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Sample records for brain p1 n170

  1. Responsivity to dyslexia training indexed by the N170 amplitude of the brain potential elicited by word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga González, G; Žarić, G; Tijms, J; Bonte, M; Blomert, L; Leppänen, P; van der Molen, M W

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined training effects in dyslexic children on reading fluency and the amplitude of N170, a negative brain-potential component elicited by letter and symbol strings. A group of 18 children with dyslexia in 3rd grade (9.05±0.46years old) was tested before and after following a letter-speech sound mapping training. A group of 20 third-grade typical readers (8.78±0.35years old) performed a single time on the same brain potential task. The training was differentially effective in speeding up reading fluency in the dyslexic children. In some children, training had a beneficial effect on reading fluency ('improvers') while a training effect was absent in others ('non-improvers'). Improvers at pre-training showed larger N170 amplitude to words compared to non-improvers. N170 amplitude decreased following training in improvers but not in non-improvers. But the N170 amplitude pattern in improvers continued to differ from the N170 amplitude pattern across hemispheres seen in typical readers. Finally, we observed a positive relation between the decrease in N170 amplitude and gains in reading fluency. Collectively, the results that emerged from the present study indicate the sensitivity of N170 amplitude to reading fluency and its potential as a predictor of reading fluency acquisition. PMID:27200495

  2. Early (N170/M170 face-sensitivity despite right lateral occipital brain damage in acquired prosopagnosia

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    Esther eAlonso Prieto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to objects, pictures of faces elicit a larger early electromagnetic response at occipito-temporal sites on the human scalp, with an onset of 130 ms and a peak at about 170 ms. This N170 face effect is larger in the right than the left hemisphere and has been associated with the early categorization of the stimulus as a face. Here we tested whether this effect can be observed in the absence of some of the visual areas showing a preferential response to faces as typically identified in neuroimaging. Event related potentials were recorded in response to faces, cars and their phase-scrambled versions in a well-known brain-damaged case of prosopagnosia (PS. Despite the patient’s right inferior occipital gyrus lesion encompassing the most posterior cortical area showing preferential response to faces (occipital face area, OFA, we identified an early face-sensitive component over the right occipito-temporal hemisphere of the patient that was identified as the N170. A second experiment supported this conclusion, showing the typical N170 increase of latency and amplitude in response to inverted faces. In contrast, there was no N170 in the left hemisphere, where PS has a lesion to the middle fusiform gyrus and shows no evidence of face-preferential response in neuroimaging (no left fusiform face area, or lFFA. These results were replicated by a magneto-encephalographic (MEG investigation of the patient, disclosing a M170 component only in the right hemisphere. These observations indicate that face preferential activation in the inferior occipital cortex is not necessary to elicit early visual responses associated with face perception (N170/M170 on the human scalp. These results further suggest that when the right inferior occipital cortex is damaged, the integrity of the middle fusiform gyrus and/or the superior temporal sulcus – two areas showing face preferential responses in the patient’s right hemisphere - might be necessary to generate

  3. Does physical interstimulus variance account for early electrophysiological face sensitive responses in the human brain? Ten lessons on the N170.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossion, Bruno; Jacques, Corentin

    2008-02-15

    A recent event-related potential (ERP) study (Thierry G., Martin, C.D., Downing, P., Pegna, A.J. 2007. Controlling for interstimulus perceptual variance abolishes N170 face selectivity. Nature Neuroscience, 10, 505-11) claimed that the larger occipito-temporal N170 response to pictures of faces than other categories -- the N170 effect -- is due to a methodological artifact in stimulus selection, specifically, a greater interstimulus physical variance between pictures of objects than faces in previous ERP studies which, when controlled, eliminates this N170 effect. This statement casts doubts on the validity of the conclusions reached by a whole tradition of electrophysiological experiments published over the past 15 years and questions the very interest of using the N170 to probe the time course of face processes in the human brain. Here we claim that this physical variance factor is ill-defined by Thierry et al. and cannot account for previous observations of a smaller N170 amplitude to nonface objects than faces without latency increase and component "smearing". Most importantly, this factor was controlled in previous studies that reported robust N170 effects. We demonstrate that the absence of N170 effect in the study of Thierry et al. is due to methodological flaws in the reported experiments, most notably measuring the N170 at the wrong electrode sites. Moreover, the authors attributed a modulation of N170 amplitude in their study to a differential interstimulus physical variance while it probably reflects a biased comparison of different quality sets of individual images. Here, by taking Thierry et al.'s study as an exemplar case of what should not be done in ERP research of visual categorization processes, we provide clarifications on a number of methodological and theoretical issues about the N170 and its largest amplitude to faces. More generally, we discuss the potential role of differential visual homogeneity of object categories as well as low

  4. Influence of education level on design-induced N170 and P300 components of event related potentials in the human brain.

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    Begum, Tahamina; Reza, Faruque; Ahmed, Izmer; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2014-03-01

    Simple geometric and organic shapes and their arrangement are being used in different neuropsychology tests for the assessment of cognitive function, special memory and also for the therapy purpose in different patient groups. Until now there is no electrophysiological evidence of cognitive function determination for simple geometric, organic shapes and their arrangement. Then the main objective of this study is to know the cortical processing and amplitude, latency of visual induced N170 and P300 event related potential components on different geometric, organic shapes and their arrangement and different educational influence on it, which is worthwhile to know for the early and better treatment for those patient groups. While education influenced on cognitive function by using auditory oddball task, little is known about the influence of education on cognitive function induced by visual attention task in case of the choice of geometric, organic shapes and their arrangements. Using a 128-electrode sensor net, we studied the responses of the choice of the different geometric and organic shapes randomly in experiment 1 and their arrangements in experiment 2 in the high, medium and low education groups. In both experiments, subjects push the button "1" or "2" if like or dislike, respectively. Total 45 healthy subjects (15 in each group) were recruited. ERPs were measured from 11 electrode sites and analyzed to see the evoked N170/N240 and P300 ERP components. There were no differences between like and dislike in amplitudes even in latencies in every stimulus in both experiments. We fixed geometric shapes and organic shapes stimuli only, not like and dislike. Upon the stimulus types, N170 ERP component was found instead of N240, in occipito-temporal (T5, T6, O1 and O2) locations where the amplitude is the highest at O2 location and P300 was distributed in the central (Cz and Pz) locations in both experiments in all groups. In experiment 1, significant low amplitude and

  5. Exploration on the Relationship between N170 and Facial ;Recognition%N170与面孔识别关系的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田海鹏

    2015-01-01

    In facial recognition, the brain will generate a negative wave, namely N170, at about 170ms. Whether N170 possesses facial specificity and whether it reflects structure coding or fea-ture coding have always been debated. This paper elaborates the two debates, and proposes the conception of using N170 as the index of other-race effect, hoping to explore the neural mecha-nism of N170 facial recognition.%在对面孔进行识别时,大脑会在170ms左右产生一个负波即N170N170是否具有面孔特异性,反映的是结构编码还是特征编码,一直都存在争论。文章对这两个争论进行了阐述,并提出将N170作为异族效应指标的设想,期望探讨N170在情绪面孔识别中的神经机制。

  6. Global variation of N170 and N180

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used data from the Atmosphere Explorer C, D, and E CD-Rom to investigate the global variation of the electron density at 170 km (N170) and 180 km altitude (N180). We find large variability at nighttime and only small latitudinal differences during daytime. Comparisons with the IRI predictions for N170 and N180 indicate the need for improvement of the IRI model in the F1 region. (author). 7 refs, 9 figs

  7. Gender difference in N170 elicited under oddball task

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Takakura, Jun’ya; Motoi, Midori; Nishimura, Takayuki; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some studies have reported gender differences in N170, a face-selective event-related potential (ERP) component. This study investigated gender differences in N170 elicited under oddball paradigm in order to clarify the effect of task demand on gender differences in early facial processing. Findings: Twelve males and 10 females discriminated targets (emotional faces) from non-targets (emotionally neutral faces) under an oddball paradigm, pressing a button as quickly as possible in...

  8. Gender difference in N170 elicited under oddball task

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Takakura, Jun’ya; Motoi, Midori; Nishimura, Takayuki; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Background Some studies have reported gender differences in N170, a face-selective event-related potential (ERP) component. This study investigated gender differences in N170 elicited under oddball paradigm in order to clarify the effect of task demand on gender differences in early facial processing. Findings Twelve males and 10 females discriminated targets (emotional faces) from non-targets (emotionally neutral faces) under an oddball paradigm, pressing a button as quickly as possible in r...

  9. Neural adaptation provides evidence for categorical differences in processing of faces and Chinese characters: an ERP study of the N170.

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    Shimin Fu

    Full Text Available Whether face perception involves domain-specific or domain-general processing is an extensively debated issue. Relative to non-face objects and alphabetical scripts, Chinese characters provide a good contrast to faces because of their structural configuration, requirement for high level of visual expertise to literate Chinese people, and unique appearance and identity for each individual stimulus. To examine potential categorical differences in their neural processing, event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded to blocked face and Chinese character stimuli. Fast adaptation method was applied to better control for the low-level stimulus difference between faces and Chinese characters. Participants were required to respond to the color of the outer frame in which these stimuli were presented, at either a fast (ISI 650 ms or slow (ISI 1300 ms rate, and with an orientation that was either the same or alternated between upright and inverted. Faces elicited a larger and later N170 relative to characters, but the N170 was more left-lateralized for characters relative to the faces. Adaptation-by-rate and adaptation-by-orientation effects were observed on the amplitude of N170, and both were more pronounced for faces relative to characters. Inverted stimuli elicited a later N170 relative to upright stimuli, without amplitude change, and this inversion effect was more pronounced for faces relative to characters. Moreover, faces elicited a larger and later P1 and a larger adaptation-by-rate effect on P1 relative to characters. The adaptation-by-orientation effect was illustrated by a larger P1 under the same relative to the alternated orientation condition. Therefore, evidence from the amplitude and the lateralization of N170, the stimulus inversion effect on N170 latency, and the neural adaptation between faces and Chinese characters on P1 and N170 components support the notion that the processing of faces and Chinese characters involve categorically

  10. Impact of head models in N170 component source imaging: results in control subjects and ADHD patients

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    Beltrachini, L.; Blenkmann, A.; von Ellenrieder, N.; Petroni, A.; Urquina, H.; Manes, F.; Ibáñez, A.; Muravchik, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    The major goal of evoked related potential studies arise in source localization techniques to identify the loci of neural activity that give rise to a particular voltage distribution measured on the surface of the scalp. In this paper we evaluate the effect of the head model adopted in order to estimate the N170 component source in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and control subjects, considering faces and words stimuli. The standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography algorithm (sLORETA) is used to compare between the three shell spherical head model and a fully realistic model based on the ICBM-152 atlas. We compare their variance on source estimation and analyze the impact on the N170 source localization. Results show that the often used three shell spherical model may lead to erroneous solutions, specially on ADHD patients, so its use is not recommended. Our results also suggest that N170 sources are mainly located in the right occipital fusiform gyrus for faces stimuli and in the left occipital fusiform gyrus for words stimuli, for both control subjects and ADHD patients. We also found a notable decrease on the N170 estimated source amplitude on ADHD patients, resulting in a plausible marker of the disease.

  11. Impact of head models in N170 component source imaging: results in control subjects and ADHD patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major goal of evoked related potential studies arise in source localization techniques to identify the loci of neural activity that give rise to a particular voltage distribution measured on the surface of the scalp. In this paper we evaluate the effect of the head model adopted in order to estimate the N170 component source in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and control subjects, considering faces and words stimuli. The standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography algorithm (sLORETA) is used to compare between the three shell spherical head model and a fully realistic model based on the ICBM-152 atlas. We compare their variance on source estimation and analyze the impact on the N170 source localization. Results show that the often used three shell spherical model may lead to erroneous solutions, specially on ADHD patients, so its use is not recommended. Our results also suggest that N170 sources are mainly located in the right occipital fusiform gyrus for faces stimuli and in the left occipital fusiform gyrus for words stimuli, for both control subjects and ADHD patients. We also found a notable decrease on the N170 estimated source amplitude on ADHD patients, resulting in a plausible marker of the disease.

  12. Distinct facial processing related negative cognitive bias in first-episode and recurrent major depression: evidence from the N170 ERP component.

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    Jiu Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: States of depression are associated with increased sensitivity to negative events. For this novel study, we have assessed the relationship between the number of depressive episodes and the dysfunctional processing of emotional facial expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a visual emotional oddball paradigm to manipulate the processing of emotional information while event-related brain potentials were recorded in 45 patients with first episode major depression (F-MD, 40 patients with recurrent major depression (R-MD, and 46 healthy controls (HC. Compared with the HC group, F-MD patients had lower N170 amplitudes when identifying happy, neutral, and sad faces; R-MD patients had lower N170 amplitudes when identifying happy and neutral faces, but higher N170 amplitudes when identifying sad faces. F-MD patients had longer N170 latencies when identifying happy, neutral, and sad faces relative to the HC group, and R-MD patients had longer N170 latencies when identifying happy and neutral faces, but shorter N170 latencies when identifying sad faces compared with F-MD patients. Interestingly, a negative relationship was observed between N170 amplitude and the depressive severity score for identification of happy faces in R-MD patients while N170 amplitude was positively correlated with the depressive severity score for identification of sad faces in F-MD and R-MD patients. Additionally, the deficits of N170 amplitude for sad faces positively correlated with the number of depressive episodes in R-MD patients. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide new evidence that having more recurrent depressive episodes and serious depressive states are likely to aggravate the already abnormal processing of emotional facial expressions in patients with depression. Moreover, it further suggests that the impaired processing as indexed by N170 amplitude for positive face identification may be a potentially useful biomarker for predicting

  13. Category specificity in early perception : face and word n170 responses differ in both lateralization and habituation properties

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Urs; Rossion, Bruno; McCandliss, Bruce D

    2008-01-01

    N170 event-related potential (ERP) responses to both faces and visual words raises questions about category specific processing mechanisms during early perception and their neural basis. Topographic differences across word and face N170s suggests a form of category specific processing in early perception - the word N170 is consistently left-lateralized, while less consistent evidence supports a right-lateralization for the face N170. Additionally, the face N170 shows a reduction in amplitude ...

  14. Category Specificity in Early Perception: Face and Word N170 Responses Differ in Both Lateralization and Habituation Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Urs; Rossion, Bruno; McCandliss, Bruce D

    2008-01-01

    N170 event-related potential (ERP) responses to both faces and visual words raises questions about category specific processing mechanisms during early perception and their neural basis. Topographic differences across word and face N170s suggests a form of category specific processing in early perception – the word N170 is consistently left-lateralized, while less consistent evidence supports a right-lateralization for the face N170. Additionally, the face N170 shows a reduction in amplitude ...

  15. Perceptual load manipulation reveals sensitivity of the face-selective N170 to attention.

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    Mohamed, Tarik N; Neumann, Markus F; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2009-05-27

    It has been controversial whether the face-sensitive N170 is affected by selective attention. We manipulated attention sensu Lavie's perceptual load theory to short (200 ms) presentations of task-irrelevant unfamiliar faces or houses, while participants identified superimposed target letters 'X' versus 'N'. These targets were strings of either six identical (low load) or six different letters (high load). Under low load, we found a prominent face-selective N170 response. Under high load, however, we not only observed a dramatic reduction of the face N170 but also an unexpected enhancement of the house N170, such that face selectivity was almost completely lost. We conclude that the early stages of face processing indexed by the N170 strongly depend on selective attention. PMID:19369907

  16. When is a Face a Face? Schematic Faces, Emotion, Attention and the N170

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    Frances A. Maratos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotional facial expressions provide important non-verbal cues as to the imminent behavioural intentions of a second party. Hence, within emotion science the processing of faces (emotional or otherwise has been at the forefront of research. Notably, however, such research has led to a number of debates including the ecological validity of utilising schematic faces in emotion research, and the face-selectively of N170. In order to investigate these issues, we explored the extent to which N170 is modulated by schematic faces, emotional expression and/or selective attention. Eighteen participants completed a three-stimulus oddball paradigm with two scrambled faces as the target and standard stimuli (counter-balanced across participants, and schematic angry, happy and neutral faces as the oddball stimuli. Results revealed that the magnitude of the N170 associated with the target stimulus was: (i significantly greater than that elicited by the standard stimulus, (ii comparable with the N170 elicited by the neutral and happy schematic face stimuli, and (iii significantly reduced compared to the N170 elicited by the angry schematic face stimulus. These findings extend current literature by demonstrating N170 can be modulated by events other than those associated with structural face encoding; i.e. here, the act of labelling a stimulus a ‘target’ to attend to modulated the N170 response. Additionally, the observation that schematic faces demonstrate similar N170 responses to those recorded for real faces and, akin to real faces, angry schematic faces demonstrated heightened N170 responses, suggests caution should be taken before disregarding schematic facial stimuli in emotion processing research per se.

  17. The face-specific N170 component is modulated by emotional facial expression

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    Tottenham Nim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the traditional two-stage model of face processing, the face-specific N170 event-related potential (ERP is linked to structural encoding of face stimuli, whereas later ERP components are thought to reflect processing of facial affect. This view has recently been challenged by reports of N170 modulations by emotional facial expression. This study examines the time-course and topography of the influence of emotional expression on the N170 response to faces. Methods Dense-array ERPs were recorded in response to a set (n = 16 of fear and neutral faces. Stimuli were normalized on dimensions of shape, size and luminance contrast distribution. To minimize task effects related to facial or emotional processing, facial stimuli were irrelevant to a primary task of learning associative pairings between a subsequently presented visual character and a spoken word. Results N170 to faces showed a strong modulation by emotional facial expression. A split half analysis demonstrates that this effect was significant both early and late in the experiment and was therefore not associated with only the initial exposures of these stimuli, demonstrating a form of robustness against habituation. The effect of emotional modulation of the N170 to faces did not show significant interaction with the gender of the face stimulus, or hemisphere of recording sites. Subtracting the fear versus neutral topography provided a topography that itself was highly similar to the face N170. Conclusion The face N170 response can be influenced by emotional expressions contained within facial stimuli. The topography of this effect is consistent with the notion that fear stimuli exaggerates the N170 response itself. This finding stands in contrast to previous models suggesting that N170 processes linked to structural analysis of faces precede analysis of emotional expression, and instead may reflect early top-down modulation from neural systems involved in

  18. N170 lateralization in high functioning male adolescent autism spectrum disorder

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    Stein Andersson; Maj-Britt R Posserud; Lundervold, Astri J.

    2011-01-01

    The N170 is an event-related potential (ERP) component elicited by visual stimuli, especially faces, with maximum amplitudes at lateral posterior leads. Attenuated face N170 amplitudes have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in both young children and adults. Altered hemispheric asymmetry of ERP components reflecting face processing has been reported in infants at high genetic risk for developing ASD (McCleery et al., 2009). The aim of this study was to examine face processi...

  19. Selectivity of N170 in the left hemisphere as an electrophysiological marker for expertise in reading Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhao; Su Li; Si-En Lin; Xiao-Hua Cao; Sheng He; Xu-Chu Weng

    2012-01-01

    Objective The left-lateralized N170,an event-related potential component consistently shown in response to alphabetic words,is a robust electrophysiological marker for reading expertise in an alphabetic language.In contrast,such a marker is lacking for expertise in reading Chinese,because the existing results about the lateralization of N170 for Chinese characters are mixed,reflecting complicated factors such as top-down modulation that contribute to the relative magnitudes of N170 in the left and right hemispheres.The present study aimed to explore a potential electrophysiological marker for reading expertise in Chinese with minimal top-down influence.Methods We recorded N170 responses to Chinese characters and three kinds of control stimuli in a content-irrelevant task,minimizing potential top-down effects.Results Direct comparison of the N170 amplitude in response to Chinese characters between the hemispheres showed a marginally significant left-lateralization effect.However,detailed analyses of N170 in each hemisphere revealed a more robust pattern of left-lateralization-the N170 in the left but not the right hemisphere differentiated Chinese characters from control stimuli.Conclusion These results suggest that the selectivity of N170 (a greater N170 in response to Chinese characters than to control stimuli) within the left hemisphere rather than the hemispheric difference ofN 170 with regard to Chinese characters is an electrophysiological marker for expertise in reading Chinese.

  20. Early Neural Markers of Implicit Attitudes: N170 Modulated by Intergroup and Evaluative Contexts in IAT

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    Agustin Ibanez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Implicit Association Test (IAT is the most popular measure to evaluate implicit attitudes. Nevertheless, its neural correlates are not yet fully understood. We examined event related potentials (ERPs in response to face- and word- processing while indigenous and non-indigenous participants performed an IAT displaying faces (ingroup and outgroup members and words (positive and negative valence as targets of category judgments. The N170 component was modulated by valence of words and by ingroup/outgroup face categorization. Contextual effects (face-words implicitly associated in the task had an influence on the N170 amplitude modulation. On the one hand, in face categorization, right N170 showed differences according to the association between social categories of faces and affective valence of words. On the other, in word categorization, left N170 presented a similar modulation when the task implied a negative valence associated with ingroup faces. Only indigenous participants showed a significant IAT effect and N170 differences. Our results demonstrate an early ERP blending of stimuli processing with both intergroup and evaluative contexts, suggesting an integration of contextual information related to intergroup attitudes during the early stages of word and face processing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of early ERPs during an ethnicity IAT, opening a new branch of exchange between social neuroscience and social psychology of attitudes.

  1. Activation of serotonin 2A receptors underlies the psilocybin-induced effects on α oscillations, N170 visual-evoked potentials, and visual hallucinations.

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    Kometer, Michael; Schmidt, André; Jäncke, Lutz; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2013-06-19

    Visual illusions and hallucinations are hallmarks of serotonergic hallucinogen-induced altered states of consciousness. Although the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin activates multiple serotonin (5-HT) receptors, recent evidence suggests that activation of 5-HT2A receptors may lead to the formation of visual hallucinations by increasing cortical excitability and altering visual-evoked cortical responses. To address this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of psilocybin (215 μg/kg vs placebo) on both α oscillations that regulate cortical excitability and early visual-evoked P1 and N170 potentials in healthy human subjects. To further disentangle the specific contributions of 5-HT2A receptors, subjects were additionally pretreated with the preferential 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (50 mg vs placebo). We found that psilocybin strongly decreased prestimulus parieto-occipital α power values, thus precluding a subsequent stimulus-induced α power decrease. Furthermore, psilocybin strongly decreased N170 potentials associated with the appearance of visual perceptual alterations, including visual hallucinations. All of these effects were blocked by pretreatment with the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin, indicating that activation of 5-HT2A receptors by psilocybin profoundly modulates the neurophysiological and phenomenological indices of visual processing. Specifically, activation of 5-HT2A receptors may induce a processing mode in which stimulus-driven cortical excitation is overwhelmed by spontaneous neuronal excitation through the modulation of α oscillations. Furthermore, the observed reduction of N170 visual-evoked potentials may be a key mechanism underlying 5-HT2A receptor-mediated visual hallucinations. This change in N170 potentials may be important not only for psilocybin-induced states but also for understanding acute hallucinatory states seen in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. PMID:23785166

  2. Category specificity in early perception: face and word N170 responses differ in both lateralization and habituation properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rossion

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced N170 ERP responses to both faces and visual words raises questions about category specific processing mechanisms during early perception and their neural basis. Topographic differences across word and face N170s might suggest a form of category specific processing in early perception - the word N170 is consistently left lateralized, while less consistent evidence suggests a right lateralization for the face N170. Additionally, the face N170 shows a reduction in amplitude across consecutive unique faces, a form of habituation that might differ across studies thereby helping to explain inconsistencies in lateralization. This effect remains unexplored for visual words. The current study directly contrasts N170 responses to words and faces within the same subjects, examining both category-level habituation and lateralization effects. ERP responses to a series of different faces and words were collected under two contexts: blocks that alternated faces and words versus pure blocks designed to induce category level habituation. Global and occipito-temporal measures of N170 amplitude demonstrated an interaction between category (word, faces and block context (alternating, pure. N170 amplitude demonstrated class level habituation for faces but not words. Furthermore, the pure block context diminished the right lateralization of the face N170, potentially pointing to class level habituation as a factor that might drive inconsistencies of right lateralization across different paradigms. No analogous effect for the word N170 was found, suggesting category specificity for this process. Taken together, these topographic and habituation effects suggest distinct forms of perceptual processing drive the face N170 and the visual word form N170.

  3. 31 P and two-dimensional 31 P-1 H NMR analysis of brain extracts in animal models of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report here the study of the brain phospholipid content of normal and myelin deficient (md) rats, which develop a physiological impairment at about 15-20 days, and die at 20-25 days of age. The aim is to gain insights into the lipid composition of developing brain, and also to reveal of there exist some early event in the phospholipid metabolism that produces a pathological condition similar to the formation of demyelination plaques in multiple sclerosis. 31 P NMR allows one to detect phospholipids selectively out of a complex lipid mixture in crude extracts. Two-dimensional (2D) 31 P-1H NMR with isotropic proton mixing seems to be a superior technique for assignment of phospholipid 31 P resonances. (author)

  4. Combined Effects of Inversion and Feature Removal on N170 Responses Elicited by Faces and Car Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloth, Nadine; Itier, Roxane J.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2013-01-01

    The face-sensitive N170 is typically enhanced for inverted compared to upright faces. Itier, Alain, Sedore, and McIntosh (2007) recently suggested that this N170 inversion effect is mainly driven by the eye region which becomes salient when the face configuration is disrupted. Here we tested whether similar effects could be observed with non-face…

  5. Maro Reef Site P1 9/15/2002 32-33M

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P1 (25.357 N, 170.495 W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Maro Reef Site P1 9/15/2002 22-23M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P1 25.357 N, 170.495 W, between 22 and 23 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Maro Reef Site P1 9/15/2002 21-22M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P1 (25.357 N, 170.495 W), between 21 and 22 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Maro Reef Site P1 9/15/2002 15-16M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P1 25.357 N, 170.495 W, between 15 and 16 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Maro Reef Site P1 9/15/2002 24-25M

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P1 25.357 N, 170.495 W, between 24 and 25 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Maro Reef Site P1 9/15/2002 27-28M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P1 (25.357 N, 170.495 W), between 27 and 28 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Maro Reef Site P1 9/15/2002 23-24M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P1 (25.357 N, 170.495 W), between 23 and 24 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Maro Reef Site P1 9/15/2002 2-3M

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P1 (25.357 N, 170.495 W), between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Training by visual identification and writing leads to different visual word expertise N170 effects in preliterate Chinese children

    OpenAIRE

    Pei Zhao; Su Li; Jing Zhao; Gaspar, Carl M.; Xuchu Weng

    2015-01-01

    The N170 component of EEG evoked by visual words is an index of perceptual expertise for the visual word across different writing systems. In the present study, we investigated whether these N170 markers for Chinese, a very complex script, could emerge quickly after short-term learning (∼100 min) in young Chinese children, and whether early writing experience can enhance the acquisition of these neural markers for expertise. Two groups of preschool children received visual identification and ...

  14. Training by visual identification and writing leads to different visual word expertise N170 effects in preliterate Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pei; Li, Su; Zhao, Jing; Gaspar, Carl M; Weng, Xuchu

    2015-10-01

    The N170 component of EEG evoked by visual words is an index of perceptual expertise for the visual word across different writing systems. In the present study, we investigated whether these N170 markers for Chinese, a very complex script, could emerge quickly after short-term learning (∼ 100 min) in young Chinese children, and whether early writing experience can enhance the acquisition of these neural markers for expertise. Two groups of preschool children received visual identification and free writing training respectively. Short-term character training resulted in selective enhancement of the N170 to characters, consistent with normal expert processing. Visual identification training resulted in increased N170 amplitude to characters in the right hemisphere, and N170 amplitude differences between characters and faces were decreased; whereas the amplitude difference between characters and tools increased. Writing training led to the disappearance of an initial amplitude difference between characters and faces in the right hemisphere. These results show that N170 markers for visual expertise emerge rapidly in young children after word learning, independent of the type of script young children learn; and visual identification and writing produce different effects. PMID:26409757

  15. Training by visual identification and writing leads to different visual word expertise N170 effects in preliterate Chinese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The N170 component of EEG evoked by visual words is an index of perceptual expertise for the visual word across different writing systems. In the present study, we investigated whether these N170 markers for Chinese, a very complex script, could emerge quickly after short-term learning (∼100 min in young Chinese children, and whether early writing experience can enhance the acquisition of these neural markers for expertise. Two groups of preschool children received visual identification and free writing training respectively. Short-term character training resulted in selective enhancement of the N170 to characters, consistent with normal expert processing. Visual identification training resulted in increased N170 amplitude to characters in the right hemisphere, and N170 amplitude differences between characters and faces were decreased; whereas the amplitude difference between characters and tools increased. Writing training led to the disappearance of an initial amplitude difference between characters and faces in the right hemisphere. These results show that N170 markers for visual expertise emerge rapidly in young children after word learning, independent of the type of script young children learn; and visual identification and writing produce different effects.

  16. The effects of facial color and inversion on the N170 event-related potential (ERP) component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, T; Nakajima, K; Changvisommid, L; Nakauchi, S

    2015-12-17

    Faces are important for social interaction because much can be perceived from facial details, including a person's race, age, and mood. Recent studies have shown that both configural (e.g. face shape and inversion) and surface information (e.g. surface color and reflectance properties) are important for face perception. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of facial color and inverted face properties on event-related potential (ERP) responses, particularly the N170 component. Stimuli consisted of natural and bluish-colored faces. Faces were presented in both upright and upside down orientations. An ANOVA was used to analyze N170 amplitudes and verify the effects of the main independent variables. Analysis of N170 amplitude revealed the significant interactions between stimulus orientation and color. Subsequent analysis indicated that N170 was larger for bluish-colored faces than natural-colored faces, and N170 to natural-colored faces was larger in response to inverted stimulus as compared to upright stimulus. Additionally, a multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) investigated face-processing dynamics without any prior assumptions. Results distinguished, above chance, both facial color and orientation from single-trial electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Decoding performance for color classification of inverted faces was significantly diminished as compared to an upright orientation. This suggests that processing orientation is predominant over facial color. Taken together, the present findings elucidate the temporal and spatial distribution of orientation and color processing during face processing. PMID:26477984

  17. Effects of contrast inversion on face perception depend on gaze location: Evidence from the N170 component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Katie; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition is known to be impaired when the contrast polarity of the eyes is inverted. We studied how contrast affects early perceptual face processing by measuring the face-sensitive N170 component to face images when the contrast of the eyes and of the rest of the face was independently manipulated. Fixation was either located on the eye region or on the lower part of a face. Contrast-reversal of the eyes triggered delayed and enhanced N170 components independently of the contrast of other face parts, and regardless of gaze location. Similar N170 modulations were observed when the rest of a face was contrast-inverted, but only when gaze was directed away from the eyes. Results demonstrate that the contrast of the eyes and of other face parts can both affect face perception, but that the contrast polarity of the eye region has a privileged role during early stages of face processing. PMID:25996529

  18. Normal perception of Mooney faces in developmental prosopagnosia: Evidence from the N170 component and rapid neural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towler, John; Gosling, Angela; Duchaine, Bradley; Eimer, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) have a severe difficulty recognizing the faces of known individuals in the absence of any history of neurological damage. These recognition problems may be linked to selective deficits in the holistic/configural processing of faces. We used two-tone Mooney images to study the processing of faces versus non-face objects in DP when it is based on holistic information (or the facial gestalt) in the absence of obvious local cues about facial features. A rapid adaptation procedure was employed for a group of 16 DPs. Naturalistic photographs of upright faces were preceded by upright or inverted Mooney faces or by Mooney houses. DPs showed face-sensitive N170 components in response to Mooney faces versus houses, and N170 amplitude reductions for inverted as compared to upright Mooney faces. They also showed the typical pattern of N170 adaptation effects, with reduced N170 components when upright naturalistic test faces were preceded by upright Mooney faces, demonstrating that the perception of Mooney and naturalistic faces recruits shared neural populations. Our findings demonstrate that individuals with DP can utilize global information about face configurations for categorical discriminations between faces and non-face objects, and suggest that face processing deficits emerge primarily at more fine-grained higher level stages of face perception. PMID:25237758

  19. The Idea Is Good, but…: Failure to Replicate Associations of Oxytocinergic Polymorphisms with Face-Inversion in the N170.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha J L Munk

    Full Text Available In event-related potentials, the N170 manifests itself especially in reaction to faces. In the healthy population, face-inversion leads to stronger negative amplitudes and prolonged latencies of the N170, effects not being present in patients with autism-spectrum-disorder (ASD. ASD has frequently been associated with differences in oxytocinergic neurotransmission. This ERP-study aimed to investigate the face-inversion effect in association with oxytocinergic candidate genes. It was expected that risk-allele-carriers of the oxytocin-receptor-gene-polymorphism (rs53576 and of CD38 (rs379863 responded similar to upright and inverted faces as persons with ASD. Additionally, reactions to different facial emotional expressions were studied. As there have been difficulties with replications of those molecular genetic association studies, we aimed to replicate our findings in a second study.Seventy-two male subjects in the first-, and seventy-eight young male subjects in the replication-study conducted a face-inversion-paradigm, while recording EEG. DNA was extracted from buccal cells.Results revealed stronger N170-amplitudes and longer latencies in reaction to inverted faces in comparison to upright ones. Furthermore, effects of emotion on N170 were evident. Those effects were present in the first and in the second study. Whereas we found molecular-genetic associations of oxytocinergic polymorphisms with the N170 in the first study, we failed to do so in the replication sample.Results indicate that a deeper theoretical understanding of this research-field is needed, in order to generate possible explanations for these findings. Results, furthermore, support the hypotheses that success of reproducibility is correlated with strength of lower original p-values and larger effect sizes in the original study.

  20. The Idea Is Good, but…: Failure to Replicate Associations of Oxytocinergic Polymorphisms with Face-Inversion in the N170

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Aisha J. L.; Hermann, Andrea; El Shazly, Jasmin; Grant, Phillip; Hennig, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background In event-related potentials, the N170 manifests itself especially in reaction to faces. In the healthy population, face-inversion leads to stronger negative amplitudes and prolonged latencies of the N170, effects not being present in patients with autism-spectrum-disorder (ASD). ASD has frequently been associated with differences in oxytocinergic neurotransmission. This ERP-study aimed to investigate the face-inversion effect in association with oxytocinergic candidate genes. It was expected that risk-allele-carriers of the oxytocin-receptor-gene-polymorphism (rs53576) and of CD38 (rs379863) responded similar to upright and inverted faces as persons with ASD. Additionally, reactions to different facial emotional expressions were studied. As there have been difficulties with replications of those molecular genetic association studies, we aimed to replicate our findings in a second study. Method Seventy-two male subjects in the first-, and seventy-eight young male subjects in the replication-study conducted a face-inversion-paradigm, while recording EEG. DNA was extracted from buccal cells. Results Results revealed stronger N170-amplitudes and longer latencies in reaction to inverted faces in comparison to upright ones. Furthermore, effects of emotion on N170 were evident. Those effects were present in the first and in the second study. Whereas we found molecular-genetic associations of oxytocinergic polymorphisms with the N170 in the first study, we failed to do so in the replication sample. Conclusion Results indicate that a deeper theoretical understanding of this research-field is needed, in order to generate possible explanations for these findings. Results, furthermore, support the hypotheses that success of reproducibility is correlated with strength of lower original p-values and larger effect sizes in the original study. PMID:27015428

  1. Seeing race: N170 responses to race and their relation to automatic racial attitudes and controlled processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofan, Renana H; Rubin, Nava; Amodio, David M

    2011-10-01

    We examined the relation between neural activity reflecting early face perception processes and automatic and controlled responses to race. Participants completed a sequential evaluative priming task, in which two-tone images of Black faces, White faces, and cars appeared as primes, followed by target words categorized as pleasant or unpleasant, while encephalography was recorded. Half of these participants were alerted that the task assessed racial prejudice and could reveal their personal bias ("alerted" condition). To assess face perception processes, the N170 component of the ERP was examined. For all participants, stronger automatic pro-White bias was associated with larger N170 amplitudes to Black than White faces. For participants in the alerted condition only, larger N170 amplitudes to Black versus White faces were also associated with less controlled processing on the word categorization task. These findings suggest that preexisting racial attitudes affect early face processing and that situational factors moderate the link between early face processing and behavior. PMID:21452950

  2. Is the impaired N170 print tuning specific to developmental dyslexia? A matched reading-level study with poor readers and dyslexics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, Gwendoline; Bonnefond, Anne; Doignon-Camus, Nadège

    2013-12-01

    Left N170 print tuning has been associated with visual expertise for print and has been reported to be impaired in dyslexics, using age matched designs. This is the first time N170 print tuning has been compared in adult dyslexics and adult poor readers, matched in reading level. Participants performed a lexical decision task using both word-like stimuli and symbol strings. In contrast to dyslexics, poor readers displayed similar N170 tuning to control expert readers, suggesting that impaired N170 specialization is a hallmark of developmental dyslexia. Our findings provide electrophysiological support for dyslexia being the result of abnormal specialization of the left occipito-temporal areas involved in the expert processing of print. Furthermore, as shown by correlations data and in accordance with the phonological mapping deficit theory, the impaired visual expertise for print described in dyslexics may have been caused by their core phonological deficits. PMID:24148146

  3. Gromov-Witten Theory of P^1xP^1xP^1

    OpenAIRE

    Karp, Dagan; Ranganathan, Dhruv

    2012-01-01

    We use elementary geometric techniques to exhibit an explicit equivalence between certain sectors of the Gromov-Witten theories of blowups of P^1xP^1xP^1 and P^3. In particular, we prove that the all genus, virtual dimension zero Gromov-Witten theory of the blowup of P^3 at points coincides with that of the blowup at points of P^1xP^1xP^1, for non-exceptional classes. We observe a toric symmetry of the Gromov-Witten theory of P^1xP^1xP^1 analogous and intimately related to Cremona symmetry of...

  4. Early processing of emotional faces in a Go/NoGo task: lack of N170 right-hemispheric specialisation in children with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Madlen; Stadelmann, Stephanie; Brandeis, Daniel; Jaeger, Sonia; Matuschek, Tina; Weis, Steffi; Kalex, Virgenie; Hiemisch, Andreas; von Klitzing, Kai; Döhnert, Mirko

    2015-09-01

    Emotionally biased information processing towards sad and away from happy information characterises individuals with major depression. To learn more about the nature of these dysfunctional modulations, developmental and neural aspects of emotional face processing have to be considered. By combining measures of performance (attention control, inhibition) in an emotional Go/NoGo task with an event-related potential (ERP) of early face processing (N170), we obtained a multifaceted picture of emotional face processing in a sample of children and adolescents (11-14 years) with major depression (MDD, n = 26) and healthy controls (CTRL, n = 26). Subjects had to respond to emotional faces (fearful, happy or sad) and withhold their response to calm faces or vice versa. Children of the MDD group displayed shorter N170 latencies than children of the CTRL group. Typical right lateralisation of the N170 was observed for all faces in the CTRL but not for happy and calm faces in the MDD group. However, the MDD group did not differ in their behavioural reaction to emotional faces, and effects of interference by emotional information on the reaction to calm faces in this group were notably mild. Although we could not find a typical pattern of emotional bias, the results suggest that alterations in face processing of children with major depression can be seen at early stages of face perception indexed by the N170. The findings call for longitudinal examinations considering effects of development in children with major depression as well as associations to later stages of processing. PMID:26093649

  5. Reference: P1BS [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P1BS Rubio V, Linhares F, Solano R, Martin AC, Iglesias J, Leyva A, Paz-Ares J. A conserved MYB ... gnaling both in vascular plants and in unicellular algae . Genes Dev. 15: 2122-2133.(2001) PubMed: 11511543 ...

  6. Main: P1BS [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P1BS S000459 27-March-2004 (last modified) kehi PHR1-binding sequence found in the upstream regi ... ons of phosphate ... starvation responsive genes from several plant spe ... cies; phr1 (phosphate ... starvation response 1) gene codes for PHR1 protein ...

  7. Reference: P1BS [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P1BS Schunmann PH, Richardson AE, Vickers CE, Delhaize E. Promoter analysis of the barley Pht1;1 ... phosphate ... transporter gene identifies regions controlling ro ... ot expression and responsiveness to phosphate ... deprivation. Plant Physiol. 136: 4205-4214. (2004) ...

  8. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  9. On the Hilbert functions of sets of points in P^1 x P^1 x P^1

    OpenAIRE

    Guardo, Elena; Van Tuyl, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Let H_X be the trigraded Hilbert function of a set X of reduced points in P^1 x P^1 x P^1. We show how to extract some geometric information about X from H_X. This note generalizes a similar result of Giuffrida, Maggioni, and Ragusa about sets of points in P^1 x P^1.

  10. 2D supergravity in p+1 dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, H.; Lindstrom, U.

    1998-01-01

    We describe new $N$-extended 2D supergravities on a $(p+1)$-dimensional (bosonic) space. The fundamental objects are moving frame densities that equip each $(p+1)$-dimensional point with a 2D ``tangent space''. The theory is presented in a $[p+1, 2]$ superspace. For the special case of $p=1$ we recover the 2D supergravities in an unusual form. The formalism has been developed with applications to the string-parton picture of $D$-branes at strong coupling in mind.

  11. Quantum Cohomology of Hilb^2(P^1xP^1) and Enumerative Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pontoni, Dalide

    2004-01-01

    We compute the Small Quantum Cohomology of Hilb^2(P^1xP^1) and determine recursively most of the Big Quantum Cohomology. We prove a relationship between the invariants so obtained and the enumerative geometry of hyperelliptic curves in P^1xP^1. This extends the results obtained by Graber for Hilb^2(P^2) and hyperelliptic curves in P^2.

  12. On the mod $p^7$ determination of ${2p-1\\choose p-1}$

    CERN Document Server

    Mestrovic, Romeo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we prove that for any prime $p\\ge 11$ holds $$ {2p-1\\choose p-1}\\equiv 1 -2p \\sum_{k=1}^{p-1}\\frac{1}{k} +4p^2\\sum_{1\\le ip-1}\\frac{1}{ij}\\pmod{p^7}. $$ This is a generalization of the famous Wolstenholme's theorem which asserts that ${2p-1\\choose p-1} \\equiv 1 \\,\\,(\\bmod\\,\\,p^3)$ for all primes $p\\ge 5$. Our proof is elementary and it does not use a standard technique involving the classic formula for the power sums in terms of the Bernoulli numbers. Notice that the above congruence reduced modulo $p^6$, $p^5$ and $p^4$ yields related congruences obtained by R. Tauraso, J. Zhao and J.W.L. Glaisher, respectively.

  13. Calorons, Nahm's equations on S^1 and bundles over P^1xP^1

    OpenAIRE

    Charbonneau, Benoit; Hurtubise, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The moduli space of solutions to Nahm's equations of rank (k,k+j) on the circle, and hence, of SU(2) calorons of charge (k,j), is shown to be equivalent to the moduli of holomorphic rank 2 bundles on P^1xP^1 trivialized at infinity with c_2=k and equipped with a flag of degree j along P^1x{0}. An explicit matrix description of these spaces is given by a monad construction

  14. Arithmetically Cohen-Macaulay sets of points in P^1 x P^1

    CERN Document Server

    Guardo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents a solution to the interpolation problem for arithmetically Cohen-Macaulay (ACM) sets of points in the multiprojective space P^1 x P^1.  It collects the various current threads in the literature on this topic with the aim of providing a self-contained, unified introduction while also advancing some new ideas.  The relevant constructions related to multiprojective spaces are reviewed first, followed by the basic properties of points in P^1 x P^1, the bigraded Hilbert function, and ACM sets of points.  The authors then show how, using a combinatorial description of ACM points in P^1 x P^1, the bigraded Hilbert function can be computed and, as a result, solve the interpolation problem.  In subsequent chapters, they consider fat points and double points in P^1 x P^1 and demonstrate how to use their results to answer questions and problems of interest in commutative algebra.  Throughout the book, chapters end with a brief historical overview, citations of related results, and, where relevan...

  15. Doubly excited 2s2p 1,3p1 resonances in photoionization of helium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Jian-Jie; Dong Chen-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    The multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method is implemented to study doubly excited 2s2p 1,3P1 resonances of the helium atom and the interference between photoionization and photoexcitation autoionization processes.In order to reproduce the total photoionization sprectra,the excited energies from the ground ls2 1 S0 state to the doubly excited 2s2p 1'3P1 states and the relevant Auger decay rates and widths are calculated in detail. Furthermore,the interference profile determined by the so-called Fano parameters q and p2 is also reproduced. Good agreement is found between the present results and other available theoretical and experimental results. This indeed shows a promising way to investigate the Fano resonances in photoionization of atoms within the MCDF scheme,although there are some discrepancies in the present calculations of the 2s2p 3P1 state.

  16. P1-Marx Modulator for the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first generation prototype, P1, Marx-topology klystron modulator has been developed at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for the International Linear Collider (ILC) project. It is envisioned as a lower cost, smaller footprint, and higher reliability alternative to the present, bouncer-topology, baseline design. The application requires 120 kV (+/-0.5%), 140 A, 1.6 ms pulses at a rate of 5 Hz. The Marx constructs the high voltage pulse by combining, in series, a number of lower voltage cells. The Marx employs solid state elements; IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the cells. Active compensation of the output is used to achieve the voltage regulation while minimizing the stored energy. The P1-Marx has been integrated into a test stand with a 10 MW L-band klystron, where each is undergoing life testing. A review of the P1-Marx design and its operational history in the L-band test stand are presented.

  17. SPU-eristeet P1-luokan ullakkorakentamisessa

    OpenAIRE

    Vartiainen, Tomi

    2011-01-01

    Tämän insinöörityön päätavoitteena oli suunnitella Helsingissä sijaitsevaan P1-luokan kerrostalon ullakkorakentamishankkeeseen SPU-eristeiset yläpohjarakennetyypit ja hyväksyttää ne sen jälkeen Helsingin rakennusvalvontavirastossa. Finnmap Consulting Oy:n kautta ei aikataulun rajoissa löytynyt kuitenkaan sopivaa kohdetta, joten aiheesta päätettiin tehdä selvitystyötä ja sen pohjalta suunnitella mahdollisia SPU-eristeisiä yläpohjarakennetyyppejä. Rakennusten lämmöneristysmääräysten voimakk...

  18. Study on the segregation algorithms of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using P1P1/P2P1 finite element formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segregation algorithms of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using P1P1/P2P1 finite element formulation are newly proposed. P1P1 formulation allocates velocity and pressure at the same nodes, while P2P1 formulation allocates pressure only at the vertex nodes and velocity at both the vertex and the midpoint nodes. For a comparison of both the elapsed time and the accuracy between the two methods, they have been applied to the well-known benchmark problems. The three cases chosen are the two-dimensional steady and unsteady flows around a fixed cylinder, decaying vortex, and impinging slot jet. It is shown that the proposed P2P1 semi-segregation algorithm performs better than the conventional P1P1 segregation algorithm in terms of both accuracy and computation time

  19. Isolation and characterization of P1 minireplicons, lambda-P1:5R and lambda-P1:5L.

    OpenAIRE

    Sternberg, N; Austin, S

    1983-01-01

    We have isolated two new classes of P1 miniplasmids, called lambda-P1:5R and lambda-P1:5L, by the in vivo extension of a cloned P1 fragment, EcoRI-5, which by itself is not capable of plasmid replication. The lambda-P1:5R plasmids contain EcoRI-5 plus a variable portion of the adjacent P1 EcoRI fragment 8. They have a copy number like that of P1 (about 1 per host chromosome), are faithfully segregated at cell division, and are subject to incompatibility exerted by either a single copy of P1 o...

  20. Dynamics of trimming the content of face representations for categorization in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J van Rijsbergen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand visual cognition, it is imperative to determine when, how and with what information the human brain categorizes the visual input. Visual categorization consistently involves at least an early and a late stage: the occipito-temporal N170 event related potential related to stimulus encoding and the parietal P300 involved in perceptual decisions. Here we sought to understand how the brain globally transforms its representations of face categories from their early encoding to the later decision stage over the 400 ms time window encompassing the N170 and P300 brain events. We applied classification image techniques to the behavioral and electroencephalographic data of three observers who categorized seven facial expressions of emotion and report two main findings: (1 over the 400 ms time course, processing of facial features initially spreads bilaterally across the left and right occipito-temporal regions to dynamically converge onto the centro-parietal region; (2 concurrently, information processing gradually shifts from encoding common face features across all spatial scales (e.g., the eyes to representing only the finer scales of the diagnostic features that are richer in useful information for behavior (e.g., the wide opened eyes in 'fear'; the detailed mouth in 'happy'. Our findings suggest that the brain refines its diagnostic representations of visual categories over the first 400 ms of processing by trimming a thorough encoding of features over the N170, to leave only the detailed information important for perceptual decisions over the P300.

  1. Globally generated vector bundles on $\\mathbf{P}^1 \\times \\mathbf{P}^1 \\times \\mathbf{P}^1$ with low first Chern classes

    OpenAIRE

    Ballico, Edoardo; Huh, Sukmoon; Malaspina, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We classify globally generated vector bundles on $\\mathbf{P}^1 \\times \\mathbf{P}^1 \\times \\mathbf{P}^1$ with small first Chern class, i.e. $c_1= (a_1, a_2, a_3)$, $a_i \\le 2$. Our main method is to investigate the associated smooth curves to globally generated vector bundles via the Hartshorne-Serre correspondence.

  2. Genome Sequences of Three Pseudoalteromonas Strains (P1-8, P1-11, and P1-30), Isolated from the Marine Hydroid Hydractinia echinata

    OpenAIRE

    Klassen, Jonathan L; Rischer, Maja; Wolf, Thomas; Guo, Huijuan; Shelest, Ekaterina; Clardy, Jon; Beemelmanns, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The genomes of three Pseudoalteromonas strains (P1-8, P1-11, and P1-30) were sequenced and assembled. These genomes will inform future study of the genes responsible for the production of biologically active compounds responsible for these strains’ antimicrobial, biofouling, and algicidal activities.

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Pseudoalteromonas Strains, P1-7a, P1-9, P1-13-1a, P1-16-1b, P1-25, and P1-26, Which Induce Larval Settlement and Metamorphosis in Hydractinia echinata

    OpenAIRE

    Klassen, Jonathan L; Wolf, Thomas; Rischer, Maja; Guo, Huijuan; Shelest, Ekaterina; Clardy, Jon; Beemelmanns, Christine

    2015-01-01

    To gain a broader understanding of the importance of a surface-associated lifestyle and morphogenic capability, we have assembled and annotated the genome sequences of Pseudoalteromonas strains P1-7a, P1-9, P1-13-1a, P1-16-1b, P1-25, and P1-26, isolated from Hydractinia echinata. These genomes will allow detailed studies on bacterial factors mediating interkingdom communication.

  4. Mycoplasma pneumoniae P1 Type 1- and Type 2-Specific Sequences within the P1 Cytadhesin Gene of Individual Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J. Wendelien; Wilbrink, Berry; Dankert, Jacob; Zaat, Sebastian A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains traditionally are divided into two types, based on sequence variation in the P1 gene. Recently, however, we have identified 8 P1 subtypes by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In the present study the P1 gene sequences of three P1 type 1 and two P1 type 2 M. pneumoniae strains were analyzed. A new P1 gene sequence in a type 1 strain with partial similarity to a recently reported variable region in the P1 gene of an M. pneumoniae type 2 strain (T. ...

  5. Adsorption of nuclease p1 on chitosan nano-particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-E Shi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of nuclease P1 onto chitosan nano-particles is studied in this paper. The effect of some adsorption kinetics factors such as nuclease P1 concentration, chitosan nano-particles solution concentration, adsorption temperature, chitosan nano-particles size, solution pH, etc. is investigated. Adsorption of nuclease P1 onto chitosan nano-particles is fitted into Lagergren first-order equation at initial nuclease P1 concentration of 3.0 mg/mL. The first-order constant for nuclease P1 is 22.98 h-1. When nuclease P1 concentration is controlled into certain region, the adsorption fits into Freundlich isothermal linear equation. A mechanism of adsorption for nuclease P1 is proposed by analyzing IR spectra. The IR spectra shows that the hydrogen bond might be the main force between the hydroxyl group, the NH2 group and the nuclease P1.

  6. Eerste ervaringen met voerdosering in vleeskuikenstal P1

    OpenAIRE

    Harn, van, J.

    1994-01-01

    In de vleeskuikenstal P1 van PP is het gedoseerd voeren beproefd. Het doel van deze (pilot)proef was te kijken welke (technische) problemen zich voordeden wanneer in stal P1 gedoseerd gevoerd zou worden

  7. Mutations in the P1 promoter region of Micromonospora echinospora.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, L S; Rothstein, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that the promoters P1a, P1b, and P1c are very closely spaced and are coordinately turned on during stationary phase in Micromonospora echinospora. To determine the nucleotides important for promoter recognition, we characterized mutations that were defective in transcription from the P1b start site, using Streptomyces lividans as the host. Two mutations upstream of the start site resulted in a drastic loss of promoter activity, while two mutations downstream of the ...

  8. Non-commutative P-1-bundles over commutative schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bergh, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we develop the theory of non-commutative P-1-bundles over commutative (smooth) schemes. Such non-commutative P-1-bundles occur in the theory of D-modules but our definition is more general. We can show that every non-commutative deformation of a Hirzebruch surface is given by a non-commutative P-1-bundle over P-1 in our sense.

  9. Isotope shifts of the 4s2 1S0 -> 4s5p 1P1 transition and hyperfine splitting of the 4s5p 1P1 state in calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, A.; Lindballe, J. J. T.; Jensen, I. S.; Staanum, P.; Voigt, D.; Drewsen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using a technique based on production of ion Coulomb crystals, the isotope shifts of the 4s2 1S0 -> 4s5p 1P1 transition for all naturally occurring isotopes of calcium as well as the hyperfine splitting of the 4s5p 1P1 state in Ca-43 have been measured. The field shift and specific mass shift coefficients as well as the hyperfine structure constants for Ca-43 have been derived from the data.

  10. Relativistic MCDF oscillator strengths for 6s21S0-6s6p 1P1,3P1 transitions in lanthanide ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculation of the transition energies and oscillator strengths for the 6s21S0-6s6p 1P1,3P1 transitions in rare earth ionized systems (from La+1 through Nd+4) were carried out. At least part of electron correlation was taken into account. The intravalence correlation was represented through limited relativistic configuration mixing while the valence-core correlation was approximated by a core polarization model. For the allowed transition, we compared our results with other theoretical data, whereas for the forbidden transition only our results are available

  11. A novel porcine circovirus-like agent P1 is associated with wasting syndromes in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin Wen

    Full Text Available A novel porcine pathogen tentatively named P1, which was obtained from the sera of the pigs exhibiting clinical signs of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS experimentally caused the classical clinic signs and pathologic lesions of the disease in pigs by direct in vivo injection with P1 DNA plasmids. Twenty colostrum-fed (CF pigs that were free of PCV2 and P1 at 1 month of age were randomly designated equally to two groups. Group 1 pigs were each injected with 400 µg of the cloned P1 plasmid DNA into the superficial inguinal lymph nodes and Group 2 were injected with same amount of the empty pSK vector DNA and served as controls. Viremias were positively detected in 8 of 10 P1 infected pigs from 14-21 days post-inoculation (dpi. The 8 infected animals showed pallor of skin and diarrhea. Gross lesions in the pigs euthanized on 35 dpi were similarly characterized by encephalemia, haemorrhage of the bladder mucosa, haemorrhage of the superficial inguinal lymph nodes, lung atrophy and haemorrhage. Histopathological lesions were arteriectasis and telangiectasia of the cavitas subarachnoidealis, interstitial pneumonia, mild atrophy of the cardiac muscle cells, histiocytic hyperplasia of the follicles in the tonsils, and haemorrhage of the inguinal lymph nodes. P1 DNA and antigens were confirmed by PCR and immunohistochemistry in the tissues and organs of the infected pigs, including the pancreas, bladders, testicles/ovaries, brains, lungs and liver. There were no obvious clinical signs and pathological lesions in the control pigs. This study demonstrated that P1 infection is one of the important pathologic agents on pig farms.

  12. Linear systems over P1xP1 with base points of multiplicity bounded by three

    OpenAIRE

    Lenarcik, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    We propose a combinatorial method of proving non-specialty of a linear system of curves with multiple points in general positions. As an application we obtain a classification of special linear systems on P1xP1 for which the multiplicities do not exceed 3.

  13. Secant Varieties of (P ^1) X .... X (P ^1) (n-times) are NOT Defective for n \\geq 5

    OpenAIRE

    Catalisano, M. V.; Geramita, A.; Gimigliano, A.

    2008-01-01

    Let V_n be the Segre embedding of (P^1) x ... X (P^1) (n times). We prove that the higher secant varieties, \\sigma_s(V_n), always have the expected dimension, except for \\sigma_3(V_4), which is of dimension 1 less than expected.

  14. Genetic and physical map of a P1 miniplasmid.

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, S.; Hart, F; Abeles, A; Sternberg, N

    1982-01-01

    The prophage form of bacteriophage P1 is a unit-copy plasmid which is maintained with great fidelity in its Escherichia coli host. The plasmid maintenance functions of P1 are clustered in one region of the genome. An 11.5-kilobase fragment from this region has been cloned into a lambda delta att vector and promotes stable unit-copy plasmid maintenance. The properties of the lambda vector facilitated the isolation of deletion mutants affecting the P1 DNA. Twenty-eight deletion mutants were iso...

  15. STS-113 P1 Truss payload in the SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Inside the Space Station Processing Facility, the P1 Truss Segment is lowered into the payload canister. The P1 truss is the primary payload for Mission STS-113. It is the first port truss segment which will be attached to the Station'''s central truss segment, S0. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1. The mission will also deliver the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return Expedition 5 to Earth. Space Shuttle Endeavour is scheduled to launch no earlier than Nov. 10 on the 11-day mission.

  16. Adjoint P1 equations solution for neutron slowing down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. The direct and adjoint neutron fluxes resulting from the solution of P1 equations were used to three different weighting processes, to obtain the macrogroup macroscopic cross sections. It was found out noticeable differences among them. (author)

  17. P1 peptidase – a mysterious protein of family Potyviridae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jana Rohožková; Milan Navrátil

    2011-03-01

    The Potyviridae family, named after its type member, Potato virus Y (PVY), is the largest of the 65 plant virus groups and families currently recognized. The coding region for P1 peptidase is located at the very beginning of the viral genome of the family Potyviridae. Until recently P1 was thought of as serine peptidase with RNA-binding activity and with possible influence in cell-to-cell viral spreading. This N-terminal protein, among all of the potyviruses, is the most divergent protein: varying in length and in its amino acid sequence. Nevertheless, P1 peptidase in many ways is still a mysterious viral protein. In this review, we would like to offer a comprehensive overview, discussing the proteomic, biochemical and phylogenetic views of the P1 protein.

  18. Pölynhallinta ja suojaaminen P1-puhtausluokassa

    OpenAIRE

    Rouvinen, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    P1-puhtausluokitus on lisääntymässä, ja se on erittäin ajankohtainen asia rakentami-sessa. Laadukasta ja terveellistä saneeraustyötä vaaditaan yhä useammassa hankkeessa, ja varsinkin julkiset rakennukset pyrkivät P1-luokkaan. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on tutkia, mitä P1-puhtausluokitus tarkoittaa ja mitä vaatimuksia sillä on työmaan näkökulmasta. Tavoitteena on selvittää, millä kei-noin pölynhallinta kannattaa tehdä ja miksi on tärkeätä, että työmaa on siisti ja täyttää P1-puhtausl...

  19. FoxP1 marks medium spiny neurons from precursors to maturity and is required for their differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precious, S V; Kelly, C M; Reddington, A E; Vinh, N N; Stickland, R C; Pekarik, V; Scherf, C; Jeyasingham, R; Glasbey, J; Holeiter, M; Jones, L; Taylor, M V; Rosser, A E

    2016-08-01

    Identifying the steps involved in striatal development is important both for understanding the striatum in health and disease, and for generating protocols to differentiate striatal neurons for regenerative medicine. The most prominent neuronal subtype in the adult striatum is the medium spiny projection neuron (MSN), which constitutes more than 85% of all striatal neurons and classically expresses DARPP-32. Through a microarray study of genes expressed in the whole ganglionic eminence (WGE: the developing striatum) in the mouse, we identified the gene encoding the transcription factor Forkhead box protein P1 (FoxP1) as the most highly up-regulated gene, thus providing unbiased evidence for the association of FoxP1 with MSN development. We also describe the expression of FoxP1 in the human fetal brain over equivalent gestational stages. FoxP1 expression persisted through into adulthood in the mouse brain, where it co-localised with all striatal DARPP-32 positive projection neurons and a small population of DARPP-32 negative cells. There was no co-localisation of FoxP1 with any interneuron markers. FoxP1 was detectable in primary fetal striatal cells following dissection, culture, and transplantation into the adult lesioned striatum, demonstrating its utility as an MSN marker for transplantation studies. Furthermore, DARPP-32 expression was absent from FoxP1 knock-out mouse WGE differentiated in vitro, suggesting that FoxP1 is important for the development of DARPP-32-positive MSNs. In summary, we show that FoxP1 labels MSN precursors prior to the expression of DARPP-32 during normal development, and in addition suggest that FoxP1 labels a sub-population of MSNs that are not co-labelled by DARPP-32. We demonstrate the utility of FoxP1 to label MSNs in vitro and following neural transplantation, and show that FoxP1 is required for DARPP-32 positive MSN differentiation in vitro. PMID:27154297

  20. Hodge structures associated to SU(p,1)

    CERN Document Server

    Abdulali, Salman

    2012-01-01

    Let A be a general member of a PEL family of abelian varieties such that the semisimple part of the Hodge group of A is a product of copies of SU(p,1) for some p>1. We show that any effective Tate twist of a Hodge structure occurring in the cohomology of a power of A is isomorphic to a Hodge structure in the cohomology of some abelian variety.

  1. System of adjoint P1 equations for neutron moderation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, this procedure is questioned and the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. (author)

  2. System of adjoint P1 equations for neutron moderation; Sistema de equacoes P1 adjuntas para a moderacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, this procedure is questioned and the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. (author)

  3. Exploring the effects of antisocial personality traits on brain potentials during face processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M Pfabigan

    Full Text Available Antisocial individuals are characterized to display self-determined and inconsiderate behavior during social interaction. Furthermore, recognition deficits regarding fearful facial expressions have been observed in antisocial populations. These observations give rise to the question whether or not antisocial behavioral tendencies are associated with deficits in basic processing of social cues. The present study investigated early visual stimulus processing of social stimuli in a group of healthy female individuals with antisocial behavioral tendencies compared to individuals without these tendencies while measuring event-related potentials (P1, N170. To this end, happy and angry faces served as feedback stimuli which were embedded in a gambling task. Results showed processing differences as early as 88-120 ms after feedback onset. Participants low on antisocial traits displayed larger P1 amplitudes than participants high on antisocial traits. No group differences emerged for N170 amplitudes. Attention allocation processes, individual arousal levels as well as face processing are discussed as possible causes of the observed group differences in P1 amplitudes. In summary, the current data suggest that sensory processing of facial stimuli is functionally intact but less ready to respond in healthy individuals with antisocial tendencies.

  4. "超"售迈凯轮P1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    在本届日内瓦车展上,一直备受关注的超级跑车迈凯轮P1量产版车型终于亮相了,这款仅售375辆的车型虽然标价800多万元,但已预订一空,不要埋怨迈凯轮P1的产量小,曾经创下当时最快量产车的世界纪录的迈凯轮F1也只生产了100辆,所以迈凯轮P1已经算是超售了。

  5. Transcriptional Auto-Regulation of RUNX1 P1 Promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Martinez

    Full Text Available RUNX1 a member of the family of runt related transcription factors (RUNX, is essential for hematopoiesis. The expression of RUNX1 gene is controlled by two promoters; the distal P1 promoter and the proximal P2 promoter. Several isoforms of RUNX1 mRNA are generated through the use of both promoters and alternative splicing. These isoforms not only differs in their temporal expression pattern but also exhibit differences in tissue specificity. The RUNX1 isoforms derived from P2 are expressed in a variety of tissues, but expression of P1-derived isoform is restricted to cells of hematopoietic lineage. However, the control of hematopoietic-cell specific expression is poorly understood. Here we report regulation of P1-derived RUNX1 mRNA by RUNX1 protein. In silico analysis of P1 promoter revealed presence of two evolutionary conserved RUNX motifs, 0.6kb upstream of the transcription start site, and three RUNX motifs within 170bp of the 5'UTR. Transcriptional contribution of these RUNX motifs was studied in myeloid and T-cells. RUNX1 genomic fragment containing all sites show very low basal activity in both cell types. Mutation or deletion of RUNX motifs in the UTR enhances basal activity of the RUNX1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that RUNX1 protein is recruited to these sites. Overexpression of RUNX1 in non-hematopoietic cells results in a dose dependent activation of the RUNX1 P1 promoter. We also demonstrate that RUNX1 protein regulates transcription of endogenous RUNX1 mRNA in T-cell. Finally we show that SCL transcription factor is recruited to regions containing RUNX motifs in the promoter and the UTR and regulates activity of the RUNX1 P1 promoter in vitro. Thus, multiple lines of evidence show that RUNX1 protein regulates its own gene transcription.

  6. STS-113 P1 Truss paylad in Payload Changeout Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - From the Payload Changeout Room on Launch Pad 39A, the P1 truss payload, plus the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart B, are moved into the payload bay of Space Shuttle Endeavour. Scheduled to launch Nov. 10 on mission STS-113, Endeavour will make the 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. The mission will also deliver the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return Expedition 5 to Earth.

  7. A P1 benchmark for time dependent thermal radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analytic solution for time-dependent P1 (telegrapher's equation) radiative transfer. This solution will be useful for verifying spherical harmonics based transport codes and to providing in-sight into the properties of the Pn equations. The solution is for a uniform, isotropic and non-scattering medium that has a heat capacity proportional to the material temperature cubed (T3). We first derive the time-dependent Greens function for the P1 equations in planar geometry. This result is then used to generate a P1 solution to one of the Su-Olson problems. We also use the planar Greens function to generate the Greens function for a pulsed point source in an infinite medium. With this point source we have reduced the problem of solving the P1 equations in a uniform medium to quadrature. The solution for a pulsed line source is developed, again because of its utility for verifying Pn based thermal radiation transport codes. (authors)

  8. P1 Truss Radiator assembly processing at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane moves the newly arrived radiator assembly toward a workstand. The radiator is part of the payload on mission STS-113, which also includes the first port truss segment, P1 Truss, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0 Truss, on the International Space Station. Once delivered, the will remain stowed until flight 12A.1. STS-113 is scheduled to launch Oct. 6, 2002

  9. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 1 (S1P1) Upregulation and Amelioration of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by an S1P1 Antagonist

    OpenAIRE

    Cahalan, Stuart M.; Gonzalez-Cabrera, Pedro J.; Nguyen, Nhan; Guerrero, Miguel; Cisar, Elizabeth A. George; Leaf, Nora B.; Brown, Steven J.; Roberts, Edward; Rosen, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) is a G protein–coupled receptor that is critical for proper lymphocyte development and recirculation. Agonists to S1P1 are currently in use clinically for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, and these drugs may act on both S1P1 expressed on lymphocytes and S1P1 expressed within the central nervous system. Agonists to S1P1 and deficiency in S1P1 both cause lymphocyte sequestration in the lymph nodes. In the present study, we show that S1P1 antagonism ...

  10. Phylogenetic and functional conservation of the NKR-P1F and NKR-P1G receptors in rat and mouse.

    OpenAIRE

    Kveberg, Lise; Dai, Ke-Zheng; Inngjerdingen, Marit; Brooks, Colin G.; Fossum, Sigbjørn; Vaage, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Two clusters of rat Nkrp1 genes can be distinguished based on phylogenetic relationships and functional characteristics. The proximal (centromeric) cluster encodes the well-studied NKR-P1A and NKR-P1B receptors and the distal cluster, the largely uncharacterized, NKR-P1F and NKR-P1G receptors. The inhibitory NKR-P1G receptor is expressed only by the Ly49s3+ NK cell subset as detected by RT-PCR, while the activating NKR-P1F receptor is detected in both Ly49s3+ and NKR-P1B+ NK cells. The mouse ...

  11. Immunological analysis of potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV) P1 expression identifies a 25 kDa RNA-binding protein derived via P1 processing.

    OpenAIRE

    Prüfer, D; Kawchuk, L; Monecke2, M; Nowok, S; Fischer, R.; Rohde, W

    1999-01-01

    Mono- and polyclonal antibodies directed against different domains of the potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV) P1 (ORF1) protein were applied to the analysis of P1 expression during PLRV replication in planta. Western analyses detected P1 and a protein of approximately 25 kDa (P1-C25) that accumulated to readily detectable amounts in PLRV-infected plants, but was not detected by in vitro cell-free translation of P1. P1-C25 represents the C-terminus of P1 and is a proteolytic cleavage product pro...

  12. Symmetry determination following structure solution in P1

    OpenAIRE

    Palatinus, Lukas; Lee, Arie van der

    2008-01-01

    A new method for space-group determination is described. It is based on a symmetry analysis of the structure-factor phases resulting from a structure solution in space group P1. The output of the symmetry analysis is a list of all symmetry operations compatible with the lattice. Each symmetry operation is assigned a symmetry agreement factor that is used to select the symmetry operations that are the elements of the space group of the structure. On the basis of the list of the selected operat...

  13. Plasmid P1 replication: negative control by repeated DNA sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Chattoraj, D; Cordes, K.; Abeles, A

    1984-01-01

    The incompatibility locus, incA, of the unit-copy plasmid P1 is contained within a fragment that is essentially a set of nine 19-base-pair repeats. One or more copies of the fragment destabilizes the plasmid when present in trans. Here we show that extra copies of incA interfere with plasmid DNA replication and that a deletion of most of incA increases plasmid copy number. Thus, incA is not essential for replication but is required for its control. When cloned in a high-copy-number vector, pi...

  14. Millimetre continuum observations of comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    OpenAIRE

    Boissier, J.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Groussin, O.; Lamy, P.; Biver, N; Crovisier, J; Colom, P.; Moreno, R.; Jorda, L.; Piétu, V.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the physical properties of the nuclei of Oort cloud comets. Measuring the thermal emission of a nucleus is one of the few means for deriving its size and constraining some of its thermal properties. We attempted to measure the nucleus size of the Oort cloud comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd). We used the Plateau de Bure Interferometer to measure the millimetric thermal emission of this comet at 157 GHz (1.9 mm) and 266 GHz (1.1 mm). Whereas the observations at 266 GHz were not us...

  15. Critical role of P1-Runx1 in mouse basophil development

    OpenAIRE

    Mukai, Kaori; BenBarak, Maya J.; Tachibana, Masashi; Nishida, Keigo; Karasuyama, Hajime; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Galli, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Runx1P1N/P1N mice are deficient in the transcription factor distal promoter-derived Runt-related transcription factor 1 (P1-Runx1) and have a > 90% reduction in the numbers of basophils in the BM, spleen, and blood. In contrast, Runx1P1N/P1N mice have normal numbers of the other granulocytes (neutrophils and eosinophils). Although basophils and mast cells share some common features, Runx1P1N/P1N mice have normal numbers of mast cells in multiple tissues. Runx1P1N/P1N mice fail to develop a ba...

  16. Performance Simulation of Cathode Strip Chamber Protype P1.

    CERN Document Server

    Velichko, Georgy

    2000-01-01

    The results of simulation of the P1 prototype performance are presented. The P1 prototype is a full scale six-layers trapezoidal cathode strip chamber module designed for the CMS End Cap Muon System. The module was tested at Fermilab with cosmic rays. In this work, complete simulation from the initial ionization to the final amplitude and time distributions of the signals from the CSC as well as the reconstruction of the track coordinate was performed. The physical parameters of the electron behaviour in the gas mixture ( 27% Ar, 29% CF4, 44% CO2) are taken from the Biagi program with the Townsend coefficient and electrons attachment renormalized to fit the observed gas amplification factor and the spatial resolution dependence on a beam entrance angle. The simulation program has reproduced well the measured parameters of the P0' prototype including the time and spatial resolutions. This consideration showed also that 85% of the initial number of ionization electrons are lost due to attachment to gas mixture ...

  17. Plectin isoform P1b and P1d deficiencies differentially affect mitochondrial morphology and function in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Lilli; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Grimm, Michael; Zeöld, Anikó; Fischer, Irmgard; Wiche, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Plectin, a versatile 500-kDa cytolinker protein, is essential for muscle fiber integrity and function. The most common disease caused by mutations in the human plectin gene, epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD), is characterized by severe skin blistering and progressive muscular dystrophy. Besides displaying pathological desmin-positive protein aggregates and degenerative changes in the myofibrillar apparatus, skeletal muscle specimens of EBS-MD patients and plectin-deficient mice are characterized by massive mitochondrial alterations. In this study, we demonstrate that structural and functional alterations of mitochondria are a primary aftermath of plectin deficiency in muscle, contributing to myofiber degeneration. We found that in skeletal muscle of conditional plectin knockout mice (MCK-Cre/cKO), mitochondrial content was reduced, and mitochondria were aggregated in sarcoplasmic and subsarcolemmal regions and were no longer associated with Z-disks. Additionally, decreased mitochondrial citrate synthase activity, respiratory function and altered adenosine diphosphate kinetics were characteristic of plectin-deficient muscles. To analyze a mechanistic link between plectin deficiency and mitochondrial alterations, we comparatively assessed mitochondrial morphology and function in whole muscle and teased muscle fibers of wild-type, MCK-Cre/cKO and plectin isoform-specific knockout mice that were lacking just one isoform (either P1b or P1d) while expressing all others. Monitoring morphological alterations of mitochondria, an isoform P1b-specific phenotype affecting the mitochondrial fusion–fission machinery and manifesting with upregulated mitochondrial fusion-associated protein mitofusin-2 could be identified. Our results show that the depletion of distinct plectin isoforms affects mitochondrial network organization and function in different ways. PMID:26019234

  18. Sur l'\\'equation $X^2-\\varepsilon_2\\varepsilon_{p_1p_2}\\varepsilon_{2p_1p_2}=0$

    OpenAIRE

    Azizi, Abdelmalek; Zekhnini, Abdelkader; Taous, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Let $p_1\\equiv p_2\\equiv5 \\pmod8$ be prime numbers such that $\\left(\\frac{p_1}{p_2}\\right)=-1$. Let $\\mathbb{L}=Q(\\sqrt2, \\sqrt{p_1p_2})$ Our goal is to resolve the equation $X^2-\\varepsilon_2\\varepsilon_{p_1p_2}\\varepsilon_{2p_1p_2}=0$ in $\\mathbb{L}$, where $\\varepsilon_j$ are fundamental units of real quadratic subfields of $Q(\\sqrt2, \\sqrt{p_1p_2})$.

  19. Redesignation of a Purported P1.15 Subtype-Specific Meningococcal Monoclonal Antibody as a P1.19-Specific Reagent

    OpenAIRE

    Wedege, E.; Caugant, D A; Musacchio, A; Saunders, N. B.; Zollinger, W. D.

    1999-01-01

    Two reference monoclonal antibodies against the meningococcal P1.15 subtype PorA, MN3C5C and 2-1-P1.15, showed only partial concordant recognition of meningococcal isolates. Cyanogen bromide cleavage of P1.19,15 PorA, peptide mapping, and sequencing of porA regions demonstrated that 2-1-P1.15 was specific for subtype P1.19, and henceforth it is to be redesignated as 2-1-P1.19.

  20. Charge-cloud alignment in the electron-impact excitation of 138Ba( . . .6s6p 1P1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have determined charge-cloud alignment parameters Pl+ and γ for electron-impact excitation of the (6s21S0) to (6s6p 1P1) transition in 138Ba by measuring the superelastic scattering of electrons from laser-excited 138Ba. Four electron-impact energies were studied and scattering-angle coverage in each case was sufficient to allow the observation of pronounced structure in the behavior of these parameters. Comparison of our measurements with two distorted-wave theories [R. E. H. Clark, J. Abdallah, Jr., G. Csanak, and S. P. Kramer, Phys. Rev. A 40, 2935 (1989); R. Srivastava, T. Zuo, R. P. McEachran, and A. D. Stauffer, J. Phys. B 25, 3709 (1992)] reveals generally excellent agreement except at the lowest impact energy studied where these theories fail completely to reproduce the observed behavior of Pl+. Our low-impact-energy data have also been compared with a close-coupling calculation [I. I. Fabrikant, Izv. Akad. Nauk Latv. SSR, Ser. Fiz. Tekhn. 6, 11 (1985)] which qualitatively reproduces the observed behavior of Pl+ and γ but fails to give quantitative agreement

  1. Catalytic activity of nuclease P1: Experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclease P1 from Penicillium citrinum is a zinc dependent glyco-enzyme that recognizes single stranded DNA and RNA as substrates and hydrolyzes the phosphate ester bond. Nuclease Pl seems to recognize particular conformations of the phosphodiester backbone and shows significant variation in the rate of hydrolytic activity depending upon which nucleosides are coupled by the phosphodiester bond. The efficiency of nuclease Pl in hydrolyzing the phosphodiester bonds of a substrate can be altered by modifications to one of the substrate bases induced by ionizing radiation or oxidative stress. Measurements have been made of the effect of several radiation induced lesions on the catalytic rate of nuclease Pl. A model of the structure of the enzyme has been constructed in order to better understand the binding and activity of this enzyme on various ssDNA substrates

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  5. Polarimetric studies of Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    CERN Document Server

    Das, H S; Wolf, S; Bertrang, G; Roy, P Deb; Chakraborty, A

    2013-01-01

    We present the optical imaging polarimetric observations of comet C/2009 P1(Garradd) at three different phase angles e.g., 28.2$^\\circ$, 28.1$^\\circ$ and 21.6$^\\circ$. The observations were carried out using IUCAA Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera mounted on Cassegrain focus of the 2-m Telescope of IGO, IUCAA, Pune in R$_{comet}$, R photometric bands, on 21 and 22 March 2012 and ARIES Imaging Polarimeter mounted on Cassegrain focus of the 1.04-m Sampurnanand Telescope of ARIES, Nainital in R photometric band, on 23 May 2012. We show the presence of a jet activity in the rotational gradient treated image of comet Garradd at phase angle 28.1$^\\circ$. These jets are mainly oriented towards the Sun and extended up to $\\sim$ 5100 km from the cometary photocenter. The antisolar extension of jet seems to be fainter, which is extended up to $\\sim$ 1800 km. It is found that the comet Garradd shows negative polarization at phase angle 21.6$^\\circ$. The degree of polarization derived for Garradd is in good agreement ...

  6. Millimetre continuum observations of comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    CERN Document Server

    Boissier, J; Groussin, O; Lamy, P; Biver, N; Crovisier, J; Colom, P; Moreno, R; Jorda, L; Piétu, V

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the physical properties of the nuclei of Oort cloud comets. Measuring the thermal emission of a nucleus is one of the few means for deriving its size and constraining some of its thermal properties. We attempted to measure the nucleus size of the Oort cloud comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd). We used the Plateau de Bure Interferometer to measure the millimetric thermal emission of this comet at 157 GHz (1.9 mm) and 266 GHz (1.1 mm). Whereas the observations at 266 GHz were not usable due to bad atmospheric conditions, we derived a 3-sigma upper limit on the comet continuum emission of 0.41 mJy at 157 GHz. Using a thermal model for a spherical nucleus with standard thermal parameters, we found an upper limit of 5.6 km for the radius. The dust contribution to our signal is estimated to be negligible. Given the water production rates measured for this comet and our upper limit, we estimated that Garradd was very active, with an active fraction of its nucleus larger than 50%.

  7. Evidence for positive regulation of plasmid prophage P1 replication: integrative suppression by copy mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Froehlich, B J; Tatti, K; Scott, J R

    1983-01-01

    Like low-copy-number plasmids including P1 wild type, multicopy P1 mutants (P1 cop, maintained at five to eight copies per chromosome) can suppress the thermosensitive phenotype of an Escherichia coli dnaA host by forming a cointegrate. At 40 degrees C in a dnaA host suppressed by P1 cop, the only copy of P1 is the one in the host chromosome. Trivial explanations of the lack of extrachromosomal copies of P1 cop have been eliminated: (i) during integrative suppression, the P1 cop plasmid does ...

  8. Tame automorphisms of C^3 with multidegree of the form (p_1,p_2,d_3)

    OpenAIRE

    Karaś, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Let d_3 >= p_2 > p_1 >= 3 be integers such that p_1,p_2 are prime numbers. In this paper we show that the sequence (p_1,p_2,d_3) is the multidegree of some tame automorphisms of C^3 if and only if d_3 is in p_1*N+p_2*N, i.e. if and only if d_3 is a linear combination of p_1 and p_2 with coefficients in N.

  9. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P1 receptor by a novel competitive S1P1-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The effect of a newly developed S1P1-selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. ► S1P1 is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. ► S1P1-selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. ► S1P1-selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. ► The efficacy of S1P1-selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P1) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P1 and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P1-selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P1 antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P1 is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  10. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  11. An extremal problem on potentially Kp,1,1-graphic sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chunhui

    2005-01-01

    A sequence S is potentially K_p,1,1 graphical if it has a realization containing a K_p,1,1 as a subgraph, where K_p,1,1 is a complete 3-partite graph with partition sizes p,1,1. Let σ (K_p,1,1, n) denote the smallest degree sum such that every n-term graphical sequence S with σ (S)≥ σ (K_p,1,1, n) is potentially K_p,1,1 graphical. In this paper, we prove that σ (K_p,1,1, n)≥ 2[((p+1)(n-1)+2)/2] for n ≥ p+2. We conjecture that equality holds for n ≥ 2p+4. We prove that this conjecture is true ...

  12. An extremal problem on potentially $K_{p,1,1}$-graphic sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Chunhui Lai

    2004-01-01

    A sequence $S$ is potentially $K_{p,1,1}$ graphical if it has a realization containing a $K_{p,1,1}$ as a subgraph, where $K_{p,1,1}$ is a complete 3-partite graph with partition sizes $p,1,1$. Let $\\sigma(K_{p,1,1}, n)$ denote the smallest degree sum such that every $n$-term graphical sequence $S$ with $\\sigma(S)\\geq \\sigma(K_{p,1,1}, n)$ is potentially $K_{p,1,1}$ graphical. In this paper, we prove that $\\sigma (K_{p,1,1}, n)\\geq 2[((p+1)(n-1)+2)/2]$ for $n \\geq p+2.$ We conjecture that equ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism ...

  14. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Wenxing; Bhatt, Avni [University of Florida, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine (United States); Smith, Adam N. [University of Florida, Department of Chemistry, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (United States); Crowley, Paula J.; Brady, L. Jeannine, E-mail: jbrady@dental.ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry (United States); Long, Joanna R., E-mail: jrlong@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ∼57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin.

  15. Computer program /P1-GAS/ calculates the P-0 and P-1 transfer matrices for neutron moderation in a monatomic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, G.; Gibson, G.

    1968-01-01

    FORTRAN 4 program /P1-GAS/ calculates the P-O and P-1 transfer matrices for neutron moderation in a monatomic gas. The equations used are based on the conditions that there is isotropic scattering in the center-of-mass coordinate system, the scattering cross section is constant, and the target nuclear velocities satisfy a Maxwellian distribution.

  16. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ∼57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin

  17. On the gracefulness of the graphs P1 P4∨Tn%关于图P1 P4∨Tn的优美性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路线

    2014-01-01

    本文研究了一类图P1 P4∨Tn的优美性.利用构造函数标号的方法,证明了下面结论:对于任意正整数n,Tn是n个顶点的优美树,则当n≥2时,P1 P4∨Tn是优美图.其中,P1是1个顶点的平凡图,P4是4个顶点的路,图P1P4∨Tn是把P1之中的顶点与Tn之中的每一个顶点之间都通过一个P4连接起来所得到的.

  18. Prevalence of porcine circovirus-like agent P1 in Jiangsu, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wen Libin; He Kongwang; Yang Hanchun; Yu Zhengyu; Mao Aihua; Zhong Shulin; Ni Yanxiu; Zhang Xuehan; Li Bin; Wang Xiaomin; Zhou Junming; Guo Rongli; Lv Lixin; Jiang Jieyuan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recently, we identified a novel porcine circovirus type 2-like agent P1 isolate from swine. The present study represents the first survey of P1 prevalence in swine herds from Jiangsu, China, by using PCR targeting the complete genome of P1. Prevalences of 50% and 19% were found among 6 herds and 248 animals, respectively. The results indicate a high prevalence of P1 in China pig populations.

  19. Prevalence of porcine circovirus-like agent P1 in Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Libin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, we identified a novel porcine circovirus type 2-like agent P1 isolate from swine. The present study represents the first survey of P1 prevalence in swine herds from Jiangsu, China, by using PCR targeting the complete genome of P1. Prevalences of 50% and 19% were found among 6 herds and 248 animals, respectively. The results indicate a high prevalence of P1 in China pig populations.

  20. An extremal problem on potentially $K_{p_{1},p_{2},...,p_{t}}$-graphic sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chunhui

    2004-01-01

    A sequence $S$ is potentially $K_{p_{1},p_{2},...,p_{t}}$ graphical if it has a realization containing a $K_{p_{1},p_{2},...,p_{t}}$ as a subgraph, where $K_{p_{1},p_{2},...,p_{t}}$ is a complete t-partite graph with partition sizes $p_{1},p_{2},...,p_{t} (p_{1}\\geq p_{2}\\geq ...\\geq p_{t} \\geq 1)$. Let $\\sigma(K_{p_{1},p_{2},...,p_{t}}, n)$ denote the smallest degree sum such that every $n$-term graphical sequence $S$ with $\\sigma(S)\\geq \\sigma(K_{p_{1},p_{2},...,p_{t}}, n)$ is potentially $...

  1. The Moduli of Flat U(p,1) Structures on Riemann Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Eugene Z.

    1999-01-01

    For a compact Riemann surface $X$ of genus $g > 1$, $\\Hom(\\pi_1(X), U(p,1))/U(p,1)$ is the moduli space of flat $\\U(p,1)$-connections on $X$. There is an integer invariant, $\\tau$, the Toledo invariant associated with each element in $\\Hom(\\pi_1(X), U(p,1))/U(p,1)$. If $q = 1$, then $-2(g-1) \\le \\tau \\le 2(g-1)$. This paper shows that $\\Hom(\\pi_1(X), U(p,1))/U(p,1)$ has one connected component corresponding to each $\\tau \\in 2Z$ with $-2(g-1) \\le \\tau \\le 2(g-1)$. Therefore the total number o...

  2. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, or ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are metastatic, ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  4. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  5. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ravi kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalograph y (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain

  6. Gauge groups and matter fields for F-theory without Section on Double Covers of $\\mathbb{P}^1\\times\\mathbb{P}^1$ and Complete Intersections in $\\mathbb{P}^1\\times\\mathbb{P}^3$

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate F-theory compactifications without a section to the fibration. We construct genus-one fibered Calabi-Yau 4-folds without a section, and compactify F-theory on these spaces. To build such models, we in particular focus our attention on the direct product of K3's. We consider i)a double cover of $\\mathbb{P}^1\\times\\mathbb{P}^1$ ramified over a bidegree (4,4) curve, and ii)the complete intersection of bidgree (1,2) and (1,2) hypersurfaces in $\\mathbb{P}^1\\times\\mathbb{P}^3$. A generic member of these surfaces is a genus-one fibered K3 surface lacking a section to the fibration. The direct product of such surface times a K3 gives a genus-one fibered Calabi-Yau 4-fold without a section. Among double covers of $\\mathbb{P}^1\\times\\mathbb{P}^1$ ramified over a bidegree (4,4) curve, we choose to consider members defined by special forms of equations, possessing automorphism group $\\mathbb{Z}_4$. With this choice, a detailed analysis of physics is possible from the geometry. With the above...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the ... distant nerve cells (via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... others live with symptoms of mental illness every day. They can be moderate, or serious and cause ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... helps Sarah to better cope with her feelings. Brain Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists ... the treatment for a person's specific conditions. Such brain research help increase the understanding of how the brain ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  13. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ... grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... understanding of the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  18. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  19. Relativistic calculations of 3s21S0-3s3p 1P1 and 3s21S0-3s3p 3P1,2 transition probabilities in the Mg isoelectronic sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the multi-configuration Dirac—Fock self-consistent field method and the relativistic configuration-interaction method, calculations of transition energies, oscillator strengths and rates are performed for the 3s21S0-3s3p 1P1 spin-allowed transition, 3s21S0-3s3p 3P1,2 intercombination and magnetic quadrupole transition in the Mg isoelectronic sequence (Mg I, Al II, Si III, P IV and S V). Electron correlations are treated adequately, including intravalence electron correlations. The influence of the Breit interaction on oscillator strengths and transition energies are investigated. Quantum electrodynamics corrections are added as corrections. The calculation results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data and other theoretical calculations. (atomic and molecular physics)

  20. Brain mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Blaž Koritnik

    2004-01-01

    Cartography of the brain ("brain mapping") aims to represent the complexities of the working brain in an understandable and usable way. There are four crucial steps in brain mapping: (1) acquiring data about brain structure and function, (2) transformation of data into a common reference, (3) visualization and interpretation of results, and (4) databasing and archiving. Electrophysiological and functional imaging methods provide information about function of the human brain. A prere...

  1. Possible origin of sequence divergence in the P1 cytadhesin gene of Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Su, C J; Dallo, S F; Chavoya, A; Baseman, J B

    1993-01-01

    Specific regions of the P1 adhesin structural gene of Mycoplasma pneumoniae hybridize to various parts of the mycoplasma genome, indicating their multiple-copy nature. In addition, restriction fragment length polymorphisms and sequence divergence have been observed in the P1 gene, permitting the classification of clinical isolates of M. pneumoniae into two groups, I and II. These data suggest that the observed P1 gene diversity may be explained by homologous recombination between similar but ...

  2. Emergence of a new satellite RNA from cucumber mosaic virus isolate P1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolate P1 caused very mild symptoms on many plant species. After serial passages by mechanical inoculation over five years, CMV P1 caused severe symptoms on several tobacco cultivars and tomato. A specific band of approximately 0.3 kb in length was amplified by RT-PCR with primers synthesized based on reported CMV satellite RNA (satRNA) sequences. Sequence analysis showed there were two satRNAs (Sat-P1-1 and Sat-P1-2). Sat-P1-1 contained 335 nucleotides, and Sat-P1-2 contained 394 nucleotides. These two satRNAs shared 64% overall nucleotide sequence homology, and differences between the two satRNAs included mutations as well as deletions. Sat-P1-1 was identical to a satRNA (Z96099) reported in 1995 in CMV P1. Based on differences in the sequence and secondary structure between these two satRNAs, we conclude that Sat-P1-2 represents the emergence of a new satellite (necrotic satellite) from attenuated satRNA populations. The possible effect of the emergence of this new satRNA is discussed.

  3. On the equation $p \\frac{\\Gamma(\\frac{n}{2}-\\frac{s}{p-1})\\Gamma(s+\\frac{s}{p-1})}{\\Gamma(\\frac{s}{p-1})\\Gamma(\\frac{n-2s}{2}-\\frac{s}{p-1})} =\\frac{\\Gamma(\\frac{n+2s}{4})^2}{\\Gamma(\\frac{n-2s}{4})^2}$

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Senping; Wei, Juncheng; Zou, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    The note is aimed at giving a complete characterization of the following equation: $$\\displaystyle p\\frac{\\Gamma(\\frac{n}{2}-\\frac{s}{p-1})\\Gamma(s+\\frac{s}{p-1})}{\\Gamma(\\frac{s}{p-1})\\Gamma(\\frac{n-2s}{2}-\\frac{s}{p-1})} =\\frac{\\Gamma(\\frac{n+2s}{4})^2}{\\Gamma(\\frac{n-2s}{4})^2}.$$ The method is based on some key transformation and the properties of the Gamma function. Applications to fractional nonlinear Lane-Emden equations will be given.

  4. Inorganic polyphosphate essential for lytic growth of phages P1 and fd

    OpenAIRE

    LI Li; Rao, Narayana N.; Kornberg, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Transduction frequency with phage P1 had been observed to be very low in Escherichia coli K-12 mutants lacking the operon (ppk1-ppx) responsible for the synthesis of inorganic polyphosphate (poly P). We now find that these mutants, for lack of poly P, are lysogenic for P1 and when infected with phage P1 produce only ≈1% the number of infective centers compared with the WT host. Both phage adsorption and release were unaffected. The host-encoded P1 late-gene transcriptional activator, SspA, fa...

  5. Spatiotemporal distribution of 1P1 antigen expression in the plexiform layers of developing chick retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHOUHUA; QIUBAOSONG; 等

    1993-01-01

    Changes in the distribution of 1P1-antigen in the developing chick retina have been examined by indriect immunofluorescence staining technique using the novel monoclonal antibody(MAb)1P1.Expression of the 1P1 antigen was found to be regulated in radial as well as in tangential dimension of the retina,being preferentially or exclusively located in the inner and outer plexiform layers of the neural retina depending on the stages of development ,With the onset of the formation of the inner plexiform layer 1P1 antigen becomes expressed in the retina.With progressing differentiation of the inner plexiform layer 1P1 immunofluorescence revealed 2 subbands at E9 and 6 subands at E18,At postnatal stages(after P3) immunoreactivity was reduced in an inside-outside sequence leading to the complete absence of the 1P1 antigen in adulthood.1P1 antigen expression in the outer plexiform layer was also subject to developmental regulation.The spation-temporal pattern of 1P1 antigen expression was correlated with the time course of histological differentation of chick retina,namely the synapse rich plexiform layers.Whether the 1P1 antigen was functionally involved in dendrite extension and synapse formation was discussed.

  6. Expression and tissue localization of collectin placenta 1 (CL-P1, SRCL) in human tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellman, Lana; Skjødt, Karsten; Nielsen, Ole;

    2008-01-01

    proposed that CL-P1 plays a role in the host defense system and in the clearance of glycoproteins from the blood. With the aims of determining the detailed tissue expression of human CL-P1 we expressed CL-P1 recombinantly in both E. coli and CHO cells, and raised monoclonal antibodies against human CL-P1....... Three monoclonal antibodies were characterized and used in immunohistochemical analyses of a panel of cryo- and formalin-fixed sections. We find that CL-P1 mainly associates with cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts of the placenta, alveolar macrophages and to a less degree with macrophage-like and...... express both the CL-P1 mRNA and show anti-CL-P1 immunoreactivity but CL-P1 locates mainly to the cytosol and not to the membrane of these cells. We conclude that CL-P1 is not a common membrane protein on endothelial cells found in normal tissues under steady state conditions....

  7. Delayed emission of 2p-1s and 3p-1s X-rays from 40 MeV neon ions ionized in a thin carbon foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previous study of the He- and H-like lines of 40 MeV Ne projectiles excited by a thin carbon foil showed that the x-ray spectrum contains only He-like and H-like lines and that the intensities of these lines are sufficient to employ a high resolution curved crystal spectrometer to study the decay curves for individual transitions. Presented are Ne K x-ray spectra excited by passing a beam of 40 MeV ions through a 50 μg/cm2 carbon foil. They were taken at 0, 2.3, and 9.1 mm behind the foil and are normalized to the same total integrated charge in the carbon foil. The 1s2p(23P1)-1s2(11S0) transition is a spin-forbidden, metastable, intercombination line and has a lifetime of 1.85 x 10-10 sec8, whereas the He-like 1s2p(1P)-1s2(1S), H-like 2p(2P)-1s(2S), and H-like 3p(2P)-1s(2s) transitions are dipole-allowed with lifetimes of 1.13 x 10-13 sec8, 1.59 x 10-13 sec9, and 5.98 x 10-13 sec 10, respectively. It is apparent that even at 1 cm (i.e. 0.5 ns) behind the foil, considerable intensity is still detected for the short lifetime transitions indicating that electrons are cascading from very high n levels. Previous measurements and calculations have shown that the decay curves can be described by a power law of the form I = ct/sup -b/, where c and b are constants for a given line. It has been found that b depends on the initial n,l distribution. The measured decay curves for the delayed He-Like 1s2p(1P)-1s2(1S), H-like 2p-1s and H-like 3p-1s transitions are shown fitted to this power law

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. ... rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists a more detailed understanding of the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  12. Brain mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Koritnik

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Cartography of the brain ("brain mapping" aims to represent the complexities of the working brain in an understandable and usable way. There are four crucial steps in brain mapping: (1 acquiring data about brain structure and function, (2 transformation of data into a common reference, (3 visualization and interpretation of results, and (4 databasing and archiving. Electrophysiological and functional imaging methods provide information about function of the human brain. A prerequisite for multisubject, multidimensional and multimodal mapping is transformation of individual images to match a standard brain template. To produce brain maps, color, contours, and other visual cues are used to differentiate metabolic rates, electrical field potentials, receptor densities, and other attributes of structure or function. Databases are used to organize and archive data records. By relating the maps to cognitive functions and psychological models, brain mapping offers a prerequisite for the understanding of organizational principles of the human brain.

  13. Including an Exam P/1 Prep Course in a Growing Actuarial Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the actuarial science program at our university and the development of a course to enhance students' problem solving skills while preparing them for Exam P/1 of the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuary Society (CAS). The Exam P/1 prep course, formally titled Mathematical Foundations of…

  14. A Study of Perkins 2P1 Graduation Performance Rates at Virginia Western Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, J. Andrew.

    2006-01-01

    "2P1" is the Carl Perkins label for an institution's graduation performance rate. Systems receiving Perkins funds, like Virginia's 23 community colleges, are expected to meet a federally approved 2P1 target rate. For the 3-year period 1999-2001 Virginia Western Community College (VWCC) was one of seven community colleges in the VCCS (Virginia…

  15. A genome-wide regulatory framework identifies maize Pericarp Color1 (P1) controlled genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    P1 encodes an R2R3-MYB transcription factor responsible for the accumulation of insecticidal flavones in maize silks and red phlobaphene pigments in pericarps and other floral tissues. Using genome-wide expression analyses (RNA-Seq) in pericarps and silks of plants with contrasting P1 alleles combin...

  16. A note on non-amenability of B(\\ell_p) for p=1,2

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Narutaka

    2004-01-01

    This is an expository note on non-amenabilty of the Banach algebra B(\\ell_p) for p=1,2. These were proved respectively by Connes (p=2) and Read (p=1) via very different methods. We give a single proof which reproves both.

  17. [Expression of cecropin P1 gene increases resistance of Camelina sativa (L.) plants to microbial phytopathogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, N S; Kaliaeva, M A; Bur'ianov, Ia I

    2013-05-01

    Transgenic plants of camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) with the synthetic gene of antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 (cecP1) were obtained. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is performed using the binary vector pGA482::cecP1 by vacuum infiltration of flower buds. The presence of the cecP1 gene in the genome of plants was confirmed by PCR. cecP1 gene expression in transgenic plants was shown by Western blot analysis and by antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against the bacterial phytopathogene Erwinia carotovora. The plants of F0 and F1 generations had the normal phenotype and retained the ability to form viable seeds in self-pollination. cecP1 plants exhibit enhanced resistance to bacterial and fungal phytopathogens: Erwinia carotovora and Fusarium sporotrichioides. The increased sustainability of cecropin P1-expressing plants against salt stress is shown. The possibility of the integration of the cecP1 gene into the overall protective system of plants against biotic and abiotic stresses is discussed. PMID:24159802

  18. On Room-Temperature Inversion of EPR Signals of P1 Centre in Synthetic Diamond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. G. Fedoruk; O. N. Poklonskaya

    2009-01-01

    Room-temperature inversion of EPR absorption signals of P1 centre in synthetic diamond is studied by the tran-sient nutation technique. Use of the bichromatic field, consisting of a transverse microwave field and longitudinal radio frequency field, allows to investigate the dynamics of P1 centres in the same field configuration as in cw EPR spectrometers. It is shown that the annealing decreases the P1 centre concentration and, respectively, increases the spin-spin relaxation time. As a result, the periodic inversion (nutation) of the P1 centre absorption signal is observed longer. It is assumed that the P1 centre signal inversion, which was previously observed by cw EPR, might be caused by the Bloch-Siegert effect in the biehromatic field.

  19. On Room-Temperature Inversion of EPR Signals of P1 Centre in Synthetic Diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Room-temperature inversion of EPR absorption signals of P1 centre in synthetic diamond is studied by the transient nutation technique. Use of the bichromatic field, consisting of a transverse microwave field and longitudinal radio frequency field, allows to investigate the dynamics of P1 centres in the same field configuration as in cw EPR spectrometers. It is shown that the annealing decreases the P1 centre concentration and, respectively, increases the spin-spin relaxation time. As a result, the periodic inversion (nutation) of the P1 centre absorption signal is observed longer. It is assumed that the P1 centre signal inversion, which was previously observed by cw EPR, might be caused by the Bloch–Siegert effect in the bichromatic field

  20. Heterologous production, purification and characterization of enzymatically active Sindbis virus nonstructural protein nsP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Shailly; Narwal, Manju; Harms, Etti; Smith, Janet L; Kuhn, Richard J

    2011-10-01

    Alphavirus nonstructural protein nsP1 possesses distinct methyltransferase (MTase) and guanylyltransferase (GTase) activities involved in the capping of viral RNAs. In alphaviruses, the methylation of GTP occurs before RNA transguanylation and nsP1 forms a covalent complex with m(7)GMP unlike the host mRNA guanylyltransferase which forms GMP-enzyme complex. In this study, full length SINV nsP1 was expressed in a soluble form with an N-terminal histidine tag in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein is enzymatically active and contains both MTase and GTase activity indicating that SINV nsP1 does not require membrane association for its enzymatic function. Biochemical analysis shows that detergents abolish nsP1 GTase activity, whereas nonionic detergents do not affect MTase activity. Furthermore, SINV nsP1 contains the metal-ion dependent GTase, whereas MTase does not require a metal ion. Circular dichroism spectroscopic analysis of purified protein indicate that nsP1 has a mixed α/β structure and is in the folded native conformation. PMID:21693190

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Pepper Genes Interacting with the CMV-P1 Helicase Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoomi Choi

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is a destructive pathogen affecting Capsicum annuum (pepper production. The pepper Cmr1 gene confers resistance to most CMV strains, but is overcome by CMV-P1 in a process dependent on the CMV-P1 RNA1 helicase domain (P1 helicase. Here, to identify host factors involved in CMV-P1 infection in pepper, a yeast two-hybrid library derived from a C. annuum 'Bukang' cDNA library was screened, producing a total of 76 potential clones interacting with the P1 helicase. Beta-galactosidase filter lift assay, PCR screening, and sequencing analysis narrowed the candidates to 10 genes putatively involved in virus infection. The candidate host genes were silenced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were then inoculated with CMV-P1 tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP. Plants silenced for seven of the genes showed development comparable to N. benthamiana wild type, whereas plants silenced for the other three genes showed developmental defects including stunting and severe distortion. Silencing formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor led to reduced virus accumulation. Formate dehydrogenase-silenced plants showed local infection in inoculated leaves, but not in upper (systemic leaves. In the calreticulin-3 precursor-silenced plants, infection was not observed in either the inoculated or the upper leaves. Our results demonstrate that formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor are required for CMV-P1 infection.

  2. STS-113 P1 Truss payload arrives at Launch Complex 39A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At Launch Complex 39A, the P1 Truss Segment arrives at the pad for transfer into the Payload Changeout Room. The P1 truss is the primary payload for Mission STS-113 to the International Space Station. It is the first port truss segment which will be attached to the Station'''s central truss segment, S0. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1. The mission will also deliver the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return Expedition 5 to Earth. Space Shuttle Endeavour is scheduled to launch no earlier than Nov. 10 on the 11-day mission.

  3. Studies on the genetic basis of Pk, P and P1 blood group antigen expression

    OpenAIRE

    Hellberg, Åsa

    2007-01-01

    The clinically important carbohydrate P/GLOB blood group systems and collection give rise to both common (P1, P2) and rare (p, P1k, P2k) blood group phenotypes. The associated antibodies are implicated in severe transfusion reactions and recurrent spontaneous abortions. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular genetic basis of Pk, P and P1 antigen expression. Sequence analysis of the A4GALT and B3GALNT1 genes proposed to synthesize the related Pk (Gb3) and P (Gb4) antigens, r...

  4. Solutions of system of P1 equations without use of auxiliary differential equations coupled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of P1 equations is composed by two equations coupled itself one for the neutron flux and other for the current. Usually this system is solved by definitions of two integrals parameters, which are named slowing down densities of the flux and the current. Hence, the system P1 can be change from integral to only two differential equations. However, there are two new differentials equations that may be solved with the initial system. The present work analyzes this procedure and studies a method, which solve the P1 equations directly, without definitions of slowing down densities. (author)

  5. A Novel Porcine Circovirus-Like Agent P1 Is Associated with Wasting Syndromes in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Libin; He, KongWang; Xiao, Qi; Yu, Zhengyu; Mao, Aihua; Ni, Yanxiu; Zhang, Xuehan; Li, Bin; Wang, Xiaomin; Guo, Rongli; Zhou, JunMing; Lv, LiXin; Jiang, Jieyuan

    2012-01-01

    A novel porcine pathogen tentatively named P1, which was obtained from the sera of the pigs exhibiting clinical signs of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) experimentally caused the classical clinic signs and pathologic lesions of the disease in pigs by direct in vivo injection with P1 DNA plasmids. Twenty colostrum-fed (CF) pigs that were free of PCV2 and P1 at 1 month of age were randomly designated equally to two groups. Group 1 pigs were each injected with 400 µg of the clo...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

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    Full Text Available ... Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells ... A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The ...

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    Full Text Available ... brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the ... mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons ...

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    Full Text Available ... medical professionals who can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists or clinical social workers. The psychiatrist asked Sarah ... important research tool in understanding how the brain functions. Another type of brain scan called magnetoencephalography, or ...

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    Full Text Available ... normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you ... of DNA. Sometimes this copying process is imperfect, leading to a gene mutation that causes the gene ...

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    Full Text Available ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

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    Full Text Available ... problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play a role in ... obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons working together form a ...

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    Full Text Available ... medications could reduce the amount of trial and error and frustration that many people with depression experience ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain ...

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How ... cell, and responds to signals from the environment; this all helps the cell maintain its balance with ...

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    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... However, recent research points to a possible new class of antidepressants that can relieve symptoms of the ...

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    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ... depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies Advanced technologies are also making it faster, easier, and more ...

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    Full Text Available ... have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain ... studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow ...

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    Full Text Available ... body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  3. Brain Diseases

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    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

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    Full Text Available ... speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's early 20s. Knowing how the brain is wired ... in Parkinson's disease, a disorder that affects a person's ability to move as they want to, resulting ...

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    Full Text Available ... of brain scan called magnetoencephalography, or MEG, can capture split-second changes in the brain. Using MEG, ... The study of how environmental factors like diet, stress and post-natal care can change gene expression ( ...

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    Full Text Available ... neurons, the most highly specialized cells of all, conduct messages. Every cell in our bodies contains a ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

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  20. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons make connections with each other and with distant nerve cells (via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues ...

  2. Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S0 - 4p1P1 x-ray laser line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measure the wavelengths of the Ni-like 3d94d1S0 - 3d94p1P1 x-ray laser line in several low-Z Ni-like ions ranging from Y (Z=39) to Cd (Z=48). These wavelengths are compared with optimized level calculations using a multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock code. With the help of these results, we identify this line to very high accuracy in nonlasing plasmas from As (Z=33) to Mo (Z=42). Accurate values of these wavelengths are essential for performing plasma imaging and interferometry experiments with multilayer optics that use the x-ray laser to backlight other plasmas. These results also provide important atomic data that are currently missing about the energy of the 4d1S0 level in the NiI sequence. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  3. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number FFS P1a

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 51meter transect line at Underwater Site P1A off French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern...

  4. CASCADIC MULTIGRID METHOD FOR THE MORTAR ELEMENT METHOD FOR P1 NONCONFORMING ELEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-jia Bi; Dan-hui Hong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the cascadic multigrid method for the mortar P1 nonconforming element which is used to solve the Poisson equation and prove that the cascadic conjugate gradient method is accurate with optimal complexity.

  5. A blowdown analysis on LPWR LOCA by ALARM-P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented in this report is the results of an LPWR LOCA blowdown analysis by the ALARM-P1 and their comparisons with the RELAP4-EM. Up to the present, the ALARM-P1 code has been improved and refined by solving a various type of calculational exercises given as the CSNI Standard Problems. As a result, confidence of the analytical models in it was proved to be sufficient through the international comparison. Based on such experiences accumulated, therefore, the analysis of a typical PWR plant was attempted here. The results of two codes agreed fairly well, thus showing that the ALARM-P1 could be applicable to actual power plants. With the capabilities as successfully demonstrated herein, this report concludes the development work of the ALARM-P1. (author)

  6. Noble-gas broadening rates for the 6s2S0→6s6p 1,3P1 resonance and intercombination lines of barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collisional-broadening and -shift rate coefficients (kbr and kshift), for both helium and argon buffer gases, have been measured in the impact limit for the 6s21S0→6s6p 3P1 intercombination transition of barium. Detailed absorption line shapes were measured at three different ground-state number densities by monitoring the transmitted intensity of a weak cw probe laser as it was scanned over the transition. A single, density-independent line shape was then constructed and fit to a sum of Voigt functions (to account for hyperfine structure and isotope shifts) in order to determine the broadening and shift rates. By repeating the process for several buffer-gas pressures, kbr and kshift were determined from least-squares straight-line fits to the broadening and shift rates versus buffer-gas number density. Absolute normalization of the line-shape data was used to provide accurate ground-state column densities. Column-density information was then combined with measurements of white-light-absorption equivalent widths for the 6s21S0→6s6p 1P1 resonance transition to yield broadening rates for that transition. These values for the resonance line lie between previous literature values, which are widely discrepant. Finally we measured the absolute metastable 6s5d 3D2 column density under conditions of optical pumping through the 3P1 level, and determined that, in steady state, even with a weak cw pump laser, ∼20% of all barium atoms in the vapor could be found in the 3D2 level (with approximately 60% spread over the full 3DJ metastable manifold)

  7. Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2004-01-01

    As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

  8. Construction of DNA Vaccine for FMDV P1 Gene and Immunization Experiment%FMDV P1基因DNA疫苗构建及免疫实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史秋梅; 高桂生; 张艳英; 高光平; 张东林

    2013-01-01

    [目的]构建口蹄疫DNA疫苗[方法]构建以PRV为载体的表达FMDV P1基因的质粒pIESZP1和pUTK3CP1,免疫小鼠并检测了免疫后小鼠的抗体水平.将构建的2个真核表达质粒分别转染Vero细胞,通过PCR、IFA、Western-blot等方法检测目的基因的转录和表达.将正确表达目的基因的DNA质粒肌肉接种3周龄的Balb/C小鼠,采用ELISA和SN方法检测了免疫小鼠体内的抗体水平.[结果]携带有FMDV衣壳蛋白P1基因的DNA质粒能引起小鼠产生特异性的体液免疫反应,两重组质粒诱导小鼠产生抗FMDV的抗体水平无差异.[结论]该研究为含有FMDV P1基因重组PRV以及重组病毒的动物免疫试验以评价基因工程疫苗的免疫效果奠定了基础.

  9. Participation of the lytic replicon in bacteriophage P1 plasmid maintenance.

    OpenAIRE

    Yarmolinsky, M B; Hansen, E B; Jafri, S; Chattoraj, D K

    1989-01-01

    P1 bacteriophage carries at least two replicons: a plasmid replicon and a viral lytic replicon. Since the isolated plasmid replicon can maintain itself stably at the low copy number characteristic of intact P1 prophage, it has been assumed that this replicon is responsible for driving prophage replication. We provide evidence that when replication from the plasmid replicon is prevented, prophage replication continues, albeit at a reduced rate. The residual plasmid replication is due to incomp...

  10. STS-113 Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria looks over the P1 Truss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria looks over the P1 Integrated Truss Structure, the primary payload for the mission. The P1 truss will be attached to the central truss segment, S0 Truss, during spacewalks. The payload also includes the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B that can be used by spacewalkers to move along the truss with equipment. STS-113 is scheduled to launch Oct. 6, 2002.

  11. STS-113 Mission Specialists review data on the P1 Truss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Specialists John Herrington (left) and Michael Lopez-Alegria (right) look over the P1 Integrated Truss Structure, the primary payload for the mission. The P1 truss will be attached to the central truss segment, S0 Truss, during spacewalks. The payload also includes the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B that can be used by spacewalkers to move along the truss with equipment. STS-113 is scheduled to launch Oct. 6, 2002

  12. (p + 1)-Algebra for a super p-brane: the Nambu bracket reformulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We express the covariant actions of a super p-brane and the corresponding equations of motion, in flat and curved superspaces, in terms of the Nambu (p + 1)-brackets. These brackets make the (p + 1)-algebra structure of a super p-brane manifest. For the flat superspace, this reconstruction of the action also allows reformulating it in terms of two sets of differential forms.

  13. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae adhesin (P1) in the nonhemadsorbing population of virulent Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Kahane, I; Tucker, S.; Baseman, J B

    1985-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae organisms possessing a hemadsorbing-negative (HA-) phenotype comprise more than 50% of the population of virulent M. pneumoniae cultures. Monoclonal antibody to P1, the major adhesin of M. pneumoniae reacts with this HA- mycoplasma fraction based upon radioimmunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. Demonstration of P1 in the entire mycoplasma population suggests that topological organization of this adhesin in the membrane or the physiological state of the mycoplasmas may d...

  14. Electrophysiological subtypes of inhibitory P1 purinoceptors on myenteric neurones of guinea-pig small bowel.

    OpenAIRE

    Christofi, F L; Wood, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    1. Conventional intracellular microelectrode techniques were used to subclassify P1 purinoceptors linked to reduction of cell input resistance, steady-state hyperpolarization of the membrane potential, or inhibition of fast e.p.s.ps, in neurones of microdissected myenteric plexus preparations from guinea-pig ileum. The potencies of P1 purinoceptor agonists were estimated in neurones that were current clamped to a fixed membrane potential. 2. In AH/Type 2 neurones, the A2 agonist, CGS 21680, t...

  15. Emergence of a new satellite RNA from cucumber mosaic virus isolate P1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SandraPérezAlvarez; 薛朝阳; 周雪平

    2003-01-01

    The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolate P1 caused very mild symptoms on many plant species.After serial passages by mechanical inoculation over five years, CMV P1 caused severe symptoms on several tobacco cultivars and tomato. A specific band of approximately 0.3 kb in length was amplified by RT-PCR with primers synthesized based on reported CMV satellite RNA (satRNA) sequences. Sequence analysis showed there were two satRNAs (Sat-Pl-1 and Sat-P1-2). Sat-Pl-1 contained 335 nucleotides, and Sat-P1-2 contained 394 nucleotides. These two satRNAs shared 64% overall nucleotide sequence homology, and differences between the two satRNAs included mutations as well as deletions. Sat-Pl-1 was identical to a satRNA (Z96099) reported in 1995 in CMV P1. Based on differences in the sequence and secondary structure between these two satRNAs, we conclude that Sat-P1-2 represents the emergence of a new satellite ( necrotic satellite) from attenuated satRNA populations. The possible effect of the emergence of this new satRNA is discussed.

  16. Phylogenetic and functional analysis of the bacteriophage P1 single-stranded DNA-binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jannick Dyrløv; Nilsson, A.S.; Lehnherr, H.

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriophage P1 encodes a single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB-P1), which shows 66% amino acid sequence identity to the SSB protein of the host bacterium Escherichia coli. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that the P1 ssb gene coexists with its E. coli counterpart as an independent unit and...... does not represent a recent acquirement of the phage. The P1 and E. coli SSB proteins are fully functionally interchangeable. SSB-P1 is nonessential for phage growth in an exponentially growing E. coli host, and it is sufficient to promote bacterial growth in the absence of the E. coli SSB protein....... Expression studies showed that the P1 ssb gene is transcribed only, in an rpoS-independent fashion, during stationary-phase growth in E. coli. Mixed infection experiments demonstrated that a wild-type phage has a selective advantage over an ssb-null mutant when exposed to a bacterial host in the stationary...

  17. Differential coexpression of FoxP1, FoxP2, and FoxP4 in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) song system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Ezequiel; Tokarev, Kirill; Düring, Daniel N; Retamosa, Eva Camarillo; Weiss, Michael; Arpenik, Nshdejan; Scharff, Constance

    2015-06-15

    Heterozygous disruptions of the Forkhead transcription factor FoxP2 impair acquisition of speech and language. Experimental downregulation in brain region Area X of the avian ortholog FoxP2 disrupts song learning in juvenile male zebra finches. In vitro, transcriptional activity of FoxP2 requires dimerization with itself or with paralogs FoxP1 and FoxP4. Whether this is the case in vivo is unknown. To provide the means for future functional studies we cloned FoxP4 from zebra finches and compared regional and cellular coexpression of FoxP1, FoxP2, and FoxP4 mRNA and protein in brains of juvenile and adult male zebra finches. In the telencephalic song nuclei HVC, RA, and Area X, the three investigated FoxPs were either expressed alone or occurred in specific combinations with each other, as shown by double in situ hybridization and triple immunohistochemistry. FoxP1 and FoxP4 but not FoxP2 were expressed in RA and in the HVCRA and HVCX projection neurons. In Area X and the surrounding striatum the density of neurons expressing all three FoxPs together or FoxP1 and FoxP4 together was significantly higher than the density of neurons expressing other combinations. Interestingly, the proportions of Area X neurons expressing particular combinations of FoxPs remained constant at all ages. In addition, FoxP-expressing neurons in adult Area X express dopamine receptors 1A, 1B, and 2. Together, these data provide the first evidence that Area X neurons can coexpress all avian FoxP subfamily members, thus allowing for a variety of regulatory possibilities via heterodimerization that could impact song behavior in zebra finches. PMID:25556631

  18. Assembly and proteolytic processing of mycobacterial ClpP1 and ClpP2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benaroudj Nadia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caseinolytic proteases (ClpPs are barrel-shaped self-compartmentalized peptidases involved in eliminating damaged or short-lived regulatory proteins. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB genome contains two genes coding for putative ClpPs, ClpP1 and ClpP2 respectively, that are likely to play a role in the virulence of the bacterium. Results We report the first biochemical characterization of ClpP1 and ClpP2 peptidases from MTB. Both proteins were produced and purified in Escherichia coli. Use of fluorogenic model peptides of diverse specificities failed to show peptidase activity with recombinant mycobacterial ClpP1 or ClpP2. However, we found that ClpP1 had a proteolytic activity responsible for its own cleavage after the Arg8 residue and cleavage of ClpP2 after the Ala12 residue. In addition, we showed that the absence of any peptidase activity toward model peptides was not due to an obstruction of the entry pore by the N-terminal flexible extremity of the proteins, nor to an absolute requirement for the ClpX or ClpC ATPase complex. Finally, we also found that removing the putative propeptides of ClpP1 and ClpP2 did not result in cleavage of model peptides. We have also shown that recombinant ClpP1 and ClpP2 do not assemble in the conventional functional tetradecameric form but in lower order oligomeric species ranging from monomers to heptamers. The concomitant presence of both ClpP1 and ClpP2 did not result in tetradecameric assembly. Deleting the amino-terminal extremity of ClpP1 and ClpP2 (the putative propeptide or entry gate promoted the assembly in higher order oligomeric species, suggesting that the flexible N-terminal extremity of mycobacterial ClpPs participated in the destabilization of interaction between heptamers. Conclusion Despite the conservation of a Ser protease catalytic triad in their primary sequences, mycobacterial ClpP1 and ClpP2 do not have conventional peptidase activity toward peptide models and

  19. p=-1的Hardy型不等式的最佳常数%The Best Constants of Hardy Type Inequalities for P=-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文家金; 高朝邦

    2008-01-01

    For p>1,many improved or generalized results of the well-known Hardy's inequality have been established.In this paper,by means of the weight coefficient method,we establish the following Hardy type inequality for P=-1:n∑i=1(1/ii∑j=1aj)-1<2n∑i=1(1-π2-9/3i)ai-1,Cn such that the inequality ∑ni=1(1/i∑ij=1 aj)-1≤Cn∑ni=1ai-1 holds.Moreover,by means of the Mathematica software,we give some examples.

  20. P1 Ref Endonuclease: A Molecular Mechanism for Phage-Enhanced Antibiotic Lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronayne, Erin A; Wan, Y C Serena; Boudreau, Beth A; Landick, Robert; Cox, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Ref is an HNH superfamily endonuclease that only cleaves DNA to which RecA protein is bound. The enigmatic physiological function of this unusual enzyme is defined here. Lysogenization by bacteriophage P1 renders E. coli more sensitive to the DNA-damaging antibiotic ciprofloxacin, an example of a phenomenon termed phage-antibiotic synergy (PAS). The complementary effect of phage P1 is uniquely traced to the P1-encoded gene ref. Ref is a P1 function that amplifies the lytic cycle under conditions when the bacterial SOS response is induced due to DNA damage. The effect of Ref is multifaceted. DNA binding by Ref interferes with normal DNA metabolism, and the nuclease activity of Ref enhances genome degradation. Ref also inhibits cell division independently of the SOS response. Ref gene expression is toxic to E. coli in the absence of other P1 functions, both alone and in combination with antibiotics. The RecA proteins of human pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus serve as cofactors for Ref-mediated DNA cleavage. Ref is especially toxic during the bacterial SOS response and the limited growth of stationary phase cultures, targeting aspects of bacterial physiology that are closely associated with the development of bacterial pathogen persistence. PMID:26765929

  1. P1 Ref Endonuclease: A Molecular Mechanism for Phage-Enhanced Antibiotic Lethality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A Ronayne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ref is an HNH superfamily endonuclease that only cleaves DNA to which RecA protein is bound. The enigmatic physiological function of this unusual enzyme is defined here. Lysogenization by bacteriophage P1 renders E. coli more sensitive to the DNA-damaging antibiotic ciprofloxacin, an example of a phenomenon termed phage-antibiotic synergy (PAS. The complementary effect of phage P1 is uniquely traced to the P1-encoded gene ref. Ref is a P1 function that amplifies the lytic cycle under conditions when the bacterial SOS response is induced due to DNA damage. The effect of Ref is multifaceted. DNA binding by Ref interferes with normal DNA metabolism, and the nuclease activity of Ref enhances genome degradation. Ref also inhibits cell division independently of the SOS response. Ref gene expression is toxic to E. coli in the absence of other P1 functions, both alone and in combination with antibiotics. The RecA proteins of human pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus serve as cofactors for Ref-mediated DNA cleavage. Ref is especially toxic during the bacterial SOS response and the limited growth of stationary phase cultures, targeting aspects of bacterial physiology that are closely associated with the development of bacterial pathogen persistence.

  2. House dust mite Der p 1 downregulates defenses of the lung by inactivating elastase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alan; Farmer, Kinley; MacDonald, Louise; Kalsheker, Noor; Pritchard, Dave; Haslett, Chris; Lamb, Jonathan; Sallenave, J-M

    2003-09-01

    House dust mites (HDM) are the most common source of aeroallergens and in genetic susceptible individuals can cause symptoms ranging from atopic dermatitis to bronchial asthma. Der p 1, a major target of the human immune responses to HDM, through its enzymatic properties can modulate the adaptive immune system by the cleavage of CD23 and CD25. The consequences of this would be to promote allergic inflammatory responses. Furthermore, by disrupting epithelial tight junctions Der p 1 facilitates the transport of allergen across the epithelium. Here, we report that Der p 1 has additional effects on the innate defense mechanisms of the lung, by inactivating in vitro and ex vivo the elastase inhibitors human (h) alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (h-A1-Pi), mouse (m-), (but not human [h])-SLPI and h-elafin. We confirm that Der p 1 contain both cysteine and serine proteinases, and extend this finding to demonstrate for the first time that h-elafin is particularly sensitive to the biological activity of the latter. Because these elastase inhibitors have antimicrobial, as well as antielastase activity, our results suggest that inactivation of these innate components of the lung defense system by Der p 1 may increase the susceptibility of patients with allergic inflammation to infection. PMID:12689923

  3. ALARM-P1: a computer program for pressurized water reactor blowdown analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer program ALARM-P1 written in FORTRAN-IV for FACOM 230-75 is a part of the code series for evaluation of performance of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) in pressurized water reactors according to the safety evaluation guidelines provided by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. ALARM-P1 is for analyzing the thermo-hydraulic phenomena during blowdown following a large break in the primary coolant system. ALARM-P1 models the PWR system fluid conditions including flow, pressure, mass inventory, fluid quality and heat transfer. It solves integral forms of fluid conservation and state equations for user-defined volumes treated as one-dimensional homogeneous, thermal-equilibrium elements with interconnecting flow paths and also finite difference forms of the one-dimensional heat conduction equations describing temperature profiles within solid material and the fluid-solid interface conditions. In addition, the ALARM-P1 provides the initial conditions for analysis of the last portion of the LOCA transient, a reflood phase, and the information for core heat-up analysis during the whole LOCA. This report describes the state-of-art methods and models of ALARM-P1 in June 1978 and gives information for users. (author)

  4. Expression and Purification of Enterovirus Type 71 Polyprotein P1 using Pichia pastoris system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Han; Xiaoling Ying; Hao Huang; Shili Zhou; Qi Huang

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus type 71(EV71) causes severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease(HFMD) resulting in hundreds of deaths of children every year; However,currently,there is no effective treatment for EV71.In this study,the EV71 poly-protein(EV71-P1 protein) gene was processed and cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pPIC9k and then expressed in Pichia pastoris strain GS115.The EV71 P1 pretein with a molecular weight of 100 kD was produced and secreted into the medium.The soluble EV71 P1 protein was purified by column chromatography with a recovery efficiency of 70%.The result of the immunological analysis showed that the EV71 P1 protein had excellent immunogenicity and could stimulate the production of EV71-VP1 IgG antibody in injected rabbits.We suggest that EV71-P1 protein is an ideal candidate for an EV71 vaccine to prevent EV71 infection.

  5. Brain glycogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Linea Lykke Frimodt; Müller, Margit S; Walls, Anne B;

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g., liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia....... In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been an emerging understanding in brain energy metabolism: that glycogen is more than just a convenient way to store energy for use in emergencies-it is a highly dynamic molecule with versatile implications in brain function, i.e., synaptic...... activity and memory formation. In line with the great spatiotemporal complexity of the brain and thereof derived focus on the basis for ensuring the availability of the right amount of energy at the right time and place, we here encourage a closer look into the molecular and subcellular mechanisms...

  6. 奥林巴斯E-P1试用报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海盗

    2009-01-01

    2009年6月,奥林巴斯首款Micro4/3系统数码相机E—P1终于揭开了神秘的面纱。自从去年Photokina上E—P1的机身模型惊艳亮相后,摄影爱好者、4/3系统拥趸对E—P1的思念随着松下G1和GH1两款Micro4/3系统数码相机的相继问世而与日俱增。

  7. Comparative analysis between P1 and B1 equations for neutron moderation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to calculate the neutron flux in nuclear reactors, B1 or P1 equations are solved by numerical methods for several groups of energy. The neutron fluxes obtained from the solutions of the B1 and P1 equations are similar when they are applied to large nuclear power reactors. However, an important difference between the two fluxes is that the system of P1 equations uses one more approximation than the B1 system and then, its flux is less precise. The present work shows the relations between both equations and analyzes for what conditions the two equations systems are equivalent. Furthermore, this equations are numerically solved in 54 groups of energy for a quadrangular arrange. (author)

  8. Visualization of bacteriophage P1 infection by cryo-electron tomography of tiny Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacteriophage P1 has a contractile tail that targets the conserved lipopolysaccharide on the outer membrane surface of the host for initial adsorption. The mechanism by which P1 DNA enters the host cell is not well understood, mainly because the transient molecular interactions between bacteriophage and bacteria have been difficult to study by conventional approaches. Here, we engineered tiny E. coli host cells so that the initial stages of P1-host interactions could be captured in unprecedented detail by cryo-electron tomography. Analysis of three-dimensional reconstructions of frozen-hydrated specimens revealed three predominant configurations: an extended tail stage with DNA present in the phage head, a contracted tail stage with DNA, and a contracted tail stage without DNA. Comparative analysis of various conformations indicated that there is uniform penetration of the inner tail tube into the E. coli periplasm and a significant movement of the baseplate away from the outer membrane during tail contraction.

  9. NEW FIXED POINT THEOREMS FOR P1-COMPACT MAPPINGS IN BANACH SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    F.E. Browder and W. V. Petryshyn[1] defined the topological degree for Aproper mappings and then W. V. Petryshyn[2] studied a class of A-proper mappings, namely,P1-compact mappings and obtained a number of important fixed point theorems by virtue of the topological degree theory. In this paper, following W. V. Petryshyn[2], we continue to study P1-compact mappings and investigate the boundary condition, under which many new fixed point theorems of P1-compact mappings are obtained. On the other hand, this class of A-proper mappings with the boundedness property includes completely continuous operators and so, certain interesting new fixed point theorems for completely continuous operators are obtained immediately. As a result of it, our results generalize several famous theorems such as Leray-Schauder's theorem, Rothe's theorem, Altman's theorem,Petryshyn's theorem, etc.

  10. Suppression of Zeeman Relaxation in Cold Collisions of \\(^2P_{1/2}\\) Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Tscherbul, T.V.; Buchachenko, A. A.; Dalgarno, Alexander; Lu, M.-J.; Weinstein, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of angular momentum depolarization in cold collisions of \\(^2P\\) atoms in the presence of an external magnetic field. We show that collision-induced Zeeman relaxation of Ga\\(^2P_{1/2}\\) and In \\(^2P_{1/2}\\) atoms in cold \\(^4\\)He gas is dramatically suppressed compared to atoms in \\(^2P_{3/2}\\) states. Using rigorous quantum-scattering calculations based on ab initio interaction potentials, we demonstrate that Zeeman transitions in coll...

  11. ON THE P1 POWELL-SABIN DIVERGENCE-FREE FINITE ELEMENT FOR THE STOKES EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shangyou Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The stability of the P1-P0 mixed-element is established on general Powell-Sabin triangular grids. The piecewise linear finite element solution approximating the velocity is divergence-free pointwise for the Stokes equations. The finite element solution approximating the pressure in the Stokes equations can be obtained as a byproduct if an iterative method is adopted for solving the discrete linear system of equations. Numerical tests are presented confirming the theory on the stability and the optimal order of convergence for the P1 Powell-Sabin divergence-free finite element method.

  12. Picard groups of higher real $K$-theory spectra at height $p-1$

    OpenAIRE

    Heard, Drew; Mathew, Akhil; Stojanoska, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Using the descent spectral sequence for a Galois extension of ring spectra, we compute the Picard group of the higher real $K$-theory spectra of Hopkins and Miller at height $n=p-1$, for $p$ an odd prime. More generally, we determine the Picard groups of the homotopy fixed points spectra $E_n^{hG}$, where $E_n$ is Lubin-Tate $E$-theory at the prime $p$ and height $n=p-1$, and $G$ is any finite subgroup of the extended Morava stabilizer group. We find that these Picard groups are always cyclic...

  13. Sharp weak type estimates for weights in the class $A_{p_1, p_2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Reznikov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We get sharp estimates for the distribution function of nonnegative weights, which satisfy so called $A_{p_1, p_2}$ condition. For particular choices of parameters $p_1$, $p_2$ this condition becomes an $A_p$-condition or Reverse H\\"{o}lder condition. We also get maximizers for these sharp estimates. We use the Bellman technique and try to carefully present and motivate our tactics. As an illustration of how these results can be used, we deduce the following result: if a weight $w$ is in $A_2$ then it self-improves to a weight, which satisfies a Reverse H\\"{o}lder condition.

  14. Uranium (VI) adsorption on synthesized 4A and P1 zeolites: Equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the investigation of the use of synthesized 4A and P1 zeolites in the adsorption of uranium (VI) ions from liquid effluents (with initial concentrations of 100, 85 and 80 mgL-1). Batch experiments were performed and the effects of temperature, solid-liquid ratio, pH and initial UO22+ ion concentration were studied, and the optimal parameters were determined. The kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the process as well as the diffusion mechanism have been studied. The obtained results showed that 4A and P1 zeolites are very effective adsorbents. (authors)

  15. Capitulation in Abelian extensions of some fields ℚ (√{p1p2q , }i )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Abdelmalek; Zekhnini, Abdelkader; Taous, Mohammed

    2016-02-01

    We study the capitulation of the 2-ideal classes of an infinite family of imaginary biquadratic number fields consisting of fields k =ℚ (√{p1p2q , }i ), where i =√{-1 } and p1 ≡ p2 ≡ -q ≡ 1 (mod 4) are different primes. For each of the three quadratic extensions K /k inside the absolute genus field k(*) of k , we compute the capitulation kernel of K /k . Then we deduce that each strongly ambiguous class of k /ℚ (i ) capitulates already in k(*), which is smaller than the relative genus field (k/ℚ (i )) *.

  16. Multigroup neutron transport equation in the diffusion and P1 approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of the properties of the multigroup transport operator, width and without delayed neutrons in the diffusion and P1 approximation, is performed using Keldis's theory of operator families as well as a technique . recently used for investigations into the properties of the general linearized Boltzmann operator. It is shown that in the case without delayed neutrons, multigroup transport operator in the diffusion and P1 approximation possesses a complete set of generalized eigenvectors. A formal solution to the initial value problem is also given. (author)

  17. Antiparallel plasmid-plasmid pairing may control P1 plasmid replication.

    OpenAIRE

    Abeles, A L; Austin, S J

    1991-01-01

    The copy number of the P1 plasmid replicon is stringently controlled, giving only one or two copies per newborn cell. Control is achieved by the action of the copy-control locus incA, which contains nine repeats of the 19-basepair binding site for the plasmid-encoded initiator protein RepA. A set of five similar repeats are present in the replication origin where RepA acts to trigger initiation. Using an in vitro replication system consisting of an Escherichia coli extract, the P1 origin as a...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such children to those with normal brain development may help scientists to pinpoint when and where ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex (PFC) —Seat of the brain's executive functions, such as judgment, decision making, and problem solving. ... brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such children to those with normal brain development may help scientists to pinpoint when and where mental disorders begin and perhaps how to slow or stop ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and are working to compare that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct ... as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... her symptoms were not caused by a stroke, brain tumor, or similar conditions, Sarah's doctor referred her to a psychiatrist, a type of medical doctor who is an expert on mental ... of serotonin in the brain and help reduce symptoms of depression. Sarah also ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in the brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, a disorder that affects a person's ability to move as they want to, resulting ...

  5. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techniques of brain imaging and results in perfusion studies and delayed images are outlined. An analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the brain scan in a variety of common problems is discussed, especially as compared with other available procedures. Both nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions are considered. (Auth/C.F.)

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain cells required for normal function and plays an important ... of neurons and their interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. ...

  7. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... piece of tumor for a biopsy Remove abnormal brain tissue Drain blood or an infection Free a nerve The bone flap is usually replaced after surgery, using small metal ... or if the brain was swollen. (This is called a craniectomy.) The ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... axis —A brain-body circuit which plays a critical role in the body's response to stress. impulse — ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she lost interest ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early-life experiences ... In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... her feelings. Brain Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists a more detailed understanding of the brain than ... a person responds to a certain medication. This information may someday ... is allowing scientists to make important discoveries that could change the ...

  13. Brain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know what causes some brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. The symptoms of brain diseases vary widely depending on the specific problem. In some cases, damage is permanent. In other cases, treatments such as surgery, medicines, or physical therapy can correct the source of the problem or ...

  14. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P1 6/13/2000 66-67M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Pearl Hermes Atoll, site P1 27.831N, 175.751 W, between 66 and 67 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Necker Island Site P1 9/10/2002 54-55M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Necker Island, site P1 23.575N , 164.705W, between 54 and 55 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Gardner Pinnacles Site P1 9/14/2002 55-56M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Gardner Pinnacles, site P1 24.998 N, 167.999 W, between 55 and 56 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. French Frigate Shoals Site P1 7/14/2001 2-3M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1 23.855N, 166.323W, between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Light-Cone Distribution Amplitudes for the Light $1^1P_1$ Mesons

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Kwei-Chou

    2005-01-01

    We present a study of light-cone distribution amplitudes of the light $1^1P_1$ mesons. The first few Gegenbauer moments of leading twist light-cone distribution amplitudes are calculated by using the QCD sum rule technique.

  19. French Frigate Shoals Site P1A 9/13/2002 31-32M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1A 23.854N, 166.323 W, between 31 and 32 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. French Frigate Shoals Site P1 7/14/2001 24-25M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1 23.855N, 166.323W, between 24 and 25 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Orbits and photometry of Pluto's satellites: Charon, S/2005 P1 and S/2005 P2

    CERN Document Server

    Buie, M W; Young, E F; Young, L A; Stern, S A

    2005-01-01

    We present new astrometry of Pluto's three satellites from images taken of the Pluto system during 2002-3 with the High Resolution Camera (HRC) mode of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. The observations were designed to produce an albedo map of Pluto but they also contain images of Charon and the two recently discovered satellites, S/2005 P1 and S/2005 P2. Orbits fitted to all three satellites are co-planar and, for Charon and P2, have eccentricities consistent with zero. The orbit of the outermost satellite, P1, has a significant eccentricity of 0.0052 +/- 0.0011. Orbital periods of P1, P2, and Charon are 38.2065 +/- 0.0014, 24.8562 +/- 00013, and 6.3872304 +/- 0.0000011 days, respectively. The total system mass based on Charon's orbit is 1.4570 +/- 0.0009 x 10^22 kg. We confirm previous results that orbital periods are close to the ratio of 6:4:1 (P1:P2:Charon) indiciative of mean-motion resonances, but our results formally preclude precise integer period ratios...

  2. Choline Modulation of the Aβ P1-40 Channel Reconstituted into a Model Lipid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Meleleo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs, implicated in memory and learning, in subjects affected by Alzheimer's disease result altered. Stimulation of α7-nAChRs inhibits amyloid plaques and increases ACh release. β-amyloid peptide (AβP forms ion channels in the cell and model phospholipid membranes that are retained responsible in Alzheimer disease. We tested if choline, precursor of ACh, could affect the AβP1-40 channels in oxidized cholesterol (OxCh and in palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC:Ch lipid bilayers. Choline concentrations of 5 × 10−11 M–1.5 × 10−8 M added to the cis- or trans-side of membrane quickly increased AβP1-40 ion channel frequency (events/min and ion conductance in OxCh membranes, but not in POPC:Ch membranes. Circular Dichroism (CD spectroscopy shows that after 24 and 48 hours of incubation with AβP1-40, choline stabilizes the random coil conformation of the peptide, making it less prone to fibrillate. These actions seem to be specific in that ACh is ineffective either in solution or on AβP1-40 channel incorporated into PLMs.

  3. Effect of E8010-P1 electrode composition on the weld metal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different manufactures produce E8010-P1 electrode with different chemical compositions due to the relatively wide range of permissible alloying elements in the composition of this electrode. Four groups of E8010-P1 electrodes, with different compositions, were selected and effect of electrode composition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of weld meal were examined. Microstructural studies revealed that presence of the Mn, Mo and Ni in the weld metal influences significantly on the morphology of ferrite in the weld metal zone. Large amount of Mn (around 1%) in the weld metal leads to the formation of fine acicular ferrite in the weld metal. Furthermore, presence of Mo (around 0.4%) in the weld metal prevents formation of continuous grain boundary ferrite in the weld zone. Mechanical properties investigations reveal that the more acicular ferrite in the weld metal, the higher strength and ductility of this zone. -- Highlights: • Mn and Mo resulted in formation of acicular ferrite in the weld metal. • Composition of E8010-P1 has significant effect on the structural and mechanical properties of weld area. • Optimal chemical composition of pipe line E8010-P1 was determined

  4. Doc of prophage P1 is inhibited by its antitoxin partner Phd through fold complementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Mikkel; Wyns, Lode;

    2008-01-01

    Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin modules are involved in major physiological events set in motion under stress conditions. The toxin Doc (death on curing) from the phd/doc module on phage P1 hosts the C-terminal domain of its antitoxin partner Phd (prevents host death) through fold complementation. This...

  5. Lisianski Island Site P1 9/30/2002 25-26M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Lisianski Island, site P1 26.057 N, 173.971W, between 25 and 26 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P1 6/13/2000 91-92M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Pearl Hermes Atoll, site P1 27.831N, 175.751 W, between 91 and 92 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. French Frigate Shoals Site P1A 11/1/2002 27-28M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1A 23.854N, 166.323 W, between 27 and 28 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. French Frigate Shoals Site P1A 9/13/2002 44-45M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1A 23.854N, 166.323 W, between 44 and 45 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. French Frigate Shoals Site P1A 11/1/2002 19-20M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1A 23.854N, 166.323 W, between 19 and 20 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P1 6/13/2000 75-76M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Pearl Hermes Atoll, site P1 27.831N, 175.751 W, between 75 and 76 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. French Frigate Shoals Site P1 7/14/2001 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1 23.855N, 166.323W, between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Gardner Pinnacles Site P1 9/14/2002 56-57M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Gardner Pinnacles, site P1 24.998 N, 167.999 W, between 56 and 57 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Necker Island Site P1 9/10/2002 37-38M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Necker Island, site P1 (23.575N , 164.705W), between 37 and 38 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Lisianski Island Site P1 9/30/2002 12-13M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Lisianski Island, site P1 26.057 N, 173.971W, between 12 and 13 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Absence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae cytadsorption protein P1 in Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    OpenAIRE

    Baseman, J B; Drouillard, D L; Leith, D K; Tully, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae protein P1 were nonreactive with whole-cell or soluble preparations of M. genitalium and M. gallisepticum. However, radioimmunoprecipitation performed with hyperimmune rabbit sera raised against each mycoplasma species indicated antigenic cross-reactivity between M. pneumoniae and M. genitalium.

  16. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P1 6/13/2000 60-61M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Pearl Hermes Atoll, site P1 27.831N, 175.751 W, between 60 and 61 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Necker Island Site P1 9/10/2002 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Necker Island, site P1 23.575N , 164.705W, between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. French Frigate Shoals Site P1 7/14/2001 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1 (23.855N, 166.323W), between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. French Frigate Shoals Site P1 7/14/2001 0-1M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1 23.855N, 166.323W, between 0 and 1 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. French Frigate Shoals Site P1A 11/1/2002 28-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1A 23.854N, 166.323 W, between 28 and 29 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Nihoa island Site P1 9/9/2002 45-46M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Nihoa island, site P1 23.062N, 161.929W, between 45 and 46 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P1 6/13/2000 76-77M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Pearl Hermes Atoll, site P1 27.831N, 175.751 W, between 76 and 77 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. French Frigate Shoals Site P1A 9/13/2002 50-51M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1A (23.854N, 166.323 W), between 50 and 51 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Laysan Island Site P1 9/17/2002 44-45M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Laysan Island, site P1 (25.774 N, 171.743 W), between 44 and 45 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Fermionic expressions for the characters of c{sub p,1} logarithmic conformal field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flohr, Michael [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leibniz-Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)]. E-mail: flohr@itp.uni-hannover.de; Grabow, Carsten [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leibniz-Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)]. E-mail: grabow@itp.uni-hannover.de; Koehn, Michael [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leibniz-Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)]. E-mail: koehn@itp.uni-hannover.de

    2007-04-23

    We present fermionic quasi-particle sum representations consisting of a single fundamental fermionic form for all characters of the logarithmic conformal field theory models with central charge c{sub p,1}, p>=2, and suggest a physical interpretation. We also show that it is possible to correctly extract dilogarithm identities.

  6. French Frigate Shoals Site P1A 9/13/2002 38-39M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at French Frigate Shoals, site P1A (23.854N, 166.323 W), between 38 and 39 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. P1-NONCONFORMING QUADRILATERAL FINITE VOLUME ELEMENT METHOD AND ITS CASCADIC MULTIGRID ALGORITHM FOR ELLIPTIC PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-ying Man; Zhong-ci Shi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the finite volume element method of P1-nonconforming quadrilateral element for elliptic problems and obtain optimal error estimates for general quadrilateral partition. An optimal cascadic multigrid algorithm is proposed to solve the nonsymmetric large-scale system resulting from such discretization. Numerical experiments are reported to support our theoretical results.

  8. Transcription from the P1 promoters of Micromonospora echinospora in the absence of native upstream DNA sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, E Z; Buttner, M J; Lin, L S; Rothstein, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that the 0.4-kilobase DNA fragment from Micromonospora echinospora contains multiple tandem promoters, P1a, P1b, P1c, and P2, which are also functional when cloned into Streptomyces lividans. We now show by in vitro transcription with Streptomyces RNA polymerase that each of these promoters is an authentic initiation site, rather than a processing site for transcripts which initiate further upstream. The DNA sequence requirements for the closely spaced promoters P1a...

  9. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins P1 and P2 interact and colocalize at the vacuolar membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der M.W.; Carette, J.E.; Reinhoud, P.J.; Haegi, A.; Bol, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Replication of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs depends on the virus-encoded proteins P1 and P2. P1 contains methyltransferase- and helicase-like domains, and P2 contains a polymerase-like domain. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed an interaction between in vitro translated-P1 and P2 and show

  10. Differential Expression of Adenosine P1 Receptor ADORA1 and ADORA2A Associated with Glioma Development and Tumor-Associated Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Chen, Ming-Na; Du, Juan; Liu, Hao; He, Yu-Jiao; Li, Guo-Liang; Li, Shu-Yu; Liu, Wei-Ping; Long, Xiao-Yan

    2016-07-01

    Level of adenosine, an endogenous astrocyte-based neuromodulator, is primarily regulated by adenosine P1 receptors. This study assessed expression of adenosine P1 receptors, ADORA1 (adenosine A1 receptor) and ADORA2A (adenosine A2a receptor) and their association with glioma development and epilepsy in glioma patients. Expression of ADORA1/ADORA2A was assessed immunohistochemically in 65 surgically removed glioma tissue and 21 peri-tumor tissues and 8 cases of normal brain tissues obtained from hematoma patients with cerebral trauma. Immunofluorescence, Western blot, and qRT-PCR were also used to verify immunohistochemical data. Adenosine P1 receptor ADORA1 and ADORA2A proteins were localized in the cell membrane and cytoplasm and ADORA1/ADORA2A immunoreactivity was significantly stronger in glioma and peri-tumor tissues that contained infiltrating tumor cells than in normal brain tissues (p < 0.05). The World Health Organization (WHO) grade III gliomas expressed even higher level of ADORA1 and ADORA2A. Western blot and qRT-PCR confirmed immunohistochemical data. Moreover, higher levels of ADORA1 and ADORA2A expression occurred in high-grade gliomas, in which incidence of epilepsy were lower (p < 0.05). In contrast, a lower level of ADORA1/ADORA2A expression was found in peri-tumor tissues with tumor cell presence from patients with epilepsy compared to patients without epilepsy (p < 0.05). The data from the current study indicates that dysregulation in ADORA1/ADORA2A expression was associated with glioma development, whereas low level of ADORA1/ADORA2A expression could increase susceptibility of tumor-associated epilepsy. PMID:27038930

  11. A New G-Quadruplex with Hairpin Loop Immediately Upstream of the Human BCL2 P1 Promoter Modulates Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onel, Buket; Carver, Megan; Wu, Guanhui; Timonina, Daria; Kalarn, Salil; Larriva, Marti; Yang, Danzhou

    2016-03-01

    The abnormal overexpression of the BCL2 gene is associated with many human tumors. We found a new 28-mer G-quadruplex-forming sequence, P1G4, immediately upstream of the human BCL2 gene P1 promoter. The P1G4 is shown to be a transcription repressor using a promoter-driven luciferase assay; its inhibitory effect can be markedly enhanced by the G-quadruplex-interactive compound TMPyP4. G-quadruplex can readily form in the P1G4 sequence under physiological salt condition as shown by DMS footprinting. P1G4 and previously identified Pu39 G-quadruplexes appear to form independently in adjacent regions in the BCL2 P1 promoter. In the extended BCL2 P1 promoter region containing both Pu39 and P1G4, P1G4 appears to play a more dominant role in repressing the transcriptional activity. Using NMR spectroscopy, the P1G4 G-quadruplex appears to be a novel dynamic equilibrium of two parallel structures, one regular with two 1-nt loops and a 12-nt middle loop and another broken-strand with three 1-nt loops and a 11-nt middle loop; both structures adopt a novel hairpin (stem-loop duplex) conformation in the long loop. The dynamic equilibrium of two closely related structures and the unique hairpin loop conformation are specific to the P1G4 sequence and distinguish the P1G4 quadruplex from other parallel structures. The presence of P1G4 and Pu39 in adjacent regions of the BCL2 P1 promoter suggests a mechanism for precise regulation of BCL2 gene transcription. The unique P1G4 G-quadruplex may provide a specific target for small molecules to modulate BCL2 gene transcription. PMID:26841249

  12. Brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNCT in the past was not widely accepted because of poor usability of a nuclear reactor as a neutron source. Recently, technical advancements in the accelerator field have made accelerator-based BNCT feasible. Consequently, clinical trials of intractable brain tumors have started using it since 2012. In this review, our clinical results obtained from conventional reactor-based BNCT for treatment of brain tumors are introduced. It is strong hope that accelerator-based BNCT becomes a standard therapy for current intractable brain tumors. (author)

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of AsaP1_E294A and AsaP1_E294Q, two inactive mutants of the toxic zinc metallopeptidase AsaP1 from Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanović, Xenia; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Hentschke, Johanna; Gudmundsdóttir, Bjarnheidur K.; Hinrichs, Winfried

    2009-01-01

    Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of AsaP1_E294A and AsaP1_E294Q, two inactive mutants of the toxic zinc metallopeptidase AsaP1 from A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes, are reported.

  14. Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification, and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobase pairs.

    OpenAIRE

    Sternberg, N

    1990-01-01

    The development of a bacteriophage P1 cloning system capable of accepting DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobase pairs (kbp) is described. The vectors used in this system contain a P1 packaging site (pac) to package vector and cloned DNA into phage particles, two P1 loxP recombination sites to cyclize the packaged DNA once it has been injected into a strain of Escherichia coli containing the P1 Cre recombinase, a kanr gene to select bacterial clones containing the cyclized DNA, a P1 plasmid r...

  15. Brain and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens / Drug Facts / Brain and Addiction Brain and Addiction Print Your Brain Your brain is who you ... is taken over and over. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes ...

  16. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  17. Search for gluinos in deacys of the chisub(b)(13P1) meson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the ARGUS detector at the DORIS II e+e- storage ring, we have searched for gluinos (g tilde), the supersymmetric partner of the gluon, by looking for secondary decay vertices in hadronic decays of chisub(b)(13P1) mesons. Events containing chisub(b)(13P1) states were selected by detecting the radiative transition from the Y(2S) in a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 38.6 pb-1. The absence of secondary vertices from gluino decays into hadrons and a photino allows us to exclude gluinos in a mass range from 1 to 4.5 GeV/c2 and a lifetime range from 10-11 to 10-9s. (orig.)

  18. Development of Quasi-3DOF upper limb rehabilitation system using ER brake: PLEMO-P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. However, almost all the devices are active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices and they basically require high-cost safety system compared to passive-type (brake-based) devices. In this study, we developed a new practical haptic device 'PLEMO-P1'; this system adopted ER brakes as its force generators. In this paper, the mechanism of PLEMO-P1 and its software for a reaching rehabilitation are described.

  19. Prestimulus amplitudes modulate P1 latencies and evoked traveling alpha waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Alexandra Himmelstoss

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Traveling waves have been well documented in the ongoing, and more recently also in the evoked EEG. In the present study we investigate what kind of physiological process might be responsible for inducing an evoked traveling wave. We used a semantic judgment task which already proved useful to study evoked traveling alpha waves that coincide with the appearance of the P1 component. We found that the P1 latency of the leading electrode is significantly correlated with prestimulus amplitude size and that this event is associated with a transient change in alpha frequency. We assume that cortical background excitability, as reflected by an increase in prestimulus amplitude, is responsible for the observed change in alpha frequency and the initiation of an evoked traveling trajectory.

  20. Structure of the conserved hypothetical protein MAL13P1.257 from Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of a conserved hypothetical protein, MAL13P1.257 from P. falciparum, has been determined at 2.17 Å resolution. The structure represents a new protein fold and is the first structural representative for Pfam sequence family PF05907. The structure of a conserved hypothetical protein, PlasmoDB sequence MAL13P1.257 from Plasmodium falciparum, Pfam sequence family PF05907, has been determined as part of the structural genomics effort of the Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa consortium. The structure was determined by multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion at 2.17 Å resolution. The structure is almost entirely β-sheet; it consists of 15 β-strands and one short 310-helix and represents a new protein fold. The packing of the two monomers in the asymmetric unit indicates that the biological unit may be a dimer.

  1. Complexity and diversity of the NKR-P1:Clr (Klrb1:Clec2 recognition systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Kirkham

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The NKR-P1 receptors were identified as prototypical natural killer (NK cell surface antigens and later shown to be conserved from rodents to humans on NK cells and subsets of T cells. C-type lectin-like in nature, they were originally shown to be capable of activating NK cell function and to recognize ligands on tumour cells. However, certain family members have subsequently been shown to be capable of inhibiting NK cell activity, and to recognize proteins encoded by a family of genetically linked C-type lectin-related (Clr ligands. Some of these ligands are expressed by normal, healthy cells, and modulated during transformation, infection, and cellular stress, while other ligands are upregulated during the immune response and during pathological circumstances. Here, we discuss historical and recent developments in NKR-P1 biology that demonstrate this NK receptor-ligand system to be far more complex and diverse than originally anticipated.

  2. Theoretical and phenomenological problems concerning J(sup P)=1+ mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From both the experimental and theoretical points of view, the researches on J (sup P) = 1+ mesons have been very important for hadronic physics. The complex problems involving these states (particularly regarding the determination of resonances and other non-resonant effects) have occupied a great part of the hadron-hadron phenomenology literature in the last decade. A description of the principal views of the subject is given with a particular emphasis on the case of the A1(→pπ) meson because it is the most important source of papers on J(sup P)=1+ objects and presents still now, open problems. An almost exhaustive of references on the subject and correlated topic is given. (Author)

  3. Fusion Expression of Cecropin P1 in Escherichia Coli and Its Antimicrobial Activity Analysis%抗菌肽cecropin P1在大肠杆菌中的融合表达及活性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟琼; 叶江; 莫剑; 张惠展

    2011-01-01

    目的 在大肠杆菌中融合表达抗菌肽cecropin P1.方法 根据抗菌肽ceeropin P1的氨基酸序列,依照大肠杆菌密码子的偏爱性,采SOE技术合成cecropin P1的编码基因;将其克隆至表达载体pET-32a(+)上,经IPTG诱导表达,超声上清液用Ni·NTA亲和层析初步纯化,经肠激酶切割后,用薄层平皿琼脂糖孔穴扩散法初步测定重组cecropin P1的活性.结果 构建得表达质粒pET32-P1,经IPTG诱导表达获得融合蛋白TrxA-cecropin P1,占总蛋白质25%以上;纯化产物经肠激酶切割后,Tricine-SDS-PAGE显示成功释放抗菌肽cecropin P1;初步测定结果显示其有抑菌活性.结论 本研究为研发重组抗菌肽cecropin P1的生产工艺奠定了基础.%Objective To achieve the fusion expression of cecropin P1 in E.coli. Methods According to the biased coden used in E.coli, the gene sequence encoding cecropin P1 was designed. The gene fragment of cecropin P1 was first obtained through gene SOEing; then the DNA sequence was inserted into pET-32a(+) vector. After IPTG induction and Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, the fusion protein was cleaved by recombinant enterokinase. The activity of recombinant cecropin P1 was determined by agarose diffusion assay on thin-layer plate. Results The fusion expression vector pET32-P1 was constructed. After IPTG induction. TrxA-cecropin P1 fusion protein was successfully expressed, exceeding 25% of the total soluble proteins. After cleavage by enterokinase. Tricine-SDS-PAGE showed that cecropin P1 fusion protein was released successfully. The recombinant cecropin P1 exhibited antibacterial activity,which suggested the functional cecropin P1 has been achieved by gene engineering method. Conclusion This study layed a foundation for the development of production technology of cecropin P1.

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... bind onto, leading to more normal mood functioning. Dopamine —mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the ... reward systems in the brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, a disorder that ...

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    Full Text Available ... Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Outreach Home Public Involvement Outreach Partners Alliance for Research Progress Coalition ... also linked to reward systems in the brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, ...

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  1. Brain Basics

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  6. Brain Health

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    ... Love Your Brain Stay Physically Active Adopt a Healthy Diet Stay Mentally and Socially Active We Can Help ... of any wellness plan. Learn More Adopt a Healthy Diet > Eat a heart-healthy diet that benefits both ...

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    Full Text Available ... as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's early 20s. Knowing how the ... as judgment, decision making and problem solving, as well as emotional control and memory. serotonin —A neurotransmitter ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mental disorder, or perhaps you have experienced one yourself at some point. Such disorders include depression , anxiety ... control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... some point. Such disorders include depression , anxiety disorders , bipolar disorder , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) , and many others. ... differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists or clinical social workers. The psychiatrist asked Sarah and her husband ... the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on ...

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... illnesses are disorders of the brain, and ongoing research that helps us better understand and treat disorders. Mental disorders are common. You may have a friend, colleague, or relative with a mental disorder, or ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... they can be related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many aspects of life. ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... of the brain's executive functions, such as judgment, decision making, and problem solving. Different parts of the ... a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, as well as emotional ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... genes and epigenetics may one day lead to genetic testing for people at risk for mental disorders. ... brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," containing inherited genetic information that helps to define physical and some ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... These factors may act alone or together in complex ways, to change the way a gene is ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... in early detection, more tailored treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything ... Severe Irritability, 12-1:00 PM ET National Prevention Week May 15-21, 2016 General Health Information ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, and responds ... via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... may help improve treatments for anxiety disorders like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex ( ... doctor, who ran some tests. After deciding her symptoms were not caused by a stroke, brain tumor, ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... some point. Such disorders include depression , anxiety disorders , bipolar disorder , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) , and many ... differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on mental health. This knowledge is allowing scientists to make important discoveries that ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... who can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists or clinical social workers. The psychiatrist asked Sarah and her ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... NIH Research Fact Sheets NIH Office of Science Education : Resources for science educators Pillbox: How to identify ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Director’s Blog Budget Strategic Plan Offices and Divisions Careers@NIMH Advisory Boards and Groups Staff Directories Getting ... works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Health & Education Mental Health Information Publications Educational Resources Clinical Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction ...

  10. A Cadmium-transporting P1B-type ATPase in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    OpenAIRE

    Adle, David J.; Sinani, Devis; Kim, Heejeong; Lee, Jaekwon

    2006-01-01

    Detoxification and homeostatic acquisition of metal ions are vital for all living organisms. We have identified PCA1 in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an overexpression suppressor of copper toxicity. PCA1 possesses signatures of a P1B-type heavy metal-transporting ATPase that is widely distributed from bacteria to humans. Copper resistance conferred by PCA1 is not dependent on catalytic activity, but it appears that a cysteine-rich region located in the N terminus sequesters copper. Unexpe...

  11. Beam propagation method using a [(p- 1)/ p] Padé approximant of the propagator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ya Yan; Ho, Pui Lin

    2002-05-01

    A new beam propagation method (BPM) is developed based on a direct approximation to the propagator by its [(p-1)/p] Padé approximant. The approximant is simple to construct and has the desired damping effect for the evanescent modes. The method is applied to a tapered waveguide for TM-polarized waves, based on the energy-conserving improvement of the one-way Helmholtz equation. Numerical results are compared with those obtained with other variants of the BPM. PMID:18007898

  12. Effect of the P1 Medium and the ECM Medium on Embryo Quality in IVF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian CHEN; Ai-jun ZHANG; Yun FENG; Xiao-wei LU; Dong-mei JI; Zhi-peng XU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of the glucose-free reimplantation stage one(P1) medium and the ECM medium on embryo development quality in IVF.Methods The patients with ≥4 zygotes of 2PN were studied.A total of 201 retrieval cycles were included in a prospective randomized study.Each patient was herself control Half of zygotes of 2PN were transferred into ECM medium(group A)and half into P1 medium(group B)for further culture.Embryo development was evaluated on the day of embryo transfer.The efficacy of ECM was compared with P1 as culture medium for the development of preimplantation embryos. Results No statistically significant differences were noted between the two groups regarding embryo-cleavage rate(97.13% vs 97.55%)and rate of normal-cleaving embryos(58.29% and 58.37%).The rate of top-quality embryos was statistically higher in group A than in group B(27.59% vs 19.75%,P<0.05).Embryo quality,as assessed by morphological parameters(the amount of detached anuclear fragments>30%),was better in group A than in group B(19.86% vs 21.75%),however,there was no statistically significance.Both the rate of good-quality embryos(47.95% vs 46.17%)and available embryos(63.22% vs 61.,9%)were higher in group A than in group B,but there was also no statistically significance.Conclusion The ECM medium may be associated with a better embryo quality compared with the P1 medium.

  13. TRIMARAN: a three dimensional multigroup P1 Monte Carlo code for criticallity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIMARAN is developed for safety analysis of nuclar components containing fissionnable materials: shipping casks, storage and cooling pools, manufacture and reprocessing plants. It solves the transport equation by Monte Carlo method in general three dimensional geometry with multigroup P1 approximation. A special representation of cross sections and numbers has been developed in order to reduce considerably the computing cost and allow this three dimensional code to compete with standard numerical program used in parametric studies

  14. Pionic 2p-1s X-ray transitions in 19F and 23Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi-atomic 2p-1s transitions have been studied in 19F and 23Na. The measured energies are 195.17 +-0.16 and 275.75 +- 0.26 keV, and the Lorentzian full-widths at half-maximum are 10.12 +- 0.74 and 12.0 +- 1.2 keV respectively. A comparison is made with optical model calculations. (Auth.)

  15. Molecular neurodevelopment: An in vivo31P-1H MRSI study

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Gerald; Panchalingam, Kanagasabai; McClure, Richard J.; Stanley, Jeffrey A.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Pettegrew, Jay W.

    2009-01-01

    Synaptic development and elimination are normal neurodevelopmental processes which if altered could contribute to various neuropsychiatric disorders. 31P-1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging and structural MRI exams were conducted on 106 healthy children ages 6–18 years in order to identify neuromolecular indices of synaptic development and elimination. Over the age range studied, age-related changes in high-energy phosphate (phosphocreatine), membrane phospholipid metabolism (precurso...

  16. Cloning and functional analysis of human acyl coenzyme A: Cholesterol acyltransferase1 gene P1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jing; Cheng, Bei; Qi, Benling; Peng, Wen; Wen, Hui; Bai, Lijuan; Liu, Yun; Zhai, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) catalyzes the conversion of free cholesterol (FC) to cholesterol ester. The human ACAT1 gene P1 promoter has been cloned. However, the activity and specificity of the ACAT1 gene P1 promoter in diverse cell types remains unclear. The P1 promoter fragment was digested with KpnI/XhoI from a P1 promoter cloning vector, and was subcloned into the multiple cloning site of the Firefly luciferase vector pGL3‑Enhancer to obtain the construct P1E‑1. According to the analysis of biological information, the P1E‑1 plasmid was used to generate deletions of the ACAT1 gene P1 promoter with varying 5' ends and an identical 3' end at +65 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All the 5'‑deletion constructs of the P1 promoter were identified by PCR, restriction enzyme digestion mapping and DNA sequencing. The transcriptional activity of each construct was detected after transient transfection into THP‑1, HepG2, HEK293 and Hela cells using DEAE‑dextran and Lipofectamine 2000 liposome transfection reagent. Results showed that the transcriptional activity of the ACAT1 gene P1 promoter and deletions of P1 promoter in THP‑1 and HepG2 cells was higher than that in HEK293 and HeLa cells. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of P1E‑9 was higher compared with those of other deletions in THP‑1, HepG2, HEK293 and HeLa cells. These findings indicate that the transcriptional activity of the P1 promoter and the effects of deletions vary with different cell lines. Thus, the P1 promoter may drive ACAT1 gene expression with cell‑type specificity. In addition, the core sequence of ACAT1 gene P1 promoter was suggested to be between -125 and +65 bp. PMID:27220725

  17. Brain imaging and brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage

  18. Growth and characterization of dilute nitride GaNxP1−x nanowires and GaNxP1−x/GaNyP1−y core/shell nanowires on Si (111) by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Sukrittanon, S.; Kuang, Y. J.; Dobrovolsky, Alexandr; Kang, Won-Mo; Jang, Ja-Soon; Kim, Bong-Joong; Chen, Weimin; Buyanova, Irina; Tu, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated self-catalyzed GaN xP1−x and GaN xP1−x/GaNyP1−y core/shell nanowire growth by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The growth window for GaN xP1−x nanowires was observed to be comparable to that of GaP nanowires (∼585 °C to ∼615 °C). Transmission electron microscopy showed a mixture of cubic zincblende phase and hexagonal wurtzite phase along the [111] growth direction in GaN xP1−x nanowires. A temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) study performed on GaN xP1−x/GaNyP1...

  19. Brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain SPECT investigations have gained broad acceptance since the introduction of the lipophilic tracer Tc-99m-HMPAO. Depending on equipment and objectives in different departments, the examinations can be divided into three groups: 1. Under normal conditions and standardised patient preparation the 'rest' SPECT can be performed in every department with a tomographic camera. In cerebrovascular disease there is a demand for determination of either the perfusion reserve in reversible ischemia or prognostic values in completed stroke. In cases of dementia, SPECT may yield useful results according to differential diagnosis. Central cerebral system involvement in immunologic disease may be estimated with higher sensitivity than in conventional brain imaging procedures. In psychiatric diseases there is only a relative indication for brain SPECT, since results during recent years have been contradictory and may be derived only in interventional manner. In brain tumor diagnostics SPECT with Tl-201 possibly permits grading. In inflammatory disease, especially in viral encephalitis, SPECT may be used to obtain early diagnosis. Normal pressure hydrocephalus can be distinguished from other forms of dementia and, consequently, the necessity for shunting surgery can be recognised. 2. In departments equipped for emergency cases an 'acute' SPECT can be performed in illnesses with rapid changing symptoms such as different forms of migraine, transient global amnesia, epileptic seizures (so-called 'ictal SPECT') or urgent forms like trauma. 3. In cooperation with several departments brain SPECT can be practised as an interventional procedure in clinical and in scientific studies. (orig./MG)

  20. 26 CFR 1.409(p)-1T - Prohibited allocations of securities in an S corporation (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... current life insurance protection as described in § 1.61-22(d)(3)). Synthetic equity also includes any... paragraph (i)(2)(ii), § 1.409(p)-1T as in effect prior to December 17, 2004 (see § 1.409(p)-1T in 26 CFR... effect prior to December 17, 2004 (see § 1.409(p)-1T in 26 CFR Part 1 revised as of April 1,...

  1. U P1, an example for advanced techniques applied to high level activity dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U P1 plant on the CEA Marcoule site was dedicated to the processing of spend fuels from the G1, G2 and G3 plutonium-producing reactors. This plant represents 20.000 m2 of workshops housing about 1000 hot cells. In 1998, a huge program for the dismantling and cleaning-up of the UP1 plant was launched. CEA has developed new techniques to face the complexity of the dismantling operations. These techniques include immersive virtual reality, laser cutting, a specific manipulator arm called MAESTRO and remote handling. (A.C.)

  2. J/P=1/2+, J/P=3/2+ masses in statistical model

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Amanpreet

    2016-01-01

    The mass formulae for the baryon octet and decuplet are calculated. These formulae are function of constituent quark masses and spin spin interaction terms for the quarks inside the baryons. The coe?cients in the mass formulae is estimated by the statistical model for J/P=1/2+, J/P=3/2+, incorporating the contributions from \\sea" containing uu; dd; ss pairs and gluons . The measured masses are presented and found to be matching good with some of the experimental and theoretical data.

  3. P1 plasmid replication: initiator sequestration is inadequate to explain control by initiator-binding sites.

    OpenAIRE

    S.K. Pal; Chattoraj, D K

    1988-01-01

    The unit-copy plasmid replicon mini-P1 consists of an origin, a gene for an initiator protein, RepA, and a control locus, incA. Both the origin and the incA locus contain repeat sequences that bind RepA. It has been proposed that the incA repeats control replication by sequestering the rate-limiting RepA initiator protein. Here we show that when the concentration of RepA was increased about fourfold beyond its normal physiological level from an inducible source in trans, the copy number of a ...

  4. Understanding the Biocompatibility of Sintered Calcium Phosphate with Ratio of [Ca]/[P] = 1.50

    OpenAIRE

    Feng-Lin Yen; Wei-Jen Shih; Min-Hsiung Hon; Hui-Ting Chen; I-Ming Hung; Homg-Huey Ko; Moo-Chin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Biocompatibility of sintered calcium phosphate pellets with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50 was determined in this study. Calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) phase formed on the sintered pellets immersed in a normal saline solution for 14 d at 37∘C. The intensities of hydroxyapatite (HA) reflections in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the pellets were retrieved to as-sintered state. The pellet surface morphology shows that CPP crystallites were clearly present and make an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) to ...

  5. Absolute frequency measurement of the magnesium intercombination transition $^1S_0 \\to ^3P_1$

    OpenAIRE

    Friebe, Jan; Pape, André; Riedmann, Matthias; Moldenhauer, Karsten; Mehlstäubler, Tanja; Rehbein, Nils; Lisdat, Christian; Rasel, Ernst M.; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Schnatz, Harald; Lipphardt, Burghard; Grosche, Gesine

    2007-01-01

    We report on a frequency measurement of the $(3s^2)^1S_0\\to(3s3p)^3P_1$ clock transition of $^{24}$Mg on a thermal atomic beam. The intercombination transition has been referenced to a portable primary Cs frequency standard with the help of a femtosecond fiber laser frequency comb. The achieved uncertainty is $2.5\\times10^{-12}$ which corresponds to an increase in accuracy of six orders of magnitude compared to previous results. The measured frequency value permits the calculation of several ...

  6. 词义·句式·功能--"P1就P2"和"P1再P2"句式的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国光

    2004-01-01

    @@ §1引言 现代汉语中副词"就"和"再"都可以联系两个谓词性成分P1和P2,构成"P1就P2"和"P1再P2"句式.其中P1多表示完成、结束性的动作行为,P2则表示与P1相接续的动作行为.这两种句式都表示P1和P2之间的程序关系或条件关系.但由于副词"就"和"再"在语义上的区别,这两种句式所表示的P1和P2之间的程序关系和条件关系也有相应的区别,由此导致这两种句式在语用功能上的对立和区别.本文打算首先分析"就"和"再"这两个副词在语义上的区别和"P1就P2"、"P1再P2"这两种句式在逻辑语义上的区别,然后再描述、分析"P1就P2"和"P1再P2"这两种句式在语用功能上的对立和区别.

  7. Organic brain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBS; Organic mental disorder (OMS); Chronic organic brain syndrome ... Listed below are disorders associated with OBS. Brain injury caused by ... the brain ( subarachnoid hemorrhage ) Blood clot inside the ...

  8. Restoration of IGFBP-rP1 increases radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity in hormone-refractory human prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously reported the tumor-suppressive activity of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 (IGFBP-rP1) through induction of apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IGFBP-rP1 for radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity in hormone-refractory human prostate PC-3 cancer cells. Five assays were performed using PC-3 cells transfected with IGFBP-rP1 (PC-3rP1) and control cells transfected with an empty vector (PC-3N): PC-3rP1 and PC-3N were compared by clonogenic survival assay, cell cycle analysis and apoptotic assay for radiosensitivity. The number of colonies of PC-3rP1 cells significantly decreased after 4 and 8 Gy of irradiation, compared with those of PC-3N in the clonogenic survival assay. After 16 hr irradiation at 8 Gy, the percentage of apoptotic cells significantly increased in PC-3rP1 compared with PC-3N. Growth of PC-3rP1 was significantly lower than that of PC-3N after docetaxel treatment both in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that restoration of IGFBP-rP1 to PC-3 cells increases both their radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity. (author)

  9. Identification of a surface-exposed immunodominant epitope on outer membrane protein P1 of Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    OpenAIRE

    Proulx, C; Munson, R S; Grass, S; Hamel, J; Martin, D.; Brodeur, B R

    1991-01-01

    Eight murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against outer membrane protein P1 of Haemophilus influenzae type b were generated and characterized. Seven of the eight MAbs reacted with recombinant P1 and purified P1 protein from H. influenzae type b strains MinnA and 1613; MAb P1.8 was specific for the latter strain. A panel of 32 nontypeable and 140 encapsulated Haemophilus strains recovered worldwide representing the major clonal families of serotypes a, b, and d was used to evaluate th...

  10. Epigenetic Modifications of Distinct Sequences of the p1 Regulatory Gene Specify Tissue-Specific Expression Patterns in Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; Peterson, Thomas; Chopra, Surinder

    2007-01-01

    Tandemly repeated endogenous genes are common in plants, but their transcriptional regulation is not well characterized. In maize, the P1-wr allele of pericarp color1 is composed of multiple copies arranged in a head-to-tail fashion. P1-wr confers a white kernel pericarp and red cob glume pigment phenotype that is stably inherited over generations. To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate tissue-specific expression of P1-wr, we have characterized P1-wr*, a spontaneous loss-of-func...

  11. Intrinsic DNA Distortion of the Bacteriophage Mu momP1 Promoter Is a Negative Regulator of Its Transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Basak, Shashwati; Olsen, Lars; Hattman, Stanley; Nagaraja, Valakunja

    2001-01-01

    The momP1 promoter of the bacteriophage Mu mom operon is an example of a weak promoter. It contains a 19-base pair suboptimal spacer between the 235 (ACCACA) and 210 (TAGAAT) hexamers. Escherichia coli RNA polymerase is unable to bind tomomP1 on its own.DNAdistortion caused by the presence of a run of six T nucleotides overlapping the 5* end of the 210 element might prevent RNA polymerase from binding to momP1. To investigate the influence of the T6 run on momP1 expression, defined substituti...

  12. Photoassociation spectroscopy of ultracold Cs below the 6P1/2 limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Marin; Chen, Hongmin; Stwalley, William C.

    2004-07-01

    We have performed high precision photoassociation spectroscopy of ultracold cesium gas. Using trap-loss fluorescence detection and controlling the background cesium pressure we were able to photoassociate atoms into excited states of ultracold molecules with large detunings up to 56 cm-1 below the Cs(6S1/2)+Cs(6P1/2) atomic asymptote. Vibrational progressions are assigned to 0g-, 0u+, and 1g long-range states. By fitting the spectral data to the LeRoy-Bernstein expression, the effective coefficients of the leading long-range interactions and the vibrational quantum number at dissociation are obtained. In addition we have observed spectral perturbations between states of the same symmetry belonging to different asymptotes (6P1/2 and 6P3/2). The perturbations are manifested through irregular vibrational level spacings and are especially pronounced in the 0u+ symmetry. Many observed rotational levels indicate d- and higher partial wave contributions to the photoassociation cross section in the presence of trapping laser light, while spectral regions with only weak features suggest nodes in the lower state wave functions corresponding to the two ground state atoms asymptote.

  13. Photoassociation spectroscopy of ultracold Cs below the 6P1/2 limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed high precision photoassociation spectroscopy of ultracold cesium gas. Using trap-loss fluorescence detection and controlling the background cesium pressure we were able to photoassociate atoms into excited states of ultracold molecules with large detunings up to 56 cm-1 below the Cs(6S1/2)+Cs(6P1/2) atomic asymptote. Vibrational progressions are assigned to 0g-, 0u+, and 1g long-range states. By fitting the spectral data to the LeRoy-Bernstein expression, the effective coefficients of the leading long-range interactions and the vibrational quantum number at dissociation are obtained. In addition we have observed spectral perturbations between states of the same symmetry belonging to different asymptotes (6P1/2 and 6P3/2). The perturbations are manifested through irregular vibrational level spacings and are especially pronounced in the 0u+ symmetry. Many observed rotational levels indicate d- and higher partial wave contributions to the photoassociation cross section in the presence of trapping laser light, while spectral regions with only weak features suggest nodes in the lower state wave functions corresponding to the two ground state atoms asymptote

  14. The lost p1 allele in sh2 sweet corn: Quantitative effects of p1 and a1 genes on the concentrations of maysin, apimaysin, methoxymaysin, and chlorogenic acid in maize silk, and the antibiotic activity against corn earworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flavor of sh2 super-sweet corn is preferred by consumers. Unfortunately, sh2 sweet corn has very little genetic variation for resistance to insects. This presentation will review and summarize the studies of the functions of two loci, p1 and a1. The P1 allele can have a major role in the resista...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Amygdala —The brain's "fear hub," which activates our natural "fight-or-flight" response to confront or escape ... husband questions about Sarah's symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early-life experiences ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... managing proper emotional reactions. Reduced ACC activity or damage to this brain area has been linked to ... can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists or clinical social ... —A network of neurons and their interconnections. neuron —A nerve ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research ... magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure. mutation —A change in the code for a ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex (PFC) —Seat of the brain's executive functions, such as ... making, and problem solving. Different parts of the PFC are involved in using short-term or "working" ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ... ClinicalTrials.gov : Federally and privately supported research using human volunteers PubMed Central: An archive of life sciences ...

  20. Robot brains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babuska, R.

    2011-01-01

    The brain hosts complex networks of neurons that are responsible for behavior in humans and animals that we generally call intelligent. I is not easy to give an exact definition of intelligence – for the purpose of this talk it will suffice to say that we refer to intelligence as a collection of cap

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... improve treatments for anxiety disorders like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex (PFC) —Seat of the brain's executive ... events. Some research shows that people who have PTSD or ADHD have reduced activity in their PFCs. ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... they can cause tremors or symptoms found in Parkinson's disease. Serotonin —helps control many functions, such as mood, ... brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, a disorder that affects a person's ability to ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, such as in areas of the brain that control movement. When electrical signals are abnormal, they can cause tremors or symptoms found in Parkinson's disease. Serotonin — ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain disorders. Evidence shows that they can be related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry ... MEDLINEPlus : Authoritative information from government agencies and health-related organizations, available in both English and Spanish ( Español ) ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by ... decision making and problem solving, as well as emotional control and memory. serotonin —A neurotransmitter that regulates ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate have been linked ... we see, and help us to solve a problem. Some of the regions most commonly ... also appears to be involved in learning to fear an event, such as touching a ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ADHD , schizophrenia , and depression . Hippocampus —Helps create and file new memories. When the hippocampus is damaged, a ... portion of the brain involved in creating and filing new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A ...

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of AsaP1-E294A and AsaP1-E294Q, two inactive mutants of the toxic zinc metallopeptidase AsaP1 from Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of AsaP1-E294A and AsaP1-E294Q, two inactive mutants of the toxic zinc metallopeptidase AsaP1 from A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes, are reported. Two mutants of the toxic extracellular zinc endopeptidase AsaP1 (AsaP1-E294Q and AsaP1-E294A) of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes were expressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method. Crystals were obtained using several precipitants and different protein concentrations. Protein crystals were found in a monoclinic (C2) as well as an orthorhombic (P212121) space group. The crystals belonging to the monoclinic space group C2 had unit-cell parameters a = 103.4, b = 70.9, c = 54.9 Å, β = 109.3° for AsaP1-E294A, and a = 98.5, b = 74.5, c = 54.7 Å, β = 112.4° for AsaP1-E294Q. The unit-cell parameters of the orthorhombic crystal obtained for AsaP1-E294A were a = 57.9, b = 60.2, c = 183.6 Å. The crystals of the two different mutants diffracted X-rays beyond 2.0 Å resolution

  9. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  10. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  11. Unruptured Brain Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ...

  12. Brain Aneurysm: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ...

  13. Study on the polymorphisms and promoter methylation and expression of the glutathione Stransferases P1 gene in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张友才

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the polymorphisms, promoter methylation, and expression of glutathione S-transferases P1 gene (GST)P1 gene. Methods Using methylation -special PCR (MSP), the methylated status of CpG islands of GSTP1 gene in tumor tissues of 53 HCC and its adjacent nontumor tissues were studied. The en-

  14. Increasing Synthetic Serum Substitute (SSS) Concentrations in P1 Glucose/Phosphate-Free Medium Improves Implantation Rate: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Yovel, Israel; Schwartz, Tamar; Azem, Fuad; Lessing, Joseph B.; Amit, Ami

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the comparative efficacy of IVF medium (MediCult, with 5.2 mM glucose) and a glucose/phosphate-free medium, P1 (Irvine Scientific), and to investigate the influence of increasing the serum supplementation (synthetic serum substitute; SSS; Irvine Scientific) to P1 on embryo development and implantation.

  15. Interaction between the P1 protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and receptors on HEp-2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drasbek, Mette; Christiansen, Gunna; Drasbek, Kim Ryun;

    2007-01-01

    The human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae can cause atypical pneumonia through adherence to epithelial cells in the respiratory tract. The major immunogenic protein, P1, participates in the attachment of the bacteria to the host cells. To investigate the adhesion properties of P1, a recombinant...... protein (rP1-II) covering amino acids 1107-1518 of the P1 protein was produced. This protein inhibited the adhesion of M. pneumoniae to human HEp-2 cells, as visualized in a competitive-binding assay using immunofluorescence microscopy. Previous studies have shown that mAbs that recognize two epitopes in...... this region of P1 also reduce M. pneumoniae adhesion. Therefore, peptides covering these epitopes, of 8 and 13 aa, respectively, were synthesized to further investigate the adhesion region. None of these synthetic peptides reduced the binding of M. pneumoniae to the receptors on the host cells. Instead...

  16. Inversion of electron spin resonance signal of P1-center in synthetic crystalline diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the electron spin resonance (ESR) of a 0.59 carat synthetic diamond single crystal at room temperature. The crystal was grown on a 'split-sphere' apparatus in the Fe-Ni-C system by the temperature gradient method. After high-temperature/high-pressure treatment of the diamond, it was observed that as the microwave power supplied to the sample increased from 70 μW to 70 mW in an H102 cavity, the ESR signal from the P1 center (a nitrogen atom substituting for carbon at a lattice point of the diamond crystal: C-form nitrogen) is inverted. In the original diamond (before high-temperature/high-pressure treatment), no inversion of the ESR signal was observed. (authors)

  17. The P1-RKDG method for two-dimensional Euler equations of gas dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Bernardo; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1991-01-01

    A class of nonlinearly stable Runge-Kutta local projection discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) finite element methods for conservation laws is investigated. Two dimensional Euler equations for gas dynamics are solved using P1 elements. The generalization of the local projections, which for scalar nonlinear conservation laws was designed to satisfy a local maximum principle, to systems of conservation laws such as the Euler equations of gas dynamics using local characteristic decompositions is discussed. Numerical examples include the standard regular shock reflection problem, the forward facing step problem, and the double Mach reflection problem. These preliminary numerical examples are chosen to show the capacity of the approach to obtain nonlinearly stable results comparable with the modern nonoscillatory finite difference methods.

  18. Neutron wave reflexions in interface media with transport equation P1 approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The propagation of neutron waves in non multiplying media is investigated employing the Telegrapher's equation obtained from the P1 approximation of the time, space and energy dependent Boltzmann equation. Solution of the problem of propagation of sinusoidally modulated source incident on one face of the medium is obtained by analysing the Fourier component of a pulsed source introduced, for the corresponding frequency. The amplitude and the phase of the flux are computed as a function of frequency in media consisting of one, two and three regions in order to study the effects of reflection at the interfaces. The results are compared with those from the Diffusion approximation obtained by neglecting the term involving the second order time derivative. (author)

  19. The P1-approximation for the Distribution of Neutrons from a Pulsed Source in Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The asymptotic distribution of neutrons from a pulsed, high energy source in an infinite moderator has been obtained earlier in a 'diffusion' approximation. In that paper the cross section was assumed to be constant over the whole energy region and the time derivative of the first moment was disregarded. Here, first, an analytic expression is obtained for the density in a P1 -approximation. However, the result is very complicated, and it is shown that an asymptotic solution can be found in a simpler way. By taking into account the low hydrogen scattering cross section at the source energy it follows that the space dependence of the distribution is less than that obtained earlier. The importance of keeping the time derivative of the first moment is further shown in a perturbation approximation

  20. Simulation of the ICE P1 test for a validation of COCOSYS and ASTEC codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper presents simulation of the upgraded ICE facility test P1 performed using COCOSYS and ASTEC lumped parameter codes. The experimental ICE facility was constructed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to obtain experimental data on the ingress-of-coolant event which could occur in the ITER. COCOSYS and ASTEC are computer codes used to simulate accident scenarios in the light water reactors. However, they’ve been also used for fusion safety applications and ASTEC is being extended to better address main accident sequences of fusion installations. It is shown in the paper that pressure and temperature evolutions of the main volumes were predicted with reasonable accuracy, however discrepancies in the suppression and drain volumes suggest underestimated vaporization rate

  1. Structure and Dynamics of [PF$_6$][P$_{1,2,2,4}$] from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Carignano, Marcelo A

    2013-01-01

    Diethyl(methyl)(isobutyl)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate, [PF$_6$][P$_{1,2,2,4}$], is an organic ionic plastic crystal with potential uses as a solid electrolyte in storage and light harvesting devices. In this work we present a molecular dynamics simulation study for this material covering an extended temperature range, from 175 K to 500 K. The simulations predicts a transition from the crystalline to a {\\em semi} plastic phase at 197 K, the onset of cation jump-like rotations at 280 K, a third transition at 340 K to a {\\em full} plastic phase and melting to 450 K. Overall, the simulations show a good agreement with the experimental findings providing a wealth of detail in the structural and dynamic properties of the system.

  2. Second order time evolution of the multigroup diffusion and P1 equations for radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → An existing multigroup transport algorithm is extended to be second-order in time. → A new algorithm is presented that does not require a grey acceleration solution. → The two algorithms are tested with 2D, multi-material problems. → The two algorithms have comparable computational requirements. - Abstract: An existing solution method for solving the multigroup radiation equations, linear multifrequency-grey acceleration, is here extended to be second order in time. This method works for simple diffusion and for flux-limited diffusion, with or without material conduction. A new method is developed that does not require the solution of an averaged grey transport equation. It is effective solving both the diffusion and P1 forms of the transport equation. Two dimensional, multi-material test problems are used to compare the solution methods.

  3. SPITZER IRAC SECONDARY ECLIPSE PHOTOMETRY OF THE TRANSITING EXTRASOLAR PLANET HAT-P-1b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report Spitzer/IRAC photometry of the transiting giant exoplanet HAT-P-1b during its secondary eclipse. This planet lies near the postulated boundary between the pM and pL-class of hot Jupiters, and is important as a test of models for temperature inversions in hot Jupiter atmospheres. We derive eclipse depths for HAT-P-1b, in units of the stellar flux, that are: 0.080% ± 0.008% [3.6 μm], 0.135% ± 0.022% [4.5 μm], 0.203% ± 0.031% [5.8 μm], and 0.238% ± 0.040% [8.0 μm]. These values are best fit using an atmosphere with a modest temperature inversion, intermediate between the archetype inverted atmosphere (HD 209458b) and a model without an inversion. The observations also suggest that this planet is radiating a large fraction of the available stellar irradiance on its dayside, with little available for redistribution by circulation. This planet has sometimes been speculated to be inflated by tidal dissipation, based on its large radius in discovery observations, and on a non-zero orbital eccentricity allowed by the radial velocity data. The timing of the secondary eclipse is very sensitive to orbital eccentricity, and we find that the central phase of the eclipse is 0.4999 ± 0.0005. The difference between the expected and observed phase indicates that the orbit is close to circular, with a 3σ limit of |e cos ω| < 0.002.

  4. Source Expansion Nodal Solution of SP3 Equations with P1 Coarse Mesh Finite Difference Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to effectively account for the transport effects in core calculations, the SP3 equations are adopted in some of the existing nodal diffusion codes such as PARCS and DYN3D. The advantage of using the SP3 equations comes from the similarity between the SP3 equations and the diffusion or P1 equation that make it possible to use the existing code's architecture and solution methods that were developed for the nodal diffusion equation. The only difference is that there are one more balance equation and one additional unknown, the second angular moment. For the solution of the SP3 equations by the nodal method, the nodal expansion method was first developed and the source expansion nodal method(SENM) was introduced as an accurate kernel to capture correctly the drastic variation of the second angular moment near material interfaces. The exponential part of the source expansion nodal solution turned out to be very effective in describing the strong gradient in the second angular flux near the surface and this capability of SENM provides better accuracy than the corresponding NEM solution. On the other hand, a nodal solution kernel can be formulated locally employing either a one-node or two- node formulation. The one-node formulation requires incoming current conditions while the two-node formulation requires node average fluxes. In principle, these boundary conditions can be provided by the global coarse mesh finite difference (CMFD) solution that includes both zero-th and second angular moment fluxes. Inclusion of the second angular moments in the CMFD system, however, can lead to potential instability because of the large gradient of the second angular moments near each interface. This work is to develop a way not to use the second angular moment in the CMFD equation by keeping the ordinary P1 CMFD formulation

  5. EXPRESSION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF IGFBP-rP1 IN HUMAN HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA%IGFBP-rP1在原发性肝细胞肝癌中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕宏娜; 王要军

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白相关蛋白1(insulin-like growth factor binding proteins-related protein 1,IGFBP-rP1)在原发性肝细胞肝癌(human hepatocellar carcinomas,HCC)中的表达及意义.方法 应用免疫组织化学法检测43例HCC、32例癌旁肝组织及9例正常肝组织IGFBP-rP1的表达.结果 IGFBP-rP1在HCC的表达显著低于癌旁肝组织(P<0. 01)及正常肝组织(P<0.01),但正常肝组织和癌旁肝组织IGFBP-rP1的表达无明显差异(P>0.05).IGFBP-rP1的表达强度与HCC的恶性生物学行为关系密切.结论 IGFBP-rP1抑制HCC的进展,IGFBP-rP1表达下调在HCC的进展中起重要作用.

  6. Growth and characterization of dilute nitride GaNxP1−x nanowires and GaNxP1−x/GaNyP1−y core/shell nanowires on Si (111) by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have demonstrated self-catalyzed GaNxP1−x and GaNxP1−x/GaNyP1−y core/shell nanowire growth by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The growth window for GaNxP1−x nanowires was observed to be comparable to that of GaP nanowires (∼585 °C to ∼615 °C). Transmission electron microscopy showed a mixture of cubic zincblende phase and hexagonal wurtzite phase along the [111] growth direction in GaNxP1−x nanowires. A temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) study performed on GaNxP1−x/GaNyP1−y core/shell nanowires exhibited an S-shape dependence of the PL peaks. This suggests that at low temperature, the emission stems from N-related localized states below the conduction band edge in the shell, while at high temperature, the emission stems from band-to-band transition in the shell as well as recombination in the GaNxP1−x core.

  7. Solutions of system of P1 equations without use of auxiliary differential equations coupled; Solucoes do sistema de equacoes P1 sem o uso de equacoes diferenciais auxiliares acopladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    The system of P1 equations is composed by two equations coupled itself one for the neutron flux and other for the current. Usually this system is solved by definitions of two integrals parameters, which are named slowing down densities of the flux and the current. Hence, the system P1 can be change from integral to only two differential equations. However, there are two new differentials equations that may be solved with the initial system. The present work analyzes this procedure and studies a method, which solve the P1 equations directly, without definitions of slowing down densities. (author)

  8. Micrococcin P1, a naturally occurring macrocyclic peptide inhibiting hepatitis C virus entry in a pan-genotypic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myungeun; Yang, Jaewon; Park, Sanghyun; Jo, Eunji; Kim, Hee-Young; Bae, Yong-Soo; Windisch, Marc P

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered a major public health concern worldwide. Despite recent advances in curing chronic hepatitis C, unmet medical needs still remain, especially due to the high economic burden of therapies. Accordingly, our study aimed to identify affordable novel HCV inhibitors by screening of natural product compound libraries. We identified micrococcin P1, a macrocyclic peptide antibiotic, inhibiting HCV entry in a pan-genotypic manner with an EC50 range of 0.1-0.5 μM. Micrococcin P1 interfered with HCV entry at an attachment step. Furthermore, micrococcin P1 efficiently inhibited HCV spread by blocking cell-free infection as well as cell-to-cell transmission, without affecting the secretion of infectious virions. Interestingly, the putative molecular target of micrococcin P1 is glycoprotein E2 (IIe-630-Thr), as revealed by selection for viral drug resistance. In addition, micrococcin P1 inhibited sofosbuvir-resistant HCV strains and showed synergy in combination with selected HCV drugs, suggesting an alternative treatment paradigm for patients. In conclusion, we identified micrococcin P1 as specifically inhibiting entry of all HCV genotypes and demonstrated that micrococcin P1 potentially could add value to therapies in combination with current HCV interventions. PMID:27387825

  9. 焦化废水中高效Rhodococcus P1菌株的降酚特性研究%CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH EFFICIENCY PHENOL-DEGRADING STRAIN RHODOCOCCUS P1 FOR COKING WASTEWATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙小俊; 张玉秀

    2014-01-01

    通过研究分离鉴定的Rhodococcus P1菌株的苯酚降解性能,表明P1菌株24 h内可完全降解低于907 mg/L的苯酚.苯酚羟化酶基因克隆表达和酶活测定分析表明P1菌株的苯酚代谢途径通过邻苯二酚l,2双加氧酶催化开环降解.除降解苯酚外,P1菌株可利用吡啶作为唯一的碳源和能源.

  10. Expression of flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase is controlled by P1, the regulator of 3-deoxyflavonoid biosynthesis in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mandeep

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maize (Zea mays red aleurone1 (pr1 encodes a CYP450-dependent flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase (ZmF3’H1 required for the biosynthesis of purple and red anthocyanin pigments. We previously showed that Zmf3’h1 is regulated by C1 (Colorless1 and R1 (Red1 transcription factors. The current study demonstrates that, in addition to its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, the Zmf3’h1 gene also participates in the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyflavonoids and phlobaphenes that accumulate in maize pericarps, cob glumes, and silks. Biosynthesis of 3-deoxyflavonoids is regulated by P1 (Pericarp color1 and is independent from the action of C1 and R1 transcription factors. Results In maize, apiforol and luteoforol are the precursors of condensed phlobaphenes. Maize lines with functional alleles of pr1 and p1 (Pr1;P1 accumulate luteoforol, while null pr1 lines with a functional or non-functional p1 allele (pr1;P1 or pr1;p1 accumulate apiforol. Apiforol lacks a hydroxyl group at the 3’-position of the flavylium B-ring, while luteoforol has this hydroxyl group. Our biochemical analysis of accumulated compounds in different pr1 genotypes showed that the pr1 encoded ZmF3’H1 has a role in the conversion of mono-hydroxylated to bi-hydroxylated compounds in the B-ring. Steady state RNA analyses demonstrated that Zmf3’h1 mRNA accumulation requires a functional p1 allele. Using a combination of EMSA and ChIP experiments, we established that the Zmf3’h1 gene is a direct target of P1. Highlighting the significance of the Zmf3’h1 gene for resistance against biotic stress, we also show here that the p1 controlled 3-deoxyanthocyanidin and C-glycosyl flavone (maysin defence compounds accumulate at significantly higher levels in Pr1 silks as compared to pr1 silks. By virtue of increased maysin synthesis in Pr1 plants, corn ear worm larvae fed on Pr1; P1 silks showed slower growth as compared to pr1; P1 silks. Conclusions Our results show that the Zmf3

  11. A positive selection vector for cloning high molecular weight DNA by the bacteriophage P1 system: improved cloning efficacy.

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, J C; Sauer, B; Sternberg, N

    1992-01-01

    The bacteriophage P1 cloning system can package and propagate DNA inserts that are up to 95 kilobases. Clones are maintained in Escherichia coli by a low-copy replicon in the P1 cloning vector and can be amplified by inducing a second replicon in the vector with isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside. To overcome the necessity of screening clones for DNA inserts, we have developed a P1 vector with a positive selection system that is based on the properties of the sacB gene from Bacillus amylo...

  12. 高速线阵CCD IL-P1-4096的原理和应用%Principle and application of high speed CCD IL-P1-4096

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵雷; 施国梁

    2005-01-01

    IL-P1-4096是加拿大DALSA公司生产的双相高速线阵CCD.其单相工作频率可达25MHz甚至更高,因此应用十分广泛.文中介绍了IL-P1-4096的性能和工作原理,并给出了具体的应用电路.

  13. NONINVASIVE BRAIN STIMULATION IN TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Demirtas-Tatlidede, Asli; Vahabzadeh-Hagh, Andrew M.; Bernabeu, Montserrat; Tormos, Jose M.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Brain stimulation techniques have evolved in the last few decades with more novel methods capable of painless, noninvasive brain stimulation. While the number of clinical trials employing noninvasive brain stimulation continues to increase in a variety of medication-resistant neurological and psychiatric diseases, studies evaluating their diagnostic and therapeutic potential in traumatic brain injury (TBI) are largely lacking. This review introduces different techniques of noninvasive brain s...

  14. Further constraints on the optical transmission spectrum of HAT-P-1b

    CERN Document Server

    Montalto, M; Santos, N C; Desidera, S; Martins, J H C; Figueira, P; Alonso, R; .,

    2015-01-01

    We report on novel observations of HAT-P-1 aimed at constraining the optical transmission spectrum of the atmosphere of its transiting Hot-Jupiter exoplanet. Ground-based differential spectrophotometry was performed over two transit windows using the DOLORES spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). Our measurements imply an average planet to star radius ratio equal to $\\rm R_p/R_{\\star}$=(0.1159$\\pm$0.0005). This result is consistent with the value obtained from recent near infrared measurements of this object but differs from previously reported optical measurements being lower by around 4.4 exoplanet scale heights. Analyzing the data over 5 different spectral bins 600\\AA$\\,$ wide we observed a single peaked spectrum (3.7 $\\rm\\sigma$ level) with a blue cut-off corresponding to the blue edge of the broad absorption wing of sodium and an increased absorption in the region in between 6180-7400\\AA. We also infer that the width of the broad absorption wings due to alkali metals is likely narrower t...

  15. Spin-orbit relaxation kinetics of Br(4 2P1/2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ray O.; Perram, Glen P.; Roh, Won B.

    1996-05-01

    Pulsed and steady-state photolysis techniques have been employed to measure the rate coefficients for collisional deactivation of the spin-orbit excited state of atomic bromine, Br(4 2P1/2). Pulsed lifetime studies for quenching by Br2 and CO2 yielded absolute rate coefficients at room temperature of kBr2=1.2±0.1×10-12 and kCO2=1.5±0.3×10-11 cm3/molecule s. The rate coefficients for quenching by rare gases, N2, O2, NO, NO2, N2O, CO, CO2, COS, SO2, SF6, CF4, CH4, H2S, H2, D2, HBr, HCl, and HI, relative to that for Br2 were determined in a steady-state photolysis experiment. Correlation of the deactivation probabilities with energy defect for the case of electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer is demonstrated.

  16. Probing dynamics of a spin ensemble of P1 centers in diamond using a superconducting resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Gijs; Ranjan, Vishal; Schutjens, Ron; Debelhoir, Thibault; Groen, Joost; Szombati, Daniel; Thoen, David; Klapwijk, Teun; Hanson, Ronald; Dicarlo, Leonardo

    2013-03-01

    Solid-state spin ensembles are promising candidates for realizing a quantum memory for superconducting circuits. Understanding the dynamics of such ensembles is a necessary step towards achieving this goal. Here, we investigate the dynamics of an ensemble of nitrogen impurities (P1 centers) in diamond using magnetic-field controlled coupling to the first two modes of a superconducting (NbTiN) coplanar waveguide resonator. Three hyperfine-split spin sub-ensembles are clearly resolved in the 0.25-1.2 K temperature range, with a collective coupling strength extrapolating to 23 MHz at full polarization. The coupling to multiple modes allows us to distinguish the contributions of dipolar broadening and magnetic field inhomogeneity to the spin linewidth. We find the spin polarization recovery rate to be temperature independent below 1 K and conclude that spin out-diffusion across the resonator mode volume provides the mechanism for spin relaxation of the ensemble. Furthermore, by pumping spins in one sub-ensemble and probing the spins in the other sub-ensembles, we observe fast steady-state cross-relaxation (compared to spin repolarization) across the hyperfine transitions. These observations have important implications for using the three sub-ensembles as independent quantum memories. Research supported by NWO, FOM, and EU Project SOLID

  17. The evolving activity of the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used the Ultraviolet-Optical Telescope on board Swift to observe the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) from a heliocentric distance of 3.5 AU pre-perihelion until 4.0 AU outbound. At 3.5 AU pre-perihelion, comet Garradd had one of the highest dust-to-gas ratios ever observed, matched only by comet Hale-Bopp. The evolving morphology of the dust in its coma suggests an outburst that ended around 2.2 AU pre-perihelion. Comparing slit-based measurements and observations acquired with larger fields of view indicated that between 3 AU and 2 AU pre-perihelion a significant extended source started producing water in the coma. We demonstrate that this source, which could be due to icy grains, disappeared quickly around perihelion. Water production by the nucleus may be attributed to a constantly active source of at least 75 km2, estimated to be >20% of the surface. Based on our measurements, the comet lost 4 × 1011 kg of ice and dust during this apparition, corresponding to at most a few meters of its surface. Even though this was likely not the comet's first passage through the inner solar system, the activity of Garradd was complex and changed significantly during the time it was observed.

  18. Uncorrelated Volatile Behavior During the 2011 Apparition of Comet C/2009 P1 Garradd

    CERN Document Server

    Feaga, Lori M; Farnham, Tony L; Bodewits, Dennis; Sunshine, Jessica M; Gersch, Alan M; Protopapa, Silvia; Yang, Bin; Drahus, Michal; Schleicher, David G

    2013-01-01

    The High Resolution Instrument Infrared Spectrometer (HRI-IR) onboard the Deep Impact Flyby spacecraft detected H2O, CO2, and CO in the coma of the dynamically young Oort cloud comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) post-perihelion at a heliocentric distance of 2 AU. Production rates were derived for the parent volatiles, QH2O = 4.6e28, QCO2 = 3.9e27, and QCO = 2.9e28 molecules s-1, and are consistent with the trends seen by other observers and within the error bars of measurements acquired during a similar time period. When compiled with other observations of the dominant volatiles of Garradd, unexpected behavior was seen in the release of CO. The H2O outgassing of Garradd, increasing and peaking pre-perihelion and then steadily decreasing, is more typical than that of CO, which monotonically increased throughout the entire apparition. Due to the temporal asymmetry in volatile release, Garradd exhibited the highest CO to H2O abundance ratio ever observed for any comet inside the water snow line at 60 percent during the H...

  19. Uncorrelated volatile behavior during the 2011 apparition of comet C/2009 P1 Garradd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Resolution Instrument Infrared Spectrometer (HRI-IR) on board the Deep Impact Flyby spacecraft detected H2O, CO2, and CO in the coma of the dynamically young Oort Cloud comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) post-perihelion at a heliocentric distance of 2 AU. Production rates were derived for the parent volatiles, Q H2O = 4.6 ± 0.8 × 1028, Q CO2 = 3.9 ± 0.7 × 1027, and Q CO = 2.9 ± 0.8 × 1028 molecules s–1, and are consistent with the trends seen by other observers and within the error bars of measurements acquired during a similar time period. When compiled with other observations of Garradd's dominant volatiles, unexpected behavior was seen in the release of CO. Garradd's H2O outgassing, increasing and peaking pre-perihelion and then steadily decreasing, is more typical than that of CO, which monotonically increased throughout the entire apparition. Due to the temporal asymmetry in volatile release, Garradd exhibited the highest CO to H2O abundance ratio ever observed for any comet inside the water snow line at ∼60% during the HRI-IR observations. Also, the HRI-IR made the only direct measurement of CO2, giving a typical cometary abundance ratio of CO2 to H2O of 8% but, with only one measurement, no sense of how it varied with orbital position.

  20. The evolving activity of the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodewits, D.; Farnham, T. L.; A' Hearn, M. F.; Feaga, L. M.; Sunshine, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); McKay, A. [Astronomy Department, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Schleicher, D. G., E-mail: dennis@astro.umd.edu [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We used the Ultraviolet-Optical Telescope on board Swift to observe the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) from a heliocentric distance of 3.5 AU pre-perihelion until 4.0 AU outbound. At 3.5 AU pre-perihelion, comet Garradd had one of the highest dust-to-gas ratios ever observed, matched only by comet Hale-Bopp. The evolving morphology of the dust in its coma suggests an outburst that ended around 2.2 AU pre-perihelion. Comparing slit-based measurements and observations acquired with larger fields of view indicated that between 3 AU and 2 AU pre-perihelion a significant extended source started producing water in the coma. We demonstrate that this source, which could be due to icy grains, disappeared quickly around perihelion. Water production by the nucleus may be attributed to a constantly active source of at least 75 km{sup 2}, estimated to be >20% of the surface. Based on our measurements, the comet lost 4 × 10{sup 11} kg of ice and dust during this apparition, corresponding to at most a few meters of its surface. Even though this was likely not the comet's first passage through the inner solar system, the activity of Garradd was complex and changed significantly during the time it was observed.

  1. U ( 3 C × S p ( 1 L × U ( 1 L × U ( 1 R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfredo Anchordoqui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We outline the basic setting of the U ( 3 C × S p ( 1 L × U ( 1 L × U ( 1 R gauge theory and review the associated phenomenological aspects related to experimental searches for new physics at hadron colliders. In this construction, there are two massive Z ′-gauge bosons, which can be naturally associated with baryon number B   and   B - L   ( L being lepton number. We discuss the potential signals which may be accessible at the Tevatron and at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC. In particular, we provide the relevant cross sections for the production of Z ′-gauge bosons in the TeV region, leading to predictions that are within reach of the present or the next LHC run. After that we direct attention to embedding the gauge theory into the framework of string theory. We consider extensions of the standard model based on open strings ending on D-branes, with gauge bosons due to strings attached to stacks of D-branes and chiral matter due to strings stretching between intersecting D-branes. Assuming that the fundamental string mass scale is in the TeV range and the theory is weakly coupled, we explore the LHC discovery potential for Regge excitations.

  2. The Evolving Activity of the Dynamically Young Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    CERN Document Server

    Bodewits, D; A'Hearn, M F; Feaga, L M; McKay, A; Schleicher, D G; Sunshine, J M

    2014-01-01

    We used the UltraViolet-Optical Telescope on board Swift to observe the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) from a heliocentric distance of 3.5 AU pre-perihelion until 4.0 AU outbound. At 3.5 AU pre-perihelion, comet Garradd had one of the highest dust-to-gas ratios ever observed, matched only by comet Hale-Bopp. The evolving morphology of the dust in its coma suggests an outburst that ended around 2.2 AU pre-perihelion. Comparing slit-based measurements and observations acquired with larger fields of view indicated that between 3 AU and 2 AU pre-perihelion a significant extended source started producing water in the coma. We demonstrate that this source, which could be due to icy grains, disappeared quickly around perihelion. Water production by the nucleus may be attributed to a constantly active source of at least 75 km$^2$, estimated to be more than 20 percent of the surface. Based on our measurements, the comet lost $4x10^{11}$ kg of ice and dust during this apparition, corresponding to at most a...

  3. The Properties of Sintered Calcium Phosphate with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Chin Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain the properties of the sintered as-dried calcium phosphate with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50, the characteristics of sintered pellets have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectra, Vickers hardness indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. When the pellet samples were sintered between 700 °C and 1200 °C for 4 h, the hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO46(OH2, HA still maintained the major phase, accompanied with the rhenanite (NaCaPO4 as the secondary phase and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO42, β-TCP as the minor phases. In addition, the HA partially transformed to α-tricalcium phosphate (α-Ca3(PO42, α-TCP and tetracalcium phosphate (Ca4(PO42O, TTCP, when the pellet samples were sintered at 1300 °C and 1400 °C, respectively, for 4 h. The maximum density and Vickers Hardness (HV of sintered pellet samples were 2.85 g/cm3 (90.18% theoretical density (T.D. and 407, which appeared at 1200 °C and 900 °C, respectively.

  4. Biochemical characterization of three distinct polygalacturonases from Neosartorya fischeri P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xia; Li, Ke; Ma, Rui; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Yang, Peilong; Meng, Kun; Yao, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Polygalacturonase is one of the most important industrial pectinases. To enrich the genetic resources and develop new enzyme candidates, three polygalacturonase genes (Nfpg I-III) of glycosyl hydrolase family 28 were cloned from Neosartorya fischeri P1 and functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris. The purified recombinant proteins exhibited some distinguished properties. In comparison with other counterparts, NfPG I showed the highest specific activity (40, 123 U/mg), NfPG II had the highest temperature optimum (65 °C), and the pH optimum of NfPG III was the lowest (3.5). The orders of their thermostability and resistance to chemicals tested were NfPG II>NfPG III>NfPG I and NfPG II>NfPG I>NfPG III, respectively. Combinations of these enzymes showed better performance than individuals in the processing and clarification of apple and strawberry juice. These results suggest that N. fischeri polygalacturonases have great application potentials in the food industry for juice production. PMID:26041232

  5. Precision Measurement of the Mass of the h_c(1P1) State of Charmonium

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbs, S; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Libby, J; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M; Love, W; Savinov, V; López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Reed, J; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hunt, J M; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Ledoux, J; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P

    2008-01-01

    A precision measurement of the mass of the h_c(1P1) state of charmonium has been made using a sample of 24.5 million psi(2S) events produced in e+e- annihilation at CESR. The reaction used was psi(2S) -> pi0 h_c, pi0 -> gamma gamma, h_c -> gamma eta_c, and the reaction products were detected in the CLEO-c detector. Data have been analyzed both for the inclusive reaction and for the exclusive reactions in which eta_c decays are reconstructed in fifteen hadronic decay channels. Consistent results are obtained in the two analyses. The averaged results of the present measurements are M(h_c)=3525.28+-0.19 (stat)+-0.12(syst) MeV, and B(psi(2S) -> pi0 h_c)xB(h_c -> gamma eta_c)= (4.19+-0.32+-0.45)x10^-4. Using the 3PJ centroid mass, Delta M_hf(1P)= - M(h_c) = +0.02+-0.19+-0.13 MeV.

  6. Understanding the Biocompatibility of Sintered Calcium Phosphate with Ratio of [Ca]/[P] = 1.50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Lin Yen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatibility of sintered calcium phosphate pellets with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50 was determined in this study. Calcium pyrophosphate (CPP phase formed on the sintered pellets immersed in a normal saline solution for 14 d at 37∘C. The intensities of hydroxyapatite (HA reflections in the X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of the pellets were retrieved to as-sintered state. The pellet surface morphology shows that CPP crystallites were clearly present and make an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP to discriminate against become to the area of slice join together. In addition, the intensities of the CPP reflections in the XRD patterns were the highest when the pellets were immersed for 28 d. When the CPP powders were extracted from the pellets after immersion in the solution for 14 d, the viability of 3T3 cells remained above 90% for culture times from 1 to 4 d. The pellet surface morphology observed using optical microscopy showed that the cells did not adhere to the bottom of the sintered pellets when cultured for 4 d; however, some CPP phase precipitates were formed, as confirmed by XRD. In consequence, the results suggest that the sintered HA powders are good materials for use in biomedical applications because of their good biocompatibility.

  7. Precision frequency measurement of 1S0–3P1 intercombination lines of Sr isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on frequency measurement of the intercombination (5s2)1S0–(5s5p)3P1 transition of the four natural isotopes of strontium, including 88Sr (82.58%), 87Sr (7.0%), 86Sr (9.86%), and 84Sr (0.56%). A narrow-linewidth laser that is locked to an ultra-low expansion (ULE) optical cavity with a finesse of 12000 is evaluated at a linewidth of 200 Hz with a fractional frequency drift of 2.8×10−13 at an integration time of 1 s. The fluorescence collector and detector are specially designed, based on a thermal atomic beam. Using a double-pass acousto-optic modulator (AOM) combined with a fiber and laser power stabilization configuration to detune the laser frequency enables high signal-to-noise ratios and precision saturated spectra to be obtained for the six transition lines, which allows us to determine the transition frequency precisely. The optical frequency is measured using an optical frequency synthesizer referenced to an H maser. Both the statistical values and the final values, including the corrections and uncertainties, are derived for a comparison with the values given in other works. (paper)

  8. Absolute frequency measurement of the magnesium intercombination transition $^1S_0 \\to ^3P_1$

    CERN Document Server

    Friebe, Jan; Riedmann, Matthias; Moldenhauer, Karsten; Mehlstäubler, Tanja; Rehbein, Nils; Lisdat, Christian; Rasel, Ernst M; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Schnatz, Harald; Lipphardt, Burghard; Grosche, Gesine

    2007-01-01

    We report on a frequency measurement of the $(3s^2)^1S_0\\to(3s3p)^3P_1$ clock transition of $^{24}$Mg on a thermal atomic beam. The intercombination transition has been referenced to a portable primary Cs frequency standard with the help of a femtosecond fiber laser frequency comb. The achieved uncertainty is $2.5\\times10^{-12}$ which corresponds to an increase in accuracy of six orders of magnitude compared to previous results. The measured frequency value permits the calculation of several other optical transitions from $^1S_0$ to the $^3P_J$-level system for $^{24}$Mg, $^{25}$Mg and $^{26}$Mg. We describe in detail the components of our optical frequency standard like the stabilized spectroscopy laser, the atomic beam apparatus used for Ramsey-Bord\\'e interferometry and the frequency comb generator and discuss the uncertainty contributions to our measurement including the first and second order Doppler effect. An upper limit of $3\\times10^{-13}$ in one second for the short term instability of our optical f...

  9. Adolescent and Pediatric Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abta.org Donate Now Menu Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors Brain Tumors In Children Pediatric Brain Tumor Diagnosis Family ... or Complete our contact form Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors Brain Tumors In Children Pediatric Brain Tumor Diagnosis Family ...

  10. Design a Close Loop Cooling System for EA-P1 and Its Auxiliaries to Prevent Loss of Domestic Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any one of four machines i.e. EA-P1, EA-J4, EA-J5 and EA-J6 may be used to develop vacuum in water box side of main condenser in KANUPP. As per design and operating experience, most efficient one is EA-P1. But since it consumes ample quantity of domestic water which is already very short at KANUPP (even tankers are purchased), its use is avoided. If water used for its cooling is prevented from going to waste and is recycled. EA-P1 operation may be resumed thereby improving efficiency of condenser. We made a close loop for EA-P1 in order to prevent water from going to waste. For this purpose we suggested two close loop schemes and discuss their advantages and drawbacks. Feasibility of both schemes is present in this report and efficient one is proposed for installation at KANUPP. (author)

  11. The crystal structure of recombinant proDer p 1, a major house dust mite proteolytic allergen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meno, Kåre; Thorsted, Peter B; Ipsen, Henrik;

    2005-01-01

    Allergy to house dust mite is among the most prevalent allergic diseases worldwide. Most house dust mite allergic patients react to Der p 1 from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, which is a cysteine protease. To avoid heterogeneity in the sample used for crystallization, a modified recombinant...... molecule was produced. The sequence of the proDer p 1 allergen was modified to reduce glycosylation and to abolish enzymatic activity. The resulting rproDer p 1 preparation was homogenous and stable and yielded crystals diffracting to a resolution of 1.61 A. The active site is located in a large cleft on...... substrates. Sequence variations in related species are concentrated on the surface, which explains the existence of cross-reacting and species-specific antibodies. This study describes the first crystal structure of one of the clinically most important house dust mite allergens, the cysteine protease Der p 1....

  12. The activation of P1- and P2-purinoceptors in the guinea-pig left atrium by diadenosine polyphosphates.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyle, C. H.; Ziganshin, A. U.; Pintor, J; Burnstock, G.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of P1, P2-di(adenosine) pyrophosphate (AP2A), P1, P3-di(adenosine) triphosphate (AP3A), P1,P4-di(adenosine) tetraphosphate (AP4A), P1,P5-di(adenosine) pentaphosphate (AP5A), ATP, alpha, beta-methylene ADP and 2-chloroadenosine (2-ClAd) were examined in the guinea-pig driven left atrium. 2. All these purine compounds except alpha, beta-methylene ADP produced a negative inotropic response with a rank order of potency of: 2-ClAd > > AP2A > or = ATP > or = AP4A = AP3A = AP5A. The E...

  13. Ricci Flow of Warped Product Metrics with Positive Isotropic Curvature on $S^{p+1}× S^1$

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H A Gururaja

    2012-11-01

    We study the asymptotic behaviour of the ODE associated to the evolution of curvature operator in the Ricci flow of a doubly warped product metric on $S^{p+1}× S^1$ with positive isotropic curvature.

  14. Non-relativistic limit of the compressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier-P1 approximation model arising in radiation hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Song; Li, Fucai; Xie, Feng

    2015-01-01

    As is well-known that the general radiation hydrodynamics models include two mainly coupled parts: one is macroscopic fluid part, which is governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, another is radiation field part, which is described by the transport equation of photons. Under the two physical approximations: "gray" approximation and P1 approximation, one can derive the so-called Navier-Stokes-Fourier-P1 approximation radiation hydrodynamics model from the general one. In t...

  15. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins, P1 and P2, localize to the tonoplast in the presence of virus RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the virus components important for assembly of the Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase complex, we used live cell imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that expressed various virus cDNAs encoding native and GFP-fusion proteins of P1 and P2 replicase proteins and full-length virus RNAs. Expression of P1-GFP alone resulted in fluorescent vesicle-like bodies in the cytoplasm that colocalized with FM4-64, an endocytic marker, and RFP-AtVSR2, RabF2a/Rha1-mCherry, and RabF2b/Ara7-mCherry, all of which localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also called prevacuolar compartments, that mediate traffic to the lytic vacuole. GFP-P2 was driven from the cytosol to MVBs when expressed with P1 indicating that P1 recruited GFP-P2. P1-GFP localized on the tonoplast, which surrounds the vacuole, in the presence of infectious virus RNA, replication competent RNA2, or P2 and replication competent RNA1 or RNA3. This suggests that a functional replication complex containing P1, P2, and a full-length AMV RNA assembles on MVBs to traffic to the tonoplast.

  16. Tensor polarizability of the 21P1 state of helium and the cascade Hanle effect study in neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements in atomic helium of the tensor polarizability of the 2 1P1 state have been made and are excellent agreement with the theory. From these measurements the tensor polarizability, α2(2 1P1), of the 2 1P1 state is found to be (3.32 +- 0.10) x 10-23 cm3 Measurements in atomic neon of the radiative lifetimes of the excited states 2p10(3S1), 2p8(3D2) and 2p5(1P1) of the 2p53P series and the resonance levels 1S4(3P1) and 1s2(1P1) of the 2p53s series have been made using the cascade Hanle effect technique. From these measurements the lifetimes (π) of the excited states and the resonance levels are found to be tau(2p10) = (20.08 +- .97) x 10-9 sec., tau(2p) = (11.52 +- .73) x 10-9 sec., tau(2p5) = (26.43 +- 1.02) x 10-9 sec., tau(1s4) = (27.62 +- 1.03) x 10-99 sec., and tau(1s2) = (2.46 +- .32) x 10-9 sec. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  17. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins, P1 and P2, localize to the tonoplast in the presence of virus RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Amr; Hutchens, Heather M; Berg, R Howard; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2012-11-25

    To identify the virus components important for assembly of the Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase complex, we used live cell imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that expressed various virus cDNAs encoding native and GFP-fusion proteins of P1 and P2 replicase proteins and full-length virus RNAs. Expression of P1-GFP alone resulted in fluorescent vesicle-like bodies in the cytoplasm that colocalized with FM4-64, an endocytic marker, and RFP-AtVSR2, RabF2a/Rha1-mCherry, and RabF2b/Ara7-mCherry, all of which localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also called prevacuolar compartments, that mediate traffic to the lytic vacuole. GFP-P2 was driven from the cytosol to MVBs when expressed with P1 indicating that P1 recruited GFP-P2. P1-GFP localized on the tonoplast, which surrounds the vacuole, in the presence of infectious virus RNA, replication competent RNA2, or P2 and replication competent RNA1 or RNA3. This suggests that a functional replication complex containing P1, P2, and a full-length AMV RNA assembles on MVBs to traffic to the tonoplast. PMID:22999257

  18. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins, P1 and P2, localize to the tonoplast in the presence of virus RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Amr [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Present address: Genomics Facility, Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza 12619 (Egypt); Hutchens, Heather M. [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Howard Berg, R. [Integrated Microscopy Facility, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, Saint Louis, MO 63132 (United States); Sue Loesch-Fries, L., E-mail: loeschfr@purdue.edu [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2012-11-25

    To identify the virus components important for assembly of the Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase complex, we used live cell imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that expressed various virus cDNAs encoding native and GFP-fusion proteins of P1 and P2 replicase proteins and full-length virus RNAs. Expression of P1-GFP alone resulted in fluorescent vesicle-like bodies in the cytoplasm that colocalized with FM4-64, an endocytic marker, and RFP-AtVSR2, RabF2a/Rha1-mCherry, and RabF2b/Ara7-mCherry, all of which localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also called prevacuolar compartments, that mediate traffic to the lytic vacuole. GFP-P2 was driven from the cytosol to MVBs when expressed with P1 indicating that P1 recruited GFP-P2. P1-GFP localized on the tonoplast, which surrounds the vacuole, in the presence of infectious virus RNA, replication competent RNA2, or P2 and replication competent RNA1 or RNA3. This suggests that a functional replication complex containing P1, P2, and a full-length AMV RNA assembles on MVBs to traffic to the tonoplast.

  19. American Brain Tumor Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Health Care Professionals About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics ABTA Publications Brain Tumor ...

  20. Brain Tumor Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatric Caregiver Resource Center About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics ABTA Publications Brain Tumor ...

  1. Anatomy of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics ABTA Publications Brain Tumor ...

  2. Nitridation of InP(1 0 0) substrates studied by XPS spectroscopy and electrical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbi, A. [Laboratoire de Microelectronique Appliquee Universite Djillali Liabes de Sidi Bel Abbes 22000 (Algeria)]. E-mail: talbi_a02@yahoo.fr; Benamara, Z. [Laboratoire de Microelectronique Appliquee Universite Djillali Liabes de Sidi Bel Abbes 22000 (Algeria); Akkal, B. [Laboratoire de Microelectronique Appliquee Universite Djillali Liabes de Sidi Bel Abbes 22000 (Algeria); Gruzza, B. [Laboratoire des Sciences des Materiaux Pour l' Electronique et d' Automatique, Universite Blaise Pascal de Clermont II, Les Cezeaux, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Bideux, L. [Laboratoire des Sciences des Materiaux Pour l' Electronique et d' Automatique, Universite Blaise Pascal de Clermont II, Les Cezeaux, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Robert, C. [Laboratoire des Sciences des Materiaux Pour l' Electronique et d' Automatique, Universite Blaise Pascal de Clermont II, Les Cezeaux, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Varenne, C. [Laboratoire des Sciences des Materiaux Pour l' Electronique et d' Automatique, Universite Blaise Pascal de Clermont II, Les Cezeaux, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Chami, N. [Laboratoire de Microelectronique Appliquee Universite Djillali Liabes de Sidi Bel Abbes 22000 (Algeria)

    2006-11-15

    The nitrides of group III metals as InN are very important materials in optoelectronic (light-emitting diodes and laser diodes) and microelectronic areas. It is essential for the realisation of such devices to grow high quality nitride single crystals. In this paper, the nitridation of InP(1 0 0) surfaces has been studied in situ using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After ionic cleaning by Ar{sup +} ions, metallic indium crystallites are created and the nitridation of the substrates is performed using a plasma glow discharge cell reaction with these indium clusters. We used the In{sub 4d} and P{sub 2p} core levels to monitor the chemical state of the surface and the coverage of the present species. We observed the creation of InN and PN bonds while the In-In metallic bonds decrease. This confirms the reaction between indium clusters and nitrogen species. A theoretical model based on stacked layers allows us to assert that we have produced almost two monolayers of indium nitride. In order to determine the quality of the elaborated nitride films and the electrical properties of the InN/InP interface we have used the I(V) electrical method. Analysis of the measured characteristics at room temperature allows the determination of the electrical parameters. The saturation current I {sub s}, the ideality factor {eta}, and the serial resistance R {sub s} are evaluated to 1.92 x 10{sup -6} A, 3.07 and 375 {omega}, respectively. The barrier height is determined at room temperature and is equal to 0.547 eV.

  3. Broad-Host-Range IncP-1 plasmids and their resistance potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MagdalenaPopowska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasmids of the incompatibility group IncP-1, also called IncP, as extrachromosomal genetic elements can transfer and replicate virtually in all Gram-negative bacteria. They are composed of backbone genes that encode a variety of essential functions and accessory genes that have implications for human health and environmental bioremediation. Broad-host-range IncP plasmids are known to spread genes between distinct phylogenetic groups of bacteria. These genes often code for resistances to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, heavy metals and quaternary ammonium compounds used as disinfectants. The backbone of these plasmids carries modules that enable them to effectively replicate, move to a new host via conjugative transfer and to be stably maintained in bacterial cells. The adaptive, resistance and virulence genes are mainly located on mobile genetic elements integrated between the functional plasmid backbone modules. Environmental studies have demonstrated the wide distribution of IncP-like replicons in manure, soils and wastewater treatment plants. They also are present in strains of pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria, which can be a cause for concern, because they may encode multiresistance. Their broad distribution suggests that IncP plasmids play a crucial role in bacterial adaptation by utilizing horizontal gene transfer. This review summarizes the variety of genetic information and physiological functions carried by IncP plasmids, which can contribute to the spread of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance while also mediating the process of bioremediation of pollutants. Due to the location of the resistance genes on plasmids with a broad host range and the presence of transposons carrying these genes it seems that the spread of these genes would be possible and quite hazardous in infection control. Future studies are required to determine the level of risk of the spread of resistance genes located on these plasmids.

  4. 对GB/T 16306-1996中确定P1值做法的疑义%Doubt on the method in GB/T 16306-1996 to confirm P1 value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶永和

    2004-01-01

    质量监督部门在进行质量监督把关时,是通过对样品检验的结果来判定被监督产品总体的质量水平。当被监督产品总体被确定为不合格时,被判定为不合格的企业要求复检,现行的依据标准是GB/T16306—1996((产品质量监督复查程序及抽样方案》。标准规定:当P0≤0.1时,P1≤20Po;0.1P1≤5P0;当1.0P1≤4P0;当4.0P1≤3P0。P1的数值应参考上述规定,由监督方与被监督方协商确定。从标准中查到的各

  5. Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain and Nervous System KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain and Nervous System Print ... is quite the juggler. Anatomy of the Nervous System If you think of the brain as a ...

  6. Brain tumor (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are classified depending on the exact site of the tumor, the type of tissue involved, benign ... tendencies of the tumor, and other factors. Primary brain tumors can arise from the brain cells, the meninges ( ...

  7. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  8. Genetic Brain Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form of a ... is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the brain. ...

  9. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that people ...

  10. P1 Epigenetic Regulation in Leaves of High Altitude Maize Landraces: Effect of UV-B Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Sebastián P.; Emiliani, Julia; Casati, Paula

    2016-01-01

    P1 is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates the accumulation of a specific group of flavonoids in maize floral tissues, such as flavones and phlobaphenes. P1 is also highly expressed in leaves of maize landraces adapted to high altitudes and higher levels of UV-B radiation. In this work, we analyzed the epigenetic regulation of the P1 gene by UV-B in leaves of different maize landraces. Our results demonstrate that DNA methylation in the P1 proximal promoter, intron1 and intron2 is decreased by UV-B in all lines analyzed; however, the basal DNA methylation levels are lower in the landraces than in B73, a low altitude inbred line. DNA demethylation by UV-B is accompanied by a decrease in H3 methylation at Lys 9 and 27, and by an increase in H3 acetylation. smRNAs complementary to specific regions of the proximal promoter and of intron 2 3′ end are also decreased by UV-B; interestingly, P1 smRNA levels are lower in the landraces than in B73 both under control conditions and after UV-B exposure, suggesting that smRNAs regulate P1 expression by UV-B in maize leaves. Finally, we investigated if different P1 targets in flower tissues are also regulated by this transcription factor in response to UV-B. Some targets analyzed show an induction in maize landraces in response to UV-B, with higher basal expression levels in the landraces than in B73; however, not all the transcripts analyzed were found to be regulated by UV-B in leaves. PMID:27148340

  11. Distant Jupiter family Comet P/2011 P1 (McNaught)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsun, Pavlo P.; Ivanova, Oleksandra V.; Afanasiev, Viktor L.; Kulyk, Irina V.

    2016-03-01

    The spectra and images obtained through broadband BVRc filters for Jupiter family Comet P/2011 P1 (McNaught) were analyzed. We observed the comet on November 24, 2011, when its heliocentric distance was 5.43 AU. Two dimensional long slit spectra and photometric images were obtained using the focal reducer SCORPIO attached to the prime focus of the 6-m telescope BTA (SAO RAS, Russia). The spectra cover the wavelength range of 4200-7000 Å. No emissions of C2 and CO+, which are expected in this wavelength region, were detected above 3σ level. An upper limit in gas production rate of C2 is expected to be 1.1 × 1024 mol s-1. The continuum shows a reddening effect with the normalized gradient of reflectivity along dispersion of 5.1 ± 1.2% per 1000 Å. The color indices (B-V) = 0.89 ± 0.09 and (V-Rc) = 0.42 ± 0.07 for the nucleus region or (B-V) = 0.68 ± 0.12 and (V-Rc) = 0.39 ± 0.10 for the coma region, which are derived from the photometric data, also evidence that the color of the cometary nucleus and dust are redder with respect to the Sun. The normalized gradients of 5.9 ± 2.9% per 1000 Å and 2.6 ± 1.9% per 1000 Å for VRc filters were obtained for the cometary nucleus and the dust coma, respectively. The estimated dust mass production rate is about 12 kg s-1 for Rc filter. The dust coma like a spiral galaxy edge-on was fitted using a Monte Carlo model. Since it is expected that the particles forming the dust coma consist of "dirty" ice, Greenberg's model was adopted to track grains with an icy component that evaporates slowly when exposed to solar radiation. The observed coma was fitted assuming two isolated active zones located at the cometocentric latitudes of -8° and -35° with outflow of the dust within the cones having half opening angles of 8° and 70°, respectively. About, 45% and 55% of the observed dust were originated from the high collimated and low collimated active zones, respectively. The spin-axis of the rotating nucleus is positioned in

  12. Hearing facial identities: brain correlates of face--voice integration in person identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Kloth, Nadine; Robertson, David M C

    2011-10-01

    Audiovisual integration (AVI) is a well-known aspect of speech perception, but integration of facial and vocal information is also important for speaker recognition. We recently demonstrated AVI in the recognition of familiar (but not unfamiliar) speakers. Specifically, systematic behavioural benefits and costs in recognizing a familiar voice occur when the voice is combined with a time-synchronised articulating face of corresponding or noncorresponding speaker identity, respectively (Schweinberger et al., 2007; Robertson and Schweinberger, 2010). Here we report an experiment assessing event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in this novel paradigm, while participants recognized familiar speakers presented in (1) Voice only, (2) voice with identity-corresponding and (3) noncorresponding time-synchronised speaking faces, as well as (4) Face only conditions. Audiovisual speaker identity correspondence influenced only later ERPs around 250-600 msec, with increased negativity for noncorresponding identities at central electrodes. Strikingly, when compared with the ERPs from both unimodal conditions, both audiovisual conditions led to a much earlier onset of frontocentral negativity, with maximal differences around 50-80 msec. Moreover, audiovisual stimuli elicited larger N170 responses than Face only stimuli. These findings suggest that the perception of a voice and a time-synchronised articulating face triggers remarkably early and mandatory mechanisms of audiovisual processing, although the correspondence or discrepancy in audiovisual speaker identity may only be computed ∼200msec later. PMID:21208611

  13. Brain response during the M170 time interval is sensitive to socially relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arviv, Oshrit; Goldstein, Abraham; Weeting, Janine C; Becker, Eni S; Lange, Wolf-Gero; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Deciphering the social meaning of facial displays is a highly complex neurological process. The M170, an event related field component of MEG recording, like its EEG counterpart N170, was repeatedly shown to be associated with structural encoding of faces. However, the scope of information encoded during the M170 time window is still being debated. We investigated the neuronal origin of facial processing of integrated social rank cues (SRCs) and emotional facial expressions (EFEs) during the M170 time interval. Participants viewed integrated facial displays of emotion (happy, angry, neutral) and SRCs (indicated by upward, downward, or straight head tilts). We found that the activity during the M170 time window is sensitive to both EFEs and SRCs. Specifically, highly prominent activation was observed in response to SRC connoting dominance as compared to submissive or egalitarian head cues. Interestingly, the processing of EFEs and SRCs appeared to rely on different circuitry. Our findings suggest that vertical head tilts are processed not only for their sheer structural variance, but as social information. Exploring the temporal unfolding and brain localization of non-verbal cues processing may assist in understanding the functioning of the social rank biobehavioral system. PMID:26423664

  14. Comparative analysis between P1 and B1 equations for neutron moderation; Analise comparativa entre os metodos de obtencao e das solucoes das equacoes P1 e B1 para moderacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    In order to calculate the neutron flux in nuclear reactors, B1 or P1 equations are solved by numerical methods for several groups of energy. The neutron fluxes obtained from the solutions of the B1 and P1 equations are similar when they are applied to large nuclear power reactors. However, an important difference between the two fluxes is that the system of P1 equations uses one more approximation than the B1 system and then, its flux is less precise. The present work shows the relations between both equations and analyzes for what conditions the two equations systems are equivalent. Furthermore, this equations are numerically solved in 54 groups of energy for a quadrangular arrange. (author)

  15. Left Brain, Right Brain: Facts and Fantasies

    OpenAIRE

    Corballis, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Summary Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes respo...

  16. FROM BRAIN DRAIN TO BRAIN NETWORKING

    OpenAIRE

    Irina BONCEA

    2015-01-01

    Scientific networking is the most accessible way a country can turn the brain drain into brain gain. Diaspora’s members offer valuable information, advice or financial support from the destination country, without being necessary to return. This article aims to investigate Romania’s potential of turning brain drain into brain networking, using evidence from the medical sector. The main factors influencing the collaboration with the country of origin are investigated. The co...

  17. Brain evolution by brain pathway duplication

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of evolution of brain pathways for complex behaviours is still in its infancy. Making further advances requires a deeper understanding of brain homologies, novelties and analogies. It also requires an understanding of how adaptive genetic modifications lead to restructuring of the brain. Recent advances in genomic and molecular biology techniques applied to brain research have provided exciting insights into how complex behaviours are shaped by selection of novel ...

  18. Base input for large break LOCA analysis of commercial PWR with published version of THYDE-P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes input data to be used with the THYDE-P1 interim version SV02L03, which has been published through NEA DATA BANK in April, 1982, and its calculated results. The input data consist of three input data sets, one is for steady state and the following transients and the other two are for restarting, and they are successively used for a through calculation of a large break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) of a 1,100 MWe commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) with ''best estimate'' (BE) options. The major purposes to set up the input data are not only to provide users sample data in publishing THYDE-P1 but also to demonstrate the ability of the published version of THYDE-P1 without any modification to perform a through calculation of a large break LOCA. The results from the present calculation will also be widely utilized as a bench mark in performing sensitivity calculations and further code modifications. In this sense, the input can be called a base input for the published version of THYDE-P1. This report also contains the results from several sensitivity calculations, which show high capability of the version of THYDE-P1 to analyse large break LOCAs. (author)

  19. Photodynamics of blue-light-regulated phosphodiesterase BlrP1 protein from Klebsiella pneumoniae and its photoreceptor BLUF domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BlrP1 protein from the enteric bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae consists of a BLUF and an EAL domain and may activate c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase by blue-light. The full-length protein, BlrP1, and its BLUF domain, BlrP1BLUF, are characterized by optical absorption and emission spectroscopy. The cofactor FAD in its oxidized redox state (FADox) is brought from the dark-adapted receptor state to the 10-nm red-shifted putative signalling state by violet light exposure. The recovery to the receptor state occurs with a time constant of about 1 min. The quantum yield of signalling state formation is about 0.17 for BlrP1BLUF and about 0.08 for BlrP1. The fluorescence efficiency of the FADox cofactor is small due to photo-induced reductive electron transfer. Prolonged light exposure converts FADox in the signalling state to the fully reduced hydroquinone form FADredH- and causes low-efficient chromophore release with subsequent photo-degradation. The photo-cycle and photo-reduction dynamics in the receptor state and in the signalling state are discussed

  20. Measurement of the forbidden 2 3S1 - 2 1P1 transition in quantum degenerate helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a longstanding 6.8 (3.0) MHz discrepancy between QED theory and the experimental value of the ionization energy of the 21P1 state in helium. We present the first measurement of the forbidden 887-nm 23S1-21P1 transition in a quantum degenerate gas of 4He*, using the experimental setup as used to measure the doubly forbidden 23S1-21S0 transition by van Rooij et al. (Science 333, 196 (2011)). The low temperature of the gas (∝1 μK) allows us to observe the transition close to its natural linewidth of 284 MHz. From our measurements we obtain the transition frequency with a preliminary accuracy of 0.57 MHz, i.e. at 0.2% of its natural linewidth. Our result already deviates >3σ from the current QED theory for the 2 1P1 ionization energy. Recent measurements by Luo et al. of the 21S0-21P1 and 21P1-31D2 transitions in a RF discharge cell (PRL 111, 013002 (2013) and PRA 88, 054501 (2013)) agree with our work, confirming the discrepancy with theory.

  1. Photodynamics of blue-light-regulated phosphodiesterase BlrP1 protein from Klebsiella pneumoniae and its photoreceptor BLUF domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, A. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Penzkofer, A. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany)], E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de; Griese, J.; Schlichting, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer medizinische Forschung, Abteilung Biomolekulare Mechanismen, Jahnstrasse 29, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kirienko, Natalia V.; Gomelsky, Mark [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 (United States)

    2008-12-10

    The BlrP1 protein from the enteric bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae consists of a BLUF and an EAL domain and may activate c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase by blue-light. The full-length protein, BlrP1, and its BLUF domain, BlrP1{sub B}LUF, are characterized by optical absorption and emission spectroscopy. The cofactor FAD in its oxidized redox state (FAD{sub ox}) is brought from the dark-adapted receptor state to the 10-nm red-shifted putative signalling state by violet light exposure. The recovery to the receptor state occurs with a time constant of about 1 min. The quantum yield of signalling state formation is about 0.17 for BlrP1{sub B}LUF and about 0.08 for BlrP1. The fluorescence efficiency of the FAD{sub ox} cofactor is small due to photo-induced reductive electron transfer. Prolonged light exposure converts FAD{sub ox} in the signalling state to the fully reduced hydroquinone form FAD{sub red}H{sup -} and causes low-efficient chromophore release with subsequent photo-degradation. The photo-cycle and photo-reduction dynamics in the receptor state and in the signalling state are discussed.

  2. Photodynamics of blue-light-regulated phosphodiesterase BlrP1 protein from Klebsiella pneumoniae and its photoreceptor BLUF domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, A.; Penzkofer, A.; Griese, J.; Schlichting, I.; Kirienko, Natalia V.; Gomelsky, Mark

    2008-12-01

    The BlrP1 protein from the enteric bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae consists of a BLUF and an EAL domain and may activate c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase by blue-light. The full-length protein, BlrP1, and its BLUF domain, BlrP1_BLUF, are characterized by optical absorption and emission spectroscopy. The cofactor FAD in its oxidized redox state (FAD ox) is brought from the dark-adapted receptor state to the 10-nm red-shifted putative signalling state by violet light exposure. The recovery to the receptor state occurs with a time constant of about 1 min. The quantum yield of signalling state formation is about 0.17 for BlrP1_BLUF and about 0.08 for BlrP1. The fluorescence efficiency of the FAD ox cofactor is small due to photo-induced reductive electron transfer. Prolonged light exposure converts FAD ox in the signalling state to the fully reduced hydroquinone form FAD redH - and causes low-efficient chromophore release with subsequent photo-degradation. The photo-cycle and photo-reduction dynamics in the receptor state and in the signalling state are discussed.

  3. Regulatory role of the sequences downstream from nodD3 P1 promoter of Rhizobium meliloti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The 660 bp region between nodD3 P1 promoter and the following coding region of Rhizobium meliloti has been studied.This region is designated "downstream sequences".It consists of two potential open reading frames,ORF1 and ORF2.Studies on the role of the downstream sequences on the activity of nodD3 P1 with nod D3(P1)-lacZ fusion show that deletion of the sequences containing ORF2 causes the increase of the activity of the fusion; on the contrary,addition of extra copies of ORF2 markedly decreases the activity of the fusion.These results indicate that the product of ORF2 plays a negative role in the expression of nod D3.

  4. Preparation of composite materials of Na-P1 type zeolite and magnetite for Cs decontamination in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction time and the concentration of NaOH solution were studied for the preparation of Na-P1 type zeolite using fly-ach. Addition of NaAlO2 is effective for the improvement of cation exchange capacity (CEC) value. A new composite material consisting of the Na-P1 type zeolite and magnetite was synthesized from the waste fly-ash of thermal power stations and iron chlorides for the decontamination of radioactive 134Cs and 137Cs. The magnetic collection was possible using this composite material after Cs+ ion adsorption. The existence of nanosized magnetites in the polycrystalline zeolite (several micrometers) was confirmed by TEM observations. Decontamination test of the radioactive Cs+ ion using the magnetic Na-P1 type zeolite and the soil was succeeded. (author)

  5. First reported cases of human adenovirus serotype 14p1 infection, Ireland, October 2009 to July 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Flanagan, D

    2011-02-01

    We report the first nine confirmed cases of human adenovirus 14p1 infection (HAdV-14p1), identified at different locations in Ireland between October 2009 and July 2010. These were the first notifications in Ireland and all were sporadic cases. Following these notifications, the Health Protection Surveillance Centre set up an enhanced surveillance system for HAdV-14p1 infection. Seven cases were male and five were aged less than one year. Three patients died, giving a case fatality rate of 33%. It should be noted that cases presented here were diagnosed on presentation to hospital and may represent the severe end of the spectrum of HAdV 14 disease in Ireland.

  6. The Transit Light Curve Project. VII. The Not-So-Bloated Exoplanet HAT-P-1b

    CERN Document Server

    Winn, Joshua N; Bakos, Gaspar A; Pal, Andras; Johnson, John Asher; Williams, Peter K G; Shporer, Avi; Mazeh, Tsevi; Fernandez, Jose; Latham, David W

    2007-01-01

    We present photometry of the G0 star HAT-P-1 during six transits of its close-in giant planet, and we refine the estimates of the system parameters. Relative to Jupiter's properties, HAT-P-1b is 1.20 +/- 0.05 times larger and its surface gravity is 2.7 +/- 0.2 times weaker. Although it remains the case that HAT-P-1b is among the least dense of the known sample of transiting exoplanets, its properties are in accord with previously published models of strongly irradiated, coreless, solar-composition giant planets. The times of the transits have a typical accuracy of 1 min and do not depart significantly from a constant period.

  7. Analysis of the downstream region of nodD3 P1 promoter by deletion and complementation tests in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈迪; 刘彦杰; 朱家璧; 沈善炯; 俞冠翘

    2003-01-01

    In Sinorhizobium meliloti, the nodD3 gene is transcriptionally controlled by two promoters, P1 and P2. Under P1, there is a 660 bp sequence including a small open reading frame, ORF2, followed by the nodD3 coding region. Genetic analysis using the different deletions on the 3′ends of P1 downstream sequence showed that the downstream sequence +1-+125nt is essential for P1 expression. Complementation, mutations and nodulation tests demonstrated that the ORF2 auto-represses P1 expression, while the P1 downstream sequence +1-+125nt counteracts it.

  8. Evaluation of the Eological Management and Enhancement Alernative for Remediation of the K1007-P1 Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.

    2005-10-31

    An evaluation of the human and ecological risks associated with the P1 Pond and surrounding environs was conducted as part of the ETTP Site-Wide Remedial Investigation. The RI provides the basis for the focus on PCBs as the most important unacceptable risk to human and ecological health in the pond. Other P1 contaminants, media, or pathways of risk to receptors are identified in the RI, but are not addressed as a major risk reduction goal for the ETTP Site-Wide Feasibility Study. Therefore, the goal of the Ecological Management alternative is to reduce unacceptable risks associated with PCBs in fish. Many of the actions proposed for this alternative, however, are likely to reduce risks associated with other contaminants and their pathways. The high PCB concentrations in fish from the P1 Pond are most certainly due in part to the current ecological condition of the pond that maximizes PCB biomagnification. This basic assumption and the factors contributing to it were evaluated by conducting an intensive field study of the P1 Pond in the summer of 2004 (for a thorough presentation of current P1 Pond biological conditions, see Peterson et al. 2005). Major hypotheses regarding the P1 Pond's current fish community, PCB fate and transport processes, pond vegetation, and limnological conditions that contribute to the high PCB levels in fish were validated by the study (Appendix A), The results of the 2004 ecological assessment, in concert with long-term datasets obtained as part of the ETTP Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) and recent abiotic sampling for the RI, provide the basis for the assessment of current conditions.

  9. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of pyrazinones containing novel P1 needles as inhibitors of TF/VIIa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, John I; Huang, Horng-Chih; Neumann, William L; Mahoney, Matthew W; Long, Scott; Huang, Wei; Garland, Danny J; Kusturin, Carrie; Abbas, Zaheer; South, Michael S; Reitz, David B

    2007-08-15

    Herein is described the design, synthesis, and enzymatic activity of a series of substituted pyrazinones as inhibitors of the TF/VIIa complex. These inhibitors were designed to explore replacement and variation of the P1 amidine described previously [J. Med. Chem.2003, 46, 4050]. The P1 needle replacements were selected based upon their reduced basicity compared to the parent phenyl amidine (pKa approximately 12). A contributing factor towards the oral bioavailability of a compound is the ionization state of the compound in the intestinal tract. The desired outcome of the study was to identify an orally bioavailable TF-VIIa inhibitor. PMID:17566736

  10. Metabolism of 2-Chloro-4-Nitroaniline via Novel Aerobic Degradation Pathway by Rhodococcus sp. Strain MB-P1

    OpenAIRE

    Fazlurrahman Khan; Deepika Pal; Surendra Vikram; Swaranjit Singh Cameotra

    2013-01-01

    2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (2-C-4-NA) is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitor and also used in the synthesis of niclosamide, a molluscicide. It is marked as a black-listed substance due to its poor biodegradability. We report biodegradation of 2-C-4-NA and its pathway characterization by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 under aerobic conditions. The strain MB-P1 utilizes 2-C-4-NA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In the growth medium...

  11. Isotope shifts of the 2$p_{3/2}$-2$p_{1/2}$ transition in B-like ions

    CERN Document Server

    Zubova, N A; Tupitsyn, I I; Shabaev, V M; Kozhedub, Y S; Plunien, G; Brandau, C; Stohlker, Th

    2016-01-01

    Isotope shifts of the 2$p_{3/2}$-2$p_{1/2}$ transition in B-like ions are evaluated for a wide range of the nuclear charge number: Z=8-92. The calculations of the relativistic nuclear recoil and nuclear size effects are performed using a large scale configuration-interaction Dirac-Fock-Sturm method. The corresponding QED corrections are also taken into account. The results of the calculations are compared with the theoretical values obtained with other methods. The accuracy of the isotope shifts of the 2$p_{3/2}$-2$p_{1/2}$ transition in B-like ions is significantly improved.

  12. Small organic compounds enhance antigen loading of class II major histocompatibility complex proteins by targeting the polymorphic P1 pocket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höpner, Sabine; Dickhaut, Katharina; Hofstätter, Maria;

    2006-01-01

    the peptide loading rate. The effect was evident only for an allelic subset and strictly correlated with the presence of glycine at the dimorphic position beta86 of the HLA-DR molecule. The residue forms the floor of the conserved pocket P1, located in the peptide binding site of MHC molecule...... "adamantyl-susceptible" MHC molecules. As catalysts of antigen loading, compounds targeting P1 may be useful molecular tools to amplify the immune response. The observation, however, that the ligand repertoire can be affected through polymorphic sites form the outside may also imply that environmental...

  13. Isotope shifts of the 2 p3 /2-2 p1 /2 transition in B-like ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubova, N. A.; Malyshev, A. V.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Shabaev, V. M.; Kozhedub, Y. S.; Plunien, G.; Brandau, C.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2016-05-01

    Isotope shifts of the 2 p3 /2-2 p1 /2 transition in B-like ions are evaluated for a wide range of the nuclear charge number: Z =8 -92 . The calculations of the relativistic nuclear recoil and nuclear size effects are performed using a large-scale configuration-interaction Dirac-Fock-Sturm method. The corresponding QED corrections are also taken into account. The results of the calculations are compared with the theoretical values obtained with other methods. The accuracy of the isotope shifts of the 2 p3 /2-2 p1 /2 transition in B-like ions is significantly improved.

  14. Spectroscopy of 1S0- 3P1 transition of magnesium atom in an external absorption cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagayev, S. N.; Baraulya, V. I.; Bonert, A. E.; Goncharov, A. N.; Seydaliev, M. R.

    2001-09-01

    The results of saturated absorption spectroscopy of the intercombination 1S0- 3P1 transition of magnesium atoms at 457 nm in an external absorption cell are presented. A laser system based on a Ti:Sa laser with frequency doubling in a LBO nonlinear crystal was used in these experiments. Saturated absorption resonances of magnesium in an external cell at the 1S0- 3P1 transition have been obtained for the first time. Pressure broadening of resonances equal to 12.5±1.5 kHz/mTorr has been measured.

  15. Relativistic calculations of 3s2 1S0-3s3p 1P1 and 3s2 1S0-3s3p 3P1,2 transition probabilities in the Mg isoelectronic sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Cheng; Gao Xiang; Qing Bo; Zhang Xiao-Le; Li Jia-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Using the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock self-consistent field method and the relativistic configuration-interaction method, calculations of transition energies, oscillator strengths and rates are performed for the 3s2 1S0-3s3p 1P1 spinallowed transition, 3s2 1S0-3s3p 3P1,2 intercombination and magnetic quadrupole transition in the Mg isoelectronic sequence (Mg Ⅰ, Al Ⅱ, Si ⅢⅢ, P Ⅳ and S Ⅴ). Electron correlations are treated adequately, including intravalence electron correlations. The influence of the Breit interaction on oscillator strengths and transition energies are investigated. Quantum electrodynamics corrections are added as corrections. The calculation results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data and other theoretical calculations.

  16. Synthesis of New 2-(1,3-Dithianylphenols and Hexakis-[p-(1,3-dithian-2-ylphenoxy]cyclotriphosphazene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prónayová Nadezda

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available 2-Chloro-1,3-dithiane was obtained by the chlorination of 1,3-dithiane with N-chlorosuccinimide. Reactions of 2-chloro-1,3-dithiane with various substituted phenols lead to 2-(1,3-dithianylphenols (3. Hexakis-[p-(1,3-dithian-2-ylphenoxy]cyclotriphosphazene (6 was obtained by reaction with hexachlorotriazacyclotriphosphazene (5.

  17. Leek yellow stripe virus isolates from Brazil form a distant clade based on the P1 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genomic sequence of a garlic isolate of Leek yellow stripe virus from Brazil (LYSV-MG) has been determined, and phylogenetic comparisons made to LYSV isolates from other parts of the world. In addition, the nucleotide sequence of the 5'UTR and part of the P1 gene of multiple LYSV isolat...

  18. Enhanced sensitivity for biosensors: Functionalized P1,5-diaminonaphthalene-multiwall carbon nanotube composite film-modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A homogeneous electroactive poly(1,5-diaminonaphthalene) (P1,5DAN) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) composite film-modified electrode was fabricated by cyclic voltammetry and a casting method. The dispersion and morphology of the MWNTs/P1,5DAN composite film were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The cyclic voltammograms of the electrode modified by the MWNTs/P15DAN composite film strongly depended on the film thickness and pH of the electrolyte solution. Two absolutely isolated oxidation potentials were found as the MWCNTs were immobilized onto the surface of P1,5DAN film in a pH 6.8 buffer solution containing ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). Both peak currents linearly increased with increased concentrations. The electrochemical behavior of UA was not interrupted even in the presence of high-concentration AA given that AA had no observable electrochemical changes at the immobilized concentration. The electrocatalytic behavior of H2O2 was also investigated by steady-state amperometry for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase on the P1,5DAN film. The plot of the response current vs. H2O2 concentration was linear over the wide concentration range of 0.015–5.37 mM.

  19. Immune response to Mycoplasma pneumoniae P1 and P116 in patients with atypical pneumonia analyzed by ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkelund Svend

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serology is often used for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It is important to identify specific antigens that can distinguish between the presence or absence of antibodies against M. pneumoniae. The two proteins, P116 and P1, are found to be immunogenic. By using these in ELISA it is possible to identify an immune response against M. pneumoniae in serum samples. Results A recombinant protein derived from the P116 protein and one from the P1 protein were used in two ELISA tests, rP116-ELISA and rP1-ELISA. Human serum samples from patients with atypical pneumonia were tested and compared to the results of the complement fixation test. There was a good agreement between the two tests but the rP1-ELISA showed the best discrimination between positive and negative samples. Conclusion Two ELISA tests based on recombinant proteins have been analysed and compared to the complement fixation test results. The two ELISA tests were found suitable for use in serodiagnostics of M. pneumoniae infections. The use of specific antigens eliminates the risk of cross reaction to an immune response against other bacteria.

  20. A bijection which implies Melzer's polynomial identities: the $\\chi_{1,1}^{(p,p+1)}$ case

    OpenAIRE

    Foda, O.; Warnaar, S. O.

    1995-01-01

    We obtain a bijection between certain lattice paths and partitions. This implies a proof of polynomial identities conjectured by Melzer. In a limit, these identities reduce to Rogers--Ramanujan-type identities for the $\\chi_{1,1}^{(p,p+1)}(q)$ Virasoro characters, conjectured by the Stony Brook group.

  1. A bijection which implies Melzer's polynomial identities the $\\chi${1,1}^{(p,p+1)} case

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O E; Foda, O; Warnaar, S O

    1995-01-01

    We obtain a bijection between certain lattice paths and partitions. This implies a proof of polynomial identities conjectured by Melzer. In a limit, these identities reduce to Rogers--Ramanujan-type identities for the \\chi_{1,1}^{(p,p+1)}(q) Virasoro characters, conjectured by the Stony Brook group.

  2. Three solutions for a class of Neumann boundary value systems driven by a (p_1,...,p_n-Laplacian operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Chung

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove the existence of at least three weak solutions for Neumann doubly eigenvalue elliptic systems involving the (p_1, . . . , p_n -Laplacian. The approach is based on a recent three critical points theorem obtained by B. Ricceri [9]. We also give some examples to illustrate the obtained results.

  3. Application of SP2 and the spatially continuous SP2-P1 equations to the PBMR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is nearing realisation and interest in improvements to modeling methods of HTR reactor designs are growing in momentum. Recent efforts in formulating PBMR-type benchmark problems yielded some standard for evaluating different approaches to such core problems. The Simplified P2 approximation has been shown to improve upon diffusion results in core problems where diffusion is of reasonable accuracy. It can thus be expected that a scattering dominated core such as the PBMR could benefit from such an approach. SP2 does however exhibit unpleasing discontinuous fluxes at material interfaces, and Brantley has proposed to remedy this situation with a SP2-P1 hybrid calculation, using the improved SP2 solution away from material interfaces, and regular P1 near and on material boundaries. In this paper, we develop a 3-dimensional cylindrical multigroup implementation of SP2 and SP2-P1. We apply these methods to the PBMR benchmark, using as reference a S8 transport calculation. Results indicate that the PBMR is highly diffusive in nature, and that diffusion is (for a fixed cross section problem) within 1000 pcm of transport. SP2 and SP2-P1 marginally improve upon this result, but may be applicable for flux solutions near non-diffusive boundaries. (authors)

  4. Transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids from biogas plant digestates often belong to the IncP-1 epsilon subgroup

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolters, B.; Kyselková, Martina; Krögerrecklenfort, E.; Kreuzig, R.; Smalla, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, January (2015), Article 765. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : IncP-1 epsilon plasmid * class 1 integrons * biogas plant digestate * antibiotic resistance * exogenous plasmid isolation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.989, year: 2014

  5. SECONDARY BRAIN INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Ayu Basmatika

    2013-01-01

    Secondary brain injury is a condision that occurs at some times after the primary impact and can be largely prevented and treated. Most brain injury ends with deadly consequences which is caused by secondary damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injured still represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals under the age of 45 years in the world. The classification of secondary brain injured is divided into extracranial and intracranial causes. The cause of extracranial s...

  6. Brain Drain Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Borta, Oxana

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the widely acknowledged so-called brain drain controversy. More concretely on developments in the traditional brain drain literature towards a new shift, claiming the brain gain effect, as an alternative to the brain drain effect, that emigration may bring to a source country. The research investigates not only the obvious direct loss effects – the so called brain drain – but also the possibility of more subtle indirect beneficial effects.

  7. Brain evolution by brain pathway duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-12-19

    Understanding the mechanisms of evolution of brain pathways for complex behaviours is still in its infancy. Making further advances requires a deeper understanding of brain homologies, novelties and analogies. It also requires an understanding of how adaptive genetic modifications lead to restructuring of the brain. Recent advances in genomic and molecular biology techniques applied to brain research have provided exciting insights into how complex behaviours are shaped by selection of novel brain pathways and functions of the nervous system. Here, we review and further develop some insights to a new hypothesis on one mechanism that may contribute to nervous system evolution, in particular by brain pathway duplication. Like gene duplication, we propose that whole brain pathways can duplicate and the duplicated pathway diverge to take on new functions. We suggest that one mechanism of brain pathway duplication could be through gene duplication, although other mechanisms are possible. We focus on brain pathways for vocal learning and spoken language in song-learning birds and humans as example systems. This view presents a new framework for future research in our understanding of brain evolution and novel behavioural traits. PMID:26554045

  8. Metabolism of 2-Chloro-4-Nitroaniline via Novel Aerobic Degradation Pathway by Rhodococcus sp. Strain MB-P1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazlurrahman; Pal, Deepika; Vikram, Surendra; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (2-C-4-NA) is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitor and also used in the synthesis of niclosamide, a molluscicide. It is marked as a black-listed substance due to its poor biodegradability. We report biodegradation of 2-C-4-NA and its pathway characterization by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 under aerobic conditions. The strain MB-P1 utilizes 2-C-4-NA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In the growth medium, the degradation of 2-C-4-NA occurs with the release of nitrite ions, chloride ions, and ammonia. During the resting cell studies, the 2-C-4-NA-induced cells of strain MB-P1 transformed 2-C-4-NA stoichiometrically to 4-amino-3-chlorophenol (4-A-3-CP), which subsequently gets transformed to 6-chlorohydroxyquinol (6-CHQ) metabolite. Enzyme assays by cell-free lysates prepared from 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells, demonstrated that the first enzyme in the 2-C-4-NA degradation pathway is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the stoichiometric removal of nitro group and production of 4-A-3-CP. Oxygen uptake studies on 4-A-3-CP and related anilines by 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells demonstrated the involvement of aniline dioxygenase in the second step of 2-C-4-NA degradation. This is the first report showing 2-C-4-NA degradation and elucidation of corresponding metabolic pathway by an aerobic bacterium. PMID:23614030

  9. Metabolism of 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline via novel aerobic degradation pathway by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlurrahman Khan

    Full Text Available 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (2-C-4-NA is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitor and also used in the synthesis of niclosamide, a molluscicide. It is marked as a black-listed substance due to its poor biodegradability. We report biodegradation of 2-C-4-NA and its pathway characterization by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 under aerobic conditions. The strain MB-P1 utilizes 2-C-4-NA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In the growth medium, the degradation of 2-C-4-NA occurs with the release of nitrite ions, chloride ions, and ammonia. During the resting cell studies, the 2-C-4-NA-induced cells of strain MB-P1 transformed 2-C-4-NA stoichiometrically to 4-amino-3-chlorophenol (4-A-3-CP, which subsequently gets transformed to 6-chlorohydroxyquinol (6-CHQ metabolite. Enzyme assays by cell-free lysates prepared from 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells, demonstrated that the first enzyme in the 2-C-4-NA degradation pathway is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the stoichiometric removal of nitro group and production of 4-A-3-CP. Oxygen uptake studies on 4-A-3-CP and related anilines by 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells demonstrated the involvement of aniline dioxygenase in the second step of 2-C-4-NA degradation. This is the first report showing 2-C-4-NA degradation and elucidation of corresponding metabolic pathway by an aerobic bacterium.

  10. Metabolism of 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline via novel aerobic degradation pathway by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazlurrahman; Pal, Deepika; Vikram, Surendra; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (2-C-4-NA) is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitor and also used in the synthesis of niclosamide, a molluscicide. It is marked as a black-listed substance due to its poor biodegradability. We report biodegradation of 2-C-4-NA and its pathway characterization by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 under aerobic conditions. The strain MB-P1 utilizes 2-C-4-NA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In the growth medium, the degradation of 2-C-4-NA occurs with the release of nitrite ions, chloride ions, and ammonia. During the resting cell studies, the 2-C-4-NA-induced cells of strain MB-P1 transformed 2-C-4-NA stoichiometrically to 4-amino-3-chlorophenol (4-A-3-CP), which subsequently gets transformed to 6-chlorohydroxyquinol (6-CHQ) metabolite. Enzyme assays by cell-free lysates prepared from 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells, demonstrated that the first enzyme in the 2-C-4-NA degradation pathway is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the stoichiometric removal of nitro group and production of 4-A-3-CP. Oxygen uptake studies on 4-A-3-CP and related anilines by 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells demonstrated the involvement of aniline dioxygenase in the second step of 2-C-4-NA degradation. This is the first report showing 2-C-4-NA degradation and elucidation of corresponding metabolic pathway by an aerobic bacterium. PMID:23614030

  11. H1299细胞中P1k3对p73转录活性的影响%Effect of P1k3 on the transcriptional activity of p73 in H1299 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑梅香; 刘丽华; 丁春艳; 孟君; 单保恩

    2010-01-01

    背景与目的:研究表明蛋白激酶P1k3可以增加肿瘤抑制因子p53的转录活性,但对p73转录活性的影响尚不清楚,因此本实验旨在研究蛋白激酶P1k3对p73转录活性的影响.方法:选用p53缺失型人类肺癌细胞系H1299,采用荧光素酶报告剂分析、反转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)及克隆形成实验的方法研究蛋白激酶P1k3及激酶活性缺失的P1k3(K52R)对p73转录活性的影响.结果:荧光素酶报告剂分析结果显示,单独转染p73基因可以增加p21~(WAF1)和Bax启动子介导的荧光素酶的表达(P0.05).RT-PCR检测结果也显示,p73诱导p2~(WAF1)和Bax的mRNA表达(P0.05).克隆形成实验结果显示,p73抑制了H1299细胞克隆的形成(P0.05).结论:P1k3可以抑制p73的转录活性,而激酶活性缺失的P1k3(K52R)对p73的转录活性无明显影响.

  12. The deexcitation of the Ar (3P2, 3p1 and 1P1) states as measured by absorption both in pure argon and in the presence of additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The de-excitation of the 3P2, 3p1 and 1P1 states of argon was studied in pure argon between 10 and 200 torr and in Ar + CO and Ar + H2 mixtures. These states are populated after excitation of the gas by a short (20 ns) pulse of 500 keV electrons (FEBETRON). Under our experimental conditions, the relation between the measured optical density of the lines studied and the concentration of absorbing species was found to be: DO = log I0/I ∝ (lC)n with n = 0,4. The three body rate constants k2 were measured for the two resonant states 3p1 (k2 = (1,65 ± 0,3) x 10-32 cm6 s-1) and 1P1 (k2 = (1,0 ± 0,2) x 10-32 cm6 s-1); they had not been considered in previous low pressure studies. For the metastable state 3P2, the measured value of k2 ((1,6 ± 0,3) x 10-32 cm6 s-1) is in good agreement with those found in the literature. However, our two body rate constant k1 is about ten times higher than that found in measurements at low pressure. This difference could be due to a collision-induced emission process at high pressure. The rate constants for the quenching by CO and H2 were measured for the metastable state 3P2 (1,85 and 10,5 x 10-11 cm3 s-1) and for the resonant states 3P1 (4,5 and 20 x 10-11 cm3 s-1) and 1P1 (8,5 and 33 X 10-11 cm3 s-1). Comparison of the de-excitation cross sections of resonant and metastable states should lead to a better understanding of energy transfer processes from these latter. (author)

  13. Photoluminescence of heterostructures with GaP1−xNx and GaP1−x−yNxAsy layers grown on GaP and Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural and optical properties of heterostructures containing GaP1−xNx ternary and GaP1−x−yNxAsy quaternary alloy layers are discussed. The heterostructures are grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaP and Si substrates. The structures are studied by the high-resolution X-ray diffraction technique and photoluminescence measurements in a wide temperature range from 10 to 300 K. In the low-temperature photoluminescence spectra of the alloys with a low nitrogen fraction (x < 0.007), two clearly resolved narrow lines attributed to the localized states of nitrogen pairs and the phonon replicas of these lines are observed

  14. Systematic measurement of the relative electron-impact excitation cross section of the 3d→2p1P1 resonance and 3D1 intercombination lines in mid-Z neonlike ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative electron-impact cross sections for exciting the 3d→2p1P1 resonance and 3D1 intercombination lines have been measured in nine neonlike ions between Cr14+ and Kr26+. The ratio drops from about 4.4 for Cr14+ to less than unity for Kr26+ in response to an increase in relativistic effects. A measurement of the dependence of this ratio on electron energy is presented for Fe16+. No dependence on electron energy is found. The measured ratios are generally lower than theory, showing that the relative intensity of the intercombination line is larger than predicted and illustrating the difficulty to predict electron-impact excitation cross sections in the intermediate coupling regime at the level needed for spectral diagnostics

  15. FROM BRAIN DRAIN TO BRAIN NETWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BONCEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific networking is the most accessible way a country can turn the brain drain into brain gain. Diaspora’s members offer valuable information, advice or financial support from the destination country, without being necessary to return. This article aims to investigate Romania’s potential of turning brain drain into brain networking, using evidence from the medical sector. The main factors influencing the collaboration with the country of origin are investigated. The conclusions suggest that Romania could benefit from the diaspora option, through an active implication at institutional level and the implementation of a strategy in this area.

  16. Face the hierarchy: ERP and oscillatory brain responses in social rank processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Breton

    Full Text Available Recognition of social hierarchy is a key feature that helps us navigate through our complex social environment. Neuroimaging studies have identified brain structures involved in the processing of hierarchical stimuli but the precise temporal dynamics of brain activity associated with such processing remains largely unknown. Here, we used electroencephalography to examine the effect of social hierarchy on neural responses elicited by faces. In contrast to previous studies, the key manipulation was that a hierarchical context was constructed, not by varying facial expressions, but by presenting neutral-expression faces in a game setting. Once the performance-based hierarchy was established, participants were presented with high-rank, middle-rank and low-rank player faces and had to evaluate the rank of each face with respect to their own position. Both event-related potentials and task-related oscillatory activity were investigated. Three main findings emerge from the study. First, the experimental manipulation had no effect on the early N170 component, which may suggest that hierarchy did not modulate the structural encoding of neutral-expression faces. Second, hierarchy significantly modulated the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP within a 400-700 ms time-window, with more a prominent LPP occurring when the participants processed the face of the highest-rank player. Third, high-rank faces were associated with the highest reduction of alpha power. Taken together these findings provide novel electrophysiological evidence for enhanced allocation of attentional resource in the presence of high-rank faces. At a broader level, this study brings new insights into the neural processing underlying social categorization.

  17. Identification of a New Variable Sequence in the P1 Cytadhesin Gene of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Evidence for the Generation of Antigenic Variation by DNA Recombination between Repetitive Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Kenri, Tsuyoshi; Taniguchi, Rie; Sasaki, Yuko; Okazaki, Norio; Narita, Mitsuo; Izumikawa, Kinichi; Umetsu, Masao; Sasaki, Tsuguo

    1999-01-01

    A Mycoplasma pneumoniae cytadhesin P1 gene with novel nucleotide sequence variation has been identified. Four clinical strains of M. pneumoniae were found to carry this type of P1 gene. This new P1 gene is similar to the known group II P1 genes but possesses novel sequence variation of approximately 300 bp in the RepMP2/3 region. The position of the new variable region is distant from the previously reported variable regions known to differ between group I and II P1 genes. Two sequences close...

  18. The Brain Never Stops

    OpenAIRE

    Sadaghiani, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    Your brain is doing a lot of work when you are engaged in activities such as sports, playing a game, or watching a movie. Your brain is also a master of associating one thought with another and making your mind wander. But what does your brain do when you are not engaged in particular thoughts or actions? Interestingly, similar to the heart that always keeps beating, the brain never stops its activity. For example, your brain is highly active even when you are fast asleep. In fact, brain cell...

  19. Design, Synthesis, and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of an (18)F-Labeled Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 1 (S1P1) PET Tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Adam J; Liu, Hui; Jin, Hongjun; Yue, Xuyi; Riley, Sean; Brown, Steven J; Tu, Zhude

    2016-07-14

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) plays a pivotal signaling role in inflammatory response; because S1P1 modulation has been identified as a therapeutic target for various diseases, a PET tracer for S1P1 would be a useful tool. Fourteen fluorine-containing analogues of S1P ligands were synthesized and their in vitro binding potency measured; four had high potency and selectivity for S1P1 (S1P1 IC50 100-fold selectivity for S1P1 over S1P2 and S1P3). The most potent ligand, 28c (IC50 = 2.63 nM for S1P1) was (18)F-labeled and evaluated in a mouse model of LPS-induced acute liver injury to determine its S1P1-binding specificity. The results from biodistribution, autoradiography, and microPET imaging showed higher [(18)F]28c accumulation in the liver of LPS-treated mice than controls. Increased expression of S1P1 in the LPS model was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis (IHC). These data suggest that [(18)F]28c is a S1P1 PET tracer with high potential for imaging S1P1 in vivo. PMID:27280499

  20. The effect of attended color on the P1/N1 component of visual event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoto, Shu; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki; Wang, Chuanwei; Li, Mei; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Hakii, Yasuhito

    2007-12-11

    Ten subjects were asked to pay attention to green or to red, when each visual stimulus was presented as two small squares, one green and the other red. They were instructed to push a button with the right hand, when the attended color was on the right side, and to push a button with the left hand, when the attended color was on the left side. The P1/N1 peak-to-peak amplitudes of visual event-related potentials were significantly higher when subjects focused attention on green rather than on red. We assume that the attended color had the effect of modulating the P1/N1 components. PMID:17980488