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Sample records for brain p1 n170

  1. P1 and N170 components distinguish human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shuwei; Luo, Wenbo; He, Weiqi; Chen, Xu; Luo, Yuejia

    2013-06-19

    This study used event-related potentials to investigate the sensitivity of P1 and N170 components to human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli, which were derived from pictures of Peking opera characters. As predicted, human-like makeup stimuli elicited larger P1 and N170 amplitudes than did animal-like makeup stimuli. Interestingly, a right hemisphere advantage was observed for human-like but not for animal-like makeup stimuli. Dipole source analyses of 130-200-ms window showed that the bilateral fusiform face area may contribute to the differential sensitivity of the N170 component in response to human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli. The present study suggests that the amplitudes of both the P1 and the N170 are sensitive for the mouth component of face-like stimuli.

  2. Responsivity to dyslexia training indexed by the N170 amplitude of the brain potential elicited by word reading.

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    Fraga González, G; Žarić, G; Tijms, J; Bonte, M; Blomert, L; Leppänen, P; van der Molen, M W

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined training effects in dyslexic children on reading fluency and the amplitude of N170, a negative brain-potential component elicited by letter and symbol strings. A group of 18 children with dyslexia in 3rd grade (9.05±0.46years old) was tested before and after following a letter-speech sound mapping training. A group of 20 third-grade typical readers (8.78±0.35years old) performed a single time on the same brain potential task. The training was differentially effective in speeding up reading fluency in the dyslexic children. In some children, training had a beneficial effect on reading fluency ('improvers') while a training effect was absent in others ('non-improvers'). Improvers at pre-training showed larger N170 amplitude to words compared to non-improvers. N170 amplitude decreased following training in improvers but not in non-improvers. But the N170 amplitude pattern in improvers continued to differ from the N170 amplitude pattern across hemispheres seen in typical readers. Finally, we observed a positive relation between the decrease in N170 amplitude and gains in reading fluency. Collectively, the results that emerged from the present study indicate the sensitivity of N170 amplitude to reading fluency and its potential as a predictor of reading fluency acquisition. PMID:27200495

  3. Early (N170/M170 face-sensitivity despite right lateral occipital brain damage in acquired prosopagnosia

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    Esther eAlonso Prieto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to objects, pictures of faces elicit a larger early electromagnetic response at occipito-temporal sites on the human scalp, with an onset of 130 ms and a peak at about 170 ms. This N170 face effect is larger in the right than the left hemisphere and has been associated with the early categorization of the stimulus as a face. Here we tested whether this effect can be observed in the absence of some of the visual areas showing a preferential response to faces as typically identified in neuroimaging. Event related potentials were recorded in response to faces, cars and their phase-scrambled versions in a well-known brain-damaged case of prosopagnosia (PS. Despite the patient’s right inferior occipital gyrus lesion encompassing the most posterior cortical area showing preferential response to faces (occipital face area, OFA, we identified an early face-sensitive component over the right occipito-temporal hemisphere of the patient that was identified as the N170. A second experiment supported this conclusion, showing the typical N170 increase of latency and amplitude in response to inverted faces. In contrast, there was no N170 in the left hemisphere, where PS has a lesion to the middle fusiform gyrus and shows no evidence of face-preferential response in neuroimaging (no left fusiform face area, or lFFA. These results were replicated by a magneto-encephalographic (MEG investigation of the patient, disclosing a M170 component only in the right hemisphere. These observations indicate that face preferential activation in the inferior occipital cortex is not necessary to elicit early visual responses associated with face perception (N170/M170 on the human scalp. These results further suggest that when the right inferior occipital cortex is damaged, the integrity of the middle fusiform gyrus and/or the superior temporal sulcus – two areas showing face preferential responses in the patient’s right hemisphere - might be necessary to generate

  4. Does physical interstimulus variance account for early electrophysiological face sensitive responses in the human brain? Ten lessons on the N170.

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    Rossion, Bruno; Jacques, Corentin

    2008-02-15

    A recent event-related potential (ERP) study (Thierry G., Martin, C.D., Downing, P., Pegna, A.J. 2007. Controlling for interstimulus perceptual variance abolishes N170 face selectivity. Nature Neuroscience, 10, 505-11) claimed that the larger occipito-temporal N170 response to pictures of faces than other categories -- the N170 effect -- is due to a methodological artifact in stimulus selection, specifically, a greater interstimulus physical variance between pictures of objects than faces in previous ERP studies which, when controlled, eliminates this N170 effect. This statement casts doubts on the validity of the conclusions reached by a whole tradition of electrophysiological experiments published over the past 15 years and questions the very interest of using the N170 to probe the time course of face processes in the human brain. Here we claim that this physical variance factor is ill-defined by Thierry et al. and cannot account for previous observations of a smaller N170 amplitude to nonface objects than faces without latency increase and component "smearing". Most importantly, this factor was controlled in previous studies that reported robust N170 effects. We demonstrate that the absence of N170 effect in the study of Thierry et al. is due to methodological flaws in the reported experiments, most notably measuring the N170 at the wrong electrode sites. Moreover, the authors attributed a modulation of N170 amplitude in their study to a differential interstimulus physical variance while it probably reflects a biased comparison of different quality sets of individual images. Here, by taking Thierry et al.'s study as an exemplar case of what should not be done in ERP research of visual categorization processes, we provide clarifications on a number of methodological and theoretical issues about the N170 and its largest amplitude to faces. More generally, we discuss the potential role of differential visual homogeneity of object categories as well as low

  5. Exploration on the Relationship between N170 and Facial ;Recognition%N170与面孔识别关系的探讨

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    田海鹏

    2015-01-01

    In facial recognition, the brain will generate a negative wave, namely N170, at about 170ms. Whether N170 possesses facial specificity and whether it reflects structure coding or fea-ture coding have always been debated. This paper elaborates the two debates, and proposes the conception of using N170 as the index of other-race effect, hoping to explore the neural mecha-nism of N170 facial recognition.%在对面孔进行识别时,大脑会在170ms左右产生一个负波即N170N170是否具有面孔特异性,反映的是结构编码还是特征编码,一直都存在争论。文章对这两个争论进行了阐述,并提出将N170作为异族效应指标的设想,期望探讨N170在情绪面孔识别中的神经机制。

  6. Gender difference in N170 elicited under oddball task

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Takakura, Jun’ya; Motoi, Midori; Nishimura, Takayuki; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some studies have reported gender differences in N170, a face-selective event-related potential (ERP) component. This study investigated gender differences in N170 elicited under oddball paradigm in order to clarify the effect of task demand on gender differences in early facial processing. Findings: Twelve males and 10 females discriminated targets (emotional faces) from non-targets (emotionally neutral faces) under an oddball paradigm, pressing a button as quickly as possible in...

  7. Gender difference in N170 elicited under oddball task

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Takakura, Jun’ya; Motoi, Midori; Nishimura, Takayuki; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Background Some studies have reported gender differences in N170, a face-selective event-related potential (ERP) component. This study investigated gender differences in N170 elicited under oddball paradigm in order to clarify the effect of task demand on gender differences in early facial processing. Findings Twelve males and 10 females discriminated targets (emotional faces) from non-targets (emotionally neutral faces) under an oddball paradigm, pressing a button as quickly as possible in r...

  8. Neural adaptation provides evidence for categorical differences in processing of faces and Chinese characters: an ERP study of the N170.

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    Shimin Fu

    Full Text Available Whether face perception involves domain-specific or domain-general processing is an extensively debated issue. Relative to non-face objects and alphabetical scripts, Chinese characters provide a good contrast to faces because of their structural configuration, requirement for high level of visual expertise to literate Chinese people, and unique appearance and identity for each individual stimulus. To examine potential categorical differences in their neural processing, event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded to blocked face and Chinese character stimuli. Fast adaptation method was applied to better control for the low-level stimulus difference between faces and Chinese characters. Participants were required to respond to the color of the outer frame in which these stimuli were presented, at either a fast (ISI 650 ms or slow (ISI 1300 ms rate, and with an orientation that was either the same or alternated between upright and inverted. Faces elicited a larger and later N170 relative to characters, but the N170 was more left-lateralized for characters relative to the faces. Adaptation-by-rate and adaptation-by-orientation effects were observed on the amplitude of N170, and both were more pronounced for faces relative to characters. Inverted stimuli elicited a later N170 relative to upright stimuli, without amplitude change, and this inversion effect was more pronounced for faces relative to characters. Moreover, faces elicited a larger and later P1 and a larger adaptation-by-rate effect on P1 relative to characters. The adaptation-by-orientation effect was illustrated by a larger P1 under the same relative to the alternated orientation condition. Therefore, evidence from the amplitude and the lateralization of N170, the stimulus inversion effect on N170 latency, and the neural adaptation between faces and Chinese characters on P1 and N170 components support the notion that the processing of faces and Chinese characters involve categorically

  9. Impact of head models in N170 component source imaging: results in control subjects and ADHD patients

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    Beltrachini, L.; Blenkmann, A.; von Ellenrieder, N.; Petroni, A.; Urquina, H.; Manes, F.; Ibáñez, A.; Muravchik, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    The major goal of evoked related potential studies arise in source localization techniques to identify the loci of neural activity that give rise to a particular voltage distribution measured on the surface of the scalp. In this paper we evaluate the effect of the head model adopted in order to estimate the N170 component source in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and control subjects, considering faces and words stimuli. The standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography algorithm (sLORETA) is used to compare between the three shell spherical head model and a fully realistic model based on the ICBM-152 atlas. We compare their variance on source estimation and analyze the impact on the N170 source localization. Results show that the often used three shell spherical model may lead to erroneous solutions, specially on ADHD patients, so its use is not recommended. Our results also suggest that N170 sources are mainly located in the right occipital fusiform gyrus for faces stimuli and in the left occipital fusiform gyrus for words stimuli, for both control subjects and ADHD patients. We also found a notable decrease on the N170 estimated source amplitude on ADHD patients, resulting in a plausible marker of the disease.

  10. The Deceptively Simple N170 Reflects Network Information Processing Mechanisms Involving Visual Feature Coding and Transfer Across Hemispheres

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    Ince, Robin A. A.; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Gross, Joachim; Panzeri, Stefano; van Rijsbergen, Nicola J.; Rousselet, Guillaume A.; Schyns, Philippe G.

    2016-01-01

    A key to understanding visual cognition is to determine “where”, “when”, and “how” brain responses reflect the processing of the specific visual features that modulate categorization behavior—the “what”. The N170 is the earliest Event-Related Potential (ERP) that preferentially responds to faces. Here, we demonstrate that a paradigmatic shift is necessary to interpret the N170 as the product of an information processing network that dynamically codes and transfers face features across hemispheres, rather than as a local stimulus-driven event. Reverse-correlation methods coupled with information-theoretic analyses revealed that visibility of the eyes influences face detection behavior. The N170 initially reflects coding of the behaviorally relevant eye contralateral to the sensor, followed by a causal communication of the other eye from the other hemisphere. These findings demonstrate that the deceptively simple N170 ERP hides a complex network information processing mechanism involving initial coding and subsequent cross-hemispheric transfer of visual features. PMID:27550865

  11. Distinct facial processing related negative cognitive bias in first-episode and recurrent major depression: evidence from the N170 ERP component.

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    Jiu Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: States of depression are associated with increased sensitivity to negative events. For this novel study, we have assessed the relationship between the number of depressive episodes and the dysfunctional processing of emotional facial expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a visual emotional oddball paradigm to manipulate the processing of emotional information while event-related brain potentials were recorded in 45 patients with first episode major depression (F-MD, 40 patients with recurrent major depression (R-MD, and 46 healthy controls (HC. Compared with the HC group, F-MD patients had lower N170 amplitudes when identifying happy, neutral, and sad faces; R-MD patients had lower N170 amplitudes when identifying happy and neutral faces, but higher N170 amplitudes when identifying sad faces. F-MD patients had longer N170 latencies when identifying happy, neutral, and sad faces relative to the HC group, and R-MD patients had longer N170 latencies when identifying happy and neutral faces, but shorter N170 latencies when identifying sad faces compared with F-MD patients. Interestingly, a negative relationship was observed between N170 amplitude and the depressive severity score for identification of happy faces in R-MD patients while N170 amplitude was positively correlated with the depressive severity score for identification of sad faces in F-MD and R-MD patients. Additionally, the deficits of N170 amplitude for sad faces positively correlated with the number of depressive episodes in R-MD patients. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide new evidence that having more recurrent depressive episodes and serious depressive states are likely to aggravate the already abnormal processing of emotional facial expressions in patients with depression. Moreover, it further suggests that the impaired processing as indexed by N170 amplitude for positive face identification may be a potentially useful biomarker for predicting

  12. Facial Cosmetics Exert a Greater Influence on Processing of the Mouth Relative to the Eyes: Evidence from the N170 Event-Related Potential Component

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    Tanaka, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic makeup significantly influences facial perception. Because faces consist of similar physical structures, cosmetic makeup is typically used to highlight individual features, particularly those of the eyes (i.e., eye shadow) and mouth (i.e., lipstick). Though event-related potentials have been utilized to study various aspects of facial processing, the influence of cosmetics on specific ERP components remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the application of cosmetic makeup and the amplitudes of the P1 and N170 event-related potential components during facial perception tasks. Moreover, the influence of visual perception on N170 amplitude, was evaluated under three makeup conditions: Eye Shadow, Lipstick, and No Makeup. Electroencephalography was used to monitor 17 participants who were exposed to visual stimuli under each these three makeup conditions. The results of the present study subsequently demonstrated that the Lipstick condition elicited a significantly greater N170 amplitude than the No Makeup condition, while P1 amplitude was unaffected by any of the conditions. Such findings indicate that the application of cosmetic makeup alters general facial perception but exerts no influence on the perception of low-level visual features. Collectively, these results support the notion that the application of makeup induces subtle alterations in the processing of facial stimuli, with a particular effect on the processing of specific facial components (i.e., the mouth), as reflected by changes in N170 amplitude. PMID:27656161

  13. Facial Cosmetics Exert a Greater Influence on Processing of the Mouth Relative to the Eyes: Evidence from the N170 Event-Related Potential Component.

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    Tanaka, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic makeup significantly influences facial perception. Because faces consist of similar physical structures, cosmetic makeup is typically used to highlight individual features, particularly those of the eyes (i.e., eye shadow) and mouth (i.e., lipstick). Though event-related potentials have been utilized to study various aspects of facial processing, the influence of cosmetics on specific ERP components remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the application of cosmetic makeup and the amplitudes of the P1 and N170 event-related potential components during facial perception tasks. Moreover, the influence of visual perception on N170 amplitude, was evaluated under three makeup conditions: Eye Shadow, Lipstick, and No Makeup. Electroencephalography was used to monitor 17 participants who were exposed to visual stimuli under each these three makeup conditions. The results of the present study subsequently demonstrated that the Lipstick condition elicited a significantly greater N170 amplitude than the No Makeup condition, while P1 amplitude was unaffected by any of the conditions. Such findings indicate that the application of cosmetic makeup alters general facial perception but exerts no influence on the perception of low-level visual features. Collectively, these results support the notion that the application of makeup induces subtle alterations in the processing of facial stimuli, with a particular effect on the processing of specific facial components (i.e., the mouth), as reflected by changes in N170 amplitude.

  14. Perceptual load manipulation reveals sensitivity of the face-selective N170 to attention.

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    Mohamed, Tarik N; Neumann, Markus F; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2009-05-27

    It has been controversial whether the face-sensitive N170 is affected by selective attention. We manipulated attention sensu Lavie's perceptual load theory to short (200 ms) presentations of task-irrelevant unfamiliar faces or houses, while participants identified superimposed target letters 'X' versus 'N'. These targets were strings of either six identical (low load) or six different letters (high load). Under low load, we found a prominent face-selective N170 response. Under high load, however, we not only observed a dramatic reduction of the face N170 but also an unexpected enhancement of the house N170, such that face selectivity was almost completely lost. We conclude that the early stages of face processing indexed by the N170 strongly depend on selective attention. PMID:19369907

  15. The face-specific N170 component is modulated by emotional facial expression

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    Tottenham Nim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the traditional two-stage model of face processing, the face-specific N170 event-related potential (ERP is linked to structural encoding of face stimuli, whereas later ERP components are thought to reflect processing of facial affect. This view has recently been challenged by reports of N170 modulations by emotional facial expression. This study examines the time-course and topography of the influence of emotional expression on the N170 response to faces. Methods Dense-array ERPs were recorded in response to a set (n = 16 of fear and neutral faces. Stimuli were normalized on dimensions of shape, size and luminance contrast distribution. To minimize task effects related to facial or emotional processing, facial stimuli were irrelevant to a primary task of learning associative pairings between a subsequently presented visual character and a spoken word. Results N170 to faces showed a strong modulation by emotional facial expression. A split half analysis demonstrates that this effect was significant both early and late in the experiment and was therefore not associated with only the initial exposures of these stimuli, demonstrating a form of robustness against habituation. The effect of emotional modulation of the N170 to faces did not show significant interaction with the gender of the face stimulus, or hemisphere of recording sites. Subtracting the fear versus neutral topography provided a topography that itself was highly similar to the face N170. Conclusion The face N170 response can be influenced by emotional expressions contained within facial stimuli. The topography of this effect is consistent with the notion that fear stimuli exaggerates the N170 response itself. This finding stands in contrast to previous models suggesting that N170 processes linked to structural analysis of faces precede analysis of emotional expression, and instead may reflect early top-down modulation from neural systems involved in

  16. When is a Face a Face? Schematic Faces, Emotion, Attention and the N170

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    Frances A. Maratos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotional facial expressions provide important non-verbal cues as to the imminent behavioural intentions of a second party. Hence, within emotion science the processing of faces (emotional or otherwise has been at the forefront of research. Notably, however, such research has led to a number of debates including the ecological validity of utilising schematic faces in emotion research, and the face-selectively of N170. In order to investigate these issues, we explored the extent to which N170 is modulated by schematic faces, emotional expression and/or selective attention. Eighteen participants completed a three-stimulus oddball paradigm with two scrambled faces as the target and standard stimuli (counter-balanced across participants, and schematic angry, happy and neutral faces as the oddball stimuli. Results revealed that the magnitude of the N170 associated with the target stimulus was: (i significantly greater than that elicited by the standard stimulus, (ii comparable with the N170 elicited by the neutral and happy schematic face stimuli, and (iii significantly reduced compared to the N170 elicited by the angry schematic face stimulus. These findings extend current literature by demonstrating N170 can be modulated by events other than those associated with structural face encoding; i.e. here, the act of labelling a stimulus a ‘target’ to attend to modulated the N170 response. Additionally, the observation that schematic faces demonstrate similar N170 responses to those recorded for real faces and, akin to real faces, angry schematic faces demonstrated heightened N170 responses, suggests caution should be taken before disregarding schematic facial stimuli in emotion processing research per se.

  17. Early Neural Markers of Implicit Attitudes: N170 Modulated by Intergroup and Evaluative Contexts in IAT

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    Agustin eIbanez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Implicit Association Test (IAT is the most popular measure to evaluate implicit attitudes. Nevertheless, its neural correlates are not yet fully understood. We examined event related potentials (ERPs in response to face- and word- processing while indigenous and non-indigenous participants performed an IAT displaying faces (ingroup and outgroup members and words (positive and negative valence as targets of category judgments. The N170 component was modulated by valence of words and by ingroup/outgroup face categorization. Contextual effects (face-words implicitly associated in the task had an influence on the N170 amplitude modulation. On the one hand, in face categorization, right N170 showed differences according to the association between social categories of faces and affective valence of words. On the other, in word categorization, left N170 presented a similar modulation when the task implied a negative valence associated with ingroup faces. Only indigenous participants showed a significant IAT effect and N170 differences. Our results demonstrate an early ERP blending of stimuli processing with both intergroup and evaluative contexts, suggesting an integration of contextual information related to intergroup attitudes during the early stages of word and face processing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of early ERPs during an ethnicity IAT, opening a new branch of exchange between social neuroscience and social psychology of attitudes.

  18. Selectivity of N170 in the left hemisphere as an electrophysiological marker for expertise in reading Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhao; Su Li; Si-En Lin; Xiao-Hua Cao; Sheng He; Xu-Chu Weng

    2012-01-01

    Objective The left-lateralized N170,an event-related potential component consistently shown in response to alphabetic words,is a robust electrophysiological marker for reading expertise in an alphabetic language.In contrast,such a marker is lacking for expertise in reading Chinese,because the existing results about the lateralization of N170 for Chinese characters are mixed,reflecting complicated factors such as top-down modulation that contribute to the relative magnitudes of N170 in the left and right hemispheres.The present study aimed to explore a potential electrophysiological marker for reading expertise in Chinese with minimal top-down influence.Methods We recorded N170 responses to Chinese characters and three kinds of control stimuli in a content-irrelevant task,minimizing potential top-down effects.Results Direct comparison of the N170 amplitude in response to Chinese characters between the hemispheres showed a marginally significant left-lateralization effect.However,detailed analyses of N170 in each hemisphere revealed a more robust pattern of left-lateralization-the N170 in the left but not the right hemisphere differentiated Chinese characters from control stimuli.Conclusion These results suggest that the selectivity of N170 (a greater N170 in response to Chinese characters than to control stimuli) within the left hemisphere rather than the hemispheric difference ofN 170 with regard to Chinese characters is an electrophysiological marker for expertise in reading Chinese.

  19. Activation of serotonin 2A receptors underlies the psilocybin-induced effects on α oscillations, N170 visual-evoked potentials, and visual hallucinations.

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    Kometer, Michael; Schmidt, André; Jäncke, Lutz; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2013-06-19

    Visual illusions and hallucinations are hallmarks of serotonergic hallucinogen-induced altered states of consciousness. Although the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin activates multiple serotonin (5-HT) receptors, recent evidence suggests that activation of 5-HT2A receptors may lead to the formation of visual hallucinations by increasing cortical excitability and altering visual-evoked cortical responses. To address this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of psilocybin (215 μg/kg vs placebo) on both α oscillations that regulate cortical excitability and early visual-evoked P1 and N170 potentials in healthy human subjects. To further disentangle the specific contributions of 5-HT2A receptors, subjects were additionally pretreated with the preferential 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (50 mg vs placebo). We found that psilocybin strongly decreased prestimulus parieto-occipital α power values, thus precluding a subsequent stimulus-induced α power decrease. Furthermore, psilocybin strongly decreased N170 potentials associated with the appearance of visual perceptual alterations, including visual hallucinations. All of these effects were blocked by pretreatment with the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin, indicating that activation of 5-HT2A receptors by psilocybin profoundly modulates the neurophysiological and phenomenological indices of visual processing. Specifically, activation of 5-HT2A receptors may induce a processing mode in which stimulus-driven cortical excitation is overwhelmed by spontaneous neuronal excitation through the modulation of α oscillations. Furthermore, the observed reduction of N170 visual-evoked potentials may be a key mechanism underlying 5-HT2A receptor-mediated visual hallucinations. This change in N170 potentials may be important not only for psilocybin-induced states but also for understanding acute hallucinatory states seen in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease.

  20. Modulation of the N170 with Classical Conditioning: The Use of Emotional Imagery and Acoustic Startle in Healthy and Depressed Participants.

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    Camfield, David A; Mills, Jessica; Kornfeld, Emma J; Croft, Rodney J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that classical conditioning may be capable of modulating early sensory processing in the human brain, and that there may be differences in the magnitude of the conditioned changes for individuals with major depressive disorder. The effect of conditioning on the N170 event-related potential was investigated using neutral faces as conditioned stimuli (CS+) and emotional imagery and acoustic startle as unconditioned stimuli (UCS). In the first experiment, electroencephalogram was recorded from 24 undergraduate students (M = 21.07 years, SD = 3.38 years) under the following conditions: (i) CS+/aversive imagery, (ii) CS+/aversive imagery and acoustic startle, (iii) CS+/acoustic startle, and (iv) CS+/pleasant imagery. The amplitude of the N170 was enhanced following conditioning with aversive imagery as well as acoustic startle. In the second experiment, 26 healthy control participants were tested (17 females and 9 males, age M = 25.97 years, SD = 9.42) together with 18 depressed participants (13 females and 5 males, age M = 23.26 years, SD = 4.01) and three conditions were used: CS+/aversive imagery, CS+/pleasant imagery, and CS-. N170 amplitude at P7 was increased for the CS+/aversive condition in comparison to CS- in the conditioning blocks versus baseline. No differences between depressed and healthy participants were found. Across both experiments, evaluative conditioning was absent. It was concluded that aversive UCS are capable of modulating early sensory processing of faces, although further research is also warranted in regards to positive UCS.

  1. Training by visual identification and writing leads to different visual word expertise N170 effects in preliterate Chinese children

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    Pei Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The N170 component of EEG evoked by visual words is an index of perceptual expertise for the visual word across different writing systems. In the present study, we investigated whether these N170 markers for Chinese, a very complex script, could emerge quickly after short-term learning (∼100 min in young Chinese children, and whether early writing experience can enhance the acquisition of these neural markers for expertise. Two groups of preschool children received visual identification and free writing training respectively. Short-term character training resulted in selective enhancement of the N170 to characters, consistent with normal expert processing. Visual identification training resulted in increased N170 amplitude to characters in the right hemisphere, and N170 amplitude differences between characters and faces were decreased; whereas the amplitude difference between characters and tools increased. Writing training led to the disappearance of an initial amplitude difference between characters and faces in the right hemisphere. These results show that N170 markers for visual expertise emerge rapidly in young children after word learning, independent of the type of script young children learn; and visual identification and writing produce different effects.

  2. Maro Reef Site P1 9/15/2002 32-33M

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P1 (25.357 N, 170.495 W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Maro Reef Site P1 9/15/2002 23-24M

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P1 (25.357 N, 170.495 W), between 23 and 24 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Maro Reef Site P1 9/15/2002 2-3M

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P1 (25.357 N, 170.495 W), between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Maro Reef Site P1 9/15/2002 21-22M

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P1 (25.357 N, 170.495 W), between 21 and 22 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Maro Reef Site P1 9/15/2002 27-28M

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P1 (25.357 N, 170.495 W), between 27 and 28 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Maro Reef Site P1 9/15/2002 22-23M

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P1 25.357 N, 170.495 W, between 22 and 23 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Maro Reef Site P1 9/15/2002 4-5M

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P1 (25.357 N, 170.495 W), between 4 and 5 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Maro Reef Site P1 9/15/2002 9-10M

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P1 (25.357 N, 170.495 W), between 9 and 10 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Negative “gossip” stimuli modulate left-lateralized P1 component while viewing neutral faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan; Allen, Micah Galen; Gramm, Daniel

    mixed with unfamiliar faces, and performed a distracter task. A post-test checked participants’ memory of the individual faces. We hypothesized that negative gossip would modulate the face-sensitive N170 component at electrodes P7 and P8. No differences were observed in the N170, and no memory effect...... was found. However, a secondary analysis showed that an even earlier left-lateralized component, the P1, was modulated by negative gossip stimuli. Supporting the results of Anderson et al. (2011), we found that linguistic information modulates early processing of faces. Although the N170 appears impervious...... to the influence of gossip, an effect of negative social information was measured at 100 ms. after stimulus onset....

  11. The Idea Is Good, but…: Failure to Replicate Associations of Oxytocinergic Polymorphisms with Face-Inversion in the N170.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha J L Munk

    Full Text Available In event-related potentials, the N170 manifests itself especially in reaction to faces. In the healthy population, face-inversion leads to stronger negative amplitudes and prolonged latencies of the N170, effects not being present in patients with autism-spectrum-disorder (ASD. ASD has frequently been associated with differences in oxytocinergic neurotransmission. This ERP-study aimed to investigate the face-inversion effect in association with oxytocinergic candidate genes. It was expected that risk-allele-carriers of the oxytocin-receptor-gene-polymorphism (rs53576 and of CD38 (rs379863 responded similar to upright and inverted faces as persons with ASD. Additionally, reactions to different facial emotional expressions were studied. As there have been difficulties with replications of those molecular genetic association studies, we aimed to replicate our findings in a second study.Seventy-two male subjects in the first-, and seventy-eight young male subjects in the replication-study conducted a face-inversion-paradigm, while recording EEG. DNA was extracted from buccal cells.Results revealed stronger N170-amplitudes and longer latencies in reaction to inverted faces in comparison to upright ones. Furthermore, effects of emotion on N170 were evident. Those effects were present in the first and in the second study. Whereas we found molecular-genetic associations of oxytocinergic polymorphisms with the N170 in the first study, we failed to do so in the replication sample.Results indicate that a deeper theoretical understanding of this research-field is needed, in order to generate possible explanations for these findings. Results, furthermore, support the hypotheses that success of reproducibility is correlated with strength of lower original p-values and larger effect sizes in the original study.

  12. The Idea Is Good, but…: Failure to Replicate Associations of Oxytocinergic Polymorphisms with Face-Inversion in the N170

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Aisha J. L.; Hermann, Andrea; El Shazly, Jasmin; Grant, Phillip; Hennig, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background In event-related potentials, the N170 manifests itself especially in reaction to faces. In the healthy population, face-inversion leads to stronger negative amplitudes and prolonged latencies of the N170, effects not being present in patients with autism-spectrum-disorder (ASD). ASD has frequently been associated with differences in oxytocinergic neurotransmission. This ERP-study aimed to investigate the face-inversion effect in association with oxytocinergic candidate genes. It was expected that risk-allele-carriers of the oxytocin-receptor-gene-polymorphism (rs53576) and of CD38 (rs379863) responded similar to upright and inverted faces as persons with ASD. Additionally, reactions to different facial emotional expressions were studied. As there have been difficulties with replications of those molecular genetic association studies, we aimed to replicate our findings in a second study. Method Seventy-two male subjects in the first-, and seventy-eight young male subjects in the replication-study conducted a face-inversion-paradigm, while recording EEG. DNA was extracted from buccal cells. Results Results revealed stronger N170-amplitudes and longer latencies in reaction to inverted faces in comparison to upright ones. Furthermore, effects of emotion on N170 were evident. Those effects were present in the first and in the second study. Whereas we found molecular-genetic associations of oxytocinergic polymorphisms with the N170 in the first study, we failed to do so in the replication sample. Conclusion Results indicate that a deeper theoretical understanding of this research-field is needed, in order to generate possible explanations for these findings. Results, furthermore, support the hypotheses that success of reproducibility is correlated with strength of lower original p-values and larger effect sizes in the original study. PMID:27015428

  13. Differential age-related changes in N170 responses to upright faces, inverted faces, and eyes in Japanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMiki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to investigate the development of face perception in Japanese children, focusing on the changes in face processing strategies (holistic and/or configural vs. feature-based that occur during childhood. To achieve this, we analyzed the face-related N170 component, evoked by upright face, inverted face, and eyes stimuli in 82 Japanese children aged between 8- and 13-years-old. During the experiment, the children were asked to perform a target detection task in which they were told to press a button when they saw images of faces or kettles with moustaches, glasses, and fake noses; i.e., an implicit face perception task. The N170 signals observed after the presentation of the upright face stimuli were longer in duration and/or had at least two peaks in the 8-11-year-old children, whereas those seen in the 12-13-year-old children were sharp and only had a single peak. N170 latency was significantly longer after the presentation of the eyes stimuli than after the presentation of the upright face stimuli in the 10- and 12-year-old children. In addition, significant differences in N170 latency were observed among all three stimulus types in the 13-year-old children. N170 amplitude was significantly greater after the presentation of the eyes stimuli than after the presentation of the upright face stimuli in the 8-10- and 12-year-old children. The results of the present study indicate that the upright face stimuli were processed using holistic and/or configural processing by the 13-year-old children.

  14. Modulación de la N170 por caras con expresiones emocionales en un paradigma de P300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanely Acosta Ymas

    2007-01-01

    N170 específico para caras utilizando un paradigma en el cual estas pertenecen a la condición experimental infrecuente en una tarea oddball. El paradigma consistía en la presentación frecuente (70 % de caras masculinas sin expresión emocional (caras neutras, mezcladas aleatoriamente con caras femeninas que aparecían con menor frecuencia (30 %. Los resultados muestran que el componente N170, es modulado por las expresiones emocionales, ya que su amplitud es mayor para las caras con miedo o alegría, que para las caras neutras. Sin embargo, la amplitud del componente tardío P300 generado por los estímulos infrecuentes (caras femeninas es la misma para diferentes expresiones. La modulación del componente temprano N170 representa una respuesta fisiológica al reconocimiento de expresiones emocionales faciales que revela la activación automática del sistema neural emocional.

  15. Gromov-Witten Theory of P^1xP^1xP^1

    OpenAIRE

    Karp, Dagan; Ranganathan, Dhruv

    2012-01-01

    We use elementary geometric techniques to exhibit an explicit equivalence between certain sectors of the Gromov-Witten theories of blowups of P^1xP^1xP^1 and P^3. In particular, we prove that the all genus, virtual dimension zero Gromov-Witten theory of the blowup of P^3 at points coincides with that of the blowup at points of P^1xP^1xP^1, for non-exceptional classes. We observe a toric symmetry of the Gromov-Witten theory of P^1xP^1xP^1 analogous and intimately related to Cremona symmetry of...

  16. Gromov-Witten Theory of P^1\\timesP^1\\timesP^1

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, Dagan

    2012-01-01

    We prove equivalences between the Gromov-Witten theories of four blowups of P1\\timesP1\\timesP1 and P3. In particular, we prove that the all genus, virtual dimension zero Gromov-Witten theory of the blowup of P3 at points precisely coincides with that of the blowup at points of P1 \\times P1 \\times P1, for non-exceptional classes. It follows that the all-genus stationary Gromov-Witten theory of P1 \\times P1 \\times P1 coincides with that of P3 in low degree. We also prove there exists a toric symmetry of the Gromov-Witten theory of P1\\timesP1\\timesP1 analogous to and intimately related to Cremona symmetry of P3. Enumerative applications are given.

  17. Reference: P1BS [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P1BS Schunmann PH, Richardson AE, Smith FW, Delhaize E. Characterization of promoter expre...ssion patterns derived from the Pht1 phosphate transporter genes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). J Exp Bot. 55: 855-865. (2004) PubMed: 15020637 ...

  18. On the Hilbert functions of sets of points in P^1 x P^1 x P^1

    OpenAIRE

    Guardo, Elena; Van Tuyl, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Let H_X be the trigraded Hilbert function of a set X of reduced points in P^1 x P^1 x P^1. We show how to extract some geometric information about X from H_X. This note generalizes a similar result of Giuffrida, Maggioni, and Ragusa about sets of points in P^1 x P^1.

  19. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  20. 2D supergravity in p+1 dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, H.; Lindstrom, U.

    1998-01-01

    We describe new $N$-extended 2D supergravities on a $(p+1)$-dimensional (bosonic) space. The fundamental objects are moving frame densities that equip each $(p+1)$-dimensional point with a 2D ``tangent space''. The theory is presented in a $[p+1, 2]$ superspace. For the special case of $p=1$ we recover the 2D supergravities in an unusual form. The formalism has been developed with applications to the string-parton picture of $D$-branes at strong coupling in mind.

  1. Does Silent Reading Speed in Normal Adult Readers Depend on Early Visual Processes? Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, Sebastian Peter; Sommer, Werner; Breznitz, Zvia

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship of reading speed and early visual processes in normal readers. Here we examined the association of the early P1, N170 and late N1 component in visual event-related potentials (ERPs) with silent reading speed and a number of additional cognitive skills in a sample of 52 adult German readers utilizing a Lexical…

  2. Quantum Cohomology of Hilb^2(P^1xP^1) and Enumerative Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pontoni, Dalide

    2004-01-01

    We compute the Small Quantum Cohomology of Hilb^2(P^1xP^1) and determine recursively most of the Big Quantum Cohomology. We prove a relationship between the invariants so obtained and the enumerative geometry of hyperelliptic curves in P^1xP^1. This extends the results obtained by Graber for Hilb^2(P^2) and hyperelliptic curves in P^2.

  3. Calorons, Nahm's equations on S^1 and bundles over P^1xP^1

    OpenAIRE

    Charbonneau, Benoit; Hurtubise, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The moduli space of solutions to Nahm's equations of rank (k,k+j) on the circle, and hence, of SU(2) calorons of charge (k,j), is shown to be equivalent to the moduli of holomorphic rank 2 bundles on P^1xP^1 trivialized at infinity with c_2=k and equipped with a flag of degree j along P^1x{0}. An explicit matrix description of these spaces is given by a monad construction

  4. Arithmetically Cohen-Macaulay sets of points in P^1 x P^1

    CERN Document Server

    Guardo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents a solution to the interpolation problem for arithmetically Cohen-Macaulay (ACM) sets of points in the multiprojective space P^1 x P^1.  It collects the various current threads in the literature on this topic with the aim of providing a self-contained, unified introduction while also advancing some new ideas.  The relevant constructions related to multiprojective spaces are reviewed first, followed by the basic properties of points in P^1 x P^1, the bigraded Hilbert function, and ACM sets of points.  The authors then show how, using a combinatorial description of ACM points in P^1 x P^1, the bigraded Hilbert function can be computed and, as a result, solve the interpolation problem.  In subsequent chapters, they consider fat points and double points in P^1 x P^1 and demonstrate how to use their results to answer questions and problems of interest in commutative algebra.  Throughout the book, chapters end with a brief historical overview, citations of related results, and, where relevan...

  5. Doubly excited 2s2p 1,3p1 resonances in photoionization of helium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Jian-Jie; Dong Chen-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    The multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method is implemented to study doubly excited 2s2p 1,3P1 resonances of the helium atom and the interference between photoionization and photoexcitation autoionization processes.In order to reproduce the total photoionization sprectra,the excited energies from the ground ls2 1 S0 state to the doubly excited 2s2p 1'3P1 states and the relevant Auger decay rates and widths are calculated in detail. Furthermore,the interference profile determined by the so-called Fano parameters q and p2 is also reproduced. Good agreement is found between the present results and other available theoretical and experimental results. This indeed shows a promising way to investigate the Fano resonances in photoionization of atoms within the MCDF scheme,although there are some discrepancies in the present calculations of the 2s2p 3P1 state.

  6. Separators of Arithmetically Cohen-Macaulay fat points in P^1 x P^1

    CERN Document Server

    Guardo, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Let Z be a set of fat points in P^1 x P^1 that is also arithmetically Cohen-Macaulay (ACM). We describe how to compute the degree of a separator of a fat point of multiplicity m for each point in the support of Z using only a numerical description of Z. Our formula extends the case of reduced points which was previously known.

  7. Isolation and characterization of P1 minireplicons, lambda-P1:5R and lambda-P1:5L.

    OpenAIRE

    Sternberg, N; Austin, S

    1983-01-01

    We have isolated two new classes of P1 miniplasmids, called lambda-P1:5R and lambda-P1:5L, by the in vivo extension of a cloned P1 fragment, EcoRI-5, which by itself is not capable of plasmid replication. The lambda-P1:5R plasmids contain EcoRI-5 plus a variable portion of the adjacent P1 EcoRI fragment 8. They have a copy number like that of P1 (about 1 per host chromosome), are faithfully segregated at cell division, and are subject to incompatibility exerted by either a single copy of P1 o...

  8. Globally generated vector bundles on $\\mathbf{P}^1 \\times \\mathbf{P}^1 \\times \\mathbf{P}^1$ with low first Chern classes

    OpenAIRE

    Ballico, Edoardo; Huh, Sukmoon; Malaspina, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We classify globally generated vector bundles on $\\mathbf{P}^1 \\times \\mathbf{P}^1 \\times \\mathbf{P}^1$ with small first Chern class, i.e. $c_1= (a_1, a_2, a_3)$, $a_i \\le 2$. Our main method is to investigate the associated smooth curves to globally generated vector bundles via the Hartshorne-Serre correspondence.

  9. Genome Sequences of Three Pseudoalteromonas Strains (P1-8, P1-11, and P1-30), Isolated from the Marine Hydroid Hydractinia echinata

    OpenAIRE

    Klassen, Jonathan L; Rischer, Maja; Wolf, Thomas; Guo, Huijuan; Shelest, Ekaterina; Clardy, Jon; Beemelmanns, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The genomes of three Pseudoalteromonas strains (P1-8, P1-11, and P1-30) were sequenced and assembled. These genomes will inform future study of the genes responsible for the production of biologically active compounds responsible for these strains’ antimicrobial, biofouling, and algicidal activities.

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Pseudoalteromonas Strains, P1-7a, P1-9, P1-13-1a, P1-16-1b, P1-25, and P1-26, Which Induce Larval Settlement and Metamorphosis in Hydractinia echinata

    OpenAIRE

    Klassen, Jonathan L; Wolf, Thomas; Rischer, Maja; Guo, Huijuan; Shelest, Ekaterina; Clardy, Jon; Beemelmanns, Christine

    2015-01-01

    To gain a broader understanding of the importance of a surface-associated lifestyle and morphogenic capability, we have assembled and annotated the genome sequences of Pseudoalteromonas strains P1-7a, P1-9, P1-13-1a, P1-16-1b, P1-25, and P1-26, isolated from Hydractinia echinata. These genomes will allow detailed studies on bacterial factors mediating interkingdom communication.

  11. Dynamics of trimming the content of face representations for categorization in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J van Rijsbergen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand visual cognition, it is imperative to determine when, how and with what information the human brain categorizes the visual input. Visual categorization consistently involves at least an early and a late stage: the occipito-temporal N170 event related potential related to stimulus encoding and the parietal P300 involved in perceptual decisions. Here we sought to understand how the brain globally transforms its representations of face categories from their early encoding to the later decision stage over the 400 ms time window encompassing the N170 and P300 brain events. We applied classification image techniques to the behavioral and electroencephalographic data of three observers who categorized seven facial expressions of emotion and report two main findings: (1 over the 400 ms time course, processing of facial features initially spreads bilaterally across the left and right occipito-temporal regions to dynamically converge onto the centro-parietal region; (2 concurrently, information processing gradually shifts from encoding common face features across all spatial scales (e.g., the eyes to representing only the finer scales of the diagnostic features that are richer in useful information for behavior (e.g., the wide opened eyes in 'fear'; the detailed mouth in 'happy'. Our findings suggest that the brain refines its diagnostic representations of visual categories over the first 400 ms of processing by trimming a thorough encoding of features over the N170, to leave only the detailed information important for perceptual decisions over the P300.

  12. Mycoplasma pneumoniae P1 Type 1- and Type 2-Specific Sequences within the P1 Cytadhesin Gene of Individual Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J. Wendelien; Wilbrink, Berry; Dankert, Jacob; Zaat, Sebastian A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains traditionally are divided into two types, based on sequence variation in the P1 gene. Recently, however, we have identified 8 P1 subtypes by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In the present study the P1 gene sequences of three P1 type 1 and two P1 type 2 M. pneumoniae strains were analyzed. A new P1 gene sequence in a type 1 strain with partial similarity to a recently reported variable region in the P1 gene of an M. pneumoniae type 2 strain (T. ...

  13. FoxP1 orchestration of ASD-relevant signaling pathways in the striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Daniel J.; Anderson, Ashley G.; Berto, Stefano; Runnels, Wesley; Harper, Matthew; Ammanuel, Simon; Rieger, Michael A.; Huang, Hung-Chung; Rajkovich, Kacey; Loerwald, Kristofer W.; Dekker, Joseph D.; Tucker, Haley O.; Dougherty, Joseph D.; Gibson, Jay R.; Konopka, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the transcription factor Forkhead box p1 (FOXP1) are causative for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. However, the function of FOXP1 within the brain remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we identify the gene expression program regulated by FoxP1 in both human neural cells and patient-relevant heterozygous Foxp1 mouse brains. We demonstrate a role for FoxP1 in the transcriptional regulation of autism-related pathways as well as genes involved in neuronal activity. We show that Foxp1 regulates the excitability of striatal medium spiny neurons and that reduction of Foxp1 correlates with defects in ultrasonic vocalizations. Finally, we demonstrate that FoxP1 has an evolutionarily conserved role in regulating pathways involved in striatal neuron identity through gene expression studies in human neural progenitors with altered FOXP1 levels. These data support an integral role for FoxP1 in regulating signaling pathways vulnerable in autism and the specific regulation of striatal pathways important for vocal communication. PMID:26494785

  14. Eerste ervaringen met voerdosering in vleeskuikenstal P1

    OpenAIRE

    Harn, van, J.

    1994-01-01

    In de vleeskuikenstal P1 van PP is het gedoseerd voeren beproefd. Het doel van deze (pilot)proef was te kijken welke (technische) problemen zich voordeden wanneer in stal P1 gedoseerd gevoerd zou worden

  15. Mutations in the P1 promoter region of Micromonospora echinospora.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, L S; Rothstein, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that the promoters P1a, P1b, and P1c are very closely spaced and are coordinately turned on during stationary phase in Micromonospora echinospora. To determine the nucleotides important for promoter recognition, we characterized mutations that were defective in transcription from the P1b start site, using Streptomyces lividans as the host. Two mutations upstream of the start site resulted in a drastic loss of promoter activity, while two mutations downstream of the ...

  16. Non-commutative P-1-bundles over commutative schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bergh, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we develop the theory of non-commutative P-1-bundles over commutative (smooth) schemes. Such non-commutative P-1-bundles occur in the theory of D-modules but our definition is more general. We can show that every non-commutative deformation of a Hirzebruch surface is given by a non-commutative P-1-bundle over P-1 in our sense.

  17. Isotope shifts of the 4s2 1S0 -> 4s5p 1P1 transition and hyperfine splitting of the 4s5p 1P1 state in calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, A.; Lindballe, J. J. T.; Jensen, I. S.; Staanum, P.; Voigt, D.; Drewsen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using a technique based on production of ion Coulomb crystals, the isotope shifts of the 4s2 1S0 -> 4s5p 1P1 transition for all naturally occurring isotopes of calcium as well as the hyperfine splitting of the 4s5p 1P1 state in Ca-43 have been measured. The field shift and specific mass shift coefficients as well as the hyperfine structure constants for Ca-43 have been derived from the data.

  18. Isotope shifts of 6s5d(3)D-6s6p(1)P(1) transitions in neutral barium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dammalapati, U.; De, S.; Jungmann, K.; Willmann, L.

    2009-01-01

    First laser spectroscopic measurements of the 6s5d(3)D(1)-6s6p(1)P(1) and 6s5d(3)D(2)-6s6p(1)P(1) transitions in several isotopes of atomic barium have been performed. The hyperfine structure of these transitions was optically resolved and isotope shifts for even and odd isotopes were determined. Th

  19. A novel porcine circovirus-like agent P1 is associated with wasting syndromes in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin Wen

    Full Text Available A novel porcine pathogen tentatively named P1, which was obtained from the sera of the pigs exhibiting clinical signs of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS experimentally caused the classical clinic signs and pathologic lesions of the disease in pigs by direct in vivo injection with P1 DNA plasmids. Twenty colostrum-fed (CF pigs that were free of PCV2 and P1 at 1 month of age were randomly designated equally to two groups. Group 1 pigs were each injected with 400 µg of the cloned P1 plasmid DNA into the superficial inguinal lymph nodes and Group 2 were injected with same amount of the empty pSK vector DNA and served as controls. Viremias were positively detected in 8 of 10 P1 infected pigs from 14-21 days post-inoculation (dpi. The 8 infected animals showed pallor of skin and diarrhea. Gross lesions in the pigs euthanized on 35 dpi were similarly characterized by encephalemia, haemorrhage of the bladder mucosa, haemorrhage of the superficial inguinal lymph nodes, lung atrophy and haemorrhage. Histopathological lesions were arteriectasis and telangiectasia of the cavitas subarachnoidealis, interstitial pneumonia, mild atrophy of the cardiac muscle cells, histiocytic hyperplasia of the follicles in the tonsils, and haemorrhage of the inguinal lymph nodes. P1 DNA and antigens were confirmed by PCR and immunohistochemistry in the tissues and organs of the infected pigs, including the pancreas, bladders, testicles/ovaries, brains, lungs and liver. There were no obvious clinical signs and pathological lesions in the control pigs. This study demonstrated that P1 infection is one of the important pathologic agents on pig farms.

  20. Linear systems over P1xP1 with base points of multiplicity bounded by three

    OpenAIRE

    Lenarcik, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    We propose a combinatorial method of proving non-specialty of a linear system of curves with multiple points in general positions. As an application we obtain a classification of special linear systems on P1xP1 for which the multiplicities do not exceed 3.

  1. Secant Varieties of (P ^1) X .... X (P ^1) (n-times) are NOT Defective for n \\geq 5

    OpenAIRE

    Catalisano, M. V.; Geramita, A.; Gimigliano, A.

    2008-01-01

    Let V_n be the Segre embedding of (P^1) x ... X (P^1) (n times). We prove that the higher secant varieties, \\sigma_s(V_n), always have the expected dimension, except for \\sigma_3(V_4), which is of dimension 1 less than expected.

  2. Adjoint P1 equations solution for neutron slowing down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. The direct and adjoint neutron fluxes resulting from the solution of P1 equations were used to three different weighting processes, to obtain the macrogroup macroscopic cross sections. It was found out noticeable differences among them. (author)

  3. STS-113 P1 Truss payload in the SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Inside the Space Station Processing Facility, the P1 Truss Segment is lowered into the payload canister. The P1 truss is the primary payload for Mission STS-113. It is the first port truss segment which will be attached to the Station'''s central truss segment, S0. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1. The mission will also deliver the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return Expedition 5 to Earth. Space Shuttle Endeavour is scheduled to launch no earlier than Nov. 10 on the 11-day mission.

  4. Genetic and physical map of a P1 miniplasmid.

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, S.; Hart, F; Abeles, A; Sternberg, N

    1982-01-01

    The prophage form of bacteriophage P1 is a unit-copy plasmid which is maintained with great fidelity in its Escherichia coli host. The plasmid maintenance functions of P1 are clustered in one region of the genome. An 11.5-kilobase fragment from this region has been cloned into a lambda delta att vector and promotes stable unit-copy plasmid maintenance. The properties of the lambda vector facilitated the isolation of deletion mutants affecting the P1 DNA. Twenty-eight deletion mutants were iso...

  5. Pölynhallinta ja suojaaminen P1-puhtausluokassa

    OpenAIRE

    Rouvinen, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    P1-puhtausluokitus on lisääntymässä, ja se on erittäin ajankohtainen asia rakentami-sessa. Laadukasta ja terveellistä saneeraustyötä vaaditaan yhä useammassa hankkeessa, ja varsinkin julkiset rakennukset pyrkivät P1-luokkaan. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on tutkia, mitä P1-puhtausluokitus tarkoittaa ja mitä vaatimuksia sillä on työmaan näkökulmasta. Tavoitteena on selvittää, millä kei-noin pölynhallinta kannattaa tehdä ja miksi on tärkeätä, että työmaa on siisti ja täyttää P1-puhtausl...

  6. P1 peptidase – a mysterious protein of family Potyviridae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jana Rohožková; Milan Navrátil

    2011-03-01

    The Potyviridae family, named after its type member, Potato virus Y (PVY), is the largest of the 65 plant virus groups and families currently recognized. The coding region for P1 peptidase is located at the very beginning of the viral genome of the family Potyviridae. Until recently P1 was thought of as serine peptidase with RNA-binding activity and with possible influence in cell-to-cell viral spreading. This N-terminal protein, among all of the potyviruses, is the most divergent protein: varying in length and in its amino acid sequence. Nevertheless, P1 peptidase in many ways is still a mysterious viral protein. In this review, we would like to offer a comprehensive overview, discussing the proteomic, biochemical and phylogenetic views of the P1 protein.

  7. System of adjoint P1 equations for neutron moderation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, this procedure is questioned and the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. (author)

  8. Hodge structures associated to SU(p,1)

    CERN Document Server

    Abdulali, Salman

    2012-01-01

    Let A be a general member of a PEL family of abelian varieties such that the semisimple part of the Hodge group of A is a product of copies of SU(p,1) for some p>1. We show that any effective Tate twist of a Hodge structure occurring in the cohomology of a power of A is isomorphic to a Hodge structure in the cohomology of some abelian variety.

  9. FoxP1 marks medium spiny neurons from precursors to maturity and is required for their differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precious, S V; Kelly, C M; Reddington, A E; Vinh, N N; Stickland, R C; Pekarik, V; Scherf, C; Jeyasingham, R; Glasbey, J; Holeiter, M; Jones, L; Taylor, M V; Rosser, A E

    2016-08-01

    Identifying the steps involved in striatal development is important both for understanding the striatum in health and disease, and for generating protocols to differentiate striatal neurons for regenerative medicine. The most prominent neuronal subtype in the adult striatum is the medium spiny projection neuron (MSN), which constitutes more than 85% of all striatal neurons and classically expresses DARPP-32. Through a microarray study of genes expressed in the whole ganglionic eminence (WGE: the developing striatum) in the mouse, we identified the gene encoding the transcription factor Forkhead box protein P1 (FoxP1) as the most highly up-regulated gene, thus providing unbiased evidence for the association of FoxP1 with MSN development. We also describe the expression of FoxP1 in the human fetal brain over equivalent gestational stages. FoxP1 expression persisted through into adulthood in the mouse brain, where it co-localised with all striatal DARPP-32 positive projection neurons and a small population of DARPP-32 negative cells. There was no co-localisation of FoxP1 with any interneuron markers. FoxP1 was detectable in primary fetal striatal cells following dissection, culture, and transplantation into the adult lesioned striatum, demonstrating its utility as an MSN marker for transplantation studies. Furthermore, DARPP-32 expression was absent from FoxP1 knock-out mouse WGE differentiated in vitro, suggesting that FoxP1 is important for the development of DARPP-32-positive MSNs. In summary, we show that FoxP1 labels MSN precursors prior to the expression of DARPP-32 during normal development, and in addition suggest that FoxP1 labels a sub-population of MSNs that are not co-labelled by DARPP-32. We demonstrate the utility of FoxP1 to label MSNs in vitro and following neural transplantation, and show that FoxP1 is required for DARPP-32 positive MSN differentiation in vitro. PMID:27154297

  10. System of adjoint P1 equations for neutron moderation; Sistema de equacoes P1 adjuntas para a moderacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, this procedure is questioned and the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. (author)

  11. "超"售迈凯轮P1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    在本届日内瓦车展上,一直备受关注的超级跑车迈凯轮P1量产版车型终于亮相了,这款仅售375辆的车型虽然标价800多万元,但已预订一空,不要埋怨迈凯轮P1的产量小,曾经创下当时最快量产车的世界纪录的迈凯轮F1也只生产了100辆,所以迈凯轮P1已经算是超售了。

  12. Transcriptional Auto-Regulation of RUNX1 P1 Promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Martinez

    Full Text Available RUNX1 a member of the family of runt related transcription factors (RUNX, is essential for hematopoiesis. The expression of RUNX1 gene is controlled by two promoters; the distal P1 promoter and the proximal P2 promoter. Several isoforms of RUNX1 mRNA are generated through the use of both promoters and alternative splicing. These isoforms not only differs in their temporal expression pattern but also exhibit differences in tissue specificity. The RUNX1 isoforms derived from P2 are expressed in a variety of tissues, but expression of P1-derived isoform is restricted to cells of hematopoietic lineage. However, the control of hematopoietic-cell specific expression is poorly understood. Here we report regulation of P1-derived RUNX1 mRNA by RUNX1 protein. In silico analysis of P1 promoter revealed presence of two evolutionary conserved RUNX motifs, 0.6kb upstream of the transcription start site, and three RUNX motifs within 170bp of the 5'UTR. Transcriptional contribution of these RUNX motifs was studied in myeloid and T-cells. RUNX1 genomic fragment containing all sites show very low basal activity in both cell types. Mutation or deletion of RUNX motifs in the UTR enhances basal activity of the RUNX1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that RUNX1 protein is recruited to these sites. Overexpression of RUNX1 in non-hematopoietic cells results in a dose dependent activation of the RUNX1 P1 promoter. We also demonstrate that RUNX1 protein regulates transcription of endogenous RUNX1 mRNA in T-cell. Finally we show that SCL transcription factor is recruited to regions containing RUNX motifs in the promoter and the UTR and regulates activity of the RUNX1 P1 promoter in vitro. Thus, multiple lines of evidence show that RUNX1 protein regulates its own gene transcription.

  13. STS-113 P1 Truss paylad in Payload Changeout Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - From the Payload Changeout Room on Launch Pad 39A, the P1 truss payload, plus the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart B, are moved into the payload bay of Space Shuttle Endeavour. Scheduled to launch Nov. 10 on mission STS-113, Endeavour will make the 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. The mission will also deliver the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return Expedition 5 to Earth.

  14. Exploring the effects of antisocial personality traits on brain potentials during face processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M Pfabigan

    Full Text Available Antisocial individuals are characterized to display self-determined and inconsiderate behavior during social interaction. Furthermore, recognition deficits regarding fearful facial expressions have been observed in antisocial populations. These observations give rise to the question whether or not antisocial behavioral tendencies are associated with deficits in basic processing of social cues. The present study investigated early visual stimulus processing of social stimuli in a group of healthy female individuals with antisocial behavioral tendencies compared to individuals without these tendencies while measuring event-related potentials (P1, N170. To this end, happy and angry faces served as feedback stimuli which were embedded in a gambling task. Results showed processing differences as early as 88-120 ms after feedback onset. Participants low on antisocial traits displayed larger P1 amplitudes than participants high on antisocial traits. No group differences emerged for N170 amplitudes. Attention allocation processes, individual arousal levels as well as face processing are discussed as possible causes of the observed group differences in P1 amplitudes. In summary, the current data suggest that sensory processing of facial stimuli is functionally intact but less ready to respond in healthy individuals with antisocial tendencies.

  15. Towards the understanding of 11p1 meson mass spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xue-Chao; Jiang Feng-Chun; Chang Tong-Qin; Feng Jun-Lan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the meson-meson mixing and Regge trajectory, this paper establishes the mass relations which can describe the mass spectrum of 11P1 meson state. Using these mass relations, it obtains the mass of KIB, h1 (1380) and hc(1P) to be 1358.5MeV, 1468 MeV and 3543.9 MeV, respectively. The results axe compared with other theoretical results and should be tested by experiments in the future.

  16. P1 Truss Radiator assembly processing at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane moves the newly arrived radiator assembly toward a workstand. The radiator is part of the payload on mission STS-113, which also includes the first port truss segment, P1 Truss, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0 Truss, on the International Space Station. Once delivered, the will remain stowed until flight 12A.1. STS-113 is scheduled to launch Oct. 6, 2002

  17. Safety evaluation of nuclease P1 from Penicillium citrinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Kazushige; Mizuhashi, Fukutaro; Lynch, Barry S; Vo, Trung D; Roberts, Ashley S

    2016-02-01

    Nuclease P1 has been widely used in the food industry to enhance or create flavor. One commercial source of this enzyme is Penicillium citrinum, an anamorphic mesophilic fungus with a long history of safe use in Europe and Asia as a fermentation organism used in the production of ribonucleases. Given the intended use in food for human consumption, and noting its potential presence at trace levels in finished products, a series of safety studies including an in vitro Ames and chromosome aberration assay, an in vivo rat erythrocyte micronucleus assay and a 90-day oral toxicity study in rats were conducted. No mutagenic activity was observed in the Ames assay. Equivocal activity in the chromosome aberration assay was not replicated in the micronucleus assay at doses of up to 1007 mg total organic solids (TOS)/kg body weight (bw)/day. Following oral administration of nuclease P1 at dosages of 10.1, 101 or 1007 mg TOS/kg bw/day to Sprague-Dawley rats, no adverse effects on any study parameter were observed. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was considered to be 1007 mg TOS/kg bw/day. The results of the genotoxicity studies and subchronic rat study support the safe use in food production of nuclease P1 produced from P. citrinum.

  18. Characterization and adsorption of Lactobacillus virulent phage P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Xi, Y; Zhang, H; Wang, Z; Fan, M; Liu, Y; Wu, W

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophage infection of lactic acid bacteria is considered an important problem worldwide in the food fermentation industry, as it may produce low quality or unsafe foods, cause fermentation failure, and result in economic losses. To increase current knowledge on the properties of Lactobacillus virulent phages, we evaluated the effect of divalent cations, temperature, pH, and chloramphenicol on the adsorption ability of Lactobacillus virulent phage P1. Phage P1 was isolated from the abnormal fermentation liquid of Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10120. The results showed that this phage belonged to the Siphoviridae family. The latent period of this phage was 45min, and the burst time was 90min. Burst size was 132.88±2.37 phage counts expressed per milliliter per infective center. This phage showed good tolerance at different temperatures, but incubation at 50°C only affected its adsorption. Adsorption rate reached a maximum value between 30 and 42°C. A high adsorption value of phage infectivity was obtained from pH 6 to 8. Moreover, calcium ions promoted and increased the adsorption capacity of phage P1, but magnesium ions had negative effects. Chloramphenicol had no effect on phage adsorption. This study increased current knowledge on the characterization and biological aspects of Lactobacillus virulent phages, and may provide some basic information that can be used to design successful antiphage strategies in the food industry. PMID:27372579

  19. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 1 (S1P1) Upregulation and Amelioration of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by an S1P1 Antagonist

    OpenAIRE

    Cahalan, Stuart M.; Gonzalez-Cabrera, Pedro J.; Nguyen, Nhan; Guerrero, Miguel; Cisar, Elizabeth A. George; Leaf, Nora B.; Brown, Steven J.; Roberts, Edward; Rosen, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) is a G protein–coupled receptor that is critical for proper lymphocyte development and recirculation. Agonists to S1P1 are currently in use clinically for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, and these drugs may act on both S1P1 expressed on lymphocytes and S1P1 expressed within the central nervous system. Agonists to S1P1 and deficiency in S1P1 both cause lymphocyte sequestration in the lymph nodes. In the present study, we show that S1P1 antagonism ...

  20. Phylogenetic and functional conservation of the NKR-P1F and NKR-P1G receptors in rat and mouse.

    OpenAIRE

    Kveberg, Lise; Dai, Ke-Zheng; Inngjerdingen, Marit; Brooks, Colin G.; Fossum, Sigbjørn; Vaage, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Two clusters of rat Nkrp1 genes can be distinguished based on phylogenetic relationships and functional characteristics. The proximal (centromeric) cluster encodes the well-studied NKR-P1A and NKR-P1B receptors and the distal cluster, the largely uncharacterized, NKR-P1F and NKR-P1G receptors. The inhibitory NKR-P1G receptor is expressed only by the Ly49s3+ NK cell subset as detected by RT-PCR, while the activating NKR-P1F receptor is detected in both Ly49s3+ and NKR-P1B+ NK cells. The mouse ...

  1. Immunological analysis of potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV) P1 expression identifies a 25 kDa RNA-binding protein derived via P1 processing.

    OpenAIRE

    Prüfer, D; Kawchuk, L; Monecke2, M; Nowok, S; Fischer, R.; Rohde, W

    1999-01-01

    Mono- and polyclonal antibodies directed against different domains of the potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV) P1 (ORF1) protein were applied to the analysis of P1 expression during PLRV replication in planta. Western analyses detected P1 and a protein of approximately 25 kDa (P1-C25) that accumulated to readily detectable amounts in PLRV-infected plants, but was not detected by in vitro cell-free translation of P1. P1-C25 represents the C-terminus of P1 and is a proteolytic cleavage product pro...

  2. Performance Simulation of Cathode Strip Chamber Protype P1.

    CERN Document Server

    Velichko, Georgy

    2000-01-01

    The results of simulation of the P1 prototype performance are presented. The P1 prototype is a full scale six-layers trapezoidal cathode strip chamber module designed for the CMS End Cap Muon System. The module was tested at Fermilab with cosmic rays. In this work, complete simulation from the initial ionization to the final amplitude and time distributions of the signals from the CSC as well as the reconstruction of the track coordinate was performed. The physical parameters of the electron behaviour in the gas mixture ( 27% Ar, 29% CF4, 44% CO2) are taken from the Biagi program with the Townsend coefficient and electrons attachment renormalized to fit the observed gas amplification factor and the spatial resolution dependence on a beam entrance angle. The simulation program has reproduced well the measured parameters of the P0' prototype including the time and spatial resolutions. This consideration showed also that 85% of the initial number of ionization electrons are lost due to attachment to gas mixture ...

  3. Plectin isoform P1b and P1d deficiencies differentially affect mitochondrial morphology and function in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Lilli; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Grimm, Michael; Zeöld, Anikó; Fischer, Irmgard; Wiche, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Plectin, a versatile 500-kDa cytolinker protein, is essential for muscle fiber integrity and function. The most common disease caused by mutations in the human plectin gene, epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD), is characterized by severe skin blistering and progressive muscular dystrophy. Besides displaying pathological desmin-positive protein aggregates and degenerative changes in the myofibrillar apparatus, skeletal muscle specimens of EBS-MD patients and plectin-deficient mice are characterized by massive mitochondrial alterations. In this study, we demonstrate that structural and functional alterations of mitochondria are a primary aftermath of plectin deficiency in muscle, contributing to myofiber degeneration. We found that in skeletal muscle of conditional plectin knockout mice (MCK-Cre/cKO), mitochondrial content was reduced, and mitochondria were aggregated in sarcoplasmic and subsarcolemmal regions and were no longer associated with Z-disks. Additionally, decreased mitochondrial citrate synthase activity, respiratory function and altered adenosine diphosphate kinetics were characteristic of plectin-deficient muscles. To analyze a mechanistic link between plectin deficiency and mitochondrial alterations, we comparatively assessed mitochondrial morphology and function in whole muscle and teased muscle fibers of wild-type, MCK-Cre/cKO and plectin isoform-specific knockout mice that were lacking just one isoform (either P1b or P1d) while expressing all others. Monitoring morphological alterations of mitochondria, an isoform P1b-specific phenotype affecting the mitochondrial fusion–fission machinery and manifesting with upregulated mitochondrial fusion-associated protein mitofusin-2 could be identified. Our results show that the depletion of distinct plectin isoforms affects mitochondrial network organization and function in different ways. PMID:26019234

  4. Critical role of P1-Runx1 in mouse basophil development

    OpenAIRE

    Mukai, Kaori; BenBarak, Maya J.; Tachibana, Masashi; Nishida, Keigo; Karasuyama, Hajime; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Galli, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Runx1P1N/P1N mice are deficient in the transcription factor distal promoter-derived Runt-related transcription factor 1 (P1-Runx1) and have a > 90% reduction in the numbers of basophils in the BM, spleen, and blood. In contrast, Runx1P1N/P1N mice have normal numbers of the other granulocytes (neutrophils and eosinophils). Although basophils and mast cells share some common features, Runx1P1N/P1N mice have normal numbers of mast cells in multiple tissues. Runx1P1N/P1N mice fail to develop a ba...

  5. Sur l'\\'equation $X^2-\\varepsilon_2\\varepsilon_{p_1p_2}\\varepsilon_{2p_1p_2}=0$

    OpenAIRE

    Azizi, Abdelmalek; Zekhnini, Abdelkader; Taous, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Let $p_1\\equiv p_2\\equiv5 \\pmod8$ be prime numbers such that $\\left(\\frac{p_1}{p_2}\\right)=-1$. Let $\\mathbb{L}=Q(\\sqrt2, \\sqrt{p_1p_2})$ Our goal is to resolve the equation $X^2-\\varepsilon_2\\varepsilon_{p_1p_2}\\varepsilon_{2p_1p_2}=0$ in $\\mathbb{L}$, where $\\varepsilon_j$ are fundamental units of real quadratic subfields of $Q(\\sqrt2, \\sqrt{p_1p_2})$.

  6. Redesignation of a Purported P1.15 Subtype-Specific Meningococcal Monoclonal Antibody as a P1.19-Specific Reagent

    OpenAIRE

    Wedege, E.; Caugant, D A; Musacchio, A; Saunders, N. B.; Zollinger, W. D.

    1999-01-01

    Two reference monoclonal antibodies against the meningococcal P1.15 subtype PorA, MN3C5C and 2-1-P1.15, showed only partial concordant recognition of meningococcal isolates. Cyanogen bromide cleavage of P1.19,15 PorA, peptide mapping, and sequencing of porA regions demonstrated that 2-1-P1.15 was specific for subtype P1.19, and henceforth it is to be redesignated as 2-1-P1.19.

  7. Charge-cloud alignment in the electron-impact excitation of 138Ba( . . .6s6p 1P1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have determined charge-cloud alignment parameters Pl+ and γ for electron-impact excitation of the (6s21S0) to (6s6p 1P1) transition in 138Ba by measuring the superelastic scattering of electrons from laser-excited 138Ba. Four electron-impact energies were studied and scattering-angle coverage in each case was sufficient to allow the observation of pronounced structure in the behavior of these parameters. Comparison of our measurements with two distorted-wave theories [R. E. H. Clark, J. Abdallah, Jr., G. Csanak, and S. P. Kramer, Phys. Rev. A 40, 2935 (1989); R. Srivastava, T. Zuo, R. P. McEachran, and A. D. Stauffer, J. Phys. B 25, 3709 (1992)] reveals generally excellent agreement except at the lowest impact energy studied where these theories fail completely to reproduce the observed behavior of Pl+. Our low-impact-energy data have also been compared with a close-coupling calculation [I. I. Fabrikant, Izv. Akad. Nauk Latv. SSR, Ser. Fiz. Tekhn. 6, 11 (1985)] which qualitatively reproduces the observed behavior of Pl+ and γ but fails to give quantitative agreement

  8. Micrococcin P1 - A bactericidal thiopeptide active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiacomi, Giulia; Personne, Yoann; Mondésert, Guillaume; Ge, Xueliang; Mandava, Chandra Sekhar; Hartkoorn, Ruben C; Boldrin, Francesca; Goel, Pavitra; Peisker, Kristin; Benjak, Andrej; Barrio, Maria Belén; Ventura, Marcello; Brown, Amanda C; Leblanc, Véronique; Bauer, Armin; Sanyal, Suparna; Cole, Stewart T; Lagrange, Sophie; Parish, Tanya; Manganelli, Riccardo

    2016-09-01

    The lack of proper treatment for serious infectious diseases due to the emergence of multidrug resistance reinforces the need for the discovery of novel antibiotics. This is particularly true for tuberculosis (TB) for which 3.7% of new cases and 20% of previously treated cases are estimated to be caused by multi-drug resistant strains. In addition, in the case of TB, which claimed 1.5 million lives in 2014, the treatment of the least complicated, drug sensitive cases is lengthy and disagreeable. Therefore, new drugs with novel targets are urgently needed to control resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. In this manuscript we report the characterization of the thiopeptide micrococcin P1 as an anti-tubercular agent. Our biochemical experiments show that this antibiotic inhibits the elongation step of protein synthesis in mycobacteria. We have further identified micrococcin resistant mutations in the ribosomal protein L11 (RplK); the mutations were located in the proline loop at the N-terminus. Reintroduction of the mutations into a clean genetic background, confirmed that they conferred resistance, while introduction of the wild type RplK allele into resistant strains re-established sensitivity. We also identified a mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. These data, in good agreement with previous structural studies suggest that also in M. tuberculosis micrococcin P1 functions by binding to the cleft between the 23S rRNA and the L11 protein loop, thus interfering with the binding of elongation factors Tu and G (EF-Tu and EF-G) and inhibiting protein translocation. PMID:27553416

  9. Millimetre continuum observations of comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    CERN Document Server

    Boissier, J; Groussin, O; Lamy, P; Biver, N; Crovisier, J; Colom, P; Moreno, R; Jorda, L; Piétu, V

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the physical properties of the nuclei of Oort cloud comets. Measuring the thermal emission of a nucleus is one of the few means for deriving its size and constraining some of its thermal properties. We attempted to measure the nucleus size of the Oort cloud comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd). We used the Plateau de Bure Interferometer to measure the millimetric thermal emission of this comet at 157 GHz (1.9 mm) and 266 GHz (1.1 mm). Whereas the observations at 266 GHz were not usable due to bad atmospheric conditions, we derived a 3-sigma upper limit on the comet continuum emission of 0.41 mJy at 157 GHz. Using a thermal model for a spherical nucleus with standard thermal parameters, we found an upper limit of 5.6 km for the radius. The dust contribution to our signal is estimated to be negligible. Given the water production rates measured for this comet and our upper limit, we estimated that Garradd was very active, with an active fraction of its nucleus larger than 50%.

  10. Polarimetric studies of Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    CERN Document Server

    Das, H S; Wolf, S; Bertrang, G; Roy, P Deb; Chakraborty, A

    2013-01-01

    We present the optical imaging polarimetric observations of comet C/2009 P1(Garradd) at three different phase angles e.g., 28.2$^\\circ$, 28.1$^\\circ$ and 21.6$^\\circ$. The observations were carried out using IUCAA Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera mounted on Cassegrain focus of the 2-m Telescope of IGO, IUCAA, Pune in R$_{comet}$, R photometric bands, on 21 and 22 March 2012 and ARIES Imaging Polarimeter mounted on Cassegrain focus of the 1.04-m Sampurnanand Telescope of ARIES, Nainital in R photometric band, on 23 May 2012. We show the presence of a jet activity in the rotational gradient treated image of comet Garradd at phase angle 28.1$^\\circ$. These jets are mainly oriented towards the Sun and extended up to $\\sim$ 5100 km from the cometary photocenter. The antisolar extension of jet seems to be fainter, which is extended up to $\\sim$ 1800 km. It is found that the comet Garradd shows negative polarization at phase angle 21.6$^\\circ$. The degree of polarization derived for Garradd is in good agreement ...

  11. Evidence for positive regulation of plasmid prophage P1 replication: integrative suppression by copy mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Froehlich, B J; Tatti, K; Scott, J R

    1983-01-01

    Like low-copy-number plasmids including P1 wild type, multicopy P1 mutants (P1 cop, maintained at five to eight copies per chromosome) can suppress the thermosensitive phenotype of an Escherichia coli dnaA host by forming a cointegrate. At 40 degrees C in a dnaA host suppressed by P1 cop, the only copy of P1 is the one in the host chromosome. Trivial explanations of the lack of extrachromosomal copies of P1 cop have been eliminated: (i) during integrative suppression, the P1 cop plasmid does ...

  12. Tame automorphisms of C^3 with multidegree of the form (p_1,p_2,d_3)

    OpenAIRE

    Karaś, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Let d_3 >= p_2 > p_1 >= 3 be integers such that p_1,p_2 are prime numbers. In this paper we show that the sequence (p_1,p_2,d_3) is the multidegree of some tame automorphisms of C^3 if and only if d_3 is in p_1*N+p_2*N, i.e. if and only if d_3 is a linear combination of p_1 and p_2 with coefficients in N.

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  16. An extremal problem on potentially Kp,1,1-graphic sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chunhui

    2005-01-01

    A sequence S is potentially K_p,1,1 graphical if it has a realization containing a K_p,1,1 as a subgraph, where K_p,1,1 is a complete 3-partite graph with partition sizes p,1,1. Let σ (K_p,1,1, n) denote the smallest degree sum such that every n-term graphical sequence S with σ (S)≥ σ (K_p,1,1, n) is potentially K_p,1,1 graphical. In this paper, we prove that σ (K_p,1,1, n)≥ 2[((p+1)(n-1)+2)/2] for n ≥ p+2. We conjecture that equality holds for n ≥ 2p+4. We prove that this conjecture is true ...

  17. An extremal problem on potentially $K_{p,1,1}$-graphic sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Chunhui Lai

    2004-01-01

    A sequence $S$ is potentially $K_{p,1,1}$ graphical if it has a realization containing a $K_{p,1,1}$ as a subgraph, where $K_{p,1,1}$ is a complete 3-partite graph with partition sizes $p,1,1$. Let $\\sigma(K_{p,1,1}, n)$ denote the smallest degree sum such that every $n$-term graphical sequence $S$ with $\\sigma(S)\\geq \\sigma(K_{p,1,1}, n)$ is potentially $K_{p,1,1}$ graphical. In this paper, we prove that $\\sigma (K_{p,1,1}, n)\\geq 2[((p+1)(n-1)+2)/2]$ for $n \\geq p+2.$ We conjecture that equ...

  18. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ∼57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin

  19. Computer program /P1-GAS/ calculates the P-0 and P-1 transfer matrices for neutron moderation in a monatomic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, G.; Gibson, G.

    1968-01-01

    FORTRAN 4 program /P1-GAS/ calculates the P-O and P-1 transfer matrices for neutron moderation in a monatomic gas. The equations used are based on the conditions that there is isotropic scattering in the center-of-mass coordinate system, the scattering cross section is constant, and the target nuclear velocities satisfy a Maxwellian distribution.

  20. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Wenxing; Bhatt, Avni [University of Florida, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine (United States); Smith, Adam N. [University of Florida, Department of Chemistry, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (United States); Crowley, Paula J.; Brady, L. Jeannine, E-mail: jbrady@dental.ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry (United States); Long, Joanna R., E-mail: jrlong@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ∼57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin.

  1. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  2. On the gracefulness of the graphs P1 P4∨Tn%关于图P1 P4∨Tn的优美性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路线

    2014-01-01

    本文研究了一类图P1 P4∨Tn的优美性.利用构造函数标号的方法,证明了下面结论:对于任意正整数n,Tn是n个顶点的优美树,则当n≥2时,P1 P4∨Tn是优美图.其中,P1是1个顶点的平凡图,P4是4个顶点的路,图P1P4∨Tn是把P1之中的顶点与Tn之中的每一个顶点之间都通过一个P4连接起来所得到的.

  3. Highly selective and potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 (S1P1) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachal, Petr; Toth, Leslie M; Hale, Jeffrey J; Yan, Lin; Mills, Sander G; Chrebet, Gary L; Koehane, Carol A; Hajdu, Richard; Milligan, James A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Mandala, Suzanne

    2006-07-15

    Novel series of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists were developed through a systematic SAR aimed to achieve high selectivity for a single member of the S1P family of receptors, S1P1. The optimized structure represents a highly S1P1-selective and efficacious agonist: S1P1/S1P2, S1P1/S1P3, S1P1/S1P4>10,000-fold, S1P1/S1P5>600-fold, while EC50 (S1P1) <0.2 nM. In vivo experiments are consistent with S1P1 receptor agonism alone being sufficient for achieving desired lymphocyte-lowering effect.

  4. Brain and personality bases of insensitivity to infant cues in neglectful mothers: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María José; León, Inmaculada; Quiñones, Ileana; Lage, Agustín; Byrne, Sonia; Bobes, María Antonieta

    2011-02-01

    This investigation examined the neural and personality correlates of processing infant facial expressions in mothers with substantiated neglect of a child under 5 years old. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 14 neglectful and 14 control mothers as they viewed and categorized pictures of infant cries, laughs, and neutral faces. Maternal self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also completed. Early (negative occipitotemporal component peaking at around 170 ms on the scalp [N170] and positive electrical potential peaking at about 200 ms [P200]) and late positive potential (LPP) components were selected. Both groups of mothers showed behavioral discrimination between the different facial expressions via reaction time and accuracy measures. Neglectful mothers did not exhibit increased N170 amplitude at temporal leads in response to viewing crying versus laughing and neutral expressions compared to control mothers. Both groups had greater P200 and LPP amplitudes at centroparietal leads in response to viewing crying versus neutral facial expressions. However, neglectful mothers displayed an overall attenuated brain response in LPP that was related to their higher scores in social anhedonia but not to their empathy scores. The ERP data suggest that the brain's failures in the early differentiation of cry stimuli and in the sustained processing of infant expressions related to social anhedonia may underlie the insensitive responding in neglectful mothers. The implications of these results for the design and evaluation of preventive interventions are discussed.

  5. An extremal problem on potentially $K_{p_{1},p_{2},...,p_{t}}$-graphic sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chunhui

    2004-01-01

    A sequence $S$ is potentially $K_{p_{1},p_{2},...,p_{t}}$ graphical if it has a realization containing a $K_{p_{1},p_{2},...,p_{t}}$ as a subgraph, where $K_{p_{1},p_{2},...,p_{t}}$ is a complete t-partite graph with partition sizes $p_{1},p_{2},...,p_{t} (p_{1}\\geq p_{2}\\geq ...\\geq p_{t} \\geq 1)$. Let $\\sigma(K_{p_{1},p_{2},...,p_{t}}, n)$ denote the smallest degree sum such that every $n$-term graphical sequence $S$ with $\\sigma(S)\\geq \\sigma(K_{p_{1},p_{2},...,p_{t}}, n)$ is potentially $...

  6. The Moduli of Flat U(p,1) Structures on Riemann Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Eugene Z.

    1999-01-01

    For a compact Riemann surface $X$ of genus $g > 1$, $\\Hom(\\pi_1(X), U(p,1))/U(p,1)$ is the moduli space of flat $\\U(p,1)$-connections on $X$. There is an integer invariant, $\\tau$, the Toledo invariant associated with each element in $\\Hom(\\pi_1(X), U(p,1))/U(p,1)$. If $q = 1$, then $-2(g-1) \\le \\tau \\le 2(g-1)$. This paper shows that $\\Hom(\\pi_1(X), U(p,1))/U(p,1)$ has one connected component corresponding to each $\\tau \\in 2Z$ with $-2(g-1) \\le \\tau \\le 2(g-1)$. Therefore the total number o...

  7. Gauge groups and matter fields for F-theory without Section on Double Covers of $\\mathbb{P}^1\\times\\mathbb{P}^1$ and Complete Intersections in $\\mathbb{P}^1\\times\\mathbb{P}^3$

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate F-theory compactifications without a section to the fibration. We construct genus-one fibered Calabi-Yau 4-folds without a section, and compactify F-theory on these spaces. To build such models, we in particular focus our attention on the direct product of K3's. We consider i)a double cover of $\\mathbb{P}^1\\times\\mathbb{P}^1$ ramified over a bidegree (4,4) curve, and ii)the complete intersection of bidgree (1,2) and (1,2) hypersurfaces in $\\mathbb{P}^1\\times\\mathbb{P}^3$. A generic member of these surfaces is a genus-one fibered K3 surface lacking a section to the fibration. The direct product of such surface times a K3 gives a genus-one fibered Calabi-Yau 4-fold without a section. Among double covers of $\\mathbb{P}^1\\times\\mathbb{P}^1$ ramified over a bidegree (4,4) curve, we choose to consider members defined by special forms of equations, possessing automorphism group $\\mathbb{Z}_4$. With this choice, a detailed analysis of physics is possible from the geometry. With the above...

  8. Relativistic calculations of 3s21S0-3s3p 1P1 and 3s21S0-3s3p 3P1,2 transition probabilities in the Mg isoelectronic sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the multi-configuration Dirac—Fock self-consistent field method and the relativistic configuration-interaction method, calculations of transition energies, oscillator strengths and rates are performed for the 3s21S0-3s3p 1P1 spin-allowed transition, 3s21S0-3s3p 3P1,2 intercombination and magnetic quadrupole transition in the Mg isoelectronic sequence (Mg I, Al II, Si III, P IV and S V). Electron correlations are treated adequately, including intravalence electron correlations. The influence of the Breit interaction on oscillator strengths and transition energies are investigated. Quantum electrodynamics corrections are added as corrections. The calculation results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data and other theoretical calculations. (atomic and molecular physics)

  9. Phylogenetic and functional analysis of the bacteriophage P1 single-stranded DNA-binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jannick Dyrløv; Nilsson, A.S.; Lehnherr, H.

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriophage P1 encodes a single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB-P1), which shows 66% amino acid sequence identity to the SSB protein of the host bacterium Escherichia coli. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that the P1 ssb gene coexists with its E. coli counterpart as an independent unit...... phase. These results reconciled the observed evolutionary conservation with the seemingly redundant presence of ssb genes in many bacteriophages and conjugative plasmids....

  10. Possible origin of sequence divergence in the P1 cytadhesin gene of Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Su, C J; Dallo, S F; Chavoya, A; Baseman, J B

    1993-01-01

    Specific regions of the P1 adhesin structural gene of Mycoplasma pneumoniae hybridize to various parts of the mycoplasma genome, indicating their multiple-copy nature. In addition, restriction fragment length polymorphisms and sequence divergence have been observed in the P1 gene, permitting the classification of clinical isolates of M. pneumoniae into two groups, I and II. These data suggest that the observed P1 gene diversity may be explained by homologous recombination between similar but ...

  11. On the equation $p \\frac{\\Gamma(\\frac{n}{2}-\\frac{s}{p-1})\\Gamma(s+\\frac{s}{p-1})}{\\Gamma(\\frac{s}{p-1})\\Gamma(\\frac{n-2s}{2}-\\frac{s}{p-1})} =\\frac{\\Gamma(\\frac{n+2s}{4})^2}{\\Gamma(\\frac{n-2s}{4})^2}$

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Senping; Wei, Juncheng; Zou, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    The note is aimed at giving a complete characterization of the following equation: $$\\displaystyle p\\frac{\\Gamma(\\frac{n}{2}-\\frac{s}{p-1})\\Gamma(s+\\frac{s}{p-1})}{\\Gamma(\\frac{s}{p-1})\\Gamma(\\frac{n-2s}{2}-\\frac{s}{p-1})} =\\frac{\\Gamma(\\frac{n+2s}{4})^2}{\\Gamma(\\frac{n-2s}{4})^2}.$$ The method is based on some key transformation and the properties of the Gamma function. Applications to fractional nonlinear Lane-Emden equations will be given.

  12. Inorganic polyphosphate essential for lytic growth of phages P1 and fd

    OpenAIRE

    LI Li; Rao, Narayana N.; Kornberg, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Transduction frequency with phage P1 had been observed to be very low in Escherichia coli K-12 mutants lacking the operon (ppk1-ppx) responsible for the synthesis of inorganic polyphosphate (poly P). We now find that these mutants, for lack of poly P, are lysogenic for P1 and when infected with phage P1 produce only ≈1% the number of infective centers compared with the WT host. Both phage adsorption and release were unaffected. The host-encoded P1 late-gene transcriptional activator, SspA, fa...

  13. Spatiotemporal distribution of 1P1 antigen expression in the plexiform layers of developing chick retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHOUHUA; QIUBAOSONG; 等

    1993-01-01

    Changes in the distribution of 1P1-antigen in the developing chick retina have been examined by indriect immunofluorescence staining technique using the novel monoclonal antibody(MAb)1P1.Expression of the 1P1 antigen was found to be regulated in radial as well as in tangential dimension of the retina,being preferentially or exclusively located in the inner and outer plexiform layers of the neural retina depending on the stages of development ,With the onset of the formation of the inner plexiform layer 1P1 antigen becomes expressed in the retina.With progressing differentiation of the inner plexiform layer 1P1 immunofluorescence revealed 2 subbands at E9 and 6 subands at E18,At postnatal stages(after P3) immunoreactivity was reduced in an inside-outside sequence leading to the complete absence of the 1P1 antigen in adulthood.1P1 antigen expression in the outer plexiform layer was also subject to developmental regulation.The spation-temporal pattern of 1P1 antigen expression was correlated with the time course of histological differentation of chick retina,namely the synapse rich plexiform layers.Whether the 1P1 antigen was functionally involved in dendrite extension and synapse formation was discussed.

  14. Emergence of a new satellite RNA from cucumber mosaic virus isolate P1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolate P1 caused very mild symptoms on many plant species. After serial passages by mechanical inoculation over five years, CMV P1 caused severe symptoms on several tobacco cultivars and tomato. A specific band of approximately 0.3 kb in length was amplified by RT-PCR with primers synthesized based on reported CMV satellite RNA (satRNA) sequences. Sequence analysis showed there were two satRNAs (Sat-P1-1 and Sat-P1-2). Sat-P1-1 contained 335 nucleotides, and Sat-P1-2 contained 394 nucleotides. These two satRNAs shared 64% overall nucleotide sequence homology, and differences between the two satRNAs included mutations as well as deletions. Sat-P1-1 was identical to a satRNA (Z96099) reported in 1995 in CMV P1. Based on differences in the sequence and secondary structure between these two satRNAs, we conclude that Sat-P1-2 represents the emergence of a new satellite (necrotic satellite) from attenuated satRNA populations. The possible effect of the emergence of this new satRNA is discussed.

  15. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalography (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain.

  16. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ravi kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalograph y (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain

  17. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  19. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  20. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... others live with symptoms of mental illness every day. They can be moderate, or serious and cause ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the ... distant nerve cells (via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  5. Facilitation and inhibition in attention: Functional dissociation of pre-stimulus alpha activity, P1, and N1 components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagter, H A; Prinssen, S; Reteig, L C; Mazaheri, A

    2016-01-15

    Attention--the ability to attend to some things while ignoring others - can be best described as an emergent property of many neural mechanisms, facilitatory and inhibitory, working together to resolve competition for processing resources and control of behavior. Previous EEG and MEG studies examining the neural mechanisms underlying facilitation and inhibition of stimulus processing typically used paradigms requiring alternating shifts of attention in the spatial domain, with stimuli occurring at both attended and unattended locations. These studies generally observed greater pre-stimulus alpha oscillations over task-irrelevant vs. relevant posterior regions and bilateral attentional modulations of early sensory processing. In contrast, in the current series of experiments, participants continuously attended to only one hemifield and stimuli were only presented at the attended location, affording us an opportunity to elucidate the inhibitory and facilitatory effects of attention in the brain in a context in which spatial relevance was fixed. We found that continuous attention to one hemifield did not modulate prestimulus alpha activity in ipsilateral regions but did result in a perfectly lateralized P1 attention effect to ipsilateral posterior regions. Moreover, we found a bilateral N1 effect. These findings suggest that pre-stimulus alpha activity, the P1 and the N1 reflect qualitatively different aspects of attention; While pre-stimulus alpha-band activity may reflect a top-down inhibitory mechanism that critically depends on functional competition between task-relevant and irrelevant sensory regions, the ipsilateral P1 effect may reflect stimulus-triggered blocking of sensory processing in irrelevant networks, and the N1 effect facilitation of task-relevant processing.

  6. A genome-wide regulatory framework identifies maize Pericarp Color1 (P1) controlled genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    P1 encodes an R2R3-MYB transcription factor responsible for the accumulation of insecticidal flavones in maize silks and red phlobaphene pigments in pericarps and other floral tissues. Using genome-wide expression analyses (RNA-Seq) in pericarps and silks of plants with contrasting P1 alleles combin...

  7. A note on non-amenability of B(\\ell_p) for p=1,2

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Narutaka

    2004-01-01

    This is an expository note on non-amenabilty of the Banach algebra B(\\ell_p) for p=1,2. These were proved respectively by Connes (p=2) and Read (p=1) via very different methods. We give a single proof which reproves both.

  8. A Study of Perkins 2P1 Graduation Performance Rates at Virginia Western Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, J. Andrew.

    2006-01-01

    "2P1" is the Carl Perkins label for an institution's graduation performance rate. Systems receiving Perkins funds, like Virginia's 23 community colleges, are expected to meet a federally approved 2P1 target rate. For the 3-year period 1999-2001 Virginia Western Community College (VWCC) was one of seven community colleges in the VCCS (Virginia…

  9. Expression and tissue localization of collectin placenta 1 (CL-P1, SRCL) in human tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellman, Lana; Skjødt, Karsten; Nielsen, Ole;

    2008-01-01

    Collectin placenta-1 (CL-P1), also known as scavenger receptor with C-type lectin (SRCL), is a type II membrane glycoprotein that shares structural features with both collectins and type A scavenger receptors. CL-P1 was originally cloned from the placenta and found to be associated with endothelial....... Three monoclonal antibodies were characterized and used in immunohistochemical analyses of a panel of cryo- and formalin-fixed sections. We find that CL-P1 mainly associates with cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts of the placenta, alveolar macrophages and to a less degree with macrophage......-like and stromal cells of the tonsils. By real-time RT-PCR we verified that the placenta is also the main organ of CL-P1 synthesis. The only source of endothelial cells whereto CL-P1 associates are umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells, HUVEC). In vitro cultured HUVECs...

  10. On Room-Temperature Inversion of EPR Signals of P1 Centre in Synthetic Diamond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. G. Fedoruk; O. N. Poklonskaya

    2009-01-01

    Room-temperature inversion of EPR absorption signals of P1 centre in synthetic diamond is studied by the tran-sient nutation technique. Use of the bichromatic field, consisting of a transverse microwave field and longitudinal radio frequency field, allows to investigate the dynamics of P1 centres in the same field configuration as in cw EPR spectrometers. It is shown that the annealing decreases the P1 centre concentration and, respectively, increases the spin-spin relaxation time. As a result, the periodic inversion (nutation) of the P1 centre absorption signal is observed longer. It is assumed that the P1 centre signal inversion, which was previously observed by cw EPR, might be caused by the Bloch-Siegert effect in the biehromatic field.

  11. On Room-Temperature Inversion of EPR Signals of P1 Centre in Synthetic Diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Room-temperature inversion of EPR absorption signals of P1 centre in synthetic diamond is studied by the transient nutation technique. Use of the bichromatic field, consisting of a transverse microwave field and longitudinal radio frequency field, allows to investigate the dynamics of P1 centres in the same field configuration as in cw EPR spectrometers. It is shown that the annealing decreases the P1 centre concentration and, respectively, increases the spin-spin relaxation time. As a result, the periodic inversion (nutation) of the P1 centre absorption signal is observed longer. It is assumed that the P1 centre signal inversion, which was previously observed by cw EPR, might be caused by the Bloch–Siegert effect in the bichromatic field

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Pepper Genes Interacting with the CMV-P1 Helicase Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoomi Choi

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is a destructive pathogen affecting Capsicum annuum (pepper production. The pepper Cmr1 gene confers resistance to most CMV strains, but is overcome by CMV-P1 in a process dependent on the CMV-P1 RNA1 helicase domain (P1 helicase. Here, to identify host factors involved in CMV-P1 infection in pepper, a yeast two-hybrid library derived from a C. annuum 'Bukang' cDNA library was screened, producing a total of 76 potential clones interacting with the P1 helicase. Beta-galactosidase filter lift assay, PCR screening, and sequencing analysis narrowed the candidates to 10 genes putatively involved in virus infection. The candidate host genes were silenced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were then inoculated with CMV-P1 tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP. Plants silenced for seven of the genes showed development comparable to N. benthamiana wild type, whereas plants silenced for the other three genes showed developmental defects including stunting and severe distortion. Silencing formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor led to reduced virus accumulation. Formate dehydrogenase-silenced plants showed local infection in inoculated leaves, but not in upper (systemic leaves. In the calreticulin-3 precursor-silenced plants, infection was not observed in either the inoculated or the upper leaves. Our results demonstrate that formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor are required for CMV-P1 infection.

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists a more detailed understanding of the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies ...

  15. Solutions of system of P1 equations without use of auxiliary differential equations coupled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of P1 equations is composed by two equations coupled itself one for the neutron flux and other for the current. Usually this system is solved by definitions of two integrals parameters, which are named slowing down densities of the flux and the current. Hence, the system P1 can be change from integral to only two differential equations. However, there are two new differentials equations that may be solved with the initial system. The present work analyzes this procedure and studies a method, which solve the P1 equations directly, without definitions of slowing down densities. (author)

  16. STS-113 P1 Truss payload arrives at Launch Complex 39A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At Launch Complex 39A, the P1 Truss Segment arrives at the pad for transfer into the Payload Changeout Room. The P1 truss is the primary payload for Mission STS-113 to the International Space Station. It is the first port truss segment which will be attached to the Station'''s central truss segment, S0. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1. The mission will also deliver the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return Expedition 5 to Earth. Space Shuttle Endeavour is scheduled to launch no earlier than Nov. 10 on the 11-day mission.

  17. Noble-gas broadening rates for the 6s2S0→6s6p 1,3P1 resonance and intercombination lines of barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collisional-broadening and -shift rate coefficients (kbr and kshift), for both helium and argon buffer gases, have been measured in the impact limit for the 6s21S0→6s6p 3P1 intercombination transition of barium. Detailed absorption line shapes were measured at three different ground-state number densities by monitoring the transmitted intensity of a weak cw probe laser as it was scanned over the transition. A single, density-independent line shape was then constructed and fit to a sum of Voigt functions (to account for hyperfine structure and isotope shifts) in order to determine the broadening and shift rates. By repeating the process for several buffer-gas pressures, kbr and kshift were determined from least-squares straight-line fits to the broadening and shift rates versus buffer-gas number density. Absolute normalization of the line-shape data was used to provide accurate ground-state column densities. Column-density information was then combined with measurements of white-light-absorption equivalent widths for the 6s21S0→6s6p 1P1 resonance transition to yield broadening rates for that transition. These values for the resonance line lie between previous literature values, which are widely discrepant. Finally we measured the absolute metastable 6s5d 3D2 column density under conditions of optical pumping through the 3P1 level, and determined that, in steady state, even with a weak cw pump laser, ∼20% of all barium atoms in the vapor could be found in the 3D2 level (with approximately 60% spread over the full 3DJ metastable manifold)

  18. Construction of DNA Vaccine for FMDV P1 Gene and Immunization Experiment%FMDV P1基因DNA疫苗构建及免疫实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史秋梅; 高桂生; 张艳英; 高光平; 张东林

    2013-01-01

    [目的]构建口蹄疫DNA疫苗[方法]构建以PRV为载体的表达FMDV P1基因的质粒pIESZP1和pUTK3CP1,免疫小鼠并检测了免疫后小鼠的抗体水平.将构建的2个真核表达质粒分别转染Vero细胞,通过PCR、IFA、Western-blot等方法检测目的基因的转录和表达.将正确表达目的基因的DNA质粒肌肉接种3周龄的Balb/C小鼠,采用ELISA和SN方法检测了免疫小鼠体内的抗体水平.[结果]携带有FMDV衣壳蛋白P1基因的DNA质粒能引起小鼠产生特异性的体液免疫反应,两重组质粒诱导小鼠产生抗FMDV的抗体水平无差异.[结论]该研究为含有FMDV P1基因重组PRV以及重组病毒的动物免疫试验以评价基因工程疫苗的免疫效果奠定了基础.

  19. CASCADIC MULTIGRID METHOD FOR THE MORTAR ELEMENT METHOD FOR P1 NONCONFORMING ELEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-jia Bi; Dan-hui Hong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the cascadic multigrid method for the mortar P1 nonconforming element which is used to solve the Poisson equation and prove that the cascadic conjugate gradient method is accurate with optimal complexity.

  20. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number MID P1a

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 26-meter transect line at Underwater Site P1-A at Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  1. STS-113 Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria looks over the P1 Truss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria looks over the P1 Integrated Truss Structure, the primary payload for the mission. The P1 truss will be attached to the central truss segment, S0 Truss, during spacewalks. The payload also includes the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B that can be used by spacewalkers to move along the truss with equipment. STS-113 is scheduled to launch Oct. 6, 2002.

  2. STS-113 Mission Specialists review data on the P1 Truss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Specialists John Herrington (left) and Michael Lopez-Alegria (right) look over the P1 Integrated Truss Structure, the primary payload for the mission. The P1 truss will be attached to the central truss segment, S0 Truss, during spacewalks. The payload also includes the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B that can be used by spacewalkers to move along the truss with equipment. STS-113 is scheduled to launch Oct. 6, 2002

  3. Identification of benzoxazole analogs as novel, S1P(3) sparing S1P(1) agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Guanghui; Meng, Qinghua; Liu, Qian; Xu, Xuesong; Xu, Qiongfeng; Ren, Feng; Guo, Taylor B; Lu, Hongtao; Xiang, Jia-Ning; Elliott, John D; Lin, Xichen

    2012-06-15

    A novel series of benzoxazole-derived S1P(1) agonists were designed based on scaffold hopping molecular design strategy combined with computational approaches. Extensive SAR studies led to the discovery of compound 17d as a selective S1P(1) agonist (over S1P(3)) with high CNS penetration and favorable DMPK properties. 17d also demonstrated in vivo pharmacological efficacy to reduce blood lymphocyte in mice after oral administration.

  4. Participation of the lytic replicon in bacteriophage P1 plasmid maintenance.

    OpenAIRE

    Yarmolinsky, M B; Hansen, E B; Jafri, S; Chattoraj, D K

    1989-01-01

    P1 bacteriophage carries at least two replicons: a plasmid replicon and a viral lytic replicon. Since the isolated plasmid replicon can maintain itself stably at the low copy number characteristic of intact P1 prophage, it has been assumed that this replicon is responsible for driving prophage replication. We provide evidence that when replication from the plasmid replicon is prevented, prophage replication continues, albeit at a reduced rate. The residual plasmid replication is due to incomp...

  5. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae adhesin (P1) in the nonhemadsorbing population of virulent Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Kahane, I; Tucker, S.; Baseman, J B

    1985-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae organisms possessing a hemadsorbing-negative (HA-) phenotype comprise more than 50% of the population of virulent M. pneumoniae cultures. Monoclonal antibody to P1, the major adhesin of M. pneumoniae reacts with this HA- mycoplasma fraction based upon radioimmunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. Demonstration of P1 in the entire mycoplasma population suggests that topological organization of this adhesin in the membrane or the physiological state of the mycoplasmas may d...

  6. Brain signatures of perceiving a smile: Time course and source localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, David; Calvo, Manuel G

    2015-11-01

    Facial happiness is consistently recognized faster than other expressions of emotion. In this study, to determine when and where in the brain such a recognition advantage develops, EEG activity during an expression categorization task was subjected to temporospatial PCA analysis and LAURA source localizations. Happy, angry, and neutral faces were presented either in whole or bottom-half format (with the mouth region visible). The comparison of part- versus whole-face conditions served to examine the role of the smile. Two neural signatures underlying the happy face advantage emerged. One peaked around 140 ms (left N140) and was source-located at the left IT cortex (MTG), with greater activity for happy versus non-happy faces in both whole and bottom-half face format. This suggests an enhanced perceptual encoding mechanism for salient smiles. The other peaked around 370 ms (P3b and N3) and was located at the right IT (FG) and dorsal cingulate (CC) cortices, with greater activity specifically for bottom-half happy versus non-happy faces. This suggests an enhanced recruitment of face-specific information to categorize (or reconstruct) facial happiness from diagnostic smiling mouths. Additional differential brain responses revealed a specific "anger effect," with greater activity for angry versus non-angry expressions (right N170 and P230; right pSTS and IPL); and a coarse "emotion effect," with greater activity for happy and angry versus neutral expressions (anterior P2 and posterior N170; vmPFC and right IFG). PMID:26252428

  7. Identification of a hemerythrin-like domain in a P1B-type transport ATPase†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Matthew E.; Subramanian, Poorna; Davydov, Roman; Hoffman, Brian M.; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    The P1B-type ATPases couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to metal ion translocation across cell membranes. Important for prokaryotic metal resistance and essential metal distribution in eukaryotes, P1B-ATPases are divided into subclasses on the basis of their metal substrate specificities. Sequence analysis of putative P1B-5-ATPases, for which the substrate has not been identified, led to the discovery of a C-terminal soluble domain homologous to hemerythrin (Hr) proteins and domains. The Hr domain from the Acidothermus cellulolyticus P1B-5-ATPase was cloned, expressed, and purified (P1B-5-Hr). P1B-5-Hr binds two iron ions per monomer and adopts a predominantly helical fold. Optical absorption features of the iron-loaded and azide-treated protein are consistent with features observed for other Hr proteins. Autooxidation to the met form is very rapid, as reported for other prokaryotic Hr domains. The presence of a diiron center was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) data. The occurrence of a Hr-like domain in a P-type ATPase is unprecedented and suggests new regulatory mechanisms as well as an expanded function for Hr proteins in biology. PMID:20672819

  8. Emergence of a new satellite RNA from cucumber mosaic virus isolate P1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SandraPérezAlvarez; 薛朝阳; 周雪平

    2003-01-01

    The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolate P1 caused very mild symptoms on many plant species.After serial passages by mechanical inoculation over five years, CMV P1 caused severe symptoms on several tobacco cultivars and tomato. A specific band of approximately 0.3 kb in length was amplified by RT-PCR with primers synthesized based on reported CMV satellite RNA (satRNA) sequences. Sequence analysis showed there were two satRNAs (Sat-Pl-1 and Sat-P1-2). Sat-Pl-1 contained 335 nucleotides, and Sat-P1-2 contained 394 nucleotides. These two satRNAs shared 64% overall nucleotide sequence homology, and differences between the two satRNAs included mutations as well as deletions. Sat-Pl-1 was identical to a satRNA (Z96099) reported in 1995 in CMV P1. Based on differences in the sequence and secondary structure between these two satRNAs, we conclude that Sat-P1-2 represents the emergence of a new satellite ( necrotic satellite) from attenuated satRNA populations. The possible effect of the emergence of this new satRNA is discussed.

  9. Intramuscular electroporation of a P1A-encoding plasmid vaccine delays P815 mastocytoma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Uyttenhove, Catherine; De Plaen, Etienne; Van den Eynde, Benoît J; Préat, Véronique

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to construct DNA vaccines encoding the mouse P1A tumor antigen and to generate a protective immune response against the P815 mastocytoma, as a model for vaccines against human MAGE-type tumor antigens. DNA vaccines were constructed and delivered to mice by intramuscular electroporation before tumor challenge. Immunization with a plasmid coding for the full-length P1A significantly delayed tumor growth and mice survived at least 10 days longer than untreated controls. 10% of the mice completely rejected the P815 tumors while 50% of them showed a regression phase followed by tumor regrowth. Mice immunized by electroporation of a P1A(35-43) minigene-encoding plasmid failed to reject tumor and even delay tumor growth. The P1A(35-43)-encoding plasmid was modified and helper epitope sequences were inserted. However, these modified plasmids were not able to improve the response against P815 mastocytoma. Consistent with these results, a 12-fold higher CTL activity was observed when the plasmid coding for full-length P1A was delivered as compared to the plasmid encoding the P1A(35-43) epitope. Our results demonstrated that electroporation is an efficient method to deliver DNA vaccines against P815 and suggested the superiority of full-length as compared to minigene constructs for DNA vaccines.

  10. Neural FoxP2 and FoxP1 expression in the budgerigar, an avian species with adult vocal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Erina; Perez, Jemima M; Whitney, Osceola; Chen, Qianqian; White, Stephanie A; Wright, Timothy F

    2015-04-15

    Vocal learning underlies acquisition of both language in humans and vocal signals in some avian taxa. These bird groups and humans exhibit convergent developmental phases and associated brain pathways for vocal communication. The transcription factor FoxP2 plays critical roles in vocal learning in humans and songbirds. Another member of the forkhead box gene family, FoxP1 also shows high expression in brain areas involved in vocal learning and production. Here, we investigate FoxP2 and FoxP1 mRNA and protein in adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot species that exhibits vocal learning as both juveniles and adults. To examine these molecules in adult vocal learners, we compared their expression patterns in the budgerigar striatal nucleus involved in vocal learning, magnocellular nucleus of the medial striatum (MMSt), across birds with different vocal states, such as vocalizing to a female (directed), vocalizing alone (undirected), and non-vocalizing. We found that both FoxP2 mRNA and protein expressions were consistently lower in MMSt than in the adjacent striatum regardless of the vocal states, whereas previous work has shown that songbirds exhibit down-regulation in the homologous region, Area X, only after singing alone. In contrast, FoxP1 levels were high in MMSt compared to the adjacent striatum in all groups. Taken together these results strengthen the general hypothesis that FoxP2 and FoxP1 have specialized expression in vocal nuclei across a range of taxa, and suggest that the adult vocal plasticity seen in budgerigars may be a product of persistent down-regulation of FoxP2 in MMSt.

  11. p=-1的Hardy型不等式的最佳常数%The Best Constants of Hardy Type Inequalities for P=-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文家金; 高朝邦

    2008-01-01

    For p>1,many improved or generalized results of the well-known Hardy's inequality have been established.In this paper,by means of the weight coefficient method,we establish the following Hardy type inequality for P=-1:n∑i=1(1/ii∑j=1aj)-1<2n∑i=1(1-π2-9/3i)ai-1,Cn such that the inequality ∑ni=1(1/i∑ij=1 aj)-1≤Cn∑ni=1ai-1 holds.Moreover,by means of the Mathematica software,we give some examples.

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many ... unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting ...

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the ... mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function ...

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How ... cell, and responds to signals from the environment; this all helps the cell maintain its balance with ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... inside contents of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain ... studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... may help improve treatments for anxiety disorders like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex ( ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... medications could reduce the amount of trial and error and frustration that many people with depression experience ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain ...

  5. Brain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ... depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies Advanced technologies are also making it faster, easier, and more ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the flow of information to the front of the brain, ... the neuron will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain cells required for normal function and ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental ... and are working to compare that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... neurons, the most highly specialized cells of all, conduct messages. Every cell in our bodies contains a ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... can be related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the ... healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  13. ALARM-P1: a computer program for pressurized water reactor blowdown analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer program ALARM-P1 written in FORTRAN-IV for FACOM 230-75 is a part of the code series for evaluation of performance of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) in pressurized water reactors according to the safety evaluation guidelines provided by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. ALARM-P1 is for analyzing the thermo-hydraulic phenomena during blowdown following a large break in the primary coolant system. ALARM-P1 models the PWR system fluid conditions including flow, pressure, mass inventory, fluid quality and heat transfer. It solves integral forms of fluid conservation and state equations for user-defined volumes treated as one-dimensional homogeneous, thermal-equilibrium elements with interconnecting flow paths and also finite difference forms of the one-dimensional heat conduction equations describing temperature profiles within solid material and the fluid-solid interface conditions. In addition, the ALARM-P1 provides the initial conditions for analysis of the last portion of the LOCA transient, a reflood phase, and the information for core heat-up analysis during the whole LOCA. This report describes the state-of-art methods and models of ALARM-P1 in June 1978 and gives information for users. (author)

  14. Expression and Purification of Enterovirus Type 71 Polyprotein P1 using Pichia pastoris system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Han; Xiaoling Ying; Hao Huang; Shili Zhou; Qi Huang

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus type 71(EV71) causes severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease(HFMD) resulting in hundreds of deaths of children every year; However,currently,there is no effective treatment for EV71.In this study,the EV71 poly-protein(EV71-P1 protein) gene was processed and cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pPIC9k and then expressed in Pichia pastoris strain GS115.The EV71 P1 pretein with a molecular weight of 100 kD was produced and secreted into the medium.The soluble EV71 P1 protein was purified by column chromatography with a recovery efficiency of 70%.The result of the immunological analysis showed that the EV71 P1 protein had excellent immunogenicity and could stimulate the production of EV71-VP1 IgG antibody in injected rabbits.We suggest that EV71-P1 protein is an ideal candidate for an EV71 vaccine to prevent EV71 infection.

  15. House dust mite Der p 1 downregulates defenses of the lung by inactivating elastase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alan; Farmer, Kinley; MacDonald, Louise; Kalsheker, Noor; Pritchard, Dave; Haslett, Chris; Lamb, Jonathan; Sallenave, J-M

    2003-09-01

    House dust mites (HDM) are the most common source of aeroallergens and in genetic susceptible individuals can cause symptoms ranging from atopic dermatitis to bronchial asthma. Der p 1, a major target of the human immune responses to HDM, through its enzymatic properties can modulate the adaptive immune system by the cleavage of CD23 and CD25. The consequences of this would be to promote allergic inflammatory responses. Furthermore, by disrupting epithelial tight junctions Der p 1 facilitates the transport of allergen across the epithelium. Here, we report that Der p 1 has additional effects on the innate defense mechanisms of the lung, by inactivating in vitro and ex vivo the elastase inhibitors human (h) alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (h-A1-Pi), mouse (m-), (but not human [h])-SLPI and h-elafin. We confirm that Der p 1 contain both cysteine and serine proteinases, and extend this finding to demonstrate for the first time that h-elafin is particularly sensitive to the biological activity of the latter. Because these elastase inhibitors have antimicrobial, as well as antielastase activity, our results suggest that inactivation of these innate components of the lung defense system by Der p 1 may increase the susceptibility of patients with allergic inflammation to infection. PMID:12689923

  16. P1 Ref Endonuclease: A Molecular Mechanism for Phage-Enhanced Antibiotic Lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronayne, Erin A; Wan, Y C Serena; Boudreau, Beth A; Landick, Robert; Cox, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Ref is an HNH superfamily endonuclease that only cleaves DNA to which RecA protein is bound. The enigmatic physiological function of this unusual enzyme is defined here. Lysogenization by bacteriophage P1 renders E. coli more sensitive to the DNA-damaging antibiotic ciprofloxacin, an example of a phenomenon termed phage-antibiotic synergy (PAS). The complementary effect of phage P1 is uniquely traced to the P1-encoded gene ref. Ref is a P1 function that amplifies the lytic cycle under conditions when the bacterial SOS response is induced due to DNA damage. The effect of Ref is multifaceted. DNA binding by Ref interferes with normal DNA metabolism, and the nuclease activity of Ref enhances genome degradation. Ref also inhibits cell division independently of the SOS response. Ref gene expression is toxic to E. coli in the absence of other P1 functions, both alone and in combination with antibiotics. The RecA proteins of human pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus serve as cofactors for Ref-mediated DNA cleavage. Ref is especially toxic during the bacterial SOS response and the limited growth of stationary phase cultures, targeting aspects of bacterial physiology that are closely associated with the development of bacterial pathogen persistence.

  17. P1 Ref Endonuclease: A Molecular Mechanism for Phage-Enhanced Antibiotic Lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronayne, Erin A; Wan, Y C Serena; Boudreau, Beth A; Landick, Robert; Cox, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Ref is an HNH superfamily endonuclease that only cleaves DNA to which RecA protein is bound. The enigmatic physiological function of this unusual enzyme is defined here. Lysogenization by bacteriophage P1 renders E. coli more sensitive to the DNA-damaging antibiotic ciprofloxacin, an example of a phenomenon termed phage-antibiotic synergy (PAS). The complementary effect of phage P1 is uniquely traced to the P1-encoded gene ref. Ref is a P1 function that amplifies the lytic cycle under conditions when the bacterial SOS response is induced due to DNA damage. The effect of Ref is multifaceted. DNA binding by Ref interferes with normal DNA metabolism, and the nuclease activity of Ref enhances genome degradation. Ref also inhibits cell division independently of the SOS response. Ref gene expression is toxic to E. coli in the absence of other P1 functions, both alone and in combination with antibiotics. The RecA proteins of human pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus serve as cofactors for Ref-mediated DNA cleavage. Ref is especially toxic during the bacterial SOS response and the limited growth of stationary phase cultures, targeting aspects of bacterial physiology that are closely associated with the development of bacterial pathogen persistence. PMID:26765929

  18. P1 Ref Endonuclease: A Molecular Mechanism for Phage-Enhanced Antibiotic Lethality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A Ronayne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ref is an HNH superfamily endonuclease that only cleaves DNA to which RecA protein is bound. The enigmatic physiological function of this unusual enzyme is defined here. Lysogenization by bacteriophage P1 renders E. coli more sensitive to the DNA-damaging antibiotic ciprofloxacin, an example of a phenomenon termed phage-antibiotic synergy (PAS. The complementary effect of phage P1 is uniquely traced to the P1-encoded gene ref. Ref is a P1 function that amplifies the lytic cycle under conditions when the bacterial SOS response is induced due to DNA damage. The effect of Ref is multifaceted. DNA binding by Ref interferes with normal DNA metabolism, and the nuclease activity of Ref enhances genome degradation. Ref also inhibits cell division independently of the SOS response. Ref gene expression is toxic to E. coli in the absence of other P1 functions, both alone and in combination with antibiotics. The RecA proteins of human pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus serve as cofactors for Ref-mediated DNA cleavage. Ref is especially toxic during the bacterial SOS response and the limited growth of stationary phase cultures, targeting aspects of bacterial physiology that are closely associated with the development of bacterial pathogen persistence.

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman ... new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A brain-body ... stress. impulse —An electrical communication signal sent between neurons ...

  1. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  2. 奥林巴斯E-P1试用报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海盗

    2009-01-01

    2009年6月,奥林巴斯首款Micro4/3系统数码相机E—P1终于揭开了神秘的面纱。自从去年Photokina上E—P1的机身模型惊艳亮相后,摄影爱好者、4/3系统拥趸对E—P1的思念随着松下G1和GH1两款Micro4/3系统数码相机的相继问世而与日俱增。

  3. Comparative analysis between P1 and B1 equations for neutron moderation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to calculate the neutron flux in nuclear reactors, B1 or P1 equations are solved by numerical methods for several groups of energy. The neutron fluxes obtained from the solutions of the B1 and P1 equations are similar when they are applied to large nuclear power reactors. However, an important difference between the two fluxes is that the system of P1 equations uses one more approximation than the B1 system and then, its flux is less precise. The present work shows the relations between both equations and analyzes for what conditions the two equations systems are equivalent. Furthermore, this equations are numerically solved in 54 groups of energy for a quadrangular arrange. (author)

  4. Visualization of bacteriophage P1 infection by cryo-electron tomography of tiny Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacteriophage P1 has a contractile tail that targets the conserved lipopolysaccharide on the outer membrane surface of the host for initial adsorption. The mechanism by which P1 DNA enters the host cell is not well understood, mainly because the transient molecular interactions between bacteriophage and bacteria have been difficult to study by conventional approaches. Here, we engineered tiny E. coli host cells so that the initial stages of P1-host interactions could be captured in unprecedented detail by cryo-electron tomography. Analysis of three-dimensional reconstructions of frozen-hydrated specimens revealed three predominant configurations: an extended tail stage with DNA present in the phage head, a contracted tail stage with DNA, and a contracted tail stage without DNA. Comparative analysis of various conformations indicated that there is uniform penetration of the inner tail tube into the E. coli periplasm and a significant movement of the baseplate away from the outer membrane during tail contraction.

  5. NEW FIXED POINT THEOREMS FOR P1-COMPACT MAPPINGS IN BANACH SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    F.E. Browder and W. V. Petryshyn[1] defined the topological degree for Aproper mappings and then W. V. Petryshyn[2] studied a class of A-proper mappings, namely,P1-compact mappings and obtained a number of important fixed point theorems by virtue of the topological degree theory. In this paper, following W. V. Petryshyn[2], we continue to study P1-compact mappings and investigate the boundary condition, under which many new fixed point theorems of P1-compact mappings are obtained. On the other hand, this class of A-proper mappings with the boundedness property includes completely continuous operators and so, certain interesting new fixed point theorems for completely continuous operators are obtained immediately. As a result of it, our results generalize several famous theorems such as Leray-Schauder's theorem, Rothe's theorem, Altman's theorem,Petryshyn's theorem, etc.

  6. Sharp weak type estimates for weights in the class $A_{p_1, p_2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Reznikov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We get sharp estimates for the distribution function of nonnegative weights, which satisfy so called $A_{p_1, p_2}$ condition. For particular choices of parameters $p_1$, $p_2$ this condition becomes an $A_p$-condition or Reverse H\\"{o}lder condition. We also get maximizers for these sharp estimates. We use the Bellman technique and try to carefully present and motivate our tactics. As an illustration of how these results can be used, we deduce the following result: if a weight $w$ is in $A_2$ then it self-improves to a weight, which satisfies a Reverse H\\"{o}lder condition.

  7. Uranium (VI) adsorption on synthesized 4A and P1 zeolites: Equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the investigation of the use of synthesized 4A and P1 zeolites in the adsorption of uranium (VI) ions from liquid effluents (with initial concentrations of 100, 85 and 80 mgL-1). Batch experiments were performed and the effects of temperature, solid-liquid ratio, pH and initial UO22+ ion concentration were studied, and the optimal parameters were determined. The kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the process as well as the diffusion mechanism have been studied. The obtained results showed that 4A and P1 zeolites are very effective adsorbents. (authors)

  8. Capitulation in Abelian extensions of some fields ℚ (√{p1p2q , }i )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Abdelmalek; Zekhnini, Abdelkader; Taous, Mohammed

    2016-02-01

    We study the capitulation of the 2-ideal classes of an infinite family of imaginary biquadratic number fields consisting of fields k =ℚ (√{p1p2q , }i ), where i =√{-1 } and p1 ≡ p2 ≡ -q ≡ 1 (mod 4) are different primes. For each of the three quadratic extensions K /k inside the absolute genus field k(*) of k , we compute the capitulation kernel of K /k . Then we deduce that each strongly ambiguous class of k /ℚ (i ) capitulates already in k(*), which is smaller than the relative genus field (k/ℚ (i )) *.

  9. Picard groups of higher real $K$-theory spectra at height $p-1$

    OpenAIRE

    Heard, Drew; Mathew, Akhil; Stojanoska, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Using the descent spectral sequence for a Galois extension of ring spectra, we compute the Picard group of the higher real $K$-theory spectra of Hopkins and Miller at height $n=p-1$, for $p$ an odd prime. More generally, we determine the Picard groups of the homotopy fixed points spectra $E_n^{hG}$, where $E_n$ is Lubin-Tate $E$-theory at the prime $p$ and height $n=p-1$, and $G$ is any finite subgroup of the extended Morava stabilizer group. We find that these Picard groups are always cyclic...

  10. ON THE P1 POWELL-SABIN DIVERGENCE-FREE FINITE ELEMENT FOR THE STOKES EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shangyou Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The stability of the P1-P0 mixed-element is established on general Powell-Sabin triangular grids. The piecewise linear finite element solution approximating the velocity is divergence-free pointwise for the Stokes equations. The finite element solution approximating the pressure in the Stokes equations can be obtained as a byproduct if an iterative method is adopted for solving the discrete linear system of equations. Numerical tests are presented confirming the theory on the stability and the optimal order of convergence for the P1 Powell-Sabin divergence-free finite element method.

  11. Suppression of Zeeman Relaxation in Cold Collisions of \\(^2P_{1/2}\\) Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Tscherbul, T.V.; Buchachenko, A. A.; Dalgarno, Alexander; Lu, M.-J.; Weinstein, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of angular momentum depolarization in cold collisions of \\(^2P\\) atoms in the presence of an external magnetic field. We show that collision-induced Zeeman relaxation of Ga\\(^2P_{1/2}\\) and In \\(^2P_{1/2}\\) atoms in cold \\(^4\\)He gas is dramatically suppressed compared to atoms in \\(^2P_{3/2}\\) states. Using rigorous quantum-scattering calculations based on ab initio interaction potentials, we demonstrate that Zeeman transitions in coll...

  12. French Frigate Shoals Site P1A 11/1/2002 7-8M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1A (23.854N, 166.323 W), between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. French Frigate Shoals Site P1 7/14/2001 36-37M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1 (23.855N, 166.323W), between 36 and 37 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Inhibition of human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 by the flavonoid quercetin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, J.J. van; Hamman, O.B.; Iersel, M.L.P.S. van; Boeren, S.; Cnubben, N.H.P.; Lo Bello, M.; Vervoort, J.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, the inhibition of human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GSTP1-1) by the flavonoid quercetin has been investigated. The results show a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of GSTP1-1 by quercetin. GSTP1-1 activity is completely inhibited upon 1 h incubation with 100 μM q

  15. Necker Island Site P1 9/10/2002 54-55M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Necker Island, site P1 23.575N , 164.705W, between 54 and 55 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. French Frigate Shoals Site P1 7/14/2001 2-3M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1 23.855N, 166.323W, between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Light-Cone Distribution Amplitudes for the Light $1^1P_1$ Mesons

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Kwei-Chou

    2005-01-01

    We present a study of light-cone distribution amplitudes of the light $1^1P_1$ mesons. The first few Gegenbauer moments of leading twist light-cone distribution amplitudes are calculated by using the QCD sum rule technique.

  18. Nihoa island Site P1 9/9/2002 12-13M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Nihoa island, site P1 (23.062N, 161.929W), between 12 and 13 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Effect of E8010-P1 electrode composition on the weld metal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different manufactures produce E8010-P1 electrode with different chemical compositions due to the relatively wide range of permissible alloying elements in the composition of this electrode. Four groups of E8010-P1 electrodes, with different compositions, were selected and effect of electrode composition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of weld meal were examined. Microstructural studies revealed that presence of the Mn, Mo and Ni in the weld metal influences significantly on the morphology of ferrite in the weld metal zone. Large amount of Mn (around 1%) in the weld metal leads to the formation of fine acicular ferrite in the weld metal. Furthermore, presence of Mo (around 0.4%) in the weld metal prevents formation of continuous grain boundary ferrite in the weld zone. Mechanical properties investigations reveal that the more acicular ferrite in the weld metal, the higher strength and ductility of this zone. -- Highlights: • Mn and Mo resulted in formation of acicular ferrite in the weld metal. • Composition of E8010-P1 has significant effect on the structural and mechanical properties of weld area. • Optimal chemical composition of pipe line E8010-P1 was determined

  20. French Frigate Shoals Site P1A 9/13/2002 38-39M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1A (23.854N, 166.323 W), between 38 and 39 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. P1-NONCONFORMING QUADRILATERAL FINITE VOLUME ELEMENT METHOD AND ITS CASCADIC MULTIGRID ALGORITHM FOR ELLIPTIC PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-ying Man; Zhong-ci Shi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the finite volume element method of P1-nonconforming quadrilateral element for elliptic problems and obtain optimal error estimates for general quadrilateral partition. An optimal cascadic multigrid algorithm is proposed to solve the nonsymmetric large-scale system resulting from such discretization. Numerical experiments are reported to support our theoretical results.

  2. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P1 6/13/2000 75-76M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Pearl Hermes Atoll, site P1 27.831N, 175.751 W, between 75 and 76 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. French Frigate Shoals Site P1 7/14/2001 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1 23.855N, 166.323W, between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Nihoa island Site P1 9/9/2002 7-8M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Nihoa island, site P1 (23.062N, 161.929W), between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Laysan Island Site P1 9/17/2002 37-38M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Laysan Island, site P1 (25.774 N, 171.743 W), between 37 and 38 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Laysan Island Site P1 9/17/2002 44-45M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Laysan Island, site P1 (25.774 N, 171.743 W), between 44 and 45 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. French Frigate Shoals Site P1A 9/13/2002 50-51M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1A (23.854N, 166.323 W), between 50 and 51 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. French Frigate Shoals Site P1A 11/1/2002 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1A (23.854N, 166.323 W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Choline Modulation of the Aβ P1-40 Channel Reconstituted into a Model Lipid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Meleleo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs, implicated in memory and learning, in subjects affected by Alzheimer's disease result altered. Stimulation of α7-nAChRs inhibits amyloid plaques and increases ACh release. β-amyloid peptide (AβP forms ion channels in the cell and model phospholipid membranes that are retained responsible in Alzheimer disease. We tested if choline, precursor of ACh, could affect the AβP1-40 channels in oxidized cholesterol (OxCh and in palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC:Ch lipid bilayers. Choline concentrations of 5 × 10−11 M–1.5 × 10−8 M added to the cis- or trans-side of membrane quickly increased AβP1-40 ion channel frequency (events/min and ion conductance in OxCh membranes, but not in POPC:Ch membranes. Circular Dichroism (CD spectroscopy shows that after 24 and 48 hours of incubation with AβP1-40, choline stabilizes the random coil conformation of the peptide, making it less prone to fibrillate. These actions seem to be specific in that ACh is ineffective either in solution or on AβP1-40 channel incorporated into PLMs.

  10. Nihoa island Site P1 9/9/2002 45-46M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Nihoa island, site P1 23.062N, 161.929W, between 45 and 46 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P1 6/13/2000 76-77M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Pearl Hermes Atoll, site P1 27.831N, 175.751 W, between 76 and 77 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Orbits and photometry of Pluto's satellites: Charon, S/2005 P1 and S/2005 P2

    CERN Document Server

    Buie, M W; Young, E F; Young, L A; Stern, S A

    2005-01-01

    We present new astrometry of Pluto's three satellites from images taken of the Pluto system during 2002-3 with the High Resolution Camera (HRC) mode of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. The observations were designed to produce an albedo map of Pluto but they also contain images of Charon and the two recently discovered satellites, S/2005 P1 and S/2005 P2. Orbits fitted to all three satellites are co-planar and, for Charon and P2, have eccentricities consistent with zero. The orbit of the outermost satellite, P1, has a significant eccentricity of 0.0052 +/- 0.0011. Orbital periods of P1, P2, and Charon are 38.2065 +/- 0.0014, 24.8562 +/- 00013, and 6.3872304 +/- 0.0000011 days, respectively. The total system mass based on Charon's orbit is 1.4570 +/- 0.0009 x 10^22 kg. We confirm previous results that orbital periods are close to the ratio of 6:4:1 (P1:P2:Charon) indiciative of mean-motion resonances, but our results formally preclude precise integer period ratios...

  13. Fermionic expressions for the characters of c{sub p,1} logarithmic conformal field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flohr, Michael [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leibniz-Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)]. E-mail: flohr@itp.uni-hannover.de; Grabow, Carsten [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leibniz-Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)]. E-mail: grabow@itp.uni-hannover.de; Koehn, Michael [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leibniz-Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)]. E-mail: koehn@itp.uni-hannover.de

    2007-04-23

    We present fermionic quasi-particle sum representations consisting of a single fundamental fermionic form for all characters of the logarithmic conformal field theory models with central charge c{sub p,1}, p>=2, and suggest a physical interpretation. We also show that it is possible to correctly extract dilogarithm identities.

  14. Necker Island Site P1 9/10/2002 37-38M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Necker Island, site P1 (23.575N , 164.705W), between 37 and 38 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Absence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae cytadsorption protein P1 in Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    OpenAIRE

    Baseman, J B; Drouillard, D L; Leith, D K; Tully, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae protein P1 were nonreactive with whole-cell or soluble preparations of M. genitalium and M. gallisepticum. However, radioimmunoprecipitation performed with hyperimmune rabbit sera raised against each mycoplasma species indicated antigenic cross-reactivity between M. pneumoniae and M. genitalium.

  16. French Frigate Shoals Site P1A 11/1/2002 28-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1A 23.854N, 166.323 W, between 28 and 29 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. French Frigate Shoals Site P1 7/14/2001 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1 (23.855N, 166.323W), between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Factors that contribute to the mycoparasitism stimulus in Trichoderma atroviride strain P1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo S L; Lorito M; Formisano E; Fogliano V; Cosenza C; Mauro A; Turrà D; Soriente I; Ferraioli S; Scala F

    2004-01-01

    @@ Trichoderma atroviride strain P1 has been used extensively to study the mycoparasitic mechanisms in the interaction between plant pathogenic host and beneficial antagonistic fungi. Mutants of P1 containing the green fluorescent protein (gfp) or glucose oxidase (gox) reporter systems and different inducible promoters (from the exochitinase nag1 gene, or the endochitinase ech42 gene of P1) were used to determine the factors that activate the biocontrol gene expression cascade in the antagonist. The following compounds were tested singly and in various combinations: purified Trichoderma P1 enzymes (endochitinase, exochitinase, chitobiosidase,glucanase); antagonist culture filtrates (T. atroviride P1 wild-type and relative knock-out mutants, T.harzianum, T. reesei); pathogen culture filtrates (Botrytis, Pythium, Rhizoctonia); purified fungal cell walls (CWs) from Trichoderma , Botrytis, Pythium, Rhizoctonia; colloidal crab shell chitin; and plant extracts from cucumber leaves, stems or roots. Strong induction of mycoparasitism was found with the various digestion products produced by treating fungal CWs and colloidal chitin with purified enzymes or fungal culture filtrates. Filtrates from chitinase knock-out mutants, as well as CWs from Oomycetes fungi, were less active in producing the stimulus for mycoparasitism. The host CW digestion products were separated by molecular weight (MW) to determine which compounds were able to activate Trichoderma. Micromolecules of MW less than 3 kDa were found to trigger mycoparasitism gene expression before physical contact with the host pathogen. These compounds stimulated mycelial growth and spore germination of the antagonist. Purification of these host-derived compounds was conducted by HPLC and in vivo assay. The obtained inducers were able to stimulate both the production of endochitinase and exochitinase enzymes, even under repressing conditions in the presence of glucose. Inducers stimulated the biocontrol effect of P1 in

  19. Sex differences in interhemispheric communication during face identity encoding: evidence from ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, Ornella; Leleu, Arnaud; Rebaï, Mohamed; Fiori, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Sex-related hemispheric lateralization and interhemispheric transmission times (IHTTs) were examined in twenty-four participants at the level of the first visual ERP components (P1 and N170) during face identity encoding in a divided visual-field paradigm. While no lateralization-related and sex-related differences were reflected in the P1 characteristics, these two factors modulated the N170. Indeed, N170 amplitudes indicated a right hemisphere (RH) dominance in men (and a more bilateral functioning in women). N170 latencies and the derived IHTTs confirmed the RH advantage in men but showed the reverse asymmetry in women. Altogether, the results of this study suggest a clear asymmetry in men and a more divided work between the hemispheres in women, with a tendency toward a left hemisphere (LH) advantage. Thus, by extending the pattern to the right-sided face processing, our results generalize previous findings from studies using other materials and indicating longer transfers from the specialized to the non-specialized hemisphere, especially in the male brain. Because asymmetries started from the N170 component, the first electrophysiological index of high-level perceptual processing on face representations, they also suggest a functional account for hemispheric lateralization and sex-related differences rather than a structural one.

  20. Transcription from the P1 promoters of Micromonospora echinospora in the absence of native upstream DNA sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, E Z; Buttner, M J; Lin, L S; Rothstein, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that the 0.4-kilobase DNA fragment from Micromonospora echinospora contains multiple tandem promoters, P1a, P1b, P1c, and P2, which are also functional when cloned into Streptomyces lividans. We now show by in vitro transcription with Streptomyces RNA polymerase that each of these promoters is an authentic initiation site, rather than a processing site for transcripts which initiate further upstream. The DNA sequence requirements for the closely spaced promoters P1a...

  1. Brain glycogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Linea Lykke Frimodt; Müller, Margit S; Walls, Anne B;

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g., liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia....... In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been an emerging understanding in brain energy metabolism: that glycogen is more than just a convenient way to store energy for use in emergencies-it is a highly dynamic molecule with versatile implications in brain function, i.e., synaptic...... activity and memory formation. In line with the great spatiotemporal complexity of the brain and thereof derived focus on the basis for ensuring the availability of the right amount of energy at the right time and place, we here encourage a closer look into the molecular and subcellular mechanisms...

  2. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins P1 and P2 interact and colocalize at the vacuolar membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der M.W.; Carette, J.E.; Reinhoud, P.J.; Haegi, A.; Bol, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Replication of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs depends on the virus-encoded proteins P1 and P2. P1 contains methyltransferase- and helicase-like domains, and P2 contains a polymerase-like domain. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed an interaction between in vitro translated-P1 and P2 and show

  3. Differential Expression of Adenosine P1 Receptor ADORA1 and ADORA2A Associated with Glioma Development and Tumor-Associated Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Chen, Ming-Na; Du, Juan; Liu, Hao; He, Yu-Jiao; Li, Guo-Liang; Li, Shu-Yu; Liu, Wei-Ping; Long, Xiao-Yan

    2016-07-01

    Level of adenosine, an endogenous astrocyte-based neuromodulator, is primarily regulated by adenosine P1 receptors. This study assessed expression of adenosine P1 receptors, ADORA1 (adenosine A1 receptor) and ADORA2A (adenosine A2a receptor) and their association with glioma development and epilepsy in glioma patients. Expression of ADORA1/ADORA2A was assessed immunohistochemically in 65 surgically removed glioma tissue and 21 peri-tumor tissues and 8 cases of normal brain tissues obtained from hematoma patients with cerebral trauma. Immunofluorescence, Western blot, and qRT-PCR were also used to verify immunohistochemical data. Adenosine P1 receptor ADORA1 and ADORA2A proteins were localized in the cell membrane and cytoplasm and ADORA1/ADORA2A immunoreactivity was significantly stronger in glioma and peri-tumor tissues that contained infiltrating tumor cells than in normal brain tissues (p < 0.05). The World Health Organization (WHO) grade III gliomas expressed even higher level of ADORA1 and ADORA2A. Western blot and qRT-PCR confirmed immunohistochemical data. Moreover, higher levels of ADORA1 and ADORA2A expression occurred in high-grade gliomas, in which incidence of epilepsy were lower (p < 0.05). In contrast, a lower level of ADORA1/ADORA2A expression was found in peri-tumor tissues with tumor cell presence from patients with epilepsy compared to patients without epilepsy (p < 0.05). The data from the current study indicates that dysregulation in ADORA1/ADORA2A expression was associated with glioma development, whereas low level of ADORA1/ADORA2A expression could increase susceptibility of tumor-associated epilepsy. PMID:27038930

  4. Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification, and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobase pairs.

    OpenAIRE

    Sternberg, N

    1990-01-01

    The development of a bacteriophage P1 cloning system capable of accepting DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobase pairs (kbp) is described. The vectors used in this system contain a P1 packaging site (pac) to package vector and cloned DNA into phage particles, two P1 loxP recombination sites to cyclize the packaged DNA once it has been injected into a strain of Escherichia coli containing the P1 Cre recombinase, a kanr gene to select bacterial clones containing the cyclized DNA, a P1 plasmid r...

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of AsaP1_E294A and AsaP1_E294Q, two inactive mutants of the toxic zinc metallopeptidase AsaP1 from Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanović, Xenia; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Hentschke, Johanna; Gudmundsdóttir, Bjarnheidur K.; Hinrichs, Winfried

    2009-01-01

    Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of AsaP1_E294A and AsaP1_E294Q, two inactive mutants of the toxic zinc metallopeptidase AsaP1 from A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes, are reported.

  6. Development of Quasi-3DOF upper limb rehabilitation system using ER brake: PLEMO-P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. However, almost all the devices are active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices and they basically require high-cost safety system compared to passive-type (brake-based) devices. In this study, we developed a new practical haptic device 'PLEMO-P1'; this system adopted ER brakes as its force generators. In this paper, the mechanism of PLEMO-P1 and its software for a reaching rehabilitation are described.

  7. Complexity and diversity of the NKR-P1:Clr (Klrb1:Clec2 recognition systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Kirkham

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The NKR-P1 receptors were identified as prototypical natural killer (NK cell surface antigens and later shown to be conserved from rodents to humans on NK cells and subsets of T cells. C-type lectin-like in nature, they were originally shown to be capable of activating NK cell function and to recognize ligands on tumour cells. However, certain family members have subsequently been shown to be capable of inhibiting NK cell activity, and to recognize proteins encoded by a family of genetically linked C-type lectin-related (Clr ligands. Some of these ligands are expressed by normal, healthy cells, and modulated during transformation, infection, and cellular stress, while other ligands are upregulated during the immune response and during pathological circumstances. Here, we discuss historical and recent developments in NKR-P1 biology that demonstrate this NK receptor-ligand system to be far more complex and diverse than originally anticipated.

  8. Development of Quasi-3DOF upper limb rehabilitation system using ER brake: PLEMO-P1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T; Fukushima, K; Furusho, J; Ozawa, T [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: kikuchi@mech.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. However, almost all the devices are active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices and they basically require high-cost safety system compared to passive-type (brake-based) devices. In this study, we developed a new practical haptic device 'PLEMO-P1'; this system adopted ER brakes as its force generators. In this paper, the mechanism of PLEMO-P1 and its software for a reaching rehabilitation are described.

  9. Prestimulus amplitudes modulate P1 latencies and evoked traveling alpha waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Alexandra Himmelstoss

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Traveling waves have been well documented in the ongoing, and more recently also in the evoked EEG. In the present study we investigate what kind of physiological process might be responsible for inducing an evoked traveling wave. We used a semantic judgment task which already proved useful to study evoked traveling alpha waves that coincide with the appearance of the P1 component. We found that the P1 latency of the leading electrode is significantly correlated with prestimulus amplitude size and that this event is associated with a transient change in alpha frequency. We assume that cortical background excitability, as reflected by an increase in prestimulus amplitude, is responsible for the observed change in alpha frequency and the initiation of an evoked traveling trajectory.

  10. Structure of the conserved hypothetical protein MAL13P1.257 from Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of a conserved hypothetical protein, MAL13P1.257 from P. falciparum, has been determined at 2.17 Å resolution. The structure represents a new protein fold and is the first structural representative for Pfam sequence family PF05907. The structure of a conserved hypothetical protein, PlasmoDB sequence MAL13P1.257 from Plasmodium falciparum, Pfam sequence family PF05907, has been determined as part of the structural genomics effort of the Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa consortium. The structure was determined by multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion at 2.17 Å resolution. The structure is almost entirely β-sheet; it consists of 15 β-strands and one short 310-helix and represents a new protein fold. The packing of the two monomers in the asymmetric unit indicates that the biological unit may be a dimer.

  11. Observation of h_c(^1P_1) State of Charmonium

    CERN Document Server

    Rosner, J L; Lee, J; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Rangarajan, R; Sanghi, B; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Park, C S; Park, W; Thayer, J B; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Stroynowski, R; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Dambasuren, E; Dorjkhaidav, O; Mountain, R; Muramatsu, H; Nandakumar, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Csorna, S E; Danko, I; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; McGee, S; Bornheim, A; Lipeles, E; Pappas, S P; Shapiro, A; Sun, W M; Weinstein, A J; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G T; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Boisvert, V; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Magerkurth, A; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Mistry, N B; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Richichi, S J; Riley, D; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shepherd, M R; Thayer, J G; Urner, D; Wilksen, T; Warburton, A; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Potlia, V; Stöck, H; Yelton, J; Benslama, K; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Plager, C; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Williams, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Anderson, S; Frolov, V V; Gong, D T; Kubota, Y; Li, S Z; Poling, R A; Smith, A; Stepaniak, C J; Urheim, J; Metreveli, Z V; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Zweber, P; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J; Jian, L; Saleem, M; Wappler, F; Arms, K; Eckhart, E; Gan, K K; Gwon, C; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pedlar, T K; Von Törne, E; Severini, H; Skubic, P L; Dytman, S A; Müller, J A; Nam, S; Savinov, V; Hinson, J W

    2005-01-01

    The h_c(1P1) state of charmonium has been observed in the reaction \\psi(2S) -> \\pi0 h_c -> (\\gamma\\gamma)(\\gamma\\eta_c) using 3.08 million \\psi(2S) decays recorded in the CLEO detector. Data have been analyzed both for the inclusive reaction, where the decay products of the \\eta_c are not identified, and for exclusive reactions, in which \\eta_c decays are reconstructed in seven hadronic decay channels. We find M(h_c)=3524.4 +/- 0.6 +/- 0.4 MeV which corresponds to a hyperfine splitting \\Delta M_{hf}(1P) \\equiv -M(1P1)=+1.0+/-0.6+/-0.4 MeV, and B(\\psi(2S)->\\pi0 h_c)xB(h_c->\\gamma\\eta_c)=(4. +/-0.8+/-0.7)x10^{-4}.

  12. A Cadmium-transporting P1B-type ATPase in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    OpenAIRE

    Adle, David J.; Sinani, Devis; Kim, Heejeong; Lee, Jaekwon

    2006-01-01

    Detoxification and homeostatic acquisition of metal ions are vital for all living organisms. We have identified PCA1 in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an overexpression suppressor of copper toxicity. PCA1 possesses signatures of a P1B-type heavy metal-transporting ATPase that is widely distributed from bacteria to humans. Copper resistance conferred by PCA1 is not dependent on catalytic activity, but it appears that a cysteine-rich region located in the N terminus sequesters copper. Unexpe...

  13. Beam propagation method using a [(p- 1)/ p] Padé approximant of the propagator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ya Yan; Ho, Pui Lin

    2002-05-01

    A new beam propagation method (BPM) is developed based on a direct approximation to the propagator by its [(p-1)/p] Padé approximant. The approximant is simple to construct and has the desired damping effect for the evanescent modes. The method is applied to a tapered waveguide for TM-polarized waves, based on the energy-conserving improvement of the one-way Helmholtz equation. Numerical results are compared with those obtained with other variants of the BPM. PMID:18007898

  14. Effect of the P1 Medium and the ECM Medium on Embryo Quality in IVF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian CHEN; Ai-jun ZHANG; Yun FENG; Xiao-wei LU; Dong-mei JI; Zhi-peng XU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of the glucose-free reimplantation stage one(P1) medium and the ECM medium on embryo development quality in IVF.Methods The patients with ≥4 zygotes of 2PN were studied.A total of 201 retrieval cycles were included in a prospective randomized study.Each patient was herself control Half of zygotes of 2PN were transferred into ECM medium(group A)and half into P1 medium(group B)for further culture.Embryo development was evaluated on the day of embryo transfer.The efficacy of ECM was compared with P1 as culture medium for the development of preimplantation embryos. Results No statistically significant differences were noted between the two groups regarding embryo-cleavage rate(97.13% vs 97.55%)and rate of normal-cleaving embryos(58.29% and 58.37%).The rate of top-quality embryos was statistically higher in group A than in group B(27.59% vs 19.75%,P<0.05).Embryo quality,as assessed by morphological parameters(the amount of detached anuclear fragments>30%),was better in group A than in group B(19.86% vs 21.75%),however,there was no statistically significance.Both the rate of good-quality embryos(47.95% vs 46.17%)and available embryos(63.22% vs 61.,9%)were higher in group A than in group B,but there was also no statistically significance.Conclusion The ECM medium may be associated with a better embryo quality compared with the P1 medium.

  15. A Vanishing Result for Donaldson Thomas Invariants of P1 Scroll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai Liang CHANG

    2014-01-01

    Let S be a smooth algebraic surface and let L be a line bundle on S. Suppose there is a holomorphic two form over S with zero loci to be a curve C. We show that the Donaldson-Thomas invariant of the P1 scroll X =P (L⊕OS ) vanishes unless the curves being enumerated lie in D=P (L|C⊕OC ). Our method is cosection localization of Y.-H. Kiem and J. Li.

  16. Direct Band Gap Gallium Antimony Phosphide (GaSbxP(1-x)) Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, H B; Andriotis, A N; Menon, M; Jasinski, J B; Martinez-Garcia, A; Sunkara, M K

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report direct band gap transition for Gallium Phosphide (GaP) when alloyed with just 1-2 at% antimony (Sb) utilizing both density functional theory based computations and experiments. First principles density functional theory calculations of GaSbxP(1-x) alloys in a 216 atom supercell configuration indicate that an indirect to direct band gap transition occurs at x = 0.0092 or higher Sb incorporation into GaSbxP(1-x). Furthermore, these calculations indicate band edge straddling of the hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution reactions for compositions ranging from x = 0.0092 Sb up to at least x = 0.065 Sb making it a candidate for use in a Schottky type photoelectrochemical water splitting device. GaSbxP(1-x) nanowires were synthesized by reactive transport utilizing a microwave plasma discharge with average compositions ranging from x = 0.06 to x = 0.12 Sb and direct band gaps between 2.21 eV and 1.33 eV. Photoelectrochemical experiments show that the material is photoactive with p-type conductivity. This study brings attention to a relatively uninvestigated, tunable band gap semiconductor system with tremendous potential in many fields. PMID:26860470

  17. Direct Band Gap Gallium Antimony Phosphide (GaSbxP1-x) Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, H. B.; Andriotis, A. N.; Menon, M.; Jasinski, J. B.; Martinez-Garcia, A.; Sunkara, M. K.

    2016-02-01

    Here, we report direct band gap transition for Gallium Phosphide (GaP) when alloyed with just 1-2 at% antimony (Sb) utilizing both density functional theory based computations and experiments. First principles density functional theory calculations of GaSbxP1-x alloys in a 216 atom supercell configuration indicate that an indirect to direct band gap transition occurs at x = 0.0092 or higher Sb incorporation into GaSbxP1-x. Furthermore, these calculations indicate band edge straddling of the hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution reactions for compositions ranging from x = 0.0092 Sb up to at least x = 0.065 Sb making it a candidate for use in a Schottky type photoelectrochemical water splitting device. GaSbxP1-x nanowires were synthesized by reactive transport utilizing a microwave plasma discharge with average compositions ranging from x = 0.06 to x = 0.12 Sb and direct band gaps between 2.21 eV and 1.33 eV. Photoelectrochemical experiments show that the material is photoactive with p-type conductivity. This study brings attention to a relatively uninvestigated, tunable band gap semiconductor system with tremendous potential in many fields.

  18. Fusion Expression of Cecropin P1 in Escherichia Coli and Its Antimicrobial Activity Analysis%抗菌肽cecropin P1在大肠杆菌中的融合表达及活性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟琼; 叶江; 莫剑; 张惠展

    2011-01-01

    目的 在大肠杆菌中融合表达抗菌肽cecropin P1.方法 根据抗菌肽ceeropin P1的氨基酸序列,依照大肠杆菌密码子的偏爱性,采SOE技术合成cecropin P1的编码基因;将其克隆至表达载体pET-32a(+)上,经IPTG诱导表达,超声上清液用Ni·NTA亲和层析初步纯化,经肠激酶切割后,用薄层平皿琼脂糖孔穴扩散法初步测定重组cecropin P1的活性.结果 构建得表达质粒pET32-P1,经IPTG诱导表达获得融合蛋白TrxA-cecropin P1,占总蛋白质25%以上;纯化产物经肠激酶切割后,Tricine-SDS-PAGE显示成功释放抗菌肽cecropin P1;初步测定结果显示其有抑菌活性.结论 本研究为研发重组抗菌肽cecropin P1的生产工艺奠定了基础.%Objective To achieve the fusion expression of cecropin P1 in E.coli. Methods According to the biased coden used in E.coli, the gene sequence encoding cecropin P1 was designed. The gene fragment of cecropin P1 was first obtained through gene SOEing; then the DNA sequence was inserted into pET-32a(+) vector. After IPTG induction and Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, the fusion protein was cleaved by recombinant enterokinase. The activity of recombinant cecropin P1 was determined by agarose diffusion assay on thin-layer plate. Results The fusion expression vector pET32-P1 was constructed. After IPTG induction. TrxA-cecropin P1 fusion protein was successfully expressed, exceeding 25% of the total soluble proteins. After cleavage by enterokinase. Tricine-SDS-PAGE showed that cecropin P1 fusion protein was released successfully. The recombinant cecropin P1 exhibited antibacterial activity,which suggested the functional cecropin P1 has been achieved by gene engineering method. Conclusion This study layed a foundation for the development of production technology of cecropin P1.

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such children to those with normal brain development may help scientists to pinpoint when and where ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex (PFC) —Seat of the brain's executive functions, such as judgment, decision making, and problem solving. ... brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... axis —A brain-body circuit which plays a critical role in the body's response to stress. impulse — ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she lost interest ...

  5. Cloning and functional analysis of human acyl coenzyme A: Cholesterol acyltransferase1 gene P1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jing; Cheng, Bei; Qi, Benling; Peng, Wen; Wen, Hui; Bai, Lijuan; Liu, Yun; Zhai, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) catalyzes the conversion of free cholesterol (FC) to cholesterol ester. The human ACAT1 gene P1 promoter has been cloned. However, the activity and specificity of the ACAT1 gene P1 promoter in diverse cell types remains unclear. The P1 promoter fragment was digested with KpnI/XhoI from a P1 promoter cloning vector, and was subcloned into the multiple cloning site of the Firefly luciferase vector pGL3‑Enhancer to obtain the construct P1E‑1. According to the analysis of biological information, the P1E‑1 plasmid was used to generate deletions of the ACAT1 gene P1 promoter with varying 5' ends and an identical 3' end at +65 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All the 5'‑deletion constructs of the P1 promoter were identified by PCR, restriction enzyme digestion mapping and DNA sequencing. The transcriptional activity of each construct was detected after transient transfection into THP‑1, HepG2, HEK293 and Hela cells using DEAE‑dextran and Lipofectamine 2000 liposome transfection reagent. Results showed that the transcriptional activity of the ACAT1 gene P1 promoter and deletions of P1 promoter in THP‑1 and HepG2 cells was higher than that in HEK293 and HeLa cells. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of P1E‑9 was higher compared with those of other deletions in THP‑1, HepG2, HEK293 and HeLa cells. These findings indicate that the transcriptional activity of the P1 promoter and the effects of deletions vary with different cell lines. Thus, the P1 promoter may drive ACAT1 gene expression with cell‑type specificity. In addition, the core sequence of ACAT1 gene P1 promoter was suggested to be between -125 and +65 bp. PMID:27220725

  6. Brain peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompier, D; Vejux, A; Zarrouk, A; Gondcaille, C; Geillon, F; Nury, T; Savary, S; Lizard, G

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisomes are essential organelles in higher eukaryotes as they play a major role in numerous metabolic pathways and redox homeostasis. Some peroxisomal abnormalities, which are often not compatible with life or normal development, were identified in severe demyelinating and neurodegenerative brain diseases. The metabolic roles of peroxisomes, especially in the brain, are described and human brain peroxisomal disorders resulting from a peroxisome biogenesis or a single peroxisomal enzyme defect are listed. The brain abnormalities encountered in these disorders (demyelination, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death, neuronal migration, differentiation) are described and their pathogenesis are discussed. Finally, the contribution of peroxisomal dysfunctions to the alterations of brain functions during aging and to the development of Alzheimer's disease is considered.

  7. Growth and characterization of dilute nitride GaNxP1−x nanowires and GaNxP1−x/GaNyP1−y core/shell nanowires on Si (111) by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Sukrittanon, S.; Kuang, Y. J.; Dobrovolsky, Alexandr; Kang, Won-Mo; Jang, Ja-Soon; Kim, Bong-Joong; Chen, Weimin; Buyanova, Irina; Tu, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated self-catalyzed GaN xP1−x and GaN xP1−x/GaNyP1−y core/shell nanowire growth by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The growth window for GaN xP1−x nanowires was observed to be comparable to that of GaP nanowires (∼585 °C to ∼615 °C). Transmission electron microscopy showed a mixture of cubic zincblende phase and hexagonal wurtzite phase along the [111] growth direction in GaN xP1−x nanowires. A temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) study performed on GaN xP1−x/GaNyP1...

  8. Doc of prophage P1 is inhibited by its antitoxin partner Phd through fold complementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Mikkel; Wyns, Lode;

    2008-01-01

    Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin modules are involved in major physiological events set in motion under stress conditions. The toxin Doc (death on curing) from the phd/doc module on phage P1 hosts the C-terminal domain of its antitoxin partner Phd (prevents host death) through fold complementation...... evolutionary origin for the phd/doc operon. Doc induces growth arrest of Escherichia coli cells in a reversible manner, by targeting the protein synthesis machinery. Moreover, Doc activates the endogenous E. coli RelE mRNA interferase but does not require this or any other known chromosomal toxin...

  9. U P1, an example for advanced techniques applied to high level activity dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U P1 plant on the CEA Marcoule site was dedicated to the processing of spend fuels from the G1, G2 and G3 plutonium-producing reactors. This plant represents 20.000 m2 of workshops housing about 1000 hot cells. In 1998, a huge program for the dismantling and cleaning-up of the UP1 plant was launched. CEA has developed new techniques to face the complexity of the dismantling operations. These techniques include immersive virtual reality, laser cutting, a specific manipulator arm called MAESTRO and remote handling. (A.C.)

  10. Bismuth-Induced Raman Modes in GaP1-xBix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Theresa M.; Fluegel, Brian; Beaton, Daniel A.; Alberi, Kirstin; Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2016-10-01

    Dilute bismide semiconductor alloys are a promising material platform for optoelectronic devices due to drastic impacts of bismuth on the electronic structure of the alloy. At the same time, the details of bismuth incorporation in the lattice are not fully understood. In this work, we conduct Raman scattering spectroscopy on GaP1- x Bi x epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and identify several bismuth-related Raman features including gap vibration modes at 296, 303, and 314 cm-1. This study paves the way for more detailed analysis of the local symmetry at bismuth incorporation sites in the dilute bismide alloy regime.

  11. Absolute frequency measurement of the magnesium intercombination transition $^1S_0 \\to ^3P_1$

    OpenAIRE

    Friebe, Jan; Pape, André; Riedmann, Matthias; Moldenhauer, Karsten; Mehlstäubler, Tanja; Rehbein, Nils; Lisdat, Christian; Rasel, Ernst M.; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Schnatz, Harald; Lipphardt, Burghard; Grosche, Gesine

    2007-01-01

    We report on a frequency measurement of the $(3s^2)^1S_0\\to(3s3p)^3P_1$ clock transition of $^{24}$Mg on a thermal atomic beam. The intercombination transition has been referenced to a portable primary Cs frequency standard with the help of a femtosecond fiber laser frequency comb. The achieved uncertainty is $2.5\\times10^{-12}$ which corresponds to an increase in accuracy of six orders of magnitude compared to previous results. The measured frequency value permits the calculation of several ...

  12. PACKING A TREE OF ORDER p WITH A (p, p + 1)-GRAPH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Min; LI Guojun

    2003-01-01

    Let G1 and G2 be two graphs of the same order. If G1 is isomorphic to aspanning subgraph of the complement of G2, then we say that G1 and G2 are packable.A graph G is called a (p, m)-graph if G has p vertices and m edges. The main purposeof this paper is to present a necessary and sufficient condition for a tree of order p and a(p,p + 1)-graph to be packable.

  13. J/P=1/2+, J/P=3/2+ masses in statistical model

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Amanpreet

    2016-01-01

    The mass formulae for the baryon octet and decuplet are calculated. These formulae are function of constituent quark masses and spin spin interaction terms for the quarks inside the baryons. The coe?cients in the mass formulae is estimated by the statistical model for J/P=1/2+, J/P=3/2+, incorporating the contributions from \\sea" containing uu; dd; ss pairs and gluons . The measured masses are presented and found to be matching good with some of the experimental and theoretical data.

  14. Bismuth-induced Raman modes in GaP1- x Bi x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Theresa M.; Fluegel, Brian; Beaton, Daniel A.; Alberi, Kirstin; Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2016-10-01

    Dilute bismide semiconductor alloys are a promising material platform for optoelectronic devices due to drastic impacts of bismuth on the electronic structure of the alloy. At the same time, the details of bismuth incorporation in the lattice are not fully understood. In this work, we conduct Raman scattering spectroscopy on GaP1- x Bi x epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and identify several bismuth-related Raman features including gap vibration modes at 296, 303, and 314 cm-1. This study paves the way for more detailed analysis of the local symmetry at bismuth incorporation sites in the dilute bismide alloy regime.

  15. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  16. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  17. Brain and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens / Drug Facts / Brain and Addiction Brain and Addiction Print Your Brain Your brain is who you ... is taken over and over. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes ...

  18. Inhibitory serpins from rye grain with glutamine as P-1 and P-2 residues in the reactive center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn

    2001-01-01

    were determined for each serpin. Three of four serpins containing the unusual reactive center P-2-P-1' QQ down arrowS and one with P-2-P-1' PQ down arrowM were equally efficient inhibitors of chymotrypsin (k(a)'similar to 10(5) M-1 s(-1)). One serpin with P-2-P-1 PY down arrowM was a faster inhibitor...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... who can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists or clinical social workers. The psychiatrist asked Sarah and her ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... begun to chart how the brain develops over time in healthy people and are working to compare ... listless, and had no appetite most of the time. Weeks later, Sarah realized she was having trouble ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... as in areas of the brain that control movement. When electrical signals are abnormal, they can cause ... normal mood functioning. Dopamine —mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the flow of information to the ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Outreach Home Public Involvement Outreach Partners Alliance for Research Progress Coalition ... also linked to reward systems in the brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, ...

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... husband questions about Sarah's symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early-life experiences ...

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    Full Text Available ... at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ... to another. Share Science News Connectome Re-Maps Human Cortex ECT Lifts Depression, Sustains Remission in Older ...

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    Full Text Available ... treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on neurons ... depression, can occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, ...

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    Full Text Available ... in controlling movement, managing the release of various hormones, and aiding the flow of information to the ... at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on mental health. This knowledge is allowing scientists to make important discoveries that ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... may help improve treatments for anxiety disorders like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex ( ... doctor, who ran some tests. After deciding her symptoms were not caused by a stroke, brain tumor, ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... NIMH Strategic Plan in 2016 August 31, 2016, 2:00-3:00 PM ET General Health Information ...

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    Full Text Available ... sends impulses and extends from cell bodies to meet and deliver impulses to another nerve cell. Axons ... in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who ...

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    Full Text Available ... Director’s Blog Budget Strategic Plan Offices and Divisions Careers@NIMH Advisory Boards and Groups Staff Directories Getting ... works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental ...

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    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... but can still remember past events and learned skills, and carry on a conversation, all which rely ...

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    Full Text Available ... and plays an important role during early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. ... but can still remember past events and learned skills, and carry on a conversation, all which rely ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... These factors may act alone or together in complex ways, to change the way a gene is ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ...

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in ... or-flight response and is also involved in emotions and memory. anterior cingulate cortex —Is involved in ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... or serious and cause severe disability. Through research, we know that mental disorders are brain disorders. Evidence ... many different types of cells in the body. We say that cells differentiate as the embryo develops, ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... These circuits control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into ... factors that can affect our bodies, such as sleep, diet, or stress. These factors may act alone ...

  18. Brain Health

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    ... Love Your Brain Stay Physically Active Adopt a Healthy Diet Stay Mentally and Socially Active We Can Help ... of any wellness plan. Learn More Adopt a Healthy Diet > Eat a heart-healthy diet that benefits both ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the ... disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the most common neurotransmitter, glutamate has many roles throughout the brain and nervous system. ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in ... stay focused on a task, and managing proper emotional reactions. Reduced ACC activity or damage to this ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... genes and epigenetics may one day lead to genetic testing for people at risk for mental disorders. ... brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," containing inherited genetic information that helps to define physical and some ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by ...

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    Full Text Available ... they can cause tremors or symptoms found in Parkinson's disease. Serotonin —helps control many functions, such as ... brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, a disorder that affects a person's ability ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's early 20s. Knowing how the ... as judgment, decision making and problem solving, as well as emotional control and memory. serotonin —A neurotransmitter ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... mental disorder, or perhaps you have experienced one yourself at some point. Such disorders include depression , anxiety ... control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... some point. Such disorders include depression , anxiety disorders , bipolar disorder , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) , and many others. ... differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists or clinical social workers. The psychiatrist asked Sarah and her husband ... the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on ...

  8. 词义·句式·功能--"P1就P2"和"P1再P2"句式的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国光

    2004-01-01

    @@ §1引言 现代汉语中副词"就"和"再"都可以联系两个谓词性成分P1和P2,构成"P1就P2"和"P1再P2"句式.其中P1多表示完成、结束性的动作行为,P2则表示与P1相接续的动作行为.这两种句式都表示P1和P2之间的程序关系或条件关系.但由于副词"就"和"再"在语义上的区别,这两种句式所表示的P1和P2之间的程序关系和条件关系也有相应的区别,由此导致这两种句式在语用功能上的对立和区别.本文打算首先分析"就"和"再"这两个副词在语义上的区别和"P1就P2"、"P1再P2"这两种句式在逻辑语义上的区别,然后再描述、分析"P1就P2"和"P1再P2"这两种句式在语用功能上的对立和区别.

  9. Restoration of IGFBP-rP1 increases radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity in hormone-refractory human prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously reported the tumor-suppressive activity of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 (IGFBP-rP1) through induction of apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IGFBP-rP1 for radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity in hormone-refractory human prostate PC-3 cancer cells. Five assays were performed using PC-3 cells transfected with IGFBP-rP1 (PC-3rP1) and control cells transfected with an empty vector (PC-3N): PC-3rP1 and PC-3N were compared by clonogenic survival assay, cell cycle analysis and apoptotic assay for radiosensitivity. The number of colonies of PC-3rP1 cells significantly decreased after 4 and 8 Gy of irradiation, compared with those of PC-3N in the clonogenic survival assay. After 16 hr irradiation at 8 Gy, the percentage of apoptotic cells significantly increased in PC-3rP1 compared with PC-3N. Growth of PC-3rP1 was significantly lower than that of PC-3N after docetaxel treatment both in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that restoration of IGFBP-rP1 to PC-3 cells increases both their radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity. (author)

  10. Identification of a surface-exposed immunodominant epitope on outer membrane protein P1 of Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    OpenAIRE

    Proulx, C; Munson, R S; Grass, S; Hamel, J; Martin, D.; Brodeur, B R

    1991-01-01

    Eight murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against outer membrane protein P1 of Haemophilus influenzae type b were generated and characterized. Seven of the eight MAbs reacted with recombinant P1 and purified P1 protein from H. influenzae type b strains MinnA and 1613; MAb P1.8 was specific for the latter strain. A panel of 32 nontypeable and 140 encapsulated Haemophilus strains recovered worldwide representing the major clonal families of serotypes a, b, and d was used to evaluate th...

  11. Epigenetic Modifications of Distinct Sequences of the p1 Regulatory Gene Specify Tissue-Specific Expression Patterns in Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; Peterson, Thomas; Chopra, Surinder

    2007-01-01

    Tandemly repeated endogenous genes are common in plants, but their transcriptional regulation is not well characterized. In maize, the P1-wr allele of pericarp color1 is composed of multiple copies arranged in a head-to-tail fashion. P1-wr confers a white kernel pericarp and red cob glume pigment phenotype that is stably inherited over generations. To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate tissue-specific expression of P1-wr, we have characterized P1-wr*, a spontaneous loss-of-func...

  12. Intrinsic DNA Distortion of the Bacteriophage Mu momP1 Promoter Is a Negative Regulator of Its Transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Basak, Shashwati; Olsen, Lars; Hattman, Stanley; Nagaraja, Valakunja

    2001-01-01

    The momP1 promoter of the bacteriophage Mu mom operon is an example of a weak promoter. It contains a 19-base pair suboptimal spacer between the 235 (ACCACA) and 210 (TAGAAT) hexamers. Escherichia coli RNA polymerase is unable to bind tomomP1 on its own.DNAdistortion caused by the presence of a run of six T nucleotides overlapping the 5* end of the 210 element might prevent RNA polymerase from binding to momP1. To investigate the influence of the T6 run on momP1 expression, defined substituti...

  13. A bovine G8P[1] group A rotavirus isolated from an asymptomatically infected dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieg, Michael; Rückner, Antje; Köhler, Christian; Burgener, Iwan; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are enteric pathogens with well-documented zoonotic transmissions to humans. The segmented genome of the virus enables reassortment events which might alter host susceptibility and/or disease course. Genetic analysis of rotavirus in dogs has so far only revealed RVAs with the VP7 and VP4 genome constellation G3P[3]. RVA G3P[3] have also been found in cats, humans, monkeys and bats. In the present study, we described an unusual RVA of genotype G8P[1] which was isolated from an asymptomatically infected young dog. The dog did not show signs of diarrhoea. Analysis of full-length segments of VP2, VP6 and VP7 as well as NSP1-NSP5 revealed a typical bovine-like genotype constellation G8-P[1]-I2-Rx-C2-Mx-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3. Phylogenetic analysis supported the hypothesis of an interspecies transmission from a bovine/artiodactyl species or from humans to the young dog. The isolate was likely to represent a multiple reassortant virus. PMID:25304653

  14. Inversion of electron spin resonance signal of P1-center in synthetic crystalline diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the electron spin resonance (ESR) of a 0.59 carat synthetic diamond single crystal at room temperature. The crystal was grown on a 'split-sphere' apparatus in the Fe-Ni-C system by the temperature gradient method. After high-temperature/high-pressure treatment of the diamond, it was observed that as the microwave power supplied to the sample increased from 70 μW to 70 mW in an H102 cavity, the ESR signal from the P1 center (a nitrogen atom substituting for carbon at a lattice point of the diamond crystal: C-form nitrogen) is inverted. In the original diamond (before high-temperature/high-pressure treatment), no inversion of the ESR signal was observed. (authors)

  15. The P1-approximation for the Distribution of Neutrons from a Pulsed Source in Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The asymptotic distribution of neutrons from a pulsed, high energy source in an infinite moderator has been obtained earlier in a 'diffusion' approximation. In that paper the cross section was assumed to be constant over the whole energy region and the time derivative of the first moment was disregarded. Here, first, an analytic expression is obtained for the density in a P1 -approximation. However, the result is very complicated, and it is shown that an asymptotic solution can be found in a simpler way. By taking into account the low hydrogen scattering cross section at the source energy it follows that the space dependence of the distribution is less than that obtained earlier. The importance of keeping the time derivative of the first moment is further shown in a perturbation approximation

  16. Simulation of the ICE P1 test for a validation of COCOSYS and ASTEC codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper presents simulation of the upgraded ICE facility test P1 performed using COCOSYS and ASTEC lumped parameter codes. The experimental ICE facility was constructed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to obtain experimental data on the ingress-of-coolant event which could occur in the ITER. COCOSYS and ASTEC are computer codes used to simulate accident scenarios in the light water reactors. However, they’ve been also used for fusion safety applications and ASTEC is being extended to better address main accident sequences of fusion installations. It is shown in the paper that pressure and temperature evolutions of the main volumes were predicted with reasonable accuracy, however discrepancies in the suppression and drain volumes suggest underestimated vaporization rate

  17. The P1-RKDG method for two-dimensional Euler equations of gas dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Bernardo; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1991-01-01

    A class of nonlinearly stable Runge-Kutta local projection discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) finite element methods for conservation laws is investigated. Two dimensional Euler equations for gas dynamics are solved using P1 elements. The generalization of the local projections, which for scalar nonlinear conservation laws was designed to satisfy a local maximum principle, to systems of conservation laws such as the Euler equations of gas dynamics using local characteristic decompositions is discussed. Numerical examples include the standard regular shock reflection problem, the forward facing step problem, and the double Mach reflection problem. These preliminary numerical examples are chosen to show the capacity of the approach to obtain nonlinearly stable results comparable with the modern nonoscillatory finite difference methods.

  18. Study on the polymorphisms and promoter methylation and expression of the glutathione Stransferases P1 gene in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张友才

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the polymorphisms, promoter methylation, and expression of glutathione S-transferases P1 gene (GST)P1 gene. Methods Using methylation -special PCR (MSP), the methylated status of CpG islands of GSTP1 gene in tumor tissues of 53 HCC and its adjacent nontumor tissues were studied. The en-

  19. Increasing Synthetic Serum Substitute (SSS) Concentrations in P1 Glucose/Phosphate-Free Medium Improves Implantation Rate: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Yovel, Israel; Schwartz, Tamar; Azem, Fuad; Lessing, Joseph B.; Amit, Ami

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the comparative efficacy of IVF medium (MediCult, with 5.2 mM glucose) and a glucose/phosphate-free medium, P1 (Irvine Scientific), and to investigate the influence of increasing the serum supplementation (synthetic serum substitute; SSS; Irvine Scientific) to P1 on embryo development and implantation.

  20. Source Expansion Nodal Solution of SP3 Equations with P1 Coarse Mesh Finite Difference Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to effectively account for the transport effects in core calculations, the SP3 equations are adopted in some of the existing nodal diffusion codes such as PARCS and DYN3D. The advantage of using the SP3 equations comes from the similarity between the SP3 equations and the diffusion or P1 equation that make it possible to use the existing code's architecture and solution methods that were developed for the nodal diffusion equation. The only difference is that there are one more balance equation and one additional unknown, the second angular moment. For the solution of the SP3 equations by the nodal method, the nodal expansion method was first developed and the source expansion nodal method(SENM) was introduced as an accurate kernel to capture correctly the drastic variation of the second angular moment near material interfaces. The exponential part of the source expansion nodal solution turned out to be very effective in describing the strong gradient in the second angular flux near the surface and this capability of SENM provides better accuracy than the corresponding NEM solution. On the other hand, a nodal solution kernel can be formulated locally employing either a one-node or two- node formulation. The one-node formulation requires incoming current conditions while the two-node formulation requires node average fluxes. In principle, these boundary conditions can be provided by the global coarse mesh finite difference (CMFD) solution that includes both zero-th and second angular moment fluxes. Inclusion of the second angular moments in the CMFD system, however, can lead to potential instability because of the large gradient of the second angular moments near each interface. This work is to develop a way not to use the second angular moment in the CMFD equation by keeping the ordinary P1 CMFD formulation

  1. SPITZER IRAC SECONDARY ECLIPSE PHOTOMETRY OF THE TRANSITING EXTRASOLAR PLANET HAT-P-1b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report Spitzer/IRAC photometry of the transiting giant exoplanet HAT-P-1b during its secondary eclipse. This planet lies near the postulated boundary between the pM and pL-class of hot Jupiters, and is important as a test of models for temperature inversions in hot Jupiter atmospheres. We derive eclipse depths for HAT-P-1b, in units of the stellar flux, that are: 0.080% ± 0.008% [3.6 μm], 0.135% ± 0.022% [4.5 μm], 0.203% ± 0.031% [5.8 μm], and 0.238% ± 0.040% [8.0 μm]. These values are best fit using an atmosphere with a modest temperature inversion, intermediate between the archetype inverted atmosphere (HD 209458b) and a model without an inversion. The observations also suggest that this planet is radiating a large fraction of the available stellar irradiance on its dayside, with little available for redistribution by circulation. This planet has sometimes been speculated to be inflated by tidal dissipation, based on its large radius in discovery observations, and on a non-zero orbital eccentricity allowed by the radial velocity data. The timing of the secondary eclipse is very sensitive to orbital eccentricity, and we find that the central phase of the eclipse is 0.4999 ± 0.0005. The difference between the expected and observed phase indicates that the orbit is close to circular, with a 3σ limit of |e cos ω| < 0.002.

  2. Interaction between the P1 protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and receptors on HEp-2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drasbek, Mette; Christiansen, Gunna; Drasbek, Kim Ryun;

    2007-01-01

    The human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae can cause atypical pneumonia through adherence to epithelial cells in the respiratory tract. The major immunogenic protein, P1, participates in the attachment of the bacteria to the host cells. To investigate the adhesion properties of P1, a recombinant...... protein (rP1-II) covering amino acids 1107-1518 of the P1 protein was produced. This protein inhibited the adhesion of M. pneumoniae to human HEp-2 cells, as visualized in a competitive-binding assay using immunofluorescence microscopy. Previous studies have shown that mAbs that recognize two epitopes in...... this region of P1 also reduce M. pneumoniae adhesion. Therefore, peptides covering these epitopes, of 8 and 13 aa, respectively, were synthesized to further investigate the adhesion region. None of these synthetic peptides reduced the binding of M. pneumoniae to the receptors on the host cells. Instead...

  3. [Enhanced resistance to phytopathogenic bacteria in transgenic tobacco plants with synthetic gene of antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, N S; Rukavtsova, E B; Gudkov, A T; Bur'ianov, Ia I

    2005-11-01

    Plasmids with a synthetic gene of the mammalian antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 (cecP1) controlled by the constitutive promoter 35S RNA of cauliflower mosaic virus were constructed. Agrobacterial transformation of tobacco plants was conducted using the obtained recombinant binary vector. The presence of gene cecP1 in the plant genome was confirmed by PCR. The expression of gene cecP1 in transgenic plants was shown by Northern blot analysis. The obtained transgenic plants exhibit enhanced resistance to phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas syringae, P. marginata, and Erwinia carotovora. The ability of transgenic plants to express cecropin P1 was transmitted to the progeny. F1 and F2 plants had the normal phenotype (except for a changed coloration of flowers) and retained the ability to produce normal viable seeds upon self-pollination. Lines of F1 plants with Mendelian segregation of transgenic traits were selected.

  4. EXPRESSION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF IGFBP-rP1 IN HUMAN HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA%IGFBP-rP1在原发性肝细胞肝癌中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕宏娜; 王要军

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白相关蛋白1(insulin-like growth factor binding proteins-related protein 1,IGFBP-rP1)在原发性肝细胞肝癌(human hepatocellar carcinomas,HCC)中的表达及意义.方法 应用免疫组织化学法检测43例HCC、32例癌旁肝组织及9例正常肝组织IGFBP-rP1的表达.结果 IGFBP-rP1在HCC的表达显著低于癌旁肝组织(P<0. 01)及正常肝组织(P<0.01),但正常肝组织和癌旁肝组织IGFBP-rP1的表达无明显差异(P>0.05).IGFBP-rP1的表达强度与HCC的恶性生物学行为关系密切.结论 IGFBP-rP1抑制HCC的进展,IGFBP-rP1表达下调在HCC的进展中起重要作用.

  5. Growth and characterization of dilute nitride GaNxP1−x nanowires and GaNxP1−x/GaNyP1−y core/shell nanowires on Si (111) by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have demonstrated self-catalyzed GaNxP1−x and GaNxP1−x/GaNyP1−y core/shell nanowire growth by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The growth window for GaNxP1−x nanowires was observed to be comparable to that of GaP nanowires (∼585 °C to ∼615 °C). Transmission electron microscopy showed a mixture of cubic zincblende phase and hexagonal wurtzite phase along the [111] growth direction in GaNxP1−x nanowires. A temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) study performed on GaNxP1−x/GaNyP1−y core/shell nanowires exhibited an S-shape dependence of the PL peaks. This suggests that at low temperature, the emission stems from N-related localized states below the conduction band edge in the shell, while at high temperature, the emission stems from band-to-band transition in the shell as well as recombination in the GaNxP1−x core.

  6. Solutions of system of P1 equations without use of auxiliary differential equations coupled; Solucoes do sistema de equacoes P1 sem o uso de equacoes diferenciais auxiliares acopladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    The system of P1 equations is composed by two equations coupled itself one for the neutron flux and other for the current. Usually this system is solved by definitions of two integrals parameters, which are named slowing down densities of the flux and the current. Hence, the system P1 can be change from integral to only two differential equations. However, there are two new differentials equations that may be solved with the initial system. The present work analyzes this procedure and studies a method, which solve the P1 equations directly, without definitions of slowing down densities. (author)

  7. Micrococcin P1, a naturally occurring macrocyclic peptide inhibiting hepatitis C virus entry in a pan-genotypic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myungeun; Yang, Jaewon; Park, Sanghyun; Jo, Eunji; Kim, Hee-Young; Bae, Yong-Soo; Windisch, Marc P

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered a major public health concern worldwide. Despite recent advances in curing chronic hepatitis C, unmet medical needs still remain, especially due to the high economic burden of therapies. Accordingly, our study aimed to identify affordable novel HCV inhibitors by screening of natural product compound libraries. We identified micrococcin P1, a macrocyclic peptide antibiotic, inhibiting HCV entry in a pan-genotypic manner with an EC50 range of 0.1-0.5 μM. Micrococcin P1 interfered with HCV entry at an attachment step. Furthermore, micrococcin P1 efficiently inhibited HCV spread by blocking cell-free infection as well as cell-to-cell transmission, without affecting the secretion of infectious virions. Interestingly, the putative molecular target of micrococcin P1 is glycoprotein E2 (IIe-630-Thr), as revealed by selection for viral drug resistance. In addition, micrococcin P1 inhibited sofosbuvir-resistant HCV strains and showed synergy in combination with selected HCV drugs, suggesting an alternative treatment paradigm for patients. In conclusion, we identified micrococcin P1 as specifically inhibiting entry of all HCV genotypes and demonstrated that micrococcin P1 potentially could add value to therapies in combination with current HCV interventions. PMID:27387825

  8. Robot brains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babuska, R.

    2011-01-01

    The brain hosts complex networks of neurons that are responsible for behavior in humans and animals that we generally call intelligent. I is not easy to give an exact definition of intelligence – for the purpose of this talk it will suffice to say that we refer to intelligence as a collection of cap

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate have been linked ... we see, and help us to solve a problem. Some of the regions most commonly ... also appears to be involved in learning to fear an event, such as touching a ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex (PFC) —Seat of the brain's executive functions, such as ... making, and problem solving. Different parts of the PFC are involved in using short-term or "working" ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ... ClinicalTrials.gov : Federally and privately supported research using human volunteers PubMed Central: An archive of life sciences ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ADHD , schizophrenia , and depression . Hippocampus —Helps create and file new memories. When the hippocampus is damaged, a ... portion of the brain involved in creating and filing new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A ...

  13. Effect of the house dust mite allergen Der p 1 on tryptase release from human mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D Q; Shen, Y Y; Xu, J H; Tang, H

    2016-07-14

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the house dust mite allergen Der p 1 on the secretion of tryptase from the human mast cell line HMC-1. Flow cytometry was used to determine the expression levels of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on the surface of HMC-1 cells. HMC-1 cells were treated with Der p 1, SLIGRL-NH2 (PAR2 agonist), LRGILS-NH2 (control peptide for PAR2), or Der p 1 + FSLLRY (PAR2 antagonist), and the tryptase levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The biological functions of PAR2 were determined using the calcium green indicator, and intracellular calcium fluorescence intensity in the different groups (Der p 1, SLIGRL-NH2, LRGILS- NH2, Der p 1 + FSLLRY, tryptase, tryptase + FSLLRY, or cell culture medium) was detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The mast cells expressed PAR2 receptor on their surfaces. Der p 1 alone induced a significant release of intracellular calcium and tryptase in HMC-1 cells compared with the SLIGRL- NH2 treatment group and the control group. The combination of Der p 1 and FSLLRY partly inhibited intracellular calcium and tryptase release in HMC-1 cells compared with the Der p 1 treatment group. Moreover, tryptase induced a significant release of intracellular calcium in the HMC-1 cells. Der p 1 induced HMC-1 cell degranulation and the release of tryptase by activating the PAR2 receptor on the cell surfaces. Tryptase activated the PAR2 receptor and induced intracellular calcium release from the HMC-1 cells in a positive feedback loop.

  14. 焦化废水中高效Rhodococcus P1菌株的降酚特性研究%CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH EFFICIENCY PHENOL-DEGRADING STRAIN RHODOCOCCUS P1 FOR COKING WASTEWATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙小俊; 张玉秀

    2014-01-01

    通过研究分离鉴定的Rhodococcus P1菌株的苯酚降解性能,表明P1菌株24 h内可完全降解低于907 mg/L的苯酚.苯酚羟化酶基因克隆表达和酶活测定分析表明P1菌株的苯酚代谢途径通过邻苯二酚l,2双加氧酶催化开环降解.除降解苯酚外,P1菌株可利用吡啶作为唯一的碳源和能源.

  15. Expression of flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase is controlled by P1, the regulator of 3-deoxyflavonoid biosynthesis in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mandeep

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maize (Zea mays red aleurone1 (pr1 encodes a CYP450-dependent flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase (ZmF3’H1 required for the biosynthesis of purple and red anthocyanin pigments. We previously showed that Zmf3’h1 is regulated by C1 (Colorless1 and R1 (Red1 transcription factors. The current study demonstrates that, in addition to its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, the Zmf3’h1 gene also participates in the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyflavonoids and phlobaphenes that accumulate in maize pericarps, cob glumes, and silks. Biosynthesis of 3-deoxyflavonoids is regulated by P1 (Pericarp color1 and is independent from the action of C1 and R1 transcription factors. Results In maize, apiforol and luteoforol are the precursors of condensed phlobaphenes. Maize lines with functional alleles of pr1 and p1 (Pr1;P1 accumulate luteoforol, while null pr1 lines with a functional or non-functional p1 allele (pr1;P1 or pr1;p1 accumulate apiforol. Apiforol lacks a hydroxyl group at the 3’-position of the flavylium B-ring, while luteoforol has this hydroxyl group. Our biochemical analysis of accumulated compounds in different pr1 genotypes showed that the pr1 encoded ZmF3’H1 has a role in the conversion of mono-hydroxylated to bi-hydroxylated compounds in the B-ring. Steady state RNA analyses demonstrated that Zmf3’h1 mRNA accumulation requires a functional p1 allele. Using a combination of EMSA and ChIP experiments, we established that the Zmf3’h1 gene is a direct target of P1. Highlighting the significance of the Zmf3’h1 gene for resistance against biotic stress, we also show here that the p1 controlled 3-deoxyanthocyanidin and C-glycosyl flavone (maysin defence compounds accumulate at significantly higher levels in Pr1 silks as compared to pr1 silks. By virtue of increased maysin synthesis in Pr1 plants, corn ear worm larvae fed on Pr1; P1 silks showed slower growth as compared to pr1; P1 silks. Conclusions Our results show that the Zmf3

  16. A positive selection vector for cloning high molecular weight DNA by the bacteriophage P1 system: improved cloning efficacy.

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, J C; Sauer, B; Sternberg, N

    1992-01-01

    The bacteriophage P1 cloning system can package and propagate DNA inserts that are up to 95 kilobases. Clones are maintained in Escherichia coli by a low-copy replicon in the P1 cloning vector and can be amplified by inducing a second replicon in the vector with isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside. To overcome the necessity of screening clones for DNA inserts, we have developed a P1 vector with a positive selection system that is based on the properties of the sacB gene from Bacillus amylo...

  17. 高速线阵CCD IL-P1-4096的原理和应用%Principle and application of high speed CCD IL-P1-4096

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵雷; 施国梁

    2005-01-01

    IL-P1-4096是加拿大DALSA公司生产的双相高速线阵CCD.其单相工作频率可达25MHz甚至更高,因此应用十分广泛.文中介绍了IL-P1-4096的性能和工作原理,并给出了具体的应用电路.

  18. Probing dynamics of a spin ensemble of P1 centers in diamond using a superconducting resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Gijs; Ranjan, Vishal; Schutjens, Ron; Debelhoir, Thibault; Groen, Joost; Szombati, Daniel; Thoen, David; Klapwijk, Teun; Hanson, Ronald; Dicarlo, Leonardo

    2013-03-01

    Solid-state spin ensembles are promising candidates for realizing a quantum memory for superconducting circuits. Understanding the dynamics of such ensembles is a necessary step towards achieving this goal. Here, we investigate the dynamics of an ensemble of nitrogen impurities (P1 centers) in diamond using magnetic-field controlled coupling to the first two modes of a superconducting (NbTiN) coplanar waveguide resonator. Three hyperfine-split spin sub-ensembles are clearly resolved in the 0.25-1.2 K temperature range, with a collective coupling strength extrapolating to 23 MHz at full polarization. The coupling to multiple modes allows us to distinguish the contributions of dipolar broadening and magnetic field inhomogeneity to the spin linewidth. We find the spin polarization recovery rate to be temperature independent below 1 K and conclude that spin out-diffusion across the resonator mode volume provides the mechanism for spin relaxation of the ensemble. Furthermore, by pumping spins in one sub-ensemble and probing the spins in the other sub-ensembles, we observe fast steady-state cross-relaxation (compared to spin repolarization) across the hyperfine transitions. These observations have important implications for using the three sub-ensembles as independent quantum memories. Research supported by NWO, FOM, and EU Project SOLID

  19. Selective inhibitors of glutathione transferase P1 with trioxane structure as anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräutigam, Maria; Teusch, Nicole; Schenk, Tobias; Sheikh, Miriam; Aricioglu, Rocky Z; Borowski, Swantje H; Neudörfl, Jörg-Martin; Baumann, Ulrich; Griesbeck, Axel G; Pietsch, Markus

    2015-04-01

    The response to chemotherapy in cancer patients is frequently compromised by drug resistance. Although chemoresistance is a multifactorial phenomenon, many studies have demonstrated that altered drug metabolism through the expression of phase II conjugating enzymes, including glutathione transferases (GSTs), in tumor cells can be directly correlated with resistance against a wide range of marketed anticancer drugs. In particular, overexpression of glutathione transferase P1 (GSTP1) appears to be a factor for poor prognosis during cancer therapy. Former and ongoing clinical trials have confirmed GSTP1 inhibition as a principle for antitumor therapy. A new series of 1,2,4-trioxane GSTP1 inhibitors were designed via a type II photooxygenation route of allylic alcohols followed by acid-catalyzed peroxyacetalization with aldehydes. A set of novel inhibitors exhibit low micromolar to high nanomolar inhibition of GSTP1, revealing preliminary SAR for further lead optimization. Importantly, high selectivity over another two human GST classes (GSTA1 and GSTM2) has been achieved. The trioxane GSTP1 inhibitors may therefore serve as a basis for the development of novel drug candidates in overcoming chemoresistance.

  20. Glutathione S-transferase P1 ILE105Val polymorphism in occupationally exposed bladder cancer cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopps, Silke; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Prager, Hans-Martin; Roemer, Hermann C; Lohlein, Dietrich; Weistenhofer, Wobbeke; Bolt, Hermann M; Golka, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The genotype glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) influences the risk for bladder cancer among Chinese workers occupationally exposed to benzidine. Studies of Caucasian bladder cancer cases without known occupational exposures showed conflicting results. Research was thus conducted to define the role of GSTP1 genotypes in Caucasian bladder cancer cases with an occupational history of exposure to aromatic amines. DNA from 143 cases reported to the Industrial Professional Associations (Berufsgenossenschaften) in Germany from 1996 to 2004, who had contracted urothelial cancer due to occupational exposure, and 196 patients from one Department of Surgery in Dortmund, without known malignancy in their medical history, were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (LightCycler) in relation to GSTP1 A1578G (Ile105Val) polymorphism. Among the subjects with bladder cancer, 46% presented the AA genotype, 39% the AG genotype, and 15% the GG genotype. In the surgical (noncancer) control group analyzed, 42% presented the AA genotype, 42% the AG genotype, and 16% the GG genotype. A subgroup of bladder cancer cases, represented by 46 painters, showed a distribution of 41% of the AA genotype, 48% of the AG genotype, and 11% of the GG genotype. Data indicated that in Caucasians exposed to aromatic amines the GSTP1 A1578G polymorphism did not appear to play a significant role as a predisposing factor for bladder cancer incidence.

  1. The evolving activity of the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used the Ultraviolet-Optical Telescope on board Swift to observe the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) from a heliocentric distance of 3.5 AU pre-perihelion until 4.0 AU outbound. At 3.5 AU pre-perihelion, comet Garradd had one of the highest dust-to-gas ratios ever observed, matched only by comet Hale-Bopp. The evolving morphology of the dust in its coma suggests an outburst that ended around 2.2 AU pre-perihelion. Comparing slit-based measurements and observations acquired with larger fields of view indicated that between 3 AU and 2 AU pre-perihelion a significant extended source started producing water in the coma. We demonstrate that this source, which could be due to icy grains, disappeared quickly around perihelion. Water production by the nucleus may be attributed to a constantly active source of at least 75 km2, estimated to be >20% of the surface. Based on our measurements, the comet lost 4 × 1011 kg of ice and dust during this apparition, corresponding to at most a few meters of its surface. Even though this was likely not the comet's first passage through the inner solar system, the activity of Garradd was complex and changed significantly during the time it was observed.

  2. Uncorrelated volatile behavior during the 2011 apparition of comet C/2009 P1 Garradd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Resolution Instrument Infrared Spectrometer (HRI-IR) on board the Deep Impact Flyby spacecraft detected H2O, CO2, and CO in the coma of the dynamically young Oort Cloud comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) post-perihelion at a heliocentric distance of 2 AU. Production rates were derived for the parent volatiles, Q H2O = 4.6 ± 0.8 × 1028, Q CO2 = 3.9 ± 0.7 × 1027, and Q CO = 2.9 ± 0.8 × 1028 molecules s–1, and are consistent with the trends seen by other observers and within the error bars of measurements acquired during a similar time period. When compiled with other observations of Garradd's dominant volatiles, unexpected behavior was seen in the release of CO. Garradd's H2O outgassing, increasing and peaking pre-perihelion and then steadily decreasing, is more typical than that of CO, which monotonically increased throughout the entire apparition. Due to the temporal asymmetry in volatile release, Garradd exhibited the highest CO to H2O abundance ratio ever observed for any comet inside the water snow line at ∼60% during the HRI-IR observations. Also, the HRI-IR made the only direct measurement of CO2, giving a typical cometary abundance ratio of CO2 to H2O of 8% but, with only one measurement, no sense of how it varied with orbital position.

  3. Precision frequency measurement of 1S0–3P1 intercombination lines of Sr isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on frequency measurement of the intercombination (5s2)1S0–(5s5p)3P1 transition of the four natural isotopes of strontium, including 88Sr (82.58%), 87Sr (7.0%), 86Sr (9.86%), and 84Sr (0.56%). A narrow-linewidth laser that is locked to an ultra-low expansion (ULE) optical cavity with a finesse of 12000 is evaluated at a linewidth of 200 Hz with a fractional frequency drift of 2.8×10−13 at an integration time of 1 s. The fluorescence collector and detector are specially designed, based on a thermal atomic beam. Using a double-pass acousto-optic modulator (AOM) combined with a fiber and laser power stabilization configuration to detune the laser frequency enables high signal-to-noise ratios and precision saturated spectra to be obtained for the six transition lines, which allows us to determine the transition frequency precisely. The optical frequency is measured using an optical frequency synthesizer referenced to an H maser. Both the statistical values and the final values, including the corrections and uncertainties, are derived for a comparison with the values given in other works. (paper)

  4. Absolute frequency measurement of the magnesium intercombination transition $^1S_0 \\to ^3P_1$

    CERN Document Server

    Friebe, Jan; Riedmann, Matthias; Moldenhauer, Karsten; Mehlstäubler, Tanja; Rehbein, Nils; Lisdat, Christian; Rasel, Ernst M; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Schnatz, Harald; Lipphardt, Burghard; Grosche, Gesine

    2007-01-01

    We report on a frequency measurement of the $(3s^2)^1S_0\\to(3s3p)^3P_1$ clock transition of $^{24}$Mg on a thermal atomic beam. The intercombination transition has been referenced to a portable primary Cs frequency standard with the help of a femtosecond fiber laser frequency comb. The achieved uncertainty is $2.5\\times10^{-12}$ which corresponds to an increase in accuracy of six orders of magnitude compared to previous results. The measured frequency value permits the calculation of several other optical transitions from $^1S_0$ to the $^3P_J$-level system for $^{24}$Mg, $^{25}$Mg and $^{26}$Mg. We describe in detail the components of our optical frequency standard like the stabilized spectroscopy laser, the atomic beam apparatus used for Ramsey-Bord\\'e interferometry and the frequency comb generator and discuss the uncertainty contributions to our measurement including the first and second order Doppler effect. An upper limit of $3\\times10^{-13}$ in one second for the short term instability of our optical f...

  5. U ( 3 C × S p ( 1 L × U ( 1 L × U ( 1 R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfredo Anchordoqui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We outline the basic setting of the U ( 3 C × S p ( 1 L × U ( 1 L × U ( 1 R gauge theory and review the associated phenomenological aspects related to experimental searches for new physics at hadron colliders. In this construction, there are two massive Z ′-gauge bosons, which can be naturally associated with baryon number B   and   B - L   ( L being lepton number. We discuss the potential signals which may be accessible at the Tevatron and at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC. In particular, we provide the relevant cross sections for the production of Z ′-gauge bosons in the TeV region, leading to predictions that are within reach of the present or the next LHC run. After that we direct attention to embedding the gauge theory into the framework of string theory. We consider extensions of the standard model based on open strings ending on D-branes, with gauge bosons due to strings attached to stacks of D-branes and chiral matter due to strings stretching between intersecting D-branes. Assuming that the fundamental string mass scale is in the TeV range and the theory is weakly coupled, we explore the LHC discovery potential for Regge excitations.

  6. Phage p1-derived artificial chromosomes facilitate heterologous expression of the FK506 gene cluster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Jones

    Full Text Available We describe a procedure for the conjugative transfer of phage P1-derived Artificial Chromosome (PAC library clones containing large natural product gene clusters (≥70 kilobases to Streptomyces coelicolor strains that have been engineered for improved heterologous production of natural products. This approach is demonstrated using the gene cluster for FK506 (tacrolimus, a clinically important immunosuppressant of high commercial value. The entire 83.5 kb FK506 gene cluster from Streptomyces tsukubaensis NRRL 18488 present in one 130 kb PAC clone was introduced into four different S. coelicolor derivatives and all produced FK506 and smaller amounts of the related compound FK520. FK506 yields were increased by approximately five-fold (from 1.2 mg L(-1 to 5.5 mg L(-1 in S. coelicolor M1146 containing the FK506 PAC upon over-expression of the FK506 LuxR regulatory gene fkbN. The PAC-based gene cluster conjugation methodology described here provides a tractable means to evaluate and manipulate FK506 biosynthesis and is readily applicable to other large gene clusters encoding natural products of interest to medicine, agriculture and biotechnology.

  7. Uncorrelated Volatile Behavior During the 2011 Apparition of Comet C/2009 P1 Garradd

    CERN Document Server

    Feaga, Lori M; Farnham, Tony L; Bodewits, Dennis; Sunshine, Jessica M; Gersch, Alan M; Protopapa, Silvia; Yang, Bin; Drahus, Michal; Schleicher, David G

    2013-01-01

    The High Resolution Instrument Infrared Spectrometer (HRI-IR) onboard the Deep Impact Flyby spacecraft detected H2O, CO2, and CO in the coma of the dynamically young Oort cloud comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) post-perihelion at a heliocentric distance of 2 AU. Production rates were derived for the parent volatiles, QH2O = 4.6e28, QCO2 = 3.9e27, and QCO = 2.9e28 molecules s-1, and are consistent with the trends seen by other observers and within the error bars of measurements acquired during a similar time period. When compiled with other observations of the dominant volatiles of Garradd, unexpected behavior was seen in the release of CO. The H2O outgassing of Garradd, increasing and peaking pre-perihelion and then steadily decreasing, is more typical than that of CO, which monotonically increased throughout the entire apparition. Due to the temporal asymmetry in volatile release, Garradd exhibited the highest CO to H2O abundance ratio ever observed for any comet inside the water snow line at 60 percent during the H...

  8. The Evolving Activity of the Dynamically Young Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    CERN Document Server

    Bodewits, D; A'Hearn, M F; Feaga, L M; McKay, A; Schleicher, D G; Sunshine, J M

    2014-01-01

    We used the UltraViolet-Optical Telescope on board Swift to observe the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) from a heliocentric distance of 3.5 AU pre-perihelion until 4.0 AU outbound. At 3.5 AU pre-perihelion, comet Garradd had one of the highest dust-to-gas ratios ever observed, matched only by comet Hale-Bopp. The evolving morphology of the dust in its coma suggests an outburst that ended around 2.2 AU pre-perihelion. Comparing slit-based measurements and observations acquired with larger fields of view indicated that between 3 AU and 2 AU pre-perihelion a significant extended source started producing water in the coma. We demonstrate that this source, which could be due to icy grains, disappeared quickly around perihelion. Water production by the nucleus may be attributed to a constantly active source of at least 75 km$^2$, estimated to be more than 20 percent of the surface. Based on our measurements, the comet lost $4x10^{11}$ kg of ice and dust during this apparition, corresponding to at most a...

  9. The evolving activity of the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodewits, D.; Farnham, T. L.; A' Hearn, M. F.; Feaga, L. M.; Sunshine, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); McKay, A. [Astronomy Department, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Schleicher, D. G., E-mail: dennis@astro.umd.edu [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We used the Ultraviolet-Optical Telescope on board Swift to observe the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) from a heliocentric distance of 3.5 AU pre-perihelion until 4.0 AU outbound. At 3.5 AU pre-perihelion, comet Garradd had one of the highest dust-to-gas ratios ever observed, matched only by comet Hale-Bopp. The evolving morphology of the dust in its coma suggests an outburst that ended around 2.2 AU pre-perihelion. Comparing slit-based measurements and observations acquired with larger fields of view indicated that between 3 AU and 2 AU pre-perihelion a significant extended source started producing water in the coma. We demonstrate that this source, which could be due to icy grains, disappeared quickly around perihelion. Water production by the nucleus may be attributed to a constantly active source of at least 75 km{sup 2}, estimated to be >20% of the surface. Based on our measurements, the comet lost 4 × 10{sup 11} kg of ice and dust during this apparition, corresponding to at most a few meters of its surface. Even though this was likely not the comet's first passage through the inner solar system, the activity of Garradd was complex and changed significantly during the time it was observed.

  10. Spin-orbit relaxation kinetics of Br(4 2P1/2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ray O.; Perram, Glen P.; Roh, Won B.

    1996-05-01

    Pulsed and steady-state photolysis techniques have been employed to measure the rate coefficients for collisional deactivation of the spin-orbit excited state of atomic bromine, Br(4 2P1/2). Pulsed lifetime studies for quenching by Br2 and CO2 yielded absolute rate coefficients at room temperature of kBr2=1.2±0.1×10-12 and kCO2=1.5±0.3×10-11 cm3/molecule s. The rate coefficients for quenching by rare gases, N2, O2, NO, NO2, N2O, CO, CO2, COS, SO2, SF6, CF4, CH4, H2S, H2, D2, HBr, HCl, and HI, relative to that for Br2 were determined in a steady-state photolysis experiment. Correlation of the deactivation probabilities with energy defect for the case of electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer is demonstrated.

  11. Understanding the Biocompatibility of Sintered Calcium Phosphate with Ratio of [Ca]/[P] = 1.50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Lin Yen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatibility of sintered calcium phosphate pellets with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50 was determined in this study. Calcium pyrophosphate (CPP phase formed on the sintered pellets immersed in a normal saline solution for 14 d at 37∘C. The intensities of hydroxyapatite (HA reflections in the X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of the pellets were retrieved to as-sintered state. The pellet surface morphology shows that CPP crystallites were clearly present and make an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP to discriminate against become to the area of slice join together. In addition, the intensities of the CPP reflections in the XRD patterns were the highest when the pellets were immersed for 28 d. When the CPP powders were extracted from the pellets after immersion in the solution for 14 d, the viability of 3T3 cells remained above 90% for culture times from 1 to 4 d. The pellet surface morphology observed using optical microscopy showed that the cells did not adhere to the bottom of the sintered pellets when cultured for 4 d; however, some CPP phase precipitates were formed, as confirmed by XRD. In consequence, the results suggest that the sintered HA powders are good materials for use in biomedical applications because of their good biocompatibility.

  12. Precision Measurement of the Mass of the h_c(1P1) State of Charmonium

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbs, S; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Libby, J; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M; Love, W; Savinov, V; López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Reed, J; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hunt, J M; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Ledoux, J; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P

    2008-01-01

    A precision measurement of the mass of the h_c(1P1) state of charmonium has been made using a sample of 24.5 million psi(2S) events produced in e+e- annihilation at CESR. The reaction used was psi(2S) -> pi0 h_c, pi0 -> gamma gamma, h_c -> gamma eta_c, and the reaction products were detected in the CLEO-c detector. Data have been analyzed both for the inclusive reaction and for the exclusive reactions in which eta_c decays are reconstructed in fifteen hadronic decay channels. Consistent results are obtained in the two analyses. The averaged results of the present measurements are M(h_c)=3525.28+-0.19 (stat)+-0.12(syst) MeV, and B(psi(2S) -> pi0 h_c)xB(h_c -> gamma eta_c)= (4.19+-0.32+-0.45)x10^-4. Using the 3PJ centroid mass, Delta M_hf(1P)= - M(h_c) = +0.02+-0.19+-0.13 MeV.

  13. Further constraints on the optical transmission spectrum of HAT-P-1b

    CERN Document Server

    Montalto, M; Santos, N C; Desidera, S; Martins, J H C; Figueira, P; Alonso, R; .,

    2015-01-01

    We report on novel observations of HAT-P-1 aimed at constraining the optical transmission spectrum of the atmosphere of its transiting Hot-Jupiter exoplanet. Ground-based differential spectrophotometry was performed over two transit windows using the DOLORES spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). Our measurements imply an average planet to star radius ratio equal to $\\rm R_p/R_{\\star}$=(0.1159$\\pm$0.0005). This result is consistent with the value obtained from recent near infrared measurements of this object but differs from previously reported optical measurements being lower by around 4.4 exoplanet scale heights. Analyzing the data over 5 different spectral bins 600\\AA$\\,$ wide we observed a single peaked spectrum (3.7 $\\rm\\sigma$ level) with a blue cut-off corresponding to the blue edge of the broad absorption wing of sodium and an increased absorption in the region in between 6180-7400\\AA. We also infer that the width of the broad absorption wings due to alkali metals is likely narrower t...

  14. The Properties of Sintered Calcium Phosphate with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Chin Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain the properties of the sintered as-dried calcium phosphate with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50, the characteristics of sintered pellets have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectra, Vickers hardness indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. When the pellet samples were sintered between 700 °C and 1200 °C for 4 h, the hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO46(OH2, HA still maintained the major phase, accompanied with the rhenanite (NaCaPO4 as the secondary phase and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO42, β-TCP as the minor phases. In addition, the HA partially transformed to α-tricalcium phosphate (α-Ca3(PO42, α-TCP and tetracalcium phosphate (Ca4(PO42O, TTCP, when the pellet samples were sintered at 1300 °C and 1400 °C, respectively, for 4 h. The maximum density and Vickers Hardness (HV of sintered pellet samples were 2.85 g/cm3 (90.18% theoretical density (T.D. and 407, which appeared at 1200 °C and 900 °C, respectively.

  15. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  16. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  17. Design a Close Loop Cooling System for EA-P1 and Its Auxiliaries to Prevent Loss of Domestic Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any one of four machines i.e. EA-P1, EA-J4, EA-J5 and EA-J6 may be used to develop vacuum in water box side of main condenser in KANUPP. As per design and operating experience, most efficient one is EA-P1. But since it consumes ample quantity of domestic water which is already very short at KANUPP (even tankers are purchased), its use is avoided. If water used for its cooling is prevented from going to waste and is recycled. EA-P1 operation may be resumed thereby improving efficiency of condenser. We made a close loop for EA-P1 in order to prevent water from going to waste. For this purpose we suggested two close loop schemes and discuss their advantages and drawbacks. Feasibility of both schemes is present in this report and efficient one is proposed for installation at KANUPP. (author)

  18. The crystal structure of recombinant proDer p 1, a major house dust mite proteolytic allergen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meno, Kåre; Thorsted, Peter B; Ipsen, Henrik;

    2005-01-01

    Allergy to house dust mite is among the most prevalent allergic diseases worldwide. Most house dust mite allergic patients react to Der p 1 from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, which is a cysteine protease. To avoid heterogeneity in the sample used for crystallization, a modified recombinant...... molecule was produced. The sequence of the proDer p 1 allergen was modified to reduce glycosylation and to abolish enzymatic activity. The resulting rproDer p 1 preparation was homogenous and stable and yielded crystals diffracting to a resolution of 1.61 A. The active site is located in a large cleft on...... substrates. Sequence variations in related species are concentrated on the surface, which explains the existence of cross-reacting and species-specific antibodies. This study describes the first crystal structure of one of the clinically most important house dust mite allergens, the cysteine protease Der p 1....

  19. Ricci Flow of Warped Product Metrics with Positive Isotropic Curvature on $S^{p+1}× S^1$

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H A Gururaja

    2012-11-01

    We study the asymptotic behaviour of the ODE associated to the evolution of curvature operator in the Ricci flow of a doubly warped product metric on $S^{p+1}× S^1$ with positive isotropic curvature.

  20. The activation of P1- and P2-purinoceptors in the guinea-pig left atrium by diadenosine polyphosphates.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyle, C. H.; Ziganshin, A. U.; Pintor, J; Burnstock, G.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of P1, P2-di(adenosine) pyrophosphate (AP2A), P1, P3-di(adenosine) triphosphate (AP3A), P1,P4-di(adenosine) tetraphosphate (AP4A), P1,P5-di(adenosine) pentaphosphate (AP5A), ATP, alpha, beta-methylene ADP and 2-chloroadenosine (2-ClAd) were examined in the guinea-pig driven left atrium. 2. All these purine compounds except alpha, beta-methylene ADP produced a negative inotropic response with a rank order of potency of: 2-ClAd > > AP2A > or = ATP > or = AP4A = AP3A = AP5A. The E...

  1. Non-relativistic limit of the compressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier-P1 approximation model arising in radiation hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Song; Li, Fucai; Xie, Feng

    2015-01-01

    As is well-known that the general radiation hydrodynamics models include two mainly coupled parts: one is macroscopic fluid part, which is governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, another is radiation field part, which is described by the transport equation of photons. Under the two physical approximations: "gray" approximation and P1 approximation, one can derive the so-called Navier-Stokes-Fourier-P1 approximation radiation hydrodynamics model from the general one. In t...

  2. Broad-Host-Range IncP-1 plasmids and their resistance potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena ePopowska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasmids of the incompatibility group IncP-1, also called IncP, as extrachromosomal genetic elements can transfer and replicate virtually in all Gram-negative bacteria. They are composed of backbone genes that encode a variety of essential functions and accessory genes that have implications for human health and environmental bioremediation. Broad-host-range IncP plasmids are known to spread genes between distinct phylogenetic groups of bacteria. These genes often code for resistances to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, heavy metals and quaternary ammonium compounds used as disinfectants. The backbone of these plasmids carries modules that enable them to effectively replicate, move to a new host via conjugative transfer and to be stably maintained in bacterial cells. The adaptive, resistance and virulence genes are mainly located on mobile genetic elements integrated between the functional plasmid backbone modules. Environmental studies have demonstrated the wide distribution of IncP-like replicons in manure, soils and wastewater treatment plants. They also are present in strains of pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria, which can be a cause for concern, because they may encode multiresistance. Their broad distribution suggests that IncP plasmids play a crucial role in bacterial adaptation by utilizing horizontal gene transfer. This review summarizes the variety of genetic information and physiological functions carried by IncP plasmids, which can contribute to the spread of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance while also mediating the process of bioremediation of pollutants. Due to the location of the resistance genes on plasmids with a broad host range and the presence of transposons carrying these genes it seems that the spread of these genes would be possible and quite hazardous in infection control. Future studies are required to determine the level of risk of the spread of resistance genes located on these plasmids.

  3. Uncorrelated volatile behavior during the 2011 apparition of comet C/2009 P1 Garradd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feaga, Lori M.; A' Hearn, Michael F.; Farnham, Tony L.; Bodewits, Dennis; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Gersch, Alan M.; Protopapa, Silvia [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Yang, Bin [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Drahus, Michal [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schleicher, David G., E-mail: feaga@astro.umd.edu [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The High Resolution Instrument Infrared Spectrometer (HRI-IR) on board the Deep Impact Flyby spacecraft detected H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and CO in the coma of the dynamically young Oort Cloud comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) post-perihelion at a heliocentric distance of 2 AU. Production rates were derived for the parent volatiles, Q {sub H2O} = 4.6 ± 0.8 × 10{sup 28}, Q {sub CO2} = 3.9 ± 0.7 × 10{sup 27}, and Q {sub CO} = 2.9 ± 0.8 × 10{sup 28} molecules s{sup –1}, and are consistent with the trends seen by other observers and within the error bars of measurements acquired during a similar time period. When compiled with other observations of Garradd's dominant volatiles, unexpected behavior was seen in the release of CO. Garradd's H{sub 2}O outgassing, increasing and peaking pre-perihelion and then steadily decreasing, is more typical than that of CO, which monotonically increased throughout the entire apparition. Due to the temporal asymmetry in volatile release, Garradd exhibited the highest CO to H{sub 2}O abundance ratio ever observed for any comet inside the water snow line at ∼60% during the HRI-IR observations. Also, the HRI-IR made the only direct measurement of CO{sub 2}, giving a typical cometary abundance ratio of CO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O of 8% but, with only one measurement, no sense of how it varied with orbital position.

  4. An Efficient Q2P1 Finite Element Discretisation and Preconditioner for Variable Viscosity Stokes Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Dave; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Brown, Jed

    2014-05-01

    Here I describe a numerical method suitable for studying 3D non-linear, large deformation processes associated with crustal and lithopspheric deformation. The method employs a combination of mixed finite elements for the flow problem, coupled to the Material-Point-Method for representing material state and history variables. This computational methodology is intended to simultaneously satisfy all of the geodynamic modelling requirements. Particular emphasis is given to the development of non-linear solvers and preconditioners which are performant, practical and highly scalable - thereby enabling high resolution 3D simulations to be performed using massively parallel computational hardware. We have made a number of fundamental design choices which result in a fast, highly scalable and robust Q2P1 finite element implementation which is suitable for solving a wide range of geodynamic applications. Specifically these choices include: (i) utilizing an inf-sup stable mixed finite element (with a mapped pressure space) which provides a reliable velocity and pressure solution; (ii) expressing the problem in defect correction form so that Newton-like methods can be exploited; (iii) making extensive use of matrix-free operators which both drastically reduces the memory requirements and improves the parallel scalability of the sparse matrix-vector product; (iv) deferring a wide range of choices associated with the solver configuration to run-time. The performance characteristics of our hybrid geometric multi-grid preconditioning strategy is presented. The robustness of the preconditioner with respect to the viscosity contrast and the topology of the viscosity field, together with the parallel scalability is demonstrated. We will highlight the benefits of using hybrid coarse grid hierarchies consisting of a combination of Galerkin, assembled and matrix-free operators. The merits of using aggressive coarsening strategies will also be discussed. Examples from 3D continental

  5. Interaction of glutathione transferase P1-1 with captan and captafol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Ilio, C; Sacchetta, P; Angelucci, S; Bucciarelli, T; Pennelli, A; Mazzetti, A P; Lo Bello, M; Aceto, A

    1996-07-12

    Glutathione transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) P1-1 was strongly inhibited by captan and captafol in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 values for captan and captafol were 5.8 microM and 1.5 microM, respectively. Time-course inactivation of GSTP1-1 by two pesticides was prevented by 3 microM of hexyl-glutathione, but not by methylglutathione. The fact that the inactivated enzyme recovered all the 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) titrable thiol groups, with concomitant recovery of all its original activity after treatment with 100 microM dithiothreitol, suggested that captan and captafol were able to induce the formation of disulfide bonds. That the inactivation of GSTP1-1 by captan and captafol involves the formation of disulfide bonds between the four cysteinil groups of the enzymes was confirmed by the SDS-PAGE experiments on nondenaturant conditions. In fact, on SDS-PAGE, GSTP1-1 as well as the cys47ala, cys101ala, and cys47ala/cys101ala GSTP1-1 mutants treated with captan and captafol showed several extra bands, with apparent molecular masses higher and lower than the molecular mass of native GSTP1-1 (23.5 kDa), indicating that both intra- and inter-subunit disulfide bonds were formed. These extra bands returned to the native 23.5 kDa band with concomitant restoration of activity when treated with dithiothreitol.

  6. Electrochemical and optical characterizations of anodic porous n-InP(1 0 0) layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santinacci, Lionel, E-mail: santinacci@cinam.univ-mrs.f [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (UMR CNRS 8180), University of Versailles Saint-Quentin, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, F-78000 Versailles (France); Goncalves, Anne-Marie; Simon, Nathalie; Etcheberry, Arnaud [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (UMR CNRS 8180), University of Versailles Saint-Quentin, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, F-78000 Versailles (France)

    2010-12-30

    In this paper, electrochemical and optical characterizations of anodic porous n-InP(1 0 0) are reported. The direct relation between the observed pore morphology and the physical properties is demonstrated using electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy as well as optical techniques like photocurrent spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements. An enhancement of the interfacial capacitance, proportional to the anodic charge, is revealed by voltammetry and Mott-Schottky analysis. It is related to the drastic increase of the area of the porous electrode. However, when the porous samples are sufficiently reverse-biased, the capacitance enlargement disappears because the nanosized pore walls are fully depleted and the electroactive area recovers its initial value. Photocurrent spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements show the porous film behaves like an absorbent layer. This effect is also ascribed to the specific geometry of the space charge layer within the pore walls. A model based on the absorption coefficient and the effective optical path length is thus used to describe the phenomenon. However the model is not sufficient to depict the phenomenon and the charge recombination in the additional surface states created during the pore formation and the long transit time of electrons in the porous matrix are also significant. Additional effects such as the initial enhancement of the photocurrent response and the redshift of the absorption edge of the photocurrent spectra are observed. Inversely, no shift of the photoluminescence peak is detected. However an exponential quenching of the photoluminescence is also attributed to an absorbent behavior of the porous layer.

  7. Enhancement of nuclease P1 production by Penicillium citrinum YL104 immobilized on activated carbon filter sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Ren, Hengfei; Li, Zhenjian; Zhao, Ting; Shi, Xinchi; Cheng, Hao; Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Yong; Ying, Hanjie

    2015-02-01

    The efficiency of current methods for industrial production of the enzyme nuclease P1 is limited. In this study, we sought to improve fermentation methods for the production of nuclease P1. An immobilized fermentation system using an activated carbon filter sponge as a carrier was used for the production of nuclease P1. In an airlift internal loop reactor (ALR), the fermentation performance of three different fermentation modes, including free-cell fermentation, repeated-batch fermentation, and semi-continuous immobilized fermentation, were compared. The fermentation kinetics in the fermentation broth of the three fermentation modes, including dissolved oxygen (DO), pH value, cell concentration, residual sugar concentration, and enzyme activity, were tested. The productivity of semi-continuous immobilized fermentation reached 8.76 U/mL/h, which was 33.3 and 80.2% higher than that of repeated-batch fermentation and free-cell fermentation, respectively. The sugar consumption of free-cell, repeated-batch, and semi-continuous immobilized fermentations was 41.2, 30.8, and 25.9 g/L, respectively. These results showed that immobilized-cell fermentation by using Penicillium citrinum with activated carbon filter sponge in an ALR was advantageous for nuclease P1 production, especially in the semi-continuous immobilized fermentation mode. In spite of the significant improvement in nuclease P1 production in semi-continuous immobilized fermentation mode, the specific activity of nuclease P1 was almost equal among the three fermentation modes.

  8. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins, P1 and P2, localize to the tonoplast in the presence of virus RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Amr; Hutchens, Heather M; Berg, R Howard; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2012-11-25

    To identify the virus components important for assembly of the Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase complex, we used live cell imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that expressed various virus cDNAs encoding native and GFP-fusion proteins of P1 and P2 replicase proteins and full-length virus RNAs. Expression of P1-GFP alone resulted in fluorescent vesicle-like bodies in the cytoplasm that colocalized with FM4-64, an endocytic marker, and RFP-AtVSR2, RabF2a/Rha1-mCherry, and RabF2b/Ara7-mCherry, all of which localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also called prevacuolar compartments, that mediate traffic to the lytic vacuole. GFP-P2 was driven from the cytosol to MVBs when expressed with P1 indicating that P1 recruited GFP-P2. P1-GFP localized on the tonoplast, which surrounds the vacuole, in the presence of infectious virus RNA, replication competent RNA2, or P2 and replication competent RNA1 or RNA3. This suggests that a functional replication complex containing P1, P2, and a full-length AMV RNA assembles on MVBs to traffic to the tonoplast. PMID:22999257

  9. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins, P1 and P2, localize to the tonoplast in the presence of virus RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Amr [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Present address: Genomics Facility, Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza 12619 (Egypt); Hutchens, Heather M. [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Howard Berg, R. [Integrated Microscopy Facility, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, Saint Louis, MO 63132 (United States); Sue Loesch-Fries, L., E-mail: loeschfr@purdue.edu [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2012-11-25

    To identify the virus components important for assembly of the Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase complex, we used live cell imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that expressed various virus cDNAs encoding native and GFP-fusion proteins of P1 and P2 replicase proteins and full-length virus RNAs. Expression of P1-GFP alone resulted in fluorescent vesicle-like bodies in the cytoplasm that colocalized with FM4-64, an endocytic marker, and RFP-AtVSR2, RabF2a/Rha1-mCherry, and RabF2b/Ara7-mCherry, all of which localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also called prevacuolar compartments, that mediate traffic to the lytic vacuole. GFP-P2 was driven from the cytosol to MVBs when expressed with P1 indicating that P1 recruited GFP-P2. P1-GFP localized on the tonoplast, which surrounds the vacuole, in the presence of infectious virus RNA, replication competent RNA2, or P2 and replication competent RNA1 or RNA3. This suggests that a functional replication complex containing P1, P2, and a full-length AMV RNA assembles on MVBs to traffic to the tonoplast.

  10. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins, P1 and P2, localize to the tonoplast in the presence of virus RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the virus components important for assembly of the Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase complex, we used live cell imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that expressed various virus cDNAs encoding native and GFP-fusion proteins of P1 and P2 replicase proteins and full-length virus RNAs. Expression of P1-GFP alone resulted in fluorescent vesicle-like bodies in the cytoplasm that colocalized with FM4-64, an endocytic marker, and RFP-AtVSR2, RabF2a/Rha1-mCherry, and RabF2b/Ara7-mCherry, all of which localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also called prevacuolar compartments, that mediate traffic to the lytic vacuole. GFP-P2 was driven from the cytosol to MVBs when expressed with P1 indicating that P1 recruited GFP-P2. P1-GFP localized on the tonoplast, which surrounds the vacuole, in the presence of infectious virus RNA, replication competent RNA2, or P2 and replication competent RNA1 or RNA3. This suggests that a functional replication complex containing P1, P2, and a full-length AMV RNA assembles on MVBs to traffic to the tonoplast.

  11. Quantum Brain?

    CERN Document Server

    Mershin, A; Skoulakis, E M C

    2000-01-01

    In order to create a novel model of memory and brain function, we focus our approach on the sub-molecular (electron), molecular (tubulin) and macromolecular (microtubule) components of the neural cytoskeleton. Due to their size and geometry, these systems may be approached using the principles of quantum physics. We identify quantum-physics derived mechanisms conceivably underlying the integrated yet differentiated aspects of memory encoding/recall as well as the molecular basis of the engram. We treat the tubulin molecule as the fundamental computation unit (qubit) in a quantum-computational network that consists of microtubules (MTs), networks of MTs and ultimately entire neurons and neural networks. We derive experimentally testable predictions of our quantum brain hypothesis and perform experiments on these.

  12. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  13. 弗完全逻辑P1及其容忍悖论的逻辑机制%Paracomplete Logic P1 and Logic Mechanism of Tolerate Paradox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝旭东; 张建军

    2015-01-01

    弗完全逻辑P1是一种允许一个命题及其否定可以同时都为假的逻辑系统,即在该逻辑系统中一般意义的排中律将不再有效。文章在给出的标准语法和语义的基础上,对弗完全否定的逻辑涵义进行了直观解释,并分析了其逻辑语义特征;给出了弗完全逻辑拟真值表的具体列法,表明了系统P1的可判定性;利用拟真值表方法,表明了一般意义排中律在P1中的失效;对弗完全逻辑P1可以容忍逻辑悖论的逻辑机制进行了解析,并就此将弗协调逻辑C1和P1进行了容忍能力的比较。%Paracomplete logic P1 is a logic system allowing a proposition and its negation to be false at the same time, i.e., the general law of excluded middle in this logic system would be futile. Based on the standard grammar and syntax, this paper explains the logic implication of paracomplete negation, an⁃alyzes the logic syntactic characteristics, testifies the decidability of paracomplete logic quasi matrix with specific lining method, demonstrates the futility of general law of excluded middle in P 1 with quasi matrix method, analyzes the logic mechanism of paracomplete logic P 1 ’ s tolerance on logic paradox, and thus compares paraconsistent logic C1 and P1 on their tolerant ability.

  14. 对GB/T 16306-1996中确定P1值做法的疑义%Doubt on the method in GB/T 16306-1996 to confirm P1 value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶永和

    2004-01-01

    质量监督部门在进行质量监督把关时,是通过对样品检验的结果来判定被监督产品总体的质量水平。当被监督产品总体被确定为不合格时,被判定为不合格的企业要求复检,现行的依据标准是GB/T16306—1996((产品质量监督复查程序及抽样方案》。标准规定:当P0≤0.1时,P1≤20Po;0.1P1≤5P0;当1.0P1≤4P0;当4.0P1≤3P0。P1的数值应参考上述规定,由监督方与被监督方协商确定。从标准中查到的各

  15. Distant Jupiter family Comet P/2011 P1 (McNaught)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsun, Pavlo P.; Ivanova, Oleksandra V.; Afanasiev, Viktor L.; Kulyk, Irina V.

    2016-03-01

    The spectra and images obtained through broadband BVRc filters for Jupiter family Comet P/2011 P1 (McNaught) were analyzed. We observed the comet on November 24, 2011, when its heliocentric distance was 5.43 AU. Two dimensional long slit spectra and photometric images were obtained using the focal reducer SCORPIO attached to the prime focus of the 6-m telescope BTA (SAO RAS, Russia). The spectra cover the wavelength range of 4200-7000 Å. No emissions of C2 and CO+, which are expected in this wavelength region, were detected above 3σ level. An upper limit in gas production rate of C2 is expected to be 1.1 × 1024 mol s-1. The continuum shows a reddening effect with the normalized gradient of reflectivity along dispersion of 5.1 ± 1.2% per 1000 Å. The color indices (B-V) = 0.89 ± 0.09 and (V-Rc) = 0.42 ± 0.07 for the nucleus region or (B-V) = 0.68 ± 0.12 and (V-Rc) = 0.39 ± 0.10 for the coma region, which are derived from the photometric data, also evidence that the color of the cometary nucleus and dust are redder with respect to the Sun. The normalized gradients of 5.9 ± 2.9% per 1000 Å and 2.6 ± 1.9% per 1000 Å for VRc filters were obtained for the cometary nucleus and the dust coma, respectively. The estimated dust mass production rate is about 12 kg s-1 for Rc filter. The dust coma like a spiral galaxy edge-on was fitted using a Monte Carlo model. Since it is expected that the particles forming the dust coma consist of "dirty" ice, Greenberg's model was adopted to track grains with an icy component that evaporates slowly when exposed to solar radiation. The observed coma was fitted assuming two isolated active zones located at the cometocentric latitudes of -8° and -35° with outflow of the dust within the cones having half opening angles of 8° and 70°, respectively. About, 45% and 55% of the observed dust were originated from the high collimated and low collimated active zones, respectively. The spin-axis of the rotating nucleus is positioned in

  16. P1 Epigenetic Regulation in Leaves of High Altitude Maize Landraces: Effect of UV-B Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Sebastián P.; Emiliani, Julia; Casati, Paula

    2016-01-01

    P1 is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates the accumulation of a specific group of flavonoids in maize floral tissues, such as flavones and phlobaphenes. P1 is also highly expressed in leaves of maize landraces adapted to high altitudes and higher levels of UV-B radiation. In this work, we analyzed the epigenetic regulation of the P1 gene by UV-B in leaves of different maize landraces. Our results demonstrate that DNA methylation in the P1 proximal promoter, intron1 and intron2 is decreased by UV-B in all lines analyzed; however, the basal DNA methylation levels are lower in the landraces than in B73, a low altitude inbred line. DNA demethylation by UV-B is accompanied by a decrease in H3 methylation at Lys 9 and 27, and by an increase in H3 acetylation. smRNAs complementary to specific regions of the proximal promoter and of intron 2 3′ end are also decreased by UV-B; interestingly, P1 smRNA levels are lower in the landraces than in B73 both under control conditions and after UV-B exposure, suggesting that smRNAs regulate P1 expression by UV-B in maize leaves. Finally, we investigated if different P1 targets in flower tissues are also regulated by this transcription factor in response to UV-B. Some targets analyzed show an induction in maize landraces in response to UV-B, with higher basal expression levels in the landraces than in B73; however, not all the transcripts analyzed were found to be regulated by UV-B in leaves. PMID:27148340

  17. Comparative analysis between P1 and B1 equations for neutron moderation; Analise comparativa entre os metodos de obtencao e das solucoes das equacoes P1 e B1 para moderacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    In order to calculate the neutron flux in nuclear reactors, B1 or P1 equations are solved by numerical methods for several groups of energy. The neutron fluxes obtained from the solutions of the B1 and P1 equations are similar when they are applied to large nuclear power reactors. However, an important difference between the two fluxes is that the system of P1 equations uses one more approximation than the B1 system and then, its flux is less precise. The present work shows the relations between both equations and analyzes for what conditions the two equations systems are equivalent. Furthermore, this equations are numerically solved in 54 groups of energy for a quadrangular arrange. (author)

  18. Photodynamics of blue-light-regulated phosphodiesterase BlrP1 protein from Klebsiella pneumoniae and its photoreceptor BLUF domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, A.; Penzkofer, A.; Griese, J.; Schlichting, I.; Kirienko, Natalia V.; Gomelsky, Mark

    2008-12-01

    The BlrP1 protein from the enteric bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae consists of a BLUF and an EAL domain and may activate c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase by blue-light. The full-length protein, BlrP1, and its BLUF domain, BlrP1_BLUF, are characterized by optical absorption and emission spectroscopy. The cofactor FAD in its oxidized redox state (FAD ox) is brought from the dark-adapted receptor state to the 10-nm red-shifted putative signalling state by violet light exposure. The recovery to the receptor state occurs with a time constant of about 1 min. The quantum yield of signalling state formation is about 0.17 for BlrP1_BLUF and about 0.08 for BlrP1. The fluorescence efficiency of the FAD ox cofactor is small due to photo-induced reductive electron transfer. Prolonged light exposure converts FAD ox in the signalling state to the fully reduced hydroquinone form FAD redH - and causes low-efficient chromophore release with subsequent photo-degradation. The photo-cycle and photo-reduction dynamics in the receptor state and in the signalling state are discussed.

  19. Photodynamics of blue-light-regulated phosphodiesterase BlrP1 protein from Klebsiella pneumoniae and its photoreceptor BLUF domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, A. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Penzkofer, A. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany)], E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de; Griese, J.; Schlichting, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer medizinische Forschung, Abteilung Biomolekulare Mechanismen, Jahnstrasse 29, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kirienko, Natalia V.; Gomelsky, Mark [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 (United States)

    2008-12-10

    The BlrP1 protein from the enteric bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae consists of a BLUF and an EAL domain and may activate c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase by blue-light. The full-length protein, BlrP1, and its BLUF domain, BlrP1{sub B}LUF, are characterized by optical absorption and emission spectroscopy. The cofactor FAD in its oxidized redox state (FAD{sub ox}) is brought from the dark-adapted receptor state to the 10-nm red-shifted putative signalling state by violet light exposure. The recovery to the receptor state occurs with a time constant of about 1 min. The quantum yield of signalling state formation is about 0.17 for BlrP1{sub B}LUF and about 0.08 for BlrP1. The fluorescence efficiency of the FAD{sub ox} cofactor is small due to photo-induced reductive electron transfer. Prolonged light exposure converts FAD{sub ox} in the signalling state to the fully reduced hydroquinone form FAD{sub red}H{sup -} and causes low-efficient chromophore release with subsequent photo-degradation. The photo-cycle and photo-reduction dynamics in the receptor state and in the signalling state are discussed.

  20. First reported cases of human adenovirus serotype 14p1 infection, Ireland, October 2009 to July 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Flanagan, D

    2011-02-01

    We report the first nine confirmed cases of human adenovirus 14p1 infection (HAdV-14p1), identified at different locations in Ireland between October 2009 and July 2010. These were the first notifications in Ireland and all were sporadic cases. Following these notifications, the Health Protection Surveillance Centre set up an enhanced surveillance system for HAdV-14p1 infection. Seven cases were male and five were aged less than one year. Three patients died, giving a case fatality rate of 33%. It should be noted that cases presented here were diagnosed on presentation to hospital and may represent the severe end of the spectrum of HAdV 14 disease in Ireland.

  1. Regulatory role of the sequences downstream from nodD3 P1 promoter of Rhizobium meliloti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The 660 bp region between nodD3 P1 promoter and the following coding region of Rhizobium meliloti has been studied.This region is designated "downstream sequences".It consists of two potential open reading frames,ORF1 and ORF2.Studies on the role of the downstream sequences on the activity of nodD3 P1 with nod D3(P1)-lacZ fusion show that deletion of the sequences containing ORF2 causes the increase of the activity of the fusion; on the contrary,addition of extra copies of ORF2 markedly decreases the activity of the fusion.These results indicate that the product of ORF2 plays a negative role in the expression of nod D3.

  2. Preparation of composite materials of Na-P1 type zeolite and magnetite for Cs decontamination in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction time and the concentration of NaOH solution were studied for the preparation of Na-P1 type zeolite using fly-ach. Addition of NaAlO2 is effective for the improvement of cation exchange capacity (CEC) value. A new composite material consisting of the Na-P1 type zeolite and magnetite was synthesized from the waste fly-ash of thermal power stations and iron chlorides for the decontamination of radioactive 134Cs and 137Cs. The magnetic collection was possible using this composite material after Cs+ ion adsorption. The existence of nanosized magnetites in the polycrystalline zeolite (several micrometers) was confirmed by TEM observations. Decontamination test of the radioactive Cs+ ion using the magnetic Na-P1 type zeolite and the soil was succeeded. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the Eological Management and Enhancement Alernative for Remediation of the K1007-P1 Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.

    2005-10-31

    An evaluation of the human and ecological risks associated with the P1 Pond and surrounding environs was conducted as part of the ETTP Site-Wide Remedial Investigation. The RI provides the basis for the focus on PCBs as the most important unacceptable risk to human and ecological health in the pond. Other P1 contaminants, media, or pathways of risk to receptors are identified in the RI, but are not addressed as a major risk reduction goal for the ETTP Site-Wide Feasibility Study. Therefore, the goal of the Ecological Management alternative is to reduce unacceptable risks associated with PCBs in fish. Many of the actions proposed for this alternative, however, are likely to reduce risks associated with other contaminants and their pathways. The high PCB concentrations in fish from the P1 Pond are most certainly due in part to the current ecological condition of the pond that maximizes PCB biomagnification. This basic assumption and the factors contributing to it were evaluated by conducting an intensive field study of the P1 Pond in the summer of 2004 (for a thorough presentation of current P1 Pond biological conditions, see Peterson et al. 2005). Major hypotheses regarding the P1 Pond's current fish community, PCB fate and transport processes, pond vegetation, and limnological conditions that contribute to the high PCB levels in fish were validated by the study (Appendix A), The results of the 2004 ecological assessment, in concert with long-term datasets obtained as part of the ETTP Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) and recent abiotic sampling for the RI, provide the basis for the assessment of current conditions.

  4. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of pyrazinones containing novel P1 needles as inhibitors of TF/VIIa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, John I; Huang, Horng-Chih; Neumann, William L; Mahoney, Matthew W; Long, Scott; Huang, Wei; Garland, Danny J; Kusturin, Carrie; Abbas, Zaheer; South, Michael S; Reitz, David B

    2007-08-15

    Herein is described the design, synthesis, and enzymatic activity of a series of substituted pyrazinones as inhibitors of the TF/VIIa complex. These inhibitors were designed to explore replacement and variation of the P1 amidine described previously [J. Med. Chem.2003, 46, 4050]. The P1 needle replacements were selected based upon their reduced basicity compared to the parent phenyl amidine (pKa approximately 12). A contributing factor towards the oral bioavailability of a compound is the ionization state of the compound in the intestinal tract. The desired outcome of the study was to identify an orally bioavailable TF-VIIa inhibitor. PMID:17566736

  5. Metabolism of 2-Chloro-4-Nitroaniline via Novel Aerobic Degradation Pathway by Rhodococcus sp. Strain MB-P1

    OpenAIRE

    Fazlurrahman Khan; Deepika Pal; Surendra Vikram; Swaranjit Singh Cameotra

    2013-01-01

    2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (2-C-4-NA) is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitor and also used in the synthesis of niclosamide, a molluscicide. It is marked as a black-listed substance due to its poor biodegradability. We report biodegradation of 2-C-4-NA and its pathway characterization by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 under aerobic conditions. The strain MB-P1 utilizes 2-C-4-NA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In the growth medium...

  6. Isotope shifts of the 2$p_{3/2}$-2$p_{1/2}$ transition in B-like ions

    CERN Document Server

    Zubova, N A; Tupitsyn, I I; Shabaev, V M; Kozhedub, Y S; Plunien, G; Brandau, C; Stohlker, Th

    2016-01-01

    Isotope shifts of the 2$p_{3/2}$-2$p_{1/2}$ transition in B-like ions are evaluated for a wide range of the nuclear charge number: Z=8-92. The calculations of the relativistic nuclear recoil and nuclear size effects are performed using a large scale configuration-interaction Dirac-Fock-Sturm method. The corresponding QED corrections are also taken into account. The results of the calculations are compared with the theoretical values obtained with other methods. The accuracy of the isotope shifts of the 2$p_{3/2}$-2$p_{1/2}$ transition in B-like ions is significantly improved.

  7. Isotope shifts of the 2 p3 /2-2 p1 /2 transition in B-like ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubova, N. A.; Malyshev, A. V.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Shabaev, V. M.; Kozhedub, Y. S.; Plunien, G.; Brandau, C.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2016-05-01

    Isotope shifts of the 2 p3 /2-2 p1 /2 transition in B-like ions are evaluated for a wide range of the nuclear charge number: Z =8 -92 . The calculations of the relativistic nuclear recoil and nuclear size effects are performed using a large-scale configuration-interaction Dirac-Fock-Sturm method. The corresponding QED corrections are also taken into account. The results of the calculations are compared with the theoretical values obtained with other methods. The accuracy of the isotope shifts of the 2 p3 /2-2 p1 /2 transition in B-like ions is significantly improved.

  8. Analysis of the downstream region of nodD3 P1 promoter by deletion and complementation tests in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈迪; 刘彦杰; 朱家璧; 沈善炯; 俞冠翘

    2003-01-01

    In Sinorhizobium meliloti, the nodD3 gene is transcriptionally controlled by two promoters, P1 and P2. Under P1, there is a 660 bp sequence including a small open reading frame, ORF2, followed by the nodD3 coding region. Genetic analysis using the different deletions on the 3′ends of P1 downstream sequence showed that the downstream sequence +1-+125nt is essential for P1 expression. Complementation, mutations and nodulation tests demonstrated that the ORF2 auto-represses P1 expression, while the P1 downstream sequence +1-+125nt counteracts it.

  9. Hearing facial identities: brain correlates of face--voice integration in person identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Kloth, Nadine; Robertson, David M C

    2011-10-01

    Audiovisual integration (AVI) is a well-known aspect of speech perception, but integration of facial and vocal information is also important for speaker recognition. We recently demonstrated AVI in the recognition of familiar (but not unfamiliar) speakers. Specifically, systematic behavioural benefits and costs in recognizing a familiar voice occur when the voice is combined with a time-synchronised articulating face of corresponding or noncorresponding speaker identity, respectively (Schweinberger et al., 2007; Robertson and Schweinberger, 2010). Here we report an experiment assessing event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in this novel paradigm, while participants recognized familiar speakers presented in (1) Voice only, (2) voice with identity-corresponding and (3) noncorresponding time-synchronised speaking faces, as well as (4) Face only conditions. Audiovisual speaker identity correspondence influenced only later ERPs around 250-600 msec, with increased negativity for noncorresponding identities at central electrodes. Strikingly, when compared with the ERPs from both unimodal conditions, both audiovisual conditions led to a much earlier onset of frontocentral negativity, with maximal differences around 50-80 msec. Moreover, audiovisual stimuli elicited larger N170 responses than Face only stimuli. These findings suggest that the perception of a voice and a time-synchronised articulating face triggers remarkably early and mandatory mechanisms of audiovisual processing, although the correspondence or discrepancy in audiovisual speaker identity may only be computed ∼200msec later. PMID:21208611

  10. Brain response during the M170 time interval is sensitive to socially relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arviv, Oshrit; Goldstein, Abraham; Weeting, Janine C; Becker, Eni S; Lange, Wolf-Gero; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Deciphering the social meaning of facial displays is a highly complex neurological process. The M170, an event related field component of MEG recording, like its EEG counterpart N170, was repeatedly shown to be associated with structural encoding of faces. However, the scope of information encoded during the M170 time window is still being debated. We investigated the neuronal origin of facial processing of integrated social rank cues (SRCs) and emotional facial expressions (EFEs) during the M170 time interval. Participants viewed integrated facial displays of emotion (happy, angry, neutral) and SRCs (indicated by upward, downward, or straight head tilts). We found that the activity during the M170 time window is sensitive to both EFEs and SRCs. Specifically, highly prominent activation was observed in response to SRC connoting dominance as compared to submissive or egalitarian head cues. Interestingly, the processing of EFEs and SRCs appeared to rely on different circuitry. Our findings suggest that vertical head tilts are processed not only for their sheer structural variance, but as social information. Exploring the temporal unfolding and brain localization of non-verbal cues processing may assist in understanding the functioning of the social rank biobehavioral system. PMID:26423664

  11. Impaired Cerebral Autoregulation during Head Up Tilt in Patients with Severe Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riberholt, Christian Gunge; Olesen, Niels Damkjær; Thing, Mira;

    2016-01-01

    acquired brain injury and a low level of consciousness. Fourteen patients with severe acquired brain injury and orthostatic intolerance and fifteen healthy volunteers were enrolled. Blood pressure was evaluated by pulse contour analysis, heart rate and RR-intervals were determined by electrocardiography...... mean velocity and estimated cerebral perfusion pressure. Patients with acquired brain injury presented an increase in mean flow index during head-up tilt indicating impaired autoregulation (P ....1 Hz spectral power in patients compared to healthy controls suggesting baroreflex dysfunction. In conclusion, patients with severe acquired brain injury and orthostatic intolerance during head-up tilt have impaired cerebral autoregulation more than one month after brain injury....

  12. Relativistic calculations of 3s2 1S0-3s3p 1P1 and 3s2 1S0-3s3p 3P1,2 transition probabilities in the Mg isoelectronic sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Cheng; Gao Xiang; Qing Bo; Zhang Xiao-Le; Li Jia-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Using the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock self-consistent field method and the relativistic configuration-interaction method, calculations of transition energies, oscillator strengths and rates are performed for the 3s2 1S0-3s3p 1P1 spinallowed transition, 3s2 1S0-3s3p 3P1,2 intercombination and magnetic quadrupole transition in the Mg isoelectronic sequence (Mg Ⅰ, Al Ⅱ, Si ⅢⅢ, P Ⅳ and S Ⅴ). Electron correlations are treated adequately, including intravalence electron correlations. The influence of the Breit interaction on oscillator strengths and transition energies are investigated. Quantum electrodynamics corrections are added as corrections. The calculation results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data and other theoretical calculations.

  13. Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain and Nervous System KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain and Nervous System Print ... is quite the juggler. Anatomy of the Nervous System If you think of the brain as a ...

  14. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  15. Enhanced sensitivity for biosensors: Functionalized P1,5-diaminonaphthalene-multiwall carbon nanotube composite film-modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A homogeneous electroactive poly(1,5-diaminonaphthalene) (P1,5DAN) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) composite film-modified electrode was fabricated by cyclic voltammetry and a casting method. The dispersion and morphology of the MWNTs/P1,5DAN composite film were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The cyclic voltammograms of the electrode modified by the MWNTs/P15DAN composite film strongly depended on the film thickness and pH of the electrolyte solution. Two absolutely isolated oxidation potentials were found as the MWCNTs were immobilized onto the surface of P1,5DAN film in a pH 6.8 buffer solution containing ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). Both peak currents linearly increased with increased concentrations. The electrochemical behavior of UA was not interrupted even in the presence of high-concentration AA given that AA had no observable electrochemical changes at the immobilized concentration. The electrocatalytic behavior of H2O2 was also investigated by steady-state amperometry for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase on the P1,5DAN film. The plot of the response current vs. H2O2 concentration was linear over the wide concentration range of 0.015–5.37 mM.

  16. Nitrogen metabolism in the facultative methylotroph Arthrobacter P1 grown with various amines or ammonia as nitrogen sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, L.; Brouwer, J.W.; Hassel, C.W. van; Levering, Pieter; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism of trimethylamine (TMA) and dimethylamine (DMA) in Arthrobacter P1 involved the enzymes TMA monooxygenase and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMA-NO) demethylase, and DMA monooxygenase, respectively. The methylamine and formaldehyde produced were further metabolized via a primary amine oxidas

  17. The subcellular distribution of the human ribosomal "stalk" components: P1, P2 and P0 proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchórzewski, Marek; Krokowski, Dawid; Rzeski, Wojciech;

    2003-01-01

    The ribosomal "stalk" structure is a distinct lateral protuberance located on the large ribosomal subunit in prokaryotic, as well as in eukaryotic cells. In eukaryotes, this ribosomal structure is composed of the acidic ribosomal P proteins, forming two hetero-dimers (P1/P2) attached...

  18. Immune response to Mycoplasma pneumoniae P1 and P116 in patients with atypical pneumonia analyzed by ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkelund Svend

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serology is often used for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It is important to identify specific antigens that can distinguish between the presence or absence of antibodies against M. pneumoniae. The two proteins, P116 and P1, are found to be immunogenic. By using these in ELISA it is possible to identify an immune response against M. pneumoniae in serum samples. Results A recombinant protein derived from the P116 protein and one from the P1 protein were used in two ELISA tests, rP116-ELISA and rP1-ELISA. Human serum samples from patients with atypical pneumonia were tested and compared to the results of the complement fixation test. There was a good agreement between the two tests but the rP1-ELISA showed the best discrimination between positive and negative samples. Conclusion Two ELISA tests based on recombinant proteins have been analysed and compared to the complement fixation test results. The two ELISA tests were found suitable for use in serodiagnostics of M. pneumoniae infections. The use of specific antigens eliminates the risk of cross reaction to an immune response against other bacteria.

  19. A bijection which implies Melzer's polynomial identities: the $\\chi_{1,1}^{(p,p+1)}$ case

    OpenAIRE

    Foda, O.; Warnaar, S. O.

    1995-01-01

    We obtain a bijection between certain lattice paths and partitions. This implies a proof of polynomial identities conjectured by Melzer. In a limit, these identities reduce to Rogers--Ramanujan-type identities for the $\\chi_{1,1}^{(p,p+1)}(q)$ Virasoro characters, conjectured by the Stony Brook group.

  20. A bijection which implies Melzer's polynomial identities the $\\chi${1,1}^{(p,p+1)} case

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O E; Foda, O; Warnaar, S O

    1995-01-01

    We obtain a bijection between certain lattice paths and partitions. This implies a proof of polynomial identities conjectured by Melzer. In a limit, these identities reduce to Rogers--Ramanujan-type identities for the \\chi_{1,1}^{(p,p+1)}(q) Virasoro characters, conjectured by the Stony Brook group.

  1. Brain evolution by brain pathway duplication

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of evolution of brain pathways for complex behaviours is still in its infancy. Making further advances requires a deeper understanding of brain homologies, novelties and analogies. It also requires an understanding of how adaptive genetic modifications lead to restructuring of the brain. Recent advances in genomic and molecular biology techniques applied to brain research have provided exciting insights into how complex behaviours are shaped by selection of novel ...

  2. FROM BRAIN DRAIN TO BRAIN NETWORKING

    OpenAIRE

    Irina BONCEA

    2015-01-01

    Scientific networking is the most accessible way a country can turn the brain drain into brain gain. Diaspora’s members offer valuable information, advice or financial support from the destination country, without being necessary to return. This article aims to investigate Romania’s potential of turning brain drain into brain networking, using evidence from the medical sector. The main factors influencing the collaboration with the country of origin are investigated. The co...

  3. Metabolism of 2-Chloro-4-Nitroaniline via Novel Aerobic Degradation Pathway by Rhodococcus sp. Strain MB-P1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazlurrahman; Pal, Deepika; Vikram, Surendra; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (2-C-4-NA) is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitor and also used in the synthesis of niclosamide, a molluscicide. It is marked as a black-listed substance due to its poor biodegradability. We report biodegradation of 2-C-4-NA and its pathway characterization by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 under aerobic conditions. The strain MB-P1 utilizes 2-C-4-NA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In the growth medium, the degradation of 2-C-4-NA occurs with the release of nitrite ions, chloride ions, and ammonia. During the resting cell studies, the 2-C-4-NA-induced cells of strain MB-P1 transformed 2-C-4-NA stoichiometrically to 4-amino-3-chlorophenol (4-A-3-CP), which subsequently gets transformed to 6-chlorohydroxyquinol (6-CHQ) metabolite. Enzyme assays by cell-free lysates prepared from 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells, demonstrated that the first enzyme in the 2-C-4-NA degradation pathway is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the stoichiometric removal of nitro group and production of 4-A-3-CP. Oxygen uptake studies on 4-A-3-CP and related anilines by 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells demonstrated the involvement of aniline dioxygenase in the second step of 2-C-4-NA degradation. This is the first report showing 2-C-4-NA degradation and elucidation of corresponding metabolic pathway by an aerobic bacterium. PMID:23614030

  4. Metabolism of 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline via novel aerobic degradation pathway by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlurrahman Khan

    Full Text Available 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (2-C-4-NA is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitor and also used in the synthesis of niclosamide, a molluscicide. It is marked as a black-listed substance due to its poor biodegradability. We report biodegradation of 2-C-4-NA and its pathway characterization by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 under aerobic conditions. The strain MB-P1 utilizes 2-C-4-NA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In the growth medium, the degradation of 2-C-4-NA occurs with the release of nitrite ions, chloride ions, and ammonia. During the resting cell studies, the 2-C-4-NA-induced cells of strain MB-P1 transformed 2-C-4-NA stoichiometrically to 4-amino-3-chlorophenol (4-A-3-CP, which subsequently gets transformed to 6-chlorohydroxyquinol (6-CHQ metabolite. Enzyme assays by cell-free lysates prepared from 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells, demonstrated that the first enzyme in the 2-C-4-NA degradation pathway is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the stoichiometric removal of nitro group and production of 4-A-3-CP. Oxygen uptake studies on 4-A-3-CP and related anilines by 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells demonstrated the involvement of aniline dioxygenase in the second step of 2-C-4-NA degradation. This is the first report showing 2-C-4-NA degradation and elucidation of corresponding metabolic pathway by an aerobic bacterium.

  5. Metabolism of 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline via novel aerobic degradation pathway by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazlurrahman; Pal, Deepika; Vikram, Surendra; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (2-C-4-NA) is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitor and also used in the synthesis of niclosamide, a molluscicide. It is marked as a black-listed substance due to its poor biodegradability. We report biodegradation of 2-C-4-NA and its pathway characterization by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 under aerobic conditions. The strain MB-P1 utilizes 2-C-4-NA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In the growth medium, the degradation of 2-C-4-NA occurs with the release of nitrite ions, chloride ions, and ammonia. During the resting cell studies, the 2-C-4-NA-induced cells of strain MB-P1 transformed 2-C-4-NA stoichiometrically to 4-amino-3-chlorophenol (4-A-3-CP), which subsequently gets transformed to 6-chlorohydroxyquinol (6-CHQ) metabolite. Enzyme assays by cell-free lysates prepared from 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells, demonstrated that the first enzyme in the 2-C-4-NA degradation pathway is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the stoichiometric removal of nitro group and production of 4-A-3-CP. Oxygen uptake studies on 4-A-3-CP and related anilines by 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells demonstrated the involvement of aniline dioxygenase in the second step of 2-C-4-NA degradation. This is the first report showing 2-C-4-NA degradation and elucidation of corresponding metabolic pathway by an aerobic bacterium. PMID:23614030

  6. H1299细胞中P1k3对p73转录活性的影响%Effect of P1k3 on the transcriptional activity of p73 in H1299 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑梅香; 刘丽华; 丁春艳; 孟君; 单保恩

    2010-01-01

    背景与目的:研究表明蛋白激酶P1k3可以增加肿瘤抑制因子p53的转录活性,但对p73转录活性的影响尚不清楚,因此本实验旨在研究蛋白激酶P1k3对p73转录活性的影响.方法:选用p53缺失型人类肺癌细胞系H1299,采用荧光素酶报告剂分析、反转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)及克隆形成实验的方法研究蛋白激酶P1k3及激酶活性缺失的P1k3(K52R)对p73转录活性的影响.结果:荧光素酶报告剂分析结果显示,单独转染p73基因可以增加p21~(WAF1)和Bax启动子介导的荧光素酶的表达(P0.05).RT-PCR检测结果也显示,p73诱导p2~(WAF1)和Bax的mRNA表达(P0.05).克隆形成实验结果显示,p73抑制了H1299细胞克隆的形成(P0.05).结论:P1k3可以抑制p73的转录活性,而激酶活性缺失的P1k3(K52R)对p73的转录活性无明显影响.

  7. Direct spectroscopy of the $^2$S$_{1/2}-^2$P$_{1/2}$ and $^2$D$_{3/2}-^2$P$_{1/2}$ transitions and observation of micromotion modulated spectra in trapped \\Ca

    CERN Document Server

    Pruttivarasin, Thaned; Haeffner, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    We present an experimental scheme to perform spectroscopy of the $^2$S$_{1/2}-^2$P$_{1/2}$ and $^2$D$_{3/2}-^2$P$_{1/2}$ transitions in \\Ca. By rapidly switching lasers between both transitions, we circumvent the complications of both dark resonances and Doppler heating. We apply this method to directly observe the micromotion modulated fluorescence spectra of both transitions and measure the dependence of the micromotion modulation index on the trap frequency. With a measurement time of 10 minutes, we can detect the center frequencies of both dipole transitions with a precision on the order of 200 kHz even in the presence of strong micromotion.

  8. FTO, obesity and the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melka, Melkaye G; Gillis, Jesse; Bernard, Manon; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Leonard, Gabriel T; Perron, Michel; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Heinz, Andreas; Garavan, Hugh; Brühl, Rüdiger; Mann, Karl; Artiges, Eric; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Lathrop, Mark; Loth, Eva; Schwartz, Yannick; Frouin, Vincent; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen; Struve, Maren; Lattka, Eva; Waldenberger, Melanie; Schumann, Gunter; Pavlidis, Paul; Gaudet, Daniel; Paus, Tomás; Pausova, Zdenka

    2013-03-01

    Genetic variations in fat mass- and obesity (FTO)-associated gene, a well-replicated gene locus of obesity, appear to be associated also with reduced regional brain volumes in elderly. Here, we examined whether FTO is associated with total brain volume in adolescence, thus exploring possible developmental effects of FTO. We studied a population-based sample of 598 adolescents recruited from the French Canadian founder population in whom we measured brain volume by magnetic resonance imaging. Total fat mass was assessed with bioimpedance and body mass index was determined with anthropometry. Genotype-phenotype associations were tested with Merlin under an additive model. We found that the G allele of FTO (rs9930333) was associated with higher total body fat [TBF (P = 0.002) and lower brain volume (P = 0.005)]. The same allele was also associated with higher lean body mass (P = 0.03) and no difference in height (P = 0.99). Principal component analysis identified a shared inverse variance between the brain volume and TBF, which was associated with FTO at P = 5.5 × 10(-6). These results were replicated in two independent samples of 413 and 718 adolescents, and in a meta-analysis of all three samples (n = 1729 adolescents), FTO was associated with this shared inverse variance at P = 1.3 × 10(-9). Co-expression networks analysis supported the possibility that the underlying FTO effects may occur during embryogenesis. In conclusion, FTO is associated with shared inverse variance between body adiposity and brain volume, suggesting that this gene may exert inverse effects on adipose and brain tissues. Given the completion of the overall brain growth in early childhood, these effects may have their origins during early development. PMID:23201753

  9. Identification of a New Variable Sequence in the P1 Cytadhesin Gene of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Evidence for the Generation of Antigenic Variation by DNA Recombination between Repetitive Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Kenri, Tsuyoshi; Taniguchi, Rie; Sasaki, Yuko; Okazaki, Norio; Narita, Mitsuo; Izumikawa, Kinichi; Umetsu, Masao; Sasaki, Tsuguo

    1999-01-01

    A Mycoplasma pneumoniae cytadhesin P1 gene with novel nucleotide sequence variation has been identified. Four clinical strains of M. pneumoniae were found to carry this type of P1 gene. This new P1 gene is similar to the known group II P1 genes but possesses novel sequence variation of approximately 300 bp in the RepMP2/3 region. The position of the new variable region is distant from the previously reported variable regions known to differ between group I and II P1 genes. Two sequences close...

  10. Material properties and modeling characteristics for MnFeP1-xAsx materials for application in magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian R.H.;

    2013-01-01

    Compounds of MnFeP1-xAsx have received attention recently for their use in active magnetic regenerators (AMR) because of their relatively high isothermal entropy change and adiabatic temperature change with magnetization. However, the materials also generally exhibit a significant magnetic...... impact of hysteresis is a key element to guide successful material development and synthesis. The properties of a magnetocaloric MnFeP1-xAsx compound are characterized as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field, and the results are used to assess the effects of hysteresis on magnetocaloric...... properties. Different methods of building property functions from the measured specific heat, magnetization, and adiabatic temperature change are presented. It is shown that model predictions can be highly dependent on how the properties that are used by the AMR model are calculated. © 2013 AIP Publishing...

  11. The Level of Mite Dermatophagoides’ Allergens (Der-p 1 and Der-f 1 in Birjand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fereidouni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: House dust mite allergens especially pyroglyphid species are among the most important indoor allergens and have an important role in development of asthma and allergies. Materials and Methods: In current study, the level of two main allergens from mites including Der-p1 and Der-f 1 in dust of 28 homes in Birjand city was measured by ELISA method. Results: All samples were negative for Der-p1. Low leverl of Der-f 1 was detected in one sample. Prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis was 2%, 28% and 15% respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that House dust mites could not grow in Birjand climate.

  12. Medium Optimization for Production of Nuclease P1 in Penicillium citrinum by Response Surface Methodology%响应面法优化桔青霉产核酸酶P1培养基

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻晨; 张亚雄; 赵劫; 朱昌雄; 杨海珍; 姚鹃

    2011-01-01

    采用部分析因试验设计(FFD)、中心组合实验设计(CCD)和响应面分析法(RSM)对桔青霉产核酸酶P1培养基进行优化研究。FFD结果表明:硫酸锌、酵母粉、复合磷酸盐3个因素显著影响桔青霉发酵产核酸酶P1,利用最陡爬坡实验(SAD)使得3个显著因素的水平取值逼近最大响应区域,通过CCD和RSM确定了3个显著性因素的最优水平,得到桔青霉发酵产核酸酶P1的最优培养基配方:葡萄糖4%、酵母粉0.681%、玉米浆0.4%、黄豆饼粉0.45%、硫酸锌0.042%、硫酸镁0.06%、氯化钙0.06%、复合磷酸盐(m(磷酸二氢钾):m(磷酸氢二钾)=1:1)0.068%。验证实验表明,优化后的培养基发酵酶活力达到563U/mL,比原培养基(202U/mL)提高了64%。%Fractional factorial design(FFD),central composite design(CCD) and response surface methodology(RSM) were used to optimize the culture medium for nuclease P1 production by Penicillium citrinum.The results of fractional factorial design showed that ZnSO4,yeast extract and composite phosphate had a significant effect on nuclease P1 production.The steepest ascent design(SAD) made three significant factors approach the maximum response area.Three significant factors were optimized by CCD and RSM.The optimized culture medium was composed of 4% glucose,0.681% yeast extract,0.4% corn syrup,0.45% soybean meal,0.042% ZnSO4,0.06% MgSO4,0.06% CaCl2,and 0.068% composite phosphate(KH2PO4: K2HPO4 = 1:1).The activity of nuclease P1 from optimal culture medium was 563 U/mL,which revealed a 64% increase when compared with nuclease P1 activity(202 U/mL) from original fermentation medium.

  13. Embryological Research on the Ovule Abortion Development of Super Late-maturing Cultivar JZT(P)-1 Tangerine%特晚熟红桔JZT(P)-1胚珠败育的胚胎学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周心智; 尤淑芬; 张龚; 卞德锡; 杨晓红; 张云贵

    2011-01-01

    To further prove the seedless mechanism on JZT(P)-1 and provide reliable scientific evidence to the exploitation of late-maturing Citrus germplasm, the ovule abortion process of Citrus reticulata, named JZT (P)-1, was systematically studied by a series of direct-dissection, consecutive paraffin sections and microscopic technique. It was found that the archesporial cell, embryo sac primitive cells and embryo sacs in different developing period were almost abortive. Only a few of seeds could develop into health seeds. During the 50 days of the development in the young seeds, archesporial cells developed from many origins and the occurrence time was out of order. That affected the normal development of early archesporial cells in the nucellar and embryo sacs in different developing periods. Thus, it spurred the abortion of the female structure in ovules. The rate of abortion in young fruits was very high, and it was difficult to observe the development of normal embryos by paraffin sections. There were 0-4 seeds in the nearly matured fruits and (1.3 ±0.42) seeds on an average. The economical seedlessness rate of the JZT(P)-1 was up to 100%. A few of normal seeds were polyembryonic. There were some embryos in a normal seed. The results in our research provided embryology basis to the ascertain of the extraordinary late maturing Citrus reticulate JZT(P)-1.%为进一步探明晚熟无核红桔的无核机理,为晚熟柑橘种质资源的开发利用提供可靠的科学依据,以特晚熟无核红桔JZT(P)-1为实验材料,采用直接解剖、连续石蜡切片、显微技术等方法重点对其胚珠败育过程进行系统的观察研究.结果表明,JZT(P)-1胚珠中的孢原细胞、胚囊原始细胞以及不同发育程度的胚囊基本上都败育,极少数胚珠发育成为健康的种子.在幼果前50天的发育中,胚囊原始细胞多起源发育,发生时间紊乱,使得珠心中早期孢原细胞及不同发育期胚囊的正常发育受到干扰,促

  14. Expression and Immunological Characterization of the Carboxy-Terminal Region of the P1 Adhesin Protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry, Rama; Nisar, Nazima; Hora, Bhavna; Chirasani, Sridhar Reddy; Malhotra, Pawan

    2005-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the causative agent of primary atypical pneumonia in humans. Adherence of M. pneumoniae to host cells requires several adhesin proteins, such as P1, P30, and P116. A major limitation in developing a specific diagnostic test for M. pneumoniae is the inability to express adhesin proteins in heterologous expression systems due to unusual usage of the UGA stop codon, leading to premature termination of these proteins in Escherichia coli. In the present study, we successfu...

  15. Detection of S1-P1 and S3-P3 interactions between papain and four synthetic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel M Papamichael

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the S1 - P1 and S3 - P3 interactions between papain and four synthetic peptide substrates were found as to be important. The values of Km were estimated as to be practically identical between these substrates; this latter is supporting the conclusions obtained by considering the estimated values of other kinetic parameters. Nevertheless, based on the estimated kcat and/or k cat/Km parameters of the used substrates, we concluded that an aromatic ring at the P3 position, and a positively charged side chain of the residue at the P1 position of the synthetic substrates were favored considerably their interaction with papain.Neste estudo, o S1 - P1 e S3 - P3, interações entre papaina e quatro substratos sintéticos de pepetídios foram considerados importantes. Os valores de Km foram estimados e são praticamente idênticos entre esses substratos; Isso dá suporte as conclusões obtidas, considerando os valores parâmetros cinéticos estimados. No obstante, baseou na estimação parâmetros kcat e/ou k cat /Km dos substratos utilizados. Se pode concluir que um anel aromático na posição P3, e uma corrente carregada positivamente da cadeia do resíduo na posição P1 dos substratos sintéticos favoreceram interação com a papaina.

  16. The IGR-CaP1 Xenograft Model Recapitulates Mixed Osteolytic/Blastic Bone Lesions Observed in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Al Nakouzi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastases have a devastating impact on quality of life and bone pain in patients with prostate cancer and decrease survival. Animal models are important tools in investigating the pathogenesis of the disease and in developing treatment strategies for bone metastases, but few animal models recapitulate spontaneous clinical bone metastatic spread. In the present study, IGR-CaP1, a new cell line derived from primary prostate cancer, was stably transduced with a luciferase-expressing viral vector to monitor tumor growth in mice using bioluminescence imaging. The IGR-CaP1 tumors grew when subcutaneously injected or when orthotopically implanted, reconstituted the prostate adenocarcinoma with glandular acini-like structures, and could disseminate to the liver and lung. Bone lesions were detected using bioluminescence imaging after direct intratibial or intracardiac injections. Anatomic bone structure assessed using high-resolution computed tomographic scans showed both lytic and osteoblastic lesions. Technetium Tc 99m methylene diphosphonate micro single-photon emission computed tomography confirmed the mixed nature of the lesions and the intensive bone remodeling. We also identified an expression signature for responsiveness of IGR-CaP1 cells to the bone microenvironment, namely expression of CXCR4, MMP-9, Runx2, osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, ADAMTS14, FGFBP2, and HBB. The IGR-CaP1 cell line is a unique model derived from a primary tumor, which can reconstitute human prostate adenocarcinoma in animals and generate experimental bone metastases, providing a novel means for understanding the mechanisms of bone metastasis progression and allowing preclinical testing of new therapies.

  17. The period ratio P_1/P_2 of torsional Alfv\\'en waves with steady flows in spicules

    CERN Document Server

    Ebadi, H; Farahani, S Vasheghani

    2016-01-01

    The aim here is to model the standing torsional oscillations in solar spicules in the presence of density stratification, magnetic field expansion, and steady flows. By implementing cylindrical geometry, the eigenfrequencies, eigenfunctions, and the period ratio P_1/P_2 of these waves is obtained for finite plasma-beta. The shifts created by the steady flow justifies the divergence of the observed period ratio for the first and second periods from the number 2.

  18. Nonlinear Zeeman effect in photoassociation spectra of $^{40}$Ca near the $^3$P$_1$+$^1$S$_0$ asymptote

    CERN Document Server

    Tiemann, Eberhard; Pachomow, Evgenij; Riehle, Fritz; Sterr, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    We present calculations of the Zeeman effect of narrow photoassociation lines of $^{40}$Ca near the $^3$P$_1$ + $^1$S$_0$ asymptote. Using a coupled-channel model we find a nonlinear Zeeman effect that even at low fields of a few mT amounts to several kHz. With this model we analyze previous measurements and give corrected long range dispersion coefficients of the $^3\\Pi_{u}$ and $^3\\Sigma^+ _{u}$ states.

  19. The period ratio P1/P2 of torsional Alfvén waves with steady flows in spicules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, H.; Shahmorad, S.; Vasheghani Farahani, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim here is to model the standing torsional oscillations in solar spicules in the presence of density stratification, magnetic field expansion, and steady flows. By implementing cylindrical geometry, the eigenfrequencies, eigenfunctions, and the period ratio P1/P2 of these waves is obtained for finite plasma-β. The shifts created by the steady flow justifies the divergence of the observed period ratio for the first and second periods from the number 2.

  20. Synthesis of Zeolites Na-P1 from South African Coal Fly Ash: Effect of Impeller Design and Agitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Petrik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available South African fly ash has been shown to be a useful feedstock for the synthesis of some zeolites. The present study focuses on the effect of impeller design and agitation rates on the synthesis of zeolite Na-P1 which are critical to the commercialization of this product. The effects of three impeller designs (4-flat blade, Anchor and Archimedes screw impellers and three agitation speeds (150, 200 and 300 rpm were investigated using a modified previously reported synthesis conditions; 48 hours of ageing at 47 °C and static hydrothermal treatment at 140 °C for 48 hours. The experimental results demonstrated that the phase purity of zeolite Na-P1 was strongly affected by the agitation rate and the type of impeller used during the ageing step of the synthesis process. Although zeolite Na-P1 was synthesized with a space time yield (STY of 15 ± 0.4 kg d−1m−3and a product yield of 0.98±0.05 g zeolites/g fly ash for each impeller at different agitation speeds, zeolite formation was assessed to be fairly unsuccessful in some cases due the occurrence of undissolved mullite and/or the formation of impurities such as hydroxysodalite with the zeolitic product. This study also showed that a high crystalline zeolite Na-P1 can be synthesized from South African coal fly ash using a 4-flat blade impeller at an agitation rate of 200 rpm during the ageing step at 47 °C for 48 hours followed by static hydrothermal treatment at 140 °C for 48 hours.

  1. Melting during steady-state transcription of the rrnB P1 promoter in vivo and in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohlsen, K L; Gralla, J D

    1992-01-01

    The rRNA rrnB P1 promoter was probed with the single-strand-selective reagent potassium permanganate during steady-state transcription in vitro and in vivo. In both cases, a weak but significant level of permanganate sensitivity was observed, which was not changed by treatment with rifampin. In contrast, static studies showed that rifampin strongly affects the very high level signal associated with polymerases that have used ATP and CTP as initiating nucleotides. We infer that the permanganat...

  2. The rice yellow mottle virus P1 protein exhibits dual functions to suppress and activate gene silencing

    OpenAIRE

    Lacombe, Séverine; Bangratz, Martine; Vignols, Florence; Brugidou, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    In plants RNA silencing is a host defense mechanism against viral infection, in which double-strand RNA is processed into 21-24-nt short interfering RNA (siRNA). Silencing spreads from cell to cell and systemically through a sequence-specific signal to limit the propagation of the virus. To counteract this defense mechanism, viruses encode suppressors of silencing. The P1 protein encoded by the rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) displays suppression activity with variable efficiency, according t...

  3. Design, Synthesis, and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of an (18)F-Labeled Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 1 (S1P1) PET Tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Adam J; Liu, Hui; Jin, Hongjun; Yue, Xuyi; Riley, Sean; Brown, Steven J; Tu, Zhude

    2016-07-14

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) plays a pivotal signaling role in inflammatory response; because S1P1 modulation has been identified as a therapeutic target for various diseases, a PET tracer for S1P1 would be a useful tool. Fourteen fluorine-containing analogues of S1P ligands were synthesized and their in vitro binding potency measured; four had high potency and selectivity for S1P1 (S1P1 IC50 100-fold selectivity for S1P1 over S1P2 and S1P3). The most potent ligand, 28c (IC50 = 2.63 nM for S1P1) was (18)F-labeled and evaluated in a mouse model of LPS-induced acute liver injury to determine its S1P1-binding specificity. The results from biodistribution, autoradiography, and microPET imaging showed higher [(18)F]28c accumulation in the liver of LPS-treated mice than controls. Increased expression of S1P1 in the LPS model was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis (IHC). These data suggest that [(18)F]28c is a S1P1 PET tracer with high potential for imaging S1P1 in vivo. PMID:27280499

  4. The viral capping enzyme nsP1: a novel target for the inhibition of chikungunya virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delang, L.; Li, C.; Tas, A.; Quérat, G.; Albulescu, I. C.; De Burghgraeve, T.; Guerrero, N. A. Segura; Gigante, A.; Piorkowski, G.; Decroly, E.; Jochmans, D.; Canard, B.; Snijder, E. J.; Pérez-Pérez, M. J.; van Hemert, M. J.; Coutard, B.; Leyssen, P.; Neyts, J.

    2016-01-01

    The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has become a substantial global health threat due to its massive re-emergence, the considerable disease burden and the lack of vaccines or therapeutics. We discovered a novel class of small molecules ([1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-ones) with potent in vitro activity against CHIKV isolates from different geographical regions. Drug-resistant variants were selected and these carried a P34S substitution in non-structural protein 1 (nsP1), the main enzyme involved in alphavirus RNA capping. Biochemical assays using nsP1 of the related Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus revealed that the compounds specifically inhibit the guanylylation of nsP1. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report demonstrating that the alphavirus capping machinery is an excellent antiviral drug target. Considering the lack of options to treat CHIKV infections, this series of compounds with their unique (alphavirus-specific) target offers promise for the development of therapy for CHIKV infections. PMID:27545976

  5. HST hot Jupiter Transmission Spectral Survey: A detection of Na and strong optical absorption in HAT-P-1b

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolov, N; Pont, F; Burrows, A S; Fortney, J J; Ballester, G E; Evans, T M; Huitson, C M; Wakeford, H R; Wilson, P A; Aigrain, S; Deming, D; Gibson, N P; Henry, G W; Knutson, H; Etangs, A Lecavelier des; Showman, A P; Vidal-Madjar, A; Zahnle, K

    2013-01-01

    We present an optical to near-infrared transmission spectrum of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-1b, based on HST observations, covering the spectral regime from 0.29 to 1.027{\\mu}m with STIS, which is coupled with a recent WFC3 transit (1.087 to 1.687{\\mu}m). We derive refined physical parameters of the HAT-P-1 system, including an improved orbital ephemeris. The transmission spectrum shows a strong absorption signature shortward of 0.55{\\mu}m, with a strong blueward slope into the near-ultraviolet. We detect atmospheric sodium absorption at a 3.3{\\sigma} significance level, but find no evidence for the potassium feature. The red data implies a marginally flat spectrum with a tentative absorption enhancement at wavelength longer than ~0.85{\\mu}m. The STIS and WFC3 spectra differ significantly in absolute radius level (4.3 +/- 1.6 pressure scale heights), implying strong optical absorption in the atmosphere of HAT-P-1b. The optical to near-infrared difference cannot be explained by stellar activity, as simulta- neous st...

  6. SECONDARY BRAIN INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Ayu Basmatika

    2013-01-01

    Secondary brain injury is a condision that occurs at some times after the primary impact and can be largely prevented and treated. Most brain injury ends with deadly consequences which is caused by secondary damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injured still represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals under the age of 45 years in the world. The classification of secondary brain injured is divided into extracranial and intracranial causes. The cause of extracranial s...

  7. Brain Drain Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Borta, Oxana

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the widely acknowledged so-called brain drain controversy. More concretely on developments in the traditional brain drain literature towards a new shift, claiming the brain gain effect, as an alternative to the brain drain effect, that emigration may bring to a source country. The research investigates not only the obvious direct loss effects – the so called brain drain – but also the possibility of more subtle indirect beneficial effects.

  8. 贴报-P1环境化学、物理和生物毒物及危害评价%POSTERS-P1 Environmental Chemical, Physical and Biological Toxicants and Risk Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C TANGBANLUEKAL; W LEELAKUNAKORN; S RUANGKANCHANASETR; HJ CHO; SM SHIM

    2006-01-01

    @@ Lead (Pb) is the heavy metal that has an effect on an irreversible mental retardation and brain development in newborn till the age of 2 year; therefore, World Health Organization has established a maximum allowance standard for blood lead in child at 10 μg·dL-1.

  9. Quenching rate constants for reactions of Ar(4p'[1/2]0, 4p[1/2]0, 4p[3/2]2, and 4p[5/2]2) atoms with 22 reagent gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, N.; Setser, D. W.; Francis, A.; Czarnetzki, U.; Döbele, H. F.

    2001-08-01

    The total quenching rate constants of argon atoms in the 4p'[1/2]0, 4p[1/2]0, 4p[3/2]2, and 4p[5/2]2 states (2p1, 2p5, 2p6, and 2p8, respectively, in the Paschen numbering system) by rare gases, H2, D2, N2, CO, NO, O2, F2, Cl2, CO2, NO2, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, CF4, CHF3, and SF6 have been determined at room temperature. These four excited states of argon (energy 13.09-13.48 eV) were selectively prepared by two-photon excitation from the ground state using VUV (184-190 nm range) laser pulses. The total quenching rates were deduced from the pressure dependence of the decay times of the excited-state atoms, measured by observing their fluorescence emission intensities in the presence of added reagents. The quenching constants increase from values of ≅0.01×10-10 cm3 atom-1 s-1 for Ne, to ≅0.1×10-10 cm3 atom-1 s-1 for He and Ar, and to very large values, (5-15)×10-10 cm3 atom-1 s-1, for most polyatomic molecules, F2, Cl2, and O2. The quenching mechanisms of the Ar(4p,4p') atoms are briefly discussed and compared to the reactions of the Ar(4s,4s') metastable and resonance state atoms, 11.55-11.83 eV, which can serve as a reference.

  10. Face the hierarchy: ERP and oscillatory brain responses in social rank processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Breton

    Full Text Available Recognition of social hierarchy is a key feature that helps us navigate through our complex social environment. Neuroimaging studies have identified brain structures involved in the processing of hierarchical stimuli but the precise temporal dynamics of brain activity associated with such processing remains largely unknown. Here, we used electroencephalography to examine the effect of social hierarchy on neural responses elicited by faces. In contrast to previous studies, the key manipulation was that a hierarchical context was constructed, not by varying facial expressions, but by presenting neutral-expression faces in a game setting. Once the performance-based hierarchy was established, participants were presented with high-rank, middle-rank and low-rank player faces and had to evaluate the rank of each face with respect to their own position. Both event-related potentials and task-related oscillatory activity were investigated. Three main findings emerge from the study. First, the experimental manipulation had no effect on the early N170 component, which may suggest that hierarchy did not modulate the structural encoding of neutral-expression faces. Second, hierarchy significantly modulated the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP within a 400-700 ms time-window, with more a prominent LPP occurring when the participants processed the face of the highest-rank player. Third, high-rank faces were associated with the highest reduction of alpha power. Taken together these findings provide novel electrophysiological evidence for enhanced allocation of attentional resource in the presence of high-rank faces. At a broader level, this study brings new insights into the neural processing underlying social categorization.

  11. Revising Space Groups from Simulated SHELX·fcf Structure Factors. More Examples of Incorrect Space Groups, an Example of a Chemically-Incorrect Structure and the Special Case of P1 to P(-1) Revisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍锡荣; 谢兆雄

    2003-01-01

    The structure factors of any crystal structure can be simulated from its atomic coordinates (and temperature factors) in a SHELXL-97 run on a dummy hkl in which only the scale factor is refined. The squares of the structure factors are retrieved from the fcf, and such simulated data are used in the revision of the space groups of several incorrectly-refined crystal structures. Two cases, a P1 to P revision and a chemically-incorrect structure that is refined in a correct space group, are discussed.

  12. FROM BRAIN DRAIN TO BRAIN NETWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BONCEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific networking is the most accessible way a country can turn the brain drain into brain gain. Diaspora’s members offer valuable information, advice or financial support from the destination country, without being necessary to return. This article aims to investigate Romania’s potential of turning brain drain into brain networking, using evidence from the medical sector. The main factors influencing the collaboration with the country of origin are investigated. The conclusions suggest that Romania could benefit from the diaspora option, through an active implication at institutional level and the implementation of a strategy in this area.

  13. Developmental and cross-modal plasticity in deafness: evidence from the P1 and N1 event related potentials in cochlear implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anu; Campbell, Julia; Cardon, Garrett

    2015-02-01

    Cortical development is dependent on extrinsic stimulation. As such, sensory deprivation, as in congenital deafness, can dramatically alter functional connectivity and growth in the auditory system. Cochlear implants ameliorate deprivation-induced delays in maturation by directly stimulating the central nervous system, and thereby restoring auditory input. The scenario in which hearing is lost due to deafness and then reestablished via a cochlear implant provides a window into the development of the central auditory system. Converging evidence from electrophysiologic and brain imaging studies of deaf animals and children fitted with cochlear implants has allowed us to elucidate the details of the time course for auditory cortical maturation under conditions of deprivation. Here, we review how the P1 cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) provides useful insight into sensitive period cut-offs for development of the primary auditory cortex in deaf children fitted with cochlear implants. Additionally, we present new data on similar sensitive period dynamics in higher-order auditory cortices, as measured by the N1 CAEP in cochlear implant recipients. Furthermore, cortical re-organization, secondary to sensory deprivation, may take the form of compensatory cross-modal plasticity. We provide new case-study evidence that cross-modal re-organization, in which intact sensory modalities (i.e., vision and somatosensation) recruit cortical regions associated with deficient sensory modalities (i.e., auditory) in cochlear implanted children may influence their behavioral outcomes with the implant. Improvements in our understanding of developmental neuroplasticity in the auditory system should lead to harnessing central auditory plasticity for superior clinical technique.

  14. The Brain Never Stops

    OpenAIRE

    Sadaghiani, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    Your brain is doing a lot of work when you are engaged in activities such as sports, playing a game, or watching a movie. Your brain is also a master of associating one thought with another and making your mind wander. But what does your brain do when you are not engaged in particular thoughts or actions? Interestingly, similar to the heart that always keeps beating, the brain never stops its activity. For example, your brain is highly active even when you are fast asleep. In fact, brain cell...

  15. Detection of Lewis, P1, and some MNS blood group system antibodies by a solid phase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolih, S; Thomas, R; Sinor, L

    1995-01-01

    Some solid phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) assays are designed to detect IgG antibodies to red blood cell (RBC) antigens. These assays use anti-IgG-coated red cells as the indicator. It is reported that most antibodies to Lea, Leb, P1, M, and N fail to react by solid phase (SP), presumably because they are IgM antibodies. Those detected are assumed to be IgG. In one year, during routine testing using SPRCA to screen patients for intended RBC transfusion, 28 of 59 such examples were found to react: anti-Lea(9), -Leb(1), -M(14), -N(1), and -P1(3). A study was undertaken to determine if reactivity was due to crosslinking by IgM antibodies of antigen-positive indicator RBCs to antigen-positive reagent RBC monolayers, or due to detection of IgG antibodies. Antibodies were tested according to standard SP protocols, except where IgG-neutralized indicator RBCs were substituted for anti-IgG-active indicator cells. The 59 samples were retested with antigen-positive and antigen-negative indicator RBCs. Only 5 of 59 reacted optimally when antigen-positive indicator cells were used: anti-Lea(2), -Leb(1), -M(1), and -N(1). The reactions of all antibodies were abolished when the anti-IgG component of the indicator was neutralized by soluble IgG. These findings show that detection of most Lewis, P1, M, and N antibodies by SPRCA is dependent on the presence of an IgG antibody in the serum.

  16. Magnetocaloric effects in Mn1.35Fe0.65P1-xSix compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng Yao-Xiang; Tegus O; Bi Li-Ge

    2012-01-01

    The structural and magnetocaloric properties of Mn1.35Fe0.s5P1-xSix compounds are investigated. The Sisubstituted compounds,Mn1.35Fe0.65P1-xSix with x =0.52,0.54,0.55,0.56,and 0.57,are prepared by high-energy ball milling and the solid-state reaction.The X-ray diffraction shows that the compounds crystallize into the Fe2P-type hexagonal structure with space group P(6)2m.The magnetic measurements show that the Curie temperature of the compound increases from 253 K for x =0.52 to 296 K for x =0.56.The isothermal magnetic-entropy change of the Mn1.35Fe0.65P1-xSix compound decreases with the Si content increasing.The maximal value of the magnetic-entropy change is about 7.0 J/kg·K in the Mn1.35Feo.65Po.48Sio.52 compound with a field change of 1.5 T.The compound quenched in water possesses a larger magnetic entropy change and a smaller thermal hysteresis than the non-quenched samples.The thermal hysteresis of the compound is less than 3.5 K.The maximum adiabatic temperature change is about 1.4 K in the Mn1.35Feo.65P0.45Si0.55 compound with a field change of 1.48 T.

  17. Transcriptional analysis of Mycobacterium fortuitum cultures upon hydrogen peroxide treatment using the novel standard rrnA-P1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebollo María

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of an intracellular pathogen to establish infection depends on the capacity of the organism to survive and replicate inside the host. Mycobacterium fortuitum is a bacteria that contains genes involved in the detoxification of the oxygen reactive species such as those produced by the host during the infection. In this work, we investigate the effects of hydrogen peroxide on the transcription and expression of these genes by developing a real time quantitative PCR technique (qRT-PCR using the ribosomal promoter region (rrnA-P1 as reference product for quantification of the mRNA levels. Results M. fortuitum cultures were treated with different hydrogen peroxide concentrations (0.02 to 20 mM during several periods of time (30 to 120 minutes. The activity of the enzymes KatGII and SodA, and the transcription of corresponding genes were evaluated. The transcriptional regulator furAII gene was also studied. The ribosomal promoter region rrnA-P1 was validated as referential product under the stress conditions checked by qRT-PCR. Minor changes were observed under the conditions tested except when bacteria were incubated in the presence of 20 mM hydrogen peroxide. Under those conditions, the levels of transcription of the three genes under study increased at 30 minutes of treatment. The viability of the bacteria was not influenced under the conditions tested. Conclusion In this work, we have quantified transcriptional responses to stress suggesting that, the opportunistic pathogen M. fortuitum is more resistant and differs in behaviour in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, when compared to the major pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the saprophyte Mycobacterium smegmatis. Besides, we demonstrate the mycobacterial non-coding region rrnA-P1 to be a suitable reference product in the analysis of qRT-PCR transcriptional data of M. fortuitum.

  18. Transcriptional analysis of Mycobacterium fortuitum cultures upon hydrogen peroxide treatment using the novel standard rrnA-P1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, María Carmen; Menéndez, María Carmen; Rebollo, María José; García, María J

    2008-01-01

    Background The ability of an intracellular pathogen to establish infection depends on the capacity of the organism to survive and replicate inside the host. Mycobacterium fortuitum is a bacteria that contains genes involved in the detoxification of the oxygen reactive species such as those produced by the host during the infection. In this work, we investigate the effects of hydrogen peroxide on the transcription and expression of these genes by developing a real time quantitative PCR technique (qRT-PCR) using the ribosomal promoter region (rrnA-P1) as reference product for quantification of the mRNA levels. Results M. fortuitum cultures were treated with different hydrogen peroxide concentrations (0.02 to 20 mM) during several periods of time (30 to 120 minutes). The activity of the enzymes KatGII and SodA, and the transcription of corresponding genes were evaluated. The transcriptional regulator furAII gene was also studied. The ribosomal promoter region rrnA-P1 was validated as referential product under the stress conditions checked by qRT-PCR. Minor changes were observed under the conditions tested except when bacteria were incubated in the presence of 20 mM hydrogen peroxide. Under those conditions, the levels of transcription of the three genes under study increased at 30 minutes of treatment. The viability of the bacteria was not influenced under the conditions tested. Conclusion In this work, we have quantified transcriptional responses to stress suggesting that, the opportunistic pathogen M. fortuitum is more resistant and differs in behaviour in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, when compared to the major pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the saprophyte Mycobacterium smegmatis. Besides, we demonstrate the mycobacterial non-coding region rrnA-P1 to be a suitable reference product in the analysis of qRT-PCR transcriptional data of M. fortuitum. PMID:18565220

  19. 猪小肠抗菌肽Cecropin P1对猪呼吸道菌抑菌活性的研究%RESEARCH ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CECROPIN P1 TO PORCINE RESPIRATORY BACTERIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伦锋; 马志永; 魏建超; 谢春阳; 彭帅; 李蓓蓓; 刘珂; 邵东华; 邱亚峰; 史子学

    2016-01-01

    Antibacterial peptide cecropin P1 was originally isolated from the small intestines of the pigs. In the present study, the recombinant cecropin P1 produced in pichia pastoris was tested for its antibacterial activity against seven species of common swine respiratory bacteria including Streptococcussuis, Staphylococcusaureus, Pasteurella multocida, Actinobacilluspleuropneumoniae, swine Bordetella bronchiseptica, swine enteropathogenic E.coli and Streptococcus pyogenes. The recombinant cecropin P1 showed different degrees of bacteriostasis for these seven respiratory bacteria as measured by MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration). The most significant bacteristasis was observed for Streptococcus pyogenes, Pasteurella multocida and Staphylococcus aureus with MIC of 49.5 ug/mL, and moderate antibacterial activity for Sreptococcus suis and E.coli. In contrast, the recombinant cecropin P1 had the least bacteriostasis for swine Bordetella bronchiseptica as the MIC was 398 ug/mL. Currently, the vigorous use of antibiotics has caused the bacteria to have developed the high-level resistance. The availability of the recombinant cecropin P1 is of great significance as it possesses wide antimicrobial spectrum, toxin-free nature, high stability, less resistance and no residue in the body.%以猪链球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、多杀性巴氏杆菌、猪胸膜肺炎放线杆菌、猪支气管败血波氏杆菌、猪致病性大肠杆菌、化脓性链球菌7株猪呼吸道常见菌为实验菌,检测猪小肠抗菌肽对常见的猪呼吸道菌的抑菌效果。结果显示,猪小肠抗菌肽对这7株呼吸道菌均有不同程度的抑菌作用,对化脓性链球菌、多杀性巴氏杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌的抑菌作用最为明显,最小抑菌浓度均为49.5μg/mL,对猪链球菌和大肠杆菌也有较为明显的抑菌活性,而对猪支气管败血波氏杆菌的最小抑菌浓度为398μg/mL。当前在抗生素大量使用导致细菌产生广泛

  20. Wavelength and oscillator strength of dipole transition 1s22p-1s2nd for Mn22+ ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZhiWen; WANG YaNan; HU MuHong; LI XinRu; LIU Ying

    2008-01-01

    The transition energies, wavelengths and dipole oscillator strengths of 1s22p-1s2nd (3≤n≤9) for Mn22+. ion are calculated. The fine structure splittings of 1s2nd (n ≤9) states for this ion are also evaluated. In calculating energy, the higher-order relativistic contribution is estimated under a hydrogenic approximation. The quantum defect of Rydberg series 1s2nd is determined according to the quantum defect theory. The results obtained in this paper excellently agree with the experi-mental data available in literatures.

  1. The discharge mode transition and O(5p1) production mechanism of pulsed radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. Y.; Hu, J. T.; Liu, J. H.; Xiong, Z. L.; Liu, D. W.; Lu, X. P.; Shi, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    The discharge mode transition from uniform plasma across the gas gap to the α mode happens at the rising phase of the pulsed radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma (PRF CCP). This transition is attributed to the fast increasing stochastic heating at the edge of sheath. In the second stage with the stable current and voltage amplitude, the consistency between experimental and numerical spatial-temporal 777 nm emission profile suggests that He* and He2* dominate the production of O(5p1) through dissociation and excitation of O2. Finally, the sterilization efficiency of PRF CCP is found to be higher than that of plasma jet.

  2. The discharge mode transition and O(5p1) production mechanism of pulsed radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discharge mode transition from uniform plasma across the gas gap to the α mode happens at the rising phase of the pulsed radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma (PRF CCP). This transition is attributed to the fast increasing stochastic heating at the edge of sheath. In the second stage with the stable current and voltage amplitude, the consistency between experimental and numerical spatial-temporal 777 nm emission profile suggests that He* and He2* dominate the production of O(5p1) through dissociation and excitation of O2. Finally, the sterilization efficiency of PRF CCP is found to be higher than that of plasma jet.

  3. Could Z{sub c} (4025) be a J{sup P} = 1{sup +} D* anti D* molecular state?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Chun-Yu. [Third Military Medical University, Department of Physics, School of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing (China); Liu, Yong-Lu; Huang, Ming-Qiu [National University of Defense Technology, College of Science, Hunan (China)

    2013-12-15

    We investigate whether the newly observed narrow resonance Z{sub c} (4025) can be described as a D* anti D* molecular state with quantum numbers J{sup P} = 1{sup +}. Using QCD sum rules, we consider contributions up to dimension six in the operator product expansion and work at leading order of {alpha}{sub s}. The mass obtained for this state is (4.05 {+-} 0.28) GeV. It is concluded that the D* anti D* molecular state is a possible candidate for Z{sub c} (4025). (orig.)

  4. Remote frequency measurement of the 1S0-3P1 transition in laser cooled Mg-24

    OpenAIRE

    Friebe, J.; Riedmann, M.; Wübbena, T.; Pape, A.; Kelkar, H.; Ertmer, W.; Terra, O.; Sterr, U.; Weyers, S.; Grosche, G.; Schnatz, H.; Rasel, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    We perform Ramsey-Bord\\'e spectroscopy on laser-cooled magnesium atoms in free fall to measure the 1S0 \\rightarrow 3P1 intercombination transition frequency. The measured value of 655 659 923 839 730 (48) Hz is consistent with our former atomic beam measurement (Friebe et al 2008 Phys. Rev. A 78 033830). We improve upon the fractional accuracy of the previous measurement by more than an order of magnitude to 7e-14. The magnesium frequency standard was referenced to a fountain clock of the Phy...

  5. Formation of deeply bound ultracold Sr_2 molecules by photoassociation near the ^1S + ^3P_1 intercombination line

    OpenAIRE

    Skomorowski, Wojciech; Moszynski, Robert; Koch, Christiane P.

    2012-01-01

    We predict feasibility of the photoassociative formation of Sr_2 molecules in arbitrary vibrational levels of the electronic ground state based on state-of-the-art ab initio calculations. Key is the strong spin-orbit interaction between the c^3\\Pi_u, A^1\\Sigma_u^+ and B^1\\Sigma_u^+ states. It creates not only an effective dipole moment allowing free-to-bound transitions near the ^1S + ^3P_1 intercombination line but also facilitates bound-to-bound transitions via resonantly coupled excited st...

  6. The effect of doping on magnetic properties of (Fe1-xMnx)2P1-ySiy series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraus, Jerzy; Hawełek, Lukasz; Włodarczyk, Patryk

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present results of ab initio calculations for the (Fe1-xMnx)2P1-ySiy series, where we investigate the effect of doping on magnetic properties of these materials. Such compounds, which belong to the Fe2 P class of magnetocaloric materials are now extensively studied, due to their potential applications in magnetic cooling. In the hexagonal Fe2 P-type structure, transition metals occupy two inequivalent Wyckoff positions: 3 f and 3 g. We have shown that the preference of occupation of one site by the particular transition metal leads to different dependence of magnetic properties with respect to the total doping effect.

  7. A high precision chemical abundance analysis of the HAT-P-1 stellar binary: constraints on planet formation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, F; Asplund, M.; Ramirez, I.; Yong, D.; Melendez, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a high-precision, differential elemental abundance analysis of the HAT-P-1 stellar binary based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio Keck/HIRES spectra. The secondary star in this double system is known to host a transiting giant planet while no planets have yet been detected around the primary star. The derived metallicities ([Fe/H]) of the primary and secondary stars are identical within the errors: $0.146 \\pm 0.014$ dex ($\\sigma$ = 0.033 dex) and $0.155 \\pm 0.007$ dex ...

  8. Molecular cloning of bacterial DNA in vivo using a transposable R6K ori and a P1vir phage.

    OpenAIRE

    Stojiljkovic, I; Bozja, J; Salaj-Smic, E

    1994-01-01

    A new method of cloning in vivo using the P1vir phage and transposon Tn5-rpsL oriR6K was developed. The method relies upon recircularization of transducing DNA containing a transposon insertion in a recombination-deficient strain of Escherichia coli K-12 and subsequent stable replication of the recircularized DNA. Using this method, we were able to clone in vivo the chromosomal region located between approximately 7.1 and 9.2 min on the E. coli K-12 map in a 95-kb plasmid.

  9. Development of decontamination technique for radioactive Cs in soil using composite material of Na-P1 type zeolite and magnetite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na-P1 type zeolite is a porous material with its pore opening size similar to the diameter of Cs+, and has considerably high adsorption selectivity for Cs+. In Fukushima, we conducted experiments to remove radioactive Cs from some soils, by using magnetized Na-P1, a composite of magnetite and Na-P1. By mixing soil with the magnetized Na-P1, with the mass ratio of 10:1, in ammonium oxalate solution for 10 min, more than 80% of radioactive Cs was removed from soil. Important factors for the successful removal of radioactive Cs from soils were preparation of soil composite with no separation of magnetite and Na-P1 during the mixing, optimization of the structure of magnetic separator which separate soil and magnetized Na-P1, and the selection of solution in the mixing procedure. (author)

  10. Interactions between the cyclic AMP receptor protein and the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase at the Escherichia coli galactose operon P1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attey, A; Belyaeva, T; Savery, N; Hoggett, J; Fujita, N; Ishihama, A; Busby, S

    1994-10-25

    DNAase I footprinting has been used to study open complexes between Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and the galactose operon P1 promoter, both in the absence and the presence of CRP (the cyclic AMP receptor protein, a transcription activator). From the effects of deletion of the C-terminal part of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit, we deduce that alpha binds at the upstream end of both the binary RNA polymerase-galP1 and ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes. Disruption of the alpha-upstream contact suppresses open complex formation at galP1 at lower temperatures. In ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes, alpha appears to make direct contact with Activating Region 1 in CRP. DNAase I footprinting has been used to detect and quantify interactions between purified alpha and CRP bound at galP1. PMID:7971267

  11. Eyes like it, Brain Likes it: Tracking the Neural Tuning of Cultural Diversity in Eye Movements for Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junpeng Lao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Eye movement strategies deployed by humans to identify conspecifics are not universal. Westerners preferentially fixate the eyes and the mouth during face recognition, whereas strikingly Easterners focus more on the face central region. However, when, where and how Preferred Viewing Locations (PVLs for high-level visual stimuli are coded in the human brain has never been directly investigated. Here, we simultaneously recorded eye-movements and electroencephalographic (EEG signals of Westerners and Easterners during face identification of learnt identities. After defining 9 equidistant Viewing Positions (VPs covering all facial internal features, we presented the learned faces centered on a random VP for 100ms. We then extracted from prior free-viewing fixation maps the average Z-scored fixation intensity for the nonoverlapping facial VP regions (VPZs. Finally, we computed a component-free data-driven spatio-temporal regression between the VPZs and EEG amplitudes. This analysis revealed a universal direct relationship between VPZ and EEG amplitudes over the face-sensitive N170 network at around 350ms, an effect unrelated to a burst of microsaccades occurring in this time-window. Our data show that the distinct cultural fixation preferences for faces are related to a universal post-perceptual tuning in the occipito-temporal cortex. Culture shapes visual information sampling, but does not regulate neural information coding.

  12. 共表达口蹄疫病毒O型P1-2A-IL-18基因和Asia Ⅰ型P1-2A-3C基因重组鸡痘病毒的构建%Construction of Recombinant Fowlpox Virus for Co-expressing P1-2A-IL-18 Gene of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus FMDV Type O and P1-2A-3C Gene of FMDV Type Asia Ⅰ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷长维; 胡博; 马鸣潇; 金宁一; 霍晓伟; 李太元; 鲁会军; 郑敏; 常巧呈; 于长勇; 牟伟峰

    2008-01-01

    目的 构建共表达口蹄疫病毒(FWDV)O型P1-2A-IL-18基因和Asia Ⅰ型P1-2A-3C基因的重组鸡痘病毒.方法 将酶切得到的FWDV O型P1-2A-IL-18基因和Asia I型P1-2A-3C基因克隆至鸡痘病毒表达载体pUTAL上,构建重组鸡痘病毒转移质粒pUTAL-P1-2A-3C-P1-2A-IL-18,与鸡痘病毒(FPV)282 E4株共转染鸡胚成纤维细胞(CEF),通过BrdU 3次加压筛选.挑选出单克隆重组病毒株,进行RT-PCR及间接免疫荧光(IFA)鉴定.结果 重组鸡痘病毒转移质粒pUTAL-P1-2A-3C-P1-2A-IL-18经双酶切鉴定证明构建正确.经RT-PCR和IFA鉴定,证明所筛选的重组鸡痘病毒在CEF中能正确表达P1-2A-3C-P1-2A-IL-18基因盒.结论 已成功构建了共表达FMDV O型P1-2A-IL-18基因和Asia Ⅰ型P1-2A-3C基因的重组鸡痘病毒.

  13. Understanding brain networks and brain organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Luiz

    2014-09-01

    What is the relationship between brain and behavior? The answer to this question necessitates characterizing the mapping between structure and function. The aim of this paper is to discuss broad issues surrounding the link between structure and function in the brain that will motivate a network perspective to understanding this question. However, as others in the past, I argue that a network perspective should supplant the common strategy of understanding the brain in terms of individual regions. Whereas this perspective is needed for a fuller characterization of the mind-brain, it should not be viewed as panacea. For one, the challenges posed by the many-to-many mapping between regions and functions is not dissolved by the network perspective. Although the problem is ameliorated, one should not anticipate a one-to-one mapping when the network approach is adopted. Furthermore, decomposition of the brain network in terms of meaningful clusters of regions, such as the ones generated by community-finding algorithms, does not by itself reveal "true" subnetworks. Given the hierarchical and multi-relational relationship between regions, multiple decompositions will offer different "slices" of a broader landscape of networks within the brain. Finally, I described how the function of brain regions can be characterized in a multidimensional manner via the idea of diversity profiles. The concept can also be used to describe the way different brain regions participate in networks.

  14. Whole brain reirradiation for brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective analysis was done for 31 patients with brain metastases who had undergone reirradiation. Initial whole brain irradiation was performed with 30 Gy/10 fractions for 87% of these patients. Whole brain reirradiation was performed with 30 Gy/10 fractions for 42% of these patients (3-40 Gy/1-20 fractions). The median interval between the initial irradiation and reirradiation was 10 months (range: 2-69 months). The median survival time after reirradiation was 4 months (range: 1-21 months). The symptomatic improvement rate after reirradiation was 68%, and the partial and complete tumor response rate was 55%. Fifty-two percent of the patients developed grade 1 acute reactions. Whole brain reirradiation for brain metastases placed only a slight burden on patients and was effective for symptomatic improvement. (author)

  15. Decreased Expression of Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-related Protein-1 (IGFBP-rP1) in Radiation-induced Mouse Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Teishima, Jun

    2002-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein-1 (IGFBP-rP1) is a member of the IGFBP family, which was called IGFBP-7 or mac25 previously. Decreased expression of IGFBP-rP1 has been shown in breast cancer and prostatic cancer, and tumor suppressive effects of IGFBP-rP1 have been reported in prostatic cancer and osteosarcoma cell lines. In the present study, we investigated whether expression levels of IGFBP-rP1 were related to the development and the growth of radiation-induced h...

  16. Biomechanics of the brain

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Karol

    2011-01-01

    With contributions from scientists at major institutions, this book presents an introduction to brain anatomy for engineers and scientists. It provides, for the first time, a comprehensive resource in the field of brain biomechanics.

  17. Brain Tumor Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Press Releases Headlines Newsletter ABTA ... About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain ...

  18. Biophysics: Unfolding the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Ellen

    2016-06-01

    The folded surface of the human brain, although striking, continues to evade understanding. Experiments with swelling gels now fuel the notion that brain folding is modulated by physical forces, and not by genetic, biological or chemical events alone.

  19. Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free mailed brochure Cómo Prevenir un Accidente Cerebrovascular Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke Request free mailed brochure Table ... Americans are protecting their most important asset—their brain. Are you? Stroke ranks as the fourth leading ...

  20. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... to make progress in “immunogenomics” Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  1. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  2. Genetic Brain Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...

  3. Brain aneurysm repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  4. Simulations of symcap and layered NIF experiments with top/bottom laser asymmetry to impose P1 drive on capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, D.; Spears, B.; Casey, D.; Pak, A.; Ma, T.; Izumi, N.; Pollock, B.; Weber, C.; Kritcher, A.; Jones, O.; Milovich, J.; Town, R.; Robey, H.; Hinkel, D.; Callahan, D.; Hatchett, S.; Knauer, J.; Yeamans, C.; Bleuel, D.; Nagel, S.; Hatarik, R.; Khan, S.; Sayre, D.; Caggiano, J.; Grim, G.; Eckart, M.; Fittinghoff, D.; Merrill, F.; Bradley, D.

    2016-05-01

    Integrated hohlraum/capsule post-shot simulation of the first full-scale cryogenic layered-DT experiment with top/bottom laser asymmetries of 8% is discussed. The imposed P1 Legendre mode drive on the capsule results in downward velocity of 85 ± 15 km/s as measured by neutron time of flight (NTOF) diagnostics and x-ray imagers, which is in excellent agreement with the calculated velocity of 87 km/s. The measured DT yield is approximately 30% less than the average of two comparable shots using the same 4 shock HiFoot pulse shape without drive asymmetry. The calculated DT yield of 5.0e15 is very close to the measured value of 4.86e15 for the shot with drive asymmetry, which implies that P1 effects dominate yield reduction. The neutron activation diagnostics (NADs) give clear indication of higher areal density in the direction of the north pole in excellent agreement with calculations. Integrated post-shot simulation of an earlier symcap (capsule with appropriate ablator thicknesses to act as a surrogate for an ignition capsule) experiment with laser asymmetries show that calculated neutron-wighted velocity is a strong function of capsule shape.

  5. A native Zn/Cd pumping P(1B) ATPase from natural overexpression in a hyperaccumulator plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, Aravind; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Yang, Mingjie; Kroneck, Peter M H; Welte, Wolfram; Lutz, Gabriela; Papoyan, Ashot; Kochian, Leon V; Küpper, Hendrik

    2007-11-01

    We report here the first purification of a P(1B) type ATPase, a group of transporters that occurs in bacteria, plants and animals incl. humans, from a eukaryotic organism in native state. TcHMA4 is a P(1B) type ATPase that is highly expressed in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens and contains a C-terminal 9-histidine repeat. After isolation from roots, we purified TcHMA4 protein via metal affinity chromatography. The purified protein exhibited Cd- and Zn-activated ATPase activity after reconstitution into lipid vesicles, showing that it was in its native state. Gels of crude root extract and of the purified protein revealed TcHMA4-specific bands of about 50 and 60kDa, respectively, while the TcHMA4 mRNA predicts a single protein with a size of 128kDa. This indicates the occurrence of post-translational processing; the properties of the two bands were characterised by their activity and binding properties. PMID:17826738

  6. Response surface optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources for nuclease P1 production by Penicillium citrinum F-5-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penicillium citrinum F-5-5, a nuclease P1 high-producing strain with 978.6 U/ml in potato glucose medium, was derived from the original Penicillium citrinum CICC 4011 with 60Co γ-rays irradiation mutation and then protoplasts fusion treatment. Culture components were optimized for the nuclease P1 production, and response surface methodology was applied for the critical medium components(carbon and nitrogen sources) which were preselected by Plackett-Burman design approach. Glucose, soluble starch and corn steep powder showed significant effects on production of nuclease. Central composite design was used for the optimization levels by software Minitab 15, and it showed that, the optimal values for the concentration of glucose, soluble starch and corn steep powder were 30.89, 42.46 and 11.60 g/L, respectively. With this medium,an enzyme activity of 1687.16 U/ml could be obtained theoretically. Using this optimized medium, an experimental enzyme activity of 1672.6 U/ml was reached. (authors)

  7. New insights into alkylammonium-functionalized clinoptilolite and Na-P1 zeolite: Structural and textural features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Barbara; Matusik, Jakub; Bajda, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The area of zeolites' application could be expanded by utilizing their surfaces. Zeolites are frequently modified to increase their hydrophobicity and to generate the negative charge of the surface. The main objective of the study was to investigate and compare the features of natural clinoptilolite and synthetic zeolite Na-P1 modified by selected surfactants involving quaternary ammonium salts. The FTIR study indicates that with increasing carbon chain length in the surfactant attached to the zeolites surface the molecules adopt a more disordered structure. FTIR was also used to determine the efficiency of surface modification. Thermal analysis revealed that the presence of surfactant results in additional exothermic effects associated with the breaking of electrostatic bonds between zeolites and surfactants. The mass losses are in line with ECEC and CHN data. The textural study indicates that the synthetic zeolite Na-P1 has better sorption properties than natural clinoptilolite. The modification process always reduces the SBET and porosity of the material. With an increasing carbon chain length of surfactants all the texture parameters decrease.

  8. A high precision chemical abundance analysis of the HAT-P-1 stellar binary: constraints on planet formation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, F; Ramirez, I; Yong, D; Melendez, J

    2014-01-01

    We present a high-precision, differential elemental abundance analysis of the HAT-P-1 stellar binary based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio Keck/HIRES spectra. The secondary star in this double system is known to host a transiting giant planet while no planets have yet been detected around the primary star. The derived metallicities ([Fe/H]) of the primary and secondary stars are identical within the errors: $0.146 \\pm 0.014$ dex ($\\sigma$ = 0.033 dex) and $0.155 \\pm 0.007$ dex ($\\sigma$ = 0.023 dex), respectively. Extremely precise differential abundance ratios of 23 elements have been measured (mean error of $\\sigma$([X/Fe]) = 0.013 dex) and are found to be indistinguishable between the two stars: $\\Delta$[X/Fe] (secondary - primary) = $+0.001 \\pm 0.006$ dex ($\\sigma$ = 0.008 dex). The striking similarity in the chemical composition of the two stellar components in HAT-P-1 is contrary to the possible 0.04 dex level difference seen in 16 Cyg A+B, which also hosts a giant planet, at least 3 time...

  9. The dark cloud TGU H994 P1 (LDN 1399, LDN 1400, and LDN 1402): Interstellar extinction and distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straižys, V.; Čepas, V.; Boyle, R. P.; Munari, U.; Zdanavičius, J.; Maskoliūnas, M.; Kazlauskas, A.; Zdanavičius, K.

    2016-01-01

    The results of CCD photometry in the seven-colour Vilnius system, for about 1000 stars down to V = 20 mag and their two-dimensional spectral types, are used to investigate the interstellar extinction in a 1.5 square degree area in the direction of the dark cloud TGU H994 P1 (LDN 1399, LDN 1400 and LDN 1402) in Camelopardalis. Photometric classification of 18 brightest stars down to V = 12 mag was verified by the spectra obtained with the 1.22 m telescope of the Asiago Observatory. The interstellar extinction run with distance is investigated with the results of photometry in the Vilnius system, and 504 red clump giants, identified by combining the results of infrared photometry from the 2MASS and WISE surveys. A possible distance of 140 ± 11 pc to the TGU H994 P1 cloud seems to be acceptable. Alternative distances of the cloud are discussed. The complex of the Camelopardalis clouds probably has a considerable depth along the line of sight, similar to that observed in the Taurus-Auriga complex. The maximum extinction AV in the dark filaments is found to be about 6.5 mag. Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/585/A31

  10. $\\bbbc P^2$ and $\\bbbc P^{1}$ Sigma Models in Supergravity: Bianchi type IX Instantons and Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Akbar, M M

    2004-01-01

    We find instanton/cosmological solutions with biaxial Bianchi-IX symmetry, involving non-trivial spatial dependence of the $\\bbbc P^{1}$- and $\\bbbc P^{2}$-sigma-models coupled to gravity. Such manifolds arise in N=1, $d=4$ supergravity with supermatter actions and hence the solutions can be embedded in supergravity. There is a natural way in which the standard coordinates of these manifolds can be mapped into the four-dimensional physical space. Due to its special symmetry, we start with $\\bbbc P^{2}$ with its corresponding scalar Ansatz; this further requires the spacetime to be $SU(2) \\times U(1)$-invariant. The problem then reduces to a set of ordinary differential equations whose analytical properties and solutions are discussed. Among the solutions there is a surprising, special-family of exact solutions which owe their existence to the non-trivial topology of $\\bbbc P^{2}$ and are in 1-1 correspondence with matter-free Bianchi-IX metrics. These solutions can also be found by coupling $\\bbbc P^{1}$ to g...

  11. PfeT, a P1B4 -type ATPase, effluxes ferrous iron and protects Bacillus subtilis against iron intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guohua; Pinochet-Barros, Azul; Gaballa, Ahmed; Patel, Sarju J; Argüello, José M; Helmann, John D

    2015-11-01

    Iron is an essential element for nearly all cells and limited iron availability often restricts growth. However, excess iron can also be deleterious, particularly when cells expressing high affinity iron uptake systems transition to iron rich environments. Bacillus subtilis expresses numerous iron importers, but iron efflux has not been reported. Here, we describe the B. subtilis PfeT protein (formerly YkvW/ZosA) as a P1B4 -type ATPase in the PerR regulon that serves as an Fe(II) efflux pump and protects cells against iron intoxication. Iron and manganese homeostasis in B. subtilis are closely intertwined: a pfeT mutant is iron sensitive, and this sensitivity can be suppressed by low levels of Mn(II). Conversely, a pfeT mutant is more resistant to Mn(II) overload. In vitro, the PfeT ATPase is activated by both Fe(II) and Co(II), although only Fe(II) efflux is physiologically relevant in wild-type cells, and null mutants accumulate elevated levels of intracellular iron. Genetic studies indicate that PfeT together with the ferric uptake repressor (Fur) cooperate to prevent iron intoxication, with iron sequestration by the MrgA mini-ferritin playing a secondary role. Protection against iron toxicity may also be a key role for related P1B4 -type ATPases previously implicated in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:26261021

  12. NASA Robot Brain Surgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer Michael Guerrero works on the Robot Brain Surgeon testbed in the NeuroEngineering Group at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Principal investigator Dr. Robert W. Mah states that potentially the simple robot will be able to feel brain structures better than any human surgeon, making slow, very precise movements during an operation. The brain surgery robot that may give surgeons finer control of surgical instruments during delicate brain operations is still under development.

  13. Brain cancer spreads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine Terra

    2014-01-01

    The discovery that ~20% of patients with brain cancer have circulating tumor cells breaks the dogma that these cells are confined to the brain and has important clinical implications (Müller et al., this issue).......The discovery that ~20% of patients with brain cancer have circulating tumor cells breaks the dogma that these cells are confined to the brain and has important clinical implications (Müller et al., this issue)....

  14. Brain-actuated interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Millán, José del R.; Renkens, F.; Mourino, J.; Gerstner, W.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last years evidence has accumulated that shows the possibility to analyze human brain activity on-line and translate brain states into actions such as selecting a letter from a virtual keyboard or moving a robotics device. These initial results have been obtained with either invasive approaches (requiring surgical implantation of electrodes) or synchronous protocols (where brain signals are time-locked to external cues). In this paper we describe a portable noninvasive brain-computer...

  15. Development and characterization of murine monoclonal antibody specific for the P1.4 PorA proteins from strain B:4:P1.(7b.4. of Neisseria meningitidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Pérez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis isolates are conventionally classified by serosubtyping that characterizes the reactivities of the PorA outer membrane protein variable-region epitopes with monoclonal antibodies. Porins are outer membrane proteins (OMPs of N. meningitidis serogroup B and have attracted study principally for two reasons: their use in the classification of meningococcal isolates into serotype and subtype and as potential components of vaccines against this important pathogen. New murine hybridomas, secreting specific monoclonal antibodies against PorA serotype P1.4 of N. meningitidis serogroup B, were generated using conventional hybridoma procedures. The monoclonal antibodies obtained were characterized by Western blot and whole cell ELISA, using reference strains from different N. meningitidis serotypes and subtypes. All monoclonal antibodies belong to isotype IgG1. Others hybridomas producing MAbs against PorB and FrpB were also obtained.

  16. The connected brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    The connected brain Martijn van den Heuvel, 2009 Our brain is a network. It is a network of different brain regions that are all functionally and structurally linked to each other. In the past decades, neuroimaging studies have provided a lot of information about the specific functions of each separ

  17. Brain and Spinal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Tumors of the brain and ...

  18. Primary lymphoma of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain lymphoma; Cerebral lymphoma; Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system; Lymphoma - brain ... The cause of primary brain lymphoma is not known. People with a weakened immune system are at high risk for primary lymphoma of the brain. ...

  19. Brain emotional learning based Brain Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Asadi Ghanbari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A brain computer interface (BCI enables direct communication between a brain and a computer translating brain activity into computer commands using preprocessing, feature extraction and classification operations. Classification is crucial as it has a substantial effect on the BCI speed and bit rate. Recent developments of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs bring forward some challenging problems to the machine learning community, of which classification of time-varying electrophysiological signals is a crucial one. Constructing adaptive classifiers is a promising approach to deal with this problem. In this paper, we introduce adaptive classifiers for classify electroencephalogram (EEG signals. The adaptive classifier is brain emotional learning based adaptive classifier (BELBAC, which is based on emotional learning process. The main purpose of this research is to use a structural model based on the limbic system of mammalian brain, for decision making and control engineering applications. We have adopted a network model developed by Moren and Balkenius, as a computational model that mimics amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, thalamus, sensory input cortex and generally, those parts of the brain thought responsible for processing emotions. The developed method was compared with other methods used for EEG signals classification (support vector machine (SVM and two different neural network types (MLP, PNN. The result analysis demonstrated an efficiency of the proposed approach.

  20. Instant BrainShark

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. ""Instant BrainShark"" is a step-by-step guide to creating online presentations using BrainShark. The book covers digital marketing best practices alongside tips for sales conversions. The book is written in an easy-to-read style for anybody to easily pick up and get started with BrainShark.Instant BrainShark is for anyone who wants to use BrainShark to create presentations online and share them around the community. The book is also useful for developers who are looking to explore

  1. The Blue Collar Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eVan Orden

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue collar role compared to the white collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

  2. Neuropathophysiology of Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillinan, Nidia; Herson, Paco S; Traystman, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of individuals incur ischemic brain injury from stroke, cardiac arrest, or traumatic brain injury. These acquired brain injuries can lead to death or long-term neurologic and neuropsychological impairments. The mechanisms of ischemic and traumatic brain injury that lead to these deficiencies result from a complex interplay of interdependent molecular pathways, including excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. This article reviews several mechanisms of brain injury and discusses recent developments. Although much is known from animal models of injury, it has been difficult to translate these effects to humans. PMID:27521191

  3. Photoassociation spectroscopy of 174 Yb Bose-Einstein Condensate using the 1 S03 P1 transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Jongchul; Lee, Jeongwon; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Min-Seok; Shin, Yong-Il

    2016-05-01

    We studied the photoassociation spectrum of 174 Yb Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) using an optical Feshbach resonance near the intercombination transition (1 S0 -3 P1, 578 nm). The optical length lopt, which characterize the interaction strength of optical Feshbach resonances, of four least-bound molecular levels (ν' = - 1 ~ - 4) were precisely determined by measuring the two-body loss rate at various optical powers. We also found the parameter η =Γspon /Γmol , which characterizes the enhancement of molecular loss, to be > 1 as in the previous studies. Our BEC apparatus and experimental scheme are also introduced in this presentation. This work was supported by KRISS creative research initiative.

  4. Numerical calculations of photoassociation of cold 85Rb2 molecules to the 1g(5P1 / 2) State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeman, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Data obtained at the University of Connecticut by Jianbing Qi, Dajun Wang, Ye Huang, H. K. Pechkis, E. E. Eyler, P. Gould and W. C. Stwalley in 2003 have been only partially analyzed and assigned. In, transitions observed by Qi et al. to the 0u+ state were presented. Ref. analyzed transitions of 87Rb2 to the 1g(P1 / 2) state, simplified by double spin polarization, observed in the D. Heinzen Laboratory. Transitions to 0g- and 1g levels without double spin polarization are more problematical. This is a preliminary report, based on data obtained by Qi et al. with a dense array of spectral lines, having certain signal:noise limitations. Supported by US NSF.

  5. Transition energy and dipole oscillator strength for 1s22p-1s2nd of Cr21+ ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-Wen; Liu Ying; Hu Mu-Hong; Li Xin-Ru; Wang Ya-Nan

    2008-01-01

    The transition energies, wavelengths and dipole oscillator strengths of 1s22p-1s2nd (3 ≤ n ≤ 9) for Cr21+ ion are calculated. The fine structure splittings of 1s2nd (n ≤ 9) states for this ion are also calculated. In calculating energy, we have estimated the higher-order relativistic contribution under a hydrogenic approximation. The quantum defect of Rydberg series 1s2nd is determined according to the quantum defect theory. The results obtained in this paper excellently agree with the experimental data available in the literature. Combining the quantum defect theory with the discrete oscillator strengths, the discrete oscillator strengths for the transitions from initial state 1s22p to highly excited 1s2nd states (n ≥ 10) and the oscillator strength density corresponding to the bound-free transitions are obtained.

  6. Inversion of electron paramagnetic resonance of P1-center in monocrystal of synthetic diamond at normal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron spin resonance (EPR) of a synthetic 0.15-carat diamond monocrystal grown in a (Fe-Co-C) system using the temperature gradient method in a split-sphere type apparatus has been studied. It is established that the EPR signal from P1 centers (representing nitrogen atoms occurring at the C sites) present in the diamond crystal upon a high-temperature high-pressure (HTHP) treatment exhibits inversion when the microwave power in an H102 resonator is increased from 70 μW to 70 mW at a polarizing magnetic field scan rate from 0.5 to 5 mT/min. No such inversion is observed in the initial diamond (before the HTHP treatment)

  7. 青霉P-1产植酸酶发酵条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄方一; 钟毅; 聂启明

    2010-01-01

    研究了碳源、氮源等对青霉(Penicillium)P-1液体发酵产植酸酶的影响。最佳碳源为蔗糖,最佳氮源为蛋白胨和硝酸铵。最适发酵产酶条件为培养温度30℃,发酵培养基最适pH 5,摇瓶装液量10%,接种量4%,摇床转速120 r/min,培养时间96 h,最高酶活性可达78 U/L。

  8. Regulation and function of transaldolase isoenzymes involved in sugar and one-carbon metabolism in the ribulose monophosphate cycle methylotroph Arthrobacter P1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levering, P.R.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    1986-01-01

    In the facultative methylotroph Arthrobacter P1 the enzyme transaldolase plays an important role in both the pentose phosphate pathway and in the ribulose monophosphate cycle of formaldehyde fixation. Among gluconate-negative mutants of Arthrobacter P1 strains occurred which also were unable to grow

  9. Cleavage Specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ClpP1P2 Protease and Identification of Novel Peptide Substrates and Boronate Inhibitors with Anti-bacterial Activity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopian, Tatos; Kandror, Olga; Tsu, Christopher; Lai, Jack H.; Wu, Wengen; Liu, Yuxin; Zhao, Peng; Park, Annie; Wolf, Lisa; Dick, Lawrence R.; Rubin, Eric J.; Bachovchin, William; Goldberg, Alfred L.

    2015-01-01

    The ClpP1P2 protease complex is essential for viability in Mycobacteria tuberculosis and is an attractive drug target. Using a fluorogenic tripeptide library (Ac-X3X2X1-aminomethylcoumarin) and by determining specificity constants (kcat/Km), we show that ClpP1P2 prefers Met ≫ Leu > Phe > Ala in the X1 position, basic residues or Trp in the X2 position, and Pro ≫ Ala > Trp in the X3 position. We identified peptide substrates that are hydrolyzed up to 1000 times faster than the standard ClpP substrate. These positional preferences were consistent with cleavage sites in the protein GFPssrA by ClpXP1P2. Studies of ClpP1P2 with inactive ClpP1 or ClpP2 indicated that ClpP1 was responsible for nearly all the peptidase activity, whereas both ClpP1 and ClpP2 contributed to protein degradation. Substrate-based peptide boronates were synthesized that inhibit ClpP1P2 peptidase activity in the submicromolar range. Some of them inhibited the growth of Mtb cells in the low micromolar range indicating that cleavage specificity of Mtb ClpP1P2 can be used to design novel anti-bacterial agents. PMID:25759383

  10. CIGS P1, P2, P3 Scribing Processes using a Pulse Programmable Industrial Fiber Laser: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rekow, M.; Murison, R.; Panarello, T.; Dunsky, C.; Dinkel, C.; Nikumb, S.; Pern, F. J.; Mansfield, L.

    2010-10-01

    We describe a novel set of laser processes for the CIGS P1, P2 and P3 scribing steps, the development of which has been enabled by a unique pulse-programmable fiber laser. We find that the unique pulse control properties of this 1064 nm wavelength laser have significant effects on the material removal dynamics of the various film layers in the CIGS material system. In the case of the P2 and P3 processes, the shaped pulses create new laser/material interaction effects that permit the material to be cleanly and precisely removed with zero Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) at the edges of the scribe. The new P2 and P3 processes we describe demonstrate the first use of infrared nanosecond laser pulses that eliminate the HAZ and the consequent localized compositional changes in the CIGS absorber material that result in poor shunt resistance. SEM micrographs and EDX compositional scans are presented. For the P1 scribe, we process the bi-layer molybdenum from the film side as well as through the glass substrate. Microscopic inspection and compositional analysis of the scribe lines are not sufficient to determine electrical and optical performance in working PV modules. Therefore, to demonstrate the applicability of the infrared pulse-programmable laser to all three scribing processes for thin-film CIGS, we fabricate small-size multiple-cell monolithically interconnected mini-modules in partnership with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Golden, Colorado). A total of four mini-modules are produced, two utilizing all laser scribing, and two with the P2 and P3 steps mechanically scribed (by a third party) for reference. Mini-module performance data measured at NREL is presented, and we also discuss the commercialization potential of the new single-laser CIGS scribing process. Finally we present a phenomenological model to describe this physics underlying this novel ablation process.

  11. Specific contacts of the -35 region of the galP1 promoter by RNA polymerase inhibit GalR-mediated DNA looping repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszovszki, Zsolt; Lewis, Dale E A; Le, Phuoc; Sneppen, Kim; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2012-11-01

    The P1 promoter of the galactose operon in Escherichia coli is one of the best studied examples of 'extended -10' promoters. Recognition of the P1 promoter does not require specific contacts between RNA polymerase and its poor -35 element. To investigate whether specific recognition of the -35 element would affect the regulation of P1 by GalR, we mutagenized the -35 element of P1, isolated variants of the -35 element and studied the regulation of the mutant promoters by in vitro transcription assays and by mathematical modeling. The results show that the GalR-mediated DNA loop is less efficient in repressing P1 transcription when RNA polymerase binds to the -10 and -35 elements concomitantly. Our results suggest that promoters that lack specific -35 element recognition allow decoupling of local chromosome structure from transcription initiation. PMID:22941635

  12. Specific contacts of the −35 region of the galP1 promoter by RNA polymerase inhibit GalR-mediated DNA looping repression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszovszki, Zsolt; Lewis, Dale E. A.; Le, Phuoc; Sneppen, Kim; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2012-01-01

    The P1 promoter of the galactose operon in Escherichia coli is one of the best studied examples of ‘extended −10’ promoters. Recognition of the P1 promoter does not require specific contacts between RNA polymerase and its poor −35 element. To investigate whether specific recognition of the −35 element would affect the regulation of P1 by GalR, we mutagenized the −35 element of P1, isolated variants of the −35 element and studied the regulation of the mutant promoters by in vitro transcription assays and by mathematical modeling. The results show that the GalR-mediated DNA loop is less efficient in repressing P1 transcription when RNA polymerase binds to the −10 and −35 elements concomitantly. Our results suggest that promoters that lack specific −35 element recognition allow decoupling of local chromosome structure from transcription initiation. PMID:22941635

  13. Ability of the TRAC-P1A computer program to predict blowdown, refill, and reflood phenomena during Semiscale Mod-1 experiments. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmie, P.N.

    1980-01-01

    A computer analysis of a Semiscale Mod-1 Loss-of-Coolant Experiment (LOCE) was performed using the TRAC-P1A computer program. The main purpose of this analysis was to contribute data for the assessment of the ability of TRAC-P1A to predict blowdown, refill, and reflood phenomena during a postulated Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA). A TRAC-P1A Semiscale Mod-1 system model was created and TRAC-P1A was used to obtain initial conditions for Semiscale Mod-1 LOCE S-04-6. After this initialization, TRAC-P1A was used to simulate the first 60 seconds of this experiment. The results of this simulation are presented and discussed.

  14. Mapping brain function to brain anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Imaging the human brain, MRI is commonly used to reveal anatomical structure, while PET is used to reveal tissue function. This paper presents a protocol for correlating data between these two imaging modalities; this correlation can provide in vivo regional measurements of brain function which are essential to our understanding of the human brain. The authors propose a general protocol to standardize the acquisition and analysis of functional image data. First, MR and PET images are collected to form three-dimensional volumes of structural and functional image data. Second, these volumes of image data are corrected for distortions inherent in each imaging modality. Third, the image volumes are correlated to provide correctly aligned structural and functional images. The functional images are then mapped onto the structural images in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional representations. Finally, morphometric techniques can be used to provide statistical measures of the structure and function of the human brain

  15. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1) is expressed by lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and endothelium and modulated during inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppuchamy, Thangaraj; Behrens, En-hui; González-Cabrera, Pedro; Sarkisyan, Gor; Gima, Lauren; Boyer, Joshua D.; Bamias, Giorgos; Jedlicka, Paul; Veny, Marisol; Clark, David; Peach, Robert; Scott, Fiona; Rosen, Hugh; Rivera-Nieves, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1) agonist ozanimod ameliorates ulcerative colitis, yet its mechanism of action is unknown. Here we examine the cell subsets that express S1P1 in intestine using S1P1-eGFP mice, the regulation of S1P1 expression in lymphocytes after administration of DSS, after colitis induced by transfer of CD4+CD45RBhi cells and by crossing a mouse with TNF-driven ileitis with S1P1-eGFP mice. We then assayed the expression of enzymes that regulate intestinal S1P levels, and the effect of FTY720 on lymphocyte behavior and S1P1 expression. We found that not only T and B cells express S1P1, but also dendritic (DC) and endothelial cells. Furthermore, chronic but not acute inflammatory signals increased S1P1 expression, while the enzymes that control tissue S1P levels in mice and humans with IBD were uniformly dysregulated, favoring synthesis over degradation. Finally, we observed that FTY720 reduced T cell velocity and induced S1P1 degradation and retention of naïve but not effector T cells. Our data demonstrate that chronic inflammation modulates S1P1 expression and tissue S1P levels and suggests that the anti-inflammatory properties of S1PR agonists might not be solely due to their lymphopenic effects, but also due to potential effects on DC migration and vascular barrier function. PMID:27049060

  16. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Induces Dose-Dependent Chemotaxis or Fugetaxis of T-ALL Blasts through S1P1 Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina V Messias

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in several physiological processes including cell migration and differentiation. S1P signaling is mediated through five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-S1P5. S1P1 is crucial to the exit of T-lymphocytes from the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs through a gradient of S1P. We have previously observed that T-ALL and T-LBL blasts express S1P1. Herein we analyzed the role of S1P receptors in the migratory pattern of human T-cell neoplastic blasts. S1P-triggered cell migration was directly related to S1P1 expression. T-ALL blasts expressing low levels of S1P1 mRNA (HPB-ALL did not migrate toward S1P, whereas those expressing higher levels of S1P1 (MOLT-4, JURKAT and CEM did migrate. The S1P ligand induced T-ALL cells chemotaxis in concentrations up to 500 nM and induced fugetaxis in higher concentrations (1000-10000 nM through interactions with S1P1. When S1P1 was specifically blocked by the W146 compound, S1P-induced migration at lower concentrations was reduced, whereas higher concentrations induced cell migration. Furthermore, we observed that S1P/S1P1 interactions induced ERK and AKT phosphorylation, and modulation of Rac1 activity. Responding T-ALL blasts also expressed S1P3 mRNA but blockage of this receptor did not modify migratory responses. Our results indicate that S1P is involved in the migration of T-ALL/LBL blasts, which is dependent on S1P1 expression. Moreover, S1P concentrations in the given microenvironment might induce dose-dependent chemotaxis or fugetaxis of T-ALL blasts.

  17. A Brain Gain with a Brain Drain

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded; Prskawetz, Alexia; Helmenstein, Christian

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: We study human capital depletion and formation in an economy open to out-migration, as opposed to an economy which is closed. Under the natural assumption of asymmetric information, the enlarged opportunities and the associated different structure of incentives can give rise to a brain gain in conjunction with a brain drain. Migration by high-skill members of its workforce notwithstanding, the home country can end up with a higher average level of human capital per worker.;

  18. Brain Temperature: Physiology and Pathophysiology after Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ségolène Mrozek; Fanny Vardon; Thomas Geeraerts

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of brain temperature is largely dependent on the metabolic activity of brain tissue and remains complex. In intensive care clinical practice, the continuous monitoring of core temperature in patients with brain injury is currently highly recommended. After major brain injury, brain temperature is often higher than and can vary independently of systemic temperature. It has been shown that in cases of brain injury, the brain is extremely sensitive and vulnerable to small variatio...

  19. Brain iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Torben

    2002-11-01

    Iron is essential for virtually all types of cells and organisms. The significance of the iron for brain function is reflected by the presence of receptors for transferrin on brain capillary endothelial cells. The transport of iron into the brain from the circulation is regulated so that the extraction of iron by brain capillary endothelial cells is low in iron-replete conditions and the reverse when the iron need of the brain is high as in conditions with iron deficiency and during development of the brain. Whereas there is good agreement that iron is taken up by means of receptor-mediated uptake of iron-transferrin at the brain barriers, there are contradictory views on how iron is transported further on from the brain barriers and into the brain extracellular space. The prevailing hypothesis for transport of iron across the BBB suggests a mechanism that involves detachment of iron from transferrin within barrier cells followed by recycling of apo-transferrin to blood plasma and release of iron as non-transferrin-bound iron into the brain interstitium from where the iron is taken up by neurons and glial cells. Another hypothesis claims that iron-transferrin is transported into the brain by means of transcytosis through the BBB. This thesis deals with the topic "brain iron homeostasis" defined as the attempts to maintain constant concentrations of iron in the brain internal environment via regulation of iron transport through brain barriers, cellular iron uptake by neurons and glia, and export of iron from brain to blood. The first part deals with transport of iron-transferrin complexes from blood to brain either by transport across the brain barriers or by uptake and retrograde axonal transport in motor neurons projecting beyond the blood-brain barrier. The transport of iron and transport into the brain was examined using radiolabeled iron-transferrin. Intravenous injection of [59Fe-125]transferrin led to an almost two-fold higher accumulation of 59Fe than of

  20. Analysis of the P1 promoter in response to UV-B radiation in allelic variants of high-altitude maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rius Sebastián

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants living at high altitudes are typically exposed to elevated UV-B radiation, and harbor mechanisms to prevent the induced damage, such as the accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds. The maize R2R3-MYB transcription factor P1 controls the accumulation of several UV-B absorbing phenolics by activating a subset of flavonoid biosynthetic genes in leaves of maize landraces adapted to high altitudes. Results Here, we studied the UV-B regulation of P1 in maize leaves of high altitude landraces, and we investigated how UV-B regulates P1binding to the CHS promoter in both low and high altitude lines. In addition, we analyzed whether the expansion in the P1 expression domain between these maize landraces and inbred lines is associated to changes in the molecular structure of the proximal promoter, distal enhancer and first intron of P1. Finally, using transient expression experiments in protoplasts from various maize genotypes, we investigated whether the different expression patterns of P1 in the high altitude landraces could be attributed to trans- or cis-acting elements. Conclusions Together, our results demonstrate that, although differences in cis-acting elements exist between the different lines under study, the different patterns of P1 expression are largely a consequence of effects in trans.

  1. Pre- and Post-perihelion Observations of C/2009 P1 (Garradd): Evidence for an Oxygen-rich Heritage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disanti, Michael Antonio; Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Paganini, Lucas; Bonev, Boncho P.; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Meech, Karen J.; Mumma, Michael Jon

    2013-01-01

    We conducted pre- and post-perihelion observations of Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) on UT 2011 October 13 and 2012 January 8, at heliocentric distances of 1.83 and 1.57 AU, respectively, using the high-resolution infrared spectrometer (NIRSPEC) at the Keck II 10-m telescope on Mauna Kea, HI. Pre-perihelion, we obtained production rates for nine primary volatiles (native ices): H2O, CO, CH3OH, CH4, C2H6, HCN, C2H2, H2CO, and NH3. Post-perihelion, we obtained production rates for three of these (H2O, CH4, and HCN) and sensitive upper limits for three others (C2H2, H2CO, and NH3). CO was enriched and C2H2 was depleted, yet C2H6 and CH3OH were close to their currentmean values asmeasured in a dominant group of Oort cloud comets. This may indicate processing of its pre-cometary ices in a relatively oxygen-rich environment. Our measurements indicate consistent pre- and post-perihelion abundance ratios relative to H2O, suggesting we were measuring compositional homogeneity among measured species to the depths in the nucleus sampled. However, the overall gas production was lower post-perihelion despite its smaller heliocentric distance on January 8. This is qualitatively consistent with other studies of C/2009 P1, perhaps due to seasonal differences in the heating of one or more active regions on the nucleus. On October 13, the water profile showed a pronounced excess towards the Sun-facing hemisphere that was not seen in other molecules, including H2O on January 8, nor in the dust continuum. Inter-comparison of profiles from October 13 permitted us to quantify contributions due to release of H2O from the nucleus, and fromits release in the coma. This resulted in the latter source contributing 25-30% of the total observed water within our slit, which covered roughly +/-300 km by +/-4500 km from the nucleus. We attribute this excess H2O, which peaked at a mean projected distance of 1300-1500 km from the nucleus, to release from water-rich, relatively pure icy grains

  2. Microsatellite polymorphism in the P1 promoter region of the IGF‑1 gene is associated with endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasniewski, Wojciech; Gozdzicka-Jozefiak, Anna; Wolun-Cholewa, Maria; Polak, Grzegorz; Sierocinska-Sawa, Jadwiga; Kwasniewska, Anna; Kotarski, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common type of gynecological malignancy. Studies have demonstrated that the insulin growth factor (IGF) pathway is implicated in the development of endometrial tumors and that the serum levels of IGF‑1 are affected by estrogen. Most EC cells with high microsatellite instability (MSI‑H) accumulate mutations at a microsatellite sequence in the IGF‑1 gene. The present study investigated the CA repeat polymorphism in the P1 promoter region of the IGF‑1 gene among Caucasian females with endometrial hyperplasia, EC and healthy control subjects, whose blood serum and surgical tissue specimens were analyzed. Differences or correlations between the analyzed parameters [serum levels of IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)‑1 and IGFBP‑3 as well as estrogens among the polymorphisms] were verified using the χ2, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis or Spearman's rank correlation tests. A PCR amplification and DNA sequencing analysis was used for identification of (CA)n repeats in the P1 region of IGF‑1. ELISA was used to determine the blood serum levels of IGF‑1, IGFBP‑1, IGFBP‑3 and estrogens. Furthermore, IGF-1 was assessed in endometrial tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. The present study indicated no statistically significant differences between serum levels of IGF‑1, IGFBP‑1, IGFBP‑3 and estrone, estriol and estradiol in the control and study groups. A significant correlation was identified between the IGF-1 levels and estrone levels in the MSI-H polymorphism (r=-0.41, P=0.012) as well as a highly negative correlation between IGF-1 levels and the estradiol levels in the MSI-H polymorphism (r=-0.6, P=0.002). Genotypes without the 19 CA allele were predominantly found in EC. Furthermore, statistical analysis indicated that the number of IGF-1-expressing cells was significantly elevated in MSI-H type 18-20 (P=0.0072), MSI-L type 19-20 (P=0.025) and microsatellite-stable MSS type 19-19 (P=0.024) compared with

  3. The Caulobacter crescentus ctrA P1 promoter is essential for the coordination of cell cycle events that prevent the overinitiation of DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Alexander T; Perez Mora, Yannet G; Herrera, Anabel; Cuajungco, Math P; Murray, Sean R

    2012-10-01

    The master regulator CtrA oscillates during the Caulobacter cell cycle due to temporally regulated proteolysis and transcription. It is proteolysed during the G1-S transition and reaccumulates in predivisional cells as a result of transcription from two sequentially activated promoters, P1 and P2. CtrA reinforces its own synthesis by directly mediating the activation of P2 concurrently with repression of P1. To explore the role of P1 in cell cycle control, we engineered a mutation into the native ctrA locus that prevents transcription from P1 but not P2. As expected, the ctrA P1 mutant exhibits striking growth, morphological and DNA replication defects. Unexpectedly, we found CtrA and its antagonist SciP, but not DnaA, GcrA or CcrM accumulation to be dramatically reduced in the ctrA P1 mutant. SciP levels closely paralleled CtrA accumulation, suggesting that CtrA acts as a rheostat to modulate SciP abundance. Furthermore, the reappearance of CtrA and CcrM in predivisional cells was delayed in the P1 mutant by 0.125 cell cycle unit in synchronized cultures. High levels of ccrM transcription despite low levels of CtrA and increased transcription of ctrA P2 in the ctrA P1 mutant are two examples of robustness in the cell cycle. Thus, Caulobacter can adjust regulatory pathways to partially compensate for reduced and delayed CtrA accumulation in the ctrA P1 mutant.

  4. Decreased expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein-1 (IGFBP-rP1) in radiation-induced mouse hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein-1 (IGFBP-rP1) is a member of the IGFBP family, which was called IGFBP-7 or mac25 previously. Decreased expression of IGFBP-rP1 has been shown in breast cancer and prostatic cancer, and tumor suppressive effects of IGFBP-rP1 have been reported in prostatic cancer and osteosarcoma cell lines. In the present study, we investigated whether expression levels of IGFBP-rP1 were related to the development and the growth of radiation-induced hepatomas of B6C3F1 mice. In northern blot analysis, decreased expressions of IGFBP-rP1 gene were shown in radiation-induced mouse hepatomas compared to normal livers. In hepatoma cell lines established from these hepatomas, decreased expressions of IGFBP-rP1 were strongly related to the grade of anchorage-independent growth. In cell lines which were transfected with IGFBP-rP1cDNA, the doubling time of cell growth was increased, and the number and the size of colony formation in soft agar culture were decreased. In tumor formation assay by injecting these cells to B6C3F1 mice subcutaneously, the volume of tumors were decreased. Furthermore, the decreased expression of IGFBP-rP1 gene was observed in human hepatomas by northern blot analysis. These results may suggest that the suppression of IGFBP-rP1 is related to development and progression of mouse and human hepatomas. (author)

  5. Decreased expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein-1 (IGFBP-rP1) in radiation-induced mouse hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teishima, Jun [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine

    2002-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein-1 (IGFBP-rP1) is a member of the IGFBP family, which was called IGFBP-7 or mac25 previously. Decreased expression of IGFBP-rP1 has been shown in breast cancer and prostatic cancer, and tumor suppressive effects of IGFBP-rP1 have been reported in prostatic cancer and osteosarcoma cell lines. In the present study, we investigated whether expression levels of IGFBP-rP1 were related to the development and the growth of radiation-induced hepatomas of B6C3F1 mice. In northern blot analysis, decreased expressions of IGFBP-rP1 gene were shown in radiation-induced mouse hepatomas compared to normal livers. In hepatoma cell lines established from these hepatomas, decreased expressions of IGFBP-rP1 were strongly related to the grade of anchorage-independent growth. In cell lines which were transfected with IGFBP-rP1cDNA, the doubling time of cell growth was increased, and the number and the size of colony formation in soft agar culture were decreased. In tumor formation assay by injecting these cells to B6C3F1 mice subcutaneously, the volume of tumors were decreased. Furthermore, the decreased expression of IGFBP-rP1 gene was observed in human hepatomas by northern blot analysis. These results may suggest that the suppression of IGFBP-rP1 is related to development and progression of mouse and human hepatomas. (author)

  6. Inflammatory effects of BaP1 a metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops asper snake venom: leukocyte recruitment and release of cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Cristina Maria; Zamuner, Stella Regina; Zuliani, Juliana Pavan; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José Maria; Teixeira, Catarina de Fátima Pereira

    2006-04-01

    The inflammatory events induced by BaP1, a 22.7 kDa metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops asper snake venom, were studied. BaP1 i.p. injection in mice induced a marked inflammatory cell infiltrate into peritoneal cavity of animals with predominance of neutrophils in the early phase followed by mononuclear cells in the late period. Inhibition of enzymatic activity of BaP1 by chelation with EDTA resulted in a drastic reduction of this effect. In addition, BaP1 induced a significant increase of blood neutrophil numbers before its accumulation in peritoneal cavity, thus suggesting a stimulatory action of BaP1 on mechanisms of cell mobilization from bone marrow reserve compartments. A reduction in the number of neutrophils was observed in the exudate when antibodies against LECAM-1, CD18 and LFA-1 were used, suggesting the involvement of these adhesion molecules in the effects of BaP1. In contrast, there was no effect with antibodies against ICAM-1 and PECAM-1. Moreover, a conspicuous increment in the levels of IL-1 and TNF-alpha, but not of LTB4, was observed in peritoneal washes collected from mice injected with BaP1. It is concluded that BaP1 induces in vivo a marked leukocyte influx, which parallels an increased number of these cells in the blood, and is associated to the expression of specific leukocyte adhesion molecules and release of chemotactic inflammatory cytokines. Since BaP1 is a P-I class metalloproteinase, these results indicate that the proteolytic domain of metalloproteinases per se can trigger specific inflammatory events. PMID:16529786

  7. Serum procollagen 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) in prostate cancer; pitfalls of its use as an early surrogate marker for bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procollagen 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) is a bone formation marker and has been shown to have a strong association with the extent of bone metastases (BM) in patients with advanced prostate cancer. More recently, its levels were found to be affected by androgen deprivation therapies and bisphosphonates. We investigated the role of P1NP as a surrogate marker of sub-radiological skeletal metastases in prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure (BF). BePrepared is a prospective longitudinal substudy of RADAR trial in which serial P1NPs were collected at regular intervals for 123 patients who had completed RADAR protocol treatment. There was no trend identified in P1NP levels prior to diagnosis of BM. We found that there was no difference in P1NP concentrations at the time of diagnosis of BM in the group that developed BM compared with P1NP levels in groups with only nodal metastases or BF. In the group of patients who did not experience BF, P1NP was affected by previous luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-agonist and bisphosphonate therapy. Hence, patients who received an 18-month course of androgen deprivation without bisphosphonates had significantly higher P1NP values than patients with shorter androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) course combined with a course of bisphosphonates. P1NP is not a sensitive serum marker of early BM in high-risk prostate cancer patients with BF and low prostate-specific antigen levels as its levels are affected by prior history of bone remodelling therapies such as ADT and bisphosphonates.

  8. [Brain abscess - overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Olafur Arni; Asgeirsson, Hilmir; Olafsson, Ingvar H

    2013-01-01

    Brain abscess is a life threatening illness, demanding rapid diagnosis and treatment. Its development requires seeding of an organism into the brain parenchyma, often in an area of damaged brain tissue or in a region with poor microcirculation. The lesion evolves from a cerebritis stage to capsule formation. Brain abscesses can be caused by contiguous or haematogenous spread of an infection, or by head trauma/ neurosurgical procedure. The most common presentation is that of headache and vomiting due to raised intracranial pressure. Seizures have been reported in up to 50% of cases. Focal neurological deficits may be present, depending on the location of the lesion. Treatment of a brain abscess involves aspiration or excision, along with parenteral antibiotic therapy. The outcome has improved dramatically in the last decades due to improvement in diagnostic techniques, neurosurgery, and broad-spectrum antibiotics. The authors provide an overview of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of brain abscesses. PMID:23341403

  9. Handbook of Brain Connectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Jirsa, Viktor K

    2007-01-01

    Our contemporary understanding of brain function is deeply rooted in the ideas of the nonlinear dynamics of distributed networks. Cognition and motor coordination seem to arise from the interactions of local neuronal networks, which themselves are connected in large scales across the entire brain. The spatial architectures between various scales inevitably influence the dynamics of the brain and thereby its function. But how can we integrate brain connectivity amongst these structural and functional domains? Our Handbook provides an account of the current knowledge on the measurement, analysis and theory of the anatomical and functional connectivity of the brain. All contributors are leading experts in various fields concerning structural and functional brain connectivity. In the first part of the Handbook, the chapters focus on an introduction and discussion of the principles underlying connected neural systems. The second part introduces the currently available non-invasive technologies for measuring struct...

  10. Brain Development in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Although human brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, it is a non-linear process both structurally and functionally. Here we review studies of brain development in healthy children from the viewpoint of structure and the perfusion of gray and white matter. Gray matter volume increases and then decreases with age, with the developmental time of the peak volume differing among brain regions in the first and second decades of life. On the other hand, white matter volum...

  11. Psychotherapy and brain plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Collerton, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I will review why psychotherapy is relevant to the question of how consciousness relates to brain plasticity. A great deal of the research and theorizing on consciousness and the brain, including my own on hallucinations for example (Collerton and Perry, 2011) has focused upon specific changes in conscious content which can be related to temporal changes in restricted brain systems. I will argue that psychotherapy, in contrast, allows only a focus on holistic aspects of conscio...

  12. Multimodal Brain Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-01-01

    Current connectivity diagrams of human brain image data are either overly complex or overly simplistic. In this work we introduce simple yet accurate interactive visual representations of multiple brain image structures and the connectivity among them. We map cortical surfaces extracted from human brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data onto 2D surfaces that preserve shape (angle), extent (area), and spatial (neighborhood) information for 2D (circular disk) and 3D (spherical) mapping, spl...

  13. Interactions between the cyclic AMP receptor protein and the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase at the Escherichia coli galactose operon P1 promoter.

    OpenAIRE

    Attey, A; Belyaeva, T; Savery, N; Hoggett, J; Fujita, N; Ishihama, A; Busby, S

    1994-01-01

    DNAase I footprinting has been used to study open complexes between Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and the galactose operon P1 promoter, both in the absence and the presence of CRP (the cyclic AMP receptor protein, a transcription activator). From the effects of deletion of the C-terminal part of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit, we deduce that alpha binds at the upstream end of both the binary RNA polymerase-galP1 and ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes. Disruption of the alpha-upstr...

  14. P1-Substituted Symmetry-Based Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors with Potent Antiviral Activity against Drug-Resistant Viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGoey, David A.; Grampovnik, David J.; Chen, Hui-Ju; Flosi, William J.; Klein, Larry L.; Dekhtyar, Tatyana; Stoll, Vincent; Mamo, Mulugeta; Molla, Akhteruzzaman; Kempf, Dale J. (Abbott)

    2013-03-07

    Because there is currently no cure for HIV infection, patients must remain on long-term drug therapy, leading to concerns over potential drug side effects and the emergence of drug resistance. For this reason, new and safe antiretroviral agents with improved potency against drug-resistant strains of HIV are needed. A series of HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) with potent activity against both wild-type (WT) virus and drug-resistant strains of HIV was designed and synthesized. The incorporation of substituents with hydrogen bond donor and acceptor groups at the P1 position of our symmetry-based inhibitor series resulted in significant potency improvements against the resistant mutants. By this approach, several compounds, such as 13, 24, and 29, were identified that demonstrated similar or improved potencies compared to 1 against highly mutated strains of HIV derived from patients who previously failed HIV PI therapy. Overall, compound 13 demonstrated the best balance of potency against drug resistant strains of HIV and oral bioavailability in pharmacokinetic studies. X-ray analysis of an HIV PI with an improved resistance profile bound to WT HIV protease is also reported.

  15. Effective inhibition of lytic development of bacteriophages λ, P1 and T4 by starvation of their host, Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Węgrzyn Alicja

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteriophage infections of bacterial cultures cause serious problems in genetic engineering and biotechnology. They are dangerous not only because of direct effects on the currently infected cultures, i.e. their devastation, but also due to a high probability of spreading the phage progeny throughout a whole laboratory or plant, which causes a real danger for further cultivations. Therefore, a simple method for quick inhibition of phage development after detection of bacterial culture infection should be very useful. Results Here, we demonstrate that depletion of a carbon source from the culture medium, which provokes starvation of bacterial cells, results in rapid inhibition of lytic development of three Escherichia coli phages, λ, P1 and T4. Since the effect was similar for three different phages, it seems that it may be a general phenomenon. Moreover, similar effects were observed in flask cultures and in chemostats. Conclusion Bacteriophage lytic development can be inhibited efficiently by carbon source limitation in bacterial cultures. Thus, if bacteriophage contamination is detected, starvation procedures may be recommended to alleviate deleterious effects of phage infection on the culture. We believe that this strategy, in combination with the use of automated and sensitive bacteriophage biosensors, may be employed in the fermentation laboratory practice to control phage outbreaks in bioprocesses more effectively.

  16. Effect of trans-acting factor on rat glutathione S-transferase P1 gene transcription regulation in tumor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东远; 廖名湘; 左瑾; 方福德

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of trans-acting factor(s) on rat glutathione S-transferase P1 gene (rGSTP1) transcription regulation in tumor cells. Methods The binding of trans-acting factor(s) to two enhancers of the rGSTP1 gene, glutathione S-transferase P enhancer Ⅰ (GPEI) and glutathione S-transferase P enhancer Ⅱ-1 (GPEⅡ-1), was identified by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The molecular weight of trans-acting factor was measured in a UV cross-linking experiment. Results Trans-acting factor interacting with the core sequence of GPEI (cGPEI) were found in human cervical adenocarcinoma cell line (HeLa) and rat hepatoma cell line (CBRH7919). These proteins were not expressed in normal rat liver. Although specific binding proteins that bound to GPEⅡ-1 were detected in all three cell types, a 64 kDa binding protein that exists in HeLa and CBRH7919 cells was absent in normal rat liver. Conclusion cGPEI, GPEII specific binding proteins expressed in HeLa and CBRH7919 cells may play an important role in the high transcriptional level of the rGSTP1 gene in tumor cells.

  17. Aberrant methylation of Glutathione S-transferase P1 and E-cadherin in invasive ductal breast carcinoma and fibroadenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wings Tjing Yung Loo; Mary Ngan Bing Cheung; Louis Wing Cheong Chow

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hypermethylation status of glutathione transferase P1(GSTP1) and E cadherin (ECAD), TSGs (tumor suppressor genes) in our breast cancer samples and explore their correlation with clinicopathological features of corresponding cancer patients. Methods One hundred and thirty six IDC (invasive ductal carcinoma) patients were recruited for analysis and 16 fibroadenoma patients acted as control. DNA extraction and methylation specific PCR (MSP) were subsequently performed preceded by pathological examination. Results The percentage of hypermethylated GSTP1 in carcinoma and fibroadenoma groups was 34.92% and 15.79% respectively and the percentage of hypermethylated ECAD in carcinomas and fibroadenomas was 18.00% and 0.00% respectively. Carcinoma had the highest percentage of c erbB2 overexpression being 54.55% among the clinicopathological parameters. Conclusion Hypermethylation patterns are frequent in IDC and seem to relate to c erbB2 overexpression, and such epigenetic change should not be neglected in fibroadenoma. Tumor methylation status in cancer patients can be determined at early stage and it may be a reference for better treatment planning.

  18. PABA/NO lead optimization: Improved targeting of cytotoxicity to glutathione S-transferase P1-overexpressing cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youseung; Maciag, Anna E; Cao, Zhao; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Saavedra, Joseph E; Keefer, Larry K; Holland, Ryan J

    2015-08-01

    PABA/NO [O(2)-{2,4-dinitro-5-[4-(N-methylamino)benzoyloxy]phenyl} 1-(N,N-dimethylamino) diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate] is a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing arylating agent designed to be selectively activated by reaction with glutathione (GSH) on catalysis by glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), an enzyme frequently overexpressed in cancer cells. PABA/NO has proven active in several cancer models in vitro and in vivo, but its tendency to be metabolized via a variety of pathways, some that generate inactive metabolites and hydrolysis products, limits its potential as a drug. Here we show that a simple replacement of cyano for nitro at the 4 position to give compound 4b ('p-cyano-PABA/NO') has the dual effect of slowing the undesired side reactions while enhancing the proportion of NO release and arylating activity on catalysis by GSTP1. Compound 4b showed increased resistance to hydrolysis and uncatalyzed reaction with GSH, along with a more favorable product distribution in the presence of GSTP1. It also showed significant proapoptotic activity. The data suggest p-cyano-PABA/NO to be a more promising prodrug than PABA/NO, with better selectivity toward cancer cells.

  19. Optimization of Fermentation Medium for the Production of Glucose Isomerase Using Streptomyces sp. SB-P1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Bhasin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of medium ingredients has a profound influence on the metabolic pathways running in the microorganism which regulates the production of numerous metabolites. Glucose isomerase (GI, an enzyme with huge potential in the market, can isomerise glucose into fructose. GI is used widely for the production of High-Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS. HFCS is used as a sweetener in food and pharmaceutical industries. Streptomyces are well-known producers of numerous enzymes including glucose isomerase. An array of 75 isolates was screened for the production of glucose isomerase. The isolate Streptomyces sp. SB-P1 was found to produce maximum amount of extracellular GI. Sucrose and raffinose among pure carbon sources and corn cob and wheat husk among crude agro residues were found to yield high enzyme titers. Potassium nitrate among pure nitrogen sources and soy residues among crude sources gave maximum production. Quantitative effect of carbon, nitrogen, and inducer on GI was also determined. Plackett-Burman design was used to study the effect of different medium ingredients. Sucrose and xylose as carbon sources and peptone and soy residues as nitrogen sources proved to be beneficial for GI production.

  20. Preliminary Data on the Effects of Inlet Pressure Distortions on the J57-P-1 Turbojet Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Lewis E.; Lubick, Robert J.; Einstein, Thomas H.

    1954-01-01

    An investigation to determine the steady-state and surge characteristics of the J57-P-1 two-spool turbojet engine with various inlet air-flow distortions was conducted in the altitude wind tunnel at the NACA Lewis laboratory. Along with a uniform inlet total-pressure distribution, one circumferential and three radial pressure distortions were investigated. Data were obtained over a complete range of compressor speeds both with and without intercompressor air bleed at a flight Mach number of 0.8 and at altitudes of 35,000 and 50,000 feet. Total-pressure distortions of the magnitudes investigated had very little effect on the steady-state operating line for either the outer or inner compressor. The small radial distortions investigated also had engine over that obtained with the uniform inlet pressure distribution. The circumferential distortion, however, raised the minimum speed at which the engine could operate without encountering surge when the intercompressor bleeds were closed. This increase in minimum speed resulted in a substantial reduction in the operable speed range accompanied by a reduction in the altitude operating limit.