positive or negative effects on human health. This review explores the gut-brain metabolic interactome, with particular emphasis on drug design and treatment strategies and how commensal bacteria or their disruption lead to dysbiosis and the effect this has on neurochemistry. Increasing data indicate that the intestinal microbiome can affect neurobiology, from mental and even behavioral health to memory, depression, mood, anxiety, obesity, cravings and even the creation and maintenance of the blood brain barrier. PMID:26831263

  18. NeuroGrid: recording action potentials from the surface of the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Khodagholy, Dion; Gelinas, Jennifer N.; Thesen, Thomas; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Malliaras, George G.; Buzsáki, György

    2014-01-01

    Recording from neural networks at the resolution of action potentials is critical for understanding how information is processed in the brain. Here, we address this challenge by developing an organic material-based, ultra-conformable, biocompatible and scalable neural interface array (the ‘NeuroGrid’) that can record both LFP and action potentials from superficial cortical neurons without penetrating the brain surface. Spikes with features of interneurons and pyramidal cells were simultaneous...

  19. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  20. Conveying the concept of movement in music: An event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linshu; Jiang, Cunmei; Wu, Yingying; Yang, Yufang

    2015-10-01

    This study on event-related brain potential investigated whether music can convey the concept of movement. Using a semantic priming paradigm, natural musical excerpts were presented to non-musicians, followed by semantically congruent or incongruent pictures that depicted objects either in motion or at rest. The priming effects were tested in object decision and implicit recognition tasks to distinguish the effects of automatic conceptual activation from response competition. Results showed that in both tasks, pictures that were incongruent to preceding musical excerpts elicited larger N400 than congruent pictures, suggesting that music can prime the representations of movement concepts. Results of the multiple regression analysis showed that movement expression could be well predicted by specific acoustic and musical features, indicating the associations between music per se and the processing of iconic musical meaning. PMID:26254996

  1. Genomic characterization of brain metastases reveals branched evolution and potential therapeutic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagata, Sandro; Cahill, Daniel P.; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Jones, Robert T.; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Horowitz, Peleg M.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Ligon, Keith L.; Tabernero, Josep; Seoane, Joan; Martinez-Saez, Elena; Curry, William T.; Dunn, Ian F.; Paek, Sun Ha; Park, Sung-Hye; McKenna, Aaron; Chevalier, Aaron; Rosenberg, Mara; Barker, Frederick G.; Gill, Corey M.; Van Hummelen, Paul; Thorner, Aaron R.; Johnson, Bruce E.; Hoang, Mai P.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Signoretti, Sabina; Sougnez, Carrie; Rabin, Michael S.; Lin, Nancy U.; Winer, Eric P.; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat; Meyerson, Matthew; Garraway, Levi; Gabriel, Stacey; Lander, Eric S.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Baselga, Jose; Louis, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases are associated with a dismal prognosis. Whether brain metastases harbor distinct genetic alterations beyond those observed in primary tumors is unknown. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 86 matched brain metastases, primary tumors and normal tissue. In all clonally related cancer samples, we observed branched evolution, where all metastatic and primary sites shared a common ancestor yet continued to evolve independently. In 53% of cases, we found potentially clinically informative alterations in the brain metastases not detected in the matched primary-tumor sample. In contrast, spatially and temporally separated brain metastasis sites were genetically homogenous. Distal extracranial and regional lymph node metastases were highly divergent from brain metastases. We detected alterations associated with sensitivity to PI3K/AKT/mTOR, CDK, and HER2/EGFR inhibitors in the brain metastases. Genomic analysis of brain metastases provides an opportunity to identify potentially clinically informative alterations not detected in clinically sampled primary tumors, regional lymph nodes, or extracranial metastases. PMID:26410082

  2. Identifying the null subject: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demestre, J; Meltzer, S; García-Albea, J E; Vigil, A

    1999-05-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during spoken language comprehension to study the on-line effects of gender agreement violations in controlled infinitival complements. Spanish sentences were constructed in which the complement clause contained a predicate adjective marked for syntactic gender. By manipulating the gender of the antecedent (i.e., the controller) of the implicit subject while holding constant the gender of the adjective, pairs of grammatical and ungrammatical sentences were created. The detection of such a gender agreement violation would indicate that the parser had established the coreference relation between the null subject and its antecedent. The results showed a complex biphasic ERP (i.e., an early negativity with prominence at anterior and central sites, followed by a centroparietal positivity) in the violating condition as compared to the non-violating conditions. The brain reacts to NP-adjective gender agreement violations within a few hundred milliseconds of their occurrence. The data imply that the parser has properly coindexed the null subject of an infinitive clause with its antecedent. PMID:10344021

  3. Hemodynamic response imaging: a potential tool for the assessment of angiogenesis in brain tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafna Ben Bashat

    Full Text Available Blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD imaging under either hypercapnia or hyperoxia has been used to study neuronal activation and for assessment of various brain pathologies. We evaluated the benefit of a combined protocol of BOLD imaging during both hyperoxic and hypercapnic challenges (termed hemodynamic response imaging (HRI. Nineteen healthy controls and seven patients with primary brain tumors were included: six with glioblastoma (two newly diagnosed and four with recurrent tumors and one with atypical-meningioma. Maps of percent signal intensity changes (ΔS during hyperoxia (carbogen; 95%O2+5%CO2 and hypercapnia (95%air+5%CO2 challenges and vascular reactivity mismatch maps (VRM; voxels that responded to carbogen with reduced/absent response to CO2 were calculated. VRM values were measured in white matter (WM and gray matter (GM areas of healthy subjects and used as threshold values in patients. Significantly higher response to carbogen was detected in healthy subjects, compared to hypercapnia, with a GM/WM ratio of 3.8 during both challenges. In patients with newly diagnosed/treatment-naive tumors (n = 3, increased response to carbogen was detected with substantially increased VRM response (compared to threshold values within and around the tumors. In patients with recurrent tumors, reduced/absent response during both challenges was demonstrated. An additional finding in 2 of 4 patients with recurrent glioblastoma was a negative response during carbogen, distant from tumor location, which may indicate steal effect. In conclusion, the HRI method enables the assessment of blood vessel functionality and reactivity. Reference values from healthy subjects are presented and preliminary results demonstrate the potential of this method to complement perfusion imaging for the detection and follow up of angiogenesis in patients with brain tumors.

  4. Development of a new biomechanical indicator for primary blast-induced brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhu; Cliff C.Chou; King H.Yang; Albert I.King

    2015-01-01

    Primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has been observed at the boundary of brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).Such injury can hardly be explained by using the theory of compressive wave propagation,since both the solid and fluid materials have similar compressibility and thus the intracranial pressure (ICP) has a continuous distribution across the boundary.Since they have completely different shear properties,it is hypothesized the injury at the interface is caused by shear wave.In the present study,a preliminary combined numerical and theoretical analysis was conducted based on the theory of shear wave propagation]reflection.Simulation results show that higher lateral acceleration of brain tissue particles is concentrated in the boundary region.Based on this finding,a new biomechanical vector,termed as strain gradient,was suggested for primary bTBI.The subsequent simple theoretical analysis reveals that this parameter is proportional to the value of lateral acceleration.At the boundary of lateral ventricles,high spatial strain gradient implies that the brain tissue in this area (where neuron cells may be contained) undergo significantly different strains and large velocity discontinuity,which may result in mechanical damage of the neuron cells.

  5. Development of a new biomechanical indicator for primary blast-induced brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Feng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI has been observed at the boundary of brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Such injury can hardly be explained by using the theory of compressive wave propagation, since both the solid and fluid materials have similar compressibility and thus the intracranial pressure (ICP has a continuous distribution across the boundary. Since they have completely different shear properties, it is hypothesized the injury at the interface is caused by shear wave. In the present study, a preliminary combined numerical and theoretical analysis was conducted based on the theory of shear wave propagation/reflection. Simulation results show that higher lateral acceleration of brain tissue particles is concentrated in the boundary region. Based on this finding, a new biomechanical vector, termed as strain gradient, was suggested for primary bTBI. The subsequent simple theoretical analysis reveals that this parameter is proportional to the value of lateral acceleration. At the boundary of lateral ventricles, high spatial strain gradient implies that the brain tissue in this area (where neuron cells may be contained undergo significantly different strains and large velocity discontinuity, which may result in mechanical damage of the neuron cells.

  6. Potential application of hydrogen in traumatic and surgical brain injury, stroke and neonatal hypoxia-ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckermann Jan M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article summarized findings of current preclinical studies that implemented hydrogen administration, either in the gas or liquid form, as treatment application for neurological disorders including traumatic brain injury (TBI, surgically induced brain injury (SBI, stroke, and neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain insult (HI. Most reviewed studies demonstrated neuroprotective effects of hydrogen administration. Even though anti-oxidative potentials have been reported in several studies, further neuroprotective mechanisms of hydrogen therapy remain to be elucidated. Hydrogen may serve as an adjunct treatment for neurological disorders.

  7. Steady state visually evoked potentials based Brain computer interface test outside the lab

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Francisco Caicedo Bravo; Jaiber Evelio Cardona Aristizábal

    2016-01-01

    Context: Steady State Visually Evoked Potentials (SSVEP) are brain signals which are one of the most promising signals for Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) implementation, however, SSVEP based BCI generally are proven in a controlled environment and there are a few tests in demanding conditions.Method: We present a SSVEP based BCI system that was used outside the lab in a noisy environment with distractions, and with the presence of public. For the tests, we showed a maze in a laptop where th...

  8. Thyroid hormone’s role in regulating brain glucose metabolism and potentially modulating hippocampal cognitive processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jahagirdar, V; McNay, EC

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive performance is dependent on adequate glucose supply to the brain. Insulin, which regulates systemic glucose metabolism, has been recently shown both to regulate hippocampal metabolism and to be a mandatory component of hippocampally-mediated cognitive performance. Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate systemic glucose metabolism and may also be involved in regulation of brain glucose metabolism. Here we review potential mechanisms for such regulation. Importantly, TH imbalance is often enc...

  9. A step into the anarchist’s mind: examining political attitudes and ideology through event-related brain potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hiel, Alain; Pattyn, Sven; Onraet, Emma; Severens, Els

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates patterns of event-related brain potentials following the presentation of attitudinal stimuli among political moderates (N = 12) and anarchists (N = 11). We used a modified oddball paradigm to investigate the evaluative inconsistency effect elicited by stimuli embedded in a sequence of contextual stimuli with an opposite valence. Increased late positive potentials (LPPs) of extreme political attitudes were observed. Moreover, this LPP enhancement was larger among anarchists than among moderates, indicating that an extreme political attitude of a moderate differs from an extreme political attitude of an anarchist. The discussion elaborates on the meaning of attitude extremity for moderates and extremists. PMID:21421734

  10. Performance enhancement at the cost of potential brain plasticity: neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Kimberly R.; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive enhancement is perhaps one of the most intriguing and controversial topics in neuroscience today. Currently, the main classes of drugs used as potential cognitive enhancers include psychostimulants (methylphenidate (MPH), amphetamine), but wakefulness-promoting agents (modafinil) and glutamate activators (ampakine) are also frequently used. Pharmacologically, substances that enhance the components of the memory/learning circuits—dopamine, glutamate (neuronal excitation), and/or norepinephrine—stand to improve brain function in healthy individuals beyond their baseline functioning. In particular, non-medical use of prescription stimulants such as MPH and illicit use of psychostimulants for cognitive enhancement have seen a recent rise among teens and young adults in schools and college campuses. However, this enhancement likely comes with a neuronal, as well as ethical, cost. Altering glutamate function via the use of psychostimulants may impair behavioral flexibility, leading to the development and/or potentiation of addictive behaviors. Furthermore, dopamine and norepinephrine do not display linear effects; instead, their modulation of cognitive and neuronal function maps on an inverted-U curve. Healthy individuals run the risk of pushing themselves beyond optimal levels into hyperdopaminergic and hypernoradrenergic states, thus vitiating the very behaviors they are striving to improve. Finally, recent studies have begun to highlight potential damaging effects of stimulant exposure in healthy juveniles. This review explains how the main classes of cognitive enhancing drugs affect the learning and memory circuits, and highlights the potential risks and concerns in healthy individuals, particularly juveniles and adolescents. We emphasize the performance enhancement at the potential cost of brain plasticity that is associated with the neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain. PMID:24860437

  11. Performance enhancement at the cost of potential brain plasticity: neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Kimberly R; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive enhancement is perhaps one of the most intriguing and controversial topics in neuroscience today. Currently, the main classes of drugs used as potential cognitive enhancers include psychostimulants (methylphenidate (MPH), amphetamine), but wakefulness-promoting agents (modafinil) and glutamate activators (ampakine) are also frequently used. Pharmacologically, substances that enhance the components of the memory/learning circuits-dopamine, glutamate (neuronal excitation), and/or norepinephrine-stand to improve brain function in healthy individuals beyond their baseline functioning. In particular, non-medical use of prescription stimulants such as MPH and illicit use of psychostimulants for cognitive enhancement have seen a recent rise among teens and young adults in schools and college campuses. However, this enhancement likely comes with a neuronal, as well as ethical, cost. Altering glutamate function via the use of psychostimulants may impair behavioral flexibility, leading to the development and/or potentiation of addictive behaviors. Furthermore, dopamine and norepinephrine do not display linear effects; instead, their modulation of cognitive and neuronal function maps on an inverted-U curve. Healthy individuals run the risk of pushing themselves beyond optimal levels into hyperdopaminergic and hypernoradrenergic states, thus vitiating the very behaviors they are striving to improve. Finally, recent studies have begun to highlight potential damaging effects of stimulant exposure in healthy juveniles. This review explains how the main classes of cognitive enhancing drugs affect the learning and memory circuits, and highlights the potential risks and concerns in healthy individuals, particularly juveniles and adolescents. We emphasize the performance enhancement at the potential cost of brain plasticity that is associated with the neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain. PMID:24860437

  12. Performance Enhancement at the Cost of Potential Brain Plasticity: Neural Ramifications of Nootropic Drugs in the Healthy Developing Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly R. Urban

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive enhancement is perhaps one of the most intriguing and controversial topics in neuroscience today. Currently, the main classes of drugs used as potential cognitive enhancers include psychostimulants (methylphenidate, amphetamine, but wakefulness-promoting agents (modafinil and glutamate activators (ampakine are also frequently used. Pharmacologically, substances that enhance the components of the memory/learning circuits - dopamine, glutamate (neuronal excitation, and/or norepinephrine - stand to improve brain function in healthy individuals beyond their baseline functioning. In particular, non-medical use of prescription stimulants such as methylphenidate and illicit use of psychostimulants for cognitive enhancement have seen a recent rise among teens and young adults in schools and college campuses. However, this enhancement likely comes with a neuronal, as well as ethical, cost. Altering glutamate function via the use of psychostimulants may impair behavioral flexibility, leading to the development and/or potentiation of addictive behaviors. Furthermore, dopamine and norepinephrine do not display linear effects; instead, their modulation of cognitive and neuronal function maps on an inverted-U curve. Healthy individuals run the risk of pushing themselves beyond optimal levels into hyperdopaminergic and hypernoradrenergic states, thus vitiating the very behaviors they are striving to improve. Finally, recent studies have begun to highlight potential damaging effects of stimulant exposure in healthy juveniles. This review explains how the main classes of cognitive enhancing drugs affect the learning and memory circuits, and highlights the potential risks and concerns in healthy individuals, particularly juveniles and adolescents. We emphasize the performance enhancement at the potential cost of brain plasticity that is associated with the neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain.

  13. Donepezil markedly potentiates memantine neurotoxicity in the adult rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Creeley, Catherine E.; Wozniak, David F.; Nardi, Anthony; Farber, Nuri B.; Olney, John W.

    2006-01-01

    The NMDA antagonist, memantine (Namenda), and the cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil (Aricept), are currently being used widely, either individually or in combination, for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). NMDA antagonists have both neuroprotective and neurotoxic properties; the latter is augmented by drugs, such as pilocarpine, that increase cholinergic activity. Whether donepezil, by increasing cholinergic activity, might augment memantine’s neurotoxic potential has not been investiga...

  14. [Determination of irreversibility of clinical brain death. Electroencephalography and evoked potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, H; Ferbert, A

    2016-02-01

    Principally, in the fourth update of the rules for the procedure to finally determine the irreversible cessation of function of the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brainstem, the importance of an electroencephalogram (EEG), somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) are confirmed. This paper presents the reliability and validity of the electrophysiological diagnosis, discusses the amendments in the fourth version of the guidelines and introduces the practical application, problems and sources of error.An EEG is the best established supplementary diagnostic method for determining the irreversibility of clinical brain death syndrome. It should be noted that residual brain activity can often persist for many hours after the onset of brain death syndrome, particularly in patients with primary brainstem lesions. The derivation and analysis of an EEG requires a high level of expertise to be able to safely distinguish artefacts from primary brain activity. The registration of EEGs to demonstrate the irreversibility of clinical brain death syndrome is extremely time consuming.The BAEPs can only be used to confirm the irreversibility of brain death syndrome in serial examinations or in the rare cases of a sustained wave I or sustained waves I and II. Very often, an investigation cannot be reliably performed because of existing sound conduction disturbances or failure of all potentials even before the onset of clinical brain death syndrome. This explains why BAEPs are only used in exceptional cases.The SEPs of the median nerve can be very reliably derived, are technically simple and with few sources of error. A serial investigation is not required and the time needed for examination is short. For these reasons SEPs are given preference over EEGs and BAEPs for establishing the irreversibility of clinical brain death syndrome. PMID:26785843

  15. BRAIN DYSFUNCTION OF PATIENTS WITH QIGONG INDUCED MENTAL DISORDER REVEALED BY EVOKED POTENTIALS RECORDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yingzhi; ZONG Wenbin; CHEN Xingshi

    2003-01-01

    Objective: In order to investigate the brain function of patients with Qigong induced mental disorder (QIMD), this study was carried out. Methods: Four kinds of evoked potentials, including contingent negative variation (CNV), auditory evoked potentials (AEP), visual evoked potentials (VEP), and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP), were recorded from 12 patients with Qigong induced mental disorder.Comparison of their evoked potentials with the data from some normal controls was made. Results: The results revealed that there were 3 kinds of abnormal changes in evoked potentials of patients with QIMD that is latency prolongation, amplitude increase and amplitude decrease, as compared with normal controls. Conclusion: Brain dysfunction of patients with QIMD was confirmed. Its biological mechanism needs further studying.

  16. Differential uptake of MRI contrast agents indicates charge-selective blood-brain interface in the crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otopalik, Adriane G; Shin, Jane; Beltz, Barbara S; Sandeman, David C; Kolodny, Nancy H

    2012-08-01

    This study provides a new perspective on the long-standing problem of the nature of the decapod crustacean blood-brain interface. Previous studies of crustacean blood-brain interface permeability have relied on invasive histological, immunohistochemical and electrophysiological techniques, indicating a leaky non-selective blood-brain barrier. The present investigation involves the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a method for non-invasive longitudinal tracking of tracers in real-time. Differential uptake rates of two molecularly distinct MRI contrast agents, namely manganese (Mn(II)) and Magnevist® (Gd-DTPA), were observed and quantified in the crayfish, Cherax destructor. Contrast agents were injected into the pericardium and uptake was observed with longitudinal MRI for approximately 14.5 h. Mn(II) was taken up quickly into neural tissue (within 6.5 min), whereas Gd-DTPA was not taken up into neural tissue and was instead restricted to the intracerebral vasculature or excreted into nearby sinuses. Our results provide evidence for a charge-selective intracerebral blood-brain interface in the crustacean nervous system, a structural characteristic once considered too complex for a lower-order arthropod. PMID:22526631

  17. Hyperdensity of the Basilar Artery on Postmortem CT: A Potential Indicator for Basilar Artery Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Jack; Tse, Rexson; Beh, Raymond J; Lyons, Timothy J; Cala, Allan D

    2016-06-01

    Basilar artery thrombosis constitutes 1% of all types of stroke, carries a mortality rate of up to 90%, and is one of the rarer causes of sudden death. It leads to brain stem ischemia and commonly presents with impaired consciousness, cranial nerve palsy, hemiplegia or quadriplegia, and sudden collapse. Clinically, the diagnosis of basilar artery thrombosis is made on clinical symptoms, along with a hyperdense basilar artery in antemortem computed tomography (CT) scan. To our knowledge, whether a hyperdense basilar artery indicates basilar artery thrombosis on postmortem CT scan is not documented in the literature. We present a case report of a 55-year-old man who on postmortem CT scan showed a hyperdense basilar artery and was subsequently confirmed to be a fatal basilar artery thrombosis. We suggest that a hyperdense basilar artery on postmortem CT should prompt the pathologist to consider basilar artery thrombosis. PMID:27049662

  18. Combining stereotactic radiosurgery and systemic therapy for brain metastases: a potential role for temozolomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Hardee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases are unfortunately very common in the natural history of many solid tumors and remain a life-threatening condition, associated with a dismal prognosis, despite many clinical trials aimed at improving outcomes. Radiation therapy options for brain metastases include whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS. SRS avoids the potential toxicities of WBRT and is associated with excellent local control rates. However, distant intracranial failure following SRS remains a problem, suggesting that untreated intracranial micrometastatic disease is responsible for failure of treatment. The oral alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ, which has demonstrated efficacy in primary malignant central nervous system tumors such as glioblastoma, has been used in early phase trials in the treatment of established brain metastases. Although results of these studies in established, macroscopic metastatic disease have been modest at best, there is clinical and preclinical data to suggest that TMZ is more efficacious at treating and controlling clinically undetectable intracranial micrometastatic disease. We review the available data for the primary management of brain metastases with SRS, as well as the use of TMZ in treating established brain metastases and undetectable micrometastatic disease, and suggest the role for a clinical trial with the aims of treating macroscopically visible brain metastases with SRS combined with TMZ to address microscopic, undetectable disease.

  19. Productivity, Fluency, and Grammaticality Measures from Narratives: Potential Indicators of Language Proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilstra, Janet; McMaster, Kristen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify potential general outcome indicators (GOIs) of language proficiency. Brief narratives were elicited from 45 kindergarten, first-grade, and third-grade children using single-picture scenes and a standardized protocol. Measures of language productivity, verbal fluency, and grammaticality were examined for…

  20. EDUCATIONAL POTENTIAL OF DEVELOPMENT: INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS ON THE BASIS OF STATISTICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bychkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Using information WEF, UNDP, OECD investigated differences in the characteristics of education as a factor of competitiveness and level of development of countries, formed the group of OECD countries and their partners, significantly differ in indicators of education, studied Russian position among OECD countries and BRICS, formulated conclusions about ways of improving the educational potential of the country

  1. Brain potentials associated with the shape Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Xie, Peng; Zhang, Qinglin

    2016-03-23

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to explore, for the first time, the electrophysiological correlates of the shape Stroop effect. Fifteen healthy individuals were presented with a frame and a name of an object with a typical shape in life and asked to categorize the object's typical shape in life as a 'circle', a 'square,' or a 'triangle' by pressing the relevant button as quickly as possible. Accurate categorization of the name of an object was faster when it was presented with a congruent shape frame (e.g. name of a tyre/circle frame) than with an incongruent one (e.g. name of a tyre/square frame). Scalp ERPs analysis showed that the incongruent condition elicited a more negative component N430 and a more late positive component LPC than the congruent condition. N430 is a critical sign of conflict detection in the early stage, whereas late positive component reflects the response conflict in the late stage. The results provided evidence for the dissociation between conflict detection and conflict resolution in the shape Stroop effect. PMID:26862935

  2. Potential of Neural Stem Cells for the Treatment of Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Taupin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs are self-renewing multipotent cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system, neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. As such they hold the promise to treat a broad range of neurological diseases and injuries. Neural progenitor and stem cells have been isolated and characterized in vitro, from adult, fetal and post-mortem tissues, providing sources of material for cellular therapy. However, NSCs are still elusive cells and remain to be unequivocally identified and characterized, limiting their potential use for therapy. Neural progenitor and stem cells, isolated and cultured in vitro, can be genetically modified and when transplanted migrate to tumor sites in the brain. These intrinsic properties of neural progenitor and stem cells provide tremendous potential to bolster the translation of NSC research to therapy. It is proposed to combine gene therapy and cellular therapy to treat brain cancers. Hence, neural progenitor and stem cells provide new opportunities for the treatment of brain cancers.

  3. Potential of optical microangiography to monitor cerebral blood perfusion and vascular plasticity following traumatic brain injury in mice in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yali; Alkayed, Nabil; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2009-07-01

    Optical microanglography (OMAG) is a recently developed imaging modality capable of volumetric imaging of dynamic blood perfusion, down to capillary level resolution, with an imaging depth up to 2.00 mm beneath the tissue surface. We report the use of OMAG to monitor the cerebral blood flow (CBF) over the cortex of mouse brain upon traumatic brain injury (TBI), with the cranium left intact, for a period of two weeks on the same animal. We show the ability of OMAG to repeatedly image 3-D cerebral vasculatures during pre- and post-traumatic phases, and to visualize the changes of regulated CBF and the vascular plasticity after TBI. The results indicate the potential of OMAG to explore the mechanism involved in the rehabilitation of TBI.

  4. Blockage of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 inhibits brain edema in middle cerebral artery occlusion mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinghui eJie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain edema is an important pathological process during stroke. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4 causes an up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in lung tissue. MMP can digest the endothelial basal lamina to destroy blood brain barrier, leading to vasogenic brain edema. Herein, we tested whether TRPV4-blockage could inhibit brain edema through inhibiting MMPs in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO mice. We found that the brain water content and Evans blue extravasation at 48 h post-MCAO were reduced by a TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047. The increased MMP-2/9 protein in hippocampus of MCAO mice was attenuated by HC-067046, but only the increased MMP-9 activity was blocked by HC-067047. The loss of zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1 and occludin protein in MCAO mice was also attenuated by HC-067047. Moreover, MMP-2/9 protein increased in mice treated with a TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A, but only MMP-9 activity was increased by GSK1016790A. Finally, ZO-1 and occludin protein was decreased by GSK1016790A, which was reversed by an MMP-9 inhibitor. We conclude that blockage of TRPV4 may inhibit brain edema in cerebral ischemia through inhibiting MMP-9 activation and the loss of tight junction protein.

  5. Mental Rotation of Mirrored Letters: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Pena, M. Isabel; Aznar-Casanova, J. Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants (n=13) were presented with mirrored and normal letters at different orientations and were asked to make mirror-normal letter discriminations. As it has been suggested that a mental rotation out of the plane might be necessary to decide on mirrored letters, we wanted to…

  6. Scalp topography of event-related brain potentials and cognitive transitions during childhood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C.M. Molenaar; M.W. van der Molen; J.E.A. Stauder

    1993-01-01

    Examined the relation between cognitive development (CGD) and the ontogenesis of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during childhood among 48 girls (aged 5-7 yrs). The level of CGD was assessed with a standard Piagetian conservation kit. Ss performed a visual selective attention (oddball) task an

  7. Decision making on organ donation: the dilemmas of relatives of potential brain dead donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.A.M. de; Hoek, M.; Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Smeets, W.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Leeuwen, E. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article is part of a study to gain insight into the decision-making process by looking at the views of the relatives of potential brain dead donors. Alongside a literature review, focus interviews were held with healthcare professionals about their role in the request and decision-m

  8. Perceptual Shift in Bilingualism: Brain Potentials Reveal Plasticity in Pre-Attentive Colour Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Dering, Benjamin; Wiggett, Alison; Kuipers, Jan-Rouke; Thierry, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    The validity of the linguistic relativity principle continues to stimulate vigorous debate and research. The debate has recently shifted from the behavioural investigation arena to a more biologically grounded field, in which tangible physiological evidence for language effects on perception can be obtained. Using brain potentials in a colour…

  9. The Estimate of Territorial Development Potential using Criterions and Specific Economic Indicators. Case Study Galati County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ancuta SARPE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has proposed to study potential peripheral areas of the Municipality of Galati, Galati County to set up a metropolitan area that is a vector of development for towns and villages in the area. Have been identified as priority areas for assessing the potential of the area, the economic one, society, habitat and administrative capacity, which are the areas on which one can obtain EU funds for development projects. Economics was evaluated on the basis of nine specific indicators, using specific information from villages in the Galati County. Based on the level of indicators examined, it has been analyzed the possibility of including in the metropolitan area the villages located at a distance of utmost 30 km. In this way we could make an estimate of the delimitation of a developed area adjacent to Galati City, also identifying new directions to expand this area to Braila Municipality.

  10. Emotion and the processing of symbolic gestures: an event-related brain potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Flaisch, Tobias; Häcker, Frank; Renner, Britta; Schupp, Harald

    2010-01-01

    The present study used event-related brain potentials to examine the hypothesis that emotional gestures draw attentional resources at the level of distinct processing stages. Twenty healthy volunteers viewed pictures of hand gestures with negative (insult) and positive (approval) emotional meaning as well as neutral control gestures (pointing) while dense sensor event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Emotion effects were reflected in distinct ERP modulations in early and later time wi...

  11. A prospective comparative clinical study of peripheral blood counts and indices in patients with primary brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subeikshanan, V; Dutt, A; Basu, D; Tejus, MN; Maurya, VP; Madhugiri, VS

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elevation of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been shown to be an indicator of poor prognosis in many malignancies including recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Objectives: This study was aimed at assessing if the NLR and other leukocyte counts and indices were deranged in treatment-naïve patients with primary brain tumors when compared with an age-matched healthy control group. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective comparative clinical observational study by design. A healthy control population was compared with treatment-naïve patients diagnosed with intra- and extraaxial brain tumors. Leukocyte counts (neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil counts) as well as leukocyte ratios such as the NLR and the monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR) were calculated. We also evaluated if the counts and indices were related to the tumor volume. Results: In all patients with tumors, the platelet and neutrophil counts were elevated when compared to the controls. In contrast, monocyte counts and the MLR were found to be decreased in patients with tumors when compared to the controls. The subset of patients with glioblastoma showed a significant increase in NLR when compared to the controls. Conclusions: Significant changes in the neutrophil, monocyte, and platelet counts as well as NLR and MLR were observed. Prospective longitudinal studies are required to determine the prognostic and therapeutic implications of these findings. PMID:27089106

  12. Prognostic value of evoked and event-related potentials in moderate to severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Henry L; Poole, John H; Castaneda, Annabel; Salerno, Rose Marie; Gray, Max

    2006-01-01

    Clinicians are often expected to project patients' clinical outcomes to allow effective planning for future care. This can be a challenge in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) who are often unable to participate reliably in clinical evaluations. With recent advances in computer instrumentation and signal processing, evoked potentials and event-related potentials show increasing promise as powerful tools for prognosticating the trajectory of recovery and ultimate outcome from the TBI. Short- and middle-latency evoked potentials can now effectively predict coma outcomes in patients with acute TBI. Long-latency event-related potential components hold promise in predicting recovery of higher order cognitive abilities. PMID:16915010

  13. A comment on Farwell : brain fingerprinting: a comprehensive tutorial review of detection of concealed information with event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H. Meijer; G. Ben-Shakhar; B. Verschuere; E. Donchin

    2013-01-01

    In a recent issue of Cognitive Neurodynamics Farwell (Cogn Neurodyn 6:115-154, 2012) published a comprehensive tutorial review of the use of Event Related Brain Potentials (ERP) in the detection of concealed information. Farwell’s review covered much of his own work employing his ‘‘brain fingerprint

  14. Ecosystem Service Potentials, Flows and Demands – Concepts for Spatial Localisation, Indication and Quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Burkhard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The high variety of ecosystem service categorisation systems, assessment frameworks, indicators, quantification methods and spatial localisation approaches allows scientists and decision makers to harness experience, data, methods and tools. On the other hand, this variety of concepts and disagreements among scientists hamper an integration of ecosystem services into contemporary environmental management and decision making. In this article, the current state of the art of ecosystem service science regarding spatial localisation, indication and quantification of multiple ecosystem service supply and demand is reviewed and discussed. Concepts and tables for regulating, provisioning and cultural ecosystem service definitions, distinguishing between ecosystem service potential supply (stocks, flows (real supply and demands as well as related indicators for quantification are provided. Furthermore, spatial concepts of service providing units, benefitting areas, spatial relations, rivalry, spatial and temporal scales are elaborated. Finally, matrices linking CORINE land cover types to ecosystem service potentials, flows, demands and budget estimates are provided. The matrices show that ecosystem service potentials of landscapes differ from flows, especially for provisioning ecosystem services.

  15. Therapeutic Potential of Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells on Brain Damage of a Model of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Nikravesh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human cord blood-derived stem cells are a rich source of stem cells as well as precursors. With regard to the researchers have focused on the therapeutic potential of stem cell in the neurological disease such as stroke, the aim of this study was the investiga-tion of the therapeutic effects of human cord blood-derived stem cells in cerebral ischemia on rat. Methods: This study was carried out on young rats. Firstly, to create a laboratory model of ischemic stroke, carotid artery of animals was occluded for 30 minutes. Then, umbilical cord blood cells were isolated and labeled using bromodeoxyuridine and 2×105 cells were injected into the experimental group via the tail vein. Rats with hypoxic condi-tions were used as a sham group. A group of animals did not receive any injection or sur-geries were used as a control. Results: Obtained results were evaluated based on behavior-al responses and immunohistochemistry, with emphasis on areas of putamen and caudate nucleus in the control, sham and experimental groups. Our results indicated that behavioral recovery was observed in the experimental group compared to the either the sham or the control group. However, histological studies demonstrated a low percent of tissue injury in the experimental group in comparison with the sham group. Conclusion: Stem cell trans-plantation is beneficial for the brain tissue reparation after hypoxic ischemic cell death.

  16. Jugular venous overflow of noradrenaline from the brain: a neurochemical indicator of cerebrovascular sympathetic nerve activity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, D.A.; Lambert, G.; Secher, Niels H.; Raven, P.B.; J., van Lieshout; Esler, M.D.

    )) overflow rates were measured. These measurements were also made following ganglion blockade (trimethaphan, n = 6), central sympathetic inhibition (clonidine, n = 4) and neuronal noradrenaline uptake blockade (desipramine, n = 13) and in a group of patients (n = 9) with pure autonomic failure (PAF). The...... = 0.3). Neuronal noradrenaline uptake block with desipramine lowered the transcranial plasma extraction of tritiated noradrenaline (P = 0.001). The PAF patients had 77% lower brain noradrenaline spillover than healthy recruits (P = 0.06), indicating that in them sympathetic nerve degeneration extended...

  17. Energy consumption indicators and CHP technical potential in the Brazilian hospital sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity demands in hospitals are characterized by their need for high quality, guaranteed supplies. The existence of captive electricity uses and the size and regularity of the electrical and heat loads required by hospitals are aspects that could well buttress the possibility of installing cogeneration plants fired by natural gas (CHP). The purpose of this paper is to estimate the CHP technical potential in Brazilian hospitals. Based on a classification of Brazilian hospitals by specific energy consumption indicators, this potential is assessed, taking into consideration gas fueled engines associated with absorption cooling systems. A potential figure of approximately 500 MWe was obtained, whose effective implementation runs up against the obstacles inherent to Brazil's hospital sector, listed at the end of this paper. Consequently, some actions are proposed for surmounting these barriers

  18. Surplus Cost Potential as a Life Cycle Impact Indicator for Metal Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa D.M. Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the evaluation of product life cycles, methods to assess the increase in scarcity of resources are still under development. Indicators that can express the importance of an increase in scarcity of metals extracted include surplus ore produced, surplus energy required, and surplus costs in the mining and the milling stage. Particularly the quantification of surplus costs per unit of metal extracted as an indicator is still in an early stage of development. Here, we developed a method that quantifies the surplus cost potential of mining and milling activities per unit of metal extracted, fully accounting for mine-specific differences in costs. The surplus cost potential indicator is calculated as the average cost increase resulting from all future metal extractions, as quantified via cumulative cost-tonnage relationships. We tested the calculation procedure with 12 metals and platinum-group metals as a separate group. We found that the surplus costs range six orders of magnitude between the metals included, i.e., between $0.01–$0.02 (iron and $13,533–$17,098 (rhodium USD (year 2013 per kilogram of metal extracted. The choice of the reserve estimate (reserves vs. ultimate recoverable resource influenced the surplus costs only to a limited extent, i.e., between a factor of 0.7 and 3.2 for the metals included. Our results provide a good basis to regularly include surplus cost estimates as resource scarcity indicator in life cycle assessment.

  19. Ionic profile of honey as a potential indicator of botanical origin and global environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of this study was to determine by Ion Chromatography ions (Na+, Ca++, Mg++, NH4+, Cl−, Br−, SO42−, NO3−, PO43−) in honeys (honeydew and floral nectar honeys) from different Italian Regions and from countries of the Western Balkan area. The compositional data were processed by multivariate analysis (PCA and HCA). Arboreal honeydew honeys from the Western Balkans had higher concentrations (from two to three times) of some environmental pollutants (Br−, SO42− and PO43− contents), due to industrial and agricultural activities, than those from Italian regions. The cationic profiles were very similar in both groups. Multivariate analysis indicated a clear difference between nectar honeys and arboreal/honeydew honeys (recognition of the botanical origin). These findings point to the potential of ionic constituents of honey as indicators of environmental pollution, botanical origin and authenticity. -- Highlights: •Analysis by IC of honeys from two areas with different environmental pollution (Italy and Balkans). •Chemometric techniques such as PCA and HCA used. •In Balkans area higher Br−, SO42− and PO43− due to industrial and agricultural activities. •Discrimination of honey botanical origin and authenticity on the base of IC data. •Honey ionic profiles as indicators of environmental pollution and botanical origin. -- Capsule: Ionic profiles of honey could be potential indicators of environmental pollution (industrial and agricultural), botanical origin and authenticity

  20. Effect of Acupuncture on the Auditory Evoked Brain Stem Potential in Parkinson's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲玲; 何崇; 刘跃光; 朱莉莉

    2002-01-01

    @@ Under the auditory evoked brain stem potential (ABP) examination, the latent period of V wave and the intermittent periods of III-V peak and I-V peak were significantly shortened in Parkinson's disease patients of the treatment group (N=29) after acupuncture treatment. The difference of cumulative scores in Webster's scale was also decreased in correlation analysis. The increase of dopamine in the brain and the excitability of the dopamine neurons may contribute to the therapeutic effects, in TCM terms, of subduing the pathogenic wind and tranquilizing the mind.

  1. Clinically Relevant Pharmacological Strategies That Reverse MDMA-Induced Brain Hyperthermia Potentiated by Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Ren, Suelynn; Wakabayashi, Ken T; Baumann, Michael H; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    MDMA-induced hyperthermia is highly variable, unpredictable, and greatly potentiated by the social and environmental conditions of recreational drug use. Current strategies to treat pathological MDMA-induced hyperthermia in humans are palliative and marginally effective, and there are no specific pharmacological treatments to counteract this potentially life-threatening condition. Here, we tested the efficacy of mixed adrenoceptor blockers carvedilol and labetalol, and the atypical antipsychotic clozapine, in reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia. We injected rats with a moderate non-toxic dose of MDMA (9 mg/kg) during social interaction, and we administered potential treatment drugs after the development of robust hyperthermia (>2.5 °C), thus mimicking the clinical situation of acute MDMA intoxication. Brain temperature was our primary focus, but we also simultaneously recorded temperatures from the deep temporal muscle and skin, allowing us to determine the basic physiological mechanisms of the treatment drug action. Carvedilol was modestly effective in attenuating MDMA-induced hyperthermia by moderately inhibiting skin vasoconstriction, and labetalol was ineffective. In contrast, clozapine induced a marked and immediate reversal of MDMA-induced hyperthermia via inhibition of brain metabolic activation and blockade of skin vasoconstriction. Our findings suggest that clozapine, and related centrally acting drugs, might be highly effective for reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia in emergency clinical situations, with possible life-saving results. PMID:26105141

  2. Phase lagging model of brain response to external stimuli - modeling of single action potential

    CERN Document Server

    Seetharaman, Karthik; Kulish, Vladimir V

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we detail a phase lagging model of brain response to external stimuli. The model is derived using the basic laws of physics like conservation of energy law. This model eliminates the paradox of instantaneous propagation of the action potential in the brain. The solution of this model is then presented. The model is further applied in the case of a single neuron and is verified by simulating a single action potential. The results of this modeling are useful not only for the fundamental understanding of single action potential generation, but also they can be applied in case of neuronal interactions where the results can be verified against the real EEG signal.

  3. Addition of visual noise boosts evoked potential-based brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jun; Xu, Guanghua; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Sicong; Zhang, Feng; Li, Yeping; Han, Chengcheng; Li, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Although noise has a proven beneficial role in brain functions, there have not been any attempts on the dedication of stochastic resonance effect in neural engineering applications, especially in researches of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). In our study, a steady-state motion visual evoked potential (SSMVEP)-based BCI with periodic visual stimulation plus moderate spatiotemporal noise can achieve better offline and online performance due to enhancement of periodic components in brain responses, which was accompanied by suppression of high harmonics. Offline results behaved with a bell-shaped resonance-like functionality and 7-36% online performance improvements can be achieved when identical visual noise was adopted for different stimulation frequencies. Using neural encoding modeling, these phenomena can be explained as noise-induced input-output synchronization in human sensory systems which commonly possess a low-pass property. Our work demonstrated that noise could boost BCIs in addressing human needs. PMID:24828128

  4. [18F]-labeled 2-methoxyphenylpiperazine derivative as a potential brain positron emission tomography imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports the synthesis and characterization of N-(3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)propyl-4-[18F]fluorobenzamide ([18F]MPP3F). The total reaction time for [18F]MPP3F, including final high-performance liquid chromatography purification, was about 3 h. Typical decay-corrected radiochemical yield was 18.4±3.1%. The radiochemical purity was >98%. Biodistribution in mice showed that [18F]MPP3F is a potential brain imaging agent for positron emission tomography. The brain uptake of [18F]MPP3F was 6.59±0.77% Injected Dose/g at 2 min post-injection time. A brain-to-blood ratio of 3.67 was reached at 15 min after injection.

  5. Vocal parameters that indicate threat level correlate with FOS immunolabeling in social and vocal control brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jesse M S; Riters, Lauren V

    2012-01-01

    Transmitting information via communicative signals is integral to interacting with conspecifics, and some species achieve this task by varying vocalizations to reflect context. Although signal variation is critical to social interactions, the underlying neural control has not been studied. In response to a predator, black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapilla) produce mobbing calls (chick-a-dee calls) with various parameters, some of which convey information about the threat stimulus. We predicted that vocal parameters indicative of threat would be associated with distinct patterns of neuronal activity within brain areas involved in social behavior and those involved in the sensorimotor control of vocal production. To test this prediction, we measured the syntax and structural aspects of chick-a-dee call production in response to a hawk model and assessed the protein product of the immediate early gene FOS in brain regions implicated in context-specific vocal and social behavior. These regions include the medial preoptic area (POM) and lateral septum (LS), as well as regions involved in vocal motor control, including the dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular complex and the HVC. We found correlations linking call rate (previously demonstrated to reflect threat) to labeling in the POM and LS. Labeling in the HVC correlated with the number of D notes per call, which may also signal threat level. Labeling in the call control region dorsomedial nucleus was associated with the structure of D notes and the overall number of notes, but not call rate or type of notes produced. These results suggest that the POM and LS may influence attributes of vocalizations produced in response to predators and that the brain region implicated in song control, the HVC, also influences call production. Because variation in chick-a-dee call rate indicates predator threat, we speculate that these areas could integrate with motor control regions to imbue mobbing signals with additional

  6. Acute decrease in alkaline phosphatase after brain injury: A potential mechanism for tauopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Peethambaran; Oguntayo, Samuel; Albert, Stephen Van; Gist, Irene; Wang, Ying; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Long, Joseph B

    2015-11-16

    Dephosphorylation of phosphorylated Tau (pTau) protein, which is essential for the preservation of neuronal microtubule assemblies and for protection against trauma-induced tauopathy and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), is primarily achieved in brain by tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). Paired helical filaments (PHFs) and Tau isolated from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients' brains have been shown to form microtubule assemblies with tubulin only after treatment with TNAP or protein phosphatase-2A, 2B and -1, suggesting that Tau protein in the PHFs of neurons in AD brain is hyperphosphorylated, which prevents microtubule assembly. Using blast or weight drop models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats, we observed pTau accumulation in the brain as early as 6h post-injury and further accumulation which varied regionally by 24h post-injury. The pTau accumulation was accompanied by reduced TNAP expression and activity in these brain regions and a significantly decreased plasma total alkaline phosphatase activity after the weight drop. These results reveal that both blast- and impact acceleration-induced head injuries cause an acute decrease in the level/activity of TNAP in the brain, which potentially contributes to trauma-induced accumulation of pTau and the resultant tauopathy. The regional changes in the level/activity of TNAP or accumulation of pTau after these injuries did not correlate with the accumulation of amyloid precursor protein, suggesting that the basic mechanism underlying tauopathy in TBI might be distinct from that associated with AD. PMID:26483321

  7. Developing a composite indicator to measure civic participatory potential in two Chinese societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether there is evidence in Hong Kong and Taiwan students’ early attitudes to civic participation that suggests they will adopt radical forms of civic participation and whether civic participatory potential of students from these two Chinese societies differed in early adolescence. To achieve these purposes, we used a Rasch measurement approach to construct comparable profiles. In doing so, we adopted conceptual and empirical approaches to construct a composite indicator and then tested validity and reliability of this indicator for the two societies, respectively. Such an approach is based on the assumption that reliable and accurate measurement is essential for theorizing the results of empirical studies. The data from the 2009 International Civics and Citizenship Education Study were also used for comparing the potential participation profiles. The results suggested that the unidimensional profile has good item fit and model fit for both societies, thereby valid and reliable. Preliminary findings suggest that inclination towards radical action can be identified during early adolescence and students from the two Chinese societies differed in civic participatory potential. Taiwanese students appear to be more radical than Hong Kong students while maintaining less positive attitudes to conventional forms of citizenship engagement.

  8. LINKING MOTOR-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIALS AND VELOCITY PROFILES IN MULTI-JOINT ARM REACHING MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julià L Amengual

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of the movement related brain potentials (MRPBs needs accurate technical approaches to disentangle the specific patterns of bran activity during the preparation and execution of movements. During the last forty years, synchronizing the electromiographic activation (EMG of the muscle with the electrophysiological recordings (EEG has been commonly ussed for these purposes. However, new clinical approaches in the study of motor diseases and rehabilitation suggest the demand of new paradigms that might go further into the study of the brain activity associated with the kinematics of movement. As a response to this call, we have used a 3-D hand tracking system with the aim to record continuously the position of an ultrasonic sender located on the hand during the performance of multi-joint self-pace movements. We synchronized the time-series of position of velocity of the sender with the EEG recordings, obtaining specific patterns of brain activity as a function of the fluctuations of the kinematics during the natural movement performance. Additionally, the distribution of the brain activity during the preparation and execution phases of movement was similar that reported previously using the EMG, suggesting the validity of our technique. We claim that this paradigm could be usable in patients because of its simplicity and the potential knowledge that can be extracted from clinical protocols.

  9. The microbiota-gut-brain axis and its potential therapeutic role in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Zhou, J-M

    2016-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a series of neurodevelopmental disorders that are characterized by deficits in both social and cognitive functions. Although the exact etiology and pathology of ASD remain unclear, a disorder of the microbiota-gut-brain axis is emerging as a prominent factor in the generation of autistic behaviors. Clinical studies have shown that gastrointestinal symptoms and compositional changes in the gut microbiota frequently accompany cerebral disorders in patients with ASD. A disturbance in the gut microbiota, which is usually induced by a bacterial infection or chronic antibiotic exposure, has been implicated as a potential contributor to ASD. The bidirectional microbiota-gut-brain axis acts mainly through neuroendocrine, neuroimmune, and autonomic nervous mechanisms. Application of modulators of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, such as probiotics, helminthes and certain special diets, may be a promising strategy for the treatment of ASD. This review mainly discusses the salient observations of the disruptions of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in the pathogenesis of ASD and reveals its potential therapeutic role in autistic deficits. PMID:26964681

  10. Are Managed Futures Indices Telling Truth? Biases in CTA Databases and Proposals of Potential Enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Managed futures are an alternative asset class which has recently became considerably popular among investment industry. However, due to its characteristics, access to managed futures historical performance statistics is relatively confined. All available information originates from commercial and academic databases, reporting to which is entirely voluntary. This situation results in series of biases which distort the managed futures performance in the eyes of investors. The paper consists of two parts. First, the author reviews and describes various biases that influence the reliability of the managed futures indices and databases. The second section encompasses author’s proposals of potential enhancements, which aim to reduce the impact of the biases in order to derive a benchmark that could better reflect characteristics of managed futures investment from the point of view of a potential investor.

  11. Gyrineum natator: a potential indicator of imposex along the Indian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakiran, Y; Anil, A C; Venkat, K; Sawant, S S

    2006-03-01

    Imposex related studies have used neogastropods as sentinel organism. In this effort, we elucidate the potential of a mesogastropod, Gyrineum natator, for imposex monitoring on the central west coast of India. Observations were made with specimens collected from Mumbai (three stations), Ratnagiri (two stations), Goa (one station) and Mangalore (one station). The analyzed populations at all four sites were affected by imposex. The six different stages of imposex in this organism are illustrated through schematic and scanning electron micrographs. In view of the anticipated ban on TBT based antifouling paints this baseline information can serve as an indicator for environmental monitoring in this region. PMID:16084567

  12. Voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor indices in the brain in patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the abnormal diffusion in cerebral white matter and its relationship with the olfactory dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) through diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and methods: Diffusion tensor imaging of the cerebrum was performed in 25 patients with Parkinson's disease and 25 control subjects matched for age and sex. Differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between these two groups were studied by voxel-based analysis of the DTI data. Correlations between diffusion indices and the olfactory function in PD patients were evaluated using the multiple regression model after controlling for the duration of the disease, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Sale (UPDRS), and age. Results: The damaged white and gray matter showed decreased FA or increased MD, localized bilaterally in the cerebellar and orbitofrontal cortex. In addition, in PD patients there was a positive correlation between FA values in the white matter of the left cerebellum and the thresholds of olfactory identification (TOI) and a negative correlation between MD values in the white matter of right cerebellum and the TOI. Conclusion: In patients with PD, there was disruption in the cerebellar white matter which may play an important role in the olfactory dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  13. Modulation of semantic integration as a function of syntactic expectations: event-related brain potential evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isel, Frédéric; Shen, Weilin

    2011-03-30

    This study investigated syntax-semantics interactions during spoken sentence comprehension. We showed that expectations of phrase-structure incongruencies, which were induced by the experimental instructions, although not actually present in the sentences, were able to block the process of semantic integration. Although this process is usually associated with an N400 event-related brain potential component, here we found a P600, that is, an event-related brain potential component that is thought to reflect syntactic revision. This finding lends support to neurophysiological models of sentence interpretation, which postulates that the lexical-semantic integration of a given word can take place only when syntactic analysis has been successfully completed. PMID:21358555

  14. Local indicators of climate change: The potential contribution of local knowledge to climate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Guèze, Maximilien; Garcés, Ariadna; Mallo, Miguel; Vila-Gómez, Margarita; Vilaseca, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Local knowledge has been proposed as a place-based tool to ground-truth climate models and to narrow their geographic sensitivity. To assess the potential role of local knowledge in our quest to understand better climate change and its impacts, we first need to critically review the strengths and weaknesses of local knowledge of climate change and the potential complementarity with scientific knowledge. With this aim, we conducted a systematic, quantitative meta-analysis of published peer-reviewed documents reporting local indicators of climate change (including both local observations of climate change and observed impacts on the biophysical and the social systems). Overall, primary data on the topic are not abundant, the methodological development is incipient, and the geographical extent is unbalanced. On the 98 case studies documented, we recorded the mention of 746 local indicators of climate change, mostly corresponding to local observations of climate change (40%), but also to observed impacts on the physical (23%), the biological (19%), and the socioeconomic (18%) systems. Our results suggest that, even if local observations of climate change are the most frequently reported type of change, the rich and fine-grained knowledge in relation to impacts on biophysical systems could provide more original contributions to our understanding of climate change at local scale.

  15. Meditation (Vipassana) and the P3a Event-Related Brain Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Cahn, B. Rael; Polich, John

    2008-01-01

    A three-stimulus auditory oddball series was presented to experienced Vipassana meditators during meditation and a control thought period to elicit event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in the two different mental states. The stimuli consisted of a frequent standard tone (500 Hz), an infrequent oddball tone (1000 Hz), and an infrequent distracter (white noise), with all stimuli passively presented through headphones and no task imposed. The strongest meditation compared to control state effec...

  16. An event-related brain potential study of schizotypal personality and associative semantic processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kiang, Michael; Prugh, Jocelyn; Kutas, Marta

    2009-01-01

    To examine whether schizotypal personality is associated with the degree to which concepts activate each other in semantic memory, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a delayed lexical decision task from healthy volunteers rated for schizotypy. Each target word was directly, indirectly, or not at all related to a prime word preceding it at a 300- or 750-ms stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA). Overall, N400 amplitudes were largest for unrelated targets, smallest for directly...

  17. Brain potentials evoked by intraepidermal electrical stimuli reflect the central sensitization of nociceptive pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, M.; Lee, M. C.; O'Neill, J.; Dickenson, A.H.; Iannetti, G.D.

    2016-01-01

    Central sensitization (CS), the increased sensitivity of the central nervous system to somatosensory inputs, accounts for secondary hyperalgesia, a typical sign of several painful clinical conditions. Brain potentials elicited by mechanical punctate stimulation using flat-tip probes can provide neural correlates of CS, but their signal-to-noise ratio is limited by poor synchronisation of the afferent nociceptive input. Additionally, mechanical punctate stimulation does not activate nociceptor...

  18. THE POTENTIAL FOR CELL-BASED THERAPY IN PERINATAL BRAIN INJURIES

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Andre W.; Johnston, Michael V.; Fatemi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal brain injuries are a leading cause of cerebral palsy worldwide. The potential of stem cell therapy to prevent or reduce these impairments has been widely discussed within the medical and scientific communities and an increasing amount of research is being conducted in this field. Animal studies support the idea that a number of stem cells types, including cord blood and mesenchymal stem cells have a neuroprotective effect in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Both these cell types are readi...

  19. An Event-related Brain Potential Study of English Morphosyntactic Processing in Japanese Learners of English

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuta, Natsuko

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the neural mechanisms underlying English morphosyntactic processing in Case, subject-verb agreement, and past tense inflection in Japanese learners of English (JLEs) using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in terms of the effects of the age of second language (L2) acquisition (the age of learning English), L2 proficiency level (the English proficiency level), and native/first language (L1) transfer. Researchers have debated for a number of years the question...

  20. Responsivity to dyslexia training indexed by the N170 amplitude of the brain potential elicited by word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga González, G; Žarić, G; Tijms, J; Bonte, M; Blomert, L; Leppänen, P; van der Molen, M W

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined training effects in dyslexic children on reading fluency and the amplitude of N170, a negative brain-potential component elicited by letter and symbol strings. A group of 18 children with dyslexia in 3rd grade (9.05±0.46years old) was tested before and after following a letter-speech sound mapping training. A group of 20 third-grade typical readers (8.78±0.35years old) performed a single time on the same brain potential task. The training was differentially effective in speeding up reading fluency in the dyslexic children. In some children, training had a beneficial effect on reading fluency ('improvers') while a training effect was absent in others ('non-improvers'). Improvers at pre-training showed larger N170 amplitude to words compared to non-improvers. N170 amplitude decreased following training in improvers but not in non-improvers. But the N170 amplitude pattern in improvers continued to differ from the N170 amplitude pattern across hemispheres seen in typical readers. Finally, we observed a positive relation between the decrease in N170 amplitude and gains in reading fluency. Collectively, the results that emerged from the present study indicate the sensitivity of N170 amplitude to reading fluency and its potential as a predictor of reading fluency acquisition. PMID:27200495

  1. Rapid synthesis and purification of carbon-11 labelled DOPA: a potential agent for brain studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid method for preparation and purification of β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-D,L-α-alanine-1-11C(11C-DOPA), using 11CO2 as the radioactive precursor is described. Carboxylation of an α-lithioisocyanide, containing protected hydroxylic groups, was followed by a three-step hydrolysis of the intermediate αioscyano carboxylic acid. Preliminary experiments in rats indicate that the compound is preferentially decarboxylated in brain areas rich in dopamine containing neurons. (author)

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging indicators of blood-brain barrier and brain water changes in young rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Bigio Marc R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrocephalus is associated with enlargement of cerebral ventricles. We hypothesized that magnetic resonance (MR imaging parameters known to be influenced by tissue water content would change in parallel with ventricle size in young rats and that changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability would be detected. Methods Hydrocephalus was induced by injection of kaolin into the cisterna magna of 4-week-old rats, which were studied 1 or 3 weeks later. MR was used to measure longitudinal and transverse relaxation times (T1 and T2 and apparent diffusion coefficients in several regions. Brain tissue water content was measured by the wet-dry weight method, and tissue density was measured in Percoll gradient columns. BBB permeability was measured by quantitative imaging of changes on T1-weighted images following injection of gadolinium diethylenetriamine penta-acetate (Gd-DTPA tracer and microscopically by detection of fluorescent dextran conjugates. Results In nonhydrocephalic rats, water content decreased progressively from age 3 to 7 weeks. T1 and T2 and apparent diffusion coefficients did not exhibit parallel changes and there was no evidence of BBB permeability to tracers. The cerebral ventricles enlarged progressively in the weeks following kaolin injection. In hydrocephalic rats, the dorsal cortex was more dense and the white matter less so, indicating that the increased water content was largely confined to white matter. Hydrocephalus was associated with transient elevation of T1 in gray and white matter and persistent elevation of T2 in white matter. Changes in the apparent diffusion coefficients were significant only in white matter. Ventricle size correlated significantly with dorsal water content, T1, T2, and apparent diffusion coefficients. MR imaging showed evidence of Gd-DTPA leakage in periventricular tissue foci but not diffusely. These correlated with microscopic leak of larger dextran tracers. Conclusions MR

  3. Geochemical indicators of hydrogeologically isolated structures in the Danube Basin; implications for potential gas storage objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Lánczos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the key conditions for underground gas storage (UGS objects establishment is the presence of hydrogeologically isolated structures. These are mainly exhausted hydrocarbon deposits and aquifers in the Cenozoic fill and the basement of the Danube Basin. The geochemical indicators used to determine the aquifer isolation level of potential underground gas storage objects are based on the ratio of stagnant and dynamic water components. The most widely used indicator is the rHCO3/rCl molar ratio, assuming that the HCO3 - concentration represents the dynamic origin of dissolved rock material by meteoric water and that the Cl- concentration is the stagnant marine component. To distinguish these two components of the water in the aquifers the rHCO3/rCl indicator was combined with other parameters, such as rCl/rSO4 and rCl/rBr molar ratios. As for more aquifers of the Danube Basin contain higher amounts of carbon-dioxide we attempted to quantify the influence of the carbon dioxide on the water chemistry. The numerical model simulating rock-marine water interactions under different PCO2 temperature and ion-exchange conditions proved the rHCO3/rCl molar ratio increase caused higher carbon dioxide partial pressure for this purpose. Consequently under the conditions of higher partial carbon dioxide pressure the rHCO3/rCl ratio is indicating a lower isolation level of the structure. Taking in account signs of the higher carbon dioxide pressure based on the numerical model combined with the abovementioned geochemical indicators the most convenient aquifers for UGS establishment were identified within the Slovak part of the Danube Basin. These are located within Badenian sediments in the Trakovice and Sereď areas, due to the presence of hydrogeologically isolated structures buried at depth intervals of 800 to 1150 m below ground level. Other potential convertible aquifers are present in the Lower and Middle Badenian sediments in the Komjatice and

  4. The neuroprotective potential of low-dose methamphetamine in preclinical models of stroke and traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Thomas; Ziemniak, John; Poulsen, David

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a psychostimulant that was initially synthesized in 1920. Since then it has been used to treat attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), obesity and narcolepsy. However, methamphetamine has also become a major drug of abuse worldwide. Under conditions of abuse, which involve the administration of high repetitive doses, methamphetamine can produce considerable neurotoxic effects. However, recent evidence from our laboratory indicates that low doses of methamphetamine can produce robust neuroprotection when administered within 12h after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rodents. Thus, it appears that methamphetamine under certain circumstances and correct dosing can produce a neuroprotective effect. This review addresses the neuroprotective potential of methamphetamine and focuses on the potential beneficial application for TBI. PMID:25724762

  5. Dipole potentials indicate restructuring of the membrane interface induced by gadolinium and beryllium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Y. A.; Averbakh, A. Z.; Yusipovich, A. I.; Sukharev, S.

    2001-01-01

    The dipole component of the membrane boundary potential, phi(d), is an integral parameter that may report on the conformational state of the lipid headgroups and their hydration. In this work, we describe an experimental approach to measurements of the dipole potential changes, Deltaphi(d), and apply it in studies of Be(2+) and Gd(3+) interactions with membranes composed of phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and their mixtures. Deltaphi(d) is determined as the difference between the changes of the total boundary potential, phi(b), measured by the IFC method in planar lipid membranes and the surface potential, phi(s), determined from the electrophoretic mobility of liposomes. The Gouy-Chapman-Stern formalism, combined with the condition of mass balance, well describes the ion equilibria for these high-affinity cations. For the adsorption of Be(2+) and Gd(3+) to PC membranes, and of Mg(2+) to PS membranes, the values of Deltaphi(b) and Deltaphi(s) are the same, indicative of no change of phi(d). Binding of Gd(3+) to PS-containing membranes induces changes of phi(d) of opposite signs depending on the density of ionized PS headgroups in the bilayer. At low density, the induced Deltaphi(d) is negative (-30 mV), consistent with the effect of dehydration of the surface. At maximal density (pure PS, neutral pH), adsorption of Be(2+) or Gd(3+) induces an increase of phi(d) of 35 or 140 mV, respectively. The onset of the strong positive dipole effect on PS membranes with Gd(3+) is observed near the zero charge point and correlates with a six-fold increase of membrane tension. The observed phenomena may reflect concerted reorientation of dipole moments of PS headgroups as a result of ion adsorption and lipid condensation. Their possible implications to in-vivo effects of these high-affinity ions are discussed.

  6. Metagenomic analysis indicates Epsilonproteobacteria as a potential cause of microbial corrosion in pipelines injected with bisulfite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongshan eAn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium bisulfite (SBS is used as an oxygen scavenger to decrease corrosion in pipelines transporting brackish subsurface water used in the production of bitumen by steam-assisted gravity drainage. Sequencing 16S rRNA gene amplicons has indicated that SBS addition increased the fraction of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB Desulfomicrobium, as well as of Desulfocapsa, which can also grow by disproportionating sulfite into sulfide, sulfur and sulfate. SRB use cathodic H2, formed by reduction of aqueous protons at the iron surface, or use low potential electrons from iron and aqueous protons directly for sulfate reduction. In order to reveal the effects of SBS treatment in more detail, metagenomic analysis was performed with pipe-associated solids (PAS scraped from a pipe section upstream (PAS-616P and downstream (PAS-821TP of the SBS injection point. A major SBS-induced change in microbial community composition and in affiliated hynL genes for the large subunit of [NiFe] hydrogenase was the appearance of sulfur-metabolizing Epsilonproteobacteria of the genera Sulfuricurvum and Sulfurovum. These are chemolithotrophs, which oxidize sulfide or sulfur with O2 or reduce sulfur with H2. Because O2 was absent, this class likely catalyzed reduction of sulfur (S0 originating from the metabolism of bisulfite with cathodic H2 (or low potential electrons and aqueous protons originating from the corrosion of steel (Fe0. Overall this accelerates reaction of of S0 and Fe0 to form FeS, making this class a potentially powerful contributor to microbial corrosion. The PAS-821TP metagenome also had increased fractions of Deltaproteobacteria including the SRB Desulfomicrobium and Desulfocapsa. Altogether, SBS increased the fraction of hydrogen-utilizing Delta- and Epsilonproteobacteria in brackish-water-transporting pipelines, potentially stimulating anaerobic pipeline corrosion if dosed in excess of the intended oxygen scavenger function.

  7. Metagenomic Analysis Indicates Epsilonproteobacteria as a Potential Cause of Microbial Corrosion in Pipelines Injected with Bisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dongshan; Dong, Xiaoli; An, Annie; Park, Hyung S; Strous, Marc; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Sodium bisulfite (SBS) is used as an oxygen scavenger to decrease corrosion in pipelines transporting brackish subsurface water used in the production of bitumen by steam-assisted gravity drainage. Sequencing 16S rRNA gene amplicons has indicated that SBS addition increased the fraction of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) Desulfomicrobium, as well as of Desulfocapsa, which can also grow by disproportionating sulfite into sulfide, sulfur, and sulfate. SRB use cathodic H2, formed by reduction of aqueous protons at the iron surface, or use low potential electrons from iron and aqueous protons directly for sulfate reduction. In order to reveal the effects of SBS treatment in more detail, metagenomic analysis was performed with pipe-associated solids (PAS) scraped from a pipe section upstream (PAS-616P) and downstream (PAS-821TP) of the SBS injection point. A major SBS-induced change in microbial community composition and in affiliated hynL genes for the large subunit of [NiFe] hydrogenase was the appearance of sulfur-metabolizing Epsilonproteobacteria of the genera Sulfuricurvum and Sulfurovum. These are chemolithotrophs, which oxidize sulfide or sulfur with O2 or reduce sulfur with H2. Because O2 was absent, this class likely catalyzed reduction of sulfur (S(0)) originating from the metabolism of bisulfite with cathodic H2 (or low potential electrons and aqueous protons) originating from the corrosion of steel (Fe(0)). Overall this accelerates reaction of of S(0) and Fe(0) to form FeS, making this class a potentially powerful contributor to microbial corrosion. The PAS-821TP metagenome also had increased fractions of Deltaproteobacteria including the SRB Desulfomicrobium and Desulfocapsa. Altogether, SBS increased the fraction of hydrogen-utilizing Delta- and Epsilonproteobacteria in brackish-water-transporting pipelines, potentially stimulating anaerobic pipeline corrosion if dosed in excess of the intended oxygen scavenger function. PMID:26858705

  8. Getting into the brain: Potential of nanotechnology in the management of NeuroAIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Madhavan; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Kaushik, Ajeet; Sagar, Vidya

    2016-08-01

    In spite of significant advances in antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, the elimination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reservoirs from the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS) remains a formidable task. The incapability of ARV to go across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after systemic administration makes the brain one of the dominant HIV reservoirs. Thus, screening, monitoring, and elimination of HIV reservoirs from the brain remain a clinically daunting and key task. The practice and investigation of nanomedicine possesses potentials for therapeutics against neuroAIDS. This review highlights the advancements in nanoscience and nanotechnology to design and develop specific size therapeutic cargo for efficient navigation across BBB so as to recognize and eradicate HIV brain reservoirs. Different navigation and drug release strategies, their biocompatibility and efficacy with related challenges and future prospects are also discussed. This review would be an excellent platform to understand nano-enable multidisciplinary research to formulate efficient nanomedicine for the management of neuroAIDS. PMID:26944096

  9. Changes of evoked potentials and evaluation of mild hypothermia for treatment of severe brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of evoked pote ntials after severe brain injury and the effect of mild hypothermia on acute sev ere brain injury.   Methods: A total of 44 patients with severe closed head injury (GCS 3-8, admitted within 10 hours from injury) admitted from May 1998 to March 1999 were selected for this study. All patients were admitted into the intensiv e care unit and divided into 2 groups, Group A (GCS 3-5) and Group B (GCS 6 -8). Patients were also randomly assigned to either normothermia or hypothermia subgroups. Patients in the hypothermia group were cooled to 32-34℃. Median nerve short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SLSEP) and brain stem aud itory evoked potentials (BAEP) were recorded before cooling and 4, 24, 48, 72, 9 6 and 120 hours, respectively after cooling and temperature resuming. SLSEP and BAEP were measured at the same time in the normothermia group (control group). T he changes of evoked potentials (EP) were analyzed by statistical methods.   Results: In the Group B, N20 amplitudes in SLSEP and I/V amplitudes in BAEP after mild hypothermia treatment in the hypothermia group dif fered significantly from those in the control group (P<0.05). However, in the Group A, no significant difference in all paramet ers was found.   Conclusions: These results demonstrate that mild hypothermia tr eatment (32-34℃) in the Group B has a significant neuroelectrophysiological effect on severe brain injury. Nevertheless, the effect of mild hypothermia in t he Group A is not apparent and needs further studying.

  10. Ambient new particle formation parameter indicates potential rise in future events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bonn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric new particle formation is a general phenomenon observed over coniferous forests. So far nucleation is described as a function of gaseous sulfuric acid concentration only, which is unable to explain the observed seasonality of nucleation events at different measurement sites. Here we introduce a new nucleation parameter including ozone and water vapor concentrations as well as UV-B radiation as a proxy for OH radical formation. Applying this new parameter to field studies conducted at Finnish and German measurement sites it is found capable to predict the occurrence of nucleation events and their seasonal and annual variation indicating a significant role of organics. Extrapolation to possible future conditions of ozone, water vapor and organic concentrations leads to a significant potential increase in nucleation event number.

  11. University males' sexual interest in children: predicting potential indices of "pedophilia" in a nonforensic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, J; Runtz, M

    1989-01-01

    A survey was administered to 193 male undergraduate students regarding their sexual interest in children, as well as their responses to a number of questions theoretically relevant to pedophilia. In total, 21% of subjects reported sexual attraction to some small children, 9% described sexual fantasies involving children, 5% admitted to having masturbated to such fantasies, and 7% indicated some likelihood of having sex with a child if they could avoid detection and punishment. These sexual interests were associated with negative early sexual experiences, masturbation to pornography, self-reported likelihood of raping a woman, frequent sex partners, sexual conflicts, and attitudes supportive of sexual dominance over women. The data did not, however, support clinical theories regarding sexual repression or impulse-control problems among potential pedophiles. PMID:2706562

  12. MR cholangiopancreatography: technique, potential indications, and diagnostic features of benign, postoperative, and malignant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D. [Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Grossholz, M. [Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Mentha, G. [Department of Surgery, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Peyer, R. de [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Terrier, F. [Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this article is to review technical aspects, discuss potential clinical indications for MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and demonstrate the spectrum of diagnostic findings in benign, postoperative, and malignant conditions. We describe our current imaging protocol in comparison with other available techniques. Using a non-breath-hold, heavily T2-weighted fast-spin-echo (FSE) sequence with or without respiratory gating we obtained coronal and axial source images and maximum intensity projections (MIPs) in 102 patients with suspected abnormalities of the biliary or pancreatic ducts. Based on this series we demonstrate the diagnostic appearance of a variety of benign, postoperative, and malignant conditions of the biliary and pancreatic ducts and discuss potential clinical indications for MRCP. The non-breath-hold FSE technique enables a consistent image quality even in patients who cannot cooperate well. Respiratory gating increased the rate of diagnostic examinations from 79 to 95 %. Acquisition of coronal and axial source images enables detection of bile duct stones as small as 2 mm, although calculi that are impacted and not surrounded by hyperintense bile may sometimes be difficult to detect. The MIP reconstructions help to determine the level of obstruction in malignant jaundice, delineate anatomical variants and malformations, and to diagnose inflammatory conditions, e. g., sclerosing cholangitis, the Mirizzi syndrome and inflammatory changes in the main pancreatic duct. The MRCP technique also correctly demonstrates the morphology of bilio-enteric or bilio-biliary anastomoses. Because MRCP provides sufficient diagnostic information in a wide range of benign and malignant biliary and pancreatic disorders, it could obviate diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in many clinical settings. The ERCP technique may be increasingly reserved for patients in whom nonsurgical interventional procedures are anticipated. (orig

  13. Usefulness of brain atlases in neuroradiology: Current status and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L

    2016-08-01

    Human brain atlases, although prevalent in medical education and stereotactic and functional neurosurgery, are not yet applied practically in neuroradiology. In a step towards introducing brain atlases to neuroradiology, we discuss nine different situations of potential atlas use: (1) to support interpretation of brain scans with clearly visible structures (to increase confidence of non-neuroradiologists); (2) to delineate and label scans of low anatomical content (with indiscernible or poorly visible anatomy); (3) to assist in generating the structured report; (4) to assist in interpreting small deep lesions, since an atlas's anatomical parcellation is higher than that of the interpreted scan; (5) to approximate distorted due to pathology (and unknown to the interpreter) anatomy and label it; (6) to cope with data explosion; (7) to assist in the interpretation of functional scans (to label the activation foci with the underlying anatomy and Brodmann's areas); (8) to support ischemic stroke image handling by means of atlases of anatomy and blood supply territories; and (9) to communicate image interpretation results (diagnosis) to others. The usefulness of the atlas for automatic structure identification, localisation, delineation, labelling and quantification, as well as for reporting and communication, potentially increases the interpreter's efficiency and confidence, as well as expedites image interpretation. PMID:27154190

  14. Antioxidant potential of a polyherbal antimalarial as an indicator of its therapeutic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Nwachiban Atchan, Achille Parfait; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Okalebo, Faith Apoelot; Guantai, Anastasia Nkatha; Agbor, Gabriel Agbor

    2013-01-01

    Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods and, in vivo, Nefang (100 and 500 mg kg(-1)) activity was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation by the malondialdehyde and total proteins assays were carried out. P. guajava, M. indica leaf, and bark extracts had the highest antioxidant properties in all three assays, with no statistically significant difference. Rats treated with the carbon tetrachloride had a statistically significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (P < 0.05) and increase in malondialdehyde activity, total protein levels, and liver and renal function markers, whereas rats treated with Nefang showed increased levels in the former and dose-dependent decrease towards normal levels in the later. These results reveal the constituent plants of Nefang that contribute to its in vivo antioxidant potential. This activity is a good indication of the therapeutic potential of Nefang. PMID:24454347

  15. Potential for early warning of maalria in India using NOAA-AVHRR based vegetation health indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, R. C.; Kogan, Felix; Singh, Neeru; Singh, R. P.; Dash, A. P.

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in India with about 1 82 million cases annually and 1000 deaths As per World Health Organization WHO estimates about 1 3 million Disability Adjusted Life Years DALYs are lost annually due to malaria in India Central peninsular region of India is prone to malaria outbreaks Meteorological parameters changes in ecological conditions development of resistance in mosquito vectors development of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasite and lack of surveillance are the likely reasons of outbreaks Based on satellite data and climatic factors efforts have been made to develop Early Warning System EWS in Africa but there is no headway in this regard in India In order to find out the potential of NOAA satellite AVHRR derived Vegetation Condition Index VCI Temperature Condition Index TCI and a cumulative indicator Vegetation Health Index VHI were attempted to find out their potential for development of EWS Studies were initiated by analysing epidemiological data of malaria vis-a-vis VCI TCI and VHI from Bikaner and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan and Tumkur and Raichur districts of Karnataka Correlation coefficients between VCI and monthly malaria cases for epidemic years were computed Positive correlation 0 67 has been found with one-month lag between VCI and malaria incidence in respect of Tumkur while a negative correlation with TCI -0 45 is observed In Bikaner VCI is found to be negatively related -0 71 with malaria cases in epidemic year of 1994 Weekly

  16. Antioxidant Potential of a Polyherbal Antimalarial as an Indicator of Its Therapeutic Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protus Arrey Tarkang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf, Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves, used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, total phenolic content (TPC, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP methods and, in vivo, Nefang (100 and 500 mg kg−1 activity was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation by the malondialdehyde and total proteins assays were carried out. P. guajava, M. indica leaf, and bark extracts had the highest antioxidant properties in all three assays, with no statistically significant difference. Rats treated with the carbon tetrachloride had a statistically significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (P<0.05 and increase in malondialdehyde activity, total protein levels, and liver and renal function markers, whereas rats treated with Nefang showed increased levels in the former and dose-dependent decrease towards normal levels in the later. These results reveal the constituent plants of Nefang that contribute to its in vivo antioxidant potential. This activity is a good indication of the therapeutic potential of Nefang.

  17. National valuation of monarch butterflies indicates an untapped potential for incentive-based conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Loomis, John B.; Ries, Leslie; Oberhauser, Karen; Semmens, Darius; Semmens, Brice; Butterfield, Bruce; Bagstad, Ken; Goldstein, Josh; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2013-01-01

    The annual migration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) has high cultural value and recent surveys indicate monarch populations are declining. Protecting migratory species is complex because they cross international borders and depend on multiple regions. Understanding how much, and where, humans place value on migratory species can facilitate market-based conservation approaches. We performed a contingent valuation study of monarchs to understand the potential for such approaches to fund monarch conservation. The survey asked U.S. respondents about the money they would spend, or have spent, growing monarch-friendly plants, and the amount they would donate to monarch conservation organizations. Combining planting payments and donations, the survey indicated U.S. households valued monarchs as a total one-time payment of $4.78–$6.64 billion, levels similar to many endangered vertebrate species. The financial contribution of even a small percentage of households through purchases or donations could generate new funding for monarch conservation through market-based approaches.

  18. Defining indicators to motorize block valves aiming to reduce potential leakage applied to OSBRA pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, L.F.G. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Sousa, A.G.; Castro, N.C.; Spagnolo, R. [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The discussion about motorizing block valves is a constant point being brought up when it is intended to control or reduce the amount of liquid leaking in the event of a pipe rupture. During the pipeline's project stage the installation of blocking valves along the pipeline must be taken into consideration to meet the operation and maintenance requirements as well as to reduce the potential amounts of volume being leaked. In existing pipelines, the main concern is the definition of which valves are candidates to be motorized. In both situations criteria should be established to define this choice. A math algorithm was developed to define the potential leakage due to gravity along the pipeline profile where the influence of a valve over another is verified, as well as the contribution of the check valves existing in the pipeline. The present work defines a parameter based on the extension protected by the valve and the reduction of the potential leakage. This parameter is then fed to a worksheet where the efficiency indicators are calculated to each valve eligible to be motorized. It also takes into consideration factors relative to the valve location, such as the environmental sensitivity, risk assessment, social diagnosis and device's proximity to contingency resources. Finally, after considering all the above aspects, it's possible to come up with a final classification, recommending specific valves to be prioritized on an eventual process of motorization adequacies. This methodology was applied, experimentally on a pipe segment of TRANSPETRO's Sao Paulo-Brasilia pipeline - OSBRA , where it proved to be an important technological and management tool. (author)

  19. Radiotracer properties determined by high performance liquid chromatography: a potential tool for brain radiotracer discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Previously, development of novel brain radiotracers has largely relied on simple screening tools. Improved selection methods at the early stages of radiotracer discovery and an increased understanding of the relationships between in vitro physicochemical and in vivo radiotracer properties are needed. We investigated if high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methodologies could provide criteria for lead candidate selection by comparing HPLC measurements with radiotracer properties in humans. Methods: Ten molecules, previously used as radiotracers in humans, were analysed to obtain the following measures: partition coefficient (Log P); permeability (Pm); percentage of plasma protein binding (%PPB); and membrane partition coefficient (Km). Relationships between brain entry measurements (Log P, Pm and %PPB) and in vivo brain percentage injected dose (%ID); and Km and specific binding in vivo (BPND) were investigated. Log P values obtained using in silico packages and flask methods were compared with Log P values obtained using HPLC. Results: The modelled associations with %ID were stronger for %PPB (r2=0.65) and Pm (r2=0.77) than for Log P (r2=0.47) while 86% of BPND variance was explained by Km. Log P values were variable dependant on the methodology used. Conclusions: Log P should not be relied upon as a predictor of blood-brain barrier penetration during brain radiotracer discovery. HPLC measurements of permeability, %PPB and membrane interactions may be potentially useful in predicting in vivo performance and hence allow evaluation and ranking of compound libraries for the selection of lead radiotracer candidates at early stages of radiotracer discovery.

  20. Enhanced Delivery of Gold Nanoparticles with Therapeutic Potential for Targeting Human Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etame, Arnold B.

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) remains a major challenge to the advancement and application of systemic anti-cancer therapeutics into the central nervous system. The structural and physiological delivery constraints of the BBB significantly limit the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy, thereby making systemic administration a non-viable option for the vast majority of chemotherapy agents. Furthermore, the lack of specificity of conventional systemic chemotherapy when applied towards malignant brain tumors remains a major shortcoming. Hence novel therapeutic strategies that focus both on targeted and enhanced delivery across the BBB are warranted. In recent years nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as attractive vehicles for efficient delivery of targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. In particular, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gained prominence in several targeting applications involving systemic cancers. Their enhanced permeation and retention within permissive tumor microvasculature provide a selective advantage for targeting. Malignant brain tumors also exhibit transport-permissive microvasculature secondary to blood brain barrier disruption. Hence AuNPs may have potential relevance for brain tumor targeting. However, the permeation of AuNPs across the BBB has not been well characterized, and hence is a potential limitation for successful application of AuNP-based therapeutics within the central nervous system (CNS). In this dissertation, we designed and characterized AuNPs and assessed the role of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the physical and biological properties of AuNPs. We established a size-dependent permeation profile with respect to core size as well as PEG length when AuNPs were assessed through a transport-permissive in-vitro BBB. This study was the first of its kind to systematically examine the influence of design on permeation of AuNPs through transport-permissive BBB. Given the significant delivery limitations through the non

  1. Proteomics analysis after traumatic brain injury in rats: the search for potential biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ding

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies of protein expression after traumatic brain injury (TBI have identified biomarkers for diagnosing or determining the prognosis of TBI. In this study, we searched for additional protein markers of TBI using a fluid perfusion impact device to model TBI in S-D rats. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to identify differentially expressed proteins. After proteomic analysis, we detected 405 and 371 protein spots within a pH range of 3-10 from sham-treated and contused brain cortex, respectively. Eighty protein spots were differentially expressed in the two groups and 20 of these proteins were identified. This study validated the established biomarkers of TBI and identified potential biomarkers that could be examined in future work.

  2. Changes of biochemical indices in brain, liver tissue and serum in mice with Alzheimer disease after Chinese medicine treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangyang Wang; Lili Zhang; Haode Huang; Qiang Qin; Guimei Luo; Chaogan Li; Shuqiu Zhang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease is a main type of dementia, and the important clinical characteristic is the rapid declines of memory and cognitive ability.OBJECTIVE: To study changes of biochemical indices in brain, liver tissue and serum, as well as memory of mice with Alzheimer disease after Chinese medicine treatment. DESIGN: A comparative animal experimental observation. SETTING: Haierfu Research Center of Youjiang Medical College for Nationalities.MATERIALS: Forty-eight healthy Kunming mice (24 males and 24 females), 3 months old, were provided by the animal room of Youjiang Medical College for Nationalities. The animals were divided into four groups according to sex and body mass: control group, model group, Wuyuan Buxue treated group, Haierfu treated group, and 12 mice in each group. Wuyuan Buxue oral liquid was extracted from Polygonum multiflorum Thunb (red, radix) and longan meat (country medicine quasi- word B20020828). Haierfu oral liquid was extracted from Yinhua, poriacocos, licorice, etc (Q/452600RYYLC01-92). METHODS: The experiment was completed in Haierfu Research Center and Institute of Heavy Metal and Fluorosis-Arsenism of Youjiang Medical College for Nationalities from May 2006 to December 2006. ①All animals except those in the control group were given feed which was mixed with AlC3 (12 g/L), and they could freely drink 3 g/L Al(NO3)3. The mice in the control group were given normal feed. Wuyuan Buxue oral liquid and Haierfu oral liquid were distilled by distilled water for one time respectively. Five months after model establishment, mice in the Wuyuan Buxue treated group and Haierfu treated group were given intrapastric perfusion of Wuyuan Buxue oral liquid and Haierfu oral liquid respectively, and those in the model group and control group were given intrapastric perfusion of distilled water of the same volume. All the mice were treated for 45 days. ②The swimming time (s) and error times were determined with Y-shape water maze before and

  3. The Potential Impact of Biofield Treatment on Human Brain Tumor Cells: A Time-Lapse Video Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Study background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common subtype of primary brain tumor in adults. The aim was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment potential on human GBM and non-GBM brain cells using two time-lapse video microscopy technique. Methods: The human brain tumor, GBM cultured cells were divided into two groups viz. GBM control and GBM treatment. Similarly, human normal brain cultured cells (non-GBM) were taken and divided into two groups viz. non- GBM control ...

  4. Analysis of brain-stem auditory evoked potential and visual evoked potential in patients with Parkinson disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiaorong Deng; Jianzhong Deng; Yanmin Zhao; Xiaohai Yan; Pin Chen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the development of neuroelectrophysiology, it had been identified that all kinds of evoked potentials might reflect the functional status of corresponding pathway. Evoked potentials recruited in the re search of PD, it can be known whether other functional pathway of nervous system is impaired. OBJECTIVE: To observe whether brainstem auditory and visual passageway are impaired in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and compare with non-PD patients concurrently. DESIGN: A non-randomized concurrent controlled observation. SETTINGS: Henan Provincial Tumor Hospital; Anyang District Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two cases of PD outpatients and inpatients, who registered in the Department of Neurology, Anyang District Hospital from October 1997 to February 2006, were enrolled as the PD group, including 20 males and 12 females, aged 50-72 years old. Inclusive criteria: In accordance with the diagnostic criteria of PD recommended by the dyskinesia and PD group of neurology branch of Chinese Medical Association. Patients with diseases that could cause Parkinson syndrome were excluded by CT scanning or MRI examination. Meanwhile, 30 cases with non-neurological disease were selected from the Department of Internal Medicine of our hospital as the control group, including 19 males and 11 females, aged 45-70 years old. Including criteria: Without history of neurological disease or psychiatric disease; showing normal image on CT. And PD, Parkinson syndrome and Parkinsonism-plus were excluded by professional neurologist. All the patients were informed and agreed with the examination and clinical observation. METHODS: The electrophysiological examination and clinical observation of the PD patients and controls were conducted. The Reporter type 4-channel evoked potential machine (Italy) was used to check brain-stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) and visual evoked potential (VEP). Why to be examined was explained to test taker. BAEP recording electrode was plac

  5. Organic Inclusions as an Indicator of Oil/Gas Potential Assessment of Carbonate Reservoir Beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施继锡; 兰文波

    1993-01-01

    Organic inclusions could be formed at the stages of either primary or secondary migration of hydrocarbons so long as mineral crystallization or recrystallization takes place in the sediments, presenting a direct indicator of oil/gas evolution, migration and abundance.Based on the strdy of organic inclusions in carbonate-type reser voir beds of commercial importance from North China ,Xingjing ,North Jiangsu, Sichuan and Guizhou in China ,many inclusion parameters for oil/gas potential assessment of carbonate reservoir beds are summarized in this paper, including;1) Types of organic inclusion; Ccmmercially important oil beds are characterized by inclusions consisting of either pure liquid hydrocarbons or liquid plus minor gaseous hydrocarbons, while commercially important gas reservoirs are characterized by inclusions consisting of either pure gaseous hydrocarbons or gas plus minor liquid hydrocarbons.2)Quantity of organic inclusions:The num-ber of organic inclusions in commercially important oil/gas reservoirs is over 60% of the total inclusion percent-tage.3)Temperature of saline inclusions .The homogenization temperatures of contemporaneous saline inclu-sions in oil reservoirs range from 91-161℃, while in gas reservoirs from 150-250℃).4) Inclusion composition: In commercially important oil reservoirs, C1/C2=2-10,C1/C3=2-4,C1/C4=2-21,(C2-C4)/(C1-C4)(%)>20,(CH4+CO+H2)/CO2(molecules/g)=0.5-1.0,and in C2-C3-nC4 triangle diagram there should be an upside-down triangle with the apex within the ellipse, while in commercial gas reservoirs, C1/C2=10-35,C1/C3=14-82,C1/C4=21-200,(C2-C4)/(C1-C4)(%)1,and there would be an upright triangle with the apex within the ellipse.The abovementioned parameters have been used to evaluate a number of other unknown wells or regions and the results are very satisfactory.It is valid to use organic inclusions as an indicator to assess the oil/gas potential during oil/gas exploration and prospecting,This approach is effective

  6. Simulation of Potential Production and Optimum Population Quantitative Indices for the Second Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Li-jiao; YAO Zhong; ZHENG Zhi-ming; LI Hua-bin

    2006-01-01

    The article established the HDRICE model by modifying the structure of the ORYZA1 model and revising its parameters by field experiments. The HDRICE model consists of the modules of morphological development of rice, daily dry matter accumulation and partitioning, daily CO2 assimilation of the canopy, leaf area, and tiller development. The model preferably simulated the dynamic rice development because of the thorough integration of the effects of temperature and light on the rates of rice development, photosynthesis, respiration, and. other ecophysiological processes. In addition, this model has attainable grain yield in the test experiment that showed the potential yield of cultivar Xieyou 46 ranged from 11 to 13 tons ha-1. Besides, the model was used to optimize the combinations of the transplanting date, seedling age and density for cultivar Xieyou 46 at Jinhua area, and the population quantitative indices to attain the potential yield such as maximum stems, effective panicles, filled grain number/leaf area, and so on. The result showed that the combination of transplanting date on July 25, seedling age of 35 days and base seedling density of 1.33 × 106ha-1 is the optimum combination for the second hybrid rice production in Jinhua County, China. And the maximum stems, the effective panicles, the filled grain per panicle, the peak of optimum LAI, LAI in later filling stage, and the filled grain number/leaf were 6.03 × 106 ha, 3.99 × 106 ha,119.2, 8.59, 5-6, and 0.64, respectively.

  7. Wait, treat and see: echocardiographic monitoring of brain-dead potential donors with stunned heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casartelli Marilena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart transplantation is limited by a severe donor organ shortage. Potential donors with brain death (BD and left ventricular dysfunction due to neurogenic stunning are currently excluded from donation – although such abnormalities can be reversible with aggressive treatment including Hormonal Treatment (HT and deferred organ retrieval. Aim To assess the recovery of left ventricular dysfunction in potential brain-dead donors with hemodynamic instability treated by aggressive treatment and HT. Methods In a single-center, observational study design, we evaluated 15 consecutive brain-dead potential donors (DBD (8 males, age = 48 ± 15 years with hemodynamic instability. All underwent standard hemodynamic monitoring and transthoracic 2-dimensional echo (2-DE with assessment of Ejection Fraction (EF. Measurements were obtained before BD and after BD within 6 h, at 24 h and within 48 h. HT (with insulin, methylprednisolone, vasopressin and T3 was started as soon as possible to treat hemodynamic instability and avoid administration of norepinephrine (NE. Eligible potential heart donors underwent coronary angiography. Results After HT, we observed a normalization of hemodynamic conditions with improvement of mean arterial pressure (pre = 68 ± 8 mmHg vs post = 83 ± 13 mmHg, p 2 vs post 3.7 ± 1.2 L/min/m2, p , coronary artery stenosis was present in 2 of the 10 consented donors. Eight hearts were uneventfully transplanted. No early graft failure occurred and all eight recipients were alive at 6-month follow-up. Conclusion In BD donors, intensive treatment including HT is associated with improvement of regional and global LV function and reverse remodeling detectable by transthoracic 2DE. Donor hearts with recovered LV function may be eligible for uneventful heart transplant. The wait (in brain death, treat (with HT and see (with 2D echo strategy can help rescue organs suitable for

  8. [Music-Acoustic Signals Controlled by Subject's Brain Potentials in the Correction of Unfavorable Functional States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotchev, A I; Bondar, A T; Bakhchina, A V; Parin, S B; Polevaya, S A; Radchenko, G S

    2016-01-01

    Literature review and the results of own studies on the development and experimental testing of musical EEG neurofeedback technology are presented. The technology is based on exposure of subjects to music or music-like signals that are organized in strict accordance with the current values of brain potentials of the patient. The main attention is paid to the analysis of the effectiveness of several versions of the technology, using specific and meaningful for the individual narrow-frequency EEG oscillators during the correction of unfavorable changes of the functional state. PMID:27149824

  9. The UCLA Study of Children with Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Event-Related Potential Measure of Interhemispheric Transfer Time

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, MU; Marion, SD; McArthur, DL; Babikian, T; Giza, C; Kernan, CL; NEWMAN;, N.; Moran, L.; Akarakian, R; Houshiarnejad, A; Mink, R; Johnson, J; Babbitt, CJ; Olsen, A.; Asarnow, RF

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently results in diffuse axonal injury and other white matter damage. The corpus callosum (CC) is particularly vulnerable to injury following TBI. Damage to this white matter tract has been associated with impaired neurocognitive functioning in children with TBI. Event-related potentials can identify stimulus-locked neural activity with high temporal resolution. They were used in this study to measure interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) as an indicator of C...

  10. Differences in the neural mechanisms of selective attention in children from different socioeconomic backgrounds: An event-related brain potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Courtney; Lauinger, Brittni; Neville, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Previous research indicates that children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds show deficits in aspects of attention, including a reduced ability to filter irrelevant information and to suppress prepotent responses. However, less is known about the neural mechanisms of group differences in attention, which could reveal the stages of processing at which attention deficits arise. The present study examined this question using an event-related brain potential (ERP) measure of selective auditory ...

  11. Li zoning in zircon as a potential geospeedometer and peak temperature indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trail, Dustin; Cherniak, Daniele J.; Watson, E. Bruce; Harrison, T. Mark; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Szumila, Ian

    2016-03-01

    . Discrete 10 μm concentration zones of Li within zircon may be partially preserved at 700 °C for tens to hundreds of years, and at 450 °C for millions of years. In this regard, Li zoning in zircon holds significant potential as a geospeedometer, and in some instances as a qualitative indicator of the maximum temperature experienced by the zircon.

  12. Quantitative MRI analysis of the brain after twenty-two years of neuromyelitis optica indicates focal tissue damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aradi, Mihaly; Koszegi, Edit; Orsi, Gergely;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term effect of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) on the brain is not well established. METHODS: After 22 years of NMO, a patient's brain was examined by quantitative T1- and T2-weighted mono- and biexponential diffusion and proton spectroscopy. It was compared to 3 cases with short...

  13. Excess air in groundwater as a potential indicator of past environmental changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissolved noble gases in groundwater are used to reconstruct paleotemperature, but also yield information about 'excess air', a component of dissolved gases in excess of solubility equilibrium, derived from dissolution of trapped air in the ground. A good characterization of the excess air component is necessary not only to obtain reliable noble gas temperatures, but also to investigate the potential of excess air as a proxy for past environmental conditions. Two excess air related quantities can be derived from groundwater noble gas data sets: The initial air/water ratio and the pressure exerted on the entrapped air. Under recharge conditions typical for many aquifers, the excess of dissolved gases, expressed by the relative Ne excess ΔNe, is mainly determined by the hydrostatic pressure on the entrapped air. Thus, we suggest that ΔNe is essentially a measure of the amplitude of water table fluctuations in the recharge area. Comparing data sets from three aquifers in temperate, humid latitudes and three aquifers in tropical, semi-arid regions, we find that ΔNe is generally higher in the tropical aquifers, possibly related to larger water table fluctuations in these aquifers characterized by deep unsaturated zones. Whereas ΔNe shows little temporal variation in the mid-latitude aquifers, there is a strong signal of higher ΔNe in the paleowaters of the tropical aquifers as compared to water recharged under modern climate conditions. This finding may indicate a higher variability of recharge in the past at the studied tropical sites. (author)

  14. Event-related potential indices of congruency sequence effects without feature integration or contingency learning confounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Kirwan, C Brock; Weissman, Daniel H

    2016-06-01

    The congruency effect in Stroop-like tasks (i.e., increased response time and reduced accuracy in incongruent relative to congruent trials) is often smaller when the previous trial was incongruent as compared to congruent. This congruency sequence effect (CSE) is thought to reflect cognitive control processes that shift attention to the target and/or modulate the response engendered by the distracter differently after incongruent relative to congruent trials. The neural signatures of CSEs are therefore usually attributed to cognitive control processes that minimize distraction from irrelevant stimuli. However, CSEs in previous functional neuroimaging studies were ubiquitously confounded with feature integration and/or contingency learning processes. We therefore investigated whether a neural CSE can be observed without such confounds in a group of healthy young adults (n = 56). To this end, we combined a prime-probe task that lacks such confounds with high-density ERPs to identify, for the first time, the neural time course of confound-minimized CSEs. Replicating recent behavioral findings, we observed strong CSEs in this task for mean response time and mean accuracy. Critically, conceptually replicating prior ERP results from confounded tasks, we also observed a CSE in both the parietal conflict slow potential (conflict SP) and the frontomedial N450. These findings indicate for the first time that neural CSEs as indexed by ERPs can be observed without the typical confounds. More broadly, the present study provides a confound-minimized protocol that will help future researchers to better isolate the neural bases of control processes that minimize distraction from irrelevant stimuli. PMID:26854028

  15. Trehalose as an indicator of desiccation stress in Drosophila melanogaster larvae: A potential marker of anhydrobiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorat, Leena J. [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Gaikwad, Sushama M. [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Nath, Bimalendu B., E-mail: bbnath@unipune.ac.in [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report confirming anhydrobiosis in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis and accumulation in larvae that hydrolyzed on rehydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis in concert with the enzymes involved in trehalose metabolism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of trehalose hydrolysis in presence of a specific trehalase inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose proposed as a reliable marker for biomonitoring of climate change studies. -- Abstract: In the current scenario of global climate change, desiccation is considered as one of the major environmental stressors for the biota exposed to altered levels of ambient temperature and humidity. Drosophila melanogaster, a cosmopolitan terrestrial insect has been chosen as a humidity-sensitive bioindicator model for the present study since its habitat undergoes frequent stochastic and/or seasonally aggravated dehydration regimes. We report here for the first time the occurrence of anhydrobiosis in D. melanogaster larvae by subjecting them to desiccation stress under laboratory conditions. Larvae desiccated for ten hours at <5% relative humidity could enter anhydrobiosis and could revive upon rehydration followed by resumption of active metabolism. As revealed by FTIR and HPLC analyzes, our findings strongly indicated the synthesis and accumulation of trehalose in the desiccating larvae. Biochemical measurements pointed out the desiccation-responsive trehalose metabolic pathway that was found to be coordinated in concert with the enzymes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase and trehalase. Further, an inhibitor-based experimental approach using deoxynojirimycin, a specific trehalase inhibitor, demonstrated the pivotal role of trehalose in larval anhydrobiosis of D. melanogaster. We therefore propose trehalose as a potential marker for the assessment of anhydrobiosis in Drosophila. The present findings thus add

  16. Motivation and semantic context affect brain error-monitoring activity: an event-related brain potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Schiller, Niels O

    2008-01-01

    During speech production, we continuously monitor what we say. In situations in which speech errors potentially have more severe consequences, e.g. during a public presentation, our verbal self-monitoring system may pay special attention to prevent errors than in situations in which speech errors are more acceptable, such as a casual conversation. In an event-related potential study, we investigated whether or not motivation affected participants' performance using a picture naming task in a semantic blocking paradigm. Semantic context of to-be-named pictures was manipulated; blocks were semantically related (e.g., cat, dog, horse, etc.) or semantically unrelated (e.g., cat, table, flute, etc.). Motivation was manipulated independently by monetary reward. The motivation manipulation did not affect error rate during picture naming. However, the high-motivation condition yielded increased amplitude and latency values of the error-related negativity (ERN) compared to the low-motivation condition, presumably indicating higher monitoring activity. Furthermore, participants showed semantic interference effects in reaction times and error rates. The ERN amplitude was also larger during semantically related than unrelated blocks, presumably indicating that semantic relatedness induces more conflict between possible verbal responses. PMID:17920932

  17. Potential brain death organ donors - challenges and prospects: A single center retrospective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Al-Maslamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ donation after brain death (BD is a major source for obtaining transplantable organs for patients with end-stage organ disease (ESOD. This retrospective, descriptive study was carried out on all potential BD patients admitted in different intensive care units (ICUs of the Hamad medical Corporation (HMC, Doha, Qatar during a period from January 2011 to April 2012. Our aim was to evaluate various demographic criteria and challenges of organ donation among potential BD organ donors and plan a strategy to improve the rate of organ donation in Qatar. Various aspects of BD patients in the ICUs and their possible effects on organ donation were studied. The time intervals analyzed to determine the possible causes of delay of organ retrieval were: time of diagnosing fixed dilated pupils in the ICU, to performing the first BD test, then to the second BD test, to family approach, to organ retrieval and/or circulatory death (CD without organ retrieval. There were a total of 116 potential BD organ donors of whom 96 (82.75% were males and 20 (17.25% were females. Brain hemorrhage and head injury contributed to 37 (31.9% and 32 (27.6% BD cases, respectively. Time interval between diagnosing fixed dilated pupil and performing the first test of BD was delayed >24 h in 79% of the cases and between the first and second BD tests was >6 h in 70.8% of the cases. This delay is not compatible with the Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC policy for BD diagnosis and resulted in a low number of organs retrieved. BD organ donation, a potential source for organs to save patients with ESOD has several pitfalls and every effort should be made to increase the awareness of the public as well as medical personnel to optimize donation efficacy.

  18. The Potential of Systems Thinking in Teacher Reform as Theorized for the Teaching Brain Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    The teaching brain is a dynamic system that is in constant interaction with the learning brain. If we fail to explore the teaching brain we will continue to design educational reform policies that ignore the most important lens in the classroom: the teachers'. Master teachers recognize their perspective and leverage their teaching brains to embody…

  19. Global to local genetic diversity indicators of evolutionary potential in tree species within and outside forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Lars; Aravanopoulos, Filippos; Bennadji, Zohra;

    2014-01-01

    There is a general trend of biodiversity loss at global, regional, national and local levels. To monitor this trend, international policy processes have created a wealth of indicators over the last two decades. However, genetic diversity indicators are regrettably absent from comprehensive bio......-monitoring schemes. Here, we provide a review and an assessment of the different attempts made to provide such indicators for tree genetic diversity from the global level down to the level of the management unit. So far, no generally accepted indicators have been provided as international standards, nor tested for.......g., research, education, breeding, conservation, and regulation actions and programs are relatively straightforward. Only state indicators can reveal genetic patterns and processes, which are fundamental for maintaining genetic diversity. Indirect indicators of pressure, benefit, or response should therefore...

  20. Wildlife Abundance and Diversity as Indicators of Tourism Potential in Northern Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan W Winterbach

    Full Text Available Wildlife tourism can provide economic incentives for conservation. Due to the abundance of wildlife and the presence of charismatic species some areas are better suited to wildlife tourism. Our first objective was to develop criteria based on wildlife abundance and diversity to evaluate tourism potential in the Northern Conservation Zone of Botswana. Secondly we wanted to quantify and compare tourism experiences in areas with high and low tourism potential. We used aerial survey data to estimate wildlife biomass and diversity to determine tourism potential, while data from ground surveys quantified the tourist experience. Areas used for High Paying Low Volume tourism had significantly higher mean wildlife biomass and wildlife diversity than the areas avoided for this type of tourism. Only 22% of the Northern Conservation Zone has intermediate to high tourism potential. The areas with high tourism potential, as determined from the aerial survey data, provided tourists with significantly better wildlife sightings (ground surveys than the low tourism potential areas. Even Low Paying tourism may not be economically viable in concessions that lack areas with intermediate to high tourism potential. The largest part of the Northern Conservation Zone has low tourism potential, but low tourism potential is not equal to low conservation value. Alternative conservation strategies should be developed to complement the economic incentive provided by wildlife-based tourism in Botswana.

  1. Potential renal toxicity bio-markers indicating radiation injury after 177Lu-octreotate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. The kidneys are one of the most exposed non-tumor tissues and regarded as one of the main dose-limiting organs in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). [177Lu-DOTA0, Tyr3]-octreotate (177Lu-octreotate) has shown promising results in the treatment of somatostatin receptor over-expressing neuroendocrine tumors, but optimization is still needed. The ability to give each patient as much 177Lu-octreotate as possible without inducing nephrotoxicity is necessary for an efficient treatment. However, due to large inter-individual differences in uptake and retention in the kidneys, there is a need for efficient methods that can indicate renal injury early. A possible way is to identify bio-markers for high risk of radiation nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using urinary retinol binding protein (RBP), and blood valinhydantoin (VH) as bio-markers of nephrotoxicity on adult mice after 177Lu-octreotate treatment. BALB/c nude mice (n=6/group) were i.v. injected with 60 MBq or 120 MBq of 177Lu-octreotate. The control group was mock treated with saline. Spot urine samples were collected before injection, and 14, 30, 60 and 90 days after injection. Analysis of RBP4 and creatinine was performed using Mouse RBP4 ELISA kit and Creatinine kit from R/D Systems, respectively. Erythrocytes were separated from whole blood samples collected 90 days after injection, and analysed for VH by LC-MS/MS. The ratio between VH and a volumetric standard was calculated. The RBP/creatinine level increased with time in both groups given 177Lu-octreotate, with earlier and higher response for the 120 MBq group. No clear change in VH level between the different groups was observed. The results show that RBP may be a promising new bio-marker for radiation induced kidney toxicity. The presently used method based on VH was not sensitive enough to be used as kidney toxicity marker. Further studies on mice are ongoing to validate

  2. GIS-fuzzy logic approach for building indices: regional feasibility and natural potential of ranching in tropical wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Aparecida Santos; Helano Póvoa Lima; Humberto Perotto Baldivieso; Luíz Orcirio Oliveira; Walfrido Moraes Tomás

    2015-01-01

    The regional feasibility of ranching (RFR) index was obtained in order to evaluate the productive potential of farms in the Pantanal. Five indicators were selected by expert and employed for the developing of the index. One of the five indicators corresponded to the natural potential for livestock ranching (NPLR) index which was generated by GIS-fuzzy logic. Fuzzy inference process, involving definitions of membership functions, fuzzy set operations and inference rules was implemented and val...

  3. Potential applications of image-guided radiotherapy for brain metastases and glioblastoma to improve patient quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NamPhongNguyen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM and brain metastasis remains a challenge because of the poor survival and the potential for brain damage following radiation. Despite concurrent chemotherapy and radiation dose escalation, local recurrence remains the predominant pattern of failure in GBM most likely secondary to repopulation of cancer stem cells. Even though radiotherapy is highly effective for local control of radio-resistant tumors such as melanoma and renal cell cancer, systemic disease progression is the cause of death in most patients with brain metastasis. Preservation of quality of life of cancer survivors is the main issue for patients with brain metastasis. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT by virtue of precise radiation dose delivery may reduce treatment time of patients with GBM without excessive toxicity and potentially improve neurocognitive function with preservation of local control in patients with brain metastasis. Future prospective trials for primary brain tumors or brain metastasis should include IGRT to assess its efficacy to improve patient quality of life.

  4. The Brain Drain Potential of Students in the African Health and Nonhealth Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Crush

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The departure of health professionals to Europe and North America is placing an intolerable burden on public health systems in many African countries. Various retention, recall, and replacement policies to ameliorate the impact of this brain drain have been suggested, none of which have been particularly successful to date. The key question for the future is whether the brain drain of health sector skills is likely to continue and whether the investment of African countries in training health professionals will continue to be lost through emigration. This paper examines the emigration intentions of trainee health professionals in six Southern African countries. The data was collected by the Southern African Migration Program (SAMP in a survey of final-year students across the region which included 651 students training for the health professions. The data also allows for the comparison of health sector with other students. The analysis presented in this paper shows very high emigration potential amongst all final-year students. Health sector students do show a slightly higher inclination to leave than those training to work in other sectors. These findings present a considerable challenge for policy makers seeking to encourage students to stay at home and work after graduation.

  5. No impact of deep brain stimulation on fear-potentiated startle in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Johanna M P; Klumpers, Floris; Mantione, Mariska H; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke C; Schuurman, P Richard; Mazaheri, Ali; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST), we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS could be the result of the modulation of contextual anxiety. However, the effect of DBS in this region on contextual anxiety is as of yet unknown. Thus, the current study investigated the effect of DBS on contextual anxiety in an experimental threat of shock paradigm. Eight patients with DBS treatment for severe OCD were tested in a double-blind crossover design with randomly assigned 2-week periods of active and sham stimulation. DBS resulted in significant decrease of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, anxiety, and depression. However, even though the threat manipulation resulted in a clear context-potentiated startle effect, none of the parameters derived from the startle recordings was modulated by the DBS. This suggests that DBS in the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating anxiety symptoms of OCD without modulating the startle circuitry. We hypothesize that the anxiety symptoms present in OCD are likely distinct from the pathological brain circuits in defensive states of other anxiety disorders. PMID:25249953

  6. No Impact of Deep Brain Stimulation on Fear-Potentiated Startle in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Johanna M. P.; Klumpers, Floris; Mantione, Mariska H.; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke C.; Schuurman, P. Richard; Mazaheri, Ali; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST), we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS could be the result of the modulation of contextual anxiety. However, the effect of DBS in this region on contextual anxiety is as of yet unknown. Thus, the current study investigated the effect of DBS on contextual anxiety in an experimental threat of shock paradigm. Eight patients with DBS treatment for severe OCD were tested in a double-blind crossover design with randomly assigned 2-week periods of active and sham stimulation. DBS resulted in significant decrease of obsessive–compulsive symptoms, anxiety, and depression. However, even though the threat manipulation resulted in a clear context-potentiated startle effect, none of the parameters derived from the startle recordings was modulated by the DBS. This suggests that DBS in the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating anxiety symptoms of OCD without modulating the startle circuitry. We hypothesize that the anxiety symptoms present in OCD are likely distinct from the pathological brain circuits in defensive states of other anxiety disorders. PMID:25249953

  7. No impact of deep brain stimulation on fear-potentiated startle in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M.P. Baas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST, we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS could be the result of the modulation of contextual anxiety. However, the effect of DBS in this region on contextual anxiety is as of yet unknown. Thus, the current study investigated the effect of DBS on contextual anxiety in an experimental threat of shock paradigm. Eight patients with DBS treatment for severe OCD were tested in a double-blind crossover design with randomly assigned two-week periods of active and sham stimulation. DBS resulted in significant decrease of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, anxiety and depression. However, even though the threat manipulation resulted in a clear context potentiated startle effect, none of the parameters derived from the startle recordings was modulated by the DBS. This suggests that DBS in the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating anxiety symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder without modulating the startle circuitry. We hypothesize that the anxiety symptoms present in OCD are likely distinct from the pathological brain circuits in defensive states of other anxiety disorders.

  8. Errare machinale est: The use of error-related potentials in brain-machine interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo eChavarriaga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize errors is crucial for efficient behavior. Numerous studies have identified electrophysiological correlates of error recognition in the human brain (error-related potentials, ErrPs. Consequently, it has been proposed to use these signals to improve human-computer interaction (HCI or brain-machine interfacing (BMI. Here, we present a review of over a decade of developments towards this goal. This body of work provides consistent evidence that ErrPs can be successfully detected on a single-trial basis, and that they can be effectively used in both HCI and BMI applications.We first describe the ErrP phenomenon and follow up with an analysis of different strategies to increase the robustness of a system by incorporating single-trial ErrP recognition, either by correcting the machine's actions or by providing means for its error-based adaptation. These approaches can be applied both when the user employs traditional HCI input devices or in combination with another BMI channel.Finally, we discuss the current challenges that have to be overcome in order to fully integrate ErrPs into practical applications. This includes, in particular, the characterization of such signals during real(istic applications, as well as the possibility of extracting richer information from them, going beyond the time-locked decoding that dominates current approaches.

  9. Potential contribution of aromatase inhibition to the effects of nicotine and related compounds on the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Biegon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking continues to be a major public health problem, and while smoking rates in men have shown some decrease over the last few decades, smoking rates among girls and young women are increasing. Practically all of the important aspects of cigarette smoking are sexually dimorphic. Women become addicted more easily than men, while finding it harder to quit. Nicotine replacement appears to be less effective in women. This may be linked to the observation that women are more sensitive than men to non-nicotine cues or ingredients in cigarettes. The reasons for these sex differences are mostly unknown. Several lines of evidence suggest that many of the reported sex differences related to cigarette smoking may stem from the inhibitory effects of nicotine and other tobacco alkaloids on estrogen synthesis via the enzyme aromatase (cyp19a gene product. Aromatase is the last enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, catalyzing the conversion of androgens to estrogens. This review provides a summary of experimental evidence supporting brain aromatase as a potential mediator and/or modulator of nicotine actions in the brain, contributing to sex differences in smoking behavior. Additional research on the interaction between tobacco smoke, nicotine and aromatase may help devise new, sex specific methods for prevention and treatment of smoking addiction.

  10. Wildlife Abundance and Diversity as Indicators of Tourism Potential in Northern Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Winterbach, Christiaan W.; Whitesell, Carolyn; Somers, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife tourism can provide economic incentives for conservation. Due to the abundance of wildlife and the presence of charismatic species some areas are better suited to wildlife tourism. Our first objective was to develop criteria based on wildlife abundance and diversity to evaluate tourism potential in the Northern Conservation Zone of Botswana. Secondly we wanted to quantify and compare tourism experiences in areas with high and low tourism potential. We used aerial survey data to estim...

  11. Surplus Cost Potential as a Life Cycle Impact Indicator for Metal Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa D.M. Vieira; Thomas C. Ponsioen; Goedkoop, Mark J.; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2016-01-01

    In the evaluation of product life cycles, methods to assess the increase in scarcity of resources are still under development. Indicators that can express the importance of an increase in scarcity of metals extracted include surplus ore produced, surplus energy required, and surplus costs in the mining and the milling stage. Particularly the quantification of surplus costs per unit of metal extracted as an indicator is still in an early stage of development. Here, we developed a method that q...

  12. The TC-PSI indicator for forecasting the potential for market power in wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wholesale electricity market regulators have long sought a simple, reliable, transparent indicator of the likely impact of wholesale market developments on the exercise of market power. Conventional indicators, such as the Pivotal Supplier Indicator (PSI) and the Residual Supply Index (RSI) cannot be extended to apply to meshed transmission networks, especially when generating companies hold a portfolio of generating units at different locations on the network. This paper proposes a generalisation of these standard measures termed the 'Transmission-Constrained Pivotal Supplier Indicator (TC-PSI)'. The TC-PSI of a generating company is defined as the maximum must-run generation for any subset of generating plant while allowing for strategic operation of other plant in the portfolio. We illustrate the use of the TC-PSI using a five-node model of the Australian NEM. - Highlights: → An indicator for assessing the pivotality of generating portfolios is proposed. → Transmission constraints are modelled explicitly in the proposed indicator. → Strategic behaviours of a generating portfolio in using its units are modelled. → This approach was illustrated using a 5-node model of the Australian NEM.

  13. Cellular response of the blood-brain barrier to injury: Potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for brain regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenreiro, M M; Ferreira, R; Bernardino, L; Brito, M A

    2016-07-01

    Endothelial cells are the main component of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a vital structure for maintaining brain homeostasis that is seriously disrupted in various neurological pathologies. Therefore, vascular-targeted therapies may bring advantages for the prevention and treatment of brain disorders. In this sense, novel methods to identify and evaluate endothelial damage have been developed and include the detection of circulating endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, endothelial microparticles and exosomes. These cells and cellular structures have been documented in numerous diseases, and increasingly in neurodegenerative disorders, which have led many to assume that they can either be possible biomarkers or tools of repair. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss available data on BBB endothelial damage occurring in two pathologies of the central nervous system, Alzheimer's disease and stroke, which exemplify conditions where chronic and acute vascular damage occur, respectively. The ultimate goal is to identify useful biomarkers and/or therapeutic tools in the healthy and diseased brain that can be used for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases where BBB permeability and integrity are impaired. PMID:26996728

  14. Coupling of transient near infrared photonic with magnetic nanoparticle for potential dissipation-free biomedical application in brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Vidya; Atluri, V. S. R.; Tomitaka, A.; Shah, P.; Nagasetti, A.; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, S.; El-Hage, N.; McGoron, A.; Takemura, Y.; Nair, M.

    2016-07-01

    Combined treatment strategies based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with near infrared ray (NIR) biophotonic possess tremendous potential for non-invasive therapeutic approach. Nonetheless, investigations in this direction have been limited to peripheral body region and little is known about the potential biomedical application of this approach for brain. Here we report that transient NIR exposure is dissipation-free and has no adverse effect on the viability and plasticity of major brain cells in the presence or absence superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The 808 nm NIR laser module with thermocouple was employed for functional studies upon NIR exposure to brain cells. Magnetic nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic laser scattering (DLS), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Brain cells viability and plasticity were analyzed using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing system, cytotoxicity evaluation, and confocal microscopy. When efficacious non-invasive photobiomodulation and neuro-therapeutical targeting and monitoring to brain remain a formidable task, the discovery of this dissipation-free, transient NIR photonic approach for brain cells possesses remarkable potential to add new dimension.

  15. The maternal brain under stress: Consequences for adaptive peripartum plasticity and its potential functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, David A; Hillerer, Katharina M

    2016-04-01

    The peripartum period represents a time during which all mammalian species undergo substantial physiological and behavioural changes, which prepare the female for the demands of motherhood. In addition to behavioural and physiological alterations, numerous brain regions, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, olfactory bulb, medial amygdala and hippocampus are subject to substantial peripartum-associated neuronal, dendritic and synaptic plasticity. These changes, which are temporally- and spatially-distinct, are strongly influenced by gonadal and adrenal hormones, such as estrogen and cortisol/corticosterone, which undergo dramatic fluctuations across this period. In this review, we describe our current knowledge regarding these plasticity changes and describe how stress affects such normal adaptations. Finally, we discuss the mechanisms potentially underlying these neuronal, dendritic and synaptic changes and their functional relevance for the mother and her offspring. PMID:26828151

  16. The cognitive demands of second order manual control: Applications of the event related brain potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, C.; Gill, R.; Kramer, A.; Ross, W.; Donchin, E.

    1981-01-01

    Three experiments are described in which tracking difficulty is varied in the presence of a covert tone discrimination task. Event related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by the tones are employed as an index of the resource demands of tracking. The ERP measure reflected the control order variation, and this variable was thereby assumed to compete for perceptual/central processing resources. A fine-grained analysis of the results suggested that the primary demands of second order tracking involve the central processing operations of maintaining a more complex internal model of the dynamic system, rather than the perceptual demands of higher derivative perception. Experiment 3 varied tracking bandwidth in random input tracking, and the ERP was unaffected. Bandwidth was then inferred to compete for response-related processing resources that are independent of the ERP.

  17. Brain potentials in patients with music perception deficits: evidence for an early locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münte, T F; Schuppert, M; Johannes, S; Wieringa, B M; Kohlmetz, C; Altenmüller, E

    1998-11-01

    Twelve patients with an acute cerebrovascular accident were assigned to a group with music perception deficits (amusia, n = 6) or a group without such deficits (n = 6) on the basis of a new test-battery for music-perception skills. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded in an auditory classification task designed to elicit several components; the N1 as a correlate of initial auditory cortical processing, the P3a as an index of automatic attentional orienting, and the P3b as a measure for controlled stimulus evaluation. Patients with amusia showed a significant amplitude decrement for the P3a relative to controls and patients without amusia suggesting an impairment of early stimulus evaluation. P3b was reduced in both patient groups relative to control. These data show that amusia is quite common in unselected stroke patients and suggest deficits of generic rather than music-specific cognitive processes as the underlying cause. PMID:9853709

  18. Parallel synthesis of a series of potentially brain penetrant aminoalkyl benzoimidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micco, Iolanda; Nencini, Arianna; Quinn, Joanna; Bothmann, Hendrick; Ghiron, Chiara; Padova, Alessandro; Papini, Silvia

    2008-03-01

    Alpha7 agonists were identified via GOLD (CCDC) docking in the putative agonist binding site of an alpha7 homology model and a series of aminoalkyl benzoimidazoles was synthesised to obtain potentially brain penetrant drugs. The array was prepared starting from the reaction of ortho-fluoronitrobenzenes with a selection of diamines, followed by reduction of the nitro group to obtain a series of monoalkylated phenylene diamines. N,N'-Carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) mediated acylation, followed by a parallel automated work-up procedure, afforded the monoacylated phenylenediamines which were cyclised under acidic conditions. Parallel work-up and purification afforded the array products in good yields and purities with a robust parallel methodology which will be useful for other libraries. Screening for alpha7 activity revealed compounds with agonist activity for the receptor. PMID:18078760

  19. Modulations of 'late' event-related brain potentials in humans by dynamic audiovisual speech stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebib, Riadh; Papo, David; Douiri, Abdel; de Bode, Stella; Gillon Dowens, Margaret; Baudonnière, Pierre-Marie

    2004-11-30

    Lipreading reliably improve speech perception during face-to-face conversation. Within the range of good dubbing, however, adults tolerate some audiovisual (AV) discrepancies and lipreading, then, can give rise to confusion. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to study the perceptual strategies governing the intermodal processing of dynamic and bimodal speech stimuli, either congruently dubbed or not. Electrophysiological analyses revealed that non-coherent audiovisual dubbings modulated in amplitude an endogenous ERP component, the N300, we compared to a 'N400-like effect' reflecting the difficulty to integrate these conflicting pieces of information. This result adds further support for the existence of a cerebral system underlying 'integrative processes' lato sensu. Further studies should take advantage of this 'N400-like effect' with AV speech stimuli to open new perspectives in the domain of psycholinguistics. PMID:15531091

  20. Indications of a shallow potential in $^{48}$Ca+$^{96}$Zr fusion reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Esbensen, H

    2009-01-01

    Fusion data for $^{48}$Ca+$^{96}$Zr are analyzed by coupled-channels calculations. Puzzling features of a previous analysis are eliminated by applying a potential that has a shallow pocket in the entrance channel. Thus the observed $S$ factor for fusion, which develops a maximum at low energy, can be reproduced fairly well. The high-energy data can also be accounted for but that requires the use of a weak, short-ranged imaginary potential that absorbs the incoming flux near the location of the minimum of the potential pocket. Predictions of the fusion hindrance in other Ca+Zr systems are made and are compared with the systematics that has been developed previously.

  1. Studies on astrocyte function : potential roles in brain water homeostasis and neuroprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yutong

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes are essential in brain homeostasis and function, including maintenance of water and ion balance. Astrocytes express the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), implicated in both physiological functions and injury processes associated with brain edema, a common consequence of brain diseases. As part of the tripartite synapse astrocytes are tightly coupled to normal brain function via neuron-astrocyte interactions and by providing metabolic support to neurons as well as con...

  2. MicroRNAs in Brain Metastases: Potential Role as Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Samer Alsidawi; Ehsan Malek; Driscoll, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Brain metastases remain a daunting adversary that negatively impact patient survival. Metastatic brain tumors affect up to 45% of all cancer patients with systemic cancer and account for ~20% of all cancer-related deaths. A complex network of non-coding RNA molecules, microRNAs (miRNAs), regulate tumor metastasis. The brain micro-environment modulates metastatic tumor growth; however, defining the precise genetic events that promote metastasis in the brain niche represents an important, unres...

  3. Representations in human visual short-term memory : an event-related brain potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, P; Smid, HGOM; Heinze, HJ

    1999-01-01

    Behavioral measures and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 12 subjects while performing three delayed matching-to-sample tasks. The task instructions indicated whether stimulus locations, shapes or conjunctions of locations and shapes had to be memorized and matched against a probe.

  4. Auditory evoked potentials to spectro-temporal modulation of complex tones in normal subjects and patients with severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S J; Vaz Pato, M; Sprague, L; Stokes, M; Munday, R; Haque, N

    2000-05-01

    In order to assess higher auditory processing capabilities, long-latency auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded to synthesized musical instrument tones in 22 post-comatose patients with severe brain injury causing variably attenuated behavioural responsiveness. On the basis of normative studies, three different types of spectro-temporal modulation were employed. When a continuous 'clarinet' tone changes pitch once every few seconds, N1/P2 potentials are evoked at latencies of approximately 90 and 180 ms, respectively. Their distribution in the fronto-central region is consistent with generators in the supratemporal cortex of both hemispheres. When the pitch is modulated at a much faster rate ( approximately 16 changes/s), responses to each change are virtually abolished but potentials with similar distribution are still elicited by changing the timbre (e.g. 'clarinet' to 'oboe') every few seconds. These responses appear to represent the cortical processes concerned with spectral pattern analysis and the grouping of frequency components to form sound 'objects'. Following a period of 16/s oscillation between two pitches, a more anteriorly distributed negativity is evoked on resumption of a steady pitch. Various lines of evidence suggest that this is probably equivalent to the 'mismatch negativity' (MMN), reflecting a pre-perceptual, memory-based process for detection of change in spectro-temporal sound patterns. This method requires no off-line subtraction of AEPs evoked by the onset of a tone, and the MMN is produced rapidly and robustly with considerably larger amplitude (usually >5 microV) than that to discontinuous pure tones. In the brain-injured patients, the presence of AEPs to two or more complex tone stimuli (in the combined assessment of two authors who were 'blind' to the clinical and behavioural data) was significantly associated with the demonstrable possession of discriminative hearing (the ability to respond differentially to verbal commands

  5. Identifying Student Potential for ICT Entrepreneurship Using Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kevin A.; Andersen, Barry K.; Davidge-Pitts, Jennifer; Ostensen-Saunders, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Literature relating to personality and entrepreneurship has focused primarily on personality characteristics of traditional entrepreneurs. The focus of this study was on personality characteristics and temperaments of potential Information and Communication Technology (ICT) entrepreneurs. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the…

  6. Agent based modeling of the effects of potential treatments over the blood-brain barrier in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Marzio; Russo, Giulia; Motta, Santo; Pappalardo, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the central nervous system that involves the destruction of the insulating sheath of axons, causing severe disabilities. Since the etiology of the disease is not yet fully understood, the use of novel techniques that may help to understand the disease, to suggest potential therapies and to test the effects of candidate treatments is highly advisable. To this end we developed an agent based model that demonstrated its ability to reproduce the typical oscillatory behavior observed in the most common form of multiple sclerosis, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The model has then been used to test the potential beneficial effects of vitamin D over the disease. Many scientific studies underlined the importance of the blood-brain barrier and of the mechanisms that influence its permeability on the development of the disease. In the present paper we further extend our previously developed model with a mechanism that mimics the blood-brain barrier behavior. The goal of our work is to suggest the best strategies to follow for developing new potential treatments that intervene in the blood-brain barrier. Results suggest that the best treatments should potentially prevent the opening of the blood-brain barrier, as treatments that help in recovering the blood-brain barrier functionality could be less effective. PMID:26343337

  7. Differentiating between low and high susceptibility to schizophrenia in twins: the significance of dermatoglyphic indices in relation to other determinants of brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oel, C J; Baaré, W F; Hulshoff Pol, H E; Haag, J; Balazs, J; Dingemans, A; Kahn, R S; Sitskoorn, M M

    2001-12-01

    Both the skin and the brain develop from the same ectoderm and it is thought, therefore, that dermatoglyphics are informative for early disturbances in brain development in schizophrenia. This study was aimed at investigating the differences in both digital and palmar dermatoglyphic indices between twins discordant for schizophrenia and control twins. Furthermore, the significance of dermatoglyphic indices in relation to other determinants of brain development with regard to the susceptibility to schizophrenia was investigated. Data on dermatoglyphic indices of the hand and the palm were obtained from 21 same-sex discordant and 37 same-sex control twins. For 19 discordant and 25 control twins, there was also data available on brain volumes. Non-genetic intra-uterine circumstances early in pregnancy (10-13 weeks of gestation) are associated with a susceptibility to schizophrenia, since both the twins with schizophrenia and the unaffected co-twins showed more fluctuating asymmetry of the finger ridges (Pbrain and left hippocampal volumes in differentiating twins with a high susceptibility to schizophrenia from those with a low susceptibility. PMID:11705712

  8. Postoperative Stereotactic Radiosurgery Without Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases: Potential Role of Preoperative Tumor Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation therapy following resection of a brain metastasis increases the probability of disease control at the surgical site. We analyzed our experience with postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as an alternative to whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), with an emphasis on identifying factors that might predict intracranial disease control and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed all patients through December 2008, who, after surgical resection, underwent SRS to the tumor bed, deferring WBRT. Multiple factors were analyzed for time to intracranial recurrence (ICR), whether local recurrence (LR) at the surgical bed or “distant” recurrence (DR) in the brain, for time to WBRT, and for OS. Results: A total of 49 lesions in 47 patients were treated with postoperative SRS. With median follow-up of 9.3 months (range, 1.1-61.4 months), local control rates at the resection cavity were 85.5% at 1 year and 66.9% at 2 years. OS rates at 1 and 2 years were 52.5% and 31.7%, respectively. On univariate analysis (preoperative) tumors larger than 3.0 cm exhibited a significantly shorter time to LR. At a cutoff of 2.0 cm, larger tumors resulted in significantly shorter times not only for LR but also for DR, ICR, and salvage WBRT. While multivariate Cox regressions showed preoperative size to be significant for times to DR, ICR, and WBRT, in similar multivariate analysis for OS, only the graded prognostic assessment proved to be significant. However, the number of intracranial metastases at presentation was not significantly associated with OS nor with other outcome variables. Conclusions: Larger tumor size was associated with shorter time to recurrence and with shorter time to salvage WBRT; however, larger tumors were not associated with decrements in OS, suggesting successful salvage. SRS to the tumor bed without WBRT is an effective treatment for resected brain metastases, achieving local control particularly for tumors up to

  9. Postoperative Stereotactic Radiosurgery Without Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases: Potential Role of Preoperative Tumor Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartford, Alan C., E-mail: Alan.C.Hartford@Hitchcock.org [Section of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Paravati, Anthony J. [Section of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Spire, William J. [Section of Neurosurgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Li, Zhongze [Biostatistics Shared Resource, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Jarvis, Lesley A. [Section of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Fadul, Camilo E. [Section of Hematology/Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Rhodes, C. Harker [Department of Pathology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Erkmen, Kadir [Section of Neurosurgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Friedman, Jonathan [Department of Surgery, Texas A and M College of Medicine, College Station, Texas (United States); Gladstone, David J. [Section of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Hug, Eugen B. [ProCure, New York, New York (United States); Roberts, David W.; Simmons, Nathan E. [Section of Neurosurgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy following resection of a brain metastasis increases the probability of disease control at the surgical site. We analyzed our experience with postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as an alternative to whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), with an emphasis on identifying factors that might predict intracranial disease control and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed all patients through December 2008, who, after surgical resection, underwent SRS to the tumor bed, deferring WBRT. Multiple factors were analyzed for time to intracranial recurrence (ICR), whether local recurrence (LR) at the surgical bed or “distant” recurrence (DR) in the brain, for time to WBRT, and for OS. Results: A total of 49 lesions in 47 patients were treated with postoperative SRS. With median follow-up of 9.3 months (range, 1.1-61.4 months), local control rates at the resection cavity were 85.5% at 1 year and 66.9% at 2 years. OS rates at 1 and 2 years were 52.5% and 31.7%, respectively. On univariate analysis (preoperative) tumors larger than 3.0 cm exhibited a significantly shorter time to LR. At a cutoff of 2.0 cm, larger tumors resulted in significantly shorter times not only for LR but also for DR, ICR, and salvage WBRT. While multivariate Cox regressions showed preoperative size to be significant for times to DR, ICR, and WBRT, in similar multivariate analysis for OS, only the graded prognostic assessment proved to be significant. However, the number of intracranial metastases at presentation was not significantly associated with OS nor with other outcome variables. Conclusions: Larger tumor size was associated with shorter time to recurrence and with shorter time to salvage WBRT; however, larger tumors were not associated with decrements in OS, suggesting successful salvage. SRS to the tumor bed without WBRT is an effective treatment for resected brain metastases, achieving local control particularly for tumors up to

  10. Proton therapy for head and neck cancer: Rationale, potential indications, practical considerations, and current clinical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a strong rationale for potential benefits from proton therapy (PT) for selected cancers of the head and neck because of the opportunity to improve the therapeutic ratio by improving radiation dose distributions and because of the significant differences in radiation dose distribution achievable with x-ray-based radiation therapy (RT) and PT. Comparisons of dose distributions between x-ray-based and PT plans in selected cases show specific benefits in dose distribution likely to translate into improved clinical outcomes. However, the use of PT in head and neck cancers requires special considerations in the simulation and treatment planning process, and currently available PT technology may not permit realization of the maximum potential benefits of PT. To date, few clinical data are available, but early clinical experiences in sinonasal tumors in particular suggest significant improvements in both disease control and radiation-related toxicity

  11. Bivalves as indicators of environmental variation and potential anthropogenic impacts in the southern Barents Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Michael L.; Johnson, Beverly J.; Henkes, Gregory A.; McMahon, Kelton W.; Voronkov, Andrey; Ambrose, William G.; Denisenko, Stanislav G.

    2009-01-01

    Identifying patterns and drivers of natural variability in populations is necessary to gauge potential effects of climatic change and the expected increases in commercial activities in the Arctic on communities and ecosystems. We analyzed growth rates and shell geochemistry of the circumpolar Greenland smooth cockle, Serripes groenlandicus, from the southern Barents Sea over almost 70 years between 1882 and 1968. The datasets were calibrated via annually-deposited growth lines, and growth, st...

  12. HDL-replacement therapy: mechanism of action, types of agents and potential clinical indications

    OpenAIRE

    Remaley, Alan T.; Amar, Marcelo; Sviridov, Dmitri

    2008-01-01

    HDL-replacement therapy is a promising new treatment strategy involving the acute administration of HDL to rapidly stabilize patients at imminent risk for developing a myocardial infarction, such as those with acute coronary syndrome. This review will first focus on the anti-atherogenic mechanisms for HDL, such as the stimulation of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway, and then discuss the other potential beneficial biological effects of HDL on atherosclerosis. The various types of HDL-...

  13. Potential Lung Nodules Identification for Characterization by Variable Multistep Threshold and Shape Indices from CT Images

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem Iqbal; Khalid Iqbal; Fahim Arif; Arslan Shaukat; Aasia Khanum

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an important imaging modality. Physicians, surgeons, and oncologists prefer CT scan for diagnosis of lung cancer. However, some nodules are missed in CT scan. Computer aided diagnosis methods are useful for radiologists for detection of these nodules and early diagnosis of lung cancer. Early detection of malignant nodule is helpful for treatment. Computer aided diagnosis of lung cancer involves lung segmentation, potential nodules identification, features extractio...

  14. Multi-trait BLUP model indicates sorghum hybrids with genetic potential for agronomic and nutritional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Filho, J E; Tardin, F D; Guimarães, J F R; Resende, M D V; Silva, F F; Simeone, M L; Menezes, C B; Queiroz, V A V

    2016-01-01

    The breeding of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, aimed at improving its nutritional quality, is of great interest, since it can be used as a highly nutritive alternative food source and can possibly be cultivated in regions with low rainfall. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential and genetic diversity of grain-sorghum hybrids for traits of agronomic and nutritional interest. To this end, the traits grain yield and flowering, and concentrations of protein, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, and zinc in the grain were evaluated in 25 grain-sorghum hybrids, comprising 18 experimental hybrids of Embrapa Milho e Sorgo and seven commercial hybrids. The genetic potential was analyzed by a multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) model, and cluster analysis was accomplished by squared Mahalanobis distance using the predicted genotypic values. Hybrids 0306037 and 0306034 stood out in the agronomic evaluation. The hybrids with agronomic prominence, however, did not stand out for the traits related to the nutritional quality of the grain. Three clusters were formed from the dendrogram obtained with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean method. From the results of the genotypic BLUP and the analysis of the dendrogram, hybrids 0577337, 0441347, 0307651, and 0306037 were identified as having the potential to establish a population that can aggregate alleles for all the evaluated traits of interest. PMID:26985915

  15. The Potential for Spatial Distribution Indices to Signal Thresholds in Marine Fish Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Reuchlin-Hugenholtz, Emilie; Shackell, Nancy L.; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    The frequently observed positive relationship between fish population abundance and spatial distribution suggests that changes in distribution can be indicative of trends in abundance. If contractions in spatial distribution precede declines in spawning stock biomass (SSB), spatial distribution reference points could complement the SSB reference points that are commonly used in marine conservation biology and fisheries management. When relevant spatial distribution information is integrated i...

  16. Metagenomic Analysis Indicates Epsilonproteobacteria as a Potential Cause of Microbial Corrosion in Pipelines Injected with Bisulfite

    OpenAIRE

    An, Dongshan; Dong, Xiaoli; An, Annie; Park, Hyung S.; Strous, Marc; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Sodium bisulfite (SBS) is used as an oxygen scavenger to decrease corrosion in pipelines transporting brackish subsurface water used in the production of bitumen by steam-assisted gravity drainage. Sequencing 16S rRNA gene amplicons has indicated that SBS addition increased the fraction of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) Desulfomicrobium, as well as of Desulfocapsa, which can also grow by disproportionating sulfite into sulfide, sulfur, and sulfate. SRB use cathodic H2, formed by reductio...

  17. Faecal nitrogen: a potential indicator of red and roe deer diet quality in forest habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamler, Jiří; Homolka, Miloslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, 1-2 (2005), s. 89-98. ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/99/D053; GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : free-living ungulates * faecal indicators * diet quality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.585, year: 2005 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/54/1-2/89-98.pdf

  18. A potential to monitor nutrients as an indicator of rangeland quality using space borne remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global change consisting of land use and climate change could have huge impacts on food security and the health of various ecosystems. Leaf nitrogen (N) is one of the key factors limiting agricultural production and ecosystem functioning. Leaf N can be used as an indicator of rangeland quality which could provide information for the farmers, decision makers, land planners and managers. Leaf N plays a crucial role in understanding the feeding patterns and distribution of wildlife and livestock. Assessment of this vegetation parameter using conventional methods at landscape scale level is time consuming and tedious. Remote sensing provides a synoptic view of the landscape, which engenders an opportunity to assess leaf N over wider rangeland areas from protected to communal areas. Estimation of leaf N has been successful during peak productivity or high biomass and limited studies estimated leaf N in dry season. The objective of this study is to monitor leaf N as an indicator of rangeland quality using WorldView 2 satellite images in the north-eastern part of South Africa. Series of field work to collect samples for leaf N were undertaken in the beginning of May (end of wet season) and July (dry season). Several conventional and red edge based vegetation indices were computed. Simple regression was used to develop prediction model for leaf N. Using bootstrapping, indicator of precision and accuracy were analyzed to select a best model for the combined data sets (May and July). The may model for red edge based simple ratio explained over 90% of leaf N variations. The model developed from the combined data sets with normalized difference vegetation index explained 62% of leaf N variation, and this is a model used to estimate and map leaf N for two seasons. The study demonstrated that leaf N could be monitored using high spatial resolution with the red edge band capability

  19. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the biliary system: Potential uses and indications

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Xiong Xu

    2009-01-01

    Conventional ultrasound (US) is the first-line imaging investigation for biliary diseases. However, it is lack of the ability to depict the microcirculation of some lesions which may lead to failure in diagnosis for some biliary diseases. The use of contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) has reached the field of bile duct disease in recent years and promising results have been achieved. In this review, the methodology, image interpretation, enhancement pattern, clinical usefulness, and indications for C...

  20. Deficits in Facial Emotion Recognition Indicate Behavioral Changes and Impaired Self-Awareness after Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, Jacoba M.; Milders, Maarten V.; Visser-Keizer, Annemarie C.; Westerhof-Evers, Herma J.; Herben-Dekker, Meike; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability, specifically among younger adults. Behavioral changes are common after moderate to severe TBI and have adverse consequences for social and vocational functioning. It is hypothesized that deficits in social cognition, including facial aff

  1. Changes in cerebral blood flow and psychometric indicators in veterans with early forms of chronic brain ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilenko Т.М.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal is to study the cerebral blood flow and psychometric characteristics in veterans of Afghanistan with early forms of chronic brain ischemia. Material and Methods. The study included 74 veterans of the Afghan war aged from 45 to 55 years: group 1, 28 people with NPNKM; Group 2-28 patients with circulatory encephalopathy stage 1; group 3-18 healthy persons. Doppler examination of cerebral vessels was carried out on the unit «Smart-lite». Reactive and personal anxiety of patients was assessed using the scale of Spielberger, evaluation of the quality of life through the test SAN. Determining the level of neuroticism and psychoticism was conducted by the scale of neuroticism and psy-choticism. Results: The study of cerebral blood flow in the Afghan war veterans showed signs of insolvency of carotid and carotid-basilar anastomoses, hypoperfusion phenomenon with the depletion of autoregulation, violation of the outflow of venous blood at the level of the microvasculature, accompanied by cerebral arteries spasm. More than 40% of patients with early forms of chronic brain ischemia had high personal anxiety, low levels of well-being and activity, with maximum expression of dyscirculatory hypoxia. Conclusion. Readaptation of veterans of Afghanistan is accompanied by the changes in psychometric performance and the formation of the earliest forms of brain chronic ischemia associated with inadequate hemodynamics providing increased functional activity of the brain and the inefficiency of compensatory-adaptive reactions.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of brain penetrant prodrug of neuroprotective D-264: Potential therapeutic application in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholkawala, Fahd; Voshavar, Chandrashekhar; Dutta, Aloke K

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the major debilitating neurodegenerative disorders affecting millions of people worldwide. Progressive loss of dopamine neurons resulting in development of motor dysfunction and other related non-motor symptoms is the hallmark of PD. Previously, we have reported on the neuroprotective property of a potent D3 preferring agonist D-264. In our goal to increase the bioavailability of D-264 in the brain, we have synthesized a modified cysteine based prodrug of D-264 and evaluated its potential in crossing the blood-brain barrier. Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel modified cysteine conjugated prodrug of potent neuroprotective D3 preferring agonist D-264 and systematic evaluation of the hydrolysis pattern of the prodrug to yield D-264 at different time intervals in rat plasma and brain homogenates using HPLC analysis. Furthermore, we have also performed in vivo experiments with the prodrug to evaluate its enhanced brain penetration ability. PMID:26994936

  3. Indices of adrenal deficiency involved in brain plasticity and functional control reorganization in hemodialysis patients with polysulfone membrane: BOLD-fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaïch, Rachida; Boujraf, Saïd; Benzagmout, Mohammed; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Housni, Abdelkhalek; Batta, Fatima; Tizniti, Siham; Magoul, Rabia; Sqalli, Tarik

    2016-06-01

    This work purpose was to estimate the implication of suspected adrenal function deficiencies, which was influenced by oxidative stress (OS) that are generating brain plasticity, and reorganization of the functional control. This phenomenon was revealed in two-hemodialysis patients described in this paper. Blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) revealed a significant activation of the motor cortex. Hemodialysis seems to originate an inflammatory state of the cerebral tissue reflected by increased OS, while expected to decrease since hemodialysis eliminates free radicals responsible for OS. Considering adrenal function deficiencies, sensitivity to OS and assessed hyponatremia and hypercalcemia, adrenal function deficiencies is strongly suspected in both patients. This probably contributes to amplify brain plasticity and a reorganization of functional control after hemodialysis that is compared to earlier reported studies. Brain plasticity and functional control reorganization was revealed by BOLD-fMRI with a remarkable sensitivity. Brain plastic changes are originated by elevated OS associating indices of adrenal function deficiencies. These results raise important issues about adrenal functional deficiencies impact on brain plasticity in chronic hemodialysis-patients. This motivates more global studies of plasticity induced factors in this category of patients including adrenal functional deficiencies and OS. PMID:27301905

  4. Fault locking near Istanbul: indication of earthquake potential from InSAR and GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Faqi; Walter, Thomas R.; Solaro, Giuseppe; Wang, Rongjiang; Bonano, Manuela; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Ergintav, Semih; Zheng, Yong; Xiong, Xiong; Lanari, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    A sequence of large earthquakes occurred along the North Anatolian fault in the 20th century. These earthquakes, including the 1999 İzmit/Düzce earthquakes, generally propagated westward towards the Marmara Sea, defining the Main Marmara fault as a potential seismic gap. It is important to conduct a detailed assessment of the seismic hazards along the main Marmara fault because the megacity Istanbul lies only approximately 10 km north of the eastern segment of the Main Marmara fault, which is referred to as the Princes' Islands Fault segment (PIF). Here, we study the locking status of this fault segment to evaluate the seismic hazard potential. For the first time, combined ascending and descending Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar and Global Positioning System observations were used to investigate the crustal deformation associated with the PIF. After careful corrections of the estimated ground velocity, a deformation pattern relating to fault locking near the Princes' Islands was identified. The modeling results revealed that the slip rate and locking depth of the fault segment show a clear trade-off, which were estimated as 18.9 ± 7.2 mm yr-1 and 12.1 ± 7.0 km, respectively. With a moment accumulation rate of 1.7 ± 0.4 × 1017 Nm yr-1 (proportional to the product of slip rate and locking depth), our results imply a build-up of a geodetic moment on the PIF and therefore a potential for earthquake hazards in the vicinity of the Istanbul megacity.

  5. Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.; Calatayud, V.; Garrec, J.P.; He, S.; Penuelas, J.; Ribas, A.; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Rasmussen, S.; Sanz, M.J.; Vergne, P.

    2006-01-01

    Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants, the...... Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was applied to examine the genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Cuttings of Tradescantia clone #4430 were exposed to ambient air at 65 monitoring sites in 10 conurbations employing a standardised methodology. The tests revealed an elevated genotoxic potential mainly at...

  6. Simultaneous functional near-infrared brain imaging and event-related potential studies of Stroop effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jiahuan; Li, Ting; Zhang, Zhongxing; Gong, Hui

    2009-02-01

    Functional near-infrared brain imaging (fNIRI) and event-related potential (ERP) were used simultaneous to detect the prefrontal cortex (PFC) which is considered to execute cognitive control of the subjects while performing the Chinese characters color-word matching Stroop task with event-related design. The fNIRI instrument is a portable system operating at three wavelengths (735nm & 805nm &850nm) with continuous-wave. The event-related potentials were acquired by Neuroscan system. The locations of optodes corresponding to the electrodes were defined four areas symmetrically. In nine native Chinese-speaking fit volunteers, fNIRI measured the hemodynamic parameters (involving oxy-/deoxy- hemoglobin) changes when the characteristic waveforms (N500/P600) were recorded by ERP. The interference effect was obvious as a longer reaction time for incongruent than congruent and neutral stimulus. The responses of hemodynamic and electrophysiology were also stronger during incongruent compared to congruent and neutral trials, and these results are similar to those obtained with fNIRI or ERP separately. There are high correlations, even linear relationship, in the two kinds of signals. In conclusion, the multi-modality approach combining of fNIRI and ERP is feasible and could obtain more cognitive function information with hemodynamic and electrophysiology signals. It also provides a perspective to prove the neurovascular coupling mechanism.

  7. Steady state visually evoked potentials based Brain computer interface test outside the lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Francisco Caicedo Bravo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Steady State Visually Evoked Potentials (SSVEP are brain signals which are one of the most promising signals for Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs implementation, however, SSVEP based BCI generally are proven in a controlled environment and there are a few tests in demanding conditions.Method: We present a SSVEP based BCI system that was used outside the lab in a noisy environment with distractions, and with the presence of public. For the tests, we showed a maze in a laptop where the user could move an avatar looking for a target that is represented by a house.  In order to move the avatar, the volunteer must stare at one of the four visual stimuli; the four visual stimuli represent the four directions: right, up, left, and down. The system is proven without any calibration procedure.Results: 32 volunteers utilized the system and 20 achieved the target with an accuracy above 60%, including 9 with an accuracy of 100%, 7 achieved the target with an accuracy below 60% and 5 left without achieving the goal. For the volunteers who reached accuracy above 60%, the results of the performance achieved an average of 6,4s for command detections, precision of 79% and information transfer rate (ITR of 8,78 bits/s.Conclusions: We showed a SSVEP based BCI system with low cost, it was proved in a public event, it did not have calibration procedures, it was easy to install, and it was used for people in a wide age range. The results show that it is possible to bring this kind of systems to environments outside the laboratory.

  8. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Masahiko; Shutara, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Kazumi [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Nagata, Ken

    1998-07-01

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6{+-}3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  9. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6±3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  10. The Autonomous Stress Indicator for Remotely Monitoring Power System State and Watching for Potential Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Geza Joos; Khalil El Arroudi; Donald McGillis; Reginald Brearley

    2009-01-01

    The proposed Autonomous Stress Indicator (ASI) is a device that monitors the contents of the protection relays on a suspect weak power system bus and generates a performance level related to the degree of system performance degradation or instability. This gives the system operators some time (minutes) to take corrective action. In a given operating area there would not likely be a need for an ASI on every bus. Note that the ASI does not trip any breakers; it is an INFORMATION ONLY device. An...

  11. Ultra-slow frequency bands reflecting potential coherence between neocortical brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Wang, Y-T; Wang, Y; Jung, T P; Huang, M; Cheng, C K; Mandell, A J

    2015-03-19

    Recent studies of electromagnetic ultra-slow waves (⩽0.1Hz) have suggested that they play a role in the integration of otherwise disassociated brain regions supporting vital functions (Ackermann and Borbely, 1997; Picchioni et al., 2010; Knyazev, 2012; Le Bon et al., 2012). We emphasize this spectral domain in probing sensor coherence issues raised by these studies using Hilbert phase coherences in the human MEG. In addition, we ask: will temporal-spatial phase coherence in regional brain oscillations obtained from the ultraslow spectral bands of multi-channel magnetoencephalograms (MEG) differentiate resting, "task-free" MEG records of normal control and schizophrenic subjects? The goal of the study is a comparison of the relative persistence of intra-regional phase locking values (PLVs), among 10, region-defined, sensors in examined in the resting multichannel, MEG records as a function of spectral frequency bands and diagnostic category. The following comparison of Hilbert-transform-engendered relative phases of each designated spectral band was made using their pair-wise PLVs. This indicated the proportion of shared cycle time in which the phase relations between the index location and reference leads were maintained. Leave one out, bootstrapping of the PLVs via a support vector machine (SVM), classified clinical status with 97.3% accuracy. It was generally the case that spectral bands ⩽1.0Hz generated the highest values of the PLVs and discriminated best between control and patient populations. We conclude that PLV analysis of the oscillatory patterns of MEG recordings in the ultraslow frequency bands suggest their functional significance in intra-regional signal coherence and provide a higher rate of classification of patients and normal subjects than the other spectral domains examined. PMID:25592429

  12. Self Potential as an indicator of biogeochemical transformations during active hydrocarbon biodegradation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntarlagiannis, D.; Heenan, J. W.; Slater, L. D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Rossbach, S.; Beaver, C. L.; Revil, A.; Bekins, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Self potential (SP) signals, collected from borehole installation at the National Crude Oil Spill Fate and Natural Attenuation Research Site at Bemidji (MN), show a strong bipolar anomaly centered around the smear zone where intense bioremediation is known to occur. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) and geochemical analysis of soil cores confirmed the presence of a magnetite layer at the smear zone. The observed anomaly is consistent with the operation of a bio-geobattery centered on the conductive magnetite. This bio-geobattery is not permanent, but instead periodically shuts down, while at other times it reaches a maximum potential difference of ~ 70mV. The transient operation of the bio-geobattery appears to be associated with changes in the gradient of the redox species in the vicinity of the magnetite layer. Microbiological analysis of the soil cores identified microbial species that can support the operation of a bio-geobattery with the anode located below the magnetite, and the cathode above the magnetite layer. Environmental conditions local to the smear zone (e.g. water table change, rain water infiltration) seem to change the microbial dynamics around the magnetite layer resulting in redox gradient changes, essentially turning 'on' and 'off' the bio-geobattery. This work provides strong field-scale evidence for the functioning of a biogeobattery resulting from long-term biodegradation of a crude oil spill.

  13. Potential Lung Nodules Identification for Characterization by Variable Multistep Threshold and Shape Indices from CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT is an important imaging modality. Physicians, surgeons, and oncologists prefer CT scan for diagnosis of lung cancer. However, some nodules are missed in CT scan. Computer aided diagnosis methods are useful for radiologists for detection of these nodules and early diagnosis of lung cancer. Early detection of malignant nodule is helpful for treatment. Computer aided diagnosis of lung cancer involves lung segmentation, potential nodules identification, features extraction from the potential nodules, and classification of the nodules. In this paper, we are presenting an automatic method for detection and segmentation of lung nodules from CT scan for subsequent features extraction and classification. Contribution of the work is the detection and segmentation of small sized nodules, low and high contrast nodules, nodules attached with vasculature, nodules attached to pleura membrane, and nodules in close vicinity of the diaphragm and lung wall in one-go. The particular techniques of the method are multistep threshold for the nodule detection and shape index threshold for false positive reduction. We used 60 CT scans of “Lung Image Database Consortium-Image Database Resource Initiative” taken by GE medical systems LightSpeed16 scanner as dataset and correctly detected 92% nodules. The results are reproducible.

  14. Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was applied to examine the genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Cuttings of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 were exposed to ambient air at 65 monitoring sites in 10 conurbations employing a standardised methodology. The tests revealed an elevated genotoxic potential mainly at those urban sites which were exposed to severe car traffic emissions. This bioassay proved to be a suitable tool to detect local 'hot spots' of mutagenic air pollution in urban areas. For its use in routine monitoring programmes, however, further standardisation of cultivation and exposure techniques is recommended in order to reduce the variability of results due to varying environmental conditions. - The Tradescantia micronucleus test can be used to assess genotoxic potential at urban sites

  15. Reduced habituation of auditory evoked potentials indicate cortical hyper-excitability in Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, L E; White, S P; Mosconi, M W; Wang, J; Byerly, M J; Sweeney, J A

    2016-01-01

    Sensory hypersensitivities are common, clinically distressing features of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS). Preclinical evidence suggests this abnormality may result from synaptic hyper-excitability in sensory systems. This model predicts reduced sensory habituation to repeated stimulus presentation. Fourteen adolescents and adults with FXS and 15 age-matched controls participated in a modified auditory gating task using trains of 4 identical tones during dense array electroencephalography (EEG). Event-related potential and single trial time-frequency analyses revealed decreased habituation of the N1 event-related potential response in FXS, and increased gamma power coupled with decreases in gamma phase-locking during the early-stimulus registration period. EEG abnormalities in FXS were associated with parent reports of heightened sensory sensitivities and social communication deficits. Reduced habituation and altered gamma power and phase-locking to auditory cues demonstrated here in FXS patients parallels preclinical findings with Fmr1 KO mice. Thus, the EEG abnormalities seen in FXS patients support the model of neocortical hyper-excitability in FXS, and may provide useful translational biomarkers for evaluating novel treatment strategies targeting its neural substrate. PMID:27093069

  16. Sedimentary ladderane core lipids as potential indicators of hypoxia in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zongshan; CAO Yali; LI Li; SONG Guodong; YANG Hongmei; LIU Sumei; ZHAO Meixun

    2013-01-01

    Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) is an important process in many suboxic to anoxic marine environments for converting fixed nitrogen to N2,and has a major impact on the marine nitrogen cycle.Ladderane core lipids have been utilized as an indicator of the contribution of anammox to the marine nitrogen cycles.However,such studies have not been reported for the China seas and little is known about the importance ofanammox within the nitrogen cycle of these marginal seas.In the research reported here,the ladderane core lipid contents of 17 surface sediment samples from the East China Sea are reported,and their spatial distribution is investigated.C1s-[5]-ladderane FAME,C20-[5]-ladderane FAME and C20-[3]-ladderane FAME have all been detected,suggesting that the anammox bacteria are widely present within the study area.The total contents of the three ladderane lipids (ΣFAMEs) range from 24-355 ng/g (weight of dry sediments),with higher contents occurring in the Minzhe Mud Zone and broadly coincident with the spatial distribution of hypoxia.It is suggested that the sedimentary ladderane core lipids are mainly produced in the water column and their sedimentary contents can be used as indicators of water colunm hypoxia.

  17. A mixture of odorant molecules potentially indicating oestrus in mammals elicits penile erections in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Birte L; Jerôme, Nathalie; Saint-Albin, Audrey; Thonat, Catherine; Briant, Christine; Boué, Franck; Rampin, Olivier; Maurin, Yves

    2011-12-01

    A common set of odorous molecules may indicate female receptiveness across species, as male rats display sexual arousal when exposed to the odour of oestrous faeces from rats, vixens and mares. More than 900 different compounds were identified by GC-MS analyses performed on faeces samples from di-oestrous and oestrous females and from males of the three species. Five carboxylic acids were found in lower concentrations in faeces from all oestrous females. We subjected 12 sexually trained male rats to a 30 min exposure to different dilutions of a mixture of these five molecules in the same proportions as found in female oestrous faeces. The behavioural responses of the rats were compared to those displayed when exposed to water (negative control) and faeces from oestrous female rats (positive control). Frequency of penile erections were found to be significantly dependent on mixture dilution, with two intermediate dilutions eliciting frequencies of penile erections that did not differ from those obtained during exposure to oestrous female rat faeces. Higher and lower dilutions did not elicit more penile erections than observed with water. These results support our hypothesis that a small set of odorous molecules may indicate sexual receptiveness in mammalian females. PMID:21884731

  18. Lead isotopes in teeth as indicators of past domicile - a potential new tool in forensic science?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic signature for Australian subjects is based mainly on deciduous teeth analyses, especially teeth for 'non-exposed' children from the Broken Hill mining community. For 'non-exposed' children from Broken Hill and several other adults and children from varying locations, the mean 206Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios are 16.56 and 0.9318 respectively. These data are consistent with values for the isotopic composition of lead in blood obtained from over 200 Australian subjects (Gulson et al., 1995). From comparisons of permanent and deciduous teeth, the isotopic composition has remained remarkably uniform over more than a 30-year period, indicated by the relatively small standard deviation for the data

  19. The Autonomous Stress Indicator for Remotely Monitoring Power System State and Watching for Potential Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geza Joos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The proposed Autonomous Stress Indicator (ASI is a device that monitors the contents of the protection relays on a suspect weak power system bus and generates a performance level related to the degree of system performance degradation or instability. This gives the system operators some time (minutes to take corrective action. In a given operating area there would not likely be a need for an ASI on every bus. Note that the ASI does not trip any breakers; it is an INFORMATION ONLY device. An important feature is that the system operator can subsequently interrogate the ASI to determine the factor(s that led to the performance level that has been initially annunciated, thereby leading to a course of action. This paper traces the development of the ASI which is an ongoing project. The ASI could be also described as a stress-alert device whose function is to alert the System Operator of a stressful condition at its location. The characteristics (or essential qualities of this device are autonomy, selectivity, accuracy and intelligence. These will fulfill the requirements of the recommendation of the Canada –US Task Force in the August 2003 system collapse. Preliminary tests on the IEEE 39-bus model indicate that the concept has merit and development work is in progress. While the ASI can be applied to all power system operating conditions, its principal application is to the degraded state of the system where the System Operator must act to restore the system to the secure state before it migrates to a stage of collapse. The work of ASI actually begins with the Areas of Vulnerability and ends with the Predictive Module as described in detail in this paper. An application example of a degraded system using the IEEE 39-bus system is included.

  20. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for brain metastases from lung cancer. Evaluation of indications and predictors of local control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Takeaki [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Radiation Oncology, Hyogo (Japan); Seirei Mikatahara General Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Shizuoka (Japan); Yamada, Kazunari; Isogai, Kenta; Tonosaki, Yoshihiro [Seirei Mikatahara General Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Shizuoka (Japan); Harada, Aya [Kobe Minimum Invasive Cancer Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Hyogo (Japan); Demizu, Yusuke [Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hyogo (Japan); Miyawaki, Daisuke; Yoshida, Kenji; Ejima, Yasuo; Sasaki, Ryohei [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Radiation Oncology, Hyogo (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) for brain metastases (BMs) from lung cancer, and to explore prognostic factors associated with local control (LC) and indication. We evaluated patients who were treated with linac-based HSRT for BMs from lung cancer. Lesions treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the same patients during the same periods were analysed and compared with HSRT in terms of LC or toxicity. There were 53 patients with 214 lesions selected for this analysis (HSRT: 76 lesions, SRS: 138 lesions). For HSRT, the median prescribed dose was 35 Gy in 5 fractions. The 1-year LC rate was 83.6 % in HSRT; on multivariate analysis, a planning target volume (PTV) of <4 cm{sup 3}, biologically effective dose (BED{sub 10}) of ≥51 Gy, and adenocarcinoma were significantly associated with better LC. Moreover, in PTVs ≥ 4 cm{sup 3}, there was a significant difference in LC between BED{sub 10} < 51 Gy and ≥ 51 Gy (p = 0.024). On the other hand, in PTVs < 4 cm{sup 3}, both HSRT and SRS had good LC with no significant difference (p = 0.195). Radiation necrosis emerged in 5 of 76 lesions (6.6 %) treated with HSRT and 21 of 138 (15.2 %) lesions treated with SRS (p = 0.064). Linac-based HSRT was safe and effective for BMs from lung cancer, and hence might be particularly useful in or near an eloquent area. PTV, BED{sub 10}, and pathological type were significant prognostic factors. Furthermore, in BMs ≥ 4 cm{sup 3}, a dose of BED ≥ 51 Gy should be considered. (orig.) [German] Beurteilung von Wirksamkeit und Toxizitaet einer hypofraktionierten stereotaktischen Strahlentherapie (HSRT) zur Behandlung von Hirnmetastasen (HM) eines Lungenkarzinoms und Erforschung von mit der lokalen Kontrolle (LK) und der Indikation assoziierten Prognosefaktoren. Analysiert wurden Daten von Patienten (n = 53), die sich einer Linearbeschleuniger-basierten HSRT unterzogen (mit HSRT behandelte Laesionen n = 76; Median der

  1. Auditory brain-stem evoked potentials in cat after kainic acid induced neuronal loss. I. Superior olivary complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaroor, M; Starr, A

    1991-01-01

    Auditory brain-stem potentials (ABRs) were studied in cats for up to 45 days after kainic acid had been injected unilaterally or bilaterally into the superior olivary complex (SOC) to produce neuronal destruction while sparing fibers of passage and the terminals of axons of extrinsic origin connecting to SOC neurons. The components of the ABR in cat were labeled by their polarity at the vertex (P, for positive) and their order of appearance (the arabic numerals 1, 2, etc.). Component P1 can be further subdivided into 2 subcomponents labeled P1a and P1b. The correspondences we have assumed between the ABR components in cat and man are indicated by providing a Roman numeral designation for the human component in parentheses following the feline notation, e.g., P4 (V). With bilateral SOC destruction, there was a significant and marked attenuation of waves P2 (III), P3 (IV), P4 (V), P5 (VI), and the sustained potential shift (SPS) amounting to as much as 80% of preoperative values. Following unilateral SOC destruction the attenuation of many of these same ABR components, in response to stimulation of either ear, was up to 50%. No component of the ABR was totally abolished even when the SOC was lesioned 100% bilaterally. In unilaterally lesioned cats with extensive neuronal loss (greater than 75%) the latencies of the components beginning at P3 (IV) were delayed to stimulation of the ear ipsilateral to the injection site but not to stimulation of the ear contralateral to the injection. Binaural interaction components of the ABR were affected in proportion to the attenuation of the ABR. These results are compatible with multiple brain regions contributing to the generation of the components of the ABR beginning with P2 (III) and that components P3 (IV), P4 (V), and P5 (VI) and the sustained potential shift depend particularly on the integrity of the neurons of the SOC bilaterally. The neurons of the lateral subdivision (LSO) and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body

  2. Conserved B-cell epitopes among human bocavirus species indicate potential diagnostic targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human bocavirus species 1-4 (HBoV1-4 have been associated with respiratory and enteric infections in children. However, the immunological mechanisms in response to HBoV infections are not fully understood. Though previous studies have shown cross-reactivities between HBoV species, the epitopes responsible for this phenomenon remain unknown. In this study, we used genomic and immunologic approaches to identify the reactive epitopes conserved across multiple HBoV species and explored their potential as the basis of a novel diagnostic test for HBoVs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated HBoV1-3 VP2 gene fragment phage display libraries (GFPDLs and used these libraries to analyze mouse antisera against VP2 protein of HBoV1, 2, and 3, and human sera positive for HBoVs. Using this approach, we mapped four epitope clusters of HBoVs and identified two immunodominant peptides--P1 (¹MSDTDIQDQQPDTVDAPQNT²⁰, and P2 (¹⁶²EHAYPNASHPWDEDVMPDL¹⁸⁰--that are conserved among HBoV1-4. To confirm epitope immunogenicity, we immunized mice with the immunodominant P1 and P2 peptides identified in our screen and found that they elicited high titer antibodies in mice. These two antibodies could only recognize the VP2 of HBoV 1-4 in Western blot assays, rather than those of the two other parvoviruses human parvovirus B19 and human parvovirus 4 (PARV4. Based on our findings, we evaluated epitope-based peptide-IgM ELISAs as potential diagnostic tools for HBoVs IgM antibodies. We found that the P1+P2-IgM ELISA showed a higher sensitivity and specificity in HBoVs IgM detection than the assays using a single peptide. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The identification of the conserved B-cell epitopes among human bocavirus species contributes to our understanding of immunological cross-reactivities of HBoVs, and provides important insights for the development of HBoV diagnostic tools.

  3. Potential new approaches for the development of brain imaging agents for single-photon applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes new strategies for the brain-specific delivery of radionuclides that can be used to evaluate regional cerebral perfusion by single photon imaging techniques. A description of several examples of interesting new strategies that have recently been reported is presented. A new approach at this institution for the brain-specific delivery of radioiodinated iodophenylalkyl-substituted dihyronicotinamide systems is described which shows good brain uptake and retention in preliminary studies in rats. Following transport into the brain these agents appear to undergo facile intracerebral oxidation to the quaternized analogues which do not recross the intact blood-brain barrier and so are effectively trapped in the brain. 49 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  4. Potential new approaches for the development of brain imaging agents for single-photon applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Srivastava, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes new strategies for the brain-specific delivery of radionuclides that can be used to evaluate regional cerebral perfusion by single photon imaging techniques. A description of several examples of interesting new strategies that have recently been reported is presented. A new approach at this institution for the brain-specific delivery of radioiodinated iodophenylalkyl-substituted dihyronicotinamide systems is described which shows good brain uptake and retention in preliminary studies in rats. Following transport into the brain these agents appear to undergo facile intracerebral oxidation to the quaternized analogues which do not recross the intact blood-brain barrier and so are effectively trapped in the brain. 49 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Multi-Analytical Approach Reveals Potential Microbial Indicators in Soil for Sugarcane Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Diniz, Tatiana Rosa; Braga, Lucas Palma Perez; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Zacarias; Franchini, Julio Cezar; Rossetto, Raffaella; Edwards, Robert Alan; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the effects of organic and inorganic amendments and straw retention on the microbial biomass (MB) and taxonomic groups of bacteria in sugarcane-cultivated soils in a greenhouse mesocosm experiment monitored for gas emissions and chemical factors. The experiment consisted of combinations of synthetic nitrogen (N), vinasse (V; a liquid waste from ethanol production), and sugarcane-straw blankets. Increases in CO2-C and N2O-N emissions were identified shortly after the addition of both N and V to the soils, thus increasing MB nitrogen (MB-N) and decreasing MB carbon (MB-C) in the N+V-amended soils and altering soil chemical factors that were correlated with the MB. Across 57 soil metagenomic datasets, Actinobacteria (31.5%), Planctomycetes (12.3%), Deltaproteobacteria (12.3%), Alphaproteobacteria (12.0%) and Betaproteobacteria (11.1%) were the most dominant bacterial groups during the experiment. Differences in relative abundance of metagenomic sequences were mainly revealed for Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia with regard to N+V fertilization and straw retention. Differential abundances in bacterial groups were confirmed using 16S rRNA gene-targeted phylum-specific primers for real-time PCR analysis in all soil samples, whose results were in accordance with sequence data, except for Gammaproteobacteria. Actinobacteria were more responsive to straw retention with Rubrobacterales, Bifidobacteriales and Actinomycetales related to the chemical factors of N+V-amended soils. Acidobacteria subgroup 7 and Opitutae, a verrucomicrobial class, were related to the chemical factors of soils without straw retention as a surface blanket. Taken together, the results showed that MB-C and MB-N responded to changes in soil chemical factors and CO2-C and N2O-N emissions, especially for N+V-amended soils. The results also indicated that several taxonomic groups of bacteria, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and

  6. Marine bacterial succession as a potential indicator of postmortem submersion interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Gemma C; Poulter, Russell T M; Maas, Elizabeth W; Probert, P Keith; Kieser, Jules A

    2011-06-15

    The process of decomposition of bodies in the marine environment is poorly understood and almost nothing is currently known about the microorganisms involved. This study aimed to investigate the microbes involved in decomposition in the sea and to evaluate the potential use of marine bacterial succession for postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) estimation, for which there is currently no reliable method. Partial pig remains were completely submerged during autumn and winter and were regularly sampled to document marine bacterial colonisation and the changes in community composition over time. Five stages of decomposition were recognised, some of which exhibited characters specific for partial carrion. Marine bacteria rapidly colonised the submerged remains in a successional manner. Seasonal differences were observed for the rate of decomposition and also for several groups of colonising bacteria. Marine bacteria specific for particular PMSIs were identified. This study provides an insight into the involvement of saprophytic marine bacteria in the decomposition of mammalian remains in the sea and is the first to explore the use of marine bacterial colonisation and succession as a novel tool for PMSI estimation. We propose that with further study, marine bacterial succession will prove useful for determination of the length of time a body may have been immersed in a marine environment. PMID:21074955

  7. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs: developing survey items to measure awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeill Ann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1 the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2 the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented.

  8. Electrical stimulation alleviates depressive-like behaviors of rats: investigation of brain targets and potential mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, L.W.; Prickaerts, J.; Huguet, G; Kadar, E; Hartung, H; Sharp, T; Y. Temel

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising therapy for patients with refractory depression. However, key questions remain with regard to which brain target(s) should be used for stimulation, and which mechanisms underlie the therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of DBS, with low- and high-frequency stimulation (LFS, HFS), in different brain regions (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, vmPFC; cingulate cortex, Cg; nucleus accumbens (NAc) core or shell; lateral habenula, LHb; and v...

  9. Indications for potential parent-of-origin effects within the FTO gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanshi Liu

    Full Text Available Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS were successfully applied to discover associations with obesity. However, the GWAS design is usually based on unrelated individuals and inheritance information on the parental origin of the alleles is missing. Taking into account parent-of-origin may provide further insights into the genetic mechanisms contributing to obesity. We hypothesized that there may be variants within the robustly replicated fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene that may confer different risk for obesity depending on transmission from mother or father. Genome-wide genotypes and pedigree information from the Sorbs population were used. Phased genotypes among 525 individuals were generated by AlphaImpute. Subsequently, 22 SNPs within FTO introns 1 to 3 were selected and parent-of-origin specific association analyses were performed using PLINK. Interestingly, we identified several SNPs conferring different genetic effects (P≤0.05 depending on parental origin--among them, rs1861868, rs1121980 and rs9939973 (all in intron 1. To confirm our findings, we investigated the selected variants in 705 German trios comprising an (extremely obese child or adolescent and both parents. Again, we observed evidence for POE effects in intron 2 and 3 (P≤0.05 as indicated by the parental asymmetry test. Our results suggest that the obesity risk transmitted by several FTO variants may depend on the parental origin of the allele. Larger family-based studies are warranted to replicate our findings.

  10. Complex forest dynamics indicate potential for slowing carbon accumulation in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulston, John W.; Wear, David N.; Vose, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century forest regrowth in Europe and North America expanded forest carbon (C) sinks and offset C emissions but future C accumulation is uncertain. Policy makers need insights into forest C dynamics as they anticipate emissions futures and goals. We used land use and forest inventory data to estimate how forest C dynamics have changed in the southeastern United States and attribute changes to land use, management, and disturbance causes. From 2007-2012, forests yielded a net sink of C because of net land use change (+6.48 Tg C yr-1) and net biomass accumulation (+75.4 Tg C yr-1). Forests disturbed by weather, insect/disease, and fire show dampened yet positive forest C changes (+1.56, +1.4, +5.48 Tg C yr-1, respectively). Forest cutting caused net decreases in C (-76.7 Tg C yr-1) but was offset by forest growth (+143.77 Tg C yr-1). Forest growth rates depend on age or stage of development and projected C stock changes indicate a gradual slowing of carbon accumulation with anticipated forest aging (a reduction of 9.5% over the next five years). Additionally, small shifts in land use transitions consistent with economic futures resulted in a 40.6% decrease in C accumulation.

  11. Toward FRP-Based Brain-Machine Interfaces-Single-Trial Classification of Fixation-Related Potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Finke

    Full Text Available The co-registration of eye tracking and electroencephalography provides a holistic measure of ongoing cognitive processes. Recently, fixation-related potentials have been introduced to quantify the neural activity in such bi-modal recordings. Fixation-related potentials are time-locked to fixation onsets, just like event-related potentials are locked to stimulus onsets. Compared to existing electroencephalography-based brain-machine interfaces that depend on visual stimuli, fixation-related potentials have the advantages that they can be used in free, unconstrained viewing conditions and can also be classified on a single-trial level. Thus, fixation-related potentials have the potential to allow for conceptually different brain-machine interfaces that directly interpret cortical activity related to the visual processing of specific objects. However, existing research has investigated fixation-related potentials only with very restricted and highly unnatural stimuli in simple search tasks while participant's body movements were restricted. We present a study where we relieved many of these restrictions while retaining some control by using a gaze-contingent visual search task. In our study, participants had to find a target object out of 12 complex and everyday objects presented on a screen while the electrical activity of the brain and eye movements were recorded simultaneously. Our results show that our proposed method for the classification of fixation-related potentials can clearly discriminate between fixations on relevant, non-relevant and background areas. Furthermore, we show that our classification approach generalizes not only to different test sets from the same participant, but also across participants. These results promise to open novel avenues for exploiting fixation-related potentials in electroencephalography-based brain-machine interfaces and thus providing a novel means for intuitive human-machine interaction.

  12. Pathophysiology of Juvenile Traumatic Brain Injury: Role of Edema and a Potential Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force to the head, resulting in damage to the brain. TBI is especially common in children and young adults and is associated with long-term mortality and morbidity. Juveniles seem to be at increased risk of developing cerebral edema after TBI partly due to higher water content and developmental differences in the brain's response to injury. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the most abundant water channel in the brain and plays a critical role in edem...

  13. Dogs Cannot Bark: Event-Related Brain Responses to True and False Negated Statements as Indicators of Higher-Order Conscious Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Herbert; Andrea Kübler

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level) and prime-target expressions (word level). Stimuli were presented acoustically and no ...

  14. Mycobacterium bovis DNA detection in colostrum as a potential indicator of vaccination effectiveness against bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Rodríguez, Sara E; Gordiano-Hidalgo, María Alejandra; López-Rincón, Gonzálo; Bojorquez-Narváez, Luis; Padilla-Ramírez, Francisco Javier; Pereira-Suárez, Ana Laura; Flores-Valdez, Mario Alberto; Estrada-Chávez, Ciro

    2013-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a problem on many dairy farms in Mexico, as well as a public health risk. We previously found a high frequency of Mycobacterium bovis DNA in colostrum from dairy cows using a nested PCR to detect mpb70. Since there are no reliable in vivo tests to determine the effectiveness of booster Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against bTB, in this work we monitored M. bovis DNA in colostrum by using this nested PCR. In order to decrease the risk of adverse reactions in animals likely containing viable M. bovis, a single application of BCG and a subunit vaccine (EEP-1) formulated with M. bovis culture filtrate proteins (CFP) and a copolymer as the adjuvant was performed in tuberculin skin test-negative cattle (TST(-)), while TST reactor animals (TST(+)) received EEP-1 only. Booster immunization using EEP-1 was applied to both groups, 2 months after primary vaccination to whole herds and 12 months later to lactating cows. Colostrum samples were collected from 6 farms where the cows were vaccinated over a 12-month period postvaccination and, for comparison, from one control farm where the cows were not vaccinated with comparable bTB prevalence. We observed an inverse relationship between the frequency of M. bovis DNA detection and time postvaccination at the first (P < 0.001) and second (P < 0.0001) 6-month periods. Additionally, the concentration of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was higher in mpb70 PCR-positive colostrum samples (P = 0.0003). These results suggest that M. bovis DNA frequency in colostrum could be a potentially useful biomarker for bTB vaccine efficacy on commercial dairy farms. PMID:23425597

  15. Plant DNA: A new substrate for carbon stable isotope analysis and a potential paleoenvironmental indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahren, A. Hope; Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole

    2004-03-01

    The δ13C value of fossil plant materials can be used to gain insight into the dominant photosynthetic pathway, as well as other environmental attributes, of ancient plant ecosystems. Nucleotide sequences from land plant nucleic acids extracted from 400 ka fossil sediments have been recognized as the oldest authenticated fossil deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), making the inference of plant taxonomy possible in substrates devoid of plant macrofossils and microfossils. If the C isotope relationship between bulk plant tissue and associated plant nucleic acids were known, fossil plant nucleic acids could be analyzed for δ13C value and used as land plant isotopic substrates within mixed organic material. Toward this end, we present δ13C analyses of nucleic acids isolated from 12 higher plant species that span the full phylogenetic diversity of seed plants. Extracted nucleic acids were dominated by double-stranded DNA containing fragments of rbcL gene ˜350 base pairs in length. The C isotope compositions of plant nucleic acids were found to be enriched in 13C relative to bulk plant tissue by a constant value = 1.39‰. This study represents the first comparison of the δ13C value of nucleic acids to the δ13C value of bulk tissue for multicellular organisms; our results contrasted with the minimal fractionations reported for microorganisms. Because the isotopic enrichment is constant across tracheophytes, the δ13C value of fossil plant DNA can be used as a paleoenvironmental indicator, eliminating the need for morphological recognition of fossil plant material in paleoenvironmental studies.

  16. Soil fungal community shift evaluation as a potential cadaver decomposition indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimutsa, Monica; Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim J U; Ralebitso-Senior, T Komang

    2015-12-01

    Fungi metabolise organic matter in situ and so alter both the bio-/physico-chemical properties and microbial community structure of the ecosystem. In particular, they are responsible reportedly for specific stages of decomposition. Therefore, this study aimed to extend previous bacteria-based forensic ecogenomics research by investigating soil fungal community and cadaver decomposition interactions in microcosms with garden soil (20 kg, fresh weight) and domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcass (5 kg, leg). Soil samples were collected at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm on days 3, 28 and 77 in the absence (control -Pg) and presence (experimental +Pg) of Sus scrofa domesticus and used for total DNA extraction and nested polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiling of the 18S rRNA gene. The Shannon-Wiener (H') community diversity indices were 1.25±0.21 and 1.49±0.30 for the control and experimental microcosms, respectively, while comparable Simpson species dominance (S) values were 0.65±0.109 and 0.75±0.015. Generally, and in contrast to parallel studies of the bacterial 16S rRNA and 16S rDNA profiles, statistical analysis (t-test) of the 18S dynamics showed no mathematically significant shifts in fungal community diversity (H'; p=0.142) and dominance (S; p=0.392) during carcass decomposition, necessitating further investigations. PMID:26322496

  17. Evaluating stakeholder participation in water management: intermediary outcomes as potential indicators for future resource management outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Gemma; Bloeschl, Guenter; Loucks, Daniel Pete

    2013-04-01

    . Furthermore, failure to achieve intermediary outcomes correlates to failure to achieve resource management outcomes. Evaluating intermediary outcomes leads to both a broader assessment of a programme's achievements at the time of evaluation, and can indicate whether a programme will go on to achieve resource management objectives in the future.

  18. Predictive Potential of Heart Rate Complexity Measurement: An Indication for Laparotomy Following Solid Organ Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroutan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV has been recently used as a predictor of prognosis in trauma patients. Objectives We applied nonlinear analysis of HRV in patients with blunt trauma and intraperitoneal bleeding to assess our ability to predict the outcome of conservative management. Patients and Methods An analysis of electrocardiography (ECG from 120 patients with blunt trauma was conducted at the onset of admission to the emergency department. ECGs of 65 patients were excluded due to inadequacy of noise-free length. Of the remaining 55 patients, 47 survived (S group and eight patients died in the hospital (Non-S group. Nineteen patients were found to have intra-abdominal bleeding, eight of which ultimately underwent laparotomy to control bleeding (Op group and 11 underwent successful non-operative management (non-Op. Demographic data including vital signs, glasgow coma scale (GCS, arterial blood gas and injury severity scores (ISS were recorded. Heart rate complexity (HRC methods, including entropy, were used to analyze the ECG. Results There were no differences in age, gender, heart rate (HR and blood pressure between the S and Non-S groups. However, approximate entropy, used as a method of HRC measurement, and GCS were significantly higher in S group, compared to the Non-S group. The base deficit and ISS were significantly higher in the Non-S group. Regarding age, sex, ISS, base deficit, vital signs and GCS, no difference was found between Op and Non-Op groups. Approximate entropy was significantly lower in the Op group, compared to the Non-Op group. Conclusions The loss of HRC at the onset of admission may predict mortality in patients with blunt trauma. Lower entropy, in recently admitted patients with intra-abdominal bleeding, may indicate laparotomy when the vital signs are stable.

  19. Relevant magnetic and soil parameters as potential indicators of soil conservation status of Mediterranean agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Laura; Chaparro, Marcos A. E.; Marié, Débora C.; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2014-09-01

    The main sources of magnetic minerals in soils unaffected by anthropogenic pollution are iron oxides and hydroxides derived from parent materials through soil formation processes. Soil magnetic minerals can be used as indicators of environmental factors including soil forming processes, degree of pedogenesis, weathering processes and biological activities. In this study measurements of magnetic susceptibility are used to detect the presence and the concentration of soil magnetic minerals in topsoil and bulk samples in a small cultivated field, which forms a hydrological unit that can be considered to be representative of the rainfed agroecosystems of Mediterranean mountain environments. Additional magnetic studies such as isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and thermomagnetic measurements are used to identify and characterize the magnetic mineralogy of soil minerals. The objectives were to analyse the spatial variability of the magnetic parameters to assess whether topographic factors, soil redistribution processes, and soil properties such as soil texture, organic matter and carbonate contents analysed in this study, are related to the spatial distribution pattern of magnetic properties. The medians of mass specific magnetic susceptibility at low frequency (χlf) were 36.0 and 31.1 × 10-8 m3 kg-1 in bulk and topsoil samples respectively. High correlation coefficients were found between the χlf in topsoil and bulk core samples (r = 0.951, p SI. High correlation coefficients were found between χlf in topsoil measured in the laboratory and volumetric magnetic susceptibility field measurements (r = 0.894, p physical processes. Runoff redistributes soil components including magnetic minerals and exports fine particles out the field. This research contributed to further knowledge on the application of soil magnetic properties to derive useful information on soil processes in Mediterranean cultivated soils.

  20. A Brain Computer Interface for Robust Wheelchair Control Application Based on Pseudorandom Code Modulated Visual Evoked Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohebbi, Ali; Engelsholm, Signe K.D.; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan;

    2015-01-01

    In this pilot study, a novel and minimalistic Brain Computer Interface (BCI) based wheelchair control application was developed. The system was based on pseudorandom code modulated Visual Evoked Potentials (c-VEPs). The visual stimuli in the scheme were generated based on the Gold code, and the...

  1. Dogs cannot bark: event-related brain responses to true and false negated statements as indicators of higher-order conscious processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Herbert

    Full Text Available The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level and prime-target expressions (word level. Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences, target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600-1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients.

  2. Dogs cannot bark: event-related brain responses to true and false negated statements as indicators of higher-order conscious processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Cornelia; Kübler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level) and prime-target expressions (word level). Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences), target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600-1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients. PMID:22022414

  3. Carbamazepine as indicator for potential short-term contamination of karst springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doummar, J.; Baierl, M.; Noedler, K.; Licha, T.; Sauter, M.; Geyer, T.

    2012-04-01

    Karst aquifers are complex systems which vulnerability is very difficult to assess mainly because of the duality of recharge processes and duality of flow. Recharge to a karst aquifer occurs as diffuse or concentrated (sinkholes and dolines). Moreover, karst aquifers are formed by an unsaturated zone comprising soil, epikarst and unsaturated rock matrix, and a saturated zone formed of highly permeable conduits and low permeability matrix storage. In the case of contamination of groundwater by wastewater effluent polluted water can be either transported rapidly and have short term major risk on spring water quality or infiltrate into fractured rock matrix and therefore have a long term effect on the water quality. In order to identify the risk of wastewater infiltrating into an aquifer, researches have focused to date on the identification of indicative wastewater markers. Carbamazepine (CBZ) was frequently detected in surface water as well as in effluents of sewage treatment plants, as less than 10% of carbamazepine are usually eliminated during sewage treatment. Moreover, CBZ is not attenuated in aquifers (Heberer, 2002), is unlikely degradable or adsorbed, and can be detected in groundwater (Clara et al., 2004). Therefore, CBZ is considered to be fairly persistent in groundwater (Tixier et al., 2003), and is consequently regarded as an effective wastewater marker. In this case study, the Jeita spring in Lebanon (spring discharge: 1-20 m3/s) was monitored and sampled for major ions and micro-pollutants following a combined precipitation/snowmelt events. A total of 28 samples (major ions and micro-pollutants) were taken over a total sampling time of 16 days at interval varying between 4 and 24 hours. Based on the variation with time of discharge and electrical conductivity (monitored every 20 minutes) as well as the concentrations of the major ions, a conceptual model showing the response of the aquifer compartments to the precipitation event was generated. A

  4. Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyniuk O.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and express-assessment. Material: in the research 47 first and second year girl students participated, who belonged to main health group. Results: we distributed the girl students into three groups: 14.89% of them were included in group with “safe” health condition; 34.04% - in group of “third state”; 51.06% were related to group with “ dangerous” health condition. We established that dangerous level was characterized by energy potential of below middle and low level. It is accompanied by accelerated processes of organism’s age destructions and tension of regulation mechanisms. Conclusions: the received results permit to further develop and generalize the data of students’ health’s assessment by indicators of adaptation potentials, biological age and physical health’s condition.

  5. Time-Shift Correlation Algorithm for P300 Event Related Potential Brain-Computer Interface Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Chou, Hung-Chyun; Chen, Chien-Hsiu; Lin, Yi-Tseng

    2016-01-01

    A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI). The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN), and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM) and accuracy-recognition mode (AM), were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR). When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints.

  6. Time-Shift Correlation Algorithm for P300 Event Related Potential Brain-Computer Interface Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chi Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI. The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN, and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM and accuracy-recognition mode (AM, were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR. When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints.

  7. Subject combination and electrode selection in cooperative brain-computer interface based on event related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecotti, Hubert; Rivet, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    New paradigms are required in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems for the needs and expectations of healthy people. To solve this issue, we explore the emerging field of cooperative BCIs, which involves several users in a single BCI system. Contrary to classical BCIs that are dependent on the unique subject's will, cooperative BCIs are used for problem solving tasks where several people shall be engaged by sharing a common goal. Similarly as combining trials over time improves performance, combining trials across subjects can significantly improve performance compared with when only a single user is involved. Yet, cooperative BCIs may only be used in particular settings, and new paradigms must be proposed to efficiently use this approach. The possible benefits of using several subjects are addressed, and compared with current single-subject BCI paradigms. To show the advantages of a cooperative BCI, we evaluate the performance of combining decisions across subjects with data from an event-related potentials (ERP) based experiment where each subject observed the same sequence of visual stimuli. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to achieve a mean AUC superior to 0.95 with 10 subjects and 3 electrodes on each subject, or with 4 subjects and 6 electrodes on each subject. Several emerging challenges and possible applications are proposed to highlight how cooperative BCIs could be efficiently used with current technologies and leverage BCI applications. PMID:24961765

  8. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Cecotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available New paradigms are required in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI systems for the needs and expectations of healthy people. To solve this issue, we explore the emerging field of cooperative BCIs, which involves several users in a single BCI system. Contrary to classical BCIs that are dependent on the unique subject’s will, cooperative BCIs are used for problem solving tasks where several people shall be engaged by sharing a common goal. Similarly as combining trials over time improves performance, combining trials across subjects can significantly improve performance compared with when only a single user is involved. Yet, cooperative BCIs may only be used in particular settings, and new paradigms must be proposed to efficiently use this approach. The possible benefits of using several subjects are addressed, and compared with current single-subject BCI paradigms. To show the advantages of a cooperative BCI, we evaluate the performance of combining decisions across subjects with data from an event-related potentials (ERP based experiment where each subject observed the same sequence of visual stimuli. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to achieve a mean AUC superior to 0.95 with 10 subjects and 3 electrodes on each subject, or with 4 subjects and 6 electrodes on each subject. Several emerging challenges and possible applications are proposed to highlight how cooperative BCIs could be efficiently used with current technologies and leverage BCI applications.

  9. Parafoveal processing in reading Chinese sentences: Evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Niefind, Florian; Wang, Suiping; Sommer, Werner; Dimigen, Olaf

    2015-10-01

    Natural reading involves the preprocessing of upcoming words, resulting in shorter fixations on words visible in the parafovea during preceding fixations. While this preview benefit is established in behavior, its brain-electric correlates have only recently been investigated. Using fixation-related potentials, an attenuation of the occipitotemporal N1 component for words that were parafoveally visible during preceding fixations has been demonstrated. In contrast, another study, using an RSVP paradigm with parafoveal flanker words, observed no such general preview benefit in ERPs, but instead reported N400 effects triggered by semantically incongruous parafoveal words. To follow up on these discrepant findings and to extend them to a nonalphabetic writing system, we conducted two ERP experiments with Chinese readers using the RSVP-with-flankers paradigm and rigorous fixation control via eye tracking. We replicate robust parafoveal N400 semantic congruency effects in Chinese participants. Additionally, we found that, once a word was directly looked at, words after a valid preview elicited a smaller N1 and a weaker N400 than those after an invalid preview. Results underline the importance of considering parafoveal vision in ERP studies on reading. PMID:26289548

  10. Cation transport and membrane potential properties of primary astroglial cultures from neonatal rat brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes K+ and Na+ content and transport in primary monolayer cultures from dissociated newborn rat brains, considered to consist predominantly of astroglial cells. Net changes in cation content after addition of ouabain, and steady state fluxes using 86Rb+ as a marker for K+ and 22Na+ as a marker for Na+, were measured. The results found indicate that the cells maintained a conventional pattern of cation homeostasis with net efflux of K+ being balanced by its active uptake and net uptake of Na+ balanced by active extrusion mediated by a ouabain sensitive (Na + K) pump. These processes maintained internal measured K+:Na+ ratios of 12-25:1. The cells were normally flat but addition of DBcAMP caused them to round up and form numerous processes, an appearance resembling that of astroglial cells in vivo. DBcAMP treatment also reduced the steady state levels of K+ measured with 86Rb+ by 15-30%, and had no effect on initial rates of 86Rb+ and 22Na+ uptake. (Auth.)

  11. Long term, stable brain machine interface performance using local field potentials and multiunit spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Robert D.; Wright, Zachary A.; Scheid, Michael R.; Slutzky, Marc W.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Brain machine interfaces (BMIs) have the potential to restore movement to people with paralysis. However, a clinically-viable BMI must enable consistently accurate control over time spans ranging from years to decades, which has not yet been demonstrated. Most BMIs that use single-unit spikes as inputs will experience degraded performance over time without frequent decoder re-training. Two other signals, local field potentials (LFPs) and multi-unit spikes (MSPs), may offer greater reliability over long periods and better performance stability than single-unit spikes. Here, we demonstrate that LFPs can be used in a biomimetic BMI to control a computer cursor. Approach. We implanted two rhesus macaques with intracortical microelectrodes in primary motor cortex. We recorded LFP and MSP signals from the monkeys while they performed a continuous reaching task, moving a cursor to randomly-placed targets on a computer screen. We then used the LFP and MSP signals to construct biomimetic decoders for control of the cursor. Main results. Both monkeys achieved high-performance, continuous control that remained stable or improved over nearly 12 months using an LFP decoder that was not retrained or adapted. In parallel, the monkeys used MSPs to control a BMI without retraining or adaptation and had similar or better performance, and that predominantly remained stable over more than six months. In contrast to their stable online control, both LFP and MSP signals showed substantial variability when used offline to predict hand movements. Significance. Our results suggest that the monkeys were able to stabilize the relationship between neural activity and cursor movement during online BMI control, despite variability in the relationship between neural activity and hand movements.

  12. Different Brain Wave Patterns and Cortical Control Abilities in Relation to Different Creative Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Han; Tseng, Chao-Yuan; Tsai, Arthur Chih-Hsin; Huang, Andrew Chih-Wei; Lin, Wei-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary understanding of brain functions provides a way to probe into the mystery of creativity. However, the prior evidence regarding the relationship between creativity and brain wave patterns reveals inconsistent conclusions. One possible reason might be that the means of selecting creative individuals in the past has varied in each study.…

  13. On-line integration of semantic information from speech and gesture: insights from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyürek, Asli; Willems, Roel M; Kita, Sotaro; Hagoort, Peter

    2007-04-01

    During language comprehension, listeners use the global semantic representation from previous sentence or discourse context to immediately integrate the meaning of each upcoming word into the unfolding message-level representation. Here we investigate whether communicative gestures that often spontaneously co-occur with speech are processed in a similar fashion and integrated to previous sentence context in the same way as lexical meaning. Event-related potentials were measured while subjects listened to spoken sentences with a critical verb (e.g., knock), which was accompanied by an iconic co-speech gesture (i.e., KNOCK). Verbal and/or gestural semantic content matched or mismatched the content of the preceding part of the sentence. Despite the difference in the modality and in the specificity of meaning conveyed by spoken words and gestures, the latency, amplitude, and topographical distribution of both word and gesture mismatches are found to be similar, indicating that the brain integrates both types of information simultaneously. This provides evidence for the claim that neural processing in language comprehension involves the simultaneous incorporation of information coming from a broader domain of cognition than only verbal semantics. The neural evidence for similar integration of information from speech and gesture emphasizes the tight interconnection between speech and co-speech gestures. PMID:17381252

  14. Aggregation of sparse linear discriminant analyses for event-related potential classification in brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Guoxu; Jin, Jing; Zhao, Qibin; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2014-02-01

    Two main issues for event-related potential (ERP) classification in brain-computer interface (BCI) application are curse-of-dimensionality and bias-variance tradeoff, which may deteriorate classification performance, especially with insufficient training samples resulted from limited calibration time. This study introduces an aggregation of sparse linear discriminant analyses (ASLDA) to overcome these problems. In the ASLDA, multiple sparse discriminant vectors are learned from differently l1-regularized least-squares regressions by exploiting the equivalence between LDA and least-squares regression, and are subsequently aggregated to form an ensemble classifier, which could not only implement automatic feature selection for dimensionality reduction to alleviate curse-of-dimensionality, but also decrease the variance to improve generalization capacity for new test samples. Extensive investigation and comparison are carried out among the ASLDA, the ordinary LDA and other competing ERP classification algorithms, based on different three ERP datasets. Experimental results indicate that the ASLDA yields better overall performance for single-trial ERP classification when insufficient training samples are available. This suggests the proposed ASLDA is promising for ERP classification in small sample size scenario to improve the practicability of BCI. PMID:24344691

  15. Do spotty high intensity regions found in basal ganglia on MRI T2-weighted brain images of elderly subjects indicate gliosis? Comparison of brain MRI T2-weighted images of elderly subjects and necropsy brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spotty high intensity regions are frequently found on the MRI T2-weighted brain images (T2WI) of elderly people. High intensity regions with a diameter of 3 mm or less have been considered as expanded perivascular space with no pathological implications on radiological diagnosis. However, its morphometrical basis is not clear. We examined the character of the spotty regions using brain MRI of brain screening subjects, and studied morphometrically arteriolosclerosis and perivascular tissue damage using necropsy brains of subjects aged 65 years and over. The size, number and location of the spotty high intensity regions were examined using the brain MRI of 109 T2WI which is used for brain screening at Kanazawa Medical University Hospital. The frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, hippocampus, midbrain and basal ganglia were sampled from 15 subjects aged 65 years and over, and the tissue sections were processed for HE stain, Elastica van Gieson stain and immunostaining with GFAP. We took photographs of brain arterioli and surrounding parenchyma with a digital telescope camera and the degree of arterioscleosis and tissue damage were assessed by measurements with an image analyzer. Spotty high intensity regions on T2WI with a diameter of 3 mm or less were observed in 95.5% subjects aged 65 years and over. 69.4% spotty region was observed in basal ganglia. There was a significant correlation between age and size. In morphometrical examination, at the basal ganglia, the density of GFAP-positive astrocytes in the perivascular tissue had a significant positive correlation with the proportional thickness of the adventitia, which is an index of arteriosclerosis, and a significant negative correlation with the size of the perivascular space. The results suggested that the spotty regions in the brain MRI of elderly people do not represent dilatations of the perivascular space, but is mild brain damage caused by arteriosclerosis. (author)

  16. The pharmacokinetics of [11C]methoxy-norchloroprogabidic acid, a potential PET tracer for GABA receptors in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have described the kinetic properties of [11C]methoxy-norchloroprogabidic acid, a potential radioligand for the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor. Early metabolism in mice was negligible. Protein binding in human plasma was 89±7%. Distribution volumes were 89.6±29.4 l whereas the elimination half-life was 41.6±14.3 min. Animal and human positron emission tomography (PET) data demonstrate limited uptake of the activity in brain tissue. Displacement studies in mice suggest a nonsignificant fraction of specific receptor binding. [11C] Methoxy-norchloroprogabidic acid is therefore unsuitable for brain PET

  17. Noradrenergic system in cultured aggregates of fetal rat brain cells: morphology of the aggregates and pharmacological indices of noradrenergic neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majocha, R.E.; Pearse, R.N.; Baldessarini, R.J.; Delong, G.R.; Walton, K.G. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1981-12-28

    Spherical aggregates formed rapidly in culture by re-aggregation of trypsin-dissociated brain cells from the 17-day-old fetal rat. Over about 10 days an initially random distribution of cells evolved into a 3-layered arrangement; cells with characteristics of neurons were found largely in the intermediate layer. The survival of neuronal and glial cell types was evaluated histologically and verified by electron microscopy, which revealed synaptic and myelin structures that rapidly increased in number after 18 days in culture. Levels of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reached peaks of 9.5 and 4.4 ng/mg protein, respectively, at culture day 21. Uptake of (/sup 3/H)NE paralleled these amine levels and was blocked by desipramine or pretreatment with either reserpine or 6-OH-DA. Autoradiographs of aggregates labeled with (/sup 3/H)NE showed a high density of silver grains over cells, apparently neurons, with branching processes traced for 120 ..mu..m. Previously accumulated (/sup 3/H)NE was released under depolarizing conditions (high (K/sup +/) or vertridine) only in the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/. Release was induced to a lesser extent by kainic > glutamic acid. Thus, such aggregates appear to contain catecholaminergic neurons capable of synthesis, uptake and release of NE. The time course of development of these functions supports suggestions that aggregate preparations might be useful in studying neurochemical or morphological aspects of brain development and function in vitro.

  18. Potential brain language reorganization in a boy with refractory epilepsy; an fNIRS–EEG and fMRI comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannasing, Phetsamone; Cornaggia, Isotta; Vanasse, Catherine; Tremblay, Julie; Diadori, Paola; Perreault, Sébastien; Lassonde, Maryse; Gallagher, Anne

    2016-01-01

    As part of a presurgical investigation for a resection of a tumor located in the left temporal brain region, we evaluated pre- and postsurgical language lateralization in a right-handed boy with refractory epilepsy. In this study, we compared functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) results obtained while the participant performed expressive and receptive language tasks with those obtained using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This case study illustrates the potential for NIRS to contribute favorably to the localization of language functions in children with epilepsy and cognitive or behavioral problems and its potential advantages over fMRI in presurgical assessment. Moreover, it suggests that fNIRS is sensitive in localizing an atypical language network or potential brain reorganization related to epilepsy in young patients. PMID:26977406

  19. Potential brain language reorganization in a boy with refractory epilepsy; an fNIRS-EEG and fMRI comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannasing, Phetsamone; Cornaggia, Isotta; Vanasse, Catherine; Tremblay, Julie; Diadori, Paola; Perreault, Sébastien; Lassonde, Maryse; Gallagher, Anne

    2016-01-01

    As part of a presurgical investigation for a resection of a tumor located in the left temporal brain region, we evaluated pre- and postsurgical language lateralization in a right-handed boy with refractory epilepsy. In this study, we compared functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) results obtained while the participant performed expressive and receptive language tasks with those obtained using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This case study illustrates the potential for NIRS to contribute favorably to the localization of language functions in children with epilepsy and cognitive or behavioral problems and its potential advantages over fMRI in presurgical assessment. Moreover, it suggests that fNIRS is sensitive in localizing an atypical language network or potential brain reorganization related to epilepsy in young patients. PMID:26977406

  20. Potential brain language reorganization in a boy with refractory epilepsy; an fNIRS–EEG and fMRI comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phetsamone Vannasing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of a presurgical investigation for a resection of a tumor located in the left temporal brain region, we evaluated pre- and postsurgical language lateralization in a right-handed boy with refractory epilepsy. In this study, we compared functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS results obtained while the participant performed expressive and receptive language tasks with those obtained using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. This case study illustrates the potential for NIRS to contribute favorably to the localization of language functions in children with epilepsy and cognitive or behavioral problems and its potential advantages over fMRI in presurgical assessment. Moreover, it suggests that fNIRS is sensitive in localizing an atypical language network or potential brain reorganization related to epilepsy in young patients.

  1. Indicators of Potential Conflict.

    OpenAIRE

    Murshed, Syed

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSummary: This paper focuses on the main factors that contribute to the dangers of violent internal conflict erupting, or re-igniting after a peace has been concluded. The conflict literature has identified greed and grievance as the principle causes of conflict. But for either of them to take the form of large-scale violence there must be other factors at work, specifically a weakening of the ʻsocial contractʼ. Such a viable social contract can be sufficient to restrain opportunis...

  2. Potentials for Indication of Potentially Harmful Toxic Algal Blooms Using PROBA1-CHRIS Hyperspectral Imagery- A Case Study in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiermann, Timo

    2010-12-01

    Toxic algal blooms are an issue affecting water quality and can cause harmful health impacts. The aim of the conducted case study is to assess such blooms by chlorophyll a and phycocyanin detection as indicators of the occurrence. Using demonstrated single reflectance ratio algorithms published as in [7] and processed with provided tools for hyperspectral Proba1-CHRIS imagery in a study site including Loumbila reservoir near Ouagadougou, capital of Burkina Faso to investigate potentials of this approach.

  3. Performance Enhancement at the Cost of Potential Brain Plasticity: Neural Ramifications of Nootropic Drugs in the Healthy Developing Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Kimberly R.; Wen-Jun eGao

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive enhancement is perhaps one of the most intriguing and controversial topics in neuroscience today. Currently, the main classes of drugs used as potential cognitive enhancers include psychostimulants (methylphenidate, amphetamine), but wakefulness-promoting agents (modafinil) and glutamate activators (ampakine) are also frequently used. Pharmacologically, substances that enhance the components of the memory/learning circuits - dopamine, glutamate (neuronal excitation), and/or norepine...

  4. Chronic P-glycoprotein inhibition increases the brain concentration of escitalopram: potential implications for treating depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Fionn E; Moloney, Gerard M; Scott, Karen A; O'Connor, Richard M; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G; Griffin, Brendan T; Cryan, John F

    2015-12-01

    Recent preclinical studies have revealed a functionally important role for the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier in limiting brain levels and thus antidepressant-like activity of certain antidepressant drugs. Specifically, acute administration of P-gp inhibitors, such as verapamil and cyclosporin A (CsA), has been shown to augment brain concentrations and functional activity of the antidepressant escitalopram in rodents. However, depression is a chronic disorder and current treatments require prolonged administration to elicit their full therapeutic effect. Thus, it is important to investigate whether acute findings in relation to P-gp inhibition translate to chronic paradigms. To this end, the present study investigates whether chronic treatment with the P-gp inhibitor verapamil and the antidepressant escitalopram results in enhanced brain distribution and antidepressant-like effects of escitalopram. Verapamil (10 mg·kg(-1) i.p.) and escitalopram (0.1 mg·kg(-1) i.p.) were administered once daily for 22 days. On the final day of treatment, brain regions and plasma were collected for analysis of cortical and plasma escitalopram concentrations, and to determine the hippocampal expression of genes previously reported to be altered by chronic antidepressant treatment. Verapamil treatment resulted in a greater than twofold increase in brain levels of escitalopram, without altering plasma levels. Neither gene expression analysis nor behavioral testing revealed an augmentation of responses to escitalopram treatment due to verapamil administration. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time that P-gp inhibition can yield elevated brain concentrations of an antidepressant after chronic treatment. The functional relevance of these increased brain levels requires further elaboration. PMID:27022464

  5. Intracerebral transplants of primary muscle cells: a potential 'platform' for transgene expression in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, S.; Schultz, E.; Wolff, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    After the transplantation of rat primary muscle cells into the caudate or cortex of recipient rats, the muscle cells were able to persist for at least 6 months. Muscle cells transfected with expression plasmids prior to transplantation were able to express reporter genes in the brains for at least 2 months. These results suggest that muscle cells might be a useful 'platform' for transgene expression in the brain.

  6. Identification and analysis of signaling networks potentially involved in breast carcinoma metastasis to the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    Full Text Available Brain is a common site of breast cancer metastasis associated with significant neurologic morbidity, decreased quality of life, and greatly shortened survival. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underpinning brain colonization by breast carcinoma cells are poorly understood. Here, we used 2D-DIGE (Difference in Gel Electrophoresis proteomic analysis followed by LC-tandem mass spectrometry to identify the proteins differentially expressed in brain-targeting breast carcinoma cells (MB231-Br compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cell line. Between the two cell lines, we identified 12 proteins consistently exhibiting greater than 2-fold (p<0.05 difference in expression, which were associated by the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA with two major signaling networks involving TNFα/TGFβ-, NFκB-, HSP-70-, TP53-, and IFNγ-associated pathways. Remarkably, highly related networks were revealed by the IPA analysis of a list of 19 brain-metastasis-associated proteins identified recently by the group of Dr. A. Sierra using MDA-MB-435-based experimental system (Martin et al., J Proteome Res 2008 7:908-20, or a 17-gene classifier associated with breast cancer brain relapse reported by the group of Dr. J. Massague based on a microarray analysis of clinically annotated breast tumors from 368 patients (Bos et al., Nature 2009 459: 1005-9. These findings, showing that different experimental systems and approaches (2D-DIGE proteomics used on brain targeting cell lines or gene expression analysis of patient samples with documented brain relapse yield highly related signaling networks, suggest strongly that these signaling networks could be essential for a successful colonization of the brain by metastatic breast carcinoma cells.

  7. Cytogenomic profiling of breast cancer brain metastases reveals potential for repurposing targeted therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia; Michelhaugh, Sharon K.; Wijesinghe, Priyanga; Dyson, Greg; Kruger, Adele; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Choi, Lydia; Alosh, Baraa; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Mittal, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer brain metastases remain a significant clinical problem. Chemotherapy is ineffective and a lack of treatment options result in poor patient outcomes. Targeted therapeutics have proven to be highly effective in primary breast cancer, but lack of molecular genomic characterization of metastatic brain tumors is hindering the development of new treatment regimens. Here we contribute to fill this void by reporting on gene copy number variation (CNV) in 10 breast cancer metastatic brai...

  8. Brain Wave Analysis and School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barry; And Others

    The Brain Wave Analyzer (BWA Ertl 02) was used to measure the brain potentials of 110 public school children. Resulting scores were correlated with concurrent measures of school achievement. Results indicate that certain brain wave scores have relatively low correlations with school achievement compared to traditional intelligence measures but may…

  9. AN in vitro evaluation of a carmustine-loaded Nano-co-Plex for potential magnetic-targeted intranasal delivery to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilo, Olufemi D; Choonara, Yahya E; Strydom, André M; du Toit, Lisa C; Kumar, Pradeep; Modi, Girish; Pillay, Viness

    2016-03-16

    Targeted delivery of carmustine (BCNU), an efficient brain tumor therapeutic, has been challenged with bioavailability issues due to the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB). The currently effective delivery approach is by implants at the site of the tumor, but this is highly invasive. The intranasal route, which is non-invasive and bypasses the BBB, may be alternative route for delivering BCNU to the brain. In this work, polyvinyl alcohol/polyethyleneimine/fIuorecein isothiocyanate complex (Polyplex) coated iron-oxide nanoparticles (Magnetite) were synthesized employing co-precipitation, epoxidation and EDC/NHS coupling reactions. The Polyplex coated magnetite (Nano-co-Plex) was loaded with BCNU for potential magnetically targeted delivery to the brain following intranasal administration. The Nano-co-Plex was characterized employing Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Zetasize analysis. Results revealed superparamagnetic hexagonally shaped "core-shell" nanoparticles with cell labeling attributes, of size ranging between 30-50 nm, and a zeta potential value of + 32 ± 2 mV. The Nano-co-Plex synthesized was found to possess high degree of crystallinity with 32% Polyplex coating. The loading and release studies indicated a time-dependent loading with maximum loading capacity of 176.82 μg BCNU/mg of the carrier and maximum release of 75.8% of the loaded BCNU. Cytotoxicity of the BCNU-loaded Nano-co-Plex displayed superiority over the conventional BCNU towards human glioblastoma (HG) cells. Cell studies revealed enhanced uptake and internalization of BCNU-loaded Nano-co-plex in HG cells in the presence of an external magnetic field. These Nano-co-Plexes may be ideal as an intranasal magnetic drug targeting device for BCNU delivery. PMID:26806465

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of [/sup 125/I]iodothienoperidol as a potential receptor site directed brain imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to design and evaluate radioligands for the noninvasive quantification of dopamine receptors in the brain. The approach involved the preparation of the iodothienyl analog I of haloperidol II, a well characterized dopamine antagonist which has been labeled with F-18 and C-11. The synthesis involved the addition of 5-trimethylstannyl-2-thienyllithium so the piperidone intermediate. The product was characterized by spectroscopic and analytic methods and radioiodinated via electrophilic iododestannylation to yield the product in 75-85% isolated yield. The tissue distribution of the radiochemical was evaluated in rats as a function of time, 0.25-2 hrs, and in the presence or absence of haloperidol (1 mg/kg) to measure receptor binding. The results indicated that the 0.25 h uptake in the brain was high (2.2% ID) and that the washout of the activity was relatively slow, 1.3% ID present at 2 hr. The Br/B1 values remained relatively constant over that time interval (9.3-12.1:1). Coadministration of 1 mg/kg haloperidol markedly reduced the uptake in the brain at 0.25 and 2 hr (55% and 62%) with much less of an effect on the nontarget tissues. The study indicates that the authors have prepared a radiotracer, labeled with iodine, that demonstrates both good brain uptake and selectivity as well as a specific binding site component

  11. Performance enhancement at the cost of potential brain plasticity: neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Kimberly R.; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive enhancement is perhaps one of the most intriguing and controversial topics in neuroscience today. Currently, the main classes of drugs used as potential cognitive enhancers include psychostimulants (methylphenidate (MPH), amphetamine), but wakefulness-promoting agents (modafinil) and glutamate activators (ampakine) are also frequently used. Pharmacologically, substances that enhance the components of the memory/learning circuits—dopamine, glutamate (neuronal excitation), and/or nore...

  12. Effects of live music therapy sessions on quality of life indicators, medications administered and hospital length of stay for patients undergoing elective surgical procedures for brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Darcy; Rumana, Christopher S; Nguyen, Judy; Jarred, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The physiological and psychological stress that brain tumor patients undergo during the entire surgical experience can considerably affect several aspects of their hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of live music therapy on quality of life indicators, amount of medications administered and length of stay for persons receiving elective surgical procedures of the brain. Subjects (N = 27) were patients admitted for some type of surgical procedure of the brain. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the control group receiving no music intervention (n = 13) or the experimental group receiving pre and postoperative live music therapy sessions (n = 14). Anxiety, mood, pain, perception of hospitalization or procedure, relaxation, and stress were measured using a self-report Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for each of the variables. The documented administration of postoperative pain medications; the frequency, dosage, type, and how it was given was also compared between groups. Experimental subjects live and interactive music therapy sessions, including a pre-operative session and continuing with daily sessions until the patient was discharged home. Control subjects received routine hospital care without any music therapy intervention. Differences in experimental pretest and posttest scores were analyzed using a Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Rank test. Results indicated statistically significant differences for 4 of the 6 quality of life measures: anxiety (p = .03), perception of hospitalization (p = .03), relaxation (p = .001), and stress (p = .001). No statistically significant differences were found for mood (p > .05) or pain (p > .05) levels. Administration amounts of nausea and pain medications were compared with a Two-Way ANOVA with One Repeated Measure resulting in no significant differences between groups and medications, F(1, 51) = 0.03; p > .05. Results indicate no significant differences between groups for length of stay (t = .97

  13. The relationship between the serum levels of ferritin and the radiological brain injury indices in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Aghaei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Preclinical studies show that iron plays a key role in mediating neuronal injury. This study was performedin order to identify the relationship between the serum level of ferritin and severity of the brain injury which occur after an Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Materials and Methods:This was a cross sectional descriptive – analytic study, which was conducted on those patients who had suffered from an ICH and had attended Poursina Hospital. The Serum levels of ferritin were measured at admittance.  A Cranial CT scan was performed at admission and also 72 hr afterward.  Hematoma and edema surrounding the hematoma volumes were also measured at entrance and 72 hr afterward.  Data analysis was carried out by a descriptive - analytic statistics approach and calculated later on by the Spss-20 software. Results:In this investigation, 63 patients were studied, from which 34 (54% were male and 29 (46% female. The average age of the patients was 69.7± 11.9 (Min 43 and Max 94 years old. A significant relationship was observed between the level of ferritin and the edema volume surrounding the hematoma at first and next 72 hr after the patients were admitted. Conclusion:These results delineated the effective role of iron on the edema volume elevation. More studies are essentially urged to ascertain the clinical evaluation of the curing effect of iron chelators in those patients who suffer from ICH.

  14. Uptake of amino acids in brain tumours using positron emission tomography as an indicator for assessing metabolic activity and malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnosis and post-therapeutic follow-up of tumour patients necessitates morphological and particularly functional imaging methods. For the latter approach positron emission tomography has proven a valid tool for the measurement of perfusion, of energy consumption parameters such as oxygen extraction, glucose metabolism and amino acid uptake. However, neither perfusion nor energy consumption parameters have yielded unambiguous information on the clinical status of various tumours in respect of their malignancy and their growth status. It is shown in this paper that amino acid uptake seems to be a valid measure for the functional activity of tumour tissue for a broad range of neoplasms. The uptake of 11C-L-Methionine was measured in 33 patients having various brain tumours, and was compared with 6 patients who had an infarction, and with 8 patients suffering from arachnoidal cysts. The amino acid uptake correlated well with the histological grading of the tumours and the clinical status of the patient. The uptake was well differentiated against metabolically inactive lesions. Parallel investigations on the uptake mechanisms of amino acids in an animal model have shown that transport phenomena regulate the uptake rather than protein synthesis rates. However, protein synthesis may nevertheless exercise a control function on the transport process. (orig.)

  15. A geomagnetic storm decreases coherence of oscillations of electric potentials of a human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Plenty of technological processes are known to be damaged by magnetic storms. But technology is controlled by men and their functional systems may be damages as well. We are going to consider the electro-neurophysiological aspect of the general problem formulated and investigated at first by V.I. Vernadsky and A.L. Schizevsky: men surrounded by geophysical fields including ones of cosmic origination. The effect formulated in the title was observed for a group of 13 students (practically healthy girls and boys from 18 to 23 years old). To control the main functional systems of the men under investigation, their electroencephalograms (EEG) were being registered along with electrocardiograms, respiratory rhythms, arterial blood pressure and other characteristics during a year. According to the EEG investigations during implementation of the proof-reading test in absence of magnetic storms, the values of the coherence function of time series of the theta-rhythm oscillations (f = 4 - 7.9 Hz, A = 20 μV) of electric potentials of the frontal and occipital parts of the head belong to the interval [0.3, 0.6] for nearly all of the students under investigation. (As the proof-reading test, it was necessary to choose given symbols from a random sequence of ones demonstrated at a monitor and to enter the number of the symbols discovered in a computer. Everyone was known that the time for determination of symbols is unlimited. On the other hand, nobody was known that the EEG and other registrations mentioned are connected with geophysical events). Let us formulate the main result: by implementation of the same test during a magnetic storm, 5 ≤ K ≤ 6, or no later then 24 hours after its beginning (different types of moderate magnetic storms occurred, the data of the IZMIRAN were used), the values of the theta-rhythm coherence function of all of the students of the group under consideration occurred to be decreased up to 0.1 or less

  16. A comparison of recording modalities of P300 event-related potentials (ERP) for brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Mayaud, Louis; Congedo, Marco; Van Laghenhove, Aurélien; Figère, Marjorie; Azabou, Eric; Cheliout-Heraut, F.

    2013-01-01

    Aims of the study A brain-Computer Interface aims at restoring communication and control in severely disabled people by identification and classification of EEG features such as Event Related Potentials (ERPs). The aim of this study is to compare different EEG recording modalities for extraction of ERPs. The first comparison evaluates the performance of six disc electrodes with that of the Emotiv headset, while the second evaluates three different electrode types (disc, needle, and large squa...

  17. Who are you talking about? Tracking discourse-level referential processing with event-related brain potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwland, M.; Otten, M.; Berkum, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this event-related brain potentials (ERPs) study, we explored the possibility to selectively track referential ambiguity during spoken discourse comprehension. Earlier ERP research has shown that referentially ambiguous nouns (e.g., “the girl” in a two-girl context) elicit a frontal, sustained negative shift relative to unambiguous control words. In the current study, we examined whether this ERP effect reflects “deep” situation model ambiguity or “superficial” textbase ambiguity. We contr...

  18. Potential brain language reorganization in a boy with refractory epilepsy; an fNIRS–EEG and fMRI comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Phetsamone Vannasing; Isotta Cornaggia; Catherine Vanasse; Julie Tremblay; Paola Diadori; Sébastien Perreault; Maryse Lassonde; Anne Gallagher

    2016-01-01

    As part of a presurgical investigation for a resection of a tumor located in the left temporal brain region, we evaluated pre- and postsurgical language lateralization in a right-handed boy with refractory epilepsy. In this study, we compared functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) results obtained while the participant performed expressive and receptive language tasks with those obtained using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This case study illustrates the potential for N...

  19. Serial and static brain radioangiogram in diagnosis of carotid disease: value, indication and limits by comparative study with EEG, Doppler study and cerebral arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Value, indication and limits of serial and static brain radioangiogram in carotid disease are studied comparatively with EEG, Doppler study and cerebral arteriograhy. The isotopic study shows the occlusion and its consequences on middle cerebral artery and cerebral hemisphere. The 'Hot-Nose' sign is rarely seen, but then with large focal abnormalities. In 20% of studied cases, isotopic study provides information about the efficiency of suppleance circulation or the existence of a blood derivation. The value of serial and static scintigraphy deserves it a better place among the non invasive diagnosis method of carotid disease

  20. The ethics of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in brain-dead potential organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Ave, Anne L; Gardiner, Dale; Shaw, David M

    2016-05-01

    Organ-preserving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OP-ECMO) is defined as the use of extracorporeal support for the primary purpose of preserving organs for transplantation, rather than to save the patient's life. This paper discusses the ethics of using OP-ECMO in donation after brain determination of death (DBDD) to avoid the loss of organs for transplantation. We review case reports in the literature and analyze the ethical issues raised. We conclude that there is little additional ethical concern in continuing OP-ECMO in patients already on ECMO if they become brain dead. The implementation of OP-ECMO in hemodynamically unstable brain-dead patients is ethically permissible in certain clinical situations but requires specific consent from relatives if the patient's wish to donate is not clear. If no evidence of a patient's wish to donate is available, OP-ECMO is not recommended. In countries with presumed consent legislation, failure to opt out should be considered as a positive wish to donate. If a patient is not-yet brain-dead or is undergoing testing for brain death, OP-ECMO is not recommended. Further research on OP-ECMO is needed to better understand the attitudes of professionals, families, and lay people to ensure agreement on key ethical issues. PMID:26987689

  1. Assessing the potential hazard of chemical substances for the terrestrial environment. Development of hazard classification criteria and quantitative environmental indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, J V; Fresno, A; Aycard, S; Ramos, C; Vega, M M; Carbonell, G

    2000-03-20

    Hazard assessment constitutes an essential tool in order to evaluate the potential effects of chemical substances on organisms and ecosystems. It includes as a first step, hazard identification, which must detect the potential dangers of the substance (i.e. the kind of effects that the substance may produce), and a second step to quantify each danger and to set the expected dose/response relationships. Hazard assessment plays a key role in the regulation of chemical substances, including pollution control and sustainable development. However, the aquatic environment has largely received more attention than terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents the extrapolation of several basic concepts from the aquatic to the terrestrial compartment, and suggests possibilities for their regulatory use. Two specific proposals are discussed. The first focuses on the scientific basis of the hazard identification-classification criteria included in the EU regulations and their extrapolation to the terrestrial environment. The second focuses on the OECD programme for environmental indicators and the development of a soil pollution pressure indicator to quantify the potential hazards for the soil compartment and its associated terrestrial ecosystem related to the toxic chemicals applied deliberately (i.e. pesticides) or not (i.e. heavy metals in sludge-based fertilisers; industrial spills) to the soil. PMID:10803544

  2. Deficits in facial emotion recognition indicate behavioral changes and impaired self-awareness after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacoba M Spikman

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of disability, specifically among younger adults. Behavioral changes are common after moderate to severe TBI and have adverse consequences for social and vocational functioning. It is hypothesized that deficits in social cognition, including facial affect recognition, might underlie these behavioral changes. Measurement of behavioral deficits is complicated, because the rating scales used rely on subjective judgement, often lack specificity and many patients provide unrealistically positive reports of their functioning due to impaired self-awareness. Accordingly, it is important to find performance based tests that allow objective and early identification of these problems. In the present study 51 moderate to severe TBI patients in the sub-acute and chronic stage were assessed with a test for emotion recognition (FEEST and a questionnaire for behavioral problems (DEX with a self and proxy rated version. Patients performed worse on the total score and on the negative emotion subscores of the FEEST than a matched group of 31 healthy controls. Patients also exhibited significantly more behavioral problems on both the DEX self and proxy rated version, but proxy ratings revealed more severe problems. No significant correlation was found between FEEST scores and DEX self ratings. However, impaired emotion recognition in the patients, and in particular of Sadness and Anger, was significantly correlated with behavioral problems as rated by proxies and with impaired self-awareness. This is the first study to find these associations, strengthening the proposed recognition of social signals as a condition for adequate social functioning. Hence, deficits in emotion recognition can be conceived as markers for behavioral problems and lack of insight in TBI patients. This finding is also of clinical importance since, unlike behavioral problems, emotion recognition can be objectively measured early after injury

  3. The Effects of Video Games on Cognition and Brain Structure: Potential Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Tahireh A; Foussias, George; Zawadzki, John A; Marshe, Victoria S; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Müller, Daniel J; Wong, Albert H C

    2015-09-01

    Video games are now a ubiquitous form of entertainment that has occasionally attracted negative attention. Video games have also been used to test cognitive function, as therapeutic interventions for neuropsychiatric disorders, and to explore mechanisms of experience-dependent structural brain changes. Here, we review current research on video games published from January 2011 to April 2014 with a focus on studies relating to mental health, cognition, and brain imaging. Overall, there is evidence that specific types of video games can alter brain structure or improve certain aspects of cognitive functioning. Video games can also be useful as neuropsychological assessment tools. While research in this area is still at a very early stage, there are interesting results that encourage further work in this field, and hold promise for utilizing this technology as a powerful therapeutic and experimental tool. PMID:26216589

  4. αT-catenin in restricted brain cell types and its potential connection to autism

    OpenAIRE

    Folmsbee, Stephen Sai; Wilcox, Douglas R.; Tyberghein, Koen; De Bleser, Pieter; Tourtellotte, Warren G.; van Hengel, Jolanda; van Roy, Frans; Gottardi, Cara J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent genetic association studies have linked the cadherin-based adherens junction protein alpha-T-catenin (αT-cat, CTNNA3) with the development of autism. Where αT-cat is expressed in the brain, and how its loss could contribute to this disorder, are entirely unknown. Methods We used the αT-cat knockout mouse to examine the localization of αT-cat in the brain, and we used histology and immunofluorescence analysis to examine the neurobiological consequences of its loss. Results We...

  5. Localized intestinal perforations as a potential complication of brain hypothermic therapy for perinatal asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizaki, Naoto; Maiguma, Atsuko; Obinata, Kaoru; Okazaki, Tadaharu; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2016-08-01

    Brain hypothermic therapy (BHT) is becoming a frequently used standard of care for perinatal asphyxia. Although cardiovascular side effects, coagulation disorders, renal impairment, electrolyte abnormalities, impaired liver function, opportunistic infections, and skin lesions are well-known adverse effects of BHT in newborns, little information is available on the clinical features of intestinal perforation-related BHT. We herein report a case of therapeutic brain cooling for perinatal asphyxia complicated by localized intestinal perforation. In practice, the neonatologist should be aware that intestinal perforation in an infant with perinatal asphyxia is possible, particularly following BHT. PMID:26445344

  6. Chromatographic Behaviour Predicts the Ability of Potential Nootropics to Permeate the Blood-Brain Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Farsa, Oldřich

    2012-01-01

    The log BB parameter is the logarithm of the ratio of a compound’s equilibrium concentrations in the brain tissue versus the blood plasma. This parameter is a useful descriptor in assessing the ability of a compound to permeate the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study was to develop a Hansch-type linear regression QSAR model that correlates the parameter log BB and the retention time of drugs and other organic compounds on a reversed-phase HPLC containing an embedded amide moiety. The r...

  7. Developing alternative indices of reproductive potential for use in fisheries management : Case studies for stocks spanning an information gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshall, C.T.; O'Brien, L.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Marteinsdottir, G.; Morgan, M.J.; Saborido-Rey, F.; Köster, Fritz; Blanchard, J.L.; Secor, D.H.; Kraus, Gerd; Wright, P.; Mukhina, N.V.; Björnsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    sufficient data to reconstruct a time series of total eggproduction (TEP), whereas, the remaining stocks were limited to estimating proxies for stockreproductive potential. For some of the case studies the alternative indices explained a higheramount of recruitment variation than did SSB. Other case studies...... provided evidence that char-acteristics of the spawning stock, e.g. age diversity and female-only SSB, influence recruitmentin ways that are not properly accounted for by using SSB as the sole index of reproductivepotential. This is further evidence that the assumption of proportionality between SSB andTEP...... is invalid. The data-rich stocks showed the relationship between SSB and TEP to bevariable and characterized by distinct time trends. This variability will impact the ability ofbiomass-based reference points to conserve reproductive potential. Consequently, managementprotocols should be adapted to...

  8. Evaluating the potential of vegetation indices for winter wheat LAI estimation under different fertilization and water conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiaoyun; Huang, Wenjiang; Dash, Jadunandan; Song, Xiaoyu; Huang, Linsheng; Zhao, Jinling; Wang, Renhong

    2015-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important indicator for monitoring crop growth conditions and forecasting grain yield. Many algorithms have been developed for remote estimation of the leaf area index of vegetation, such as using spectral vegetation indices, inversion of radiative transfer models, and supervised learning techniques. Spectral vegetation indices, mathematical combination of reflectance bands, are widely used for LAI estimation due to their computational simplicity and their applications ranged from the leaf scale to the entire globe. However, in many cases, their applicability is limited to specific vegetation types or local conditions due to species specific nature of the relationship used to transfer the vegetation indices to LAI. The overall objective of this study is to investigate the most suitable vegetation index for estimating winter wheat LAI under eight different types of fertilizer and irrigation conditions. Regression models were used to estimate LAI using hyperspectral reflectance data from the Pushbroom Hyperspectral Imager (PHI) and in-situ measurements. Our results showed that, among six vegetation indices investigated, the modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) exhibited strong and significant relationships with LAI, and thus were sensitive across different nitrogen and water treatments. The modified triangular vegetation index (MTVI2) confirmed its potential on crop LAI estimation, although second to MSAVI and NDVI in our study. The enhanced vegetation index (EVI) showed moderate performance. However, the ratio vegetation index (RVI) and the modified simple ratio index (MSR) predicted the least accurate estimations of LAI, exposing the simple band ratio index's weakness under different treatment conditions. The results support the use of vegetation indices for a quick and effective LAI mapping procedure that is suitable for winter wheat under different management practices.

  9. No impact of deep brain stimulation on fear–potentiated startle in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Johanna M P; Klumpers, Floris; Mantione, Mariska H.; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke C.; Richard Schuurman, P.; Mazaheri, Ali; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST), we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS

  10. No impact of deep brain stimulation on fear-potentiated startle in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Johanna M P; Klumpers, Floris; Mantione, Mariska H; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke C; Schuurman, P Richard; Mazaheri, Ali; Denys, D.

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST), we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS

  11. Event-Related Brain Potentials Reveal Anomalies in Temporal Processing of Faces in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J.; Panagiotides, Heracles; Carver, Leslie J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Individuals with autism exhibit impairments in face recognition, and neuroimaging studies have shown that individuals with autism exhibit abnormal patterns of brain activity during face processing. The current study examined the temporal characteristics of face processing in autism and their relation to behavior. Method: High-density…

  12. Blood-brain barrier leakage after status epilepticus in rapamycin-treated rats II: Potential mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van Vliet; W.M. Otte; W.J. Wadman; E. Aronica; G. Kooij; H.E. de Vries; R.M. Dijkhuizen; J.A. Gorter

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage may play a pro-epileptogenic role after status epilepticus. In the accompanying contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) study we showed that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin reduced BBB leakage and seizure activit

  13. Blood-brain barrier leakage after status epilepticus in rapamycin-treated rats II : Potential mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Erwin A; Otte, Wim M; Wadman, Wytse J; Aronica, Eleonora; Kooij, Gijs; de Vries, Helga E; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Gorter, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage may play a pro-epileptogenic role after status epilepticus. In the accompanying contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) study we showed that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin reduced BBB leakage and seizure activit

  14. Intranasal delivery of nanoparticle encapsulated tarenflurbil: A potential brain targeting strategy for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntimadugu, Eameema; Dhommati, Raju; Jain, Anjali; Challa, Venu Gopala Swami; Shaheen, M; Khan, Wahid

    2016-09-20

    Poor brain penetration of tarenflurbil (TFB) was one of the major reasons for its failure in phase III clinical trials conducted on Alzheimer's patients. Thus there is a tremendous need of developing efficient delivery systems for TFB. This study was designed with the aim of improving drug delivery to brain through intranasally delivered nanocarriers. TFB was loaded into two different nanocarriers i.e., poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (TFB-NPs) and solid lipid nanoparticles (TFB-SLNs). Particle size of both the nanocarriers (TFB-SLNs (i.n.)>TFB solution (i.n.)>TFB suspension (oral). Brain targeting efficiency was determined in terms of %drug targeting efficiency (%DTE) and drug transport percentage (DTP). The higher %DTE (287.24) and DTP (65.18) were observed for TFB-NPs followed by TFB-SLNs (%DTE: 183.15 and DTP: 45.41) among all other tested groups. These encouraging results proved that therapeutic concentrations of TFB could be transported directly to brain via olfactory pathway after intranasal administration of polymeric and lipidic nanoparticles. PMID:27185298

  15. Preoperative functional magnetic resonance tomography (fMRI) in patients with rolandic brain tumors: indication, investigation strategy, possibilities and limitations of clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) localizes the primary motor and somatosensory cortex in relation to rolandic brain tumors and determines plastic cortical reorganization. Functional landmarks help to assess the indication for surgery and to plan for safer surgical procedures that protect the functional cortex during resection even when morphologic landmarks are no longer identifiable on anatomic images. Despite its successful application, preoperative fMRI has not yet reached the status of an established clinical diagnostic procedure since special stimulation systems, standardized fMRI protocols and medically approved software are still lacking. Following a brief review of the image display of the functional and morphologic anatomy, the different indications for preoperative fMRI in patients with rolandic brain tumors are presented. A robust preoperative protocol enables clinical MR units with magnetic field strengths of 1.0 Tesla or higher to perform reliable fMRI during contralateral hand movements. Optimized investigation strategies and stimulation modalities are proposed for patients with rolandic tumors distant from the cortical hand representation, for patients with preexisting sensorimotor deficits and for patients with poor compliance. Representative cases illustrate the clinical application. Possibilities and limitations of preoperative fMRI are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  16. Potential shortcomings of output:input ratios as indicators of economic efficiency in commercial beef breed evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, B E; Colette, W A

    1993-03-01

    In recent years animal breeders have increasingly made use of output:input ratios and simple measures of economic efficiency, such as annual profits, as a basis for comparisons and evaluations of the commercial applicability of alternative beef breeds. In many instances, however, output:input ratios may produce fallacious indications of economic efficiency that may, in turn, lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the true commercial applicability of the breeds evaluated. Errors potentially arising from the use of output:input ratios in breed evaluations may be attributed to a combination of 1) a narrow range of input use values under which most breeds are evaluated and 2) the inability of output:input ratios, including average annual profitability, to reflect consistently the economic objectives of commercial cow-calf producers. An alternative basis for breed comparison and evaluation is, therefore, developed from economic theories related to optimal investment and asset replacement. Comparison of the results obtained with this alternative to those obtained from output:input ratio evaluation, including annual profitability, indicate that potential value differences of as much as 33% may result from the use of output:input ratios as a primary basis of commercial breed evaluation. PMID:8463143

  17. Brain mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Koritnik

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Cartography of the brain ("brain mapping" aims to represent the complexities of the working brain in an understandable and usable way. There are four crucial steps in brain mapping: (1 acquiring data about brain structure and function, (2 transformation of data into a common reference, (3 visualization and interpretation of results, and (4 databasing and archiving. Electrophysiological and functional imaging methods provide information about function of the human brain. A prerequisite for multisubject, multidimensional and multimodal mapping is transformation of individual images to match a standard brain template. To produce brain maps, color, contours, and other visual cues are used to differentiate metabolic rates, electrical field potentials, receptor densities, and other attributes of structure or function. Databases are used to organize and archive data records. By relating the maps to cognitive functions and psychological models, brain mapping offers a prerequisite for the understanding of organizational principles of the human brain.

  18. Indication of lower neck irradiation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma without nodal metastasis: the potential impact of tumor volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jie; ZHOU Jia-yin; Vincent FH CHONG; James BK Khoo

    2013-01-01

    Background Elective radiation of lower neck is controversial for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) without lymph node metastasis (N0 disease).Tumor volume is an important prognostic indicator.The objective of this study is to explore the potential impact of tumor volume on the indication of the lower neck irradiation for N0-NPC,by a qualitative evaluation of the relationship between tumor volume and nodal metastasis.Methods Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 99 consecutive patients with NPC who underwent treatment were retrospectively reviewed.Primary tumor volumes of NPC were semi-automatically measured,nodal metastases were N-classified and neck level involvements were examined.Distributions of tumor volumes among N-category-based groups and distributions of N-categories among tumor volume-based groups were analyzed,respectively.Results The numbers of patients with N0 to N3 disease were 12,39,32,and 16,respectively.The volumes of primary tumor were from 3.3 to 89.6 ml,with a median of 17.1 ml.For patients with nodal metastasis,tumor volume did not increase significantly with the advancing of N-category (P >0.05).No significant difference was found for the distribution of N1,N2,and N3 categories among tumor volume-based groups (P >0.05).Nevertheless patients with nodal metastasis had significantly larger tumor volumes than those without metastasis (P <0.05).Patients with larger tumor volumes were associated with an increased incidence of nodal metastasis.Conclusions Certain positive correlations existed between tumor volume and the presence of nodal metastasis.The tumor volume (>10 ml) is a potential indicator for the lower neck irradiation for N0-NPC.

  19. Assessment of the extended Koopmans' theorem for the chemical reactivity: Accurate computations of chemical potentials, chemical hardnesses, and electrophilicity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Dilan; Bozkaya, Uğur

    2016-01-30

    The extended Koopmans' theorem (EKT) provides a straightforward way to compute ionization potentials and electron affinities from any level of theory. Although it is widely applied to ionization potentials, the EKT approach has not been applied to evaluation of the chemical reactivity. We present the first benchmarking study to investigate the performance of the EKT methods for predictions of chemical potentials (μ) (hence electronegativities), chemical hardnesses (η), and electrophilicity indices (ω). We assess the performance of the EKT approaches for post-Hartree-Fock methods, such as Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, the coupled-electron pair theory, and their orbital-optimized counterparts for the evaluation of the chemical reactivity. Especially, results of the orbital-optimized coupled-electron pair theory method (with the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set) for predictions of the chemical reactivity are very promising; the corresponding mean absolute errors are 0.16, 0.28, and 0.09 eV for μ, η, and ω, respectively. PMID:26458329

  20. Indicators of hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological integrity for estimating potential loss of ecosystem services from wetlands on domesticated landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, I. F.; Aldred, D.; Spargo, A.; Bayley, S.

    2012-12-01

    these indicators over the past years. For a time series of wetlands loss we derive these indicators of functions and benefits to estimate changes in the provision of specific aquatic ecosystem services on the landscape. Last, we develop formulae for integrating these indicators to determine whether a specific wetland or wetland complex should be prioritized for conservation, exemplifying potential trade-offs among ecosystem services in setting conservation targets on this wetland dominated landscapes. The proposed theoretical framework evolved from close collaboration between scientists and resource managers, and will inform those engaged in developing wetland policies for a broad range of jurisdictions.

  1. Auditory brain-stem evoked potentials in cat after kainic acid induced neuronal loss. II. Cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaroor, M; Starr, A

    1991-01-01

    Auditory brain-stem potentials (ABRs) were studied in cats for up to 6 weeks after kainic acid had been injected unilaterally into the cochlear nucleus (CN) producing extensive neuronal destruction. The ABR components were labeled by the polarity at the vertex (P, for positive) and their order of appearance (the arabic numerals 1, 2, etc.). Component P1 can be further subdivided into 2 subcomponents, P1a and P1b. The assumed correspondence between the ABR components in cat and man is indicated by providing human Roman numeral designations in parentheses following the feline notation, e.g., P2 (III). To stimulation of the ear ipsilateral to the injection, the ABR changes consisted of a loss of components P2 (III) and P3 (IV), and an attenuation and prolongation of latency of components P4 (V) and P5 (VI). The sustained potential shift from which the components arose was not affected. Wave P1a (I) was also slightly but significantly attenuated compatible with changes of excitability of nerve VIII in the cochlea secondary to cochlear nucleus destruction. Unexpectedly, to stimulation of the ear contralateral to the injection side, waves P2 (III), P3 (IV), and P4 (V) were also attenuated and delayed in latency but to a lesser degree than to stimulation of the ear ipsilateral to the injection. Changes in binaural interaction of the ABR following cochlear nucleus lesions were similar to those produced in normal animals by introducing a temporal delay of the input to one ear. The results of the present set of studies using kainic acid to induce neuronal loss in auditory pathway when combined with prior lesion and recording experiments suggest that each of the components of the ABR requires the integrity of an anatomically diffuse system comprising a set of neurons, their axons, and the neurons on which they terminate. Disruption of any portion of the system will alter the amplitude and/or the latency of that component. PMID:1716569

  2. The dose-dependent toxicological effects and potential perturbation on the neurotransmitter secretion in brain following intranasal instillation of copper nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Bai, Ru; Liu, Ying; Meng, Li; Li, Bai; Wang, Liming; Xu, Ligeng; Le Guyader, Laurent; Chen, Chunying

    2012-08-01

    Increasing production and application of metallic nanomaterials are likely to result in the release of these particles into the environment. These released nanoparticles may enter into the lungs and the central nervous system (CNS) directly through inhalation, which therefore poses a potential risk to human health. Herein, we focus on the systemic toxicity and potential influence on the neurotransmitter secretion of intranasally instilled copper nanoparticles (23.5 nm) at three different doses. Copper nanoparticle-exposed mice exhibit pathological lesions at different degrees in certain tissues and especially in lung tissue as revealed by histopathology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) results show that the liver, lung and olfactory bulb are the main tissues in which the copper concentrations increased significantly after exposure to a higher level of Cu nanoparticles (40 mg/kg of body weight). The secretion levels of various neurotransmitters changed as well in some brain regions, especially in the olfactory bulb. Our results indicate that the intranasally instilled copper nanoparticles not only cause the lesions where the copper accumulates, but also affect the neurotransmitter levels in the brain. PMID:21657985

  3. The role of IGFs and leptin in nutrition-reproduction interactions and their potential application as indicators of nutritional adequacy and predictors of reproductive performance in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The interaction between nutrition and reproductive activity has been described in both wild and farm animals. The lactating cow is one of the very best examples of this interaction. During lactation, the length of time spent in negative energy balance around parturition seems to be an important factor controlling the delay to return to breeding after parturition. The mechanism by which nutrition regulates the reproductive system is not fully understood in lactating dairy cows or indeed in any other situation in ruminants or mammals in general. However, to be effective, a nutritional signal should ultimately act on at least one of the 3 regulatory sites in the reproductive axis - the brain, the pituitary gland and the gonads. Nutrition is likely to involve metabolic signals that could act directly on one of these targets or it could interfere with other regulatory mechanisms such as the feedback by gonadal steroids on gonadotrophin secretion. In this presentation, we will use examples from laboratory rodents and ruminants, and from dairy cattle where they are available, to examine how IGF-1 and leptin, amongst several other blood metabolites and metabolic hormones, could be part of the link between nutrition and reproduction in the postpartum dairy cow. A number of studies have proposed a role for IGF-1 in the control of postpartum anoestrus and the framework of the current hypothesis will be presented. The role of leptin is still not clear for ruminants in general, but especially in cattle, because leptin was only recently discovered (about 6 years ago) and because a reliable radioimmunoassay for bovine leptin only became available since 1999. The possibilities and restrictions of a role for leptin in the control of reproduction by nutrition will be discussed. To conclude, we will examine the use of these two hormones as potential indicators of the adequacy of nutritional status for reproductive function and we will introduce insulin as another

  4. Toward brain-computer interface based wheelchair control utilizing tactually-evoked event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Tobias; Herweg, Andreas; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background People with severe disabilities, e.g. due to neurodegenerative disease, depend on technology that allows for accurate wheelchair control. For those who cannot operate a wheelchair with a joystick, brain-computer interfaces (BCI) may offer a valuable option. Technology depending on visual or auditory input may not be feasible as these modalities are dedicated to processing of environmental stimuli (e.g. recognition of obstacles, ambient noise). Herein we thus validated the feasi...

  5. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Hubert Cecotti; Bertrand Rivet

    2014-01-01

    New paradigms are required in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems for the needs and expectations of healthy people. To solve this issue, we explore the emerging field of cooperative BCIs, which involves several users in a single BCI system. Contrary to classical BCIs that are dependent on the unique subject’s will, cooperative BCIs are used for problem solving tasks where several people shall be engaged by sharing a common goal. Similarly as combining trials over time improves performance,...

  6. Electrical stimulation alleviates depressive-like behaviors of rats: investigation of brain targets and potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L W; Prickaerts, J; Huguet, G; Kadar, E; Hartung, H; Sharp, T; Temel, Y

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising therapy for patients with refractory depression. However, key questions remain with regard to which brain target(s) should be used for stimulation, and which mechanisms underlie the therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of DBS, with low- and high-frequency stimulation (LFS, HFS), in different brain regions (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, vmPFC; cingulate cortex, Cg; nucleus accumbens (NAc) core or shell; lateral habenula, LHb; and ventral tegmental area) on a variety of depressive-like behaviors using rat models. In the naive animal study, we found that HFS of the Cg, vmPFC, NAc core and LHb reduced anxiety levels and increased motivation for food. In the chronic unpredictable stress model, there was a robust depressive-like behavioral phenotype. Moreover, vmPFC HFS, in a comparison of all stimulated targets, produced the most profound antidepressant effects with enhanced hedonia, reduced anxiety and decreased forced-swim immobility. In the following set of electrophysiological and histochemical experiments designed to unravel some of the underlying mechanisms, we found that vmPFC HFS evoked a specific modulation of the serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), which have long been linked to mood. Finally, using a neuronal mapping approach by means of c-Fos expression, we found that vmPFC HFS modulated a brain circuit linked to the DRN and known to be involved in affect. In conclusion, HFS of the vmPFC produced the most potent antidepressant effects in naive rats and rats subjected to stress by mechanisms also including the DRN. PMID:25826110

  7. Task-Induced Brain Activity Patterns in Type 2 Diabetes: A Potential Biomarker for Cognitive Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Marder, Thomas J.; Flores, Veronica L.; Bolo, Nicolas R.; Hoogenboom, Wouter S.; Simonson, Donald C.; Jacobson, Alan M.; Foote, Sarah E.; Martha E. Shenton; Sperling, Reisa A.; Musen, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes demonstrate reduced functional connectivity within the resting state default mode network (DMN), which may signal heightened risk for cognitive decline. In other populations at risk for cognitive decline, additional magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities are evident during task performance, including impaired deactivation of the DMN and reduced activation of task-relevant regions. We investigated whether middle-aged type 2 diabetic patients show these brain act...

  8. Naphthenic acids in coastal sediments after the Hebei Spirit oil spill: a potential indicator for oil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Wang, Beili; Khim, Jong Seong; Hong, Seongjin; Shim, Won Joon; Hu, Jianying

    2014-04-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) as toxic components in most petroleum sources are suspected to be one of the major pollutants in the aquatic environment following oil spills, and the polarity and persistence of NAs make it a potential indicator for oil contamination. However, the contamination and potential effects of pollutants in oil spill affected areas remain unknown. To investigate NAs in oil spill affected areas, a sensitive method was first established for analysis of NAs, together with oxy-NAs in sediment samples by UPLC-QTOF-MS. Then the method was applied to determine the NA mixtures in crude oil, weathered oil, and sediments from the spilled sites after the Hebei Spirit oil spill, Taean, South Korea (Dec. 2007). Concentrations of NAs, O3-NAs, and O4-NAs were found to be 7.8-130, 3.6-44, and 0.8-20 mg kg(-1) dw in sediments from the Taean area, respectively, which were much greater than those measured in the reference sites of Manlipo and Anmyundo beaches. Concentrations of NAs were 50-100 times greater than those (0.077-2.5 mg kg(-1) dw) of PAHs in the same sediment samples, thus the ecological risk of NAs in oil spill affected areas deserves more attention. The sedimentary profiles of oil-derived NAs and background NAs centered around compounds with 21-35 and 12-21 carbons, respectively, indicating that the crude-derived NA mixtures originating from the 2007 oil spill were persistent. Acyclic NAsn=5-20 were easily degraded compared to cyclic NAsn=21-41 during the oil weathering processes, and the ratio of oxy-NAsn=21-41 relative to NAsn=21-41 could be a novel index to estimate the degree of oil weathering in sediments. Altogether, the persistent oil-derived NAsn=21-41 could be used as a potential indicator for oil-specific contamination, as such compounds would not be much affected by the properties of coastal sediments possibly due to the high sorption of the negatively charged compounds (NAs) in sediment. PMID:24579908

  9. Fluorescence excitation and propagation through brain phantom gelatins: measurements and potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, S. W.; Gillies, G. T.

    2010-08-01

    We have investigated the utility of 0.6% agarose gels as surrogate materials for brain tissues in optical propagation studies for possible diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Centimeter-scale layers of the gel exhibited a Beer's law attenuation factor, δ, of ≈0.2 mm-1 for incident illumination via a pulsed LED (100 Hz) at 405 nm. This result was different by only about a factor of 3 from the effective penetration depth at similar wavelengths through in vitro samples of the gray (cortical) matter of human brain, as measured by others. Then, films of the thermographic phosphors La2O2S:Eu, Mg4FGeO6:Mn, YAG:Cr and variants of the latter were formed on aluminum substrates and the fluorescence of these samples was stimulated and observed through layers of the gel up to 4 cm thick. In all cases, the fluorescence was easily excited and distinguishable above the background. The results demonstrate that this gel might serve as an inexpensive and robust test bed for exploratory studies of neurological modalities involving propagation of optical signals within brain tissues.

  10. Statistical language learning in neonates revealed by event-related brain potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Näätänen Risto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistical learning is a candidate for one of the basic prerequisites underlying the expeditious acquisition of spoken language. Infants from 8 months of age exhibit this form of learning to segment fluent speech into distinct words. To test the statistical learning skills at birth, we recorded event-related brain responses of sleeping neonates while they were listening to a stream of syllables containing statistical cues to word boundaries. Results We found evidence that sleeping neonates are able to automatically extract statistical properties of the speech input and thus detect the word boundaries in a continuous stream of syllables containing no morphological cues. Syllable-specific event-related brain responses found in two separate studies demonstrated that the neonatal brain treated the syllables differently according to their position within pseudowords. Conclusion These results demonstrate that neonates can efficiently learn transitional probabilities or frequencies of co-occurrence between different syllables, enabling them to detect word boundaries and in this way isolate single words out of fluent natural speech. The ability to adopt statistical structures from speech may play a fundamental role as one of the earliest prerequisites of language acquisition.

  11. NOGO-A induction and localization during chick brain development indicate a role disparate from neurite outgrowth inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwnicz Boleslaw H

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nogo-A, a myelin-associated protein, inhibits neurite outgrowth and abates regeneration in the adult vertebrate central nervous system (CNS and may play a role in maintaining neural pathways once established. However, the presence of Nogo-A during early CNS development is counterintuitive and hints at an additional role for Nogo-A beyond neurite inhibition. Results We isolated chicken NOGO-A and determined its sequence. A multiple alignment of the amino acid sequence across divergent species, identified five previously undescribed, Nogo-A specific conserved regions that may be relevant for development. NOGO gene transcripts (NOGO-A, NOGO-B and NOGO-C were differentially expressed in the CNS during development and a second NOGO-A splice variant was identified. We further localized NOGO-A expression during key phases of CNS development by in situ hybridization. CNS-associated NOGO-A was induced coincident with neural plate formation and up-regulated by FGF in the transformation of non-neural ectoderm into neural precursors. NOGO-A expression was diffuse in the neuroectoderm during the early proliferative phase of development, and migration, but localized to large projection neurons of the optic tectum and tectal-associated nuclei during architectural differentiation, lamination and network establishment. Conclusion These data suggest Nogo-A plays a functional role in the determination of neural identity and/or differentiation and also appears to play a later role in the networking of large projection neurons during neurite formation and synaptogenesis. These data indicate that Nogo-A is a multifunctional protein with additional roles during CNS development that are disparate from its later role of neurite outgrowth inhibition in the adult CNS.

  12. Usefulness of functional MRI associated with PET scan and evoked potentials in the evaluation of brain functions after severe brain injury: preliminary results.

    OpenAIRE

    Kremer, Stéphane; Nicolas-Ong, Caroline; Schunck, Thérèse; Schenck, Malika; Collange, Olivier; Mutschler, Véronique; Namer, Izzie Jacques; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Delon-Martin, Chantal; Schneider, Francis

    2010-01-01

    In many patients, there is a good concordance between fMRI and brain functions suggested by EP and metabolic activity demonstrated with PET. In few others, fMRI can be integrated in the early evaluation of brain functions to further augment our capacity for a proper evaluation of brain functions in critically ill patients.

  13. Overall multi-media persistence as an indicator of potential for population-level intake of environmental contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.

    2003-06-01

    Although it is intuitively apparent that population-level exposure to contaminants dispersed in the environment must related to the persistence of the contaminant, there has been little effort to formally quantify this link. In this paper we investigate the relationship between overall persistence in a multimedia environment and the population-level exposure as expressed by intake fraction (iF), which is the cumulative fraction of chemical emitted to the environment that is taken up by members of the population. We first confirm that for any given chemical contaminant and emission scenario the definition of iF implies that it is directly proportional to the overall multi-media persistence, P{sub OV}. We show that the proportionality constant has dimensions of time and represents the characteristic time for population intake (CTI) of the chemical from the environment. We then apply the CalTOX fate and exposure model to explore how P{sub OV} and CTI combine to determine the magnitude of iF. We find that CTI has a narrow range of possible values relative to P{sub OV} across multiple chemicals and emissions scenarios. We use data from the Canadian Environmental Protection Act Priority Substance List (PSL1) Assessments to show that exposure assessments based on empirical observation are consistent with interpretations from the model. The characteristic time for intake along different dominant exposure pathways is discussed. Results indicate that P{sub OV} derived from screening-level assessments of persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT) is a useful indicator of the potential for population-level exposure.

  14. Circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor and indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health: data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Golden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Besides its well-established role in nerve cell survival and adaptive plasticity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is also involved in energy homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. Although BDNF is present in the systemic circulation, it is unknown whether plasma BDNF correlates with circulating markers of dysregulated metabolism and an adverse cardiovascular profile. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether circulating BDNF correlates with indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health, we measured plasma BDNF levels in 496 middle-age and elderly subjects (mean age approximately 70, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Linear regression analysis revealed that plasma BDNF is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, regardless of age. In females, BDNF was positively correlated with BMI, fat mass, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, and inversely correlated with folate. In males, BDNF was positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, free thiiodo-thyronine (FT3, and bioavailable testosterone, and inversely correlated with sex-hormone binding globulin, and adiponectin. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Plasma BDNF significantly correlates with multiple risk factors for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular dysfunction. Whether BDNF contributes to the pathogenesis of these disorders or functions in adaptive responses to cellular stress (as occurs in the brain remains to be determined.

  15. Electroresponsive properties and membrane potential trajectories of three types of inspiratory neurons in the newborn mouse brain stem in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Champagnat, J; Denavit-Saubié, M

    1996-01-01

    with the aim of extending the classification of inspiratory neurons to include analysis of active membrane properties. 2. The slice generated a regular rhythmic motor output recorded as burst of action potentials on a XII nerve root with a peak to peak time of 11.5 +/- 3.4 s and a duration of 483......1. The electrophysiological properties of inspiratory neurons were studied in a rhythmically active thick-slice preparation of the newborn mouse brain stem maintained in vitro. Whole cell patch recordings were performed from 60 inspiratory neurons within the rostral ventrolateral part of the slice...... +/- 54 ms (means +/- SD, n = 50). Based on the electroresponsive properties and membrane potential trajectories throughout the respiratory cycle, three types of inspiratory neurons could be distinguished. 3. Type-1 neurons were spiking in the interval between the inspiratory potentials (n = 9) or silent...

  16. Evaluation of the Potential of using Solar Energy to Pasteurise Drinking Water: Using Escherichia coli (E. coli as an Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Mhazo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Potential application of a simple panel solar cooker design (Cookit to inactivate bacteria in drinking water was investigated. Escherichia coli (E. coli was used as an indicator species in this study. Bacterial contaminated water was collected from Mzimnene R iver in Manzini region of Sw aziland. Water samples were put in Cookits and exposed to solar radiation for different time intervals (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min. Changes in water temperature were monitored and E. coli counts (cfu/ml were enumerated for each sample. The standard solid plating procedure for enumerating bacteria was used. The results showed rapid decline in E. coli count when water temperature reached about 55ºC and this was attained within 2 h of exposure to solar radiation. The findings suggest that there is potential in using the Cookit to inactivate bacteria in drinking water. It is recommended that further investigations be conducted at a larger scale, over longer periods and under different weather and climatic conditions. The effectiveness of the Cookit should also be further evaluated with more resistant waterborne bacteria, bacterial spores, protozoan cysts, and viruses.

  17. Presowing treatments to breaking seed dormancy of Pterocarya stenoptera C. DC. as an indicator of potential invasiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Mihailo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Small-winged wingnut is a 12 to 20 metres tall, deciduous and fast growing tree with large substantial branches that spread as wide as the tree is tall. The 15 to 30 cm long winged fruit catkins, which turn brown in the autumn, are suspended below the branches. The species is not described by domestic authors in Serbia. The seed was introduced from Sofia (from the Arboretum of the Forestry University of Sofia, Bulgaria - Lesotehničeski universitet, Sofija, and subjected to classical stratification and naked stratification during the period of 1 and 2 months. Germination capacity varied among the treatments. The largest number of germinated seeds was observed in the shorter stratifications, (1 month the classical (56.5% and the naked (51.0% with no significant difference. The values of real germination of all treatments were between 69-88%. High value of RG, compared to GC, indicated that more than 40% of the seeds were empty. However, the results of the control as well as other parameters of seed germination clearly point to the fact that practically no deep embryo dormancy was observed, but the seed is recalcitrant and microbiotic. The results indicate a non-invasive character of the species in terms of reproductive potential.

  18. A stochastic mechanism for signal propagation in the brain: Force of rapid random fluctuations in membrane potentials of individual neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Dawei; Man, Shushuang; Martin, Joseph V

    2016-01-21

    There are two functionally important factors in signal propagation in a brain structural network: the very first synaptic delay-a time delay about 1ms-from the moment when signals originate to the moment when observation on the signal propagation can begin; and rapid random fluctuations in membrane potentials of every individual neuron in the network at a timescale of microseconds. We provide a stochastic analysis of signal propagation in a general setting. The analysis shows that the two factors together result in a stochastic mechanism for the signal propagation as described below. A brain structural network is not a rigid circuit rather a very flexible framework that guides signals to propagate but does not guarantee success of the signal propagation. In such a framework, with the very first synaptic delay, rapid random fluctuations in every individual neuron in the network cause an "alter-and-concentrate effect" that almost surely forces signals to successfully propagate. By the stochastic mechanism we provide analytic evidence for the existence of a force behind signal propagation in a brain structural network caused by rapid random fluctuations in every individual neuron in the network at a timescale of microseconds with a time delay of 1ms. PMID:26555846

  19. Mapping EEG-Potentials on the Surface of the Brain : a Strategy for Uncovering Cortical Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Junghöfer, Markus; Elbert, Thomas; Leiderer, Paul; Berg, Patrick; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a uniform method for calculating the interpolation of scalp EEG potential distibution, the current source density (CSD), the cortical potential distribution (cortical mapping) and the CSD ot the cortical potential distribution. It will be shown that interpolation and deblurring methods such as CSD or cortical mapping are not independent of the inverse problem in potential theory. Not only the resolution but also the accuracy of these techniques, especially those of deblur...

  20. Lexical processing of vocabulary class in patients with Broca's aphasia: An event-related brain potential study on agrammatic comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Ter Keurs, M.; Brown, C.; Hagoort, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents electrophysiological evidence of an impairment in the on-line processing of word class information in patients with Broca’s aphasia with agrammatic comprehension. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from the scalp while Broca patients and non-aphasic control subjects read open- and closed-class words that appeared one at a time on a PC screen. Separate waveforms were computed for open- and closed-class words. The non-aphasic control subjects showed a modula...

  1. Shared-control brain-computer interface for a two dimensional reaching task using EEG error-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Iturrate, Inaki; Montesano, Luis; Minguez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    One of the main problems of EEG-based brain computer interfaces (BCIs) is their low information rate, thus for complex tasks the user needs large amounts of time to solve the task. In an attempt to reduce this time and improve the application robustness, recent works have explored shared-control strategies where the device does not only execute the decoded commands, but it is also involved in executing the task. This work proposes a shared-control BCI using error potentials for a 2D reaching ...

  2. Visual encoding and fixation target selection in free viewing: presaccadic brain potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey R Nikolaev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In scrutinizing a scene, the eyes alternate between fixations and saccades. During a fixation, two component processes can be distinguished: visual encoding and selection of the next fixation target. We aimed to distinguish the neural correlates of these processes in the electrical brain activity prior to a saccade onset. Participants viewed color photographs of natural scenes, in preparation for a change detection task. Then, for each participant and each scene we computed an image heat map, with temperature representing the duration and density of fixations. The temperature difference between the start and end points of saccades was taken as a measure of the expected task-relevance of the information concentrated in specific regions of a scene. Visual encoding was evaluated according to whether subsequent change was correctly detected. Saccades with larger temperature difference were more likely to be followed by correct detection than ones with smaller temperature differences. The amplitude of presaccadic activity over anterior brain areas was larger for correct detection than for detection failure. This difference was observed for short “scrutinizing” but not for long “explorative” saccades, suggesting that presaccadic activity reflects top-down saccade guidance. Thus, successful encoding requires local scanning of scene regions which are expected to be task-relevant. Next, we evaluated fixation target selection. Saccades “moving up” in temperature were preceded by presaccadic activity of higher amplitude than those “moving down”. This finding suggests that presaccadic activity reflects attention deployed to the following fixation location. Our findings illustrate how presaccadic activity can elucidate concurrent brain processes related to the immediate goal of planning the next saccade and the larger-scale goal of constructing a robust representation of the visual scene.

  3. The Potential of a (nearly) Complete Structural Neuroanatomical Model of the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Pujals, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    Generally, the main skeptical opposition that projects like the Connectome face are statements like: It is all very well to explain the machinery and mechanisms of the brain, but what will that really teach us about our selves, our minds, what makes us really tick, our mental life? People want to know, “well, what is this really going to teach us?” !is kind of skepticism is grounded in a basic preference for the familiarity of the theories of folk psychology. !ere is nothing entirely wr...

  4. An Experimental Study of the Potential Biological Effects Associated with 2-D Shear Wave Elastography on the Neonatal Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changtian; Zhang, Changsheng; Li, Junlai; Cao, Xiaolin; Song, Danfei

    2016-07-01

    2-D Shear wave elastography (SWE) imaging is widely used in clinical practice, and some researchers have applied this technique in the evaluation of neonatal brains. However, the immediate and long-term impacts of dynamic radiation force exposure on the neonatal central nervous system remain unknown. In this study, we exposed neonatal mice to 2-D SWE scanning for 10 min, 20 min and 30 min under diagnostic mode (mechanical index [MI]: 1.3; thermal index [TI]: 0.5), respectively. For the control group, the neonatal mice were sham irradiated for 30 min with the machine powered off. Their brains were collected and analyzed using histologic staining and western blot analysis at 24 h and 3 mo after the 2-D SWE scanning. The Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to assess learning and memory function of the mice at 3 mo of age. The results indicated that using 2-D SWE in evaluating brains of neonatal mice does not cause detectable histologic changes, nor does it have long-term effects on their learning and memory abilities. However, the PI3 K/AKT/mTOR pathway was disturbed when the 2-D SWE scanning lasted for more than 30 min, and the expression of p-PKCa was suppressed by 10 min or more in 2-D SWE scanning. Although these injuries may be self-repaired as the mice grow, more attention should be paid to the scanning duration when applying 2-D-SWE elastography in the assessment of neonatal brains. PMID:27112914

  5. Epigenetics, stress and their potential impact on brain network function: A focus on the schizophrenia diatheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav A. Diwadkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent sociodevelopmental cognitive model of schizophrenia/psychosis is a highly influential and compelling compendium of research findings. Here we present logical extensions to this model incorporating ideas drawn from epigenetic mediation of psychiatric disease, and the plausible effects of epigenetics on the emergence of brain network function and dysfunction in adolescence. We discuss how gene-environment interactions, effected by epigenetic mechanisms, might in particular mediate the stress response (itself heavily implicated in the emergence of schizophrenia. Next, we discuss the plausible relevance of this framework for adolescent genetic risk populations, a risk group characterized by vexing and difficult-to-explain heterogeneity. We then discuss how exploring relationships between epigenetics and brain network dysfunction (a strongly validated finding in risk populations can enhance understanding of the relationship between stress, epigenetics and functional neurobiology, and the relevance of this relationship for the eventual emergence of schizophrenia/psychosis. We suggest that these considerations can expand the impact of models such as the sociodevelopmental cognitive model, increasing their explanatory reach. Ultimately, integration of these lines of research may enhance efforts of early identification, intervention and treatment in adolescents at risk for schizophrenia.

  6. Reducing the radiation dose to the eye lens region during CT brain examination: the potential beneficial effect of the combined use of bolus and a bismuth shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Computed Tomography (CT) is the leading contributor to medical exposure to ionizing radiation. Although the use of CT brain scans for patients with head injuries and convulsions has shown a tremendous growth, it has raised substantial concerns in the general public because of the risk of radiation-induced cataracts: the current available strategies to reduce the radiation dose to the eye lens region are limited. Therefore, the present research project was initiated with the aim of evaluating the potential benefit of the combined use of bolus and a bismuth shield on reducing the radiation dose to the eye lens region during CT brain examination. Materials and methods: We conducted a series of phantom studies to measure the entrance surface dose (ESD) that is delivered to the eye lens region during CT brain examination under the effect of different scanning and shielding setups. Results: Our results indicated, during CT brain examination: (1) a drastic reduction of 92.5% in the ESD to the eye lens region was found when the CT gantry was tilted from 0 deg. (overall ESD = 30.7 mGy) to 30 deg. cranially (overall ESD = 2.4 mGy), and (2) when the CT gantry was positioned at 0 deg. (the common practice in the clinical setting), the setups with the application of a) a bismuth shield, b) a bismuth shield with a face shield (air gap), c) a bismuth shield with bolus, and d) a bismuth shield with bolus and an air gap can result in an acceptable level of image quality with a smaller overall ESD delivered to the eye lens region (overall ESD = 23.2 mGy, 24 mGy, 21 mGy and 19.9 mGy, respectively) than the setup without the bismuth shield applied (overall ESD = 30.7 mGy). Conclusion: When the primary beam scanning through the eye lens region is unavoidable during CT brain examination, the combined use of a bismuth shield with bolus and a face shield is an easy-to-use and inexpensive shielding setup to reduce the radiation dose delivered to the eye lens region while

  7. Sediment amino acids as indicators of anthropogenic activities and potential environmental risk in Erhai Lake, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhaokui; Wang, Shengrui; Zhang, Mianmian

    2016-05-01

    Total hydrolysable amino acids (THAAs) constitute the most important fraction of labile nitrogen. Anthropogenic activities directly influence various biogeochemical cycles and then accelerate lake ecosystem deterioration. This is the first study that has established the relationship between sediment THAAs and anthropogenic activities using dated sediment cores, and evaluated the possibility of THAAs release at the sediment interface based on changes in environmental conditions in Erhai Lake. The results showed that historical distribution and fractions of THAAs could be divided into three stages: a stable period before the 1970s, a clear increasing period from the 1970s to 1990s, and a gradually steady period that started after the 1990s. The chemical fraction, aromatic and sulfur amino acids (AAs) accounted for only ≤3% of THAAs. Basic AAs accounted for 5-17% of THAAs, and remained at a relatively stable level. However, acidic and neutral AAs, which accounted for 19-44% and 35-69% of THAAs, respectively, were the predominant factors causing THAAs to increase due to rapid agricultural intensification and intensification of contemporary sedimentation of phytoplankton or macrophytes since the 1970s. These trends were closely related to both anthropogenic activities and natural processes, which implied that sediment THAAs could act as an effective indicator that reflects anthropogenic activities and aquatic environmental characteristics. The current contributions of sediment THAAs on TN and TOC were <5% and 1.5%, respectively. However, the dramatic increase in THAAs in the sediment cores indicated that there was a huge potential source of labile nitrogen for the overlying water under certain environmental conditions. Correlation analysis suggested that the release of THAAs was negatively correlated with pH, whereas positively correlated with bacterial number and degree of OM mineralization, which particularly depend on the stability of HFOM. Therefore, the risk of

  8. Brain wave correlates of attentional states: Event related potentials and quantitative EEG analysis during performance of cognitive and perceptual tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Frederick G.

    1993-01-01

    presented target stimulus. In addition to the task requirements, irrelevant tones were presented in the background. Research has shown that even though these stimuli are not attended, ERP's to them can still be elicited. The amplitude of the ERP waves has been shown to change as a function of a person's level of alertness. ERP's were also collected and analyzed for the target stimuli for each task. Brain maps were produced based on the ERP voltages for the different stimuli. In addition to the ERP's, a quantitative EEG (QEEG) was performed on the data using a fast Fourier technique to produce a power spectral analysis of the EEG. This analysis was conducted on the continuous EEG while the subjects were performing the tasks. Finally, a QEEG was performed on periods during the task when subjects indicated that they were in an altered state of awareness. During the tasks, subjects were asked to indicate by pressing a button when they realized their level of task awareness had changed. EEG epochs were collected for times just before and just after subjects made this reponse. The purpose of this final analysis was to determine whether or not subjective indices of level of awareness could be correlated with different patterns of EEG.

  9. Correction: Cecotti, H. and Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Cecotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper (Cecotti, H.; Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355: Due to an internal error, the reference numbers in the original published paper were not shown, and the error was not due to the authors. The former main text should be replaced as below.

  10. Calcium-dependent plateau potentials in rostral ambiguus neurons in the newborn mouse brain stem in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Feldman, J L

    1997-01-01

    Calcium-dependent plateau potentials in rostral ambiguus neurons in the newborn mouse brain stem in vitro. J. Neurophysiol. 78: 2483-2492, 1997. The nucleus ambiguus contains vagal and glossopharyngeal motoneurons and preganglionic neurons involved in respiration, swallowing, vocalization, and...... control of heart beat. Here we show that the rostral compact formation's ambiguus neurons, which control the esophageal phase of swallowing, display calcium-dependent plateau potentials in response to tetanic orthodromic stimulation or current injection. Whole cell recordings were made from visualized...... rostral ambiguus neurons have a Ca2+-activated inward current carried by Na+. Synaptic activation of this conductance may generate prolonged spike activity in these neurons during the esophageal phase of swallowing....

  11. Working memory maintenance contributes to long-term memory formation: evidence from slow event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Patrick; Ranganath, Charan; Seemüller, Anna; Rösler, Frank

    2007-09-01

    Behavioral research has led to conflicting views regarding the relationship between working memory (WM) maintenance and long-term memory (LTM) formation. We used slow event-related brain potentials to investigate the degree to which neural activity during WM maintenance is associated with successful LTM formation. Participants performed a WM task with objects and letter strings, followed by a surprise LTM test. Slow potentials were found to be more negative over the parietal and occipital cortex for objects and over the left frontal cortex for letter strings during WM maintenance. Within each category, they were enhanced for items that were subsequently successfully remembered. These effects were topographically distinct, with maximum effects at those electrodes that showed the maximum negativity during WM maintenance in general. Together, these results are strongly consistent with the ideas that WM maintenance contributes to LTM formation and that this may occur through strengthening of stimulus-specific cortical memory traces. PMID:17993207

  12. Evaluating Potential of MODIS-based Indices in Determining “Snow Gone” Stage over Forest-dominant Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdeep S. Sekhon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available “Snow gone” (SGN stage is one of the critical variables that describe the start of the official forest fire season in the Canadian Province of Alberta. In this paper, our objective is to evaluate the potential of MODIS-based indices for determining the SGN stage. Those included: (i enhanced vegetation index (EVI, (ii normalized difference water index (NDWI using the shortwave infrared (SWIR spectral bands centered at 1.64 µm (NDWI1.64µm and at 2.13 µm (NDWI2.13µm, and (iii normalized difference snow index (NDSI. These were calculated using the 500 m 8-day gridded MODIS-based composites of surface reflectance data (i.e., MOD09A1 v.005 for the period 2006–08. We performed a qualitative evaluation of these indices over two forest fire prone natural subregions in Alberta (i.e., central mixedwood and lower boreal highlands. In the process, we generated and compared the natural subregion-specific lookout tower sites average: (i temporal trends for each of the indices, and (ii SGN stage using the ground-based observations available from Alberta Sustainable Resource Development. The EVI-values were found to have large uncertainty at the onset of the spring and unable to predict the SGN stages precisely. In terms of NDSI, it showed earlier prediction capabilities. On the contrary, both of the NDWI’s showed distinct pattern (i.e., reached a minimum value before started to increase again during the spring in relation to observed SGN stages. Thus further analysis was carried out to determine the best predictor by comparing the NDWI’s predicted SGN stages with the ground-based observations at all of the individual lookout tower sites (approximately 120 in total across the study area. It revealed that NDWI2.13µm demonstrated better prediction capabilities (i.e., on an average approximately 90% of the observations fell within ±2 periods or ±16 days of deviation in comparison to NDWI1.64µm (i.e., on an average approximately 73% of the

  13. Characterization of Brain-Penetrant Pyrimidine-Containing Molecules with Differential Microtubule-Stabilizing Activities Developed as Potential Therapeutic Agents for Alzheimer's Disease and Related Tauopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalevich, Jane; Cornec, Anne-Sophie; Yao, Yuemang; James, Michael; Crowe, Alexander; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q; Smith, Amos B; Ballatore, Carlo; Brunden, Kurt R

    2016-05-01

    The microtubule (MT)-stabilizing protein tau disengages from MTs and forms intracellular inclusions known as neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies. Reduced tau binding to MTs in tauopathies may contribute to neuronal dysfunction through decreased MT stabilization and disrupted axonal transport. Thus, the introduction of brain-penetrant MT-stabilizing compounds might normalize MT dynamics and axonal deficits in these disorders. We previously described a number of phenylpyrimidines and triazolopyrimidines (TPDs) that induce tubulin post-translational modifications indicative of MT stabilization. We now further characterize the biologic properties of these small molecules, and our results reveal that these compounds can be divided into two general classes based on the cellular response they evoke. One group composed of the phenylpyrimidines and several TPD examples showed a bell-shaped concentration-response effect on markers of MT stabilization in cellular assays. Moreover, these compounds induced proteasome-dependent degradation of α- and β-tubulin and caused altered MT morphology in both dividing cells and neuron cultures. In contrast, a second group comprising a subset of TPD molecules (TPD+) increased markers of stable MTs in a concentration-dependent manner in dividing cells and in neurons without affecting total tubulin levels or disrupting MT architecture. Moreover, an example TPD+ compound was shown to increase MTs in a neuron culture model with induced tau hyperphosphorylation and associated MT deficits. Several TPD+ compounds were shown to be both brain penetrant and orally bioavailable, and a TPD+ example increased MT stabilization in the mouse brain, making these compounds potential candidate therapeutics for neurodegenerative tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26980057

  14. Photoplethysmogram intensity ratio: A potential indicator for improving the accuracy of PTT-based cuffless blood pressure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used method for cuffless blood pressure (BP) measurement is using pulse transit time (PTT), which is based on Moens-Korteweg (M-K) equation underlying the assumption that arterial geometries such as the arterial diameter keep unchanged. However, the arterial diameter is dynamic which varies over the cardiac cycle, and it is regulated through the contraction or relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle innervated primarily by the sympathetic nervous system. This may be one of the main reasons that impair the BP estimation accuracy. In this paper, we propose a novel indicator, the photoplethysmogram (PPG) intensity ratio (PIR), to evaluate the arterial diameter change. The deep breathing (DB) maneuver and Valsalva maneuver (VM) were performed on five healthy subjects for assessing parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous activities, respectively. Heart rate (HR), PTT, PIR and BP were measured from the simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram (ECG), PPG, and continuous BP. It was found that PIR increased significantly from inspiration to expiration during DB, whilst BP dipped correspondingly. Nevertheless, PIR changed positively with BP during VM. In addition, the spectral analysis revealed that the dominant frequency component of PIR, HR and SBP, shifted significantly from high frequency (HF) to low frequency (LF), but not obvious in that of PTT. These results demonstrated that PIR can be potentially used to evaluate the smooth muscle tone which modulates arterial BP in the LF range. The PTT-based BP measurement that take into account the PIR could therefore improve its estimation accuracy. PMID:26736283

  15. Integrative analysis of transcriptome and genome indicates two potential genomic islands are associated with pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guohua; Fu, Xuping; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Lu; Wu, Wei; Cui, Zhenling; Hu, Zhongyi; Li, Yao

    2011-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is a successful human pathogen and widely prevalent throughout the world. Genomic islands (GIs) are thought to be related to pathogenicity. In this study, we predicted two potential genomic islands in M.tb genome, respectively named as GI-1 and GI-2. It is indicated that the genes belong to PE_PGRS family in GI-1 and genes involved in sulfolipid-1 (SL-1) synthesis in GI-2 are strongly associated with M.tb pathogenesis. Sequence analysis revealed that the five PGRS genes are more polymorphic than other PGRS members in full virulence M.tb complex strains at significance level 0.01 but not in attenuated strains. Expression analysis of microarrays collected from literatures displayed that GI-1 genes, especially Rv3508 might be correlated with the response to the inhibition of aerobic respiration. Microarray analysis also showed that SL-1 cluster genes are drastically down-expressed in attenuated strains relative to full virulence strains. We speculated that the effect of SL-1 on M.tb pathogenicity could be associated with long-term survival and persistence establishment during infection. Additionally, the gene Rv3508 in GI-1 was under positive selection. Rv3508 may involve the response of M.tb to the inhibition of aerobic respiration by low oxygen or drug PA-824, and it may be a common feature of genes in GI-1. These findings may provide some novel insights into M.tb physiology and pathogenesis. PMID:21924330

  16. Three tropical seagrasses as potential bio-indicators to trace metals in Xincun Bay, Hainan Island, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; HUANG Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of the trace metals Cu,Cd,Pb,and Zn were measured in seawater,rhizosphere sediments,interstitial water,and the tissues of three tropical species of seagrasses (Thalassia hemprichii,Enhalus acoroides and Cymodocea rotundata) from Xincun Bay of Hainan Island,South China.We analyzed different environmental compartments and the highest concentrations of Pb and Zn were found in the interstitial and seawater.The concentrations of Cd and Zn were significantly higher in blades compared with roots or rhizomes in T.hemprichii and E.acoroides,respectively.A metal pollution index (MPI) demonstrated that sediment,interstitial water,and seagrasses in the sites located nearest anthropogenic sources of pollution had the most abundant metal concentrations.There was obvious seasonal variation of these metals in the three seagrasses with higher concentrations of Cu,Pb and Zn in January and Cd in July.Furthermore,the relationships between metal concentrations in seagrasses and environmental compartments were positively correlated significantly.The bioconcentration factors (BCF) demonstrated that Cd from the tissues of the three seagrasses might be absorbed from the sediment by the roots.However,for C.rotundata,Zn is likely to be derived from the seawater through its blades.Therefore,the blades of T.hemprichii,E.acoroides and C.rotundata are potential bio-indicators to Cd content in sediment,and additionally Zn content (C.rotundata only) in seawater.

  17. Colorimetric Detection of Caspase 3 Activity and Reactive Oxygen Derivatives: Potential Early Indicators of Thermal Stress in Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickael Ros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to develop and implement rapid assessments of coral health to allow effective adaptive management in response to coastal development and global change. There is now increasing evidence that activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis plays a key role during coral bleaching and subsequent mortality. In this study, a “clinical” approach was used to assess coral health by measuring the activity of caspase 3 using a commercial kit. This method was first applied while inducing thermal bleaching in two coral species, Acropora millepora and Pocillopora damicornis. The latter species was then chosen to undergo further studies combining the detection of oxidative stress-related compounds (catalase activity and glutathione concentrations as well as caspase activity during both stress and recovery phases. Zooxanthellae photosystem II (PSII efficiency and cell density were measured in parallel to assess symbiont health. Our results demonstrate that the increased caspase 3 activity in the coral host could be detected before observing any significant decrease in the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the algal symbionts and/or their expulsion from the host. This study highlights the potential of host caspase 3 and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities as early indicators of stress in individual coral colonies.

  18. Amide proton signals as pH indicator for in vivo MRS and MRI of the brain-Responses to hypercapnia and hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Frahm, Jens; Michaelis, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Using proton MRS and MRI of mouse brain at 9.4T, this work provides the first in vivo evidence of pH-dependent concurrent changes of three amide signals and related metabolic responses to hypercapnia and hypothermia. During hypercapnia, amide proton MRS signals of glutamine at 6.8-6.9ppm and 7.6ppm as well as of unspecific compounds at 8.1-8.3ppm increase by at least 50% both at 37°C and 22°C. These changes reflect a reduced proton exchange with water. They are strongly correlated with intracellular pH which ranges from 6.75±0.10 to 7.13±0.06 as determined from a shift in creatine phosphokinase equilibrium. In MRI, saturation transfer from aliphatic as well as aromatic and/or amide protons alters slightly during hypercapnia and significantly during hypothermia. The asymmetry in magnetization transfer ratios decreased slightly during hypercapnia and hypothermia. Regardless of pH or temperature, saturation transfer from aliphatic protons between -2 and -4ppm frequency offset to water protons is significantly greater than that from aromatic/amide protons at corresponding offsets between +2 and +4ppm. Irradiation of aliphatic compounds at -3.5ppm frequency offset from water predominantly saturates lipids and water associated with myelin. Taken together, the results indicate that, for the B1 power used in this study, dipolar coupling between aliphatic and water protons rather than proton exchange is the dominant factor in Z-spectra and magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry of the brain in vivo. PMID:26975553

  19. Mapping EEG-potentials on the surface of the brain: a strategy for uncovering cortical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghöfer, M; Elbert, T; Leiderer, P; Berg, P; Rockstroh, B

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a uniform method for calculating the interpolation of scalp EEG potential distribution, the current source density (CSD), the cortical potential distribution (cortical mapping) and the CSD of the cortical potential distribution. It will be shown that interpolation and deblurring methods such as CSD or cortical mapping are not independent of the inverse problem in potential theory. Not only the resolution but also the accuracy of these techniques, especially those of deblurring, depend greatly on the spatial sampling rate (i.e., the number of electrodes). Using examples from simulated and real (64 channels) data it can be shown that the application of more than 100 EEG channels is not only favourable but necessary to guarantee a reasonable accuracy in the calculations of CSD or cortical mapping. Likewise, it can be shown that using more than 250 electrodes does not improve the resolution. PMID:9104831

  20. Bioavailability and soil-to-plant transfer factors as indicators of potentially toxic element contamination in agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, Paola, E-mail: paola.adamo@unina.it [Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli Federico II, via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Iavazzo, Pietro [Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli Federico II, via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Albanese, Stefano [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell' Ambiente e delle Risorse, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Napoli (Italy); Agrelli, Diana [Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli Federico II, via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); De Vivo, Benedetto; Lima, Annamaria [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell' Ambiente e delle Risorse, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-12-01

    Soil pollution in agricultural lands poses a serious threat to food safety, and suggests the need for consolidated methods providing advisory indications for soil management and crop production. In this work, the three-step extraction procedure developed by the EU Measurement and Testing Programme and two soil-to-plant transfer factors (relative to total and bioavailable concentration of elements in soil) were applied on polluted agricultural soils from southern Italy to obtain information on the retention mechanisms of metals in soils and on their level of translocation to edible vegetables. The study was carried out in the Sarno river plain of Campania, an area affected by severe environmental degradation potentially impacting the health of those consuming locally produced vegetables. Soil samples were collected in 36 locations along the two main rivers flowing into the plain. In 11 sites, lettuce plants were collected at the normal stage of consumption. According to Italian environmental law governing residential soils, and on the basis of soil background reference values for the study area, we found diffuse pollution by Be, Sn and Tl, of geogenic origin, Cr and Cu from anthropogenic sources such as tanneries and intensive agriculture, and more limited pollution by Pb, Zn and V. It was found that metals polluting soils as a result of human activities were mainly associated to residual, oxidizable and reducible phases, relatively immobile and only potentially bioavailable to plants. By contrast, the essential elements Zn and Cu showed a tendency to become more readily mobile and bioavailable as their total content in soil increased and were more easily transported to the edible parts of lettuce than other pollutants. According to our results, current soil pollution in the studied area does not affect the proportion of metals taken up by lettuce plants and there is a limited health risk incurred. - Highlights: • Soil pollution in an intensively farmed area of

  1. Geothermal systems in volcanic arcs: Volcanic characteristics and surface manifestations as indicators of geothermal potential and favorability worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelling, P.; Shevenell, L.; Hinz, N.; Coolbaugh, M.; Melosh, G.; Cumming, W.

    2016-09-01

    This paper brings a global perspective to volcanic arc geothermal assessments by evaluating trends and correlations of volcanic characteristic and surface manifestation data from world power production sites in subduction zone volcanic settings. The focus of the work was to evaluate volcanic centers individually and as a group in these arcs by correlating various geologic characteristics with known potential to host electricity grade geothermal systems at the volcanic centers. A database was developed that describes key geologic factors expected to be indicative of productive geothermal systems in a global training set, which includes all 74 subduction zone volcanic centers world-wide with current or proven power production capability. Importantly, this data set only contains data from subduction zone volcanoes and contains no negative cases, limiting the populations of any statistical groups. Regardless, this is the most robust geothermal benchmark training set for magmatic-heated systems to date that has been made public. The work reported here is part of a larger project that included data collection, evaluation, correlations and weightings, fairway and favorability modeling and mapping, prediction of blind systems, and uncertainty analysis to estimate errors associated with model predictions. This first paper describes volcano characteristics, compositions and eruption ages and trends along with surface manifestation observations and temperatures as they relate to known power producing systems. Our findings show a strong correlation between the presence and size of active flank fumarole areas and installed power production. Additionally, the majority of volcanic characteristics, including long-held anecdotal correlations related to magmatic composition or size, have limited to no correlation with power production potential. Notable exceptions are correlations between greater power yield from geothermal systems associated with older (Pleistocene) caldera systems

  2. Bioavailability and soil-to-plant transfer factors as indicators of potentially toxic element contamination in agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil pollution in agricultural lands poses a serious threat to food safety, and suggests the need for consolidated methods providing advisory indications for soil management and crop production. In this work, the three-step extraction procedure developed by the EU Measurement and Testing Programme and two soil-to-plant transfer factors (relative to total and bioavailable concentration of elements in soil) were applied on polluted agricultural soils from southern Italy to obtain information on the retention mechanisms of metals in soils and on their level of translocation to edible vegetables. The study was carried out in the Sarno river plain of Campania, an area affected by severe environmental degradation potentially impacting the health of those consuming locally produced vegetables. Soil samples were collected in 36 locations along the two main rivers flowing into the plain. In 11 sites, lettuce plants were collected at the normal stage of consumption. According to Italian environmental law governing residential soils, and on the basis of soil background reference values for the study area, we found diffuse pollution by Be, Sn and Tl, of geogenic origin, Cr and Cu from anthropogenic sources such as tanneries and intensive agriculture, and more limited pollution by Pb, Zn and V. It was found that metals polluting soils as a result of human activities were mainly associated to residual, oxidizable and reducible phases, relatively immobile and only potentially bioavailable to plants. By contrast, the essential elements Zn and Cu showed a tendency to become more readily mobile and bioavailable as their total content in soil increased and were more easily transported to the edible parts of lettuce than other pollutants. According to our results, current soil pollution in the studied area does not affect the proportion of metals taken up by lettuce plants and there is a limited health risk incurred. - Highlights: • Soil pollution in an intensively farmed area of

  3. Fallout Radionuclides as Indicators of Soil Degradation and Potential Loss of Agricultural Production in Latin American and Caribbean Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land degradation affects about 300 million ha of land in the Latin American and Caribbean region: 51% of this is agricultural land (180 million hectares). The ARCAL Regional Strategy Profile identifies the deficient use of agricultural soil and the resulting permanent loss of productive agricultural areas as one of the most important environmental and alimentary problems in the Latin American and Caribbean continental areas (Alimentary Security, A3, PER-ARCAL, 2007-2013). In recent times, extensive natural areas have been dramatically diminished by various human interventions. In this continental context, regional or national difficulties normally present specific characteristics and relevancies and distinct intervention needs. Indicators of the present soil conservation status are essential for an assessment of national economic impact and an evaluation of social consequences. Large-scale soil erosion evaluations cannot be based on direct conventional measurements because of methodological restrictions and excessively high temporal and spatial variability. Quantitative predictions which are more precise than a qualitative erosion risk determination must be carried out. Three Fallout Radionuclides (FRNs), such as Caesium-137 (137Cs), Excess Lead-210 (210Pbex) and Beryllium-7 (7Be), have proved to be by far the most successful tracers of soil movement. A key feature of the use of 137Cs is its ability to provide retrospective information on medium-term rates of soil redistribution based on a single sampling campaign. 137Cs measurements provide information on rates of soil redistribution averaged over a period of about 50 years, while 7Be, with its short half-life of 53 days, offers a potential for documenting soil redistribution over much shorter-timescales than 137Cs and 210Pbex. A number of studies have exploited this potential and have used 7Be measurements to document the soil redistribution rates associated with individual events (one month of heavy rainfall) or

  4. Differential Expression of FosB Proteins and Potential Target Genes in Select Brain Regions of Addiction and Depression Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Paula A; Turecki, Gustavo; Robison, Alfred J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to stress or drugs of abuse has been linked to altered gene expression throughout the body, and changes in gene expression in discrete brain regions are thought to underlie many psychiatric diseases, including major depressive disorder and drug addiction. Preclinical models of these disorders have provided evidence for mechanisms of this altered gene expression, including transcription factors, but evidence supporting a role for these factors in human patients has been slow to emerge. The transcription factor ΔFosB is induced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) of rodents in response to stress or cocaine, and its expression in these regions is thought to regulate their "top down" control of reward circuitry, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here, we use biochemistry to examine the expression of the FosB family of transcription factors and their potential gene targets in PFC and HPC postmortem samples from depressed patients and cocaine addicts. We demonstrate that ΔFosB and other FosB isoforms are downregulated in the HPC but not the PFC in the brains of both depressed and addicted individuals. Further, we show that potential ΔFosB transcriptional targets, including GluA2, are also downregulated in the HPC but not PFC of cocaine addicts. Thus, we provide the first evidence of FosB gene expression in human HPC and PFC in these psychiatric disorders, and in light of recent findings demonstrating the critical role of HPC ΔFosB in rodent models of learning and memory, these data suggest that reduced ΔFosB in HPC could potentially underlie cognitive deficits accompanying chronic cocaine abuse or depression. PMID:27494187

  5. Synthesis characterization and biological evaluation of a novel mixed ligand 99mTc complex as potential brain imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One approach in the design of neutral oxotechnetium complexes is based on the simultaneous substitution of a tridentate dianionic ligand and a monodentate monoanionic coligand on a [Tc(V)O]+3 precursor. Following this ''mixed ligand'' concept, a novel 99mTc complex with N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N'N'-diethylethylenediamine as ligand and 1-octanethiol as coligand is prepared and evaluated as potential brain radiopharmaceutical. Preparation of the complex at tracer level was accomplished by using 99mTc-glucoheptonate as precursor. The substitution was optimized and a coligand/ligand ratio of 5 was selected. Under this conditions the labeling yield was over 80% and a major product (with radiochemical purity > 80%) was isolated by HPLC methods and used for biological evaluation. Chemical characterization at carrier level was developed using the corresponding rhenium complex as structural model. The Re complex was also prepared by substitution method and isolated as a crystalline product. The crystals were characterized by UV-vis and IR spectra and elemental analysis. Results were consistent with the expected ReOLC structure. X ray crystallographic study demonstrated that the complex adopts a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. The basal plane is defined by the SS atoms of the ligand and the oxo group, while the N of the ligand and the S of the colligand occupy the two apical positions. All sulphur atoms underwent ionization leading to the formation of a neutral compound. 99Tc complex was also prepared. Although it was not isolated due to the small amount of reagents employed, the HPLC profile was identical to the one observed for the rhenium complex suggesting the same chemical structure. Biodistribution in mice demonstrated early brain uptake, fast blood clearance, excretion through hepatobiliary system and a brain/blood ratio that increased significantly with time. (author)

  6. [Effect of the novel dipeptide nootropic agent noopept and its metabolite cyclo-L-prolylglycine on the transcallosal evoked potential in the rat brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodavkin, G M; Borlikova, G G; Voronina, T A; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaia, R U; Tushmalova, N A; Seredenin, S B

    2002-01-01

    The effect of new nootropic dipeptides--noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine, GVS-111) and its metabolite (cyclo-L-prolylglycine)--and a standard nootrope piracetam on the transcallosal evoked potential (TEP) in rat brain was studied. In the dose range from 150 to 300 mg/kg, piracetam increased the TEP amplitude, which exhibited a maximum after 1.5-2 h and then gradually decreased. Both noopept and cyclo-L-prolylglycine also increased the TEP amplitude, which attained a plateau and retained this level over the entire observation time (above 3.5 h). All the nootropes studied increased both components of the evoked potential. Piracetam and cyclo-L-prolylglycine led to an approximately equal increase in both waves, while noopept induced a somewhat greater increase in the negative TEP wave amplitude. It is suggested that the positive effect of noopept and cyclo-L-prolylglycine upon the interhemispheric signal transfer (indicated by the improved transcallosal response) can be considered as a potential neurophysiological basis for a positive drug influence on the behavioral level. PMID:12109288

  7. The effect of the physical presence of co-players on perceived ostracism and event-related brain potentials in the cyberball paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Weschke

    Full Text Available The affective and cognitive mechanisms elicited by the experience of social exclusion-or ostracism-have recently been explored using behavioral and neurocognitive methods. Most of the studies took advantage of the Cyberball paradigm, a virtual ball tossing game with presumed co-players connected via the internet. Consistent behavioral findings indicate that exclusion obviously threatens fundamental social needs (belonging, self-esteem, meaningful existence, and control and lowers mood. In this study, we followed the question whether the credibility of the setting affects the processing of social exclusion. In contrast to a control group (standard Cyberball setup, co-players were physically present in an experimental group. Although the credibility of the virtual ball tossing game was significantly enhanced in the experimental group, self-reported negative mood and need threat were not enhanced compared to the control group. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs, however, indicated a differential processing of social exclusion. The N2 amplitude triggered by occasional ball receptions was significantly reduced in the experimental group. This effect was restricted for an early time range (130-210 ms, and did not extend to the following P3 components. The ERP effect in the N2 time range can be related to a differential social reward processing in ostracism if co-players are physically present. The lack of a corresponding correlate in the behavioral data indicates that some facets of ostracism processing are not covered by questionnaire data.

  8. Influence of P300 latency jitter on event related potential-based brain-computer interface performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, P.; Aloise, F.; Schettini, F.; Salinari, S.; Mattia, D.; Cincotti, F.

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Several ERP-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) that can be controlled even without eye movements (covert attention) have been recently proposed. However, when compared to similar systems based on overt attention, they displayed significantly lower accuracy. In the current interpretation, this is ascribed to the absence of the contribution of short-latency visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in the tasks performed in the covert attention modality. This study aims to investigate if this decrement (i) is fully explained by the lack of VEP contribution to the classification accuracy; (ii) correlates with lower temporal stability of the single-trial P300 potentials elicited in the covert attention modality. Approach. We evaluated the latency jitter of P300 evoked potentials in three BCI interfaces exploiting either overt or covert attention modalities in 20 healthy subjects. The effect of attention modality on the P300 jitter, and the relative contribution of VEPs and P300 jitter to the classification accuracy have been analyzed. Main results. The P300 jitter is higher when the BCI is controlled in covert attention. Classification accuracy negatively correlates with jitter. Even disregarding short-latency VEPs, overt-attention BCI yields better accuracy than covert. When the latency jitter is compensated offline, the difference between accuracies is not significant. Significance. The lower temporal stability of the P300 evoked potential generated during the tasks performed in covert attention modality should be regarded as the main contributing explanation of lower accuracy of covert-attention ERP-based BCIs.

  9. Lateral ventricular cerebrospinal fluid diffusivity as a potential neuroimaging marker of brain temperature in multiple sclerosis: a hypothesis and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Khader M; Lincoln, John A; Nelson, Flavia M; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2015-04-01

    In this retrospective study we tested the hypothesis that the net effect of impaired electrical conduction and therefore increased heat dissipation in multiple sclerosis (MS) results in elevated lateral ventricular (LV) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diffusivity as a measure of brain temperature estimated in vivo using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We used validated DTI-based segmentation methods to obtain normalized LV-CSF volume and its corresponding CSF diffusivity in 108 MS patients and 103 healthy controls in the age range of 21-63 years. The LV CSF diffusivity was ~2% higher in MS compared to controls that correspond to a temperature rise of ~1°C that could not be explained by changes in the CSF viscosity due to altered CSF protein content in MS. The LV diffusivity decreased with age in healthy controls (r=-0.29; p=0.003), but not in MS (r=0.15; p=0.11), possibly related to MS pathology. Age-adjusted LV diffusivity increased with lesion load (r=0.518; p=1×10(-8)). Our data suggest that the total brain lesion load is the primary contributor to the increase in LV CSF diffusivity in MS. These findings suggest that LV diffusivity is a potential in vivo biomarker of the mismatch between heat generation and dissipation in MS. We also discuss limitations and possible confounders. PMID:25485790

  10. Technetium 99 m spiperone dithiocarbamate study as a potential agent for brain pathologies diagnosis related to D 2 dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psycho-pharmacology has been discovering much about the D 2 dopamine receptors and their interrelationship to brain pathologies such as Parkinson's Disease, Schizophrenia and Huntington Disease. Those biological receptors have got affinity with dopamine endogenous agent, so that they complex and, in non pathological individuals, the biological receptors contribute to bring the levels of dopamine and free acetylcholine into equilibrium. The D 2 antagonistic psychotropic agents because of having got strong affinity with those receptors, have been being transformed into radiopharmaceuticals to diagnose these pathological disease of Central Nervous System. The Spiperone Dithiocarbamate complex studied by us, is a potential diagnosis agent because of being highly lipo-soluble and having close relationship with D 2 receptors. Besides, it is a photon emitter, allowing the use of SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) technique which is economically less expensive if compared to the PET (Positron Emission Tomography) technique. The Spiperone Dithiocarbamate (SPDC) is synthesized from Spiperone and its complexation with Technetium-99 m has been prepared with its reaction parameters after being studied and improved. The SPDC-99m Tc complex biological distribution have made in Wistar rats and the uptake of spleen, heart, liver stomach, lung, kidney, blood, intestine and brain have been resolved. The plasmatic clearance curve has been based on Wistar rats data and the know-how of the kit (for label SPDC with Tc) has been achieved. (author). 5 figs, 4 tabs

  11. Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Brain Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Dysfunction and Increases Oxidative Stress: A Potential Mechanism Involved in Cannabis-Related Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Wolff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis has potential therapeutic use but tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, its main psychoactive component, appears as a risk factor for ischemic stroke in young adults. We therefore evaluate the effects of THC on brain mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, key factors involved in stroke. Maximal oxidative capacities Vmax (complexes I, III, and IV activities, Vsucc (complexes II, III, and IV activities, Vtmpd (complex IV activity, together with mitochondrial coupling (Vmax/V0, were determined in control conditions and after exposure to THC in isolated mitochondria extracted from rat brain, using differential centrifugations. Oxidative stress was also assessed through hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production, measured with Amplex Red. THC significantly decreased Vmax (−71%; P<0.0001, Vsucc (−65%; P<0.0001, and Vtmpd (−3.5%; P<0.001. Mitochondrial coupling (Vmax/V0 was also significantly decreased after THC exposure (1.8±0.2 versus 6.3±0.7; P<0.001. Furthermore, THC significantly enhanced H2O2 production by cerebral mitochondria (+171%; P<0.05 and mitochondrial free radical leak was increased from 0.01±0.01 to 0.10±0.01% (P<0.001. Thus, THC increases oxidative stress and induces cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction. This mechanism may be involved in young cannabis users who develop ischemic stroke since THC might increase patient’s vulnerability to stroke.

  12. A brain-computer interface controlled auditory event-related potential (p300) spelling system for locked-in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübler, Andrea; Furdea, Adrian; Halder, Sebastian; Hammer, Eva Maria; Nijboer, Femke; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2009-03-01

    Using brain-computer interfaces (BCI) humans can select letters or other targets on a computer screen without any muscular involvement. An intensively investigated kind of BCI is based on the recording of visual event-related brain potentials (ERP). However, some severely paralyzed patients who need a BCI for communication have impaired vision or lack control of gaze movement, thus making a BCI depending on visual input no longer feasible. In an effort to render the ERP-BCI usable for this group of patients, the ERP-BCI was adapted to auditory stimulation. Letters of the alphabet were assigned to cells in a 5 x 5 matrix. Rows of the matrix were coded with numbers 1 to 5, and columns with numbers 6 to 10, and the numbers were presented auditorily. To select a letter, users had to first select the row and then the column containing the desired letter. Four severely paralyzed patients in the end-stage of a neurodegenerative disease were examined. All patients performed above chance level. Spelling accuracy was significantly lower with the auditory system as compared with a similar visual system. Patients reported difficulties in concentrating on the task when presented with the auditory system. In future studies, the auditory ERP-BCI should be adjusted by taking into consideration specific features of severely paralyzed patients, such as reduced attention span. This adjustment in combination with more intensive training will show whether an auditory ERP-BCI can become an option for visually impaired patients. PMID:19351359

  13. Late-onset intermittent fasting dietary restriction as a potential intervention to retard age-associated brain function impairments in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rumani; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Kumar, Sushil; Sharma, Sandeep; Kataria, Hardeep; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2011-01-01

    Lifelong dietary restriction (DR) is known to have many potential beneficial effects on brain function as well as delaying the onset of neurological diseases. In the present investigation, the effect of late-onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) regimen was studied on motor coordination and cognitive ability of ageing male rats. These animals were further used to estimate protein carbonyl content and mitochondrial complex I–IV activity in different regions of brain...

  14. How Children Process Over-Regularizations: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clahsen, Harald; Luck, Monika; Hahne, Anja

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the mental processes involved in children's on-line recognition of inflected word forms using event-related potentials (ERPs). Sixty children in three age groups (20 six- to seven-year-olds, 20 eight- to nine-year-olds, 20 eleven- to twelve-year-olds) and 23 adults (tested in a previous study) listened to sentences containing…

  15. Error detection and response adjustment in youth with mild spastic cerebral palsy: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Elina; Pirilä, Silja; Kaartinen, Jukka; van der Meere, Jaap J

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the brain activation state during error making in youth with mild spastic cerebral palsy and a peer control group while carrying out a stimulus recognition task. The key question was whether patients were detecting their own errors and subsequently improving their performance in a future trial. Findings indicated that error responses of the group with cerebral palsy were associated with weak motor preparation, as indexed by the amplitude of the late contingent negative variation. However, patients were detecting their errors as indexed by the amplitude of the response-locked negativity and thus improved their performance in a future trial. Findings suggest that the consequence of error making on future performance is intact in a sample of youth with mild spastic cerebral palsy. Because the study group is small, the present findings need replication using a larger sample. PMID:22899795

  16. Spatiotemporal distribution of δ(13)CCO2 in a shallow cave and its potential use as indicator of anthropic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gázquez, Fernando; Quindós-Poncela, Luis; Sainz-Fernández, Carlos; Fernández-Villar, Alicia; Fuente-Merino, Ismael; Celaya-Gonzalez, Santiago

    2016-09-15

    This study deals with the spatiotemporal dynamics of CO2 and its isotopic composition (δ(13)CCO2) in the atmosphere of Altamira Cave (northern Spain) over two annual cycles. In general terms, the cavity shows two distinct ventilation modes, acting as a CO2 reservoir from October to May (recharge stage), while actively exchanging gases with the outside atmosphere between July and September (discharge stage). In recharge mode, the in-cave air shows higher and relatively homogeneous CO2 values (3332 ± 521 ppm) with lower δ(13)CCO2 (-23.2 ± 0.4‰). In contrast, during the discharge stage, the CO2 concentrations are lower and relatively more variable (1383 ± 435 ppm) and accompanied by higher δ(13)CCO2 (up to -12‰). This seasonal pattern is controlled by the distinct rates of exchange of air masses with the external atmosphere through the annual cycle, as well as by changes in the production of CO2 in the soil and natural fluctuations in the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon transported by drip water into the cave. In contrast to the interpretations of previous studies in Altamira Cave, no local air intakes into the deepest cave sections were flagged by our δ(13)C measurements. This finding is also supported by analyses of CO2 and (222)Rn in air, density of airborne particles and air temperature. In addition, preliminary experiments examining the visitor-produced disturbances on δ(13)CCO2 were conducted during the various cave ventilation stages to explore the potential use of this parameter as an indicator of anthropic pressure in caves. Our data show that visits (overall stay of 60-85 min; i.e., 4 people for 20 min) significantly affected δ(13)CCO2 (up to Δδ(13)C ∼ -2‰) in the Polychrome Hall of Altamira Cave under conditions of low natural CO2 (discharge stage), whereas it remained almost unaltered under circumstances of high CO2 concentration (recharge stage). This demonstrates that δ(13)CCO2 is sensitive to perturbations

  17. Distribution and Potential Indicators of Hospitalized Cases of Neurocysticercosis and Epilepsy in Ecuador from 1996 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin Ron-Garrido

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common signs of Neurocysticercosis (NCC. In this study, spatial and temporal variations in the incidence of hospitalized cases (IHC of epilepsy and NCC in Ecuadorian municipalities were analyzed. Additionally, potential socio-economic and landscape indicators were evaluated in order to understand in part the macro-epidemiology of the Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis complex.Data on the number of hospitalized epilepsy and NCC cases by municipality of residence were obtained from morbidity-hospital systems in Ecuador. SatScan software was used to determine whether variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC in space and time. In addition, several socio-economic and landscape variables at municipality level were used to study factors intervening in the macro-epidemiology of these diseases. Negative Binomial regression models through stepwise selection and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA were used to explain the variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC.Different clusters were identified through space and time. Traditional endemic zones for NCC and epilepsy, recognized in other studies were confirmed in our study. However, for both disorders more recent clusters were identified. Among municipalities, an increasing tendency for IHC of epilepsy, and a decreasing tendency for the IHC of NCC were observed over time. In contrast, within municipalities a positive linear relationship between both disorders was found. An increase in the implementation of systems for eliminating excrements would help to reduce the IHC of epilepsy by 1.00% (IC95%; 0.2%-1.8% and by 5.12% (IC95%; 3.63%-6.59% for the IHC of NCC. The presence of pig production was related to IHC of NCC.Both disorders were related to the lack of an efficient system for eliminating excrements. Given the appearance of recent epilepsy clusters, these locations should be studied in depth to discriminate epilepsies due to NCC from epilepsies due to other causes. Field

  18. Distribution and Potential Indicators of Hospitalized Cases of Neurocysticercosis and Epilepsy in Ecuador from 1996 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, Sarah; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Saegerman, Claude; Dorny, Pierre; Berkvens, Dirk; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is one of the most common signs of Neurocysticercosis (NCC). In this study, spatial and temporal variations in the incidence of hospitalized cases (IHC) of epilepsy and NCC in Ecuadorian municipalities were analyzed. Additionally, potential socio-economic and landscape indicators were evaluated in order to understand in part the macro-epidemiology of the Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis complex. Methodology Data on the number of hospitalized epilepsy and NCC cases by municipality of residence were obtained from morbidity-hospital systems in Ecuador. SatScan software was used to determine whether variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC in space and time. In addition, several socio-economic and landscape variables at municipality level were used to study factors intervening in the macro-epidemiology of these diseases. Negative Binomial regression models through stepwise selection and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) were used to explain the variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC. Principal findings Different clusters were identified through space and time. Traditional endemic zones for NCC and epilepsy, recognized in other studies were confirmed in our study. However, for both disorders more recent clusters were identified. Among municipalities, an increasing tendency for IHC of epilepsy, and a decreasing tendency for the IHC of NCC were observed over time. In contrast, within municipalities a positive linear relationship between both disorders was found. An increase in the implementation of systems for eliminating excrements would help to reduce the IHC of epilepsy by 1.00% (IC95%; 0.2%–1.8%) and by 5.12% (IC95%; 3.63%-6.59%) for the IHC of NCC. The presence of pig production was related to IHC of NCC. Conclusion/Significance Both disorders were related to the lack of an efficient system for eliminating excrements. Given the appearance of recent epilepsy clusters, these locations should be studied in depth to discriminate epilepsies due

  19. Expression of physiological sensation of anatomical patterns in wood: An event-related brain potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Sha Sha Song; Guang Jie Zhao

    2012-01-01

    The emotional and psychological activities associated with the visual perception of macroscopic and microscopic structure patterns of wood were investigated. The macroscopic and microscopic structure patterns of 18 different timber tree species of northeast China were selected as the research objects, and these were divided into eight categories for event-related potential analysis. The 30 effective subjects’ tasks were to watch the wood structure stimuli patterns and evaluate them on a 7-poi...

  20. Exercise offers anxiolytic potential: A role for stress and brain noradrenergic-galaninergic mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Sciolino, Natale R.; Holmes, Philip V.

    2012-01-01

    Although physical activity reduces anxiety in humans, the neural basis for this response is unclear. Rodent models are essential to understand the mechanisms that underlie the benefits of exercise. However, it is controversial whether exercise exerts anxiolytic-like potential in rodents. Evidence is reviewed to evaluate the effects of wheel running, an experimental mode of exercise in rodents, on behavior in tests of anxiety and on norepinephrine and galanin systems in neural circuits that re...

  1. From the heart to the brain: a study of heartbeat contingent scalp potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schandry, R; Sparrer, B; Weitkunat, R

    1986-11-01

    Heartbeat perception has become the most widely studied example of visceral perception. In the present study scalp potentials contingent to the visceral event "heartbeat" were investigated. Scalp potentials, averaged time-locked to the EKG-R-wave, were studied at Fz, Cz, and Pz under four conditions: resting (baseline), heartbeat discrimination task, signal detection task, and heartbeat discrimination task after physical exercise. 22 subjects were assigned to the two groups "good" and "poor" perceivers, according to their performance in an initial heartbeat perception test. Event related potentials (ERPs) of "good" perceivers were more stable across conditions than those of "poor" perceivers. Peak latency within the range of 200 to 300 ms differed significantly between conditions. A principal component analysis performed on the ERP averages extracted five components. Subsequent ANOVAs across factor scores yielded significant main effects for the "groups" factor, experimental conditions and electrode sites. The strongest effects occurred over the frontal region in the latency range of 250-400 ms (following the EKG-R-wave). These were found to be not due to artifactual EKG influences. PMID:3793380

  2. Persistence of somatic and F-specific coliphages, potential indicators of fecal contamination, on spinach foliar tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent outbreaks of foodborne illness have been linked to consumption of fresh leafy greens. E. coli is commonly used as the indicator microorganism for fecal contamination on leafy greens. However, alternative microorganisms, such as coliphages, may deserve consideration as indicators of fecal cont...

  3. Task-Dependent Signal Variations in EEG Error-Related Potentials for Brain-Computer Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Iturrate, Inaki; Montesano, Luis; Minguez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Objective. A major difficulty of brain–computer interface (BCI) technology is dealing with the noise of EEG and its signal variations. Previous works studied time-dependent non-stationarities for BCIs in which the user's mental task was independent of the device operation (e.g., the mental task was motor imagery and the operational task was a speller). However, there are some BCIs, such as those based on error-related potentials, where the mental and operational tasks are dependent (e.g., the...

  4. Pain indicators in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Slobodan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Definition of pain. The International Association for the Study of Pain has defined pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage." The interpretation of pain is subjective. Each person forms an internal construct of pain through encountered injury. Pain and newborn. The issue of pain perception in newborns, its management and prevention has been neglected for decades. The inability of "self-report" of painful experience has contributed significantly to misunderstanding of the importance of this problem and in­adequate treatment. The main characteristic of this 'critical window of brain development' period is rapid enlargement of brain volume and its great plasticity. Harmful short-term and long-term consequences can arise as a consequence of disturbance of the sophisticated balance between newborn and its surrounding. Neonatal pain indicators. As a response to a present painful stimulus, the newborn adapts to this acute stress with changes in endocrine, vegetative, immune and behavioral area. An ideal pain indicator in neonatal period does not exist. There are several different groups o them, namely contextual and developmental indicators (gestational age, contributed illness, medication, for example, physiological (heart rate, vagal tone, breathing rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, transcutaneous partial pressures of oxygen and carbon-dioxide, intracranial pressure, palm sweating and behavioral ones (face expression, movements of limbs, cry, several neonatal pain scales were constructed on the basis of these indicators. .

  5. Urban liveability: emerging lessons from Australia for exploring the potential for indicators to measure the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah; Whitzman, Carolyn; Lowe, Melanie; Davern, Melanie; Aye, Lu; Butterworth, Iain; Hes, Dominique; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-06-01

    It has long been recognised that urban form impacts on health outcomes and their determinants. There is growing interest in creating indicators of liveability to measure progress towards achieving a wide range of policy outcomes, including enhanced health and wellbeing, and reduced inequalities. This review aimed to: 1) bring together the concepts of urban 'liveability' and social determinants of health; 2) synthesise the various liveability indicators developed to date; and 3) assess their quality using a health and wellbeing lens. Between 2011 and 2013, the research team reviewed 114 international academic and policy documents, as well as reports related to urban liveability. Overall, 233 indicators were found. Of these, 61 indicators were regarded as promising, 57 indicators needed further development, and 115 indicators were not useful for our purposes. Eleven domains of liveability were identified that likely contribute to health and wellbeing through the social determinants of health. These were: crime and safety; education; employment and income; health and social services; housing; leisure and culture; local food and other goods; natural environment; public open space; transport; and social cohesion and local democracy. Many of the indicators came from Australian sources; however most remain relevant from a 'global north' perspective. Although many indicators were identified, there was inconsistency in how these domains were measured. Few have been validated to assess their association with health and wellbeing outcomes, and little information was provided for how they should be applied to guide urban policy and practice. There is a substantial opportunity to further develop these measures to create a series of robust and evidence-based liveability indices, which could be linked with existing health and wellbeing data to better inform urban planning policies within Australia and beyond. PMID:24762261

  6. Change pattern of somatosensory-evoked potentials after occlusion of segmental vessels: possible indicator for spinal cord ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Liang; Qiu, Yong; Ling, Weiqi; Shen, Qin

    2005-01-01

    Paraplegia was reported after occlusion of the segmental vessels during anterior spinal surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of occlusion of the segmental vessels on the somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) monitoring and analyze its potential risk for cord ischemia. Thirty-one patients with thoracic scoliosis underwent anterior spinal surgery. T5–T11 segmental vessels on the convexity were occluded with microvascular clamps at the point 2 cm from the intravertebra for...

  7. Feasibility of using the computed tomography dose indices to estimate radiation dose to partially and fully irradiated brains in pediatric neuroradiology examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januzis, Natalie; Nguyen, Giao; Frush, Donald P.; Hoang, Jenny K.; Lowry, Carolyn; Yoshizumi, Terry T.

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to measure the dose to the brain using clinical protocols at our institution, and (b) to develop a scanner-independent dosimetry method to estimate brain dose. Radiation dose was measured with a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom and MOSFET detectors. Six current neuroradiology protocols were used: brain, sinuses, facial bones, orbits, temporal bones, and craniofacial areas. Two different CT vendor scanners (scanner A and B) were used. Partial volume correction factors (PVCFs) were determined for the brain to account for differences between point doses measured by the MOSFETs and average organ dose. The CTDIvol and DLP for each protocol were recorded. The dose to the brain (mGy) for scanners A and B was 10.7 and 10.0 for the brain protocol, 7.8 and 3.2 for the sinus, 10.2 and 8.6 for the facial bones, 7.4 and 4.7 for the orbits and 1.6 and 1.9 for the temporal bones, respectively. On scanner A, the craniofacial protocol included a standard and high dose option; the dose measured for these exams was 3.9 and 16.9 mGy, respectively. There was only one craniofacial protocol on scanner B; the brain dose measured on this exam was 4.8 mGy. A linear correlation was found between DLP and brain dose with the conversion factors: 0.049 (R2 = 0.87), 0.046 (R2 = 0.89) for scanner A and B, and 0.048 (R2 = 0.89) for both scanners. The range of dose observed was between 1.8 and 16.9 mGy per scan. This suggests that brain dose estimates may be made from DLP.

  8. Feasibility of using the computed tomography dose indices to estimate radiation dose to partially and fully irradiated brains in pediatric neuroradiology examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to measure the dose to the brain using clinical protocols at our institution, and (b) to develop a scanner-independent dosimetry method to estimate brain dose. Radiation dose was measured with a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom and MOSFET detectors. Six current neuroradiology protocols were used: brain, sinuses, facial bones, orbits, temporal bones, and craniofacial areas. Two different CT vendor scanners (scanner A and B) were used. Partial volume correction factors (PVCFs) were determined for the brain to account for differences between point doses measured by the MOSFETs and average organ dose. The CTDIvol and DLP for each protocol were recorded. The dose to the brain (mGy) for scanners A and B was 10.7 and 10.0 for the brain protocol, 7.8 and 3.2 for the sinus, 10.2 and 8.6 for the facial bones, 7.4 and 4.7 for the orbits and 1.6 and 1.9 for the temporal bones, respectively. On scanner A, the craniofacial protocol included a standard and high dose option; the dose measured for these exams was 3.9 and 16.9 mGy, respectively. There was only one craniofacial protocol on scanner B; the brain dose measured on this exam was 4.8 mGy. A linear correlation was found between DLP and brain dose with the conversion factors: 0.049 (R2 = 0.87), 0.046 (R2 = 0.89) for scanner A and B, and 0.048 (R2 = 0.89) for both scanners. The range of dose observed was between 1.8 and 16.9 mGy per scan. This suggests that brain dose estimates may be made from DLP. (paper)

  9. Four weeks' inhalation exposure of Long Evans rats to 4-tert-butyltoluene: Effect on evoked potentials, behaviour and brain neurochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Henrik Rye; Ladefoged, Ole; Østergaard, Grete;

    2000-01-01

    somatosensory evoked potentials were not affected by TBT In Auditory Brain Stem Response there was no shift in hearing threshold, but the amplitude of the first wave was increased in both exposed groups at high stimulus levels. Three to four months after the end of exposure, behavioural studies in Morris water......, respectively. We hypothesise that a reduced yield of synaptosomal protein reflects a more general effect of organic solvent exposure on the software of the brain. The synaptosomal concentration per mg synaptosomal protein and the total amount of 5-hydroxytryptamine were not affected whereas the total amount of...... maze and eight-arm maze failed to demonstrate any TBT induced effects. Exposure was followed by a 5 months exposure-free period prior to gross regional and subcellular (synaptosomal) neurochemical investigations of the brain. TBT reduced the NA concentration in whole brain minus cerebellum...

  10. The diagnosis of brain death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goila Ajay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicians, health care workers, members of the clergy, and laypeople throughout the world have accepted fully that a person is dead when his or her brain is dead. Although the widespread use of mechanical ventilators and other advanced critical care services have transformed the course of terminal neurologic disorders. Vital functions can now be maintained artificially for a long period of time after the brain has ceased to function. There is a need to diagnose brain death with utmost accuracy and urgency because of an increased awareness amongst the masses for an early diagnosis of brain death and the requirements of organ retrieval for transplantation. Physicians need not be, or consult with, a neurologist or neurosurgeon in order to determine brain death. The purpose of this review article is to provide health care providers in India with requirements for determining brain death, increase knowledge amongst health care practitioners about the clinical evaluation of brain death, and reduce the potential for variations in brain death determination policies and practices amongst facilities and practitioners. Process for brain death certification has been discussed under the following: 1. Identification of history or physical examination findings that provide a clear etiology of brain dysfunction. 2. Exclusion of any condition that might confound the subsequent examination of cortical or brain stem function. 3. Performance of a complete neurological examination including the standard apnea test and 10 minute apnea test. 4. Assessment of brainstem reflexes. 5. Clinical observations compatible with the diagnosis of brain death. 6. Responsibilities of physicians. 7. Notify next of kin. 8. Interval observation period. 9. Repeat clinical assessment of brain stem reflexes. 10. Confirmatory testing as indicated. 11. Certification and brain death documentation.

  11. Event-related brain potentials to emotional images and gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia and paired controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MarcE.Lavoie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prominent disturbances in the experience, expression, and emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia have been relatively well documented over the last few years. Furthermore, sex differences in behavior and brain activity, associated with the processing of various emotions, have been reported in the general population and in schizophrenia patients. Others proposed that sex differences should be rather attributed to testosterone, which may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Also, it had been suggested that estradiol may play a protective role in schizophrenia. Surprisingly, few studies investigating this pathology have focused on both brain substrates and gonadal steroid hormone levels, in emotional processing. In the present study, we investigated electrocortical responses related to emotional valence and arousal as well as gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia. Event-Related Potentials (ERP were recorded during exposition to emotional pictures in 18 patients with schizophrenia and in 24 control participants paired on intelligence, manual dominance and socioeconomic status. Given their previous sensitivity to emotional and attention processes, the P200, N200 and the P300 were selected for analysis. More precisely, emotional valence generally affects early components (N200, which reflect early process of selective attention, whereas emotional arousal and valence both influences the P300 component, which is related to memory context updating, and stimulus categorization. Results showed that, in the control group, the amplitude of the N200 was significantly more lateralized over the right hemisphere, while there was no such lateralization in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with schizophrenia, significantly smaller anterior P300 amplitude was observed to the unpleasant, compared to the pleasant. That anterior P300 reduction was also correlated with negative symptoms.

  12. Single Trial Predictors for Gating Motor-Imagery Brain-Computer Interfaces Based on Sensorimotor Rhythm and Visual Evoked Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronimo, Andrew; Kamrunnahar, Mst; Schiff, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    For brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) that utilize visual cues to direct the user, the neural signals extracted by the computer are representative of ongoing processes, visual evoked responses, and voluntary modulation. We proposed to use three brain signatures for predicting success on a single trial of a BCI task. The first two features, the amplitude and phase of the pre-trial mu amplitude, were chosen as a correlate for cortical excitability. The remaining feature, related to the visually evoked response to the cue, served as a possible measure of fixation and attention to the task. Of these three features, mu rhythm amplitude over the central electrodes at the time of cue presentation and to a lesser extent the single trial visual evoked response were correlated with the success on the subsequent imagery task. Despite the potential for gating trials using these features, an offline gating simulation was limited in its ability to produce an increase in device throughput. This discrepancy highlights a distinction between the identification of predictive features, and the use of this knowledge in an online BCI. Using such a system, we cannot assume that the user will respond similarly when faced with a scenario where feedback is altered by trials that are gated on a regular basis. The results of this study suggest the possibility of using individualized, pre-task neural signatures for personalized, and asynchronous (self-paced) BCI applications, although these effects need to be quantified in a real-time adaptive scenario in a future study. PMID:27199630

  13. Mir-34a mimics are potential therapeutic agents for p53-mutated and chemo-resistant brain tumour cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Ngan Fan

    Full Text Available Chemotherapeutic drug resistance and relapse remains a major challenge for paediatric (medulloblastoma and adult (glioblastoma brain tumour treatment. Medulloblastoma tumours and cell lines with mutations in the p53 signalling pathway have been shown to be specifically insensitive to DNA damaging agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of triggering cell death in p53 mutated medulloblastoma cells by a direct activation of pro-death signalling downstream of p53 activation. Since non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs have the ability to fine tune the expression of a variety of target genes, orchestrating multiple downstream effects, we hypothesised that triggering the expression of a p53 target miRNA could induce cell death in chemo-resistant cells. Treatment with etoposide, increased miR-34a levels in a p53-dependent fashion and the level of miR-34a transcription was correlated with the cell sensitivity to etoposide. miR-34a activity was validated by measuring the expression levels of one of its well described target: the NADH dependent sirtuin1 (SIRT1. Whilst drugs directly targeting SIRT1, were potent to trigger cell death at high concentrations only, introduction of synthetic miR-34a mimics was able to induce cell death in p53 mutated medulloblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines. Our results show that the need of a functional p53 signaling pathway can be bypassed by direct activation of miR-34a in brain tumour cells.

  14. Transcriptomic gene-network analysis of exposure to silver nanoparticle reveals potentially neurodegenerative progression in mouse brain neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ho-Chen; Huang, Chin-Lin; Huang, Yuh-Jeen; Hsiao, I-Lun; Yang, Chung-Wei; Chuang, Chun-Yu

    2016-08-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are commonly used in daily living products. AgNPs can induce inflammatory response in neuronal cells, and potentially develop neurological disorders. The gene networks in response to AgNPs-induced neurodegenerative progression have not been clarified in various brain neural cells. This study found that 3-5nm AgNPs were detectable to enter the nuclei of mouse neuronal cells after 24-h of exposure. The differentially expressed genes in mouse brain neural cells exposure to AgNPs were further identified using Phalanx Mouse OneArray® chip, and permitted to explore the gene network pathway regulating in neurodegenerative progression according to Cytoscape analysis. In focal adhesion pathway of ALT astrocytes, AgNPs induced the gene expression of RasGRF1 and reduced its downstream BCL2 gene for apoptosis. In cytosolic DNA sensing pathway of microglial BV2 cells, AgNPs reduced the gene expression of TREX1 and decreased IRF7 to release pro-inflammatory cytokines for inflammation and cellular activation. In MAPK pathway of neuronal N2a cells, AgNPs elevated GADD45α gene expression, and attenuated its downstream PTPRR gene to interfere with neuron growth and differentiation. Moreover, AgNPs induced beta amyloid deposition in N2a cells, and decreased PSEN1 and PSEN2, which may disrupt calcium homeostasis and presynaptic dysfunction for Alzheimer's disease development. These findings suggested that AgNPs exposure reveals the potency to induce the progression of neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:27131904

  15. Lightning potential forecast over Nanjing with denoised sounding-derived indices based on SSA and CS-BP neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Sheng, Zheng; Zhou, Bihua; Zhou, Shudao

    2014-02-01

    The method of using the back propagation neural network improved by cuckoo search algorithm (hereafter CS-BP neural network) to forecast lightning occurrence from sounding-derived indices over Nanjing is presented. The general distribution features of lightning activities over Nanjing area are summarized and analyzed first. The sounding data of 156 thunderstorm days and 164 fair-weather days during the years 2007-2012 are used to calculate the values of sounding-derived indices. The indices are pre-filtered using singular spectrum analysis (hereafter SSA) as preprocessing technique and 4 most pertinent indices (namely CAPE, K, JI and SWEAT) are determined as inputs of CS-BP network by a linear bivariate analysis and selection algorithm. The cases of 2007-2010 are used to train CS-BP network and the cases of 2011-2012 are used as an independent sample to test the forecast performance. Some statistical skill score parameters (namely POD, SAR, CSI, et.al.) indicate that the CS-BP model excels in lightning forecasting and has a better performance compared with the traditional BP neural network and linear multiregression method.

  16. Exploring the effects of antisocial personality traits on brain potentials during face processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M Pfabigan

    Full Text Available Antisocial individuals are characterized to display self-determined and inconsiderate behavior during social interaction. Furthermore, recognition deficits regarding fearful facial expressions have been observed in antisocial populations. These observations give rise to the question whether or not antisocial behavioral tendencies are associated with deficits in basic processing of social cues. The present study investigated early visual stimulus processing of social stimuli in a group of healthy female individuals with antisocial behavioral tendencies compared to individuals without these tendencies while measuring event-related potentials (P1, N170. To this end, happy and angry faces served as feedback stimuli which were embedded in a gambling task. Results showed processing differences as early as 88-120 ms after feedback onset. Participants low on antisocial traits displayed larger P1 amplitudes than participants high on antisocial traits. No group differences emerged for N170 amplitudes. Attention allocation processes, individual arousal levels as well as face processing are discussed as possible causes of the observed group differences in P1 amplitudes. In summary, the current data suggest that sensory processing of facial stimuli is functionally intact but less ready to respond in healthy individuals with antisocial tendencies.

  17. Iodine-123 labeled derivatives of methylphenidate: potential SPECT radiopharmaceuticals for brain dopamine transporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since dl-threo-[11C]methylphenidate (Ritalin) and especially the more active enantiomer, d-threo-[11C]methylphenidate, have favorable properties for PET studies, we prepared two radioiodinated analogs of methylphenidate, p-[123I]iodomethylphenidate and m-[123I]iodo-p-hydroxymethylphenidate with a view to evaluating them as potential SPECT tracers. To prepare p-[123I]iodomethylphenidate, the p-tributyltin derivative was prepared from the previously reported p-bromomethylphenidate and reacted under acidic conditions with I-123 iodide plus chloramine-T at room temperature for 90 seconds. The predomimant radioactive product was obtained in 85% radiochemical yield and > 10 Ci/μmol specific radioactivity after HPLC purification. It had the same HPLC retention time as a spectroscopically characterized non-radioactive p-iodomethylphenidate standard prepared via nitration of methylphenidate and diazotization, after protection of the secondary amino group by benzoylation. A second radioiodinated methylphenidate derivative, m-[123)I]iodop-hydroxymethylphenidate was prepared in 80% radiochemical yield by direct iodination of the known p-hydroxymethylphenidate. In this case the non-radioactive standard was prepared by iodination of p-hydroxyritalinic acid using I2 and iodic acid, followed by esterification. (author)

  18. The Impact of Task Demands on Fixation-Related Brain Potentials during Guided Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Barry; Connolly, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Recording synchronous data from EEG and eye-tracking provides a unique methodological approach for measuring the sensory and cognitive processes of overt visual search. Using this approach we obtained fixation related potentials (FRPs) during a guided visual search task specifically focusing on the lambda and P3 components. An outstanding question is whether the lambda and P3 FRP components are influenced by concurrent task demands. We addressed this question by obtaining simultaneous eye-movement and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures during a guided visual search task while parametrically modulating working memory load using an auditory N-back task. Participants performed the guided search task alone, while ignoring binaurally presented digits, or while using the auditory information in a 0, 1, or 2-back task. The results showed increased reaction time and decreased accuracy in both the visual search and N-back tasks as a function of auditory load. Moreover, high auditory task demands increased the P3 but not the lambda latency while the amplitude of both lambda and P3 was reduced during high auditory task demands. The results show that both early and late stages of visual processing indexed by FRPs are significantly affected by concurrent task demands imposed by auditory working memory. PMID:27286248

  19. Iodine-123 labeled derivatives of methylphenidate: potential SPECT radiopharmaceuticals for brain dopamine transporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, D.; Gatley, S.J.; Chen, R.; Ding, Y.-S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Since dl-threo-[{sup 11}C]methylphenidate (Ritalin) and especially the more active enantiomer, d-threo-[{sup 11}C]methylphenidate, have favorable properties for PET studies, we prepared two radioiodinated analogs of methylphenidate, p-[{sup 123}I]iodomethylphenidate and m-[{sup 123}I]iodo-p-hydroxymethylphenidate with a view to evaluating them as potential SPECT tracers. To prepare p-[{sup 123}I]iodomethylphenidate, the p-tributyltin derivative was prepared from the previously reported p-bromomethylphenidate and reacted under acidic conditions with I-123 iodide plus chloramine-T at room temperature for 90 seconds. The predomimant radioactive product was obtained in 85% radiochemical yield and > 10 Ci/{mu}mol specific radioactivity after HPLC purification. It had the same HPLC retention time as a spectroscopically characterized non-radioactive p-iodomethylphenidate standard prepared via nitration of methylphenidate and diazotization, after protection of the secondary amino group by benzoylation. A second radioiodinated methylphenidate derivative, m-[{sup 123}I]iodop-hydroxymethylphenidate was prepared in 80% radiochemical yield by direct iodination of the known p-hydroxymethylphenidate. In this case the non-radioactive standard was prepared by iodination of p-hydroxyritalinic acid using I{sub 2} and iodic acid, followed by esterification. (author).

  20. Auditory event-related potentials as indicators of good prognosis in coma of non-anoxic etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbour, Rosette; Sawaya, Raja A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether auditory event-related potentials can predict the prognosis of recovery from coma resulting from different etiologies. The results of this study could then be used as an adjuvant test in helping the clinician evaluate patients in coma. We performed P300 auditory event-related potentials on 21 patients who developed a state of coma at our institution. We compared the results to the Glasgow coma scale at the onset of coma, on day 3, and day 21. We...

  1. Correlations between dioxin-like and indicators PCBs: Potential consequences for environmental studies involving fish or sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Babut, M.; Miège, C.; Villeneuve, B.; Abarnou, A.; Duchemin, J.; Marchand, P.; Narbonne, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Among the numerous PCB congeners, most of the dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) need to be characterized by hyphenated techniques. It has been shown in several instances that these congeners are well related to the total PCB content in fish. We examined datasets collected mainly in France, on freshwater and marine fish and sediments. A statistical model linking DL- and indicator PCBs was developed for a dataset composed of freshwater fishes, and proved to predict well DL-PCBs from indicator PCBs in ...

  2. An information theoretical approach to task-switching: evidence from cognitive brain potentials in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Barcelo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the neural substrates of behavioral switch and restart costs in intermittently instructed task-switching paradigms. Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded while participants were intermittently cued to switch or repeat their categorization rule (Switch task, or else they performed two perceptually identical control conditions (NoGo and Oddball. The three tasks involved different task-sets with distinct stimulus-response associations in each, but identical visual stimulation, consisting of frequent colored shapes (p = 0.9 and randomly interspersed infrequent black shapes (p = 0.1; ‘+’ and ‘x’ symbols. Behavioral restart costs were observed in the fi rst target responses following all black shapes in the Switch and NoGo tasks – but not in the Oddball task – and corresponded with enhanced fronto-centrally distributed early cue-locked P3 activity (peak latency 325–375 ms post-cue onset at the vertex. In turn, behavioral switch costs were associated with larger late cue-locked P3 amplitudes in the Switch task only (peak latency 400–450 ms post-cue onset at mid-parietal sites. Together with our information theoretical estimations, ERP results suggested that restart and switch costs indexed two neural mechanisms related to the preparatory resolution of uncertainty: (1 the intermittent re-activation of task-set information, and (2 the updating of stimulus-response mappings within an active task set, as indexed by early and late cue-locked P3 activations, respectively. In contrast, target-locked P3 activations refl ected a functionally distinct mechanism related to the implementation of task-set information. We conclude that task-switching costs consist of both switch-specifi c and switch-unspecifi c processes during the preparation and execution stages of task performance.

  3. Evaluation of brain stem auditory evoked potentials in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Prem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Though there are few studies addressing brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, subclinical BAEP abnormalities in stable COPD patients have not been studied. The present study aimed to evaluate the BAEP abnormalities in this study group. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 80 male subjects were included: COPD group comprised 40 smokers with stable COPD with no clinical neuropathy; 40 age-matched healthy volunteers served as the control group. Latencies of BAEP waves I, II, III, IV, and V, together with interpeak latencies (IPLs of I-III, I-V, and III-V, and amplitudes of waves I-Ia and V-Va were studied in both the groups to compare the BAEP abnormalities in COPD group; the latter were correlated with patient characteristics and Mini-Mental Status Examination Questionnaire (MMSEQ scores to seek any significant correlation. Results: Twenty-six (65% of the 40 COPD patients had BAEP abnormalities. We observed significantly prolonged latencies of waves I, III, V over left ear and waves III, IV, V over right ear; increased IPLs of I-V, III-V over left ear and of I-III, I-V, III-V over right side. Amplitudes of waves I-Ia and V-Va were decreased bilaterally. Over left ear, the latencies of wave I and III were significantly correlated with FEV 1 ; and amplitude of wave I-Ia, with smoking pack years. A weak positive correlation between amplitude of wave I-Ia and duration of illness; and a weak negative correlation between amplitude of wave V-Va and MMSEQ scores were seen over right side. Conclusions : We observed significant subclinical BAEP abnormalities on electrophysiological evaluation in studied stable COPD male patients having mild-to-moderate airflow obstruction.

  4. Design, synthesis and evaluation of redox radiopharmaceuticals: a potential new approach for the development of brain imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fabrication and complete evaluation are described of a dihydropyridine in equilibrium pyridinium salt type redox system for the delivery of radioiodinated agents to the brain. The pivotal intermediate, N-succinimidyl (1-methylpyridinium iodide)-3-carboxylate was prepared by condensation of nicotinic acid and N-hydroxysuccinimide in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodimide, followed by quaternization of III with methyl iodide. Tissue distribution studies of 125I-labeled 4-iodoaniline and the redox agents were performed in rats. [125I]Iodoaniline initially showed moderate (0.58% dose/gm) brain uptake with subsequent release of the radioactivity from the brain. [125I]Iodoaniline, when coupled to a dihydropyridine carrier showed higher uptake and retention in the brain. The [125I]iodophenylethyl analogue showed uptake and retention in the brain to be very similar. Apparently the lipophilic agents cross the blood-brain barrier and are oxidized (quaternized) within the brain. The blood-brain barrier then prevents their release resulting in high uptake and retention in the brain and high brain:blood ratios. 11 refs., 3 figs

  5. Accurate Computation of Reduction Potentials of 4Fe−4S Clusters Indicates a Carboxylate Shift in Pyrococcus furiosus Ferredoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Ooi, Bee Lean; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the computation and accurate reproduction of subtle shifts in reduction potentials for two mutants of the iron-sulfur protein Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin. The computational models involved only first-sphere ligands and differed with respect to one ligand, either acetate (as...

  6. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  7. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  8. Persistence of somatic and F-specific coliphages, potential indicators of fecal contamination, on spinach foliar tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Recent outbreaks of foodborne illness have been linked to consumption of fresh leafy greens. E. coli is commonly used as the indicator microorganism for fecal contamination on growing leafy greens. However, alternative microorganisms, such as coliphages, may be an alternative indicat...

  9. Correlations between dioxin-like and indicators PCBs: Potential consequences for environmental studies involving fish or sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the numerous PCB congeners, most of the dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) need to be characterized by hyphenated techniques. It has been shown in several instances that these congeners are well related to the total PCB content in fish. We examined datasets collected mainly in France, on freshwater and marine fish and sediments. A statistical model linking DL- and indicator PCBs was developed for a dataset composed of freshwater fishes, and proved to predict well DL-PCBs from indicator PCBs in all other fish sets, including marine ones. Type II error rates remained low in almost all fish sets. A similar correlation was observed in sediments. Non-dioxin-like PCBs elicit various adverse effects and represent 95% of the total PCBs. A European guideline for them is needed; the correlation between DL- and indicator PCBs could help develop this standard in the future. - Dioxin-like PCBs in fish and maybe sediments are rather well predicted by indicator PCBs.

  10. High oxygen consumption rates and scale loss indicate elevated aggressive behaviour at low rearing density, while elevated brain serotonergic activity suggest chronic stress at high rearing densities in farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Silva, P.I.M.; Larsen, Bodil Katrine;

    2013-01-01

    automated respirometry, recording fin erosion, determining scale loss and analysing plasma cortisol and brain serotonergic activity levels. The results obtained in the present study indicated that at the lowest density the fish had the space and opportunity to display their natural aggressive behaviour and...

  11. Emotion and memory: Event-related potential indices predictive for subsequent successful memory depend on the emotional mood state.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, Markus; Schuch, Stefanie; Schenck, Wolfram; Fiedler, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The present research investigated the influencesof emotional mood states on cognitive processes and neural circuits during long-term memory encoding using event-related potentials (ERPs). We assessed whether the subsequent memory effect (SME), an electrophysiological index of successful memory encoding, varies as a function of participants’ current mood state. ERPs were recorded while participants in good or bad mood states were presented with words that had to be memorized for subsequent rec...

  12. In vitro embryogenesis of Neomysis integer (Crustacea, Mysidacea) as a potential indicator of endocrine disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Fockedey, N; Bruwiere, S.; Ghekiere, A.; Vincx, M.

    2005-01-01

    The brackish water mysid Neomysis integer has been put forward to use as a test organisms for the evaluation of environmental endocrine disruption in the brackish reaches of Western European estuaries and inland water bodies. As the embryonic development is a critical time window within the life history of an organism, it has high potential to serve as a bio-assay for testing endocrine disruption. Within the present study a protocol has been developed to follow the in vitro embryogenesis of N...

  13. Chemical composition of the thermomineral waters of Josanicka Banja spa as an origin indicator, balneological valorization and geothermal potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenić Dejan R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the groundwater is directly dependent on the geological structure, hydrogeological and hydrochemical characteristics and as such it represents an output result of all the factors and processes which take place in the environment within which they were formed. The chemical composition of thermomineral waters often represents a crucial factor in determining the origin, balneological valorization and geothermal potential of the resources. This work presents the analysis of origin, belneological valorization and geothermal potential of Josanicka Banja spa, on the basis of the results gained through making the analyisis of chemical contents of the thermomineral waters which occur in the area. The ratio of concentrations of specific chemical components in the thermomineral waters of Josanicka Banja has served as the basic tool for ascertaining the origin of these waters. On the basis of the analysis of the main anion-cation and gas compositions as well as the contents of specific micro-components, a balneological valorization of these resources has been carried out. Apart from that this work also presents the calculation of the expected temperatures in the primary geothermal reservoir, which was carried out on the basis of the results of chemical analysis of thermomineral waters that occur in the area. Geothermal potential of about 4 MWt and significant contents of balneologically active components of the chemical composition of these waters, open up a possibility for their multi-purpose use, which is also presented in the work. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33053

  14. Potential Indicators and Reference Points for Good Environmental Status of Commercially Exploited Marine Fishes and Invertebrates in the German EEZ

    OpenAIRE

    Froese, Rainer; Sampang, Arlene

    2013-01-01

    Indicators and reference points for assessing the good environmental status of commercially exploited marine fishes and invertebrates are presented, using 20 stocks from the German exclusive economic zone. New estimates of length-weight relationship, von Bertalanffy growth, length at 50% and 90% maturity, age at 50% maturity, and length and age where cohort biomass is maximum are presented for each stock. Twice the stock size below which recruitment may become impaired (SSBpa) is proposed as ...

  15. The use of Na+ and K+ ion concentrations as potential diagnostic indicators of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Wahid Haron; Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah; Abdulnasir Tijjani; Yusuf Abba; Lawan Adamu; Konto Mohammed; Aisyah Munira Mohammed Amir; Mohammad Abubakar Sadiq; Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions in milk of lactating dairy cows with and without subclinical mastitis as putative indicators for detecting subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: Thirty seven lactating dairy cows were screened for the evidence of subclinical mastitis using California mastitis test (CMT). The lactating dairy cows were categorized as CMT-Positive (CMT-P; n=20) and CMT-Negative (CMT-N; n=1...

  16. Male cerebral palsy hospitalization as a potential indicator of neurological effects of methylmercury exposure in Great Lakes communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinatal exposure to methylmercury is known to result in severe neurological effects on the developing fetus and infant, including cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and seizures. Males are more susceptible than females to neurological damage from perinatal methylmercury exposures. Preliminary analyses of data and statistics for the hospitalization rates of males for cerebral palsy in the 17 Canadian Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes basin indicate a possible geographic association with locations with elevated mercury from natural or industrial sources

  17. Multislice Cardiac CT-Angiography; A Review on Accepted Indications and Potentials for Other Applications Regarding the Newest Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motevalli

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available There were not any clear-cut criteria available for clinical use of cardiac CT-angiography (CCTA up to October 2006 in which the American College of Car-diology (ACC, American College of Radiology (ACR and six other medical institutions released a joint consensus on clinical indications of cardiac CT and MRI. A statement was released by the American Heart Association together with two other radiology and cardiology institutions in the same month on the same matter. An illustrated review will be presented on the newly accepted indications of cardiac CT, especially CCTA. Some prominent indications are as follow: 1. Evaluation of chest pain syndrome in patient with intermediate pretest probability of coronary artery disease (CAD when exercise test is not feasible. 2. Evaluation of acute chest pain in patient with in-termediate pretest probability of CAD and negative ECG and enzymes. 3. Uninterpretable or equivocal stress test (exercise, perfusion scan, or stress echo. 4. Evaluation of coronary arteries in patients with new onset heart failure. 5. Assessment of congenital coronary and cardiac anomalies. 6. Noninvasive coronary vein mapping prior to placement of biventricular pacemaker. 7. Noninvasive coronary arterial mapping, including internal mammary artery prior to repeat cardiac sur-gical revascularization. Some recent research indicated that CCTA is useful in some other specific situations too, like evaluating in-stent re-stenosis for stainless steel or cobalt stents more than 3mm in diameter and has also some roles in the evaluation of coronary bypass grafts, etc. Fi-nally, the newer progressions in the field of multislice CT are promising of even better performance which may widen the scope of its indications. Dual-source CT scanners have shown better performance com-pared with 64-slice CT scanners in the preliminary studies, namely slice-thickness of 0.25mm vs. 0.4mm, temporal resolution of 83ms vs.165ms, assessable segments of 98.6% vs. 97

  18. 脑机接口技术在航天领域的潜在应用%Brain-Machine Interface Technology for Potential Space Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鑫; 吴边; 陈卫东; 张韶岷; 代建华; 郑筱祥

    2012-01-01

    The space application of brain-machine interface technology may improve the safety and effect of space operations. The current development of non-invasive brain-machine interface technology is addressed, and potential space applications of brain-machine interface are investigated by introducing the most advanced brain signal monitor technology and decoding model. While the brain-machine interface based on Electro-encephalography are always limited to rate, capacity and transmission accuracy, the limitations will be removed gradually with the development of brain-machine interface technology.%脑机接口技术应用于航天领域可提升空间操作的安全性和效率。介绍非植入式脑机接口技术的发展现状,通过引入最新的脑信号监测技术和解码模型,探讨脑机接口技术在航天领域的潜在应用。目前基于头皮脑电的脑机接口方法受限于速度、容量和传输精度,但这些局限会随着该技术的发展而逐渐减小。

  19. Trends in brain oxygenation during mental and physical exercise measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): potential for early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Monica S.; Allen, Jeffery W.; Mikkilineni, Shweta; Liu, Hanli

    2005-04-01

    Motivation: Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial because symptoms respond best to available treatments in the initial stages of the disease. Recent studies have shown that marked changes in brain oxygenation during mental and physical tasks can be used for noninvasive functional brain imaging to detect Alzheimer"s disease. The goal of our study is to explore the possibility of using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and mapping (NIRM) as a diagnostic tool for AD before the onset of significant morphological changes in the brain. Methods: A 16-channel NIRS brain imager was used to noninvasively measure spatial and temporal changes in cerebral hemodynamics induced during verbal fluency task and physical activity. The experiments involved healthy subjects (n = 10) in the age range of 25+/-5 years. The NIRS signals were taken from the subjects' prefrontal cortex during the activities. Results and Conclusion: Trends of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex of the brain were observed. During the mental stimulation, the subjects showed significant increase in oxygenated hemoglobin [HbO2] with a simultaneous decrease in deoxygenated hemoglobin [Hb]. However, physical exercise caused a rise in levels of HbO2 with small variations in Hb. This study basically demonstrates that NIRM taken from the prefrontal cortex of the human brain is sensitive to both mental and physical tasks and holds potential to serve as a diagnostic means for early detection of Alzheimer's disease.

  20. DEPRESSION OF THE PHOTIC AFTER DISCHARGE OF FLASH EVOKED POTENTIALS BY PHYSOSTIGMINE, CARBARYL AND PROPOXUR AND THE RELATIONSHIP TO INHIBITION OF BRAIN CHOLINESTERASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of N-methyl carbamate pesticides on the photic after discharge (PhAD) of flash evoked potentials (FEPs) and the relationship between inhibition of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity and the PhAD were evaluated. FEPs were recorded in Long Evans rats treated with physo...

  1. Predictive analysis of transmissible quinolone resistance indicates Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as a potential source of a novel family of Qnr determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Martínez Luis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting antibiotic resistance before it emerges at clinical settings constitutes a novel approach for preventing and fighting resistance of bacterial pathogens. To analyse the possibility that novel plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance determinants (Qnr can emerge and disseminate among bacterial pathogens, we searched the presence of those elements in nearly 1000 bacterial genomes and metagenomes. Results We have found a number of novel potential qnr genes in the chromosomes of aquatic bacteria and in metagenomes from marine organisms. Functional studies of the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Smqnr gene show that plasmid-encoded SmQnr confers quinolone resistance upon its expression in a heterologous host. Conclusion Altogether, the data presented in our work support the notion that predictive studies on antibiotic resistance are feasible, using currently available information on bacterial genomes and with the aid of bioinformatic and functional tools. Our results confirm that aquatic bacteria can be the origin of plasmid-encoded Qnr, and highlight the potential role of S. maltophilia as a source of novel Qnr determinants.

  2. Chronic unpredictable stress decreases expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in mouse ovaries: relationship to oocytes developmental potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Min Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF was originally described in the nervous system but has been shown to be expressed in ovary tissues recently, acting as a paracrine/autocrine regulator required for developments of follicles and oocytes. Although it is generally accepted that chronic stress impairs female reproduction and decreases the expression of BDNF in limbic structures of central nervous system, which contributes to mood disorder. However, it is not known whether chronic stress affects oocytes developments, nor whether it affects expression of BDNF in ovary. METHODS: Mice were randomly assigned into control group, stressed group, BDNF-treated group and BDNF-treated stressed group. The chronic unpredictable mild stress model was used to produce psychosocial stress in mice, and the model was verified by open field test and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity. The methods of immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to detect BDNF protein level and distribution. The number of retrieved oocytes, oocyte maturation, embryo cleavage and the rates of blastocyst formation after parthenogenetic activation were evaluated. RESULTS: Chronic unpredictable stress decreased the BDNF expression in antral follicles, but didn't affect the BDNF expression in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Chronic unpredictable stress also decreased the number of retrieved oocytes and the rate of blastocyst formation, which was rescued by exogenous BDNF treatment. CONCLUSION: BDNF in mouse ovaries may be related to the decreased number of retrieved oocytes and impaired oocytes developmental potential induced by chronic unpredictable stress.

  3. Functional definition of the N450 event-related brain potential marker of conflict processing: a numerical stroop study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szűcs Dénes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several conflict processing studies aimed to dissociate neuroimaging phenomena related to stimulus and response conflict processing. However, previous studies typically did not include a paradigm-independent measure of either stimulus or response conflict. Here we have combined electro-myography (EMG with event-related brain potentials (ERPs in order to determine whether a particularly robust marker of conflict processing, the N450 ERP effect usually related to the activity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC, is related to stimulus- or to response-conflict processing. EMG provided paradigm-independent measure of response conflict. In a numerical Stroop paradigm participants compared pairs of digits and pressed a button on the side where they saw the larger digit. 50% of digit-pairs were preceded by an effective cue which provided accurate information about the required response. 50% of trials were preceded by a neutral cue which did not communicate the side of response. Results EMG showed that response conflict was significantly larger in neutrally than in effectively cued trials. The N450 was similar when response conflict was high and when it was low. Conclusions We conclude that the N450 is related to stimulus or abstract, rather than to response conflict detection/resolution. Findings may enable timing ACC conflict effects.

  4. Do discourse global coherence and cumulated information impact on sentence syntactic processing? An event-related brain potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Gutiérrez, David; Jiménez-Ortega, Laura; Fondevila, Sabela; Casado, Pilar; Muñoz, Francisco; Martín-Loeches, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at exploring how two main primarily semantic factors of discourse comprehension, namely global coherence and amount of information cumulated across a passage, may impact on the sentential syntactic processing. This was measured in two event-related brain potentials (ERP) to grammatical (morphosyntactic) violations: anterior negativities (LAN) and posterior positivities (P600). Global coherence did not yield any significant effects on either ERP component, although it appeared advantageous to the detection of morphosyntactic errors. Anterior negativities were also unaffected by the amount of cumulated information. Accordingly, it seems that first-pass syntactic processes are unaffected by these discourse variables. In contrast, the first portion of the P600 was significantly modulated (increased) by the latter factor. This probably reflects bigger efforts to combine sentential information during situations highly demanding for working memory. Our results would suggest that processes involved in global discourse coherence appear relatively independent of the on-line syntactic and combinatorial mechanisms reflected in the LAN and the P600 components of the ERPs. PMID:26569131

  5. [A wireless smart home system based on brain-computer interface of steady state visual evoked potential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Xing, Xiao; Guo, Xuhong; Liu, Zehua; He, Yang

    2014-10-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) system is a system that achieves communication and control among humans and computers and other electronic equipment with the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. This paper describes the working theory of the wireless smart home system based on the BCI technology. We started to get the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) using the single chip microcomputer and the visual stimulation which composed by LED lamp to stimulate human eyes. Then, through building the power spectral transformation on the LabVIEW platform, we processed timely those EEG signals under different frequency stimulation so as to transfer them to different instructions. Those instructions could be received by the wireless transceiver equipment to control the household appliances and to achieve the intelligent control towards the specified devices. The experimental results showed that the correct rate for the 10 subjects reached 100%, and the control time of average single device was 4 seconds, thus this design could totally achieve the original purpose of smart home system. PMID:25764705

  6. The Cognitive Aging of Episodic Memory: A View Based On The Event-Related Brain Potential (ERP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eFriedman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A cardinal feature of older-adult cognition is a decline, relative to the young, in the encoding and retrieval of personally-relevant events, i.e. episodic memory (EM. A consensus holds that familiarity, a relatively automatic feeling of knowing that can support recognition-memory judgments, is preserved with aging. By contrast, recollection, which requires the effortful, strategic recovery of contextual detail, declines as we age. Over the last decade, ERPs have become increasingly important tools in the study of the aging of EM, because a few, well-researched EM effects have been associated with the cognitive processes thought to underlie successful EM performance. EM effects are operationalized by subtracting the ERPs elicited by correctly-rejected, new items from those to correctly recognized, old items. Although highly controversial, the mid-frontal effect (a positive component between ~300 and 500 ms, maximal at fronto-central scalp sites is thought to reflect familiarity-based recognition. A positivity between ~500 and 800 ms, maximal at left-parietal scalp, has been labeled the left-parietal EM effect. A wealth of evidence suggests that this brain activity reflects recollection-based retrieval. Here, I review the ERP evidence in support of the hypothesis that familiarity is maintained while recollection is compromised in older relative to young adults. I consider the possibility that the inconsistency in findings may be due to individual differences in performance, executive function and quality of life indices, such as socio-economic status.

  7. Risk Identification and Forewarning Indicators System of Brain Drain of Employee in the Military Hospital%军队医院聘用制人员流失的风险识别与预警指标体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵育新; 孙令艳; 祝松; 谢峻; 何涛; 李达; 张丽华; 曾艳彩

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify the risks and forewarn the brain drain of employee in the military hospital. Methods A forewarning indicators system was set up from the angle of the causes of brain drain of employee. Results The established forewarning indicators system was made up of interior and exterior indexes. Conclusion The establishment of forewarning indicators system of brain drain of employee in military hospitals, will be helpful for the hospital managers to take measures to reduce the losses caused by brain drain of employee.%目的 保证军队医院人力资源流失预警管理的科学开展.方法 识别聘用制人员流失风险,从人员流失原因角度建立预警指标体系.结果 建立包括内部预警指标与外部预警指标的预警指标体系.结论 建立军队医院聘用制人员流失风险的预警指标体系,对军队医院及时预控,减少聘用制人员流失带来的损失具有现实意义.

  8. Microbial Growth, Sensory Characteristic and pH as Potential Spoilage Indicators of Chinese Yellow Wet Noodles from Commercial Processing Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Suwaibah Ghaffar; Abdulamir AS; Bakar, Fatimah A; Roselina Karim; Nazamid Saari

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of microbial growth, sensory characteristic (odour) and pH as potential spoilage indicators of Chinese yellow wet noodles. Approach: Samples were collected from 3 commercial processing plants namely, Automated Processing (AP), Semi-automated Processing (SP) and Manual Processing (MP). The samples were kept at ambient temperature (28±2 °C) and monitored microbiologically for ten days. Standard Plate Count (TPC) and Yeast...

  9. High-frequency combination coding-based steady-state visual evoked potential for brain computer interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Xin; Xie, Jun; Li, Yeping; Han, Chengcheng; Lili, Li; Wang, Jing [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Xu, Guang-Hua [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710054 (China)

    2015-03-10

    This study presents a new steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm for brain computer interface (BCI) systems. The goal of this study is to increase the number of targets using fewer stimulation high frequencies, with diminishing subject’s fatigue and reducing the risk of photosensitive epileptic seizures. The new paradigm is High-Frequency Combination Coding-Based High-Frequency Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (HFCC-SSVEP).Firstly, we studied SSVEP high frequency(beyond 25 Hz)response of SSVEP, whose paradigm is presented on the LED. The SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of high frequency(beyond 40 Hz) response is very low, which is been unable to be distinguished through the traditional analysis method; Secondly we investigated the HFCC-SSVEP response (beyond 25 Hz) for 3 frequencies (25Hz, 33.33Hz, and 40Hz), HFCC-SSVEP produces n{sup n} with n high stimulation frequencies through Frequence Combination Code. Further, Animproved Hilbert-huang transform (IHHT)-based variable frequency EEG feature extraction method and a local spectrum extreme target identification algorithmare adopted to extract time-frequency feature of the proposed HFCC-SSVEP response.Linear predictions and fixed sifting (iterating) 10 time is used to overcome the shortage of end effect and stopping criterion,generalized zero-crossing (GZC) is used to compute the instantaneous frequency of the proposed SSVEP respondent signals, the improved HHT-based feature extraction method for the proposed SSVEP paradigm in this study increases recognition efficiency, so as to improve ITR and to increase the stability of the BCI system. what is more, SSVEPs evoked by high-frequency stimuli (beyond 25Hz) minimally diminish subject’s fatigue and prevent safety hazards linked to photo-induced epileptic seizures, So as to ensure the system efficiency and undamaging.This study tests three subjects in order to verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  10. High-frequency combination coding-based steady-state visual evoked potential for brain computer interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a new steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm for brain computer interface (BCI) systems. The goal of this study is to increase the number of targets using fewer stimulation high frequencies, with diminishing subject’s fatigue and reducing the risk of photosensitive epileptic seizures. The new paradigm is High-Frequency Combination Coding-Based High-Frequency Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (HFCC-SSVEP).Firstly, we studied SSVEP high frequency(beyond 25 Hz)response of SSVEP, whose paradigm is presented on the LED. The SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of high frequency(beyond 40 Hz) response is very low, which is been unable to be distinguished through the traditional analysis method; Secondly we investigated the HFCC-SSVEP response (beyond 25 Hz) for 3 frequencies (25Hz, 33.33Hz, and 40Hz), HFCC-SSVEP produces nn with n high stimulation frequencies through Frequence Combination Code. Further, Animproved Hilbert-huang transform (IHHT)-based variable frequency EEG feature extraction method and a local spectrum extreme target identification algorithmare adopted to extract time-frequency feature of the proposed HFCC-SSVEP response.Linear predictions and fixed sifting (iterating) 10 time is used to overcome the shortage of end effect and stopping criterion,generalized zero-crossing (GZC) is used to compute the instantaneous frequency of the proposed SSVEP respondent signals, the improved HHT-based feature extraction method for the proposed SSVEP paradigm in this study increases recognition efficiency, so as to improve ITR and to increase the stability of the BCI system. what is more, SSVEPs evoked by high-frequency stimuli (beyond 25Hz) minimally diminish subject’s fatigue and prevent safety hazards linked to photo-induced epileptic seizures, So as to ensure the system efficiency and undamaging.This study tests three subjects in order to verify the feasibility of the proposed method

  11. The UCLA Study of Children with Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Event-Related Potential Measure of Interhemispheric Transfer Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Monica U; DeBoard Marion, Sarah; McArthur, David L; Babikian, Talin; Giza, Christopher; Kernan, Claudia L; Newman, Nina; Moran, Lisa; Akarakian, Roy; Houshiarnejad, Asal; Mink, Richard; Johnson, Jeffrey; Babbitt, Christopher J; Olsen, Alexander; Asarnow, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently results in diffuse axonal injury and other white matter damage. The corpus callosum (CC) is particularly vulnerable to injury following TBI. Damage to this white matter tract has been associated with impaired neurocognitive functioning in children with TBI. Event-related potentials can identify stimulus-locked neural activity with high temporal resolution. They were used in this study to measure interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) as an indicator of CC integrity in 44 children with moderate/severe TBI at 3-5 months post-injury, compared with 39 healthy control children. Neurocognitive performance also was examined in these groups. Nearly half of the children with TBI had IHTTs that were outside the range of the healthy control group children. This subgroup of TBI children with slow IHTT also had significantly poorer neurocognitive functioning than healthy controls-even after correction for premorbid intellectual functioning. We discuss alternative models for the relationship between IHTT and neurocognitive functioning following TBI. Slow IHTT may be a biomarker that identifies children at risk for poor cognitive functioning following moderate/severe TBI. PMID:26153851

  12. Information processing becomes slower and predominantly serial in aging: Characterization of response-related brain potentials in an auditory-visual distraction-attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid-Fernández, Susana; Lindín, Mónica; Díaz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging and attentional capture provoked by novel auditory stimuli on behavior (reaction time [RT], hits) and on response-related brain potentials (preRFP, CRN, postRFP, parietalRP) to target visual stimuli. Twenty-two young, 27 middle-aged, and 24 old adults performed an auditory-visual distraction-attention task. The RTs and latencies of preRFP, postRFP and parietalRT were longer in old and middle-aged than in young participants, reflecting the well-established age-related slowing of processing and performance. The inter-peak latencies (P3b-preRFP, preRFP-parietalRP, parietalRP-postRFP) were also longer in old and middle-aged than in young participants, further indicating an age-related tendency to increased predominance of serial (rather than parallel) processing of information, and that preRFP, CRN, postRFP, and parietalRP represent different cognitive processes from those indexed by the stimulus-related P3b. Finally, a distraction effect in performance (all three groups) and in postRFP latency (only middle-aged group) was also observed. PMID:26589359

  13. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested. PMID:26616936

  14. Proposed experiments for assessing the potential use of skin as an indicator of sub-erythemal radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several biological systems have been developed in recent years for radiation dosimetry. They have proved to be useful in accident situations or when the result of personal dosemeter assessment is equivocal. A review of a range of biochemical and biophysical dosimetry techniques indicates that none are ideally suited for dose assessment in the sub-erythemal range (< 2 Gy) when a high non-uniform or partial body exposure is involved. This important practical situation could be met by the development of a biological dosimetry system based upon the response of skin. A programme of study has been agreed upon to investigate this possibility. A resume of a 1 year pilot study supported by the CEGB is presented, the results of which will be described in due course. (author)

  15. The use of local indicators of spatial association to improve LiDAR-derived predictions of potential amphibian breeding ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, J.T.; Young, J.A.; Jones, J.W.; Snyder, C.D.; Wright, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether spatially explicit information improved models that use LiDAR return signal intensity to discriminate in-pond habitat from terrestrial habitat at 24 amphibian breeding ponds. The addition of Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) to LiDAR return intensity data significantly improved predictive models at all ponds, reduced residual error by as much as 74%, and appeared to improve models by reducing classification errors associated with types of in-pond vegetation. We conclude that LISA statistics can help maximize the information content that can be extracted from time resolved LiDAR return data in models that predict the occurrence of small, seasonal ponds. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  16. Evaluating the response of biological assemblages as potential indicators for restoration measures in an intermittent Mediterranean river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Samantha Jane; Santos, Jose; Ferreira, Teresa; Mendes, Ana

    2010-08-01

    Bioindicators are essential for detecting environmental degradation and for assessing the success of river restoration initiatives. River restoration projects require the identification of environmental and pressure gradients that affect the river system under study and the selection of suitable indicators to assess habitat quality before, during and after restoration. We assessed the response of benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, bird and macrophyte assemblages to environmental and pressure gradients from sites situated upstream and downstream of a cofferdam on the River Odelouca, an intermittent Mediterranean river in southwest Portugal. The Odelouca will be permanently dammed in 2010. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) of environmental and pressure variables revealed that most variance was explained by environmental factors that clearly separated sites upstream and downstream of the partially built cofferdam. The pressure gradient describing physical impacts to the banks and channel as a result of land use change was less distinct. Redundancy Analysis revealed significant levels of explained variance to species distribution patterns in relation to environmental and pressure variables for all 4 biological assemblages. Partial Redundancy analyses revealed high levels of redundancy for pH between groups and that the avifauna was best associated with pressures acting upon the system. Patterns in invertebrates and fish were associated with descriptors of habitat quality, although fish distribution patterns were affected by reduced connectivity. Procrustean and RELATE (Mantel test) analyses gave broadly similar results and supported these findings. We give suggestions on the suitability of key indicator groups such as benthic macroinvertebrates and endemic fish species to assess in stream habitat quality and appropriate restoration measures, such as the release of peak flow patterns that mimic intermittent Mediterranean systems to combat habitat fragmentation and

  17. Evaluating the Response of Biological Assemblages as Potential Indicators for Restoration Measures in an Intermittent Mediterranean River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Samantha Jane; Santos, Jose; Ferreira, Teresa; Mendes, Ana

    2010-08-01

    Bioindicators are essential for detecting environmental degradation and for assessing the success of river restoration initiatives. River restoration projects require the identification of environmental and pressure gradients that affect the river system under study and the selection of suitable indicators to assess habitat quality before, during and after restoration. We assessed the response of benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, bird and macrophyte assemblages to environmental and pressure gradients from sites situated upstream and downstream of a cofferdam on the River Odelouca, an intermittent Mediterranean river in southwest Portugal. The Odelouca will be permanently dammed in 2010. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) of environmental and pressure variables revealed that most variance was explained by environmental factors that clearly separated sites upstream and downstream of the partially built cofferdam. The pressure gradient describing physical impacts to the banks and channel as a result of land use change was less distinct. Redundancy Analysis revealed significant levels of explained variance to species distribution patterns in relation to environmental and pressure variables for all 4 biological assemblages. Partial Redundancy analyses revealed high levels of redundancy for pH between groups and that the avifauna was best associated with pressures acting upon the system. Patterns in invertebrates and fish were associated with descriptors of habitat quality, although fish distribution patterns were affected by reduced connectivity. Procrustean and RELATE (Mantel test) analyses gave broadly similar results and supported these findings. We give suggestions on the suitability of key indicator groups such as benthic macroinvertebrates and endemic fish species to assess in stream habitat quality and appropriate restoration measures, such as the release of peak flow patterns that mimic intermittent Mediterranean systems to combat habitat fragmentation and

  18. Microenvironment Determinants of Brain Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chenyu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastasis accounts for 90% of cancer-related mortality. Brain metastases generally present during the late stages in the natural history of cancer progression. Recent advances in cancer treatment and management have resulted in better control of systemic disease metastatic to organs other than the brain and improved patient survival. However, patients who experience recurrent disease manifest an increasing number of brain metastases, which are usually refractory to therapies. To meet the new challenges of controlling brain metastasis, the research community has been tackling the problem with novel experimental models and research tools, which have led to an improved understanding of brain metastasis. The time-tested "seed-and-soil" hypothesis of metastasis indicates that successful outgrowth of deadly metastatic tumors depends on permissible interactions between the metastatic cancer cells and the site-specific microenvironment in the host organs. Consistently, recent studies indicate that the brain, the major component of the central nervous system, has unique physiological features that can determine the outcome of metastatic tumor growth. The current review summarizes recent discoveries on these tumor-brain interactions, and the potential clinical implications these novel findings could have for the better treatment of patients with brain metastasis.

  19. NONINVASIVE BRAIN STIMULATION IN TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Demirtas-Tatlidede, Asli; Vahabzadeh-Hagh, Andrew M.; Bernabeu, Montserrat; Tormos, Jose M.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Brain stimulation techniques have evolved in the last few decades with more novel methods capable of painless, noninvasive brain stimulation. While the number of clinical trials employing noninvasive brain stimulation continues to increase in a variety of medication-resistant neurological and psychiatric diseases, studies evaluating their diagnostic and therapeutic potential in traumatic brain injury (TBI) are largely lacking. This review introduces different techniques of noninvasive brain s...

  20. The use of Na+ and K+ ion concentrations as potential diagnostic indicators of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahid Haron

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sodium (Na+ and potassium (K+ ions in milk of lactating dairy cows with and without subclinical mastitis as putative indicators for detecting subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: Thirty seven lactating dairy cows were screened for the evidence of subclinical mastitis using California mastitis test (CMT. The lactating dairy cows were categorized as CMT-Positive (CMT-P; n=20 and CMT-Negative (CMT-N; n=17 based on whether they were positive or negative for CMT using a standard kit. The CMT-P lactating dairy cows were further sub divided into subclinical 1+ (S1+; n=6, subclinical 2+ (S2+; n=9, and subclinical 3+(S3+; n=5. Direct microscopy somatic cell count (SCC was used to determine the SCC using Wright’s stain. The samples were filtered and diluted at 1:100 dilutions before being measured for the concentrations of Na+ and K+ using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: There was a significant increase (p<0.05 in SCCs and Na+ concentration in the milk of CMT-P dairy cows, with a mean Log10 SCC score of 5.35±0.06 cells/ml and mean Na+ concentration of 232±19.1 mg/dL. However, there was a significant reduction (p<0.05 in the concentration of K+ (123±7.6 mg/dL in the milk samples of the CMT-P cows. There were significant differences (p<0.05 in SCC, Na+ and K+ concentrations between milk samples from the CMT-N dairy cows and CMT-P subgroups; S1+, S2+, and S3+ respectively. Potassium (K+ concentration had a significant strong negative correlation with sodium (Na+ concentration (r=−0.688; p<0.01 and weak positive correlation with SCC (r=−0.436; p<0.01. The sensitivity of using Na+ and K+ concentrations as detection indices for sub-clinical mastitis is 40% and 90%, respectively, while the specificity of each was 100%. Conclusion: This study thus shows that evaluation of Na+ and K+ concentrations from milk samples of dairy cows with sub clinical mastitis

  1. Evidence indicating that meson and baryon formation are controlled by phase space and a linear confining quark potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the relativistic string model for hadronization, we find that the two simple principles of longitudinal phase space on the hadron level and a linear confining quark potential as expressed by the 'Wilson Area Law' (a combination of principles from which the Lund Symmetric Fragmentation Function can be derived) describe a great deal of e+e- annihilation data without the need for the many (typically quark-level) parameters such as s/u, vector/All, qq/q, (su/ud)/(s/u), 1/3(qq)1/(qq)0, etc. that are commonly used. In particular, using only 2-3 parameters, we find good agreement with measured meson and baryon multiplicities and longitudinal distributions at Ecm = 29 GeV and at 10 GeV. Typically at 29 GeV a baryon and antibaryon are separated by ∼1.5 mesons in rank. Predictions are extrapolated to 60 GeV (TRISTAN) and 90 GeV (SLC/LEP). Further tests of the model are discussed. (author)

  2. Effects of interstimulus intervals on behavioral, heart rate, and event-related potential indices of infant engagement and sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wanze; Richards, John E

    2016-08-01

    Maximizing infant attention to stimulus presentation during an EEG or ERP experiment is important for making valid inferences about the neural correlates of infant cognition. The present study examined the effects of stimulus presentation interstimulus interval (ISI) on behavioral and physiological indices of infant attention including infants' fixation to visual presentation, the amount of heart rate (HR) change during sustained attention, and ERP components. This study compared an ISI that is typically used in infant EEG/ERP studies (e.g., 1,500-2,000 ms) with two shorter durations (400-600 ms and 600-1,000 ms). Thirty-six infants were tested cross-sectionally at 3, 4.5, and 6 months. It was found that using the short (400-600 ms) and medium (600-1,000 ms) ISIs resulted in more visually fixated trials and reduced frequency of fixation disengagement per experimental block. We also found larger HR changes during sustained attention to both of the shorter ISIs compared with the long ISI, and larger ERP responses when using the medium ISI compared to using the short and long ISIs. These data suggest that utilizing an optimal ISI (e.g., 600-1,000 ms), which increases the presentation complexity and provides sufficient time for information processing, can promote infant engagement and sustained attention during stimulus presentation. PMID:27159263

  3. Description and evaluation of imposex in Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Strombidae): a potential bio-indicator of tributyltin pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cob, Zaidi Che; Arshad, Aziz; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Abd Ghaffar, Mazlan

    2011-07-01

    Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is an important gastropod species within the study area and was traditionally collected for food by the locals. The objective of the present study is to assess the incidence of imposex and its severity in this species. Adult conchs were sampled during their main reproductive period, from October 2005 to January 2006, at Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor Straits, Malaysia. A total of 32.81% of adult females showed imposex characteristics, with varying degrees of severity though. The relative penis size (RPS) index ranged from 1.74 to 33.29 (mean = 13.40 ± 2.27, n = 21), while the relative penis length (RPL) index ranged from 6.28 to 55.19 (mean = 25.83 ± 3.33, n = 21). The use of vas deferens sequence (VDS) index was however cannot be applied as the presence of egg groove obscured any vas deferens development in affected females. Sequence of imposex (male penis) development in female conch, from merely a small stump to an advance male penis homologous was therefore carefully analyzed and described, and an alternative imposex classification scheme was proposed. S. canarium can be a good indicator for monitoring of organotin pollution within the study area. However, more studies are needed in order to further develop and test its validity and application, such as its correlation with levels of pollutant within the tissues and the environment, as well as its application on other Strombus species. PMID:20824325

  4. Source of and potential bio-indicator for the heavy metal pollution in Ny-(A)lesund, Arctic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Three kinds of tundra plant samples including Dicranum angnstum(a type of boreal bryophyte) , PuccineUia phryganodes (a type of fringy p/ant),Salix polaris (a type of vascular plant) and surface soil were samples in 200 at Ny-Alesund of the Arctic.The levels of eight heavy metal elements (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe and Mn) and three metal-like dements (As, Se, Sr) in the plant and soil samples of the areas within previous coal mining activities are significantly higher than those of other areas.The relative accumulation of these elements in these tundra plant samples is consistent with the one in the soft samples, especially in the areas affected by previous coal-mining activities.Thus, the pollution is apparently from local coal mining activity.Dicranum angustum has the highest concentrations among those elements, and it can be a good bio-indicator for heavy metal pollution in Ny(A)lesund.Though Ny(A)lesund is less polluted by heavy metal than nearby Northern European human living areas, but much more than the tundras of the Alaska, Greenland and the Antarctic.

  5. Comparison of brain mechanisms underlying the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Hong; Zhang, Qinglin; Tu, Shen; Yu, Caiyun; Qiu, Jiang

    2010-04-01

    Most Chinese characters are composed of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right. The semantic radical provides the semantic information; the phonetic radical provides information concerning the pronunciation of the whole character. The pseudo-characters in the study consisted of different sub-lexical parts of real Chinese characters and consequently they also had the semantic radical and the phonetic radical. But they were not readable and had no actual meaning. In order to investigate the spatiotemporal cortical activation patterns underlying the orthographic, phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to explore the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters when 14 healthy Chinese college students viewed the characters passively. Results showed that both Chinese characters and pseudo-characters elicited an evident negative potential peaking around 120 ms (N120), which appeared to reflect initial orthographic distinction and evaluation. Then, Chinese pseudo-characters elicited a more positive ERP deflection (P220) than did Chinese characters 200-250 ms after onset of the stimuli. It was similar to the recognition potential (RP) and might reflect the integration processes of phonological and semantic processing on the basis of early orthographic information. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (pseudo-characters minus characters) indicated that a generator localized in the left temporal-occipital junction contributed to this effect, which was possibly related to phonological and perceptual-semantic information integration. Between 350-450 ms, a greater negativity (N360) in pseudo-characters as compared to characters was found over midline fronto-central scalp regions. Dipole analysis localized the generator of N360 in the right parahippocampal cortex. Therefore, the N360 might be an N400 component and reflect the higher-level semantic activation on the

  6. Comparative Mutant Prevention Concentrations of Pradofloxacin and Other Veterinary Fluoroquinolones Indicate Differing Potentials in Preventing Selection of Resistance†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzstein, H.-G.

    2005-01-01

    Pradofloxacin (PRA) is an 8-cyano-fluoroquinolone (FQ) being developed to treat bacterial infections in dogs and cats. Its mutant prevention concentrations (MPC) were determined for Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 at 0.225 μg/ml, and for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 at 0.55 μg/ml. At drug concentrations equal to or above the MPC, growth (implying selective clonal expansion) of first-step FQ-resistant variants, naturally present in large bacterial populations, was inhibited. MPC90 derived from 10 clinical isolates each of E. coli and Staphylococcus intermedius, the latter species being of greater clinical relevance than S. aureus in companion-animal medicine, amounted to 0.2 to 0.225 and 0.30 to 0.35 μg/ml, respectively. MPCs of other veterinary FQs were assessed to determine relative in vitro potencies. The MPCs of marbofloxacin, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, sarafloxacin, orbifloxacin, and difloxacin were 1.2-, 1.4-, 2.3-, 2.4-, 5-, and 7-fold higher than the MPC of PRA for E. coli ATCC 8739, and 6-, 6-, 19-, 15-, 15-, and 31-fold higher than the MPC of PRA for S. aureus ATCC 6538, respectively. MPC curves revealed a pronounced heterogeneity in susceptibility within populations of ≥4 × 109 CFU employed, extending to 10-fold above the MICs. The duration of incubation and, for S. aureus, inoculum density profoundly affected the MPCs. With appropriate dosing, PRA may combine high therapeutic efficacy with a high potential for restricting the selection for FQ resistance under field conditions in the species analyzed. PMID:16189094

  7. Search for fungi-specific metabolites of four model drugs in postmortem blood as potential indicators of postmortem fungal metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramírez, Jorge A; Strien, Juliane; Walther, Grit; Peters, Frank T

    2016-05-01

    Fungi colonizing cadavers are capable of drug metabolism and may thus change the metabolite pattern or concentration of drugs in forensic postmortem samples. The purpose of this study was to check for the presence of such changes by searching fungi-specific metabolites of four model drugs (amitriptyline, metoprolol, mirtazapine, and zolpidem) in decomposed postmortem blood samples from 33 cases involving these drugs. After isolation and identification of fungal strains present in the samples, each isolate was incubated in Sabouraud medium at 25°C for up to 120h with each model drug. One part of the supernatants was directly analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), another after liquid-liquid extraction with chlorobutane and concentration. From 21 out of 33 decomposed postmortem blood samples (64%) a total of 30 different strains could be isolated, one from the class of Ascomycete and the rest belonging to 15 species from 8 different genera (number of species): Aspergillus (2), Botrytis (1), Candida (8), Fusarium (1), Mucor (1), Penicillium (1), and Rodothorula (1). In the in vitro studies, these microorganisms were found capable of N-demethylation and N-oxidation of amitriptyline and mirtazapine, O-demethylation followed by side chain oxidation of metoprolol as well as hydroxylation of all four-model drugs. In two of the postmortem blood samples, from which the fungi Aspergillus jensenii, Candida parapsilosis. and Mucor circinelloides had been isolated, a fungi-specific hydroxy zolpidem metabolite was detected. The presence of this metabolite in postmortem samples likely indicates postmortem fungal biodegradation. PMID:27022860

  8. Retrieval deficiency in brain activity of working memory in amnesic mild cognitive impairment patients: A brain event-related potentials study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyin eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early stage of Alzheimer disease (AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI, working memory (WM deficiency is prominent and could be attributed to failure in encoding, maintenance or retrieval of information. However, evidence for a retention or retrieval deficit remains equivocal. It is also unclear what cognitive mechanism in working memory is impaired in MCI or early AD. We enrolled forty-six subjects from our Memory Clinics and community, with 24 amnesic MCI patients and 22 normal subjects. After neurological and cognitive assessments, they performed a classic delayed match to sample task with simultaneous event-related potential (ERP recorded. The ERPs in encoding and retrieval epoch during WM were analyzed separately. The latency and amplitude of every ERP component were compared between two groups, and then analyzed to explore their relationship with neuropsychological performance. Finally, the locations of maximal difference in cortex were calculated by standard low-resolution tomographic analysis. A total of five components were found: P1, N1, P2, N2 and P300. The amplitude of P2 and P300 was larger in normal subjects than in MCI patients only during retrieval, not encoding epoch, while the latency did not show statistical difference. The latency and amplitude of P1 and N1 were similar in two groups. P2 amplitude in the retrieval epoch positively correlated with memory test (auditory verbal learning test and visual spatial score of Chinese Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R, while P300 amplitude correlated with ACE-R. The activation difference in P2 time range was maximal at medial frontal gyrus. However, the difference in cortex activation during P300 time range did not show significance. The amplitude of P2 indicated deficiency in memory retrieval process, potentially due to dysfunction of central executive in WM model. Regarding the location of P2 during WM task, medial frontal plays important role in memory

  9. Retrieval Deficiency in Brain Activity of Working Memory in Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients: A Brain Event-Related Potentials Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin-Yin; Tang, Hui-Dong; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2016-01-01

    In the early stage of Alzheimer disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), working memory (WM) deficiency is prominent and could be attributed to failure in encoding, maintenance or retrieval of information. However, evidence for a retention or retrieval deficit remains equivocal. It is also unclear what cognitive mechanism in WM is impaired in MCI or early AD. We enrolled 46 subjects from our Memory Clinics and community, with 24 amnesic MCI patients and 22 normal subjects. After neurological and cognitive assessments, they performed a classic delayed match to sample (DMS) task with simultaneous event-related potential (ERP) recorded. The ERPs in encoding and retrieval epoch during WM were analyzed separately. The latency and amplitude of every ERP component were compared between two groups, and then analyzed to explore their relationship with neuropsychological performance. Finally, the locations of maximal difference in cortex were calculated by standard low-resolution tomographic analysis. A total of five components were found: P1, N1, P2, N2, and P300. The amplitude of P2 and P300 was larger in normal subjects than in MCI patients only during retrieval, not encoding epoch, while the latency did not show statistical difference. The latency and amplitude of P1 and N1 were similar in two groups. P2 amplitude in the retrieval epoch positively correlated with memory test (auditory verbal learning test) and visual spatial score of Chinese Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), while P300 amplitude correlated with ACE-R. The activation difference in P2 time range was maximal at medial frontal gyrus. However, the difference in cortex activation during P300 time range did not show significance. The amplitude of P2 indicated deficiency in memory retrieval process, potentially due to dysfunction of central executive in WM model. Regarding the location of P2 during WM task, medial frontal plays important role in memory retrieval. The findings in the

  10. Retrieval Deficiency in Brain Activity of Working Memory in Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients: A Brain Event-Related Potentials Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin-Yin; Tang, Hui-Dong; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2016-01-01

    In the early stage of Alzheimer disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), working memory (WM) deficiency is prominent and could be attributed to failure in encoding, maintenance or retrieval of information. However, evidence for a retention or retrieval deficit remains equivocal. It is also unclear what cognitive mechanism in WM is impaired in MCI or early AD. We enrolled 46 subjects from our Memory Clinics and community, with 24 amnesic MCI patients and 22 normal subjects. After neurological and cognitive assessments, they performed a classic delayed match to sample (DMS) task with simultaneous event-related potential (ERP) recorded. The ERPs in encoding and retrieval epoch during WM were analyzed separately. The latency and amplitude of every ERP component were compared between two groups, and then analyzed to explore their relationship with neuropsychological performance. Finally, the locations of maximal difference in cortex were calculated by standard low-resolution tomographic analysis. A total of five components were found: P1, N1, P2, N2, and P300. The amplitude of P2 and P300 was larger in normal subjects than in MCI patients only during retrieval, not encoding epoch, while the latency did not show statistical difference. The latency and amplitude of P1 and N1 were similar in two groups. P2 amplitude in the retrieval epoch positively correlated with memory test (auditory verbal learning test) and visual spatial score of Chinese Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), while P300 amplitude correlated with ACE-R. The activation difference in P2 time range was maximal at medial frontal gyrus. However, the difference in cortex activation during P300 time range did not show significance. The amplitude of P2 indicated deficiency in memory retrieval process, potentially due to dysfunction of central executive in WM model. Regarding the location of P2 during WM task, medial frontal plays important role in memory retrieval. The findings in the

  11. Frontal brain activity and behavioral indicators of affective states are weakly affected by thermal stimuli in sheep living in different housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eVögeli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative, intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive. We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g. locomotor activity, aversive behaviors and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal’s housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found.

  12. Chagas cardiomyopathy: the potential of diastolic dysfunction and brain natriuretic peptide in the early identification of cardiac damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Garcia-Alvarez

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease remains a major cause of mortality in several countries of Latin America and has become a potential public health problem in non-endemic countries as a result of migration flows. Cardiac involvement represents the main cause of mortality, but its diagnosis is still based on nonspecific criteria with poor sensitivity. Early identification of patients with cardiac involvement is desirable, since early treatment may improve prognosis. This study aimed to assess the role of diastolic dysfunction, abnormal myocardial strain and elevated brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in the early identification of cardiac involvement in Chagas disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifty-four patients divided into 3 groups--group 1 (undetermined form: positive serology without ECG or 2D-echocardiographic abnormalities; N = 32, group 2 (typical ECG abnormalities of Chagas disease but normal 2D-echocardiography; N = 14, and group 3 (regional wall motion abnormalities, left ventricular [LV] end-diastolic diameter >55 mm or LV ejection fraction 37 pg/ml were noted in 0%, 13%, 29% and 63% in controls and groups 1 to 3, respectively. Half of patients in the undetermined form had impaired relaxation patterns, whereas half of patients with ECG abnormalities suggestive of Chagas cardiomyopathy had normal diastolic function. In group 1, BNP levels were statistically higher in patients with diastolic dysfunction as compared to those with normal diastolic function (27 ± 26 vs. 11 ± 8 pg/ml, p = 0.03. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the combination of diastolic function and BNP measurement adds important information that could help to better stratify patients with Chagas disease.

  13. The effect of emotional content on brain activation and the late positive potential in a word n-back task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Kopf

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is mounting evidence for the influence of emotional content on working memory performance. This is particularly important in light of the emotion processing that needs to take place when emotional content interferes with executive functions. In this study, we used emotional words of different valence but with similar arousal levels in an n-back task. METHODS: We examined the effects on activation in the prefrontal cortex by means of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and on the late positive potential (LPP. FNIRS and LPP data were examined in 30 healthy subjects. RESULTS: BEHAVIORAL RESULTS SHOW AN INFLUENCE OF VALENCE ON THE ERROR RATE DEPENDING ON THE DIFFICULTY OF THE TASK: more errors were made when the valence was negative and the task difficult. Brain activation was dependent both on the difficulty of the task and on the valence: negative valence of a word diminished the increase in activation, whereas positive valence did not influence the increase in activation, while difficulty levels increased. The LPP also differentiated between the different valences, and in addition was influenced by the task difficulty, the more difficult the task, the less differentiation could be observed. CONCLUSIONS: Summarized, this study shows the influence of valence on a verbal working memory task. When a word contained a negative valence, the emotional content seemed to take precedence in contrast to words containing a positive valence. Working memory and emotion processing sites seemed to overlap and compete for resources even when words are carriers of the emotional content.

  14. Double function of noninvasive intracranial pressure monitoring based on flash visual evoked potentials in unconscious patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingzhong; Ma, Shuang; Guan, Yongchang; Du, Jinghua; Liu, Guojun; Zhao, Xianlin

    2016-05-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring based on flash visual evoked potentials (F-VEP) is a noninvasive method of monitoring ICP. The early diagnosis of traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) in unconscious patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function of F-VEP ICP monitoring in predicting TON and detecting contusion enlargement (CE) in unconscious TBI patients using a modified approach. A series of F-VEP ICP-monitored unconscious TBI patients were included in the study. The interocular differences in N2 wave latency (DL) and amplitude (DA) were obtained through monocular flash stimulation. The increases in ICP (dxP) and interchannel difference (dxDC) across various time points were obtained through binocular flash stimulation. The predictive power of DL and DA on TON, as well as of dxP and dxDC on CE, was assessed by logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Patients with TON had a longer DL and a higher DA than those without TON. The dxP and dxDC of patients with CE were both higher than those of patients without CE. The differences were statistically significant. The logistic regression showed that both DL and DA were predictors of TON, whereas only dxDC was a predictor of CE. However, the ROC curve analysis showed that DL had greater predictive power for TON, and dxDC had greater predictive power for CE. An F-VEP ICP monitoring system with a modified approach is beneficial for early diagnosis of TON and prediction of CE in unconscious TBI patients. PMID:26922509

  15. Event-related brain potentials that distinguish false memory for events that occurred only seconds in the past

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    Chen Hong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background False memory often involves retrieving events from the distant past that did not actually happen. However, recent evidence obtained using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM paradigm for eliciting false memory experiences suggests that individuals can falsely believe that events occurred mere seconds in the past when they in fact did not. Subjects in these experiments endorsed unstudied critical lure words as having been studied, despite the fact that word lists were studied just moments before. We identified event-related brain potential (ERP correlates of this experience, and included a repetition priming manipulation to better assess the functional significance of these ERPs. Methods Behavioral and ERP data were collected from 21 Capital Normal University students using a short-term DRM task. Results Two categories of effects were identified that distinguished true from false short-term memory: (1 early semantic priming effects from 300 to 500 ms and (2 later retrieval and retrieval-monitoring effects after 500 ms. The repetition priming manipulation had distinct influences on these effects, consistent with their differential associations with semantic priming versus episodic retrieval. Conclusion Characterization of ERPs related to semantic priming and episodic retrieval provides important information regarding the mechanisms of short-term false memory. In contrast, most studies examining false memory in standard long-delay DRM paradigms identify ERP effects related only to retrieval monitoring. These findings highlight the neural processing involved in illusions of memory after very brief delays and highlight the role of semantic processing in short-term false memory.

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF as a potential mechanism of the effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron T. Piepmeier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature shows that improvements in cognitive performance may be observed following an acute bout of exercise. However, evidence in support of the biological mechanisms of this effect is still limited. Findings from both rodent and human studies suggest brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF as a potential mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on memory. The molecular properties of BDNF allow this protein to be assessed in the periphery (pBDNF (i.e., blood serum, blood plasma, making measurements of acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentration relatively accessible. Studies exploring the acute exercise–pBDNF–cognitive performance relationship have had mixed findings, but this may be more reflective of methodological differences between studies than it is a statement about the role of BDNF. For example, significant associations have been observed between acute exercise-induced changes in pBDNF concentration and cognitive performance in studies assessing memory, and non-significant associations have been found in studies assessing non-memory cognitive domains. Three suggestions are made for future research aimed at understanding the role of BDNF as a biological mechanism of this relationship: 1 Assessments of cognitive performance may benefit from a focus on various types of memory (e.g., relational, spatial, long-term; 2 More fine-grained measurements of pBDNF will allow for the assessment of concentrations of specific isoforms of the BDNF protein (i.e., immature, mature; 3 Statistical techniques designed to test the mediating role of pBDNF in the acute exercise-cognitive performance relationship should be utilized in order to make causal inferences.

  17. A brain-computer interface for potential non-verbal facial communication based on EEG signals related to specific emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Kashihara, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Unlike assistive technology for verbal communication, the brain-machine or brain-computer interface (BMI/BCI) has not been established as a non-verbal communication tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Face-to-face communication enables access to rich emotional information, but individuals suffering from neurological disorders, such as ALS and autism, may not express their emotions or communicate their negative feelings. Although emotions may be inferred by looking at facial...

  18. Optimizing event-related potential based brain-computer interfaces: a systematic evaluation of dynamic stopping methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Martijn; Höhne, Johannes; Blankertz, Benjamin; Haufe, Stefan; Dickhaus, Thorsten; Tangermann, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Objective. In brain-computer interface (BCI) research, systems based on event-related potentials (ERP) are considered particularly successful and robust. This stems in part from the repeated stimulation which counteracts the low signal-to-noise ratio in electroencephalograms. Repeated stimulation leads to an optimization problem, as more repetitions also cost more time. The optimal number of repetitions thus represents a data-dependent trade-off between the stimulation time and the obtained accuracy. Several methods for dealing with this have been proposed as ‘early stopping’, ‘dynamic stopping’ or ‘adaptive stimulation’. Despite their high potential for BCI systems at the patient's bedside, those methods are typically ignored in current BCI literature. The goal of the current study is to assess the benefit of these methods. Approach. This study assesses for the first time the existing methods on a common benchmark of both artificially generated data and real BCI data of 83 BCI sessions, allowing for a direct comparison between these methods in the context of text entry. Main results. The results clearly show the beneficial effect on the online performance of a BCI system, if the trade-off between the number of stimulus repetitions and accuracy is optimized. All assessed methods work very well for data of good subjects, and worse for data of low-performing subjects. Most methods, however, are robust in the sense that they do not reduce the performance below the baseline of a simple no stopping strategy. Significance. Since all methods can be realized as a module between the BCI and an application, minimal changes are needed to include these methods into existing BCI software architectures. Furthermore, the hyperparameters of most methods depend to a large extend on only a single variable—the discriminability of the training data. For the convenience of BCI practitioners, the present study proposes linear regression coefficients for directly estimating

  19. Inhibition of β2-adrenergic receptor reduces triple-negative breast cancer brain metastases: The potential benefit of perioperative β-blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Cecilia; Raytis, John L; Smith, David D; Duenas, Matthew; Neman, Josh; Jandial, Rahul; Lew, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    In response to recent studies, we investigated an association between perioperative β-blockade and breast cancer metastases. First, a retrospective study examining perioperative β-blocker use and cancer recurrence and metastases was conducted on 1,029 patients who underwent breast cancer surgery at the City of Hope Cancer Center between 2000 and 2010. We followed the clinical study and examined proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro of primary and brain-metastatic breast cancer cells in response to β2-activation and inhibition. We also investigated in vivo the metastatic potential of propranolol-treated metastatic cells. For stage II breast cancer patients, perioperative β-blockade was associated with decreased cancer recurrence using Cox regression analysis (hazard's ratio =0.51; 95% CI: 0.23-0.97; p=0.041). Triple-negative (TN) brain-metastatic cells were found to have increased β2-adrenergic receptor mRNA and protein expression relative to TN primary cells. In response to β2-adrenergic receptor activation, TN brain-metastatic cells also exhibited increased cell proliferation and migration relative to the control. These effects were abrogated by propranolol. Propranolol decreased β2-adrenergic receptor-activated invasion. In vivo, propranolol treatment of TN brain-metastatic cells decreased establishment of brain metastases. Our results suggest that stress and corresponding β2-activation may promote the establishment of brain metastases of TN breast cancer cells. In addition, our data suggest a benefit to perioperative β-blockade during surgery-induced stress with respect to breast cancer recurrence and metastases. PMID:27035124

  20. Brain-computer interfaces based on event-related potentials: toward fast, reliable and easy-to-use communication systems for people with neurodegenerative disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) provide a muscle independent interaction channel making them particularly valuable for individuals with severe motor impairment. Thus, different BCI systems and applications have been proposed as assistive technology (AT) solutions for such patients. The most prominent system for communication utilizes event-related potentials (ERP) obtained from the electroencephalogram (EEG) to allow for communication on a character-by-character basis. Yet in their...

  1. Attending to global versus local stimulus features modulates neural processing of low versus high spatial frequencies: an analysis with event-related brain potentials

    OpenAIRE

    AntigonaMartinez

    2014-01-01

    Spatial frequency (SF) selection has long been recognized to play a role in global and local processing, though the nature of the relationship between SF processing and global/local perception is debated. Previous studies have shown that attention to relatively lower SFs facilitates global perception, and that attention to relatively higher SFs facilitates local perception. Here we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether processing of low versus high SFs is modul...

  2. Electrophysiological manifestations of open- and closed-class words in patients with Broca's aphasia with agrammatic comprehension: An event-related brain potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Ter Keurs, M.; Brown, C.; Hagoort, P.; Stegeman, D

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents electrophysiological data on the on-line processing of open- and closed-class words in patients with Broca’s aphasia with agrammatic comprehension. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from the scalp when Broca patients and nonaphasic control subjects were visually presented with a story in which the words appeared one at a time on the screen. Separate waveforms were computed for open- and closed-class words. The non-aphasic control subjects showed clear difference...

  3. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Improves Cognitive Function, Tissue Sparing, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Indices of Edema and White Matter Injury in the Immature Rat after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michelle E; Requena, Daniela F; Abdullah, Osama M; Casper, T Charles; Beachy, Joanna; Malleske, Daniel; Pauly, James R

    2016-02-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of acquired neurologic disability in children. Specific therapies to treat acute TBI are lacking. Cognitive impairment from TBI may be blunted by decreasing inflammation and oxidative damage after injury. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreases cognitive impairment, oxidative stress, and white matter injury in adult rats after TBI. Effects of DHA on cognitive outcome, oxidative stress, and white matter injury in the developing rat after experimental TBI are unknown. We hypothesized that DHA would decrease early inflammatory markers and oxidative stress, and improve cognitive, imaging and histologic outcomes in rat pups after controlled cortical impact (CCI). CCI or sham surgery was delivered to 17 d old male rat pups exposed to DHA or standard diet for the duration of the experiments. DHA was introduced into the dam diet the day before CCI to allow timely DHA delivery to the pre-weanling pups. Inflammatory cytokines and nitrates/nitrites were measured in the injured brains at post-injury Day (PID) 1 and PID2. Morris water maze (MWM) testing was performed at PID41-PID47. T2-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging studies were obtained at PID12 and PID28. Tissue sparing was calculated histologically at PID3 and PID50. DHA did not adversely affect rat survival or weight gain. DHA acutely decreased oxidative stress and increased anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 in CCI brains. DHA improved MWM performance and lesion volume late after injury. At PID12, DHA decreased T2-imaging measures of cerebral edema and decreased radial diffusivity, an index of white matter injury. DHA improved short- and long-term neurologic outcomes after CCI in the rat pup. Given its favorable safety profile, DHA is a promising candidate therapy for pediatric TBI. Further studies are needed to explore neuroprotective mechanisms of DHA after developmental TBI. PMID:26247583

  4. Brain metabolite changes in subcortical regions after exposure to cuprizone for 6 weeks: potential implications for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gen; Xuan, Yinghua; Dai, Zhuozhi; Shen, Zhiwei; Zhang, Guishan; Xu, Haiyun; Wu, Renhua

    2015-01-01

    Cuprizone is a copper chelating agent able to selectively damage the white matter in the mouse brain. Recent studies have reported behavioral abnormalities relevant to some of schizophrenia symptoms. While associating white matter damage to the behavioral abnormalities, these previous studies did not rule out the possible impairment in neuronal functions in cuprizone-exposed mice. The aim of this study was to examine brain metabolites of the cuprizone-exposed mice by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). The examined brain regions were the caudoputamen, midbrain, and thalamus; these subcortical regions showed different susceptibilities to cuprizone in terms of demyelination and oligodendrocyte loss in previous studies. Young C57BL/6 mice were fed a standard rodent chow without or with cuprizone (0.2 %) for 6 weeks. At the end, open-field and Y-maze tests were performed to measure the emotional and cognitive behaviors of the animals, followed by (1)H-MRS procedure to evaluate the brain metabolites. Cuprizone-exposure increased anxiety levels and impaired spatial working memory. The same treatment increased T2 signal intensity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and caudoputamen, but not in the thalamus. Cuprizone-exposure decreased the concentrations of NAA and NAA+NAAG in caudoputamen, but not in thalamus and midbrain. It decreased levels of Cr+PCr, GPC+PCh and myo-inositol in all the three brain regions. These results provided neurochemical evidence for the impairment in neuronal functions by cuprizone treatment. PMID:25347963

  5. Impaired eye movements in post-concussion syndrome indicate suboptimal brain function beyond the influence of depression, malingering or intellectual ability

    OpenAIRE

    Heitger, Marcus; Jones, R D; MacLeod, A D; Snell, D.L.; Frampton, C M; Anderson, T J

    2009-01-01

    Post-concussion syndrome (PCS) can affect up to 20%-30% of patients with mild closed head injury (mCHI), comprising incomplete recovery and debilitating persistence of post-concussional symptoms. Eye movements relate closely to the functional integrity of the injured brain and eye movement function is impaired post-acutely in mCHI. Here, we examined whether PCS patients continue to show disparities in eye movement function at 3-5 months following mCHI compared with patients with good recovery...

  6. To what extent can dry and water-based EEG electrodes replace conductive gel ones?: A Steady State Visual Evoked Potential Brain-Computer Interface Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlovic, V.; Garcia Molina, G.; Peuscher, J

    2011-01-01

    Recent technological advances in the field of skin electrodes and on-body sensors indicate a possibility of having an alternative to the traditionally used conductive gel electrodes for measuring electrical signals of the brain (electroencephalogram, EEG). This paper evaluates whether water-based and dry contact electrode solutions can replace the gel ones. The quality of the obtained signal by three headsets, each using 8 electrodes of a different type, is estimated onthe steady state visual...

  7. On the temporal organization of facial identity and expression analysis: Inferences from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Ulla; Leuthold, Hartmut; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, behavioral and electrophysiological markers of information processing-the lateralized readiness potential, the N170, and the P300-were recorded in order to assess the functional and temporal organization of facial identity and expression processing. A two-choice go/no-go task was used in which facial expression (happy vs. angry) determined response hand and response execution depended on facial familiarity (familiar vs. unfamiliar). The duration of facial identity and expression processing was manipulated in separate experiments. Together, the present findings in measures of overt and covert response activation indicate that facial identity is analyzed in parallel with, and typically somewhat faster than, facial expression. These data support a parallel model of face perception that assumes partial output from facial identity and expression processes to motor activation processes. PMID:21098811

  8. Microbial Growth, Sensory Characteristic and pH as Potential Spoilage Indicators of Chinese Yellow Wet Noodles from Commercial Processing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwaibah Ghaffar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of microbial growth, sensory characteristic (odour and pH as potential spoilage indicators of Chinese yellow wet noodles. Approach: Samples were collected from 3 commercial processing plants namely, Automated Processing (AP, Semi-automated Processing (SP and Manual Processing (MP. The samples were kept at ambient temperature (28±2 °C and monitored microbiologically for ten days. Standard Plate Count (TPC and Yeast and Mould Count (YMC were determined using conventional spread plate methods. Sensory evaluation of noodles was carried out using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. Results: Initial TPC for all samples were around log 3 CFU/g which significantly increased to around log 7 CFU/g towards the end of storage period. The same pattern was observed for YMC for all samples. Odour of AP, SP and MP samples began to deteriorate and samples became unacceptable to panelists on 3, 4 and 2 days of storage, respectively. Linear regression analyses between storage period and the various potential spoilage indicators demonstrated the strongest correlation for all samples between the storage time and odour (r = 0.81243 - 0.93856 and p=Conclusion/Recommendation: Taken together, odor is the most suitable to be used as spoilage indicator for Chinese yellow wet noodles.

  9. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of cisplatin-containing EGFR targeting bioconjugates as potential therapeutic agents for brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Rolf F; Wu, Gong; Meisen, W Hans; Nakkula, Robin J; Yang, Weilian; Huo, Tianyao; Kellough, David A; Kaumaya, Pravin; Turro, Claudia; Agius, Lawrence M; Kaur, Balveen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate four different platinated bioconjugates containing a cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum [cis-DDP]) fragment and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting moieties as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of brain tumors using a human EGFR-expressing transfectant of the F98 rat glioma (F98EGFR) to assess their efficacy. The first two bioconjugates employed the monoclonal antibody cetuximab (C225 or Erbitux®) as the targeting moiety, and the second two used genetically engineered EGF peptides. C225-G5-Pt was produced by reacting cis-DDP with a fifth-generation polyamidoamine dendrimer (G5) and then linking it to C225 by means of two heterobifunctional reagents. The second bioconjugate (C225-PG-Pt) employed the same methodology except that polyglutamic acid was used as the carrier. The third and fourth bioconjugates used two different EGF peptides, PEP382 and PEP455, with direct coordination to the Pt center of the cis-DDP fragment. In vivo studies with C225-G5-Pt failed to demonstrate therapeutic activity following intracerebral (ic) convection-enhanced delivery (CED) to F98EGFR glioma-bearing rats. The second bioconjugate, C225-PG-Pt, failed to show in vitro cytotoxicity. Furthermore, because of its high molecular weight, we decided that lower molecular weight peptides might provide better targeting and microdistribution within the tumor. Both PEP382-Pt and PEP455-Pt bioconjugates were cytotoxic in vitro and, based on this, a pilot study was initiated using PEP455-Pt. The end point for this study was tumor size at 6 weeks following tumor cell implantation and 4 weeks following ic CED of PEP455-Pt to F98 glioma-bearing rats. Neuropathologic examination revealed that five of seven rats were either tumor-free or only had microscopic tumors at 42 days following tumor implantation compared to a mean survival time of 20.5 and 26.3 days for untreated controls. In conclusion, we have succeeded in reformatting the

  10. ‘Right now, Sophie *swims in the pool?!’: Brain potentials of grammatical aspect processing

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    Monique eFlecken

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether brain potentials of grammatical aspect processing resemble semantic or morpho-syntactic processing, or whether they instead are characterized by an entirely distinct pattern in the same individuals. We studied aspect from the perspective of agreement between the temporal information in the context (temporal adverbials, e.g., Right now and a morpho-syntactic marker of grammatical aspect (e.g., progressive is swimming. Participants read questions providing a temporal context that was progressive (What is Sophie doing in the pool right now? or habitual (What does Sophie do in the pool every Monday?. Following a lead-in sentence context such as Right now, Sophie…, we measured ERPs time-locked to verb phrases in four different conditions, e.g., (a is swimming (control; (b *is cooking (semantic violation; (c *are swimming (morpho-syntactic violation; or (d?swims (aspect mismatch; …in the pool. The collected ERPs show typical N400 and P600 effects for semantics and morpho-syntax, while aspect processing elicited an Early Negativity (250-350 ms. The aspect-related Negativity was short-lived and had a central scalp distribution with an anterior onset. This differentiates it not only from the semantic N400 effect, but also from the typical (LAN (Left Anterior Negativity, that is frequently reported for various types of agreement processing. Moreover, aspect processing was not accompanied by a clear P600 modulation.We argue that the specific context for each item in this experiment provided a trigger for agreement checking with temporal information encoded on the verb, i.e., morphological aspect marking. The aspect-related Negativity obtained for aspect agreement mismatches reflects a violated expectation concerning verbal inflection (in the example above, the expected verb phrase was Sophie is X-ing rather than Sophie X-s in condition d. The absence of an additional P600 for aspect processing suggests that the mismatch did not

  11. Pan-genome analysis of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii and Aeromonas caviae indicates phylogenomic diversity and greater pathogenic potential for Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, Sandeep; Blom, Jochen; Das, Samir; Sanjukta, Rajkumari; Puro, Kekungu; Mawlong, Michael; Shakuntala, Ingudam; Sen, Arnab; Goesmann, Alexander; Kumar, Ashok; Ngachan, S V

    2016-07-01

    Aeromonas species are important pathogens of fishes and aquatic animals capable of infecting humans and other animals via food. Due to the paucity of pan-genomic studies on aeromonads, the present study was undertaken to analyse the pan-genome of three clinically important Aeromonas species (A. hydrophila, A. veronii, A. caviae). Results of pan-genome analysis revealed an open pan-genome for all three species with pan-genome sizes of 9181, 7214 and 6884 genes for A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A. caviae, respectively. Core-genome: pan-genome ratio (RCP) indicated greater genomic diversity for A. hydrophila and interestingly RCP emerged as an effective indicator to gauge genomic diversity which could possibly be extended to other organisms too. Phylogenomic network analysis highlighted the influence of homologous recombination and lateral gene transfer in the evolution of Aeromonas spp. Prediction of virulence factors indicated no significant difference among the three species though analysis of pathogenic potential and acquired antimicrobial resistance genes revealed greater hazards from A. hydrophila. In conclusion, the present study highlighted the usefulness of whole genome analyses to infer evolutionary cues for Aeromonas species which indicated considerable phylogenomic diversity for A. hydrophila and hitherto unknown genomic evidence for pathogenic potential of A. hydrophila compared to A. veronii and A. caviae. PMID:27075453

  12. Potential of anti-cancer therapy based on anti-miR-155 oligonucleotides in glioma and brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltronieri, Palmiro; D'Urso, Pietro I; Mezzolla, Valeria; D'Urso, Oscar F

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs are aberrantly expressed in many cancers and can exert tumour-suppressive or oncogenic functions. As oncomirs promote growth of cancer cells and support survival during chemotherapy, thus microRNA-silencing therapies could be a valuable approach to be associated with anticancer drugs and chemotherapy treatments. miR-155 microRNA was found overexpressed in different types of cancer, such as leukaemias (PML, B-cell lymphomas), lung cancer and glioblastoma. GABA-A receptor downregulation was found correlated with glioma grading, with decreasing levels associated with higher grade of malignancies. A relationship between knock-down of miR-155 and re-expression of GABRA 1 protein in vivo was recently individuated. This finding has implication on the effectiveness of RNA-silencing approaches against miR-155 with the scope to control proliferation and signalling pathways regulated by GABA-A receptor. Applying microRNAs for treatment of brain tumours poses several problems, and fields to be solved are mainly the passage of the brain-blood barrier and the targeted delivery to specific cell types. Glioblastoma multiforme cells bud off microvesicles that deliver cytoplasmic contents to nearby cells. Thus, the exploitation of these mechanisms to deliver antagomir therapeutics targeting microvescicles in the brain could take the lead in the near future in the treatment for brain cancers in substitution of invasive surgical intervention. PMID:22834637

  13. The complexity of biomechanics causing primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury: a review of potential mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy eCourtney

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary blast induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI is a prevalent battlefield injury in recent conflicts, yet biomechanical mechanisms of bTBI remain unclear. Elucidating specific biomechanical mechanisms is essential to developing animal models for testing candidate therapies and for improving protective equipment. Three hypothetical mechanisms of primary bTBI have received the most attention. Because translational and rotational head accelerations are primary contributors to TBI from non-penetrating blunt force head trauma, the acceleration hypothesis suggests that blast-induced head accelerations may cause bTBI. The hypothesis of direct cranial transmission suggests that a pressure transient traverses the skull into the brain and directly injures brain tissue. The thoracic hypothesis of bTBI suggests that some combination of a pressure transient reaching the brain via the thorax and a vagally mediated reflex result in bTBI. These three mechanisms may not be mutually exclusive, and quantifying exposure thresholds (for blasts of a given duration is essential for determining which mechanisms may be contributing for a level of blast exposure. Progress has been hindered by experimental designs which do not effectively expose animal models to a single mechanism and by over-reliance on poorly validated computational models. The path forward should be predictive validation of computational models by quantitative confirmation with blast experiments in animal models, human cadavers, and biofidelic human surrogates over a range of relevant blast magnitudes and durations coupled with experimental designs which isolate a single injury mechanism.

  14. Effect of cocaine dependence on brain connections: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liangsuo; Steinberg, Joel L; Moeller, F Gerard; Johns, Sade E; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine dependence (CD) is associated with several cognitive deficits. Accumulating evidence, based on human and animal studies, has led to models for interpreting the neural basis of cognitive functions as interactions between functionally related brain regions. In this review, we focus on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies using brain connectivity techniques as related to CD. The majority of these brain connectivity studies indicated that cocaine use is associated with altered brain connectivity between different structures, including cortical-striatal regions and default mode network. In cocaine users some of the altered brain connectivity measures are associated with behavioral performance, history of drug use, and treatment outcome. The implications of these brain connectivity findings to the treatment of CD and the pros and cons of the major brain connectivity techniques are discussed. Finally potential future directions in cocaine use disorder research using brain connectivity techniques are briefly described. PMID:26512421

  15. FROM BRAIN DRAIN TO BRAIN NETWORKING

    OpenAIRE

    Irina BONCEA

    2015-01-01

    Scientific networking is the most accessible way a country can turn the brain drain into brain gain. Diaspora’s members offer valuable information, advice or financial support from the destination country, without being necessary to return. This article aims to investigate Romania’s potential of turning brain drain into brain networking, using evidence from the medical sector. The main factors influencing the collaboration with the country of origin are investigated. The co...

  16. Metabolic Profiling and Enzyme Analyses Indicate a Potential Role of Antioxidant Systems in Complementing Glyphosate Resistance in an Amaranthus palmeri Biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Amith S; Nandula, Vijay K; Dayan, Franck E; Duke, Stephen O; Gerard, Patrick; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2015-10-21

    Metabolomics and biochemical assays were employed to identify physiological perturbations induced by a commercial formulation of glyphosate in susceptible (S) and resistant (R) biotypes of Amaranthus palmeri. At 8 h after treatment (HAT), compared to the respective water-treated control, cellular metabolism of both biotypes were similarly perturbed by glyphosate, resulting in abundance of most metabolites including shikimic acid, amino acids, organic acids and sugars. However, by 80 HAT the metabolite pool of glyphosate-treated R-biotype was similar to that of the control S- and R-biotypes, indicating a potential physiological recovery. Furthermore, the glyphosate-treated R-biotype had lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage, higher ROS scavenging activity, and higher levels of potential antioxidant compounds derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Thus, metabolomics, in conjunction with biochemical assays, indicate that glyphosate-induced metabolic perturbations are not limited to the shikimate pathway, and the oxidant quenching efficiency could potentially complement the glyphosate resistance in this R-biotype. PMID:26329798

  17. The Whole-Brain "Global" Signal from Resting State fMRI as a Potential Biomarker of Quantitative State Changes in Glucose Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Garth J; Riedl, Valentin; Grimmer, Timo; Drzezga, Alexander; Herman, Peter; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of functional magnetic resonance imaging to resting state (R-fMRI) allows measurement of changes in brain networks attributed to state changes, such as in neuropsychiatric diseases versus healthy controls. Since these networks are observed by comparing normalized R-fMRI signals, it is difficult to determine the metabolic basis of such group differences. To investigate the metabolic basis of R-fMRI network differences within a normal range, eyes open versus eyes closed in healthy human subjects was used. R-fMRI was recorded simultaneously with fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Higher baseline FDG was observed in the eyes open state. Variance-based metrics calculated from R-fMRI did not match the baseline shift in FDG. Functional connectivity density (FCD)-based metrics showed a shift similar to the baseline shift of FDG, however, this was lost if R-fMRI "nuisance signals" were regressed before FCD calculation. Average correlation with the mean R-fMRI signal across the whole brain, generally regarded as a "nuisance signal," also showed a shift similar to the baseline of FDG. Thus, despite lacking a baseline itself, changes in whole-brain correlation may reflect changes in baseline brain metabolism. Conversely, variance-based metrics may remain similar between states due to inherent region-to-region differences overwhelming the differences between normal physiological states. As most previous studies have excluded the spatial means of R-fMRI metrics from their analysis, this work presents the first evidence of a potential R-fMRI biomarker for baseline shifts in quantifiable metabolism between brain states. PMID:27029438

  18. Progress in research of long-term potentiation on brain slice%在脑片水平上突触可塑性长时程增强的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小波; 田心; 宋毅军

    2008-01-01

    长时程增强(LTP)是突触效能的重要表现形式,是研究学习与记忆突触机制的客观指标.近年来随着脑片技术的发展,很多关于LTP的实验研究都在脑片水平上进行.介绍了海马脑片CA1区LTP的调节表达机制的研究,海马脑片上诱导产生的LTP的特征和脑片条件的关系,多巴胺转运蛋白阻断剂通过活化D3多巴胺受体增强海马脑片CA1区LTP,以及激活大鼠海马脑片CA1区突触β-肾上腺素能受体增强联合LTP的研究,综述了在脑片水平上研究LTP的诱导表达维持及调节等方面的研究动态和进展.%Long-term potentiation(LTP)is an important form of synaptic plasticity and an objective indicator to investigate learing and memory synaptic mechanisms.With the development of brain slice technology,more and more experiments associated with LTP are carried out on brain slices,which aim to investigate the mechanism in biology and the change in physiology or biochemistry are carried out on the brain slice.This paper gives an overview of recent advances in research of LTP with technology of brain sliceby suchexamples as follows:The regulated expression mechanisms of long-term potentiation at CA1 synapses,the characteristics of LTP induced in hippcampal slices and its relation with the slice-recovery conditions,the enhancement of the magnitude of early longterm potentiation at CA1 hippocampal synapse by the activation of dopamine receptor,and the enhancement of associative long-term potentiation by the activation of β-adrenergic receptors at CA1 synapses in rat hippocampol slices.

  19. BDNF/TrkB Signaling as a Potential Novel Target in Pediatric Brain Tumors: Anticancer Activity of Selective TrkB Inhibition in Medulloblastoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Amanda; Jaeger, Mariane; Buendia, Marienela; Bambini-Junior, Victorio; Gregianin, Lauro José; Brunetto, Algemir Lunardi; Brunetto, André T; de Farias, Caroline Brunetto; Roesler, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. Deregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) signaling has been associated with increased proliferative capabilities, invasiveness, and chemoresistance in several types of cancer. However, the relevance of this pathway in MB remains unknown. Here, we show that the selective TrkB inhibitor N-[2-[[(hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-azepin-3-yl)amino]carbonyl]phenyl]-benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamide (ANA-12) markedly reduced the viability and survival of human cell lines representative of different MB molecular subgroups. These findings provide the first evidence supporting further investigation of TrkB inhibition as a potential novel strategy for MB treatment. PMID:26614346

  20. Evaluation of technetium 99m cyclobutylpropylene amine oxime as a potential brain perfusion imaging agent for SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99mTc-labelled d,l-cyclobutylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-CBPAO) has been developed as a brain imaging agent for single photon emission tomography (SPET). 99mTc-CBPAO can be prepared using a simple labelling procedure suitable for routine clinical use. It has a high in vitro stability, as has been demonstrated by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPCL) analysis. This shows that 3 h after labelling, less than 5% of the primary lipophilic complex which is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) converts to a secondary hydrophilic complex. Brain uptake (% dose/g wet tissue) of 99mTc-CBPAO, determined at 5 and 30 min after injection in two groups of six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, was found to be 0.74±0.06 and 0.73±0.13 (mean±SD), respectively. These values are not significantly different from those obtained repeating the experiment with 99mTc-labelled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) (0.72±0.15 at 5 min and 0.88±0.24 at 30 min after injection). Since the rat brain uptake of 99mTc-CBPAO remained unchanged for a period of time suitable for tomographic study, the comparison of the two tracers was extended to two groups of ten patients. The latter were affected by neurological and psychiatric disorders and were studied with SPET. Human brain uptake (% dose/cc cortical grey matter) of 99mTc-CBPAO and 99mTc-HMPAO were 3.04±0.57 and 4.22±0.46 (mean x 10-3±SD x 10-3), respectively, with a 32% significant difference. In two other groups of five patients, the first transit time-activity curves of the two tracers were compared. From the analysis of these curves we suggest that 99mTc-CBPAO has a higher binding effect on blood components and/or a higher degradation rate in blood than that of 99mTc-HMPAO. This may account for the reduced human brain uptake. In conclusion, SPET images of 99mTc-CBPAO reflect blood perfusion, and they have a good diagnostic quality. The main advantage of 99mTc-CBPAO is its in vitro stability; however, 99m

  1. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of cisplatin-containing EGFR targeting bioconjugates as potential therapeutic agents for brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth RF

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rolf F Barth,1 Gong Wu,1 W Hans Meisen,2 Robin J Nakkula,1 Weilian Yang,1 Tianyao Huo,1 David A Kellough,1 Pravin Kaumaya,3–5 Claudia Turro,6 Lawrence M Agius,7 Balveen Kaur2 1Department of Pathology, 2Department of Neurological Surgery, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 4Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 5Department of Microbiology, 6Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 7Department of Pathology, Mater Dei Hospital, University of Malta Medical School, Msida, Malta Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate four different platinated bioconjugates containing a cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum [cis-DDP] fragment and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-targeting moieties as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of brain tumors using a human EGFR-expressing transfectant of the F98 rat glioma (F98EGFR to assess their efficacy. The first two bioconjugates employed the monoclonal antibody cetuximab (C225 or Erbitux® as the targeting moiety, and the second two used genetically engineered EGF peptides. C225-G5-Pt was produced by reacting cis-DDP with a fifth-generation polyamidoamine dendrimer (G5 and then linking it to C225 by means of two heterobifunctional reagents. The second bioconjugate (C225-PG-Pt employed the same methodology except that polyglutamic acid was used as the carrier. The third and fourth bioconjugates used two different EGF peptides, PEP382 and PEP455, with direct coordination to the Pt center of the cis-DDP fragment. In vivo studies with C225-G5-Pt failed to demonstrate therapeutic activity following intracerebral (ic convection-enhanced delivery (CED to F98EGFR glioma-bearing rats. The second bioconjugate, C225-PG-Pt, failed to show in vitro cytotoxicity. Furthermore, because of its high molecular weight, we decided that lower molecular weight peptides might provide better targeting and microdistribution within the tumor. Both PEP

  2. Spiperone dithiocarbamate- 99mTc kit - a potential diagnosis agent for dopaminergic D-2 brain pathologies - biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psycho pharmacology has been discovering much about the D 2 dopamine receptors and their interrelationship to brain pathologies such as Parkinson's Disease, Schizophrenia and Huntington Disease. Those biological receptors have got affinity with dopamine endogenous agent, so that they complex and, in non pathological individuals, the biological receptors contribute to bring the levels of dopamine and free acetylcholine into equilibrium. The Spiperon Dithiocarbamate (SPDC) from Spiperon is synthesized and its complexation with Technetium-99 m has been prepared with its reaction parameters after being studied and improved. The SPDC- 99m Tc complex biological distribution has been made in Wistar rats and the uptake of spleen, heart, liver, stomach, lung, kidney, blood, intestine and brain have been resolved. The plasmatic clearance curve has been based on Wistar rats data and the Know-how of the kit ( for label SPDC with 99m Tc) has been achieved. (author)

  3. Design, synthesis and evaluation of 2-deoxy-2-iodovinyl-branched carbohydrates as potential brain imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodinated carbohydrates such as 2-deoxy-2-iodo-D-glucose and 3-deoxy-3-iodo-D-glucose undergo facile chemical or in vivo deiodination which precludes their use as radiotracers of glucose metabolism in tissues. To overcome the problems resulting from in vivo deiodination, we explored the concept of stabilizing radioiodide on a model carbohydrate, (E)-C-3-iodovinyl-D-allose (10) as an iodovinyl moiety. This agent did not exhibit brain specificity but showed low in vivo deiodination which demonstrated for the first time that radioiodide can be stabilized on a carbohydrate. The goal of this study was to develop a deoxy-branched carbohydrate with radioiodide stabilized as a vinyliodide with the objective of achieving high brain uptake. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Design, synthesis and evaluation of 2-deoxy-2-iodovinyl-branched carbohydrates as potential brain imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, M.M.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Radioiodinated carbohydrates such as 2-deoxy-2-iodo-D-glucose and 3-deoxy-3-iodo-D-glucose undergo facile chemical or in vivo deiodination which precludes their use as radiotracers of glucose metabolism in tissues. To overcome the problems resulting from in vivo deiodination, we explored the concept of stabilizing radioiodide on a model carbohydrate, (E)-C-3-iodovinyl-D-allose (10) as an iodovinyl moiety. This agent did not exhibit brain specificity but showed low in vivo deiodination which demonstrated for the first time that radioiodide can be stabilized on a carbohydrate. The goal of this study was to develop a deoxy-branched carbohydrate with radioiodide stabilized as a vinyliodide with the objective of achieving high brain uptake. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Chronic Unpredictable Stress Decreases Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Mouse Ovaries: Relationship to Oocytes Developmental Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Min Wu; Mei-Hong Hu; Xian-Hong Tong; Hui Han; Ni Shen; Ren-Tao Jin; Wei Wang; Gui-Xiang Zhou; Guo-Ping He; Yu-Sheng Liu

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) was originally described in the nervous system but has been shown to be expressed in ovary tissues recently, acting as a paracrine/autocrine regulator required for developments of follicles and oocytes. Although it is generally accepted that chronic stress impairs female reproduction and decreases the expression of BDNF in limbic structures of central nervous system, which contributes to mood disorder. However, it is not known whether chroni...

  6. A Three Spatial Dimension Wave Latent Force Model for Describing Excitation Sources and Electric Potentials Produced by Deep Brain Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado, Pablo A.; Álvarez, Mauricio A.; Orozco, Álvaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical treatment for Parkinson's Disease. Static models based on quasi-static approximation are common approaches for DBS modeling. While this simplification has been validated for bioelectric sources, its application to rapid stimulation pulses, which contain more high-frequency power, may not be appropriate, as DBS therapeutic results depend on stimulus parameters such as frequency and pulse width, which are related to time variations of the electric fiel...

  7. Beyond gender stereotypes in language comprehension: self sex-role descriptions affect the brain's potentials associated with agreement processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eCanal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as king or engineer or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female, or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female. When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P600 effect reflecting a failure in the agreement process. When instead the gender violation occurred after stereotypical role-nouns the ERP response was biphasic, being positive in parietal electrodes and negative in anterior left electrodes. The use of a correlational approach showed that those participants with more feminine or expressive self sex-role descriptions showed a P600 response for stereotype violations, suggesting that they experienced the mismatch as an agreement violation; whereas less expressive participants showed an Nref effect, indicating more effort spent in linking the pronouns with the possible, although less likely, counter-stereotypical referent.

  8. Revisiting the incremental effects of context on word processing: Evidence from single-word event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brennan R; Lee, Chia-Lin; Federmeier, Kara D

    2015-11-01

    The amplitude of the N400-an event-related potential (ERP) component linked to meaning processing and initial access to semantic memory-is inversely related to the incremental buildup of semantic context over the course of a sentence. We revisited the nature and scope of this incremental context effect, adopting a word-level linear mixed-effects modeling approach, with the goal of probing the continuous and incremental effects of semantic and syntactic context on multiple aspects of lexical processing during sentence comprehension (i.e., effects of word frequency and orthographic neighborhood). First, we replicated the classic word-position effect at the single-word level: Open-class words showed reductions in N400 amplitude with increasing word position in semantically congruent sentences only. Importantly, we found that accruing sentence context had separable influences on the effects of frequency and neighborhood on the N400. Word frequency effects were reduced with accumulating semantic context. However, orthographic neighborhood was unaffected by accumulating context, showing robust effects on the N400 across all words, even within congruent sentences. Additionally, we found that N400 amplitudes to closed-class words were reduced with incrementally constraining syntactic context in sentences that provided only syntactic constraints. Taken together, our findings indicate that modeling word-level variability in ERPs reveals mechanisms by which different sources of information simultaneously contribute to the unfolding neural dynamics of comprehension. PMID:26311477

  9. Non-invasive brain-to-brain interface (BBI: establishing functional links between two brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Schik Yoo

    Full Text Available Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS is capable of modulating the neural activity of specific brain regions, with a potential role as a non-invasive computer-to-brain interface (CBI. In conjunction with the use of brain-to-computer interface (BCI techniques that translate brain function to generate computer commands, we investigated the feasibility of using the FUS-based CBI to non-invasively establish a functional link between the brains of different species (i.e. human and Sprague-Dawley rat, thus creating a brain-to-brain interface (BBI. The implementation was aimed to non-invasively translate the human volunteer's intention to stimulate a rat's brain motor area that is responsible for the tail movement. The volunteer initiated the intention by looking at a strobe light flicker on a computer display, and the degree of synchronization in the electroencephalographic steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials (SSVEP with respect to the strobe frequency was analyzed using a computer. Increased signal amplitude in the SSVEP, indicating the volunteer's intention, triggered the delivery of a burst-mode FUS (350 kHz ultrasound frequency, tone burst duration of 0.5 ms, pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, given for 300 msec duration to excite the motor area of an anesthetized rat transcranially. The successful excitation subsequently elicited the tail movement, which was detected by a motion sensor. The interface was achieved at 94.0±3.0% accuracy, with a time delay of 1.59±1.07 sec from the thought-initiation to the creation of the tail movement. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a computer-mediated BBI that links central neural functions between two biological entities, which may confer unexplored opportunities in the study of neuroscience with potential implications for therapeutic applications.

  10. Diffusive gradients in thin films, Rhizon soil moisture samplers, and indicator plants to predict the bioavailabilities of potentially toxic elements in contaminated technosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Bashar; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Joussein, Emmanuel; Soubrand, Marilyne; Gauthier, Arnaud

    2016-05-01

    The phytoavailabilities and potential remobilization of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as Zn, Pb, Cd, As, and Sb were assessed in contaminated technosols from former mining and smelting sites. The PTE concentrations in soil pore water (SPW) and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT)-measured concentration (C DGT) methods were used to assess the bioavailabilities of PTE and their remobilization in this study. Together with classical Chelex-100 DGT probes to measure Zn, Cd, and Pb, novel ferrihydrite-backed DGT were used for As and Sb measurements alongside with Rhizon soil moisture sampler method for SPW sampling. To assess the phytoavailabilities of PTE, a germination test with dwarf beans as a plant indicator was used for this purpose. Dwarf bean primary leaves showed high Zn concentrations in contrast to Pb and Cd which showed low phytoavailabilities. Despite As and Sb are present in high concentrations in the mine tailings, their phytoavailabilities indicate very low bioavailabilities. The amounts of Zn, Pb, Cd, As, and Sb extracted with DGT devices correlated well with the total dissolved PTE concentrations in the SPW. The highest R values were observed for Zn, followed by Cd and Pb, indicating the ability of the soil to sustain SPW concentrations, which decreased in that order. Good correlations were also observed between each of dissolved PTE concentrations in SPW, DGT-measured PTE concentrations (C DGT), and the accumulation of PTE in dwarf bean primary leaves. It could be concluded that the use of Rhizon soil moisture samplers and DGT methods may be considered to be a good methods to predict the PTE bioavailabilities in contaminated technosols. PMID:26780058

  11. Enhanced in vitro radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts in two patients developing brain necrosis following AVM radiosurgery: a new risk factor with potential for a predictive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiosurgery is an effective treatment for arteriovenous malformations (AVM) with a low risk of developing brain necrosis. Models have been developed to predict the risk of complications. We postulated that genetic differences in radiosensitivity may also be a risk factor. Methods and Materials: Fibroblast cultures were established from skin biopsies in two AVM patients developing radiation necrosis. The results of clonogenic survival assays were compared to a parallel study with two groups of cancer patients treated with radiation: 1) patients without late side effects; 2) patients experiencing severe late sequelae. Results: The survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) of the 2 AVM patients was 0.17 (0.14-0.19) and 0.18 (0.14-0.22). The SF2's of the cancer patients ranged between 0.25-0.38 (mean = 0.31) for the control group, and between 0.10-0.20 (mean = 0.17) for the hypersensitive group. The SF2's of the AVM patients who developed brain necrosis were comparable to that of the hypersensitive group (p = 0.85) but significantly lower than the control group (p = 0.05). Conclusion: The two patients who developed radiation necrosis demonstrate increased fibroblast radiosensitivity. The SF2 of skin fibroblasts may potentially be used as a predictive assay to detect patients at risk for brain necrosis

  12. The feto-placental unit, and potential roles of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in prenatal and postnatal brain development: A re-examination using the spiny mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Tracey A; Ratnayake, Udani; Dickinson, Hayley; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Walker, David W

    2016-06-01

    Synthesis of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) by the fetal adrenal gland is important for placental oestrogen production, and may also be important for modulating the effects of glucocorticoids on the developing brain. We have preciously shown that the enzymes and accessory proteins needed for DHEA synthesis-cytochrome P450 enzyme 17α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (P450c17), cytochrome-b5 (Cytb5), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD)-are expressed in the adrenal gland from 30 days gestation, and DHEA, cortisol and aldosterone are present in fetal plasma from this time. Explant culture of fetal adrenal tissue showed that the spiny mouse adrenal gland, can synthesize and secrete DHEA from at least 0.75 of gestation, and suggest that DHEA may have an important role(s) in placental biosynthesis of oestrogens and in modulating the actions of glucocorticoids in the developing brain in this species. Post-natally, increased immuno-expression of P450c17 and Cytb5 expression in the zona reticularis of the adrenal gland and a significant increase in the synthesis and secretion of DHEA in plasma from 8 to 20 days of age in the spiny mouse, are representative of a period of high adrenal androgen production consistent with the human phenomenon of adrenarche. The studies summarised in this review also show that DHEA is produced de novo in the developing brain of the spiny mouse. These results showed that the spiny mouse brain can indeed produce DHEA from pregnenolone in a time-dependant manner, and coupled with the identification of P450c17 and Cytb5 protein in several regions of the brain, support the idea that DHEA is an endogenous neuro-active steroid in this species. Together, the studies outlined in this review indicate that the androgen DHEA is an important hormone of adrenal and Central Nervous System (CNS) origin in the fetal and postnatal spiny mouse. Disturbance of the development of these fetal tissues, and/or of the relationship between the fetal adrenal gland and

  13. Reestablishing speech understanding through musical ear training after cochlear implantation: a study of the potential cortical plasticity in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Mortensen, Malene V; Gjedde, Albert;

    2009-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) provide impressive speech perception for persons with severe hearing loss, but many CI recipients fail in perceiving speech prosody and music. Successful rehabilitation depends on cortical plasticity in the brain and postoperative measures. The present study evaluates the...... behavioral and neurologic effects of musical ear training on CI users' speech and music perception. The goal is to find and work out musical methods to improve CI users' auditory capabilities and, in a longer perspective, provide an efficient strategy for improving speech understanding for both adults and...

  14. Nonviral gene therapy in vivo with PAM-RG4/apoptin as a potential brain tumor therapeutic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Songhie An,* Kihoon Nam,* Sunghyun Choi, Cheng Z Bai, Yan Lee, Jong-Sang ParkDepartment of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Glioma is still one of the most complicated forms of brain tumor to remove completely due to its location and the lack of an efficient means to specifically eliminate tumor cells. For these reasons, this study has examined the effectiveness of a nonviral gene therapy approach utilizing a tumor-selective killer gene on a brain tumor xenograft model.Methods and results: The therapeutic apoptin gene was recombined into the JDK plasmid and delivered into human brain tumor cells (U87MG by using a polyamidoamine dendrimer with an arginine surface (PAM-RG4. Studies in vitro showed that the PAM-RG4/apoptin plasmid polyplex exhibited a particularly high transfection activity of >40%. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay, 4´,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI TUNEL assay, DAPI staining, and caspase-3 activity assay verified that the tumor cells had undergone apoptosis induced by apoptin. For in vivo studies, the polyplex was injected into tumors, which were induced by injecting U87MG cells intradermally into nude mice. Based on hematoxylin and eosin staining, epidermal growth factor receptor immunohistochemistry results and tumor volume measurement results, tumor growth was effectively inhibited and no specific edema, irritation, or other harm to the skin was observed after polyplex injection. The in vivo expression of apoptin and the induction of apoptosis were verified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, TUNEL assay, and DAPI staining.Conclusion: The PAM-RG4/apoptin gene polyplex is a strong candidate for brain tumor therapeutics because of the synergistic effect of the carrier's high transfection efficiency (35%–40% in glioma cells and the selective apoptosis-inducing activity of

  15. The potential mechanism of recombinant human erythropoietin treatment in vivo promoting the cognitive function recovery after traumatic brain injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEI Ping

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Inflammation after traumatic brain injury (TBI could exacerbate secondary brain injury, resulting in neuronal apoptosis and neurological deficit. It is confirmed that recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO plays an important role in neuroprotection after brain injury. This article discusses the potential mechanism of rhEPO therapy that promotes the neurological function recovery after TBI by observing the changes of neutropils and neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissue of mice after fluid percussion injury (FPI. Methods Adult male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: Sham group, TBI group, rhEPO group and normal saline (NS group. On the first, third and seventh days after FPI, 3 mice were randomly taken from each group, the brain tissue of which was obtained. Then, immunohistochemistry was adopted to observe the expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO positive neutrophils and Caspase-3 positive neuronal cells in the hippocampal area. During seventh to eleventh day after FPI, 10 mice of each group were subjected to Morris Water Maze Test and escaping latencies were recorded. Results Compared to Sham group, the number of MPO positive neutrophils began increasing from the first day after FPI (P = 0.000, for all and reached the peak on the third day ( P = 0.000, for all in the TBI group, NS group and rhEPO group, but reduced on the seventh day (P = 0.000, for all; whereas Caspase-3 positive neurons increased significantly 1 d after FPI, peaking on the seventh day. However, the increase of MPO positive cells and Caspase-3 positive neurons in rhEPO group was not obvious. Compared to NS group, MPO positive neutrophils and Caspase-3 positive cells reduced significantly in rhEPO group (P = 0.000, for all 1 to 7 d after FPI in the observed time points. In the Morris Water Maze (MWM, the latency of mice in rhEPO group reduced as compared to the NS group from the third day after FPI (P = 0.013. The differences were statistically

  16. Elevation of Brain Magnesium Potentiates Neural Stem Cell Proliferation in the Hippocampus of Young and Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shanshan; Liu, Yunpeng; Shi, Yang; Ma, Yihe; Hu, Yixin; Wang, Meiyan; Li, Xue

    2016-09-01

    In the adult brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) can self-renew and generate all neural lineage types, and they persist in the sub-granular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the cortex. Here, we show that dietary-supplemented - magnesium-L-threonate (MgT), a novel magnesium compound designed to elevate brain magnesium regulates the NSC pool in the adult hippocampus. We found that administration of both short- and long-term regimens of MgT, increased the number of hippocampal NSCs. We demonstrated that in young mice, dietary supplementation with MgT significantly enhanced NSC proliferation in the SGZ. Importantly, in aged mice that underwent long-term (12-month) supplementation with MgT, MgT did not deplete the hippocampal NSC reservoir but rather curtailed the age-associated decline in NSC proliferation. We further established an association between extracellular magnesium concentrations and NSC self-renewal in vitro by demonstrating that elevated Mg(2+) concentrations can maintain or increase the number of cultured hippocampal NSCs. Our study also suggests that key signaling pathways for cell growth and proliferation may be candidate targets for Mg(2+) 's effects on NSC self-renewal. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1903-1912, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26754806

  17. Optimistic, pessimistic, realistic: Event-related potential evidence for how depressive symptoms influences expectation formation in the Human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Fang; Vincent, Romain; Waszak, Florian

    2015-08-27

    Recent research suggested a link between the prediction mechanism and depressive symptoms. While healthy people tend to maintain unrealistic optimism in the face of reality challenging their beliefs, depressed people show systematic pessimism. However, it remains unclear at which stage these individual differences in optimism/pessimism arise in the brain. In the current study we designed a simple gambling task with two difficulty levels, the easy game and the hard game. Participants were required to press one of four keys to gain a bonus signalled by a sinusoidal tone. For three of the four keys, the probability of getting a large bonus was 80% in the easy game and 8% in the hard game. In both games, the fourth key, randomly determined in each trial, yielded a large bonus with a probability of 100%. This arrangement allowed us to observe less/more depressed participants׳ optimistic/pessimistic expectations about hitting the key that guarantees a large bonus. The opposite expectation patterns of less/more depressed participants were reflected on the N1 amplitude. Meanwhile, all participants were well aware of the true probability of obtaining certain bonus in each game as reflected on the P3 amplitude. The results suggest that the subjective system (tracking subjective beliefs) and the objective system (tracking objective evidence) are dissociable in the human brain, with the former feeding information into sensory areas and the latter representing prediction errors on a higher level. Moreover, individual differences arise from variability in the former rather than the latter. PMID:26032739

  18. Pattern classification of brain activation during emotional processing in subclinical depression: psychosis proneness as potential confounding factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Modinos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Support Vector Machine (SVM to perform multivariate pattern classification based on brain activation during emotional processing in healthy participants with subclinical depressive symptoms. Six-hundred undergraduate students completed the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II. Two groups were subsequently formed: (i subclinical (mild mood disturbance (n = 17 and (ii no mood disturbance (n = 17. Participants also completed a self-report questionnaire on subclinical psychotic symptoms, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences Questionnaire (CAPE positive subscale. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm entailed passive viewing of negative emotional and neutral scenes. The pattern of brain activity during emotional processing allowed correct group classification with an overall accuracy of 77% (p = 0.002, within a network of regions including the amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex. However, further analysis suggested that the classification accuracy could also be explained by subclinical psychotic symptom scores (correlation with SVM weights r = 0.459, p = 0.006. Psychosis proneness may thus be a confounding factor for neuroimaging studies in subclinical depression.

  19. Design, Synthesis, and Identification of Silicon Incorporated Oxazolidinone Antibiotics with Improved Brain Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharamsingh, B; Ramesh, Remya; Dange, Santoshkumar S; Khairnar, Pankaj V; Singhal, Smita; Upadhyay, Dilip; Veeraraghavan, Sridhar; Viswanadha, Srikant; Vakkalanka, Swaroop; Reddy, D Srinivasa

    2015-11-12

    Therapeutic options for brain infections caused by pathogens with a reduced sensitivity to drugs are limited. Recent reports on the potential use of linezolid in treating brain infections prompted us to design novel compounds around this scaffold. Herein, we describe the design and synthesis of various oxazolidinone antibiotics with the incorporation of silicon. Our findings in preclinical species suggest that silicon incorporation is highly useful in improving brain exposures. Interestingly, three compounds from this series demonstrated up to a 30-fold higher brain/plasma ratio when compared to linezolid thereby indicating their therapeutic potential in brain associated disorders. PMID:26617962

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...