WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain mri study

  1. Longitudinal MRI studies of brain morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller

    High resolution MR images acquired at multiple time points of the brain allow quantification of localized changes induced by external factors such as maturation, ageing or disease progression/recovery. High-dimensional warping of such MR images incorporates changes induced by external factors...... into the accompanying deformation field. Deformation fields from high dimensional warping founds tensor based morphometry (TBM), and provides unique opportunities to study human brain morphology and plasticity. In this thesis, specially adapted image processing streams utilizing several image registration techniques...... to characterize differences between brains, demonstrate the versatility and specificity of the employed voxel-wise morphometric methods. More specifically TBM is used to study neurodegenerative changes following severe traumatic brain injuries. Such injuries progress for months, perhaps even years postinjury...

  2. Brain activation studies with PET and functional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Fukui Medical Univ., Matsuoka (Japan). Biomedical Imaging Research Center; Sadato, Norihiro [Okazaki National Research Inst., Aichi (Japan). National Inst. for Physiological Sciences

    2002-01-01

    Application of PET and functional MRI in brain activation studies is reviewed. 3D-PET images obtained repeatedly after intravenous injection of about 370 MBq of H{sub 2}{sup 15}O can detect a faint blood flow change in the brain. Functional MRI can also detect the blood flow change in the brain due to blood oxygen level-dependent effect. Echo-planar imaging is popular in MRI with 1.5 or 3 T. Images are analyzed by statistical parametric mapping with correction of cerebral regions, anatomical normalization and statistics. PET data give the blood flow change by the H{sub 2}{sup 15}O incorporation into the brain and MRI data, by the scarce tissue oxygen consumption despite the change. Actual images during the cognition task-performance and of frequent artifacts are given. PET is suitable for studies of brain functions like sensibility and emotion and functional MRI, like cortex functions and clinical practices in identification of functional regions prior to surgery and evaluation of functional recovery of damaged brain. (K.H.)

  3. Brain activation studies with PET and functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Sadato, Norihiro

    2002-01-01

    Application of PET and functional MRI in brain activation studies is reviewed. 3D-PET images obtained repeatedly after intravenous injection of about 370 MBq of H 2 15 O can detect a faint blood flow change in the brain. Functional MRI can also detect the blood flow change in the brain due to blood oxygen level-dependent effect. Echo-planar imaging is popular in MRI with 1.5 or 3 T. Images are analyzed by statistical parametric mapping with correction of cerebral regions, anatomical normalization and statistics. PET data give the blood flow change by the H 2 15 O incorporation into the brain and MRI data, by the scarce tissue oxygen consumption despite the change. Actual images during the cognition task-performance and of frequent artifacts are given. PET is suitable for studies of brain functions like sensibility and emotion and functional MRI, like cortex functions and clinical practices in identification of functional regions prior to surgery and evaluation of functional recovery of damaged brain. (K.H.)

  4. Volumetric MRI study of the intrauterine growth restriction fetal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polat, A.; Barlow, S.; Ber, R.; Achiron, R.; Katorza, E.

    2017-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pathologic fetal condition known to affect the fetal brain regionally and associated with future neurodevelopmental abnormalities. This study employed MRI to assess in utero regional brain volume changes in IUGR fetuses compared to controls. Retrospectively, using MRI images of fetuses at 30-34 weeks gestational age, a total of 8 brain regions - supratentorial brain and cavity, cerebral hemispheres, temporal lobes and cerebellum - were measured for volume in 13 fetuses with IUGR due to placental insufficiency and in 21 controls. Volumes and their ratios were assessed for difference using regression models. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between two observers. In both groups, all structures increase in absolute volume during that gestation period, and the rate of cerebellar growth is higher compared to that of supratentorial structures. All structures' absolute volumes were significantly smaller for the IUGR group. Cerebellar to supratentorial ratios were found to be significantly smaller (P < 0.05) for IUGR compared to controls. No other significant ratio differences were found. ICC showed excellent agreement. The cerebellar to supratentorial volume ratio is affected in IUGR fetuses. Additional research is needed to assess this as a radiologic marker in relation to long-term outcome. (orig.)

  5. Volumetric MRI study of the intrauterine growth restriction fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, A.; Barlow, S.; Ber, R.; Achiron, R.; Katorza, E. [Tel Aviv University, Sackler School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel)

    2017-05-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pathologic fetal condition known to affect the fetal brain regionally and associated with future neurodevelopmental abnormalities. This study employed MRI to assess in utero regional brain volume changes in IUGR fetuses compared to controls. Retrospectively, using MRI images of fetuses at 30-34 weeks gestational age, a total of 8 brain regions - supratentorial brain and cavity, cerebral hemispheres, temporal lobes and cerebellum - were measured for volume in 13 fetuses with IUGR due to placental insufficiency and in 21 controls. Volumes and their ratios were assessed for difference using regression models. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between two observers. In both groups, all structures increase in absolute volume during that gestation period, and the rate of cerebellar growth is higher compared to that of supratentorial structures. All structures' absolute volumes were significantly smaller for the IUGR group. Cerebellar to supratentorial ratios were found to be significantly smaller (P < 0.05) for IUGR compared to controls. No other significant ratio differences were found. ICC showed excellent agreement. The cerebellar to supratentorial volume ratio is affected in IUGR fetuses. Additional research is needed to assess this as a radiologic marker in relation to long-term outcome. (orig.)

  6. Brain venous pathologies: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatico, Rosana; Gonzalez, Alejandro; Yanez, Paulina; Romero, Carlos; Trejo, Mariano; Lambre, Hector

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe MRI findings of the different brain venous pathologies. Material and Methods: Between January 2002 and March 2004, 18 patients were studied 10 males and 8 females between 6 and 63 years old; with different brain venous pathologies. In all cases brain MRI were performed including morphological sequences with and without gadolinium injection and angiographic venous sequences. Results: 10 venous occlusions were found, 6 venous angiomas, and 2 presented varices secondary to arteriovenous dural fistula. Conclusion: Brain venous pathologies can appear in many different clinical contexts, with different prognosis and treatment. In all the cases brain MRI was the best imaging study to disclose typical morphologic abnormalities. (author) [es

  7. MRI study of the brain in aged volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Hiroo; Tanno, Munehiko; Yamada, Hideo; Endoh, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Mitsuru; Karasawa, Akihide.

    1993-01-01

    In order to characterize age-related and chronological changes of the brain, longitudinal studies of aged volunteers were conducted using computed tomography since 1982. The present paper discusses correlations between brain function and findings of MR images which were obtained using a 1.5 T superconductive MR instrument since 1989. A total of 118 volunteers aged 60 to 88 years old with a mean age of 75.0±6.7 participated in the study, which consisted of MRI, EEG recording, the Benton Visual Retention Test and a medical interview. Subjects with a past history or clinical evidence of CVD, head trauma or dementia were excluded from the study. Incidence of T 2 high signal intensity lesions increased with age. Some showing T 1 low signal intensity in the same lesion were considered to be lacunar infarction, over all incidence of which was 24.6%. Numbers of correct responses on the BVRT showed a negative correlation with numbers of T 2 high signal intensity lesions. Although the aged volunteers in the present study could achieve all activity of daily living without any trouble, high cortical function evaluated by visuoperceptual performance of BVRT was somewhat disturbed in participants with multiple T 2 high signal intensity lesions. Brain atrophy seems to be more advanced in groups with T 2 hyper intensity lesions than in the group without them. These findings may support the notion that T 2 high signal intensity lesions are not merely an index of aging but pathologic lesions accompanied with senescence, although further studies including clinico-pathological correlation are necessary to establish this concept. (author)

  8. A study of brain MRI findings in children with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanematsu, Sachiko; Sumida, Sawako; Muto, Ayako; Osawa, Makiko; Ono, Yuko; Uchida, Moriyasu; Maruyama, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging in the brain was performed in 293 patients with childhood-onset (<15 y.o.) epilepsy who had been classified into 4 groups, idiopathic localization-related epilepsy (ILRE), 78 patients; idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), 116 patients; symptomatic localization-related epilepsy (SLRE), 68 patients and symptomatic generalized epilepsy (SGE), 31 patients, with the Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndrome (1989 International League Against Epilepsy). The examination was performed with a 1.5 T magnet. One hundred twenty-five patients (42.7%) showed abnormal findings, and the incidence in each group was as follows: Idiopathic epilepsy: The rate of abnormal findings in the ILRE and IGE groups was 21.8% and 20.7%, respectively. Most of the abnormal findings were secondary changes, such as diffuse or localized brain atrophy. Of the congenital abnormalities, the main finding was arachnoid cyst. Symptomatic epilepsy: The rate of abnormality in the SLRE patients was 88.2%, and 85% of the findings were secondary changes, i.e., brain atrophy, or degeneration of the white matter. In the SGE group, the rate was 77.4%, with an almost equal percentage of congenital and secondary changes. Of 255 patients who were examined by electroencephalography (EEG) on the same day as MRI, about 50% showed a correlation between the EEG records and the MRI abnormalities. However, only 8 patients showed a correlation in localization between the EEG and MRI abnormalities. (author)

  9. A study of brain MRI findings in children with epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Sachiko; Sumida, Sawako; Muto, Ayako; Osawa, Makiko; Ono, Yuko [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan); Uchida, Moriyasu; Maruyama, Hiroshi

    2000-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging in the brain was performed in 293 patients with childhood-onset (<15 y.o.) epilepsy who had been classified into 4 groups, idiopathic localization-related epilepsy (ILRE), 78 patients; idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), 116 patients; symptomatic localization-related epilepsy (SLRE), 68 patients and symptomatic generalized epilepsy (SGE), 31 patients, with the Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndrome (1989 International League Against Epilepsy). The examination was performed with a 1.5 T magnet. One hundred twenty-five patients (42.7%) showed abnormal findings, and the incidence in each group was as follows: Idiopathic epilepsy: The rate of abnormal findings in the ILRE and IGE groups was 21.8% and 20.7%, respectively. Most of the abnormal findings were secondary changes, such as diffuse or localized brain atrophy. Of the congenital abnormalities, the main finding was arachnoid cyst. Symptomatic epilepsy: The rate of abnormality in the SLRE patients was 88.2%, and 85% of the findings were secondary changes, i.e., brain atrophy, or degeneration of the white matter. In the SGE group, the rate was 77.4%, with an almost equal percentage of congenital and secondary changes. Of 255 patients who were examined by electroencephalography (EEG) on the same day as MRI, about 50% showed a correlation between the EEG records and the MRI abnormalities. However, only 8 patients showed a correlation in localization between the EEG and MRI abnormalities. (author)

  10. The power of using functional fMRI on small rodents to study brain pharmacology and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jonckers, Elisabeth; Shah, Disha; Hamaide, Julie; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an excellent tool to study the effect of pharmacological modulations on brain function in a non-invasive and longitudinal manner. We introduce several blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI techniques, including resting state (rsfMRI), stimulus-evoked (st-fMRI), and pharmacological MRI (phMRI). Respectively, these techniques permit the assessment of functional connectivity during rest as well as brain activation triggered by sen...

  11. MRI of 'brain death'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Shigeki; Itoh, Takahiko; Tuchida, Shohei; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Asari, Shoji; Nishimoto, Akira; Sanou, Kazuo.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was undertaken for two patients who suffered from severe cerebrovascular diseases and were clinically brain dead. The MRI system we used was Resona (Yokogawa Medical Systems, superconductive system 0.5 T) and the CT apparatus was Toshiba TCT-300. Initial CT and MRI were undertaken as soon as possible after admission, and repeated sequentially. After diagnosis of brain death, we performed angiography to determine cerebral circulatory arrest, and MRI obtained at the same time was compared with the angiogram and CT. Case 1 was a 77-year-old man who was admitted in an unconscious state. CT and MRI on the second day after hospitalization revealed cerebellar infarction. He was diagnosed as brain dead on day 4. Case 2 was a 35-year-old man. When he was transferred to our hospital, he was in cardiorespiratory arrested. Cardiac resuscitation was successful but no spontaneous respiration appeared. CT and MRI on admission revealed right intracerebral hemorrhage. Angiography revealed cessation of contrast medium in intracranial vessels in both of the patients. We found no 'flow signal void sign' in the bilateral internal carotid and basilar arteries on MRI images in both cases after brain death. MRI, showing us the anatomical changes of the brain, clearly revealed brain herniations, even though only nuclear findings of 'brain tamponade' were seen on CT. But in Case 1, we could not see the infarct lesions in the cerebellum on MR images obtained after brain death. This phenomenon was caused by the whole brain ischemia masking the initial ischemic lesions. We concluded that MRI was useful not only the anatomical display of lesions and brain herniation with high contrast resolution but for obtaining information on cerebral circulation of brain death. (author)

  12. Brain Activity Associated with Emoticons: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe that brain activities associated with emoticons by using fMRI. In communication over a computer network, we use abstract faces such as computer graphics (CG) avatars and emoticons. These faces convey users' emotions and enrich their communications. However, the manner in which these faces influence the mental process is as yet unknown. The human brain may perceive the abstract face in an entirely different manner, depending on its level of reality. We conducted an experiment using fMRI in order to investigate the effects of emoticons. The results show that right inferior frontal gyrus, which associated with nonverbal communication, is activated by emoticons. Since the emoticons were created to reflect the real human facial expressions as accurately as possible, we believed that they would activate the right fusiform gyrus. However, this region was not found to be activated during the experiment. This finding is useful in understanding how abstract faces affect our behaviors and decision-making in communication over a computer network.

  13. Comparative studies of brain activation with MEG and functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.S.; Aine, C.J.; Sanders, J.A.; Lewine, J.D.; Caprihan, A.

    1993-01-01

    The past two years have witnessed the emergence of MRI as a functional imaging methodology. Initial demonstrations involved the injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent and required ultrafast echo planar imaging capability to adequately resolve the passage of the injected bolus. By measuring the local reduction in image intensity due to magnetic susceptibility, it was possible to calculate blood volume, which changes as a function of neural activation. Later developments have exploited endogenous contrast mechanisms to monitor changes in blood volume or in venous blood oxygen content. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that it is possible to make such measurements in a clinical imager, suggesting that the large installed base of such machines might be utilized for functional imaging. Although it is likely that functional MRI (fMRI) will subsume some of the clinical and basic neuroscience applications now touted for MEG, it is also clear that these techniques offer different largely complementary, capabilities. At the very least, it is useful to compare and cross-validate the activation maps produced by these techniques. Such studies will be valuable as a check on results of neuromagnetic distributed current reconstructions and will allow better characterization of the relationship between neurophysiological activation and associated hemodynamic changes. A more exciting prospect is the development of analyses that combine information from the two modalities to produce a better description of underlying neural activity than is possible with either technique in isolation. In this paper we describe some results from initial comparative studies and outline several techniques that can be used to treat MEG and fMRI data within a unified computational framework

  14. Comparison of two brain tumor-localizing MRI agent. GD-BOPTA and GD-DTPA. MRI and ICP study of rat brain tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, T.; Matsumura, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshida, F.; Nose, T.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we compared the behavior of Gd-BOPTA as a brain tumor selective contrast agent with Gd-DTPA in a common dose of 0.1 mmol/kg. We performed a MRI study using those two agent as contrast material, and we measured tissue Gd-concentrations by ICP-AES. As a result, Gd-BOPTA showed a better MRI enhancement in brain tumor. ICP showed significantly greater uptake of Gd-BOPTA in tumor samples, at all time course peaked at 5 minutes after administration, Gd being retained for a longer time in brain tumor till 2 hours, without rapid elimination as Gd-DTPA. We conclude that Gd-BOPTA is a new useful contrast material for MR imaging in brain tumor and an effective absorption agent for neutron capture therapy for further research. (author)

  15. A STUDY ON PERITUMORAL BRAIN EDEMA AROUND MENINGIOMAS BY MRI AND CONTRAST CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GO, KG; KAMMAN, RL; WILMINK, JT; MOOYAART, EL

    1994-01-01

    In the present study upon 9 meningiomas, the volume of peritumoral brain edema was calculated by integration of the cross-sectional edematous areas on serial MRI slices. It was zero in 3 cases and ranged from 11 to 176.4 ml in the other cases. There was disruption of the cortex in all cases, ranging

  16. Change in brain and lesion volumes after CEE therapies: the WHIMS-MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Laura H; Espeland, Mark A; Hogan, Patricia E; Resnick, Susan M; Bryan, R Nick; Robinson, Jennifer G; Goveas, Joseph S; Davatzikos, Christos; Kuller, Lewis H; Williamson, Jeff D; Bushnell, Cheryl D; Shumaker, Sally A

    2014-02-04

    To determine whether smaller brain volumes in older women who had completed Women's Health Initiative (WHI)-assigned conjugated equine estrogen-based hormone therapy (HT), reported by WHI Memory Study (WHIMS)-MRI, correspond to a continuing increased rate of atrophy an average of 6.1 to 7.7 years later in WHIMS-MRI2. A total of 1,230 WHI participants were contacted: 797 (64.8%) consented, and 729 (59%) were rescanned an average of 4.7 years after the initial MRI scan. Mean annual rates of change in total brain volume, the primary outcome, and rates of change in ischemic lesion volumes, the secondary outcome, were compared between treatment groups using mixed-effect models with adjustment for trial, clinical site, age, intracranial volumes, and time between MRI measures. Total brain volume decreased an average of 3.22 cm(3)/y in the active arm and 3.07 cm(3)/y in the placebo arm (p = 0.53). Total ischemic lesion volumes increased in both arms at a rate of 0.12 cm(3)/y (p = 0.88). Conjugated equine estrogen-based postmenopausal HT, previously assigned at WHI baseline, did not affect rates of decline in brain volumes or increases in brain lesion volumes during the 4.7 years between the initial and follow-up WHIMS-MRI studies. Smaller frontal lobe volumes were observed as persistent group differences among women assigned to active HT compared with placebo. Women with a history of cardiovascular disease treated with active HT, compared with placebo, had higher rates of accumulation in white matter lesion volume and total brain lesion volume. Further study may elucidate mechanisms that explain these findings.

  17. Studies on the reliability of high-field intra-operative MRI in brain glioma resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-jun SONG

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the reliability of high-field intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging(iMRI in detecting the residual tumors during glioma resection.Method One hundred and thirty-one cases of brain glioma(69 males and 62 females,aged from 7 to 79 years with mean of 39.6 years hospitalized from Nov.2009 to Aug.2010 were involved in present study.All the patients were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging(MRI before the operation.The tumors were resected under conventional navigation microscope,and the high-field iMRI was used for all the patients when the operators considered the tumor was satisfactorily resected,while the residual tumor was difficult to detect under the microscope,but resected after being revealed by high-field iMRI.Histopathological examination was performed.The patients without residual tumors recieved high-field MRI scan at day 4 or 5 after operation to evaluate the accuracy of high-field iMRI during operation.Results High quality intra-operative images were obtained by using high-field iMRI.Twenty-eight cases were excluded because their residual tumors were not resected due to their location too close to functional area.Combined with the results of intra-operative histopathological examination and post-operative MRI at the early recovery stage,the sensitivity of high-field iMRI in residual tumor diagnosis was 98.0%(49/50,the specificity was 94.3%(50/53,and the accuracy was 96.1%(99/103.Conclusion High-quality intra-operative imaging could be acquired by high-field iMRI,which maybe used as a safe and reliable method in detecting the residual tumors during glioma resection.

  18. Pattern of congenital brain malformations at a referral hospital in Saudi Arabia: An MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alorainy, Ibrahim A.

    2006-01-01

    More than 2000 different congenital cerebral malformations have been described in the literature, for which several classification systems have been proposed. With the help of these classification systems, it is now possible, with neuroimaging, to time neuroembtyologic events. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in particular, is useful in studying these malformations. This study evaluated the pattern of congenital brain malformations in a university referral hospital setting. The records of all MRI brain examinations at our hospital over a period of 3 years for children younger than 15 years of age were reviewed. Cases of congenital cerebral malformations were analyzed by sex, age at presentation, type of congenital cerebral malformation and other associated congenital cerebral malformations. Of the 808 MR examinations of different parts of the body for children in the study period, 719 (89%), on 581 patients, were of the brain. Eighty-six children (14.8%) were found to have single or multiple congenital brain malformations. In these children, 114 congenital brain malformations were identified, the commonest being cortical migrational defects (25 patients, 22%), neural tube closure defects (22 patients, 19%), and corpus callosum dysgenesis (22 patients 19%). The least common was vascular malformation. Sixteen patients (18.6%) had more than one congenital brain malformations. Neural tube closer defects, cortical migrational abnormalities, and corpus callosum anomalies were the commonest congenital brain malformations, while vascular malformations were the least common. Most of the identified malformations demonstrated the usual pattern, but a few showed unusual patterns and associations. (author)

  19. EKG-based detection of deep brain stimulation in fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiveland, Eric; Madhavan, Radhika; Prusik, Julia; Linton, Renee; Dimarzio, Marisa; Ashe, Jeffrey; Pilitsis, Julie; Hancu, Ileana

    2018-04-01

    To assess the impact of synchronization errors between the assumed functional MRI paradigm timing and the deep brain stimulation (DBS) on/off cycling using a custom electrocardiogram-based triggering system METHODS: A detector for measuring and predicting the on/off state of cycling deep brain stimulation was developed and tested in six patients in office visits. Three-electrode electrocardiogram measurements, amplified by a commercial bio-amplifier, were used as input for a custom electronics box (e-box). The e-box transformed the deep brain stimulation waveforms into transistor-transistor logic pulses, recorded their timing, and propagated it in time. The e-box was used to trigger task-based deep brain stimulation functional MRI scans in 5 additional subjects; the impact of timing accuracy on t-test values was investigated in a simulation study using the functional MRI data. Following locking to each patient's individual waveform, the e-box was shown to predict stimulation onset with an average absolute error of 112 ± 148 ms, 30 min after disconnecting from the patients. The subsecond accuracy of the e-box in predicting timing onset is more than adequate for our slow varying, 30-/30-s on/off stimulation paradigm. Conversely, the experimental deep brain stimulation onset prediction accuracy in the absence of the e-box, which could be off by as much as 4 to 6 s, could significantly decrease activation strength. Using this detector, stimulation can be accurately synchronized to functional MRI acquisitions, without adding any additional hardware in the MRI environment. Magn Reson Med 79:2432-2439, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. Body growth and brain development in premature babies: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzarouchi, Loukia C.; Zikou, Anastasia; Kosta, Paraskevi; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Drougia, Aikaterini; Andronikou, Styliani [University of Ioannina, Intensive Care Unit, Child Health Department, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, Loukas G. [University of Ioannina, Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2014-03-15

    Prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction are associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities. To assess the relationship between growth status and regional brain volume (rBV) and white matter microstructure in premature babies at around term-equivalent age. Premature infants (n= 27) of gestational age (GA): 29.8 ± 2.1 weeks, with normal brain MRI scans were studied at corrected age: 41.2 ± 1.4 weeks. The infants were divided into three groups: 1) appropriate for GA at birth and at the time of MRI (AGA), 2) small for GA at birth with catch-up growth at the time of MRI (SGA{sub a}) and 3) small for GA at birth with failure of catch-up growth at the time of MRI (SGA{sub b}). The T1-weighted images were segmented into 90 rBVs using the SPM8/IBASPM and differences among groups were assessed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured bilaterally in 15 fiber tracts and its relationship to GA and somatometric measurements was explored. Lower rBV was observed in SGA{sub b} in superior and anterior brain areas. A positive correlation was demonstrated between FA and head circumference and body weight. Body weight was the only significant predictor for FA (P< 0.05). In premature babies, catch-up growth is associated with regional brain volume catch-up at around term-equivalent age, starting from the brain areas maturing first. Body weight seems to be a strong predictor associated with WM microstructure in brain areas related to attention, language, cognition, memory and executing functioning. (orig.)

  1. Body growth and brain development in premature babies: an MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzarouchi, Loukia C.; Zikou, Anastasia; Kosta, Paraskevi; Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Drougia, Aikaterini; Andronikou, Styliani; Astrakas, Loukas G.

    2014-01-01

    Prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction are associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities. To assess the relationship between growth status and regional brain volume (rBV) and white matter microstructure in premature babies at around term-equivalent age. Premature infants (n= 27) of gestational age (GA): 29.8 ± 2.1 weeks, with normal brain MRI scans were studied at corrected age: 41.2 ± 1.4 weeks. The infants were divided into three groups: 1) appropriate for GA at birth and at the time of MRI (AGA), 2) small for GA at birth with catch-up growth at the time of MRI (SGA a ) and 3) small for GA at birth with failure of catch-up growth at the time of MRI (SGA b ). The T1-weighted images were segmented into 90 rBVs using the SPM8/IBASPM and differences among groups were assessed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured bilaterally in 15 fiber tracts and its relationship to GA and somatometric measurements was explored. Lower rBV was observed in SGA b in superior and anterior brain areas. A positive correlation was demonstrated between FA and head circumference and body weight. Body weight was the only significant predictor for FA (P< 0.05). In premature babies, catch-up growth is associated with regional brain volume catch-up at around term-equivalent age, starting from the brain areas maturing first. Body weight seems to be a strong predictor associated with WM microstructure in brain areas related to attention, language, cognition, memory and executing functioning. (orig.)

  2. MRI in ischemic brain diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrich, W.; Friedmann, G.; Pawlik, G.; Boecher-Schwarz, H.G.; Heiss, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    The results of MRI and CT in 55 patients with brain infarcts were compared; in 26 of these cases an additional PET examination was obtained in order to study the regional glucose utilisation. MRI was superior to CT, demonstrating 11% more of the infarcts, particularly during the first 24 hours, in small lesions confined to the grey or subcortical white matter and in infratentorial ischemic lesion. On the other hand, only CT was able to show fresh hemorrhage, although MRI was the method of choice to demonstrate old blood collections. To characterise the follow up of an infarct, CT and MRI were similar, except the marginal contrast enhancement sometimes demonstrated by CT studies between the 2nd and 4th week after stroke event. PET was inferior to show details because of its poorer spatial resolution, but anyhow had a high sensitivity and provided additional informations concerning secondary inactivations of brain areas not directly damaged. Additionally PET was able to demonstrate areas of anaerobic glycolysis and lesions of diminished glucose utilisation in TIAs. Small areas of gliosis in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres were frequently found in patients with cerebro-vascular diseases; they were best shown by MRI, but do not correlate with the extent of vascular stenoses or occlusions, shown by angiography. (orig) [de

  3. Clinical studies of cerebral arteriosclerosis in diabetic subjects. Analysis with brain MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Makoto; Tanahashi, Hideo; Nomura, Makoto; Yamada, Yoshio; Abe, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    In order to investigate the clinical characteristics of cerebral arteriosclerosis in diabetic subjects, brain MRI studies were conducted in diabetic patients and healthy subjects. The subjects were 93 diabetic patients without symptoms and signs of cerebral infarction (49 males and 44 females) with a mean age of 59 years and 73 healthy subjects (43 males and 30 females) with a mean age of 57 years. The MRI studies were performed on a General Electric 1.5-T signa system. The spin-echo technique (T2-weighted image) was used with a pulse repetition time (TR) of 2,500 msec and echo time (TE) of 80 msec. The quantitative evaluation of cerebral infarction was assessed using personal computer and image-scanner. By MRI, the incidence of cerebral infarction in diabetic patients was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (30.1% vs. 13.7%, respectively, p<0.05). The mean age of the diabetic patients with cerebral infarctions was higher than that of those without cerebral infarctions. Hypertension and diabetic nephropathy were present more frequently in the subjects with cerebral infarctions. These data suggest that it is important to delay the onset and slow the progression of cerebral infarction in diabetic patients by strict blood glucose control and management of blood pressure. (author)

  4. Functional MRI studies of acupuncture analgesia modulating within the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Jinwen; Huang Weihao; Wang Qing; Feng Jingwei; Pu Yonglin; Gao Jiahong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation between acupuncture analgesia and specific functional areas of the brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Acupuncture stimulation was induced by manipulating acupuncture needle at the acupuncture point, large intestine 4 (LI 4, Hegu) on the right (dominant) hand of 8 healthy subjects. Functional MRI data were obtained from scanning the whole brain. A block-design paradigm was applied. Functional responses were established by students' group t-test analysis. Results: The data sets from 6 of 8 subjects were used in the study. Signal increases and signal decreases elicited by acupuncture stimulating were demonstrated in multiple brain regions. Signal increases in periaqueductal gray matter and ventral posterior nucleus of the left thalamus, and signal decreases in bilateral anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral occipital lobes were considered as the response to the acupuncture modulating within the human brain. Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of acupuncture analgesia was probably produced by the interaction of multiple brain structures of functional connectivity rather than through the activation of a single brain region

  5. Rehabilitative interventions and brain plasticity in autism spectrum disorders: focus on MRI-based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eCalderoni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and research evidence supports the efficacy of rehabilitative intervention for improving targeted skills or global outcomes in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. However, putative mechanisms of structural and functional brain changes are poorly understood. This review aims to investigate the research literature on the neural circuit modifications after non-pharmacological intervention. For this purpose, longitudinal studies that used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based techniques at the start and at the end of the trial to evaluate the neural effects of rehabilitative treatment in subjects with ASD were identified. The six included studies involved a limited number of patients in the active group (from 2 to 16, and differed by acquisition method (task-related and resting-state functional MRI as well as by functional MRI tasks. Overall, the results produced by the selected investigations demonstrated brain plasticity during the treatment interval that results in an activation/functional connectivity more similar to those of subjects with typical development. Repeated MRI evaluation may represent a promising tool for the detection of neural changes in response to treatment in patients with ASD. However, large-scale randomized controlled trials after standardized rehabilitative intervention are required before translating these preliminary results into clinical use.

  6. Brain entropy and human intelligence: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Glenn N; Calderone, Daniel; Morales, Leah J

    2018-01-01

    Human intelligence comprises comprehension of and reasoning about an infinitely variable external environment. A brain capable of large variability in neural configurations, or states, will more easily understand and predict variable external events. Entropy measures the variety of configurations possible within a system, and recently the concept of brain entropy has been defined as the number of neural states a given brain can access. This study investigates the relationship between human intelligence and brain entropy, to determine whether neural variability as reflected in neuroimaging signals carries information about intellectual ability. We hypothesize that intelligence will be positively associated with entropy in a sample of 892 healthy adults, using resting-state fMRI. Intelligence is measured with the Shipley Vocabulary and WASI Matrix Reasoning tests. Brain entropy was positively associated with intelligence. This relation was most strongly observed in the prefrontal cortex, inferior temporal lobes, and cerebellum. This relationship between high brain entropy and high intelligence indicates an essential role for entropy in brain functioning. It demonstrates that access to variable neural states predicts complex behavioral performance, and specifically shows that entropy derived from neuroimaging signals at rest carries information about intellectual capacity. Future work in this area may elucidate the links between brain entropy in both resting and active states and various forms of intelligence. This insight has the potential to provide predictive information about adaptive behavior and to delineate the subdivisions and nature of intelligence based on entropic patterns.

  7. Brain entropy and human intelligence: A resting-state fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, Daniel; Morales, Leah J.

    2018-01-01

    Human intelligence comprises comprehension of and reasoning about an infinitely variable external environment. A brain capable of large variability in neural configurations, or states, will more easily understand and predict variable external events. Entropy measures the variety of configurations possible within a system, and recently the concept of brain entropy has been defined as the number of neural states a given brain can access. This study investigates the relationship between human intelligence and brain entropy, to determine whether neural variability as reflected in neuroimaging signals carries information about intellectual ability. We hypothesize that intelligence will be positively associated with entropy in a sample of 892 healthy adults, using resting-state fMRI. Intelligence is measured with the Shipley Vocabulary and WASI Matrix Reasoning tests. Brain entropy was positively associated with intelligence. This relation was most strongly observed in the prefrontal cortex, inferior temporal lobes, and cerebellum. This relationship between high brain entropy and high intelligence indicates an essential role for entropy in brain functioning. It demonstrates that access to variable neural states predicts complex behavioral performance, and specifically shows that entropy derived from neuroimaging signals at rest carries information about intellectual capacity. Future work in this area may elucidate the links between brain entropy in both resting and active states and various forms of intelligence. This insight has the potential to provide predictive information about adaptive behavior and to delineate the subdivisions and nature of intelligence based on entropic patterns. PMID:29432427

  8. Blood-brain barrier permeability and monocyte infiltration in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: a quantitative MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, S; Blezer, E L A; Schreibelt, G; Döpp, E; van der Pol, S M A; Schadee-Eestermans, I L; Nicolay, K; Dijkstra, C D; de Vries, H E

    2004-03-01

    Enhanced cerebrovascular permeability and cellular infiltration mark the onset of early multiple sclerosis lesions. So far, the precise sequence of these events and their role in lesion formation and disease progression remain unknown. Here we provide quantitative evidence that blood-brain barrier leakage is an early event and precedes massive cellular infiltration in the development of acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal correlate of multiple sclerosis. Cerebrovascular leakage and monocytes infiltrates were separately monitored by quantitative in vivo MRI during the course of the disease. Magnetic resonance enhancement of the contrast agent gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Gd-DTPA), reflecting vascular leakage, occurred concomitantly with the onset of neurological signs and was already at a maximal level at this stage of the disease. Immunohistochemical analysis also confirmed the presence of the serum-derived proteins such as fibrinogen around the brain vessels early in the disease, whereas no cellular infiltrates could be detected. MRI further demonstrated that Gd-DTPA leakage clearly preceded monocyte infiltration as imaged by the contrast agent based on ultra small particles of iron oxide (USPIO), which was maximal only during full-blown EAE. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical investigation revealed that USPIOs were present in newly infiltrated macrophages within the inflammatory lesions. To validate the use of USPIOs as a non-invasive tool to evaluate therapeutic strategies, EAE animals were treated with the immunomodulator 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, lovastatin, which ameliorated clinical scores. MRI showed that the USPIO load in the brain was significantly diminished in lovastatin-treated animals. Data indicate that cerebrovascular leakage and monocytic trafficking into the brain are two distinct processes in the development of inflammatory lesions during multiple sclerosis, which can

  9. Brain Abnormalities in Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 1: A Multimodal MRI Imaging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Miao

    Full Text Available To explore the possible brain structural and functional alterations in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1 patients using multimodal MRI imaging.T1-weighted, diffusion tensor images and functional MRI data were obtained from 9 KIF21A positive patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Voxel based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics were applied to the T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images, respectively. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity were used to process the functional MRI data. We then compared these multimodal characteristics between CFEOM1 patients and healthy controls.Compared with healthy controls, CFEOM1 patients demonstrated increased grey matter volume in bilateral frontal orbital cortex and in the right temporal pole. No diffusion indices changes were detected, indicating unaffected white matter microstructure. In addition, from resting state functional MRI data, trend of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations increases were noted in the right inferior parietal lobe and in the right frontal cortex, and a trend of ReHo increase (p<0.001 uncorrected in the left precentral gyrus, left orbital frontal cortex, temporal pole and cingulate gyrus.CFEOM1 patients had structural and functional changes in grey matter, but the white matter was unaffected. These alterations in the brain may be due to the abnormality of extraocular muscles and their innervating nerves. Future studies should consider the possible correlations between brain morphological/functional findings and clinical data, especially pertaining to eye movements, to obtain more precise answers about the role of brain area changes and their functional consequence in CFEOM1.

  10. Brain Abnormalities in Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 1: A Multimodal MRI Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Wen; Man, Fengyuan; Wu, Shaoqin; Lv, Bin; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; Sabel, Bernhard A; He, Huiguang; Jiao, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    To explore the possible brain structural and functional alterations in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) patients using multimodal MRI imaging. T1-weighted, diffusion tensor images and functional MRI data were obtained from 9 KIF21A positive patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Voxel based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics were applied to the T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images, respectively. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity were used to process the functional MRI data. We then compared these multimodal characteristics between CFEOM1 patients and healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, CFEOM1 patients demonstrated increased grey matter volume in bilateral frontal orbital cortex and in the right temporal pole. No diffusion indices changes were detected, indicating unaffected white matter microstructure. In addition, from resting state functional MRI data, trend of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations increases were noted in the right inferior parietal lobe and in the right frontal cortex, and a trend of ReHo increase (pleft precentral gyrus, left orbital frontal cortex, temporal pole and cingulate gyrus. CFEOM1 patients had structural and functional changes in grey matter, but the white matter was unaffected. These alterations in the brain may be due to the abnormality of extraocular muscles and their innervating nerves. Future studies should consider the possible correlations between brain morphological/functional findings and clinical data, especially pertaining to eye movements, to obtain more precise answers about the role of brain area changes and their functional consequence in CFEOM1.

  11. Brain Abnormalities in Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 1: A Multimodal MRI Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaoqin; Lv, Bin; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; Sabel, Bernhard A.; He, Huiguang; Jiao, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the possible brain structural and functional alterations in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) patients using multimodal MRI imaging. Methods T1-weighted, diffusion tensor images and functional MRI data were obtained from 9 KIF21A positive patients and 19 age- and gender- matched healthy controls. Voxel based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics were applied to the T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images, respectively. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity were used to process the functional MRI data. We then compared these multimodal characteristics between CFEOM1 patients and healthy controls. Results Compared with healthy controls, CFEOM1 patients demonstrated increased grey matter volume in bilateral frontal orbital cortex and in the right temporal pole. No diffusion indices changes were detected, indicating unaffected white matter microstructure. In addition, from resting state functional MRI data, trend of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations increases were noted in the right inferior parietal lobe and in the right frontal cortex, and a trend of ReHo increase (pleft precentral gyrus, left orbital frontal cortex, temporal pole and cingulate gyrus. Conclusions CFEOM1 patients had structural and functional changes in grey matter, but the white matter was unaffected. These alterations in the brain may be due to the abnormality of extraocular muscles and their innervating nerves. Future studies should consider the possible correlations between brain morphological/functional findings and clinical data, especially pertaining to eye movements, to obtain more precise answers about the role of brain area changes and their functional consequence in CFEOM1. PMID:26186732

  12. Integration of fMRI, NIROT and ERP for studies of human brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, John C; Horovitz, Silvina G; Cannistraci, Christopher J; Skudlarski, Pavel

    2006-05-01

    Different methods of assessing human brain function possess specific advantages and disadvantages compared to others, but it is believed that combining different approaches will provide greater information than can be obtained from each alone. For example, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has good spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution, whereas the converse is true for electrophysiological recordings (event-related potentials or ERPs). In this review of recent work, we highlight a novel approach to combining these modalities in a manner designed to increase information on the origins and locations of the generators of specific ERPs and the relationship between fMRI and ERP signals. Near infrared imaging techniques have also been studied as alternatives to fMRI and can be readily integrated with simultaneous electrophysiological recordings. Each of these modalities may in principle be also used in so-called steady-state acquisitions in which the correlational structure of signals from the brain may be analyzed to provide new insights into brain function.

  13. Progesterone mediates brain functional connectivity changes during the menstrual cycle - A pilot resting state MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eArelin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in intrinsic brain organization has sparked various innovative approaches to generating comprehensive connectivity-based maps of the human brain. Prior reports point to a sexual dimorphism of the structural and functional human connectome. However, it is uncertain whether subtle changes in sex hormones, as occur during the monthly menstrual cycle, substantially impact the functional architecture of the female brain. Here, we performed eigenvector centrality (EC mapping in 32 longitudinal resting state fMRI scans of a single healthy subject without oral contraceptive use, across four menstrual cycles, and assessed estrogen and progesterone levels. To investigate associations between cycle-dependent hormones and brain connectivity, we performed correlation analyses between the EC maps and the respective hormone levels. On the whole brain level, we found a significant positive correlation between progesterone and EC in the bilateral DLPFC and bilateral sensorimotor cortex. In a secondary region-of-interest analysis, we detected a progesterone-modulated increase in functional connectivity of both bilateral DLPFC and bilateral sensorimotor cortex with the hippocampus. Our results suggest that the menstrual cycle substantially impacts intrinsic functional connectivity, particularly in brain areas associated with contextual memory-regulation, such as the hippocampus. These findings are the first to link the subtle hormonal fluctuations that occur during the menstrual cycle, to significant changes in regional functional connectivity in the hippocampus in a longitudinal design, given the limitation of data acquisition in a single subject. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of such a longitudinal rs-fMRI design and illustrates a means of creating a personalized map of the human brain by integrating potential mediators of brain states, such as menstrual cycle phase.

  14. Genome-wide association studies of mri-defined brain infarcts: Meta-analysis from the charge consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Debette (Stéphanie); J.C. Bis (Joshua); M. Fornage (Myriam); H.A. Schmid (Herbert); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); S. Sigurdsson (Stefan); G. Heiss (Gerardo); M.V. Struchalin (Maksim); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); A. van der Lugt (Aad); C. DeCarli (Charles); T. Lumley (Thomas); D.S. Knopman (David); C. Enzinger (Christian); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); C. Dufouil (Carole); D.J. Catellier (Diane); F. Fazekas (Franz); T. Aspelund (Thor); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); A. Beiser (Alexa); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); C. Tzourio (Christophe); D.K. Shibata (Dean); M. Tscherner (Maria); T.B. Harris (Tamara); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); L.D. Atwood (Larry); K. Rice (Kenneth); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); M.A. van Buchem (Mark); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Kelly-Hayes (Margaret); M. Cushman (Mary Ann); Y. Zhu (Yicheng); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); J.R. Romero (Jose Rafael); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); L.J. Launer (Lenore); W.T. Longstreth Jr

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground and Purpose-Previous studies examining genetic associations with MRI-defined brain infarct have yielded inconsistent findings. We investigated genetic variation underlying covert MRI infarct in persons without histories of transient ischemic attack or stroke. We performed

  15. Quantitative Study of Longitudinal Relaxation (T 1) Contrast Mechanisms in Brain MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu

    Longitudinal relaxation (T1) contrast in MRI is important for studying brain morphology and is widely used in clinical applications. Although MRI only detects signals from water hydrogen ( 1H) protons (WPs), T1 contrast is known to be influenced by other species of 1H protons, including those in macromolecules (MPs), such as lipids and proteins, through magnetization transfer (MT) between WPs and MPs. This complicates the use and quantification of T1 contrast for studying the underlying tissue composition and the physiology of the brain. MT contributes to T1 contrast to an extent that is generally dependent on MT kinetics, as well as the concentration and NMR spectral properties of MPs. However, the MP spectral properties and MT kinetics are both difficult to measure directly, as the signal from MPs is generally invisible to MRI. Therefore, to investigate MT kinetics and further quantify T1 contrast, we first developed a reliable way to indirectly measure the MP fraction and their exchange rate with WPs, with minimal dependence on the spectral properties of MPs. For this purpose, we used brief, highpower radiofrequency (RF) NMR excitation pulses to almost completely saturate the magnetization of MPs. Based on this, both MT kinetics and the contribution of MPs to T1 contrast through MT were studied. The thus obtained knowledge allowed us to subsequently infer the spectral properties of MPs by applying low-power, frequencyselective off-resonance RF pulses and measuring the offset-frequency dependent effect of MPs on the WP MRI signal. A two-pool exchange model was used in both cases to account for direct effects of the RF pulse on WP magnetization. Consistent with earlier works using MRI at low-field and post-mortem analysis of brain tissue, our novel measurement approach found that MPs constitute an up to 27% fraction of the total 1H protons in human brain white matter, and their spectrum follows a super-Lorentzian line with a T2 of 9.6+/-0.6 mus and a resonance

  16. Altered spontaneous brain activity in patients with hemifacial spasm: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Tu

    Full Text Available Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has been used to detect the alterations of spontaneous neuronal activity in various neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases, but rarely in hemifacial spasm (HFS, a nervous system disorder. We used resting-state fMRI with regional homogeneity (ReHo analysis to investigate changes in spontaneous brain activity of patients with HFS and to determine the relationship of these functional changes with clinical features. Thirty patients with HFS and 33 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Compared with controls, HFS patients had significantly decreased ReHo values in left middle frontal gyrus (MFG, left medial cingulate cortex (MCC, left lingual gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus (STG and right precuneus; and increased ReHo values in left precentral gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, right brainstem, and right cerebellum. Furthermore, the mean ReHo value in brainstem showed a positive correlation with the spasm severity (r = 0.404, p = 0.027, and the mean ReHo value in MFG was inversely related with spasm severity in HFS group (r = -0.398, p = 0.028. This study reveals that HFS is associated with abnormal spontaneous brain activity in brain regions most involved in motor control and blinking movement. The disturbances of spontaneous brain activity reflected by ReHo measurements may provide insights into the neurological pathophysiology of HFS.

  17. MRI of the foetal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, P.; Jones, R.; Britton, J.; Foote, S.; Thilaganathan, B.

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasound examinations for foetal brain abnormalities have been a part of the routine antenatal screening programme in the UK for many years. In utero brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now being used increasingly successfully to clarify abnormal ultrasound findings, often resulting in a change of diagnosis or treatment plan. Interpretation requires an understanding of foetal brain development, malformations and acquired diseases. In this paper we will outline the technique of foetal MRI, relevant aspects of brain development and provide illustrated examples of foetal brain pathology

  18. Brain activity modification produced by a single radioelectric asymmetric brain stimulation pulse: a new tool for neuropsychiatric treatments. Preliminary fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castagna A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Salvatore Rinaldi1,2, Vania Fontani1, Alessandro Castagna1 1Department of Neuro-Psycho-Physio Pathology, Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Florence, Italy; 2Medical School of Occupational Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Purpose: Radioelectric asymmetric brain stimulation technology with its treatment protocols has shown efficacy in various psychiatric disorders. The aim of this work was to highlight the mechanisms by which these positive effects are achieved. The current study was conducted to determine whether a single 500-millisecond radioelectric asymmetric conveyor (REAC brain stimulation pulse (BSP, applied to the ear, can effect a modification of brain activity that is detectable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Methods: Ten healthy volunteers, six females and four males, underwent fMRI during a simple finger-tapping motor task before and after receiving a single 500-millisecond REAC-BSP. Results: The fMRI results indicate that the average variation in task-induced encephalic activation patterns is lower in subjects following the single REAC pulse. Conclusion: The current report demonstrates that a single REAC-BSP is sufficient to modulate brain activity in awake subjects, able to be measured using fMRI. These initial results open new perspectives into the understanding of the effects of weak and brief radio pulses upon brain activity, and provide the basis for further indepth studies using REAC-BSP and fMRI. Keywords: fMRI, brain stimulation, brain modulation, REAC, neuropsychiatric treatments

  19. Persistent post-traumatic headache vs. migraine: an MRI study demonstrating differences in brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedt, Todd J; Chong, Catherine D; Peplinski, Jacob; Ross, Katherine; Berisha, Visar

    2017-08-22

    The majority of individuals with post-traumatic headache have symptoms that are indistinguishable from migraine. The overlap in symptoms amongst these individuals raises the question as to whether post-traumatic headache has a unique pathophysiology or if head trauma triggers migraine. The objective of this study was to compare brain structure in individuals with persistent post-traumatic headache (i.e. headache lasting at least 3 months following a traumatic brain injury) attributed to mild traumatic brain injury to that of individuals with migraine. Twenty-eight individuals with persistent post-traumatic headache attributed to mild traumatic brain injury and 28 individuals with migraine underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging on a 3 T scanner. Regional volumes, cortical thickness, surface area and curvature measurements were calculated from T1-weighted sequences and compared between subject groups using ANCOVA. MRI data from 28 healthy control subjects were used to interpret the differences in brain structure between migraine and persistent post-traumatic headache. Differences in regional volumes, cortical thickness, surface area and brain curvature were identified when comparing the group of individuals with persistent post-traumatic headache to the group with migraine. Structure was different between groups for regions within the right lateral orbitofrontal lobe, left caudal middle frontal lobe, left superior frontal lobe, left precuneus and right supramarginal gyrus (p right lateral orbitofrontal lobe, right supramarginal gyrus, and left superior frontal lobe and no differences when comparing the migraine cohort to healthy controls. In conclusion, persistent post-traumatic headache and migraine are associated with differences in brain structure, perhaps suggesting differences in their underlying pathophysiology. Additional studies are needed to further delineate similarities and differences in brain structure and function that are associated with post

  20. Brain Activities Associated with Graphic Emoticons: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activities that are associated with graphic emoticons by using functional MRI (fMRI). We use various types of faces from abstract to photorealistic in computer network applications. A graphics emoticon is an abstract face in communication over computer network. In this research, we created various graphic emoticons for the fMRI study and the graphic emoticons were classified according to friendliness and level of arousal. We investigated the brain activities of participants who were required to evaluate the emotional valence of the graphic emoticons (happy or sad). The experimental results showed that not only the right inferior frontal gyrus and the cingulate gyrus, but also the inferior and middle temporal gyrus and the fusiform gyrus, were found to be activated during the experiment. Forthermore, it is possible that the activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus and the cingulate gyrus is related to the type of abstract face. Since the inferior and middle temporal gyrus were activated, even though the graphic emoticons are static, we may perceive graphic emoticons as dynamic and living agents. Moreover, it is believed that text and graphics emoticons play an important role in enriching communication among users.

  1. The Gini coefficient: a methodological pilot study to assess fetal brain development employing postmortem diffusion MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehweger, Adrian; Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Wolfgang [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Riffert, Till; Dhital, Bibek; Knoesche, Thomas R.; Anwander, Alfred [Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig (Germany); Stepan, Holger [University Leipzig, Department of Obstetrics, Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is important in the assessment of fetal brain development. However, it is clinically challenging and time-consuming to prepare neuromorphological examinations to assess real brain age and to detect abnormalities. To demonstrate that the Gini coefficient can be a simple, intuitive parameter for modelling fetal brain development. Postmortem fetal specimens(n = 28) were evaluated by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 3-T MRI scanner using 60 directions, 0.7-mm isotropic voxels and b-values of 0, 150, 1,600 s/mm{sup 2}. Constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) was used as the local diffusion model. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and complexity (CX) maps were generated. CX was defined as a novel diffusion metric. On the basis of those three parameters, the Gini coefficient was calculated. Study of fetal brain development in postmortem specimens was feasible using DWI. The Gini coefficient could be calculated for the combination of the three diffusion parameters. This multidimensional Gini coefficient correlated well with age (Adjusted R{sup 2} = 0.59) between the ages of 17 and 26 gestational weeks. We propose a new method that uses an economics concept, the Gini coefficient, to describe the whole brain with one simple and intuitive measure, which can be used to assess the brain's developmental state. (orig.)

  2. The Gini coefficient: a methodological pilot study to assess fetal brain development employing postmortem diffusion MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viehweger, Adrian; Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Wolfgang; Riffert, Till; Dhital, Bibek; Knoesche, Thomas R.; Anwander, Alfred; Stepan, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is important in the assessment of fetal brain development. However, it is clinically challenging and time-consuming to prepare neuromorphological examinations to assess real brain age and to detect abnormalities. To demonstrate that the Gini coefficient can be a simple, intuitive parameter for modelling fetal brain development. Postmortem fetal specimens(n = 28) were evaluated by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 3-T MRI scanner using 60 directions, 0.7-mm isotropic voxels and b-values of 0, 150, 1,600 s/mm 2 . Constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) was used as the local diffusion model. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and complexity (CX) maps were generated. CX was defined as a novel diffusion metric. On the basis of those three parameters, the Gini coefficient was calculated. Study of fetal brain development in postmortem specimens was feasible using DWI. The Gini coefficient could be calculated for the combination of the three diffusion parameters. This multidimensional Gini coefficient correlated well with age (Adjusted R 2 = 0.59) between the ages of 17 and 26 gestational weeks. We propose a new method that uses an economics concept, the Gini coefficient, to describe the whole brain with one simple and intuitive measure, which can be used to assess the brain's developmental state. (orig.)

  3. Mechanism of case processing in the brain: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yokoyama

    Full Text Available In sentence comprehension research, the case system, which is one of the subsystems of the language processing system, has been assumed to play a crucial role in signifying relationships in sentences between noun phrases (NPs and other elements, such as verbs, prepositions, nouns, and tense. However, so far, less attention has been paid to the question of how cases are processed in our brain. To this end, the current study used fMRI and scanned the brain activity of 15 native English speakers during an English-case processing task. The results showed that, while the processing of all cases activates the left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior part of the middle temporal gyrus, genitive case processing activates these two regions more than nominative and accusative case processing. Since the effect of the difference in behavioral performance among these three cases is excluded from brain activation data, the observed different brain activations would be due to the different processing patterns among the cases, indicating that cases are processed differently in our brains. The different brain activations between genitive case processing and nominative/accusative case processing may be due to the difference in structural complexity between them.

  4. [fMRI study of the dominant hemisphere for language in patients with brain tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buklina, S B; Podoprigora, A E; Pronin, I N; Shishkina, L V; Boldyreva, G N; Bondarenko, A A; Fadeeva, L M; Kornienko, V N; Zhukov, V Iu

    2013-01-01

    Paper describes a study of language lateralization of patients with brain tumors, measured by preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and comparison results with tumor histology and profile of functional asymmetry. During the study 21 patient underwent fMRI scan. 15 patients had a tumor in the left and 6 in the right hemisphere. Tumors were localized mainly in the frontal, temporal and fronto-temporal regions. Histological diagnosis in 8 cases was malignant Grade IV, in 13 cases--Grade I-III. fMRI study was perfomed on scanner "Signa Exite" with a field strength of 1.5 As speech test reciting the months of the year in reverse order was used. fMRI scan results were compared with the profile of functional asymmetry, which was received with the results of questionnaire Annette and dichotic listening test. Broca's area was found in 7 cases in the left hemisphere, 6 had a tumor Grade I-III. And one patient with glioblastoma had a tumor of the right hemisphere. Broca's area in the right hemisphere was found in 3 patients (2 patients with left sided tumor, and one with right-sided tumor). One patient with left-sided tumor had mild motor aphasia. Bilateral activation in both hemispheres of the brain was observed in 6 patients. All of them had tumor Grade II-III of the left hemisphere. Signs of left-handedness were revealed only in half of these patients. Broca's area was not found in 4 cases. All of them had large malignant tumors Grade IV. One patient couldn't handle program of the research. Results of fMRI scans, questionnaire Annette and dichotic listening test frequently were not the same, which is significant. Bilateral activation in speech-loads may be a reflection of brain plasticity in cases of long-growing tumors. Thus it's important to consider the full range of clinical data in studying the problem of the dominant hemisphere for language.

  5. Motor programme activating therapy influences adaptive brain functions in multiple sclerosis: clinical and MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasova, Kamila; Prochazkova, Marie; Tintera, Jaroslav; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Zimova, Denisa; Stetkarova, Ivana

    2015-03-01

    There is still little scientific evidence for the efficacy of neurofacilitation approaches and their possible influence on brain plasticity and adaptability. In this study, the outcome of a new kind of neurofacilitation approach, motor programme activating therapy (MPAT), was evaluated on the basis of a set of clinical functions and with MRI. Eighteen patients were examined four times with standardized clinical tests and diffusion tensor imaging to monitor changes without therapy, immediately after therapy and 1 month after therapy. Moreover, the strength of effective connectivity was analysed before and after therapy. Patients underwent a 1-h session of MPAT twice a week for 2 months. The data were analysed by nonparametric tests of association and were subsequently statistically evaluated. The therapy led to significant improvement in clinical functions, significant increment of fractional anisotropy and significant decrement of mean diffusivity, and decrement of effective connectivity at supplementary motor areas was observed immediately after the therapy. Changes in clinical functions and diffusion tensor images persisted 1 month after completing the programme. No statistically significant changes in clinical functions and no differences in MRI-diffusion tensor images were observed without physiotherapy. Positive immediate and long-term effects of MPAT on clinical and brain functions, as well as brain microstructure, were confirmed.

  6. Brain's reward circuits mediate itch relief. a functional MRI study of active scratching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru D P Papoiu

    Full Text Available Previous brain imaging studies investigating the brain processing of scratching used an exogenous intervention mimicking scratching, performed not by the subjects themselves, but delivered by an investigator. In real life, scratching is a conscious, voluntary, controlled motor response to itching, which is directed to the perceived site of distress. In this study we aimed to visualize in real-time by brain imaging the core mechanisms of the itch-scratch cycle when scratching was performed by subjects themselves. Secondly, we aimed to assess the correlations between brain patterns of activation and psychophysical ratings of itch relief or pleasurability of scratching. We also compared the patterns of brain activity evoked by self-scratching vs. passive scratching. We used a robust tridimensional Arterial Spin Labeling fMRI technique that is less sensitive to motion artifacts: 3D gradient echo and spin echo (GRASE--Propeller. Active scratching was accompanied by a higher pleasurability and induced a more pronounced deactivation of the anterior cingulate cortex and insula, in comparison with passive scratching. A significant involvement of the reward system including the ventral tegmentum of the midbrain, coupled with a mechanism deactivating the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG, suggests that itch modulation operates in reverse to the mechanism known to suppress pain. Our findings not only confirm a role for the central networks processing reward in the pleasurable aspects of scratching, but also suggest they play a role in mediating itch relief.

  7. High prevalence of brain pathology in violent prisoners: a qualitative CT and MRI scan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, Kolja; Witzel, Joachim G; Bausch-Hölterhoff, Josef; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and extent of brain anomalies in a large sample of incarcerated violent offenders not previously considered neuropsychiatrically ill, in comparison with non-violent offenders and non-offending controls. MRI and CT brain scans from 287 male prison inmates (162 violent and 125 non-violent) not diagnosed as mentally ill before that were obtained due to headache, vertigo or psychological complaints during imprisonment were assessed and compared to 52 non-criminal controls. Brain scans were rated qualitatively with respect to evidence of structural brain damage. Each case received a semiquantitative rating of "normal" (=0), "questionably abnormal" (=1) or "definitely abnormal" (=2) for the lateral ventricles, frontal/parietal cortex and medial temporal structures bilaterally as well as third ventricle. Overall, offenders displayed a significantly higher rate of morphological abnormality, with the violent offenders scoring significantly higher than non-violent offenders and controls. This difference was statistically detectable for frontal/parietal cortex, medial temporal structures, third ventricle and the left but not the right lateral ventricle. The remarkable prevalence of brain pathology in convicted violent prisoners detectable by neuroradiological routine assessment not only highlights the importance of frontal and temporal structures in the control of social, and specifically of violent behaviour, but also raises questions on the legal culpability of violent offenders with brain abnormalities. The high proportion of undetected presence of structural brain damage emphasizes the need that in violent criminals, the comprehensive routine neuropsychiatric assessment usually performed in routine forensic psychiatric expertises should be complemented with brain imaging.

  8. A survey of MRI-based medical image analysis for brain tumor studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stefan; Wiest, Roland; Nolte, Lutz-P.; Reyes, Mauricio

    2013-07-01

    MRI-based medical image analysis for brain tumor studies is gaining attention in recent times due to an increased need for efficient and objective evaluation of large amounts of data. While the pioneering approaches applying automated methods for the analysis of brain tumor images date back almost two decades, the current methods are becoming more mature and coming closer to routine clinical application. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview by giving a brief introduction to brain tumors and imaging of brain tumors first. Then, we review the state of the art in segmentation, registration and modeling related to tumor-bearing brain images with a focus on gliomas. The objective in the segmentation is outlining the tumor including its sub-compartments and surrounding tissues, while the main challenge in registration and modeling is the handling of morphological changes caused by the tumor. The qualities of different approaches are discussed with a focus on methods that can be applied on standard clinical imaging protocols. Finally, a critical assessment of the current state is performed and future developments and trends are addressed, giving special attention to recent developments in radiological tumor assessment guidelines.

  9. Structural and Functional MRI Differences in Master Sommeliers: A pilot study on expertise in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jane Banks

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Our experiences, even as adults, shape our brains. Regional differences have been found in experts, with the regions associated with their particular skill-set. Functional differences have also been noted in brain activation patterns in some experts. This study uses multimodal techniques to assess structural and functional patterns that differ between experts and nonexperts. Sommeliers are experts in wine and thus in olfaction. We assessed differences in Master Sommeliers’ brains, compared with controls, in structure and also in functional response to olfactory and visual judgment tasks. MRI data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry as well as automated parcellation to assess structural properties, and group differences between tasks were calculated. Results indicate enhanced volume in the right insula and entorhinal cortex, with the cortical thickness of the entorhinal correlating with experience. There were regional activation differences in a large area involving the right olfactory and memory regions, with heightened activation specifically for sommeliers during an olfactory task. Our results indicate that sommeliers’ brains show specialization in the expected regions of the olfactory and memory networks, and also in regions important in integration of internal sensory stimuli and external cues. Overall, these differences suggest that specialized expertise and training might result in enhancements in the brain well into adulthood. This is particularly important given the regions involved, which are the first to be impacted by many neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Brain parenchymal damage in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder - A multimodal MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pache, F.; Paul, F. [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center and Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Zimmermann, H.; Lacheta, A.; Papazoglou, S.; Kuchling, J.; Wuerfel, J.; Brandt, A.U. [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center and Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Finke, C. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Berlin (Germany); Hamm, B. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Ruprecht, K. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Scheel, M. [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center and Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    To investigate different brain regions for grey (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in a well-defined cohort of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients and compare advanced MRI techniques (VBM, Subcortical and cortical analyses (Freesurfer), and DTI) for their ability to detect damage in NMOSD. We analyzed 21 NMOSD patients and 21 age and gender matched control subjects. VBM (GW/WM) and DTI whole brain (TBSS) analyses were performed at different statistical thresholds to reflect different statistical approaches in previous studies. In an automated atlas-based approach, Freesurfer and DTI results were compared between NMOSD and controls. DTI TBSS and DTI atlas based analysis demonstrated microstructural impairment only within the optic radiation or in regions associated with the optic radiation (posterior thalamic radiation p < 0.001, 6.9 % reduction of fractional anisotropy). VBM demonstrated widespread brain GM and WM reduction, but only at exploratory statistical thresholds, with no differences remaining after correction for multiple comparisons. Freesurfer analysis demonstrated no group differences. NMOSD specific parenchymal brain damage is predominantly located in the optic radiation, likely due to a secondary degeneration caused by ON. In comparison, DTI appears to be the most reliable and sensitive technique for brain damage detection in NMOSD. (orig.)

  11. A survey of MRI-based medical image analysis for brain tumor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Stefan; Nolte, Lutz-P; Reyes, Mauricio; Wiest, Roland

    2013-01-01

    MRI-based medical image analysis for brain tumor studies is gaining attention in recent times due to an increased need for efficient and objective evaluation of large amounts of data. While the pioneering approaches applying automated methods for the analysis of brain tumor images date back almost two decades, the current methods are becoming more mature and coming closer to routine clinical application. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview by giving a brief introduction to brain tumors and imaging of brain tumors first. Then, we review the state of the art in segmentation, registration and modeling related to tumor-bearing brain images with a focus on gliomas. The objective in the segmentation is outlining the tumor including its sub-compartments and surrounding tissues, while the main challenge in registration and modeling is the handling of morphological changes caused by the tumor. The qualities of different approaches are discussed with a focus on methods that can be applied on standard clinical imaging protocols. Finally, a critical assessment of the current state is performed and future developments and trends are addressed, giving special attention to recent developments in radiological tumor assessment guidelines. (topical review)

  12. Brain parenchymal damage in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder - A multimodal MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pache, F.; Paul, F.; Zimmermann, H.; Lacheta, A.; Papazoglou, S.; Kuchling, J.; Wuerfel, J.; Brandt, A.U.; Finke, C.; Hamm, B.; Ruprecht, K.; Scheel, M.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate different brain regions for grey (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in a well-defined cohort of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients and compare advanced MRI techniques (VBM, Subcortical and cortical analyses (Freesurfer), and DTI) for their ability to detect damage in NMOSD. We analyzed 21 NMOSD patients and 21 age and gender matched control subjects. VBM (GW/WM) and DTI whole brain (TBSS) analyses were performed at different statistical thresholds to reflect different statistical approaches in previous studies. In an automated atlas-based approach, Freesurfer and DTI results were compared between NMOSD and controls. DTI TBSS and DTI atlas based analysis demonstrated microstructural impairment only within the optic radiation or in regions associated with the optic radiation (posterior thalamic radiation p < 0.001, 6.9 % reduction of fractional anisotropy). VBM demonstrated widespread brain GM and WM reduction, but only at exploratory statistical thresholds, with no differences remaining after correction for multiple comparisons. Freesurfer analysis demonstrated no group differences. NMOSD specific parenchymal brain damage is predominantly located in the optic radiation, likely due to a secondary degeneration caused by ON. In comparison, DTI appears to be the most reliable and sensitive technique for brain damage detection in NMOSD. (orig.)

  13. A tale of two methods: combining near-infrared spectroscopy with MRI for studies of brain oxygenation and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jeff F; Nathoo, Nabeela; Yang, Runze

    2014-01-01

    Combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) leads to excellent synergies which can improve the interpretation of either method and can provide novel data with respect to measuring brain oxygenation and metabolism. MRI has good spatial resolution, can detect a range of physiological parameters and is sensitive to changes in deoxyhemoglobin content. NIRS has lower spatial resolution, but can detect, and with specific technologies, quantify, deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, total hemoglobin and cytochrome oxidase. This paper reviews the application of both methods, as a multimodal technology, for assessing changes in brain oxygenation that may occur with changes in functional activation state or metabolic rate. Examples of hypoxia and ischemia are shown. Data support the concept of reduced metabolic rate resulting from hypoxia/ischemia and that metabolic rate in brain is not close to oxygen limitation during normoxia. We show that multimodal MRI and NIRS can provide novel information for studies of brain metabolism.

  14. D-BRAIN : Anatomically accurate simulated diffusion MRI brain data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrone, Daniele; Jeurissen, Ben; Aelterman, Jan; Roine, Timo; Sijbers, Jan; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Leemans, Alexander; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion Weighted (DW) MRI allows for the non-invasive study of water diffusion inside living tissues. As such, it is useful for the investigation of human brain white matter (WM) connectivity in vivo through fiber tractography (FT) algorithms. Many DW-MRI tailored restoration techniques and FT

  15. Brain structure in women at risk of postpartum psychosis: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusté, Montserrat; Pauls, Astrid; Worker, Amanda; Reinders, Antje A T S; Simmons, Andrew; Williams, Steven C R; Haro, Josep M; Hazelgrove, Kate; Pawlby, Susan; Conroy, Susan; Vecchio, Costanza; Seneviratne, Gertrude; Pariante, Carmine M; Mehta, Mitul A; Dazzan, Paola

    2017-12-18

    Postpartum psychosis (PP) is the most severe psychiatric disorder associated with childbirth. The risk of PP is very high in women with a history of bipolar affective disorder or schizoaffective disorder. However, the neurobiological basis of PP remains poorly understood and no study has evaluated brain structure in women at risk of, or with, PP. We performed a cross-sectional study of 256 women at risk of PP and 21 healthy controls (HC) in the same postpartum period. Among women at risk, 11 who developed a recent episode of PP (PPE) (n = 2 with lifetime bipolar disorder; n = 9 psychotic disorder not otherwise specified) and 15 at risk women who did not develop an episode of PP (NPPE) (n = 10 with lifetime bipolar disorder; n = 1 with schizoaffective disorder; n = 1 with a history of PP in first-degree family member; n = 3 with previous PP). We obtained T1-weighted MRI scans at 3T and examined regional gray matter volumes with voxel-based morphometry and cortical thickness and surface area with Freesurfer. Women with PPE showed smaller anterior cingulate gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus compared to NPPE women. These regions also showed decreased surface area. Moreover, the NPPE group showed a larger superior and inferior frontal gyrus volume than the HC. These results should be interpreted with caution, as there were between-group differences in terms of duration of illness and interval between delivery and MRI acquisition. Nevertheless, these are the first findings to suggest that MRI can provide information on brain morphology that characterize those women at risk of PP more likely to develop an episode after childbirth.

  16. Motor-related brain abnormalities in HIV-infected patients. A multimodal MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yawen; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Miao, Hui; Wei, Yarui; Ali, Rizwan [University of Science and Technology of China, Centers for Biomedical Engineering, Hefei, Anhui (China); Li, Ruili; Li, Hongjun [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing Youan Hospital, Beijing (China); Qiu, Bensheng [University of Science and Technology of China, Centers for Biomedical Engineering, Hefei, Anhui (China); Anhui Computer Application Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2017-11-15

    It is generally believed that HIV infection could cause HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) across a broad range of functional domains. Some of the most common findings are deficits in motor control. However, to date no neuroimaging studies have evaluated basic motor control in HIV-infected patients using a multimodal approach. In this study, we utilized high-resolution structural imaging and task-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess brain structure and motor function in a homogeneous cohort of HIV-infected patients. We found that HIV-infected patients had significantly reduced gray matter (GM) volume in cortical regions, which are involved in motor control, including the bilateral posterior insula cortex, premotor cortex, and supramarginal gyrus. Increased activation in bilateral posterior insula cortices was also demonstrated by patients during hand movement tasks compared with healthy controls. More importantly, the reduced GM in bilateral posterior insula cortices was spatially coincident with abnormal brain activation in HIV-infected patients. In addition, the results of partial correlation analysis indicated that GM reduction in bilateral posterior insula cortices and premotor cortices was significantly correlated with immune system deterioration. This study is the first to demonstrate spatially coincident GM reduction and abnormal activation during motor performance in HIV-infected patients. Although it remains unknown whether the brain deficits can be recovered, our findings may yield new insights into neurologic injury underlying motor dysfunction in HAND. (orig.)

  17. Motor-related brain abnormalities in HIV-infected patients. A multimodal MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yawen; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Miao, Hui; Wei, Yarui; Ali, Rizwan; Li, Ruili; Li, Hongjun; Qiu, Bensheng

    2017-01-01

    It is generally believed that HIV infection could cause HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) across a broad range of functional domains. Some of the most common findings are deficits in motor control. However, to date no neuroimaging studies have evaluated basic motor control in HIV-infected patients using a multimodal approach. In this study, we utilized high-resolution structural imaging and task-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess brain structure and motor function in a homogeneous cohort of HIV-infected patients. We found that HIV-infected patients had significantly reduced gray matter (GM) volume in cortical regions, which are involved in motor control, including the bilateral posterior insula cortex, premotor cortex, and supramarginal gyrus. Increased activation in bilateral posterior insula cortices was also demonstrated by patients during hand movement tasks compared with healthy controls. More importantly, the reduced GM in bilateral posterior insula cortices was spatially coincident with abnormal brain activation in HIV-infected patients. In addition, the results of partial correlation analysis indicated that GM reduction in bilateral posterior insula cortices and premotor cortices was significantly correlated with immune system deterioration. This study is the first to demonstrate spatially coincident GM reduction and abnormal activation during motor performance in HIV-infected patients. Although it remains unknown whether the brain deficits can be recovered, our findings may yield new insights into neurologic injury underlying motor dysfunction in HAND. (orig.)

  18. Practical MRI atlas of neonatal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkovich, A.J.; Truwit, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    This book is an anatomical reference for cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in neonates and infants. It contains 122 clear, sharp MRI scans and drawings showing changes in the normal appearance of the brain and skull during development. Sections of the atlas depict the major processes of maturation: brain myelination, development of the corpus callosum, development of the cranial bone marrow, and iron deposition in the brain. High-quality scans illustrate how these changes appear on magnetic resonance images during various stages of development

  19. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and regional brain volumes: the WHIMS-MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, S M; Espeland, M A; Jaramillo, S A; Hirsch, C; Stefanick, M L; Murray, A M; Ockene, J; Davatzikos, C

    2009-01-13

    To determine whether menopausal hormone therapy (HT) affects regional brain volumes, including hippocampal and frontal regions. Brain MRI scans were obtained in a subset of 1,403 women aged 71-89 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). WHIMS was an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, which consisted of two randomized, placebo-controlled trials: 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) with or without 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in one daily tablet. Scans were performed, on average, 3.0 years post-trial for the CEE + MPA trial and 1.4 years post-trial for the CEE-Alone trial; average on-trial follow-up intervals were 4.0 years for CEE + MPA and 5.6 years for CEE-Alone. Total brain, ventricular, hippocampal, and frontal lobe volumes, adjusted for age, clinic site, estimated intracranial volume, and dementia risk factors, were the main outcome variables. Compared with placebo, covariate-adjusted mean frontal lobe volume was 2.37 cm(3) lower among women assigned to HT (p = 0.004), mean hippocampal volume was slightly (0.10 cm(3)) lower (p = 0.05), and differences in total brain volume approached significance (p = 0.07). Results were similar for CEE + MPA and CEE-Alone. HT-associated reductions in hippocampal volumes were greatest in women with the lowest baseline Modified Mini-Mental State Examination scores (scores equine estrogens with or without MPA are associated with greater brain atrophy among women aged 65 years and older; however, the adverse effects are most evident in women experiencing cognitive deficits before initiating hormone therapy.

  20. Reliability of semiquantitative 18F-FDG PET parameters derived from simultaneous brain PET/MRI: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, Amarnath; Taneja, Sangeeta; Goel, Reema; Renjen, Pushpendranath; Negi, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Simultaneous brain PET/MRI faces an important issue of validation of accurate MRI based attenuation correction (AC) method for precise quantitation of brain PET data unlike in PET/CT systems where the use of standard, validated CT based AC is routinely available. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of evaluation of semiquantitative 18 F-FDG PET parameters derived from simultaneous brain PET/MRI using ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences for AC and to assess their agreement with those obtained from PET/CT examination. Methods: Sixteen patients (age range 18–73 years; mean age 49.43 (19.3) years; 13 men 3 women) underwent simultaneous brain PET/MRI followed immediately by PET/CT. Quantitative analysis of brain PET images obtained from both studies was undertaken using Scenium v.1 brain analysis software package. Twenty ROIs for various brain regions were system generated and 6 semiquantitative parameters including maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max), SUV mean, minimum SUV (SUV min), minimum standard deviation (SD min), maximum SD (SD max) and SD from mean were calculated for both sets of PET data for each patient. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were determined to assess agreement between the various semiquantitative parameters for the two PET data sets. Results: Intra-class co-relation between the two PET data sets for SUV max, SUV mean and SD max was highly significant (p < 0.00) for all the 20 predefined brain regions with ICC > 0.9. SD from mean was also found to be statistically significant for all the predefined brain regions with ICC > 0.8. However, SUV max and SUV mean values obtained from PET/MRI were significantly lower compared to those of PET/CT for all the predefined brain regions. Conclusion: PET quantitation accuracy using the MRI based UTE sequences for AC in simultaneous brain PET/MRI is reliable in a clinical setting, being similar to that obtained using PET/CT

  1. Effects of overnight fasting on working memory-related brain network: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechko, Natalia; Vocke, Sebastian; Habel, Ute; Toygar, Timur; Kuckartz, Lisa; Berthold-Losleben, Mark; Laoutidis, Zacharias G; Orfanos, Stelios; Wassenberg, Annette; Karges, Wölfram; Schneider, Frank; Kohn, Nils

    2015-03-01

    Glucose metabolism serves as the central source of energy for the human brain. Little is known about the effects of blood glucose level (BGL) on higher-order cognitive functions within a physiological range (e.g., after overnight fasting). In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind study, we assessed the impact of overnight fasting (14 h) on brain activation during a working memory task. We sought to mimic BGLs that occur naturally in healthy humans after overnight fasting. After standardized periods of food restriction, 40 (20 male) healthy participants were randomly assigned to receive either glucagon to balance the BGL or placebo (NaCl). A parametric fMRI paradigm, including 2-back and 0-back tasks, was used. Subclinically low BGL following overnight fasting was found to be linked to reduced involvement of the bilateral dorsal midline thalamus and the bilateral basal ganglia, suggesting high sensitivity of those regions to minimal changes in BGLs. Our results indicate that overnight fasting leads to physiologically low levels of glucose, impacting brain activation during working memory tasks even when there are no differences in cognitive performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Study of tonotopic brain changes with functional MRI and FDG-PET in a patient with unilateral objective cochlear tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinchard, A-C; Ghazaleh, Naghmeh; Saenz, M; Fornari, E; Prior, J O; Maeder, P; Adib, S; Maire, R

    2016-11-01

    We studied possible brain changes with functional MRI (fMRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in a patient with a rare, high-intensity "objective tinnitus" (high-level SOAEs) in the left ear of 10 years duration, with no associated hearing loss. This is the first case of objective cochlear tinnitus to be investigated with functional neuroimaging. The objective cochlear tinnitus was measured by Spontaneous Otoacoustic Emissions (SOAE) equipment (frequency 9689 Hz, intensity 57 dB SPL) and is clearly audible to anyone standing near the patient. Functional modifications in primary auditory areas and other brain regions were evaluated using 3T and 7T fMRI and FDG-PET. In the fMRI evaluations, a saturation of the auditory cortex at the tinnitus frequency was observed, but the global cortical tonotopic organization remained intact when compared to the results of fMRI of healthy subjects. The FDG-PET showed no evidence of an increase or decrease of activity in the auditory cortices or in the limbic system as compared to normal subjects. In this patient with high-intensity objective cochlear tinnitus, fMRI and FDG-PET showed no significant brain reorganization in auditory areas and/or in the limbic system, as reported in the literature in patients with chronic subjective tinnitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain KidsHealth / For Parents / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain What's in this article? What ...

  4. An audit of clinical practice, referral patterns, and appropriateness of clinical indications for brain MRI examinations: A single-centre study in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersson, A D; Nunoo, G; Gorleku, P N

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate current brain MRI practice, pattern of brain MRI requests, and their appropriateness using the American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria. We used direct observation and questionnaires to obtain data concerning routine brain MRI practice. We then retrospectively analyzed (i) demographic characteristics, (ii) clinical history, and (iii) appropriateness of brain MRI requests against published criteria. All patients were administered the screening questionnaire; however, no reviews were undertaken directly with patients, and no signature of the radiographer was recorded. Apart from routine brain protocol, there were dedicated protocols for epilepsy and stroke. Brain MRI images from 161 patients (85 Males; 76 Females) were analyzed. The age group with most brain MRI requests were from 26 to 45 year olds. The commonest four clinical indications for imaging were brain tumour, headache, seizure, and stroke. Using the ACR Appropriateness Criteria, almost 43% of the brain MRI scans analyzed were found to be "usually appropriate", 38% were "maybe appropriate" and 19% were categorized as "usually not appropriate". There was knowledge gap with regards to MRI safety in local practice, thus there is the utmost need for MRI safety training. Data on the commonest indications for performing brain MRI in this study should be used to inform local neuroradiological practice. Dedicated stroke and epilepsy MRI protocols require additional sequences i.e. MRA and 3D T1 volume acquisition, respectively. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria is recommended for use by the referring practitioners to improve appropriateness of brain MRI requests. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. N-Terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Associations With Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI Features in Middle Age: The CARDIA Brain MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Ferguson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAs part of research on the heart–brain axis, we investigated the association of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP with brain structure and function in a community-based cohort of middle-aged adults from the Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging sub-study of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA Study.Approach and resultsIn a cohort of 634 community-dwelling adults with a mean (range age of 50.4 (46–52 years, we examined the cross-sectional association of NT-proBNP to total, gray (GM and white matter (WM volumes, abnormal WM load and WM integrity, and to cognitive function tests [the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST, the Stroop test, and the Rey Auditory–Verbal Learning Test]. These associations were examined using linear regression models adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors and cardiac output. Higher NT-proBNP concentration was significantly associated with smaller GM volume (β = −3.44; 95% CI = −5.32, −0.53; p = 0.003, even after additionally adjusting for cardiac output (β = −2.93; 95% CI = −5.32, −0.53; p = 0.017. Higher NT-proBNP levels were also associated with lower DSST scores. NT-proBNP was not related to WM volume, WM integrity, or abnormal WM load.ConclusionIn this middle-aged cohort, subclinical levels of NT-proBNP were related to brain function and specifically to GM and not WM measures, extending similar findings in older cohorts. Further research is warranted into biomarkers of cardiac dysfunction as a target for early markers of a brain at risk.

  6. Brain regions with mirror properties: a meta-analysis of 125 human fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenberghs, Pascal; Cunnington, Ross; Mattingley, Jason B

    2012-01-01

    Mirror neurons in macaque area F5 fire when an animal performs an action, such as a mouth or limb movement, and also when the animal passively observes an identical or similar action performed by another individual. Brain-imaging studies in humans conducted over the last 20 years have repeatedly attempted to reveal analogous brain regions with mirror properties in humans, with broad and often speculative claims about their functional significance across a range of cognitive domains, from language to social cognition. Despite such concerted efforts, the likely neural substrates of these mirror regions have remained controversial, and indeed the very existence of a distinct subcategory of human neurons with mirroring properties has been questioned. Here we used activation likelihood estimation (ALE), to provide a quantitative index of the consistency of patterns of fMRI activity measured in human studies of action observation and action execution. From an initial sample of more than 300 published works, data from 125 papers met our strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. The analysis revealed 14 separate clusters in which activation has been consistently attributed to brain regions with mirror properties, encompassing 9 different Brodmann areas. These clusters were located in areas purported to show mirroring properties in the macaque, such as the inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus and the adjacent ventral premotor cortex, but surprisingly also in regions such as the primary visual cortex, cerebellum and parts of the limbic system. Our findings suggest a core network of human brain regions that possess mirror properties associated with action observation and execution, with additional areas recruited during tasks that engage non-motor functions, such as auditory, somatosensory and affective components. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The correlative study between acupoint stimulations and corresponding brain cortices on functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Cheng; Chen Min; Cai Kui; Wang Wenchao; Yang Zhenghan; Zhao Weifeng; Li Guozhen; Wang Jiazhou; Tian Lifang; Zhou Tiangang; Lai Song

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the cortical activation of acupuncture with BOLD-based fMRI technique. Methods: The study was performed in 31 healthy volunteers (27 men, 4 women; age range 21-48 years) with acupuncture of points along the stomach meridian of Foot-Yangming and the gallbladder meridian of Foot-Shaoyang. The acupoints of the stomach meridian of Foot-Yangming included Futu (S 32) in 7 volunteers and Zusanli (S 36) in 9 volunteers; and the acupoints of the gallbladder meridian of Foot-Shaoyang included Yanglingquan (G34) in 7 volunteers and Guangming (G37) in 8 volunteers. MRI data were acquired on a GE 1.5 T Signa Horizon/Echo-speed scanner. 12 oblique axial slices paralleled to the AC-PC line were scanned. T 2 * images were acquired using EPI technique. Data sets of sequential images were analyzed with software package AFNI. Results: Acupuncture at points S32 and S36 resulted in activation of the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampal complex, and frontal gyri, and the average enhancement in the above activated areas was (4.28 ± 1.50)%. Acupuncture at vision-related points G34 and G37 resulted in activation of the occipital lobe as well as other cortices such as pons, basal ganglion, temporal lobe, and frontal lobe, and the BOLD signal changes of the visual cortex were (3.31 ± l.2)%. Conclusion: These preliminary fMRI results demonstrate strong regional BOLD signal changes in the brain upon acupuncture, hence demonstrates physiological evidence of acupuncture effect. (authors)

  8. Structural brain alterations in primary open angle glaucoma: a 3T MRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Jieqiong Wang; Ting Li; Bernhard A. Sabel; Zhiqiang Chen; Hongwei Wen; Jianhong Li; Xiaobin Xie; Diya Yang; Weiwei Chen; Ningli Wang; Junfang Xian; Huiguang He

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is not only an eye disease but is also associated with degeneration of brain structures. We now investigated the pattern of visual and non-visual brain structural changes in 25 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and 25 age-gender-matched normal controls using T1-weighted imaging. MRI images were subjected to volume-based analysis (VBA) and surface-based analysis (SBA) in the whole brain as well as ROI-based analysis of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), visual cortex (V1/...

  9. Transient ischemic attacks and presence of an acute brain lesion in diffusion-weighted MRI: study of 50 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabeti M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Finding an acute brain lesion by diffusion-weighted (DW MRI upon an episode of transient ischemic attack (TIA is a predictor of imminent stroke in the near future. Therefore, exploring risk factors associated with lesions in DW-MRI of the brain is important in adopting an approach to TIA management. In the current study, we tried to determine the risk factors associated with lesions in DW-MRI of the brain in patients experiencing TIA episodes.Methods: Fifty patients with TIA were recruited consecutively in Sina Hospital, Tehran, Iran, over a 6-month period between July 2008 and January 2009. All of the patients underwent a complete neurological examination and laboratory tests. Brain DW-MRIs were performed for all the patients within 72 hours of a TIA episode.Results: DW-MRI revealed an acute lesion in 16% of the participants. There was a significant correlation between presence of an acute lesion in DW-MRI and TIA duration, history of diabetes mellitus and presence of unilateral facial palsy (P=0.0003, P=0.02 and P=0.008, respectively. Other variables such as age, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, past history of TIA, headache, vertigo, and sensory or visual disturbances had no significant relation with the presence of an acute lesion in DW-MRI.Conclusion: Duration of TIA, presence of diabetes mellitus and unilateral facial palsy are risk factors for an acute lesion in DW-MRI, meaning that patients with such risk factors are at risk for stroke in the near future.

  10. Recent applications of UHF-MRI in the study of human brain function and structure : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zwaag, W.; Schäfer, Andreas; Marques, José P; Turner, R.; Trampel, Robert

    The increased availability of ultra-high-field (UHF) MRI has led to its application in a wide range of neuroimaging studies, which are showing promise in transforming fundamental approaches to human neuroscience. This review presents recent work on structural and functional brain imaging, at 7 T and

  11. MRI-controlled interstitial ultrasound brain therapy: An initial in-vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Djin, W. Apoutou; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Lipsman, Nir; Bronskill, Michael; Schwartz, Michael; Kucharczyk, Walter; Chopra, Rajiv

    2012-11-01

    The recent emergence at the clinical level of minimally-invasive focal therapy such as laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT) has demonstrated promise in the management of brain metastasis [1], although control over the spatial pattern of heating is limited. Delivery of HIFU from minimally-invasive applicators enables high spatial control of the heat deposition in biological tissues, large treatment volumes and high treatment rate in well chosen conditions [2,3]. In this study, the feasibility of MRI-guided interstitial ultrasound therapy in brain was studies in-vivo in a porcine model. A prototype system originally developed for transurethral ultrasound therapy [4,5,6] was used in this study. Two burr holes of 12 mm in diameter were created in the animal's skull to allow the insertion of the therapeutic ultrasound applicator (probe) into the brain at two locations (right and left frontal lobe). A 4-element linear ultrasound transducer (f = 8 MHz) was mounted at the tip of a 25-cm linear probe (6 mm in diameter). The target boundary was traced to cover in 2D a surface compatible with the treatment of a 2 cm brain tumor. Acoustic power of each element and rotation rate of the device were adjusted in real-time based on MR-thermometry feedback control to optimize heat deposition at the target boundary [2,4,5]. Two MRT-controlled ultrasound brain treatments per animal have been performed using a maximal surface acoustic power of 10W.cm-2. In all cases, it was possible to increase accurately the temperature of the brain tissues in the targeted region over the 55°C threshold necessary for the creation of irreversible thermal lesion. Tissue changes were visible on T1w contrast-enhanced images immediately after treatment. These changes were also evident on T2w FSE images taken 2 hours after the 1st treatment and correlated well with the temperature image. On average, the targeted volume was 4.7 ± 2.3 cm3 and the 55°C treated volume was 6.7 ± 4.4 cm3. The volumetric

  12. Pathological and MRI study on experimental heroin-induced brain damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Yu; Kong Xiangquan; Xu Haibo; Liu Dingxi; Yuan Ren; Yu Qun; Xiong Yin; Deng Xianbo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological characteristics of the heroin-induced brain damage in rats, and to assess the diagnostic value of MRI. Methods: A total of 40 adult Wistar rats were studied, 32 rats were used for injecting heroin as heroin group and 8 were used for injecting saline as control group. The heroin dependent rat model was established by administering heroin (ip) in the ascending dosage schedule (0.5 mg/kg), three times a day (at 8:00, 12:00, and 18:00). The control group was established by the same way by injection with saline. The withdrawal scores were evaluated with imp roved criterion in order to estimate the degree of addiction after administering naloxone. Based on the rat model of heroin dependence, the rat model of heroin-induced brain damage was established by the same way with increasing heroin dosage everyday. Two groups were examined by using MRI, light microscope, and electron microscope, respectively in different heroin accumulated dosage (918, 1580, 2686, 3064, 4336, and 4336 mg/kg withdrawal after 2 weeks). Results: There was statistically significant difference (t=9.737, P<0.01) of the withdrawal scores between the heroin dependent group and the saline group (23.0 ± 4.4 and 1.4 ± 0.5, respectively). It suggested that the heroin dependent rat model be established successfully. In different accumulated dosage ( from 1580 mg/kg to 4336 mg/kg), there were degeneration and death of nerve cells in cerebrum and cerebellum of heroin intoxicated rats, and it suggested that the rat model of heroin-induced brain damage was established successfully. The light microscope and electron microscope features of heroin-induced brain damage in rats included: (1) The nerve cells of cerebral cortex degenerated and died. According to the heroin accumulated dosage, there were statistically significant difference of the nerve cell deaths between 4336 mg/kg group and 1580 mg/kg group or control group (P=0.024 and P=0.032, respectively); (2) The main

  13. Studying neuroanatomy using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Jason P; van der Kouwe, André J W; Raznahan, Armin; Paus, Tomáš; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Miller, Karla L; Smith, Stephen M; Fischl, Bruce; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N

    2017-02-23

    The study of neuroanatomy using imaging enables key insights into how our brains function, are shaped by genes and environment, and change with development, aging and disease. Developments in MRI acquisition, image processing and data modeling have been key to these advances. However, MRI provides an indirect measurement of the biological signals we aim to investigate. Thus, artifacts and key questions of correct interpretation can confound the readouts provided by anatomical MRI. In this review we provide an overview of the methods for measuring macro- and mesoscopic structure and for inferring microstructural properties; we also describe key artifacts and confounds that can lead to incorrect conclusions. Ultimately, we believe that, although methods need to improve and caution is required in interpretation, structural MRI continues to have great promise in furthering our understanding of how the brain works.

  14. Consistency of parametric registration in serial MRI studies of brain tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mang, Andreas; Buzug, Thorsten M.; Schnabel, Julia A.; Crum, William R.; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sebastien; Hawkes, David J.; Camara-Rey, Oscar; Palm, Christoph; Caseiras, Gisele Brasil; Jaeger, H.R.

    2008-01-01

    The consistency of parametric registration in multi-temporal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies was evaluated. Serial MRI scans of adult patients with a brain tumor (glioma) were aligned by parametric registration. The performance of low-order spatial alignment (6/9/12 degrees of freedom) of different 3D serial MR-weighted images is evaluated. A registration protocol for the alignment of all images to one reference coordinate system at baseline is presented. Registration results were evaluated for both, multimodal intra-timepoint and mono-modal multi-temporal registration. The latter case might present a challenge to automatic intensity-based registration algorithms due to ill-defined correspondences. The performance of our algorithm was assessed by testing the inverse registration consistency. Four different similarity measures were evaluated to assess consistency. Careful visual inspection suggests that images are well aligned, but their consistency may be imperfect. Sub-voxel inconsistency within the brain was found for allsimilarity measures used for parametric multi-temporal registration. T1-weighted images were most reliable for establishing spatial correspondence between different timepoints. The parametric registration algorithm is feasible for use in this application. The sub-voxel resolution mean displacement error of registration transformations demonstrates that the algorithm converges to an almost identical solution for forward and reverse registration. (orig.)

  15. Gender differences in brain development in Chinese children and adolescents: a structural MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Yao, Li

    2008-03-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated gender differences in brain development through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 158 Chinese normal children and adolescents aged 7.26 to 22.80 years (mean age 15.03+/-4.70 years, 78 boys and 80 girls). Gender groups were matched for measures of age, handedness, education level. The customized brain templates, including T I-weighted image and gray matter (GM)/white matter (WM)/cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) prior probability maps, were created from all participants. Results showed that the total intracranial volume (TIV), global absolute GM and global WM volume in girls were significantly smaller than those in boys. The hippocampus grew faster in girls than that in boys, but the amygdala grew faster in boys than that in girls. The rate of regional GM decreases with age was steeper in the left superior parietal lobule, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, left precuneus, and bilateral supramarginal gyrus in boys compared to girls, which was possibly related to better spatial processing ability in boys. Regional GM volumes were greater in bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus in girls. Regional WM volumes were greater in the left temporal lobe, right inferior parietal and bilateral middle frontal gyrus in girls. The gender differences in the temporal and frontal lobe maybe be related to better language ability in girls. These findings may aid in understanding the differences in cognitive function between boys and girls.

  16. In vivo MRI of the fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, N; Raybaud, C; Dercole, C; Boubli, L; Chau, C; Cahen, S; Potier, A; Gamerre, M

    1993-01-01

    We report MRI of the brain in 45 fetuses; the findings were confirmed by pathological examination or postnatal neuroradiological studies. MRI necessitates medication to eliminate fetal motion; curare was injected into the umbilical cord, and MRI is therefore limited to cases in which umbilical cord puncture is indicated. T1-weighted images were obtained in axial, sagittal and coronal planes; the last of these were generally as the most useful as regards morphology. We demonstrated cerebral malformations (n = 13), brain haemorrhage (n = 1), a facial angioma (n = 1), a facial mass (n = 1), hydrocephalus (n = 5), unilateral ventricular enlargement (n = 1), atrophy (n = 4), a porencephalic cyst (n = 1) and normal appearances of the brain in 18 cases. Twenty-two of the fetuses were born alive, and the clinical and/or neuroradiological examination confirmed the antenatal findings. The diagnosis was also confirmed in 8 cases in which a neuropathological examination was possible.

  17. Hemisphere- and gender-related differences in small-world brain networks: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lixia; Wang, Jinhui; Yan, Chaogan; He, Yong

    2011-01-01

    We employed resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) to investigate hemisphere- and gender-related differences in the topological organization of human brain functional networks. Brain networks were first constructed by measuring inter-regional temporal correlations of R-fMRI data within each hemisphere in 86 young, healthy, right-handed adults (38 males and 48 females) followed by a graph-theory analysis. The hemispheric networks exhibit small-world attributes (high clustering and short paths) that are compatible with previous results in the whole-brain functional networks. Furthermore, we found that compared with females, males have a higher normalized clustering coefficient in the right hemispheric network but a lower clustering coefficient in the left hemispheric network, suggesting a gender-hemisphere interaction. Moreover, we observed significant hemisphere-related differences in the regional nodal characteristics in various brain regions, such as the frontal and occipital regions (leftward asymmetry) and the temporal regions (rightward asymmetry), findings that are consistent with previous studies of brain structural and functional asymmetries. Together, our results suggest that the topological organization of human brain functional networks is associated with gender and hemispheres, and they provide insights into the understanding of functional substrates underlying individual differences in behaviors and cognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A reliability study on brain activation during active and passive arm movements supported by an MRI-compatible robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Natalia; Yu, Ningbo; Brügger, Mike; Villiger, Michael; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Riener, Robert; Kollias, Spyros

    2014-11-01

    In neurorehabilitation, longitudinal assessment of arm movement related brain function in patients with motor disability is challenging due to variability in task performance. MRI-compatible robots monitor and control task performance, yielding more reliable evaluation of brain function over time. The main goals of the present study were first to define the brain network activated while performing active and passive elbow movements with an MRI-compatible arm robot (MaRIA) in healthy subjects, and second to test the reproducibility of this activation over time. For the fMRI analysis two models were compared. In model 1 movement onset and duration were included, whereas in model 2 force and range of motion were added to the analysis. Reliability of brain activation was tested with several statistical approaches applied on individual and group activation maps and on summary statistics. The activated network included mainly the primary motor cortex, primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, superior and inferior parietal cortex, medial and lateral premotor regions, and subcortical structures. Reliability analyses revealed robust activation for active movements with both fMRI models and all the statistical methods used. Imposed passive movements also elicited mainly robust brain activation for individual and group activation maps, and reliability was improved by including additional force and range of motion using model 2. These findings demonstrate that the use of robotic devices, such as MaRIA, can be useful to reliably assess arm movement related brain activation in longitudinal studies and may contribute in studies evaluating therapies and brain plasticity following injury in the nervous system.

  19. Real-Time fMRI in Neuroscience Research and Its Use in Studying the Aging Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Mohit; Varan, Andrew Q.; Davoudi, Anis; Cohen, Ronald A.; Sitaram, Ranganatha; Ebner, Natalie C.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline is a major concern in the aging population. It is normative to experience some deterioration in cognitive abilities with advanced age such as related to memory performance, attention distraction to interference, task switching, and processing speed. However, intact cognitive functioning in old age is important for leading an independent day-to-day life. Thus, studying ways to counteract or delay the onset of cognitive decline in aging is crucial. The literature offers various explanations for the decline in cognitive performance in aging; among those are age-related gray and white matter atrophy, synaptic degeneration, blood flow reduction, neurochemical alterations, and change in connectivity patterns with advanced age. An emerging literature on neurofeedback and Brain Computer Interface (BCI) reports exciting results supporting the benefits of volitional modulation of brain activity on cognition and behavior. Neurofeedback studies based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) have shown behavioral changes in schizophrenia and behavioral benefits in nicotine addiction. This article integrates research on cognitive and brain aging with evidence of brain and behavioral modification due to rtfMRI neurofeedback. We offer a state-of-the-art description of the rtfMRI technique with an eye towards its application in aging. We present preliminary results of a feasibility study exploring the possibility of using rtfMRI to train older adults to volitionally control brain activity. Based on these first findings, we discuss possible implementations of rtfMRI neurofeedback as a novel technique to study and alleviate cognitive decline in healthy and pathological aging. PMID:27803662

  20. Brain MRI abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fei, E-mail: feiwang1973@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Liu Yaou, E-mail: asiaeurope80@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Duan Yunyun, E-mail: duanyun2003@sohu.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Education Ministry Key Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore brain MRI findings in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and to investigate specific brain lesions with respect to the localization of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). Materials and methods: Forty admitted patients (36 women) who satisfied the 2006 criteria of Wingerchuk et al. for NMO were included in this study. All patients received a neurological examination and MRI scanning including brain and spinal cord. MRIs were classified as normal, nonspecific, multiple sclerosis-like, typical abnormalities. MS-like lesions were too few to satisfy the Barkhof et al. criteria for MS. Confluent lesions involving high AQP-4 regions were considered typical. Non-enhancing deep white matter lesions other than MS-like lesions or typical lesions were classified as nonspecific. Results: Brain MRI lesions were delineated in 12 patients (25%). Four patients (10%) had hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions. Six (15%) patients were nonspecific, and 2 (5%) patients had multiple sclerosis-like lesions. Conclusion: Brain MRIs are negative in most NMO, and brain lesions do not exclude the diagnosis of NMO. Hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions, corresponding to high sites of AQP-4 in the brain, are indicative of lesions of NMO.

  1. Brain MRI abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Liu Yaou; Duan Yunyun; Li Kuncheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore brain MRI findings in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and to investigate specific brain lesions with respect to the localization of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). Materials and methods: Forty admitted patients (36 women) who satisfied the 2006 criteria of Wingerchuk et al. for NMO were included in this study. All patients received a neurological examination and MRI scanning including brain and spinal cord. MRIs were classified as normal, nonspecific, multiple sclerosis-like, typical abnormalities. MS-like lesions were too few to satisfy the Barkhof et al. criteria for MS. Confluent lesions involving high AQP-4 regions were considered typical. Non-enhancing deep white matter lesions other than MS-like lesions or typical lesions were classified as nonspecific. Results: Brain MRI lesions were delineated in 12 patients (25%). Four patients (10%) had hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions. Six (15%) patients were nonspecific, and 2 (5%) patients had multiple sclerosis-like lesions. Conclusion: Brain MRIs are negative in most NMO, and brain lesions do not exclude the diagnosis of NMO. Hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions, corresponding to high sites of AQP-4 in the brain, are indicative of lesions of NMO.

  2. Gender similarities and differences in brain activation strategies: Voxel-based meta-analysis on fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlRyalat, Saif Aldeen

    2017-01-01

    Gender similarities and differences have long been a matter of debate in almost all human research, especially upon reaching the discussion about brain functions. This large scale meta-analysis was performed on functional MRI studies. It included more than 700 active brain foci from more than 70 different experiments to study gender related similarities and differences in brain activation strategies for three of the main brain functions: Visual-spatial cognition, memory, and emotion. Areas that are significantly activated by both genders (i.e. core areas) for the tested brain function are mentioned, whereas those areas significantly activated exclusively in one gender are the gender specific areas. During visual-spatial cognition task, and in addition to the core areas, males significantly activated their left superior frontal gyrus, compared with left superior parietal lobule in females. For memory tasks, several different brain areas activated by each gender, but females significantly activated two areas from the limbic system during memory retrieval tasks. For emotional task, males tend to recruit their bilateral prefrontal regions, whereas females tend to recruit their bilateral amygdalae. This meta-analysis provides an overview based on functional MRI studies on how males and females use their brain.

  3. D-BRAIN : Anatomically accurate simulated diffusion MRI brain data

    OpenAIRE

    Perrone, Daniele; Jeurissen, Ben; Aelterman, Jan; Roine, Timo; Sijbers, Jan; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Leemans, Alexander; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion Weighted (DW) MRI allows for the non-invasive study of water diffusion inside living tissues. As such, it is useful for the investigation of human brain white matter (WM) connectivity in vivo through fiber tractography (FT) algorithms. Many DW-MRI tailored restoration techniques and FT algorithms have been developed. However, it is not clear how accurately these methods reproduce the WM bundle characteristics in real-world conditions, such as in the presence of noise, partial volume...

  4. Prevalence of lateral ventricle asymmetry in brain MRI studies of neurologically normal dogs and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivetta, Mauro; De Risio, Luisa; Newton, Richard; Dennis, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetry of the cerebral lateral ventricles is a common finding in cross-sectional imaging of otherwise normal canine brains and has been assumed to be incidental. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the prevalence of ventricular asymmetry in brain MRI studies of normal dogs and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Brain MRI archives were searched for 100 neurologically normal dogs (Group 1) and 100 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (Group 2). For each dog, asymmetry of the lateral ventricles was subjectively classified as absent, mild, moderate, and severe based on a consensus of two observers who were unaware of group status. Ventricular areas were measured from transverse T1W images at the level of the interthalamic adhesion. An asymmetry ratio was calculated as the ratio of the larger to smaller ventricular transverse area. There was excellent agreement between subjective assessments of ventricular asymmetry and quantitative assessments using asymmetry ratios (k = 0.995). The prevalence of asymmetry was 38% in Group 1 dogs and 44% in Group 2 dogs. Assymmetry was scored as mild in the majority of Group 2 dogs. There was no significant association between presence/absence and degree of ventricular asymmetry vs. dog group, age, gender, or skull conformation. Findings from the current study supported previously published assumptions that asymmetry of the lateral cerebral ventricles is an incidental finding in MRI studies of the canine brain. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  5. Ex-vivo diffusion MRI reveals microstructural alterations in stress-sensitive brain regions: A chronic mild stress recovery study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Hansen, Brian; Wiborg, Ove

    Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and causes significant microstructural alterations in stress-sensitive brain regions. However, the potential recovery of these microstructural alterations has not previously been investigated, which we, therefore, set out to do using diffusion...... MRI (d-MRI) in the chronic mild stress (CMS) rat model of depression. This study reveals significant microstructural alterations after 8 weeks of recovery, in the opposite direction to change induced by stress in the acute phase of the experiment. Such findings may be useful in the prognosis...... of depression or for monitoring treatment response....

  6. Perfusion MRI of brain tumours: a comparative study of pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling and dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaernum, Hanna; Steffensen, Elena G.; Simonsen, Carsten Wiberg; Jensen, Finn Taagehoej [Aalborg Hospital/Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aalborg (Denmark); Knutsson, Linda [Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund (Sweden); Fruend, Ernst-Torben [Aalborg Hospital/Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aalborg (Denmark); GE Healthcare - Applied Science Lab Europe, Aalborg (Denmark); Lundbye-Christensen, Soeren [Aalborg Hospital/Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Center for Cardiovascular Research, Aalborg (Denmark); Shankaranarayanan, Ajit [Global Applied Science Lab, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Alsop, David C. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Larsson, Elna-Marie [Aalborg Hospital/Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aalborg (Denmark); Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the non-invasive 3D pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling (PC ASL) technique with the clinically established dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) for evaluation of brain tumours. A prospective study of 28 patients with contrast-enhancing brain tumours was performed at 3 T using DSC-MRI and PC ASL with whole-brain coverage. The visual qualitative evaluation of signal enhancement in tumour was scored from 0 to 3 (0 = no signal enhancement compared with white matter, 3 = pronounced signal enhancement with equal or higher signal intensity than in grey matter/basal ganglia). The extent of susceptibility artefacts in the tumour was scored from 0 to 2 (0 = no susceptibility artefacts and 2 = extensive susceptibility artefacts (maximum diameter > 2 cm)). A quantitative analysis was performed with normalised tumour blood flow values (ASL nTBF, DSC nTBF): mean value for region of interest (ROI) in an area with maximum signal enhancement/the mean value for ROIs in cerebellum. There was no difference in total visual score for signal enhancement between PC ASL and DSC relative cerebral blood flow (p = 0.12). ASL had a lower susceptibility-artefact score than DSC-MRI (p = 0.03). There was good correlation between DSC nTBF and ASL nTBF values with a correlation coefficient of 0.82. PC ASL is an alternative to DSC-MRI for the evaluation of perfusion in brain tumours. The method has fewer susceptibility artefacts than DSC-MRI and can be used in patients with renal failure because no contrast injection is needed. (orig.)

  7. Creating probabilistic maps of the face network in the adolescent brain: A multi-centre functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahmasebi, Amir M.; Mareckova, Klara; Artiges, Eric; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Loth, Eva; Schumann, Gunter; Bruehl, Ruediger; Ittermann, Bernd; Buchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J.; Flor, Herta; Strohle, Andreas; Garavan, Hugh; Gallinat, Jurgen; Heinz, Andreas; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N.; Paus, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale magnetic resonance (MR) studies of the human brain offer unique opportunities for identifying genetic and environmental factors shaping the human brain. Here, we describe a dataset collected in the context of a multi-centre study of the adolescent brain, namely the IMAGEN Study. We focus on one of the functional paradigms included in the project to probe the brain network underlying processing of ambiguous and angry faces. Using functional MR (fMRI) data collected in 1,110 adolescents, we constructed probabilistic maps of the neural network engaged consistently while viewing the ambiguous or angry faces; 21 brain regions responding to faces with high probability were identified. We were also able to address several methodological issues, including the minimal sample size yielding a stable location of a test region, namely the fusiform face area (FFA), as well as the effect of acquisition site (eight sites) and scanner (four manufacturers) on the location and magnitude of the fMRI response to faces in the FFA. Finally, we provided a comparison between male and female adolescents in terms of the effect sizes of sex differences in brain response to the ambiguous and angry faces in the 21 regions of interest. Overall, we found a stronger neural response to the ambiguous faces in several cortical regions, including the fusiform face area, in female (vs. male) adolescents, and a slightly stronger response to the angry faces in the amygdala of male (vs. female) adolescents. (authors)

  8. Implications of oxidative stress in the brain plasticity originated by fasting: a BOLD-fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaïch, Rachida; Boujraf, Saïd; Benzagmout, Mohammed; Magoul, Rabia; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Tizniti, Siham

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this study was assessing the intermittent fasting effect on brain plasticity and oxidative stress (OS) using blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD)-functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) approach. Evidences of physiological and molecular phenomena involved in this process are discussed and compared to reported literature. Six fully healthy male non-smokers volunteered in this study. All volunteers were right handed, and have an equilibrated, consistent and healthy daily nutritional habit, and a healthy lifestyle. Participants were allowed consuming food during evening and night time while fasting with self-prohibiting food and liquids during 14 hours/day from sunrise to sunset. All participants underwent identical brain BOLD-fMRI protocol. The images were acquired in the Department of Radiology and Clinical Imaging of the University Hospital of Fez, Fez, Morocco. The anatomical brain and BOLD-fMRIs were acquired using a 1.5-Tesla scanner (Signa, General Electric, Milwaukee, United States). BOLD-fMRI image acquisition was done using single-shot gradient echo echo-planer imaging sequence. BOLD-fMRI paradigm consisted of the motor task where volunteers were asked to perform finger taping of the right hand. Two BOLD-fMRI scan sessions were performed, the first one between the 5th and 10th days preceding the start of fasting and the second between days 25th and 28th of the fasting month. All sessions were performed between 3:30 PM and 5:30 PM. Although individual maps were originated from different individual participants, they cover the same anatomic area in each case. Image processing and statistical analysis were conducted with Statistical Parameter Mapping version 8 (2008, Welcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London UK). The maximal BOLD signal changes were calculated for each subject in the motor area M1; Activation maps were calculated and overlaid on the anatomical images. Group analysis of the data was performed, and the average volume

  9. Brain activation profiles during kinesthetic and visual imagery: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilintari, Marina; Narayana, Shalini; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify brain regions involved in motor imagery and differentiate two alternative strategies in its implementation: imagining a motor act using kinesthetic or visual imagery. Fourteen adults were precisely instructed and trained on how to imagine themselves or others perform a movement sequence, with the aim of promoting kinesthetic and visual imagery, respectively, in the context of an fMRI experiment using block design. We found that neither modality of motor imagery elicits activation of the primary motor cortex and that each of the two modalities involves activation of the premotor area which is also activated during action execution and action observation conditions, as well as of the supplementary motor area. Interestingly, the visual and the posterior cingulate cortices show reduced BOLD signal during both imagery conditions. Our results indicate that the networks of regions activated in kinesthetic and visual imagery of motor sequences show a substantial, while not complete overlap, and that the two forms of motor imagery lead to a differential suppression of visual areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Neonatal brain injury and neuroanatomy of memory processing following very preterm birth in adulthood: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia K Kalpakidou

    Full Text Available Altered functional neuroanatomy of high-order cognitive processing has been described in very preterm individuals (born before 33 weeks of gestation; VPT compared to controls in childhood and adolescence. However, VPT birth may be accompanied by different types of adverse neonatal events and associated brain injury, the severity of which may have differential effects on brain development and subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study to investigate how differing degrees of neonatal brain injury, detected by neonatal ultrasounds, affect the functional neuroanatomy of memory processing in VPT young adults. We used a verbal paired associates learning task, consisting of four encoding, four cued-recall and four baseline condition blocks. To further investigate whether differences in neural activation between the groups were modulated by structural brain changes, structural MRI data were also collected. We studied 12 VPT young adults with a history of periventricular haemorrhage with associated ventricular dilatation, 17 VPT individuals with a history of uncomplicated periventricular haemorrhage, 12 individuals with normal ultrasonographic findings, and 17 controls. Results of a linear trend analysis demonstrated that during completion of the paired associates learning task right frontal and right parietal brain activation decreased as the severity of neonatal brain injury increased. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in on-line task performance and participants' intelligence quotient (IQ at assessment. This pattern of differential activation across the groups was observed particularly in the right middle frontal gyrus during encoding and in the right posterior cingulate gyrus during recall. Structural MRI data analysis revealed that grey matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum, left middle temporal gyrus, right globus pallidus and

  11. Different brain activation under left and right ventricular stimulation: an fMRI study in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Sumiyoshi, Akira; Kawashima, Ryuta; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia in the anterior wall of the left ventricule (LV) and in the inferior wall and/or right ventricle (RV) shows different manifestations that can be explained by the different innervations of cardiac afferent nerves. However, it remains unclear whether information from different areas of the heart, such as the LV and RV, are differently processed in the brain. In this study, we investigated the brain regions that process information from the LV or RV using cardiac electrical stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in anesthetized rats because the combination of these two approaches cannot be used in humans. An electrical stimulation catheter was inserted into the LV or RV (n = 12 each). Brain fMRI scans were recorded during LV or RV stimulation (9 Hz and 0.3 ms width) over 10 blocks consisting of alternating periods of 2 mA for 30 sec followed by 0.2 mA for 60 sec. The validity of fMRI signals was confirmed by first and second-level analyses and temporal profiles. Increases in fMRI signals were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex and the right somatosensory cortex under LV stimulation. In contrast, RV stimulation activated the right somatosensory cortex, which was identified more anteriorly compared with LV stimulation but did not activate the anterior cingulate cortex. This study provides the first evidence for differences in brain activation under LV and RV stimulation. These different brain processes may be associated with different clinical manifestations between anterior wall and inferoposterior wall and/or RV myocardial ischemia.

  12. Altered brain functions in HIV positive patients free of HIV- associated neurocognitive disorders: A MRI study during unilateral hand movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to investigate the brain activity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive patients with normal cognition during unilateral hand movement and whether highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART could affect the brain function. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was performed for 60 HIV positive (HIV+ subjects and −42 healthy age-matched right-handed control subjects. Each subject was evaluated by the neuropsychological test and examined with fMRI during left and right hand movement tasks. HIV+ subjects showed greater activation in anterior cingulum, precuneus, occipital lobes, ipsilateral postcentral gyrus and contralateral cerebellum compared with control group during right hand movement task. However, during left hand movement no statistically significant difference was detected between these two groups. HAART medication for HIV+ subjects lowered the increased activity to normal level. Meanwhile patients receiving the regimen of zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz showed lower activity at bilateral caudate and ipsilateral inferior frontal gyrus in comparison with subjects receiving other HAART regimens. Therefore, HIV+ subjects demonstrated brain asymmetry in motor cortex, with increased activity present during right hand movement but absent during left hand movement. HAART proves effective in HIV+ subjects even with normal cognition and the specific regimen of HAART could prevent cerebral abnormal functions. Meanwhile, this study validates that during motor tasks, fMRI can detect the brain signal changes prior to the occurrences of other HIV- associated dysfunctions.

  13. Mapping of the brain hemodynamic responses to sensorimotor stimulation in a rodent model: A BOLD fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Boussida

    Full Text Available Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent functional MRI (BOLD fMRI during electrical paw stimulation has been widely used in studies aimed at the understanding of the somatosensory network in rats. However, despite the well-established anatomical connections between cortical and subcortical structures of the sensorimotor system, most of these functional studies have been concentrated on the cortical effects of sensory electrical stimulation. BOLD fMRI study of the integration of a sensorimotor input across the sensorimotor network requires an appropriate methodology to elicit functional activation in cortical and subcortical areas owing to the regional differences in both neuronal and vascular architectures between these brain regions. Here, using a combination of low level anesthesia, long pulse duration of the electrical stimulation along with improved spatial and temporal signal to noise ratios, we provide a functional description of the main cortical and subcortical structures of the sensorimotor rat brain. With this calibrated fMRI protocol, unilateral non-noxious sensorimotor electrical hindpaw stimulation resulted in robust positive activations in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex and bilaterally in the sensorimotor thalamus nuclei, whereas negative activations were observed bilaterally in the dorsolateral caudate-putamen. These results demonstrate that, once the experimental setup allowing necessary spatial and temporal signal to noise ratios is reached, hemodynamic changes related to neuronal activity, as preserved by the combination of a soft anesthesia with a soft muscle relaxation, can be measured within the sensorimotor network. Moreover, the observed responses suggest that increasing pulse duration of the electrical stimulus adds a proprioceptive component to the sensory input that activates sensorimotor network in the brain, and that these activation patterns are similar to those induced by digits paw's movements. These findings may

  14. Mild cognitive impairment and fMRI studies of brain functional connectivity: the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farràs-Permanyer, Laia; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan; Peró-Cebollero, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    In the last 15 years, many articles have studied brain connectivity in Mild Cognitive Impairment patients with fMRI techniques, seemingly using different connectivity statistical models in each investigation to identify complex connectivity structures so as to recognize typical behavior in this type of patient. This diversity in statistical approaches may cause problems in results comparison. This paper seeks to describe how researchers approached the study of brain connectivity in MCI patients using fMRI techniques from 2002 to 2014. The focus is on the statistical analysis proposed by each research group in reference to the limitations and possibilities of those techniques to identify some recommendations to improve the study of functional connectivity. The included articles came from a search of Web of Science and PsycINFO using the following keywords: f MRI, MCI, and functional connectivity. Eighty-one papers were found, but two of them were discarded because of the lack of statistical analysis. Accordingly, 79 articles were included in this review. We summarized some parts of the articles, including the goal of every investigation, the cognitive paradigm and methods used, brain regions involved, use of ROI analysis and statistical analysis, emphasizing on the connectivity estimation model used in each investigation. The present analysis allowed us to confirm the remarkable variability of the statistical analysis methods found. Additionally, the study of brain connectivity in this type of population is not providing, at the moment, any significant information or results related to clinical aspects relevant for prediction and treatment. We propose to follow guidelines for publishing fMRI data that would be a good solution to the problem of study replication. The latter aspect could be important for future publications because a higher homogeneity would benefit the comparison between publications and the generalization of results. PMID:26300802

  15. Activated and deactivated functional brain areas in the Deqi state: A functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Zeng, Tongjun; Zhang, Guifeng; Li, Ganlong; Lu, Na; Lai, Xinsheng; Lu, Yangjia; Chen, Jiarong

    2012-10-25

    We compared the activities of functional regions of the brain in the Deqi versus non-Deqi state, as reported by physicians and subjects during acupuncture. Twelve healthy volunteers received sham and true needling at the Waiguan (TE5) acupoint. Real-time cerebral functional MRI showed that compared with non-sensation after sham needling, true needling activated Brodmann areas 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 37, 39, 40, 43, and 47, the head of the caudate nucleus, the parahippocampal gyrus, thalamus and red nucleus. True needling also deactivated Brodmann areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 18, 24, 31, 40 and 46.

  16. MRI of child's brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakuni, Takayuki; Tamaki, Norihiko; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Keizoh; Kobayashi, Norio.

    1986-01-01

    Eighty eight pediatric patients with various diseases of the central nervous system were studied using 1500 G MR-CT (Picker International Co., Inc.). Many availabilities of MR imaging, which mean better contrast between the lesions and normal tissues, good spatial resolution, good discrimination of white matter and non-invasiveness, were stressed. In spite of availabilities described above, MR imaging in children has some limitations, such as a sedation, tissue characterization and so on. (author)

  17. Brain fMRI study of crave induced by cue pictures in online game addicts (male adolescents).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueji; Ying, Huang; Seetohul, Ravi M; Xuemei, Wang; Ya, Zheng; Qian, Li; Guoqing, Xu; Ye, Sun

    2012-08-01

    To study crave-related cerebral regions induced by game figure cues in online game addicts. fMRI brain imaging was done when the subjects were shown picture cues of the WoW (World of Warcraft, Version: 4.1.014250) game. 10 male addicts of WoW were selected as addicts' group, and 10 other healthy male non-addicts who were matched by age, were used as non-game addicts' group. All volunteers participated in fMRI paradigms. WoW associated cue pictures and neutral pictures were shown. We examined functional cerebral regions activated by the pictures with 3.0 T Philips MRI. The imaging signals' database was analyzed by SPM5. The correlation between game craving scores and different image results were assessed. When the game addicts watch the pictures, some brain areas show increased signal activity namely: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, bilateral temporal cortex, cerebellum, right inferior parietal lobule, right cuneus, right hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, left caudate nucleus. But in these same brain regions we did not observe remarkable activities in the control group. Differential image signal densities of the addict group were subtracted from the health control group, results of which were expressed in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, inferior parietal lobe and inferior temporal gyrus, cerebellum, right insular and the right angular gyrus. The increased imaging signal densities were significant and positively correlated with the craving scale scores in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and right inferior parietal lobe. Craving of online game addicts was successfully induced by game cue pictures. Crave related brain areas are: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and right inferior parietal lobe. The brain regions are overlapped with cognitive and emotion related processing brain areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary pilot fMRI study of neuropostural optimization with a noninvasive asymmetric radioelectric brain stimulation protocol in functional dysmetria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mura M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Marco Mura1, Alessandro Castagna2, Vania Fontani2, Salvatore Rinaldi21Institute of Radiology, University of Cagliari, 2Rinaldi Fontani Institute – Department of Neuro Psycho Physical Optimization, Florence, ItalyPurpose: This study assessed changes in functional dysmetria (FD and in brain activation observable by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during a leg flexion-extension motor task following brain stimulation with a single radioelectric asymmetric conveyer (REAC pulse, according to the precisely defined neuropostural optimization (NPO protocol.Population and methods: Ten healthy volunteers were assessed using fMRI conducted during a simple motor task before and immediately after delivery of a single REAC-NPO pulse. The motor task consisted of a flexion-extension movement of the legs with the knees bent. FD signs and brain activation patterns were compared before and after REAC-NPO.Results: A single 250-millisecond REAC-NPO treatment alleviated FD, as evidenced by patellar asymmetry during a sit-up motion, and modulated activity patterns in the brain, particularly in the cerebellum, during the performance of the motor task.Conclusion: Activity in brain areas involved in motor control and coordination, including the cerebellum, is altered by administration of a REAC-NPO treatment and this effect is accompanied by an alleviation of FD.Keywords: motor behavior, motor control, cerebellum, dysmetria, functional dysmetria, fluctuating asymmetry

  19. An Observational Study to Assess Brain MRI Change and Disease Progression in Multiple Sclerosis Clinical Practice-The MS-MRIUS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivadinov, Robert; Khan, Nasreen; Medin, Jennie; Christoffersen, Pia; Price, Jennifer; Korn, Jonathan R; Bonzani, Ian; Dwyer, Michael G; Bergsland, Niels; Carl, Ellen; Silva, Diego; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2017-05-01

    To describe methodology, interim baseline, and longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition parameter characteristics of the multiple sclerosis clinical outcome and MRI in the United States (MS-MRIUS). The MS-MRIUS is an ongoing longitudinal and retrospective study of MS patients on fingolimod. Clinical and brain MRI image scan data were collected from 600 patients across 33 MS centers in the United States. MRI brain outcomes included change in whole-brain volume, lateral ventricle volume, T2- and T1-lesion volumes, and new/enlarging T2 and gadolinium-enhancing lesions. Interim baseline and longitudinal MRI acquisition parameters results are presented for 252 patients. Mean age was 44 years and 81% were female. Forty percent of scans had 3-dimensional (3D) T1 sequence in the preindex period, increasing to 50% in the postindex period. Use of 2-dimensional (2D) T1 sequence decreased over time from 85% in the preindex period to 65% in the postindex. About 95% of the scans with FLAIR and 2D T1-WI were considered acceptable or good quality compared to 99-100% with 3D T1-WI. There were notable changes in MRI hardware, software, and coil (39.5% in preindex to index and 50% in index to postindex). MRI sequence parameters (orientation, thickness, or protocol) differed for 36%, 29%, and 20% of index/postindex scans for FLAIR, 2D T1-WI, and 3D T1-WI, respectively. The MS-MRIUS study linked the clinical and brain MRI outcomes into an integrated database to create a cohort of fingolimod patients in real-world practice. Variability was observed in MRI acquisition protocols overtime. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroimaging published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Neuroimaging.

  20. MRI findings and diagnosis of brain echinococcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miriguli Shayiti; Jia Wenxiao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristic findings of brain echinococcosis on MRI. Methods: The MRI findings of 18 patients with pathologically confirmed brain echinococcosis were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Among the patients, there were 9 cases of cystic echinococcosis and 9 cases of alveolar echinococcosis. In cystic echinococcosis, MRI revealed homogeneously hypointensity on T 1 WI and hyperintensity on T 2 WI, while it showed low signal intensity inside the cysts on FLAIR and DWI. In 6 cases of cystic echinococcosis, no edema was detected surrounding the lesions, while edema resulting from cyst rupture was found in 3 cases. The cystic walls were visible in 6 cases, obscure in 3 cases. The ruptured hydatid cysts in 3 cases showed slight ring enhancement. Alveolar echinococcosis appeared as multiple lesions with isointensity on T 1 WI and hypointensity on T 2 WI, surrounded by vasogenic edema. The 'charcoal-like' hypointensity and innumerous hyperintense bubbles of 1-10 mm in diameter inside the lesions on T 2 -weighted MR images were characteristic for lesions of alveolar echinococcosis. The lesions revealed hypointensity on DWI and showed irregular ring enhancement after injection of Gd-DTPA. Perfusion-weighted MR imaging revealed low relative cerebral blood volume. Conclusion: MRI can demonstrate lesions of brain echinococcosis accurately due to its advantages of multiorientation and multiparameter. It is clinically valuable. (authors)

  1. Halofuginone Inhibits Angiogenesis and Growth in Implanted Metastatic Rat Brain Tumor Model-an MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinat Abramovitch

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Tumor growth and metastasis depend on angiogenesis; therefore, efforts are made to develop specific angiogenic inhibitors. Halofuginone (HF is a potent inhibitor of collagen type α1(I. In solid tumor models, HF has a potent antitumor and antiangiogenic effect in vivo, but its effect on brain tumors has not yet been evaluated. By employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, we monitored the effect of HF on tumor progression and vascularization by utilizing an implanted malignant fibrous histiocytoma metastatic rat brain tumor model. Here we demonstrate that treatment with HF effectively and dose-dependently reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis. On day 13, HF-treated tumors were fivefold smaller than control (P < .001. Treatment with HF significantly prolonged survival of treated animals (142%; P = .001. In HF-treated rats, tumor vascularization was inhibited by 30% on day 13 and by 37% on day 19 (P < .05. Additionally, HF treatment inhibited vessel maturation (P = .03. Finally, in HF-treated rats, we noticed the appearance of a few clusters of satellite tumors, which were distinct from the primary tumor and usually contained vessel cores. This phenomenon was relatively moderate when compared to previous reports of other antiangiogenic agents used to treat brain tumors. We therefore conclude that HF is effective for treatment of metastatic brain tumors.

  2. Structural brain alterations in primary open angle glaucoma: a 3T MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieqiong; Li, Ting; Sabel, Bernhard A.; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Hongwei; Li, Jianhong; Xie, Xiaobin; Yang, Diya; Chen, Weiwei; Wang, Ningli; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is not only an eye disease but is also associated with degeneration of brain structures. We now investigated the pattern of visual and non-visual brain structural changes in 25 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and 25 age-gender-matched normal controls using T1-weighted imaging. MRI images were subjected to volume-based analysis (VBA) and surface-based analysis (SBA) in the whole brain as well as ROI-based analysis of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), visual cortex (V1/2), amygdala and hippocampus. While VBA showed no significant differences in the gray matter volumes of patients, SBA revealed significantly reduced cortical thickness in the right frontal pole and ROI-based analysis volume shrinkage in LGN bilaterally, right V1 and left amygdala. Structural abnormalities were correlated with clinical parameters in a subset of the patients revealing that the left LGN volume was negatively correlated with bilateral cup-to-disk ratio (CDR), the right LGN volume was positively correlated with the mean deviation of the right visual hemifield, and the right V1 cortical thickness was negatively correlated with the right CDR in glaucoma. These results demonstrate that POAG affects both vision-related structures and non-visual cortical regions. Moreover, alterations of the brain visual structures reflect the clinical severity of glaucoma. PMID:26743811

  3. Adaptive modulation of adult brain gray and white matter to high altitude: structural MRI studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxing Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate brain structural alterations in adult immigrants who adapted to high altitude (HA. Voxel-based morphometry analysis of gray matter (GM volumes, surface-based analysis of cortical thickness, and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis of white matter fractional anisotropy (FA based on MRI images were conducted on 16 adults (20-22 years who immigrated to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2300-4400 m for 2 years. They had no chronic mountain sickness. Control group consisted of 16 matched sea level subjects. A battery of neuropsychological tests was also conducted. HA immigrants showed significantly decreased GM volumes in the right postcentral gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus, and increased GM volumes in the right middle frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior and middle temporal gyri, bilateral inferior ventral pons, and right cerebellum crus1. While there was some divergence in the left hemisphere, surface-based patterns of GM changes in the right hemisphere resembled those seen for VBM analysis. FA changes were observed in multiple WM tracts. HA immigrants showed significant impairment in pulmonary function, increase in reaction time, and deficit in mental rotation. Parahippocampal and middle frontal GM volumes correlated with vital capacity. Superior frontal GM volume correlated with mental rotation and postcentral GM correlated with reaction time. Paracentral lobule and frontal FA correlated with mental rotation reaction time. There might be structural modifications occurred in the adult immigrants during adaptation to HA. The changes in GM may be related to impaired respiratory function and psychological deficits.

  4. Functional MRI studies of the neural mechanisms of human brain attentional networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jing; Li Kuncheng; Chen Qi; Wang Yan; Peng Xiaozhe; Zhou Xiaolin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify the neural mechanisms of the anterior attention network (AAN) and posterior attention network (PAN) , investigate the possible interaction between them with event-related functional MRI(ER-fMRI). Methods: Eight right-handed healthy volunteers participated in the experiment designed with inhibition of return in visual orienting and Stroop color-word interference effect. The fMRI data were collected on Siemens 1.5 T Sonata MRI systems and analyzed by AFNI to generate the activation map. Results: The data sets from 6 of 8 subjects were used in the study. The functional localizations of the Stroop and IOR, which manifest the function of the AAN and PAN respectively, were consistent with previous imaging researches. On cued locations, left inferior parietal lobule (IPL), area MT/V5, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) were significantly activated. On uncued locations, right superior parietal lobule (SPL) and bilateral area MT/V5 were significantly activated. Conclusion: The AAN exerts control over the PAN, while its function can be in turn modulated by the PAN. There are interaction between the AAN and PAN. In addition, it is also proved that ER-fMRI is a feasible method to revise preexisting cognitive model and theory. (authors)

  5. [Study on corresponding areas the liver and lung channels in brain with fMRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang-Ming; Xie, Peng; Lü, Fa-Jin; Mou, Jun; Li, Yong-Mei; Zhao, Jian-Nong; Chen, Wei-Juan; Gong, Qi-Yong; Zhao, Li-Bo; Liu, Qing-Jun; Shen, Lin; Zhai, Hong; Yang, De-Yu

    2007-10-01

    To explore distribution of the Liver and Lung Channels in the brain so as to provide imaging basis for construction of channel theory in the brain. Sixty healthy student volunteers were randomly divided into a Liver Channel group (I) and a Lung Channel group (II), and the each group was further divided into five subgroups with 6 volunteers in each subgroup, based on five-shu-point principles which, were Dadun (LR 1, I 1), Xingjian (LR 2, I 2), Taichong (LR 3, I 3), Zhongfeng (LR 4, I 4), Ququan (LR 8, I 5), Shaoshang (LU 11, II 1), Yuji (LU 10, II 2), Taiyuan (LU 9, II 3), Jingqu (LU 8, II 4), and Chize (LU 5, II 5), respectively. In order to observe the brain activating patterns during acupuncture at the different acupoints, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique was adopted. All image data were then analyzed with SPM 2 software. The statistical parameter gram was composed of the pixel P areas, and the commonly activated area of five-shu-point of each channel was considered as the brain distribution of the Liver and Lung Channels. The common areas activated by the five-shu-points of the Liver Channel were homolateral Brodmann area (BA) 34, BA 47, red nucleus, contralateral BA 19, BA 30, BA 39, the superior parietal lobule, cerebellum decline, and bilateral BA 3 and culmen. The common areas activated by the five-shu-points of the Lung Channels included homolateral BA 2, BA 18, BA 35, and contralateral BA 9 and substania nigra. There are relatively specific corresponding brain areas for the Liver and Lung Channels, indicating that there is possible relatively specific connection between channels and the brain.

  6. Brain Correlates of Aesthetic Expertise: A Parametric fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Ulrich; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Mark Schram; Nygaard, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that acquired expertise influences aesthetic judgments. In this paradigm we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study aesthetic judgments of visually presented architectural stimuli and control-stimuli (faces) for a group of architects and a group of non-architects. This design allowed us to test…

  7. Brain correlates of aesthetic expertise: A parametric fMRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Ulrich; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Mark Schram

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that acquired expertise influences aesthetic judgments. In this paradigm we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study aesthetic judgments of visually presented architectural stimuli and control-stimuli (faces) for a group of architects and a grou...

  8. Contrasted study on the opening degree of blood-brain barriier after radiation therapy with SPECT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qing; Sun Aihua; Hu Yun; Zhang Li; Ye Hengguang

    2004-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier(BBB) is the largest barrier responsible for preventing direct contact between chemotherapeutic drugs in blood and tumors in brain, the permeability of BBB incease at different degree after brain irradiation in clinical brain tumors radiotherapy. Methods: In our study, 26 patients with metastatic brain tumors(21 cases in pr/mary lung carcinoma, 5 cases in breast carcinoma) were accepted the full brain irradiation. The detructive effects of radiation on the BBB were determined by the 99mTc-DTPA SPECT and the concentration ratio of methotrexate(MTX) in cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) and blood, the brain MRI before and after radiotherapy were retrospective contrasted study with SPECT. Results: the degree of destructive effect on the BBB was directly proportional to radiation doses. After a dose of 20Gy radiation to brain, the permeability of BBB inceased markedly(P<0.01). But in cases the dexamethasone(DXM) was administrated to decease the brain edema during radiotherapy, the permeability inceased less than that in patients without DXM(P<0.05). Conclutions: After 20Gy irradiation, the BBB would gradually open. At this time, chemotherapy is the best choice to improving the therapeutic effect. Dexamethasone was found to cause the decease in BBB permeability but no significant remission of brain edema. So, if the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in treatment of metastatic brain tumors will be plan, the dexamethasone may be not used in expecting to deceasing the side effect and that no affecting the therapeutic effect. (authors)

  9. Preliminary evaluation of a brain PET insertable to MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Gyuseng; Choi, Yong; Lee, Jae Sung; An, Hyun Joon; Jung, Jin Ho; Park, Hyun Wook; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Kyeongjin; Lim, Kyung Taek; Cho, Minsik; Sul, Woo Suk; Kim, Hyoungtaek; Kim, Hyunduk

    2014-01-01

    There is a new trend of the medical image that diagnoses a brain disease as like Alzheimer dementia. The first qualified candidate is a PET-MRI fusion modality because MRI is a more powerful anatomic diagnosis tool than other modalities. In our study, in order to solve the high magnetic field from MRI, the development was consisted with four main items such as photo-sensor, PET scanner, MRI head-coil and attenuation correction algorithm development.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of a brain PET insertable to MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Gyuseng [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 South (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong [Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul, 121-742 South (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung; An, Hyun Joon [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-744 South (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jin Ho [Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul, 121-742 South (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Wook; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Kyeongjin; Lim, Kyung Taek; Cho, Minsik [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 South (Korea, Republic of); Sul, Woo Suk [National NanoFab Center, Deajeon, 305-806 South (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoungtaek; Kim, Hyunduk [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 South (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-29

    There is a new trend of the medical image that diagnoses a brain disease as like Alzheimer dementia. The first qualified candidate is a PET-MRI fusion modality because MRI is a more powerful anatomic diagnosis tool than other modalities. In our study, in order to solve the high magnetic field from MRI, the development was consisted with four main items such as photo-sensor, PET scanner, MRI head-coil and attenuation correction algorithm development.

  11. Brain areas associated with numbers and calculations in children: Meta-analyses of fMRI studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Arsalidou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Children use numbers every day and typically receive formal mathematical training from an early age, as it is a main subject in school curricula. Despite an increase in children neuroimaging studies, a comprehensive neuropsychological model of mathematical functions in children is lacking. Using quantitative meta-analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies, we identify concordant brain areas across articles that adhere to a set of selection criteria (e.g., whole-brain analysis, coordinate reports and report brain activity to tasks that involve processing symbolic and non-symbolic numbers with and without formal mathematical operations, which we called respectively number tasks and calculation tasks. We present data on children 14 years and younger, who solved these tasks. Results show activity in parietal (e.g., inferior parietal lobule and precuneus and frontal (e.g., superior and medial frontal gyri cortices, core areas related to mental-arithmetic, as well as brain regions such as the insula and claustrum, which are not typically discussed as part of mathematical problem solving models. We propose a topographical atlas of mathematical processes in children, discuss findings within a developmental constructivist theoretical model, and suggest practical methodological considerations for future studies. Keywords: Mathematical cognition, Meta-analyses, fMRI, Children, Development, Insula

  12. MRI of perinatal brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Mary; Allsop, Joanna [Imperial College, Robert Steiner MR Unit, Perinatal Imaging, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Martinez Biarge, Miriam [La Paz University Hospital, Dept of Neonatology, Madrid (Spain); Counsell, Serena [Imperial College, Robert Steiner MR Unit, Neonatal Medicine, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Cowan, Frances [Imperial College, Dept of Paediatrics, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    MRI is invaluable in assessing the neonatal brain following suspected perinatal injury. Good quality imaging requires adaptations to both the hardware and the sequences used for adults or older children. The perinatal and postnatal details often predict the pattern of lesions sustained and should be available to aid interpretation of the imaging findings. Perinatal lesions, the pattern of which can predict neurodevelopmental outcome, are at their most obvious on conventional imaging between 1 and 2 weeks from birth. Very early imaging during the first week may be useful to make management decisions in ventilated neonates but brain abnormalities may still be subtle using conventional sequences. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is very useful for the early identification of ischaemic tissue in the neonatal brain but may underestimate the final extent of injury, particularly basal ganglia and thalamic lesions. MR imaging is an excellent predictor of outcome following perinatal brain injury and can therefore be used as a biomarker in interventional trials designed to reduce injury and improve neurodevelopmental outcome. (orig.)

  13. MRI of perinatal brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, Mary; Allsop, Joanna; Martinez Biarge, Miriam; Counsell, Serena; Cowan, Frances

    2010-01-01

    MRI is invaluable in assessing the neonatal brain following suspected perinatal injury. Good quality imaging requires adaptations to both the hardware and the sequences used for adults or older children. The perinatal and postnatal details often predict the pattern of lesions sustained and should be available to aid interpretation of the imaging findings. Perinatal lesions, the pattern of which can predict neurodevelopmental outcome, are at their most obvious on conventional imaging between 1 and 2 weeks from birth. Very early imaging during the first week may be useful to make management decisions in ventilated neonates but brain abnormalities may still be subtle using conventional sequences. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is very useful for the early identification of ischaemic tissue in the neonatal brain but may underestimate the final extent of injury, particularly basal ganglia and thalamic lesions. MR imaging is an excellent predictor of outcome following perinatal brain injury and can therefore be used as a biomarker in interventional trials designed to reduce injury and improve neurodevelopmental outcome. (orig.)

  14. Brain activation in response to randomized visual stimulation as obtained from conjunction and differential analysis: an fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasaruddin, N H; Yusoff, A N; Kaur, S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this multiple-subjects functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to identify the common brain areas that are activated when viewing black-and-white checkerboard pattern stimuli of various shapes, pattern and size and to investigate specific brain areas that are involved in processing static and moving visual stimuli. Sixteen participants viewed the moving (expanding ring, rotating wedge, flipping hour glass and bowtie and arc quadrant) and static (full checkerboard) stimuli during an fMRI scan. All stimuli have black-and-white checkerboard pattern. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used in generating brain activation. Differential analyses were implemented to separately search for areas involved in processing static and moving stimuli. In general, the stimuli of various shapes, pattern and size activated multiple brain areas mostly in the left hemisphere. The activation in the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) was found to be significantly higher in processing moving visual stimuli as compared to static stimulus. In contrast, the activation in the left calcarine sulcus and left lingual gyrus were significantly higher for static stimulus as compared to moving stimuli. Visual stimulation of various shapes, pattern and size used in this study indicated left lateralization of activation. The involvement of the right MTG in processing moving visual information was evident from differential analysis, while the left calcarine sulcus and left lingual gyrus are the areas that are involved in the processing of static visual stimulus

  15. Brain activation in response to randomized visual stimulation as obtained from conjunction and differential analysis: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasaruddin, N. H.; Yusoff, A. N.; Kaur, S.

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this multiple-subjects functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to identify the common brain areas that are activated when viewing black-and-white checkerboard pattern stimuli of various shapes, pattern and size and to investigate specific brain areas that are involved in processing static and moving visual stimuli. Sixteen participants viewed the moving (expanding ring, rotating wedge, flipping hour glass and bowtie and arc quadrant) and static (full checkerboard) stimuli during an fMRI scan. All stimuli have black-and-white checkerboard pattern. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used in generating brain activation. Differential analyses were implemented to separately search for areas involved in processing static and moving stimuli. In general, the stimuli of various shapes, pattern and size activated multiple brain areas mostly in the left hemisphere. The activation in the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) was found to be significantly higher in processing moving visual stimuli as compared to static stimulus. In contrast, the activation in the left calcarine sulcus and left lingual gyrus were significantly higher for static stimulus as compared to moving stimuli. Visual stimulation of various shapes, pattern and size used in this study indicated left lateralization of activation. The involvement of the right MTG in processing moving visual information was evident from differential analysis, while the left calcarine sulcus and left lingual gyrus are the areas that are involved in the processing of static visual stimulus.

  16. A computational study of whole-brain connectivity in resting state and task fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goparaju, Balaji; Rana, Kunjan D.; Calabro, Finnegan J.; Vaina, Lucia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background We compared the functional brain connectivity produced during resting-state in which subjects were not actively engaged in a task with that produced while they actively performed a visual motion task (task-state). Material/Methods In this paper we employed graph-theoretical measures and network statistics in novel ways to compare, in the same group of human subjects, functional brain connectivity during resting-state fMRI with brain connectivity during performance of a high level visual task. We performed a whole-brain connectivity analysis to compare network statistics in resting and task states among anatomically defined Brodmann areas to investigate how brain networks spanning the cortex changed when subjects were engaged in task performance. Results In the resting state, we found strong connectivity among the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), lateral parietal cortex, and hippocampal formation, consistent with previous reports of the default mode network (DMN). The connections among these areas were strengthened while subjects actively performed an event-related visual motion task, indicating a continued and strong engagement of the DMN during task processing. Regional measures such as degree (number of connections) and betweenness centrality (number of shortest paths), showed that task performance induces stronger inter-regional connections, leading to a denser processing network, but that this does not imply a more efficient system as shown by the integration measures such as path length and global efficiency, and from global measures such as small-worldness. Conclusions In spite of the maintenance of connectivity and the “hub-like” behavior of areas, our results suggest that the network paths may be rerouted when performing the task condition. PMID:24947491

  17. Brain Network Response to Acupuncture Stimuli in Experimental Acute Low Back Pain: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can significantly modulate brain activation patterns in healthy subjects, while only a few studies have examined clinical pain. In the current study, we combined an experimental acute low back pain (ALBP model and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to explore the neural mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia. All ALBP subjects first underwent two resting state fMRI scans at baseline and during a painful episode and then underwent two additional fMRI scans, once during acupuncture stimulation (ACUP and once during tactile stimulation (SHAM pseudorandomly, at the BL40 acupoint. Our results showed that, compared with the baseline, the pain state had higher regional homogeneity (ReHo values in the pain matrix, limbic system, and default mode network (DMN and lower ReHo values in frontal gyrus and temporal gyrus; compared with the OFF status, ACUP yielded broad deactivation in subjects, including nearly all of the limbic system, pain status, and DMN, and also evoked numerous activations in the attentional and somatosensory systems; compared with SHAM, we found that ACUP induced more deactivations and fewer activations in the subjects. Multiple brain networks play crucial roles in acupuncture analgesia, suggesting that ACUP exceeds a somatosensory-guided mind-body therapy for ALBP.

  18. PET/MRI for Oncologic Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rausch, Ivo; Rischka, Lucas; Ladefoged, Claes N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare attenuation-correction (AC) approaches for PET/MRI in clinical neurooncology.Methods:Forty-nine PET/MRI brain scans were included: brain tumor studies using18F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine (18F-FET) (n= 31) and68Ga-DOTANOC (n= 7) and studies of healthy subjects using18...... by Siemens Healthcare). As a reference, AC maps were derived from patient-specific CT images (CTref). PET data were reconstructed using standard settings after AC with all 4 AC methods. We report changes in diagnosis for all brain tumor patients and the following relative differences values (RDs...... of the whole brain and 10 anatomic regions segmented on MR images.Results:For brain tumor imaging (A and B), the standard PET-based diagnosis was not affected by any of the 3 MR-AC methods. For A, the average RDs of SUVmeanwere -10%, -4%, and -3% and of the VOIs 1%, 2%, and 7% for DIXON, UTE, and BD...

  19. Intersubject synchronisation analysis of brain activity associated with the instant effects of acupuncture: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lingmin; Sun, Jinbo; Xu, Ziliang; Yang, Xuejuan; Liu, Peng; Qin, Wei

    2018-02-01

    To use a promising analytical method, namely intersubject synchronisation (ISS), to evaluate the brain activity associated with the instant effects of acupuncture and compare the findings with traditional general linear model (GLM) methods. 30 healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. Block-designed manual acupuncture stimuli were delivered at SP6, and de qi sensations were measured after acupuncture stimulation. All subjects underwent functional MRI (fMRI) scanning during the acupuncture stimuli. The fMRI data were separately analysed by ISS and traditional GLM methods. All subjects experienced de qi sensations. ISS analysis showed that the regions activated during acupuncture stimulation at SP6 were mainly divided into five clusters based on the time courses. The time courses of clusters 1 and 2 were in line with the acupuncture stimulation pattern, and the active regions were mainly involved in the sensorimotor system and salience network. Clusters 3, 4 and 5 displayed an almost contrary time course relative to the stimulation pattern. The brain regions activated included the default mode network, descending pain modulation pathway and visual cortices. GLM analysis indicated that the brain responses associated with the instant effects of acupuncture were largely implicated in sensory and motor processing and sensory integration. The ISS analysis considered the sustained effect of acupuncture and uncovered additional information not shown by GLM analysis. We suggest that ISS may be a suitable approach to investigate the brain responses associated with the instant effects of acupuncture. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Digital atlas of fetal brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Teresa; Matesan, Manuela; Weinberger, Ed; Bulas, Dorothy I

    2010-02-01

    Fetal MRI can be performed in the second and third trimesters. During this time, the fetal brain undergoes profound structural changes. Interpretation of appropriate development might require comparison with normal age-based models. Consultation of a hard-copy atlas is limited by the inability to compare multiple ages simultaneously. To provide images of normal fetal brains from weeks 18 through 37 in a digital format that can be reviewed interactively. This will facilitate recognition of abnormal brain development. T2-W images for the atlas were obtained from fetal MR studies of normal brains scanned for other indications from 2005 to 2007. Images were oriented in standard axial, coronal and sagittal projections, with laterality established by situs. Gestational age was determined by last menstrual period, earliest US measurements and sonogram performed on the same day as the MR. The software program used for viewing the atlas, written in C#, permits linked scrolling and resizing the images. Simultaneous comparison of varying gestational ages is permissible. Fetal brain images across gestational ages 18 to 37 weeks are provided as an interactive digital atlas and are available for free download from http://radiology.seattlechildrens.org/teaching/fetal_brain . Improved interpretation of fetal brain abnormalities can be facilitated by the use of digital atlas cataloging of the normal changes throughout fetal development. Here we provide a description of the atlas and a discussion of normal fetal brain development.

  1. Brain structure and the relationship with neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder : MRI studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hartberg, Cecilie Bhandari

    2011-01-01

    Brain structural abnormalities as well as neurocognitive dysfunction, are found in schizophrenia and in bipolar disorder. Based on the fact that both brain structure and neurocognitive functioning are significantly heritable and affected in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, relationships between them are expected. However, previous studies report inconsistent findings. Also, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are classified as separate disease entities, but demonstrate overlap with reg...

  2. The Effects of Audiovisual Inputs on Solving the Cocktail Party Problem in the Human Brain: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Wang, Fangyi; Chen, Yongbin; Cichocki, Andrzej; Sejnowski, Terrence

    2017-09-25

    At cocktail parties, our brains often simultaneously receive visual and auditory information. Although the cocktail party problem has been widely investigated under auditory-only settings, the effects of audiovisual inputs have not. This study explored the effects of audiovisual inputs in a simulated cocktail party. In our fMRI experiment, each congruent audiovisual stimulus was a synthesis of 2 facial movie clips, each of which could be classified into 1 of 2 emotion categories (crying and laughing). Visual-only (faces) and auditory-only stimuli (voices) were created by extracting the visual and auditory contents from the synthesized audiovisual stimuli. Subjects were instructed to selectively attend to 1 of the 2 objects contained in each stimulus and to judge its emotion category in the visual-only, auditory-only, and audiovisual conditions. The neural representations of the emotion features were assessed by calculating decoding accuracy and brain pattern-related reproducibility index based on the fMRI data. We compared the audiovisual condition with the visual-only and auditory-only conditions and found that audiovisual inputs enhanced the neural representations of emotion features of the attended objects instead of the unattended objects. This enhancement might partially explain the benefits of audiovisual inputs for the brain to solve the cocktail party problem. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Differential brain responses to cries of infants with autistic disorder and typical development: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, Paola; Caria, Andrea; Esposito, Gianluca; De Pisapia, Nicola; Bornstein, Marc H; de Falco, Simona

    2012-01-01

    This study used fMRI to measure brain activity during adult processing of cries of infants with autistic disorder (AD) compared to cries of typically developing (TD) infants. Using whole brain analysis, we found that cries of infants with AD compared to those of TD infants elicited enhanced activity in brain regions associated with verbal and prosodic processing, perhaps because altered acoustic patterns of AD cries render them especially difficult to interpret, and increased activity in brain regions associated with emotional processing, indicating that AD cries also elicit more negative feelings and may be perceived as more aversive and/or arousing. Perceived distress engendered by AD cries related to increased activation in brain regions associated with emotional processing. This study supports the hypothesis that cry is an early and meaningful anomaly displayed by children with AD. It could be that cries associated with AD alter parent-child interactions much earlier than the time that reliable AD diagnosis normally occurs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Digital atlas of fetal brain MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Teresa; Weinberger, E.; Matesan, Manuela; Bulas, Dorothy I.

    2010-01-01

    Fetal MRI can be performed in the second and third trimesters. During this time, the fetal brain undergoes profound structural changes. Interpretation of appropriate development might require comparison with normal age-based models. Consultation of a hard-copy atlas is limited by the inability to compare multiple ages simultaneously. To provide images of normal fetal brains from weeks 18 through 37 in a digital format that can be reviewed interactively. This will facilitate recognition of abnormal brain development. T2-W images for the atlas were obtained from fetal MR studies of normal brains scanned for other indications from 2005 to 2007. Images were oriented in standard axial, coronal and sagittal projections, with laterality established by situs. Gestational age was determined by last menstrual period, earliest US measurements and sonogram performed on the same day as the MR. The software program used for viewing the atlas, written in C, permits linked scrolling and resizing the images. Simultaneous comparison of varying gestational ages is permissible. Fetal brain images across gestational ages 18 to 37 weeks are provided as an interactive digital atlas and are available for free download. Improved interpretation of fetal brain abnormalities can be facilitated by the use of digital atlas cataloging of the normal changes throughout fetal development. Here we provide a description of the atlas and a discussion of normal fetal brain development. (orig.)

  5. Digital atlas of fetal brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Teresa; Weinberger, E. [Department of Radiology, Seattle Children' s Hospital, Seattle, WA (United States); Matesan, Manuela [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Bulas, Dorothy I. [Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Fetal MRI can be performed in the second and third trimesters. During this time, the fetal brain undergoes profound structural changes. Interpretation of appropriate development might require comparison with normal age-based models. Consultation of a hard-copy atlas is limited by the inability to compare multiple ages simultaneously. To provide images of normal fetal brains from weeks 18 through 37 in a digital format that can be reviewed interactively. This will facilitate recognition of abnormal brain development. T2-W images for the atlas were obtained from fetal MR studies of normal brains scanned for other indications from 2005 to 2007. Images were oriented in standard axial, coronal and sagittal projections, with laterality established by situs. Gestational age was determined by last menstrual period, earliest US measurements and sonogram performed on the same day as the MR. The software program used for viewing the atlas, written in C, permits linked scrolling and resizing the images. Simultaneous comparison of varying gestational ages is permissible. Fetal brain images across gestational ages 18 to 37 weeks are provided as an interactive digital atlas and are available for free download. Improved interpretation of fetal brain abnormalities can be facilitated by the use of digital atlas cataloging of the normal changes throughout fetal development. Here we provide a description of the atlas and a discussion of normal fetal brain development. (orig.)

  6. Brain MRI findings of carbon disulfide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Mi Jung; Yim, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Sam Soo; Han, Heon; Kim, Rok Ho

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the findings of brain MRI in patients with carbon disulfide poisoning. Ninety-one patients who had suffered carbon disulfide poisoning [male:female=87:4; age, 32-74 (mean 53.3) years] were included in this study. To determine the extent of white matter hyperintensity (Grade 0-V) and lacunar infarction, T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain was performed. T2-weighted images depicted white matter hyperintensity in 70 patients (76.9%) and lacunar infarcts in 27 (29.7%). In these patients, the prevalent findings at T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain were white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarcts. Disturbance of the cardiovascular system by carbon disulfide might account for these results

  7. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A

    2012-06-06

    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards

  8. Hand grips strength effect on motor function in human brain using fMRI: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S S; Mohamad, M; Syazarina, S O; Nafisah, W Y

    2014-01-01

    Several methods of motor tasks for fMRI scanning have been evolving from simple to more complex tasks. Motor tasks on upper extremity were applied in order to excite the increscent of motor activation on contralesional and ipsilateral hemispheres in brain. The main objective of this study is to study the different conditions for motor tasks on upper extremity that affected the brain activation. Ten healthy right handed with normal vision (3 male and 7 female, age range=20-30 years, mean=24.6 years, SD=2.21) participated in this study. Prior to the scanning, participants were trained on hand grip tasks using rubber ball and pressure gauge tool outside the scanner. During fMRI session, a block design with 30-s task blocks and alternating 30-s rest periods was employed while participants viewed a computer screen via a back projection-mirror system and instructed to follow the instruction by gripping their hand with normal and strong grips using a rubber ball. Statistical Parametric mapping (SPM8) software was used to determine the brain activation. Both tasks activated the primary motor (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal and ventral of premotor cortex area (PMA) in left hemisphere while in right hemisphere the area of primary motor (M1) somatosensory was activated. However, the comparison between both tasks revealed that the strong hand grip showed the higher activation at M1, PMA and SMA on left hemisphere and also the area of SMA on right hemisphere. Both conditions of motor tasks could provide insights the functional organization on human brain

  9. Hand grips strength effect on motor function in human brain using fMRI: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, S. S.; Mohamad, M.; Syazarina, S. O.; Nafisah, W. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Several methods of motor tasks for fMRI scanning have been evolving from simple to more complex tasks. Motor tasks on upper extremity were applied in order to excite the increscent of motor activation on contralesional and ipsilateral hemispheres in brain. The main objective of this study is to study the different conditions for motor tasks on upper extremity that affected the brain activation. Ten healthy right handed with normal vision (3 male and 7 female, age range=20-30 years, mean=24.6 years, SD=2.21) participated in this study. Prior to the scanning, participants were trained on hand grip tasks using rubber ball and pressure gauge tool outside the scanner. During fMRI session, a block design with 30-s task blocks and alternating 30-s rest periods was employed while participants viewed a computer screen via a back projection-mirror system and instructed to follow the instruction by gripping their hand with normal and strong grips using a rubber ball. Statistical Parametric mapping (SPM8) software was used to determine the brain activation. Both tasks activated the primary motor (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal and ventral of premotor cortex area (PMA) in left hemisphere while in right hemisphere the area of primary motor (M1) somatosensory was activated. However, the comparison between both tasks revealed that the strong hand grip showed the higher activation at M1, PMA and SMA on left hemisphere and also the area of SMA on right hemisphere. Both conditions of motor tasks could provide insights the functional organization on human brain.

  10. Prolonged Repeated Acupuncture Stimulation Induces Habituation Effects in Pain-Related Brain Areas: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfu; Yang, Jun; Park, Kyungmo; Wu, Hongli; Hu, Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Bu, Junjie; Xu, Chunsheng; Qiu, Bensheng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies of brain responses to acupuncture were designed to investigate the acupuncture instant effect while the cumulative effect that should be more important in clinical practice has seldom been discussed. In this study, the neural basis of the acupuncture cumulative effect was analyzed. For this experiment, forty healthy volunteers were recruited, in which more than 40 minutes of repeated acupuncture stimulation was implemented at acupoint Zhusanli (ST36). Three runs of acupuncture fMRI datasets were acquired, with each run consisting of two blocks of acupuncture stimulation. Besides general linear model (GLM) analysis, the cumulative effects of acupuncture were analyzed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to find the association between the brain response and the cumulative duration of acupuncture stimulation in each stimulation block. The experimental results showed that the brain response in the initial stage was the strongest although the brain response to acupuncture was time-variant. In particular, the brain areas that were activated in the first block and the brain areas that demonstrated cumulative effects in the course of repeated acupuncture stimulation overlapped in the pain-related areas, including the bilateral middle cingulate cortex, the bilateral paracentral lobule, the SII, and the right thalamus. Furthermore, the cumulative effects demonstrated bimodal characteristics, i.e. the brain response was positive at the beginning, and became negative at the end. It was suggested that the cumulative effect of repeated acupuncture stimulation was consistent with the characteristic of habituation effects. This finding may explain the neurophysiologic mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia. PMID:24821143

  11. Abnormal Baseline Brain Activity in Patients with Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous investigations studying the brain functional activity of the tinnitus patients have indicated that neurological changes are important findings of this kind of disease. However, the pulsatile tinnitus (PT patients were excluded in previous studies because of the totally different mechanisms of the two subtype tinnitus. The aim of this study is to investigate whether altered baseline brain activity presents in patients with PT using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI technique. The present study used unilateral PT patients (n=42 and age-, sex-, and education-matched normal control subjects (n=42 to investigate the changes in structural and amplitude of low-frequency (ALFF of the brain. Also, we analyzed the relationships between these changes with clinical data of the PT patients. Compared with normal controls, PT patients did not show any structural changes. PT patients showed significant increased ALFF in the bilateral precuneus, and bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and decreased ALFF in multiple occipital areas. Moreover, the increased THI score and PT duration was correlated with increased ALFF in precuneus and bilateral IFG. The abnormalities of spontaneous brain activity reflected by ALFF measurements in the absence of structural changes may provide insights into the neural reorganization in PT patients.

  12. Corpus callosum thickness on mid-sagittal MRI as a marker of brain volume: a pilot study in children with HIV-related brain disease and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Ackermann, Christelle; Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark; Tomazos, Nicollette; Spottiswoode, Bruce; Mauff, Katya; Pettifor, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Corpus callosum thickness measurement on mid-sagittal MRI may be a surrogate marker of brain volume. This is important for evaluation of diseases causing brain volume gain or loss, such as HIV-related brain disease and HIV encephalopathy. To determine if thickness of the corpus callosum on mid-sagittal MRI is a surrogate marker of brain volume in children with HIV-related brain disease and in controls without HIV. A retrospective MRI analysis in children (<5 years old) with HIV-related brain disease and controls used a custom-developed semi-automated tool, which divided the midline corpus callosum and measured its thickness in multiple locations. Brain volume was determined using volumetric analysis. Overall corpus callosum thickness and thickness of segments of the corpus callosum were correlated with overall and segmented (grey and white matter) brain volume. Forty-four children (33 HIV-infected patients and 11 controls) were included. Significant correlations included overall corpus callosum (mean) and total brain volume (P = 0.05); prefrontal corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02); premotor corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.04) and white matter volume (P = 0.02), premotor corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02) and sensory corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.02). Corpus callosum thickness correlates with brain volume both in HIV-infected patients and controls. (orig.)

  13. Corpus callosum thickness on mid-sagittal MRI as a marker of brain volume: a pilot study in children with HIV-related brain disease and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas [University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Ackermann, Christelle [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark [Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children' s Hospital, Children' s Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Tomazos, Nicollette [University of Cape Town, Faculty of Commerce, Department of Management Studies, Cape Town (South Africa); Spottiswoode, Bruce [University of Cape Town, MRC/UCT Medical Imaging Research Unit, Department of Human Biology, Cape Town (South Africa); Mauff, Katya [University of Cape Town, Department of Statistical Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Pettifor, John M. [University of the Witwatersrand, MRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Witwatersrand (South Africa)

    2015-07-15

    Corpus callosum thickness measurement on mid-sagittal MRI may be a surrogate marker of brain volume. This is important for evaluation of diseases causing brain volume gain or loss, such as HIV-related brain disease and HIV encephalopathy. To determine if thickness of the corpus callosum on mid-sagittal MRI is a surrogate marker of brain volume in children with HIV-related brain disease and in controls without HIV. A retrospective MRI analysis in children (<5 years old) with HIV-related brain disease and controls used a custom-developed semi-automated tool, which divided the midline corpus callosum and measured its thickness in multiple locations. Brain volume was determined using volumetric analysis. Overall corpus callosum thickness and thickness of segments of the corpus callosum were correlated with overall and segmented (grey and white matter) brain volume. Forty-four children (33 HIV-infected patients and 11 controls) were included. Significant correlations included overall corpus callosum (mean) and total brain volume (P = 0.05); prefrontal corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02); premotor corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.04) and white matter volume (P = 0.02), premotor corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02) and sensory corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.02). Corpus callosum thickness correlates with brain volume both in HIV-infected patients and controls. (orig.)

  14. Dysfunctional whole brain networks in mild cognitive impairment patients: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenyu; Bai, Lijun; Dai, Ruwei; Zhong, Chongguang; Xue, Ting; You, Youbo; Tian, Jie

    2012-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was recognized as the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent researches have shown that cognitive and memory decline in AD patients is coupled with losses of small-world attributes. However, few studies pay attention to the characteristics of the whole brain networks in MCI patients. In the present study, we investigated the topological properties of the whole brain networks utilizing graph theoretical approaches in 16 MCI patients, compared with 18 age-matched healthy subjects as a control. Both MCI patients and normal controls showed small-world architectures, with large clustering coefficients and short characteristic path lengths. We detected significantly longer characteristic path length in MCI patients compared with normal controls at the low sparsity. The longer characteristic path lengths in MCI indicated disrupted information processing among distant brain regions. Compared with normal controls, MCI patients showed decreased nodal centrality in the brain areas of the angular gyrus, heschl gyrus, hippocampus and superior parietal gyrus, while increased nodal centrality in the calcarine, inferior occipital gyrus and superior frontal gyrus. These changes in nodal centrality suggested a widespread rewiring in MCI patients, which may be an integrated reflection of reorganization of the brain networks accompanied with the cognitive decline. Our findings may be helpful for further understanding the pathological mechanisms of MCI.

  15. Right-to-left shunt and subclinical ischemic brain lesions in Chinese migraineurs: a multicentre MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-Han; Wang, Si-Bo; Tian, Qian; Zhong, Chi; Zhang, Guan-Ling; Li, Ya-Jie; Lin, Pan; You, Yong; Guo, Rong; Cui, Ying-Hua; Xing, Ying-Qi

    2018-02-14

    Migraine is considered as a risk factor for subclinical brain ischemic lesions, and right-to-left shunt (RLS) is more common among migraineurs. This cross-sectional study assessed the association of RLS with the increased prevalence of subclinical ischemic brain lesions in migraineurs. We enrolled 334 migraineurs from a multicentre study from June 2015 to August 2016. Participants were all evaluated using contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and completed a questionnaire covering demographics, the main risk factors of vascular disease, and migraine status. RLS was classified into four grades (Grade 0 = Negative; Grade I = 1 ≤ microbubbles (MBs) ≤ 10; Grade II = MBs > 10 and no curtain; Grade III = curtain). Silent brain ischemic infarctions (SBI) and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) were evaluated on MRI. We found no significant differences between migraineurs with RLS and migraineurs without RLS in subclinical ischemic brain lesions.SBI and WMHs did not increase with the size of the RLS(p for trend for SBI = 0.066, p for trend for WMHs = 0.543). Furthermore, curtain RLS in migraineurs was a risk factor for the presence of SBI (p = 0.032, OR = 3.47; 95%CI: 1.12-10.76). There was no association between RLS and the presence of WMHs. Overall, RLS is not associated with increased SBI or WMHs in migraineurs. However, when RLS is present as a curtain pattern, it is likely to be a risk factor for SBIs in migraineurs. No. NCT02425696 ; registered on April 21, 2015.

  16. A case of brain SLE: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Seung Min [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-01-15

    Systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by multisystem involvement including central nervous system and various neurologic symptoms. The authors experienced a case of brain SLE and report MRI and other neuroimaging findings.

  17. Processing of targets in smooth or apparent motion along the vertical in the human brain: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Vincenzo; Macaluso, Emiliano; Indovina, Iole; Orban, Guy; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Neural substrates for processing constant speed visual motion have been extensively studied. Less is known about the brain activity patterns when the target speed changes continuously, for instance under the influence of gravity. Using functional MRI (fMRI), here we compared brain responses to accelerating/decelerating targets with the responses to constant speed targets. The target could move along the vertical under gravity (1g), under reversed gravity (-1g), or at constant speed (0g). In the first experiment, subjects observed targets moving in smooth motion and responded to a GO signal delivered at a random time after target arrival. As expected, we found that the timing of the motor responses did not depend significantly on the specific motion law. Therefore brain activity in the contrast between different motion laws was not related to motor timing responses. Average BOLD signals were significantly greater for 1g targets than either 0g or -1g targets in a distributed network including bilateral insulae, left lingual gyrus, and brain stem. Moreover, in these regions, the mean activity decreased monotonically from 1g to 0g and to -1g. In the second experiment, subjects intercepted 1g, 0g, and -1g targets either in smooth motion (RM) or in long-range apparent motion (LAM). We found that the sites in the right insula and left lingual gyrus, which were selectively engaged by 1g targets in the first experiment, were also significantly more active during 1g trials than during -1g trials both in RM and LAM. The activity in 0g trials was again intermediate between that in 1g trials and that in -1g trials. Therefore in these regions the global activity modulation with the law of vertical motion appears to hold for both RM and LAM. Instead, a region in the inferior parietal lobule showed a preference for visual gravitational motion only in LAM but not RM.

  18. Physiological neuronal decline in healthy aging human brain - An in vivo study with MRI and short echo-time whole-brain (1)H MR spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Qi; Maudsley, Andrew A; Sabati, Mohammad; Sheriff, Sulaiman; Schmitz, Birte; Schütze, Martin; Bronzlik, Paul; Kahl, Kai G; Lanfermann, Heinrich

    2016-08-15

    Knowledge of physiological aging in healthy human brain is increasingly important for neuroscientific research and clinical diagnosis. To investigate neuronal decline in normal aging brain eighty-one healthy subjects aged between 20 and 70years were studied with MRI and whole-brain (1)H MR spectroscopic imaging. Concentrations of brain metabolites N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), total creatine (tCr), myo-inositol (mI), and glutamine+glutamate (Glx) in ratios to internal water, and the fractional volumes of brain tissue were estimated simultaneously in eight cerebral lobes and in cerebellum. Results demonstrated that an age-related decrease in gray matter volume was the largest contribution to changes in brain volume. Both lobar NAA and the fractional volume of gray matter (FVGM) decreased with age in all cerebral lobes, indicating that the decreased NAA was predominantly associated with decreased gray matter volume and neuronal density or metabolic activity. In cerebral white matter Cho, tCr, and mI increased with age in association with increased fractional volume, showing altered cellular membrane turn-over, energy metabolism, and glial activity in human aging white matter. In cerebellum tCr increased while brain tissue volume decreased with age, showing difference to cerebral aging. The observed age-related metabolic and microstructural variations suggest that physiological neuronal decline in aging human brain is associated with a reduction of gray matter volume and neuronal density, in combination with cellular aging in white matter indicated by microstructural alterations and altered energy metabolism in the cerebellum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. How Does Your Brain See “Living” Circles: A Study of Animacy and Intention Using fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P McAleer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is widely reported that the perception of animacy can occur from simple displays of moving shapes with participants attributing such qualities as goals, beliefs, and intentions. Furthermore, via neuroimaging studies, a network of brain areas, including regions of the temporal and frontal lobes, has been shown to process the percept. However, problems exist that prevent the bridging of fMRI studies on the perception of animacy and intention in shapes to the same percept of human movement. First, the issue of prior displays being poorly controlled in terms of low-level visual cues blurs the actual root of the effect. Second, the general use of synthetically generated displays and their relationship to actual human movement: a problem previously addressed in behavioural studies via a systematic reduction of live visual footage of human actors. Therefore, we propose experiments that incorporate both synthetically generated animacy stimuli and displays derived from human motion. Following the classic Tremoulet and Feldman displays, stimuli are created that allow for manipulation of animacy and intent whilst controlling low-level visual cues. These displays are then used in a whole-brain fMRI study to locate neural regions sensitive to the perception of animacy and intention. Finally, within these regions, a region-of-interest analysis is performed to examine the change in brain activation from viewing animacy displays derived from human movement with varying intent (eg, chasing or following. This study develops the relationship between previous animacy literature and the real-world perception of intent.

  20. Gender differences in brain activity toward unpleasant linguistic stimuli concerning interpersonal relationships: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirao, Naoko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Okada, Go; Ueda, Kazutaka; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2005-10-01

    Women are more vulnerable to psychosocial stressors such as interpersonal conflicts than men, and are more susceptible to some psychiatric disorders. We hypothesized that there are differences in the brain activity of men and women while perceiving unpleasant linguistic stimuli concerning interpersonal relationships, and that they underlie the different sensitivity toward these stressful stimuli. We carried out a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study on 13 young female adults and 13 young male adults who performed an emotional decision task including sets of unpleasant words concerning interpersonal relationships and sets of neutral words. In the women, the unpleasant words more significantly activated the bilateral caudate nuclei and left putamen than the neutral words. However, among the men, there was no difference in the level of activation of any brain area induced by the unpleasant or neutral word stimuli. Upon performing the task, there was a significant gender difference in brain activation. Moreover, among the female subjects, the activation in the bilateral caudate nuclei and left thalamus was negatively correlated with the average rating of pleasantness of the words concerning interpersonal conflicts by the subject. These results demonstrate gender differences in brain activity in processing unpleasant linguistic stimuli related to interpersonal conflicts. Our data suggest that the bilateral caudate nuclei and left putamen play an important role in the perception of words concerning interpersonal conflicts in women. The bilateral caudate nuclei and left thalamus may regulate a woman's sensitivity to unpleasant information about interpersonal difficulties.

  1. Brain intra- and extracellular sodium concentration in multiple sclerosis: a 7 T MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracca, Maria; Vancea, Roxana O; Fleysher, Lazar; Jonkman, Laura E; Oesingmann, Niels; Inglese, Matilde

    2016-03-01

    Intra-axonal accumulation of sodium ions is one of the key mechanisms of delayed neuro-axonal degeneration that contributes to disability accrual in multiple sclerosis. In vivo sodium magnetic resonance imaging studies have demonstrated an increase of brain total sodium concentration in patients with multiple sclerosis, especially in patients with greater disability. However, total sodium concentration is a weighted average of intra- and extra-cellular sodium concentration whose changes reflect different tissue pathophysiological processes. The in vivo, non-invasive measurement of intracellular sodium concentration is quite challenging and the few applications in patients with neurological diseases are limited to case reports and qualitative assessments. In the present study we provide first evidence of the feasibility of triple quantum filtered (23)Na magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T, and provide in vivo quantification of global and regional brain intra- and extra-cellular sodium concentration in 19 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and 17 heathy controls. Global grey matter and white matter total sodium concentration (respectively P brain regional level, clusters of increased total sodium concentration and intracellular sodium concentration and decreased intracellular sodium volume fraction were found in several cortical, subcortical and white matter regions when patients were compared with healthy controls (P Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Pathophysiological studies of experimental brain edema and cerebral ischemia using MRI/S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Shoji; Higuchi, Toshihiro; Horikawa, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Chuzo; Hirakawa, Kimiyoshi

    1987-01-01

    Pathophysiological changes in experimental brain edema and cerebral ischemia were examined by the in vivo 1 H- and 31 P-NMR method. Two types of experimental brain edema were induced in rats by cold injury and by triethyltin (TET) intoxication. Experimental cerebral ischemia was induced in rats by the four-vessel occlusion method. During the course of these pathological conditions, the 1 H-MRIs and 31 P-NMR spectra were measured sequentially with a single NMR spectrometer (4.8 tesla, 9 cm bore magnet). In the cold-injury edema, high-intensity lesions were detected in the gray and white matters of the injured hemisphere by means of SE images with a long Te 3 hours after the injury. The intensity reached its maximum 16 to 24 hours after the injury, and then returned to normal 7 days later. These high-intensity lesions indicated an increase in the T2 value in the edematous tissue. There were no changes in the 31 P-NMR spectra during the course of edema formation and absorption. In the TET-induced edema, high-intensity lesions were also detected in the bilateral white matter by means of SE images with a long Te from the 3rd day up to the 7th day during the injection of TET. These high-intensity lesions subsided 42 days after the discontinuance of injecting TET. There were no changes in the 31 P-NMR spectra during the whole course of TET-induced edema. In the cerebral ischemia, no remarkable changes in the MRI were detected in either SE or IR images during the ischemic and recirculated periods. However, dynamic changes in the 31 P-NMR spectra were detected during the course of cerebral ischemia. In the pre-ischemic period, the peaks of the ATP, PCr, phosphodiesters (PDE), Pi, and phosphomonoesters (PME) were detected. After the induction of ischemia, the ATP and PCr peaks decreased, while one Pi peak increased rapidly. (J.P.N.)

  3. Pathophysiological studies of experimental brain edema and cerebral ischemia using MRI/S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, S; Higuchi, T; Horikawa, Y; Tanaka, C; Hirakawa, K

    1987-02-01

    Pathophysiological changes in experimental brain edema and cerebral ischemia were examined by the in vivo /sup 1/H- and /sup 31/P-NMR method. Two types of experimental brain edema were induced in rats by cold injury and by triethyltin (TET) intoxication. Experimental cerebral ischemia was induced in rats by the four-vessel occlusion method. During the course of these pathological conditions, the /sup 1/H-MRIs and /sup 31/P-NMR spectra were measured sequentially with a single NMR spectrometer (4.8 tesla, 9 cm bore magnet). In the cold-injury edema, high-intensity lesions were detected in the gray and white matters of the injured hemisphere by means of SE images with a long Te 3 hours after the injury. The intensity reached its maximum 16 to 24 hours after the injury, and then returned to normal 7 days later. These high-intensity lesions indicated an increase in the T2 value in the edematous tissue. There were no changes in the /sup 31/P-NMR spectra during the course of edema formation and absorption. In the TET-induced edema, high-intensity lesions were also detected in the bilateral white matter by means of SE images with a long Te from the 3rd day up to the 7th day during the injection of TET. These high-intensity lesions subsided 42 days after the discontinuance of injecting TET. There were no changes in the /sup 31/P-NMR spectra during the whole course of TET-induced edema. In the cerebral ischemia, no remarkable changes in the MRI were detected in either SE or IR images during the ischemic and recirculated periods. However, dynamic changes in the /sup 31/P-NMR spectra were detected during the course of cerebral ischemia. In the pre-ischemic period, the peaks of the ATP, PCr, phosphodiesters (PDE), Pi, and phosphomonoesters (PME) were detected. After the induction of ischemia, the ATP and PCr peaks decreased, while one Pi peak increased rapidly.

  4. Self-reflection and the psychosis-prone brain: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modinos, Gemma; Renken, Remco; Ormel, Johan; Aleman, André

    2011-05-01

    The Cortical Midline Structures (CMS) play a critical role in self-reflection, together with the insula. Abnormalities in self-referential processing and its neural underpinnings have been reported in schizophrenia and at-risk populations, suggesting they might be markers of psychotic vulnerability. Psychometric measures of schizotypal traits may be used to index psychosis proneness (PP) in nonclinical samples. It remains an unresolved question whether differences in self-reflective processing are associated with PP. Six hundred students completed the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences Questionnaire, positive subscale. Two groups were formed from the extremes of the distribution (total N = 36). fMRI was used to examine CMS/insula function during a self-reflection task. Participants judged personality trait sentences about self and about an acquaintance. High PP subjects attributed less positive traits to others (i.e., acquaintances) than subjects with low PP. Across groups, the contrasts self > semantic and self > other induced activation in CMS and insula, whereas other > semantic did not produce insula activation. Other > self induced posterior cingulate cortex activation in low PP but not in high PP. In addition, high PP subjects showed stronger activation than low PP in left insula during self > semantic. Examining valence effects revealed that high PP individuals showed increased activation in left insula, right dMPFC, and left vMPFC for positive self-related traits, and in bilateral insula, ACC, and right dMPFC for negative self-related traits. The findings suggest that aspects of self-referential processing and underlying brain mechanisms are similar in clinical and subclinical (high PP) forms of psychosis, suggesting that these may be associated with vulnerability to psychosis.

  5. Intrinsic brain subsystem associated with dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jizheng; Li, Mintong; Zhang, Yi; Song, Huaibo; von Deneen, Karen M; Shi, Yinggang; Liu, Yijun; He, Dongjian

    2017-02-01

    Eating behaviors are closely related to body weight, and eating traits are depicted in three dimensions: dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger. The current study aims to explore whether these aspects of eating behaviors are related to intrinsic brain activation, and to further investigate the relationship between the brain activation relating to these eating traits and body weight, as well as the link between function connectivity (FC) of the correlative brain regions and body weight. Our results demonstrated positive associations between dietary restraint and baseline activation of the frontal and the temporal regions (i.e., food reward encoding) and the limbic regions (i.e., homeostatic control, including the hypothalamus). Disinhibition was positively associated with the activation of the frontal motivational system (i.e., OFC) and the premotor cortex. Hunger was positively related to extensive activations in the prefrontal, temporal, and limbic, as well as in the cerebellum. Within the brain regions relating to dietary restraint, weight status was negatively correlated with FC of the left middle temporal gyrus and left inferior temporal gyrus, and was positively associated with the FC of regions in the anterior temporal gyrus and fusiform visual cortex. Weight status was positively associated with the FC within regions in the prefrontal motor cortex and the right ACC serving inhibition, and was negatively related with the FC of regions in the frontal cortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits responding to hunger control. Our data depicted an association between intrinsic brain activation and dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger, and presented the links of their activations and FCs with weight status.

  6. Branding and a child's brain: an fMRI study of neural responses to logos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Amanda S; Bruce, Jared M; Black, William R; Lepping, Rebecca J; Henry, Janice M; Cherry, Joseph Bradley C; Martin, Laura E; Papa, Vlad B; Davis, Ann M; Brooks, William M; Savage, Cary R

    2014-01-01

    Branding and advertising have a powerful effect on both familiarity and preference for products, yet no neuroimaging studies have examined neural response to logos in children. Food advertising is particularly pervasive and effective in manipulating choices in children. The purpose of this study was to examine how healthy children's brains respond to common food and other logos. A pilot validation study was first conducted with 32 children to select the most culturally familiar logos, and to match food and non-food logos on valence and intensity. A new sample of 17 healthy weight children were then scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Food logos compared to baseline were associated with increased activation in orbitofrontal cortex and inferior prefrontal cortex. Compared to non-food logos, food logos elicited increased activation in posterior cingulate cortex. Results confirmed that food logos activate some brain regions in children known to be associated with motivation. This marks the first study in children to examine brain responses to culturally familiar logos. Considering the pervasiveness of advertising, research should further investigate how children respond at the neural level to marketing.

  7. Advanced MRI techniques of the fetal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoepf, V.; Dittrich, E.; Berger-Kulemann, V.; Kasprian, G.; Kollndorfer, K.; Prayer, D.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of the normal and pathological fetal brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Advanced MRI of the fetal brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used in clinical practice, all other methods are used at a research level. Serving as standard methods in the future. Combined structural and functional data for all gestational ages will allow more specific insight into the developmental processes of the fetal brain. This gain of information will help provide a common understanding of complex spatial and temporal procedures of early morphological features and their impact on cognitive and sensory abilities. (orig.) [de

  8. Brain Tumor Image Segmentation in MRI Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peni Agustin Tjahyaningtijas, Hapsari

    2018-04-01

    Brain tumor segmentation plays an important role in medical image processing. Treatment of patients with brain tumors is highly dependent on early detection of these tumors. Early detection of brain tumors will improve the patient’s life chances. Diagnosis of brain tumors by experts usually use a manual segmentation that is difficult and time consuming because of the necessary automatic segmentation. Nowadays automatic segmentation is very populer and can be a solution to the problem of tumor brain segmentation with better performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of MRI-based brain tumor segmentation methods. There are number of existing review papers, focusing on traditional methods for MRI-based brain tumor image segmentation. this paper, we focus on the recent trend of automatic segmentation in this field. First, an introduction to brain tumors and methods for brain tumor segmentation is given. Then, the state-of-the-art algorithms with a focus on recent trend of full automatic segmentaion are discussed. Finally, an assessment of the current state is presented and future developments to standardize MRI-based brain tumor segmentation methods into daily clinical routine are addressed.

  9. In vivo brain anatomy of adult males with Fragile X syndrome: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, Brian P; Craig, Michael C; Toal, Fiona; Daly, Eileen M; Moore, Caroline J; Ambikapathy, Anita; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Kieran C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of a single trinucleotide gene sequence (CGG) on the X chromosome, and is a leading cause of learning disability (mental retardation) worldwide. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with FraX. Of those that are available many included mixed gender populations, combined FraX children and adults into one sample, and employed manual tracing techniques which measures bulk volume of particular regions. Hence, there is relatively little information on differences in grey and white matter content across whole brain. We employed magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain anatomy in 17 adult males with FraX and 18 healthy controls that did not differ significantly in age. Data were analysed using stereology and VBM to compare (respectively) regional brain bulk volume, and localised grey/white matter content. Using stereology we found that FraX males had a significant increase in bulk volume bilaterally of the caudate nucleus and parietal lobes and of the right brainstem, but a significant decrease in volume of the left frontal lobe. Our complimentary VBM analysis revealed an increased volume of grey matter in fronto-striatal regions (including bilaterally in the caudate nucleus), and increased white matter in regions extending from the brainstem to the parahippocampal gyrus, and from the left cingulate cortex extending into the corpus callosum. People with FraX have regionally specific differences in brain anatomy from healthy controls with enlargement of the caudate nuclei that persists into adulthood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. In vivo brain anatomy of adult males with Fragile X syndrome: an MRI study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hallahan, Brian P

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of a single trinucleotide gene sequence (CGG) on the X chromosome, and is a leading cause of learning disability (mental retardation) worldwide. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with FraX. Of those that are available many included mixed gender populations, combined FraX children and adults into one sample, and employed manual tracing techniques which measures bulk volume of particular regions. Hence, there is relatively little information on differences in grey and white matter content across whole brain. We employed magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain anatomy in 17 adult males with FraX and 18 healthy controls that did not differ significantly in age. Data were analysed using stereology and VBM to compare (respectively) regional brain bulk volume, and localised grey\\/white matter content. Using stereology we found that FraX males had a significant increase in bulk volume bilaterally of the caudate nucleus and parietal lobes and of the right brainstem, but a significant decrease in volume of the left frontal lobe. Our complimentary VBM analysis revealed an increased volume of grey matter in fronto-striatal regions (including bilaterally in the caudate nucleus), and increased white matter in regions extending from the brainstem to the parahippocampal gyrus, and from the left cingulate cortex extending into the corpus callosum. People with FraX have regionally specific differences in brain anatomy from healthy controls with enlargement of the caudate nuclei that persists into adulthood.

  11. Cognition and brain abnormalities on MRI in pituitary patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brummelman, Pauline [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Sattler, Margriet G.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meiners, Linda C. [Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Berg, Gerrit van den; Klauw, Melanie M. van der [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Elderson, Martin F. [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); LifeLines Cohort Study and Biobank, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Dullaart, Robin P.F. [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Koerts, Janneke [Department of Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Werumeus Buning, Jorien, E-mail: j.werumeus.buning@umcg.nl [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Tucha, Oliver [Department of Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R. [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); LifeLines Cohort Study and Biobank, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Beek, André P. van, E-mail: a.p.van.beek@umcg.nl [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Cognitive impairments are frequently observed in treated NFA patients. • NFA patients with cognitive impairments do not show brain abnormalities on MRI more frequently than patients without cognitive impairments. • The absence of brain abnormalities on brain MRI does not exclude impairments of cognition. - Abstract: Purpose: The extent to which cognitive dysfunction is related to specific brain abnormalities in patients treated for pituitary macroadenoma is unclear. Therefore, we compared brain abnormalities seen on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFA) with or without impairments in cognitive functioning. Methods: In this cross-sectional design, a cohort of 43 NFA patients was studied at the University Medical Center Groningen. White matter lesions (WMLs), cerebral atrophy, (silent) brain infarcts and abnormalities of the temporal lobes and hippocampi were assessed on pre-treatment and post-treatment MRI scans. Post-treatment cognitive examinations were performed using a verbal memory and executive functioning test. We compared our patient cohort with large reference populations representative of the Dutch population. Results: One or more impairments on both cognitive tests were frequently observed in treated NFA patients. No treatment effects were found with regard to the comparison between patients with and without impairments in executive functioning. Interestingly, in patients with one or more impairments on verbal memory function, treatment with radiotherapy had been given more frequently (74% in the impaired group versus 40% in the unimpaired group, P = 0.025). Patients with or without any brain abnormality on MRI did not differ in verbal memory or executive functioning. Conclusions: Brain abnormalities on MRI are not observed more frequently in treated NFA patients with impairments compared to NFA patients without impairments in verbal memory or executive functioning

  12. Cognition and brain abnormalities on MRI in pituitary patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brummelman, Pauline; Sattler, Margriet G.A.; Meiners, Linda C.; Berg, Gerrit van den; Klauw, Melanie M. van der; Elderson, Martin F.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.; Koerts, Janneke; Werumeus Buning, Jorien; Tucha, Oliver; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den; Beek, André P. van

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cognitive impairments are frequently observed in treated NFA patients. • NFA patients with cognitive impairments do not show brain abnormalities on MRI more frequently than patients without cognitive impairments. • The absence of brain abnormalities on brain MRI does not exclude impairments of cognition. - Abstract: Purpose: The extent to which cognitive dysfunction is related to specific brain abnormalities in patients treated for pituitary macroadenoma is unclear. Therefore, we compared brain abnormalities seen on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFA) with or without impairments in cognitive functioning. Methods: In this cross-sectional design, a cohort of 43 NFA patients was studied at the University Medical Center Groningen. White matter lesions (WMLs), cerebral atrophy, (silent) brain infarcts and abnormalities of the temporal lobes and hippocampi were assessed on pre-treatment and post-treatment MRI scans. Post-treatment cognitive examinations were performed using a verbal memory and executive functioning test. We compared our patient cohort with large reference populations representative of the Dutch population. Results: One or more impairments on both cognitive tests were frequently observed in treated NFA patients. No treatment effects were found with regard to the comparison between patients with and without impairments in executive functioning. Interestingly, in patients with one or more impairments on verbal memory function, treatment with radiotherapy had been given more frequently (74% in the impaired group versus 40% in the unimpaired group, P = 0.025). Patients with or without any brain abnormality on MRI did not differ in verbal memory or executive functioning. Conclusions: Brain abnormalities on MRI are not observed more frequently in treated NFA patients with impairments compared to NFA patients without impairments in verbal memory or executive functioning

  13. How specialized are writing-specific brain regions? An fMRI study of writing, drawing and oral spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planton, Samuel; Longcamp, Marieke; Péran, Patrice; Démonet, Jean-François; Jucla, Mélanie

    2017-03-01

    Several brain imaging studies identified brain regions that are consistently involved in writing tasks; the left premotor and superior parietal cortices have been associated with the peripheral components of writing performance as opposed to other regions that support the central, orthographic components. Based on a meta-analysis by Planton, Jucla, Roux, and Demonet (2013), we focused on five such writing areas and questioned the task-specificity and hemispheric lateralization profile of the brain response in an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment where 16 right-handed participants wrote down, spelled out orally object names, and drew shapes from object pictures. All writing-related areas were activated by drawing, and some of them by oral spelling, thus questioning their specialization for written production. The graphemic/motor frontal area (GMFA), a subpart of the superior premotor cortex close to Exner's area (Roux et al., 2009), was the only area with a writing-specific lateralization profile, that is, clear left lateralization during handwriting, and bilateral activity during drawing. Furthermore, the relative lateralization and levels of activation in the superior parietal cortex, ventral premotor cortex, ventral occipitotemporal cortex and right cerebellum across the three tasks brought out new evidence regarding their respective contributions to the writing processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. MRI Study on the Functional and Spatial Consistency of Resting State-Related Independent Components of the Brain Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Bum Seok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jee Wook [Daejeon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Woong [College of Medical Science, Konyang University, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Resting-state networks (RSNs), including the default mode network (DMN), have been considered as markers of brain status such as consciousness, developmental change, and treatment effects. The consistency of functional connectivity among RSNs has not been fully explored, especially among resting-state-related independent components (RSICs). This resting-state fMRI study addressed the consistency of functional connectivity among RSICs as well as their spatial consistency between 'at day 1' and 'after 4 weeks' in 13 healthy volunteers. We found that most RSICs, especially the DMN, are reproducible across time, whereas some RSICs were variable in either their spatial characteristics or their functional connectivity. Relatively low spatial consistency was found in the basal ganglia, a parietal region of left frontoparietal network, and the supplementary motor area. The functional connectivity between two independent components, the bilateral angular/supramarginal gyri/intraparietal lobule and bilateral middle temporal/occipital gyri, was decreased across time regardless of the correlation analysis method employed, (Pearson's or partial correlation). RSICs showing variable consistency are different between spatial characteristics and functional connectivity. To understand the brain as a dynamic network, we recommend further investigation of both changes in the activation of specific regions and the modulation of functional connectivity in the brain network.

  15. MRI Study on the Functional and Spatial Consistency of Resting State-Related Independent Components of the Brain Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Bum Seok; Choi, Jee Wook; Kim, Ji Woong

    2012-01-01

    Resting-state networks (RSNs), including the default mode network (DMN), have been considered as markers of brain status such as consciousness, developmental change, and treatment effects. The consistency of functional connectivity among RSNs has not been fully explored, especially among resting-state-related independent components (RSICs). This resting-state fMRI study addressed the consistency of functional connectivity among RSICs as well as their spatial consistency between 'at day 1' and 'after 4 weeks' in 13 healthy volunteers. We found that most RSICs, especially the DMN, are reproducible across time, whereas some RSICs were variable in either their spatial characteristics or their functional connectivity. Relatively low spatial consistency was found in the basal ganglia, a parietal region of left frontoparietal network, and the supplementary motor area. The functional connectivity between two independent components, the bilateral angular/supramarginal gyri/intraparietal lobule and bilateral middle temporal/occipital gyri, was decreased across time regardless of the correlation analysis method employed, (Pearson's or partial correlation). RSICs showing variable consistency are different between spatial characteristics and functional connectivity. To understand the brain as a dynamic network, we recommend further investigation of both changes in the activation of specific regions and the modulation of functional connectivity in the brain network.

  16. Abnormal baseline brain activity in patients with neuromyelitis optica: A resting-state fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yaou [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Liang Peipeng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); International WIC institute, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100024 (China); Duan Yunyun; Jia Xiuqin; Wang Fei; Yu Chunshui; Qin Wen [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Dong Huiqing; Ye Jing [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng1955@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Recent immunopathologic and MRI findings suggest that tissue damage in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is not limited to spinal cord and optic nerve, but also in brain. Baseline brain activity can reveal the brain functional changes to the tissue damages and give clues to the pathophysiology of NMO, however, it has never been explored by resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). We used regional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as an index in resting-state fMRI to investigate how baseline brain activity changes in patients with NMO. Methods: Resting-state fMRIs collected from seventeen NMO patients and seventeen age- and sex-matched normal controls were compared to investigate the ALFF difference between the two groups. The relationships between ALFF in regions with significant group differences and the EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale), disease duration were further explored. Results: Our results showed that NMO patients had significantly decreased ALFF in precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and lingual gyrus; and increased ALFF in middle frontal gyrus, caudate nucleus and thalamus, compared to normal controls. Moderate negative correlations were found between the EDSS and ALFF in the left middle frontal gyrus (r = -0.436, p = 0.040) and the left caudate (r = -0.542, p = 0.012). Conclusion: The abnormal baseline brain activity shown by resting-state fMRI in NMO is relevant to cognition, visual and motor systems. It implicates a complex baseline brain status of both functional impairments and adaptations caused by tissue damages in these systems, which gives clues to the pathophysiology of NMO.

  17. Abnormal baseline brain activity in patients with neuromyelitis optica: A resting-state fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yaou; Liang Peipeng; Duan Yunyun; Jia Xiuqin; Wang Fei; Yu Chunshui; Qin Wen; Dong Huiqing; Ye Jing; Li Kuncheng

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Recent immunopathologic and MRI findings suggest that tissue damage in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is not limited to spinal cord and optic nerve, but also in brain. Baseline brain activity can reveal the brain functional changes to the tissue damages and give clues to the pathophysiology of NMO, however, it has never been explored by resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). We used regional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as an index in resting-state fMRI to investigate how baseline brain activity changes in patients with NMO. Methods: Resting-state fMRIs collected from seventeen NMO patients and seventeen age- and sex-matched normal controls were compared to investigate the ALFF difference between the two groups. The relationships between ALFF in regions with significant group differences and the EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale), disease duration were further explored. Results: Our results showed that NMO patients had significantly decreased ALFF in precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and lingual gyrus; and increased ALFF in middle frontal gyrus, caudate nucleus and thalamus, compared to normal controls. Moderate negative correlations were found between the EDSS and ALFF in the left middle frontal gyrus (r = -0.436, p = 0.040) and the left caudate (r = -0.542, p = 0.012). Conclusion: The abnormal baseline brain activity shown by resting-state fMRI in NMO is relevant to cognition, visual and motor systems. It implicates a complex baseline brain status of both functional impairments and adaptations caused by tissue damages in these systems, which gives clues to the pathophysiology of NMO.

  18. Surface-Based fMRI-Driven Diffusion Tractography in the Presence of Significant Brain Pathology: A Study Linking Structure and Function in Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnington, Ross; Boyd, Roslyn N.; Rose, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography analyses are difficult to perform in the presence of brain pathology. Automated methods that rely on cortical parcellation for structural connectivity studies often fail, while manually defining regions is extremely time consuming and can introduce human error. Both methods also make assumptions about structure-function relationships that may not hold after cortical reorganisation. Seeding tractography with functional-MRI (fMRI) activation is an emerging method that reduces these confounds, but inherent smoothing of fMRI signal may result in the inclusion of irrelevant pathways. This paper describes a novel fMRI-seeded dMRI-analysis pipeline based on surface-meshes that reduces these issues and utilises machine-learning to generate task specific white matter pathways, minimising the requirement for manually-drawn ROIs. We directly compared this new strategy to a standard voxelwise fMRI-dMRI approach, by investigating correlations between clinical scores and dMRI metrics of thalamocortical and corticomotor tracts in 31 children with unilateral cerebral palsy. The surface-based approach successfully processed more participants (87%) than the voxel-based approach (65%), and provided significantly more-coherent tractography. Significant correlations between dMRI metrics and five clinical scores of function were found for the more superior regions of these tracts. These significant correlations were stronger and more frequently found with the surface-based method (15/20 investigated were significant; R2 = 0.43–0.73) than the voxelwise analysis (2 sig. correlations; 0.38 & 0.49). More restricted fMRI signal, better-constrained tractography, and the novel track-classification method all appeared to contribute toward these differences. PMID:27487011

  19. The Effects of Acupuncture Stimulation for Brain Activation and Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy: Functional MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Ha Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempted to investigate whether acupuncture stimulation at HT7 can have an effect on brain activation patterns and alcohol abstinence self-efficacy. Thirty-four right-handed healthy subjects were recruited for this study. They were randomly assigned into two groups: the HT7 (Shenmen group and the LI5 (Yangxi group. Acupuncture stimulation was performed using a block paradigm during fMRI scanning. Additionally, the Korean version of Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy Scale (AASES was used to determine the effect of acupuncture stimulation on self-efficacy to abstain from alcohol use. According to the result of fMRI group analysis, the activation induced by HT7 stimulation was found on the bilateral postcentral gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, claustrum, insula, and anterior lobe of the cerebellum, as well as on the left posterior lobe of the cerebellum (p<0.001, uncorrected. According to the AASES analysis, the interaction effect for gender and treatment was marginally significant (F(1,30=4.152, p=0.050. For female group, the simple main effect of treatment was significant (F(1,11=8.040, p=0.016, indicating that the mean change score was higher in the HT7 stimulation than in the LI5 stimulation. Therefore, our study has provided evidence to support that HT7 stimulation has a positive therapeutic effect on the alcohol-related diseases.

  20. Image processing techniques for quantification and assessment of brain MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijf, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely used technique to acquire digital images of the human brain. A variety of acquisition protocols is available to generate images in vivo and noninvasively, giving great opportunities to study the anatomy and physiology of the human brain. In my thesis,

  1. Brain Activation by Visual Food-Related Stimuli and Correlations with Metabolic and Hormonal Parameters: A fMRI Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobsdottir, S.; de Ruiter, M.B.; Deijen, J.B.; Veltman, D.J.; Drent, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Regional brain activity in 15 healthy, normal weight males during processing of visual food stimuli in a satiated and a hungry state was examined and correlated with neuroendocrine factors known to be involved in hunger and satiated states. Two functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) sessions

  2. A Volumetric and Functional Connectivity MRI Study of Brain Arginine-Vasopressin Pathways in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Xiao-Jing; Xu, Xin-Jie; Zeng, Xiang-Zhu; Liu, Ying; Yuan, Hui-Shu; Xing, Yan; Jia, Mei-Xiang; Wei, Qing-Yun; Han, Song-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2017-04-01

    Dysfunction of brain-derived arginine-vasopressin (AVP) systems may be involved in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Certain regions such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus are known to contain either AVP neurons or terminals and may play an important role in regulating complex social behaviors. The present study was designed to investigate the concomitant changes in autistic behaviors, circulating AVP levels, and the structure and functional connectivity (FC) of specific brain regions in autistic children compared with typically developing children (TDC) aged from 3 to 5 years. The results showed: (1) children with ASD had a significantly increased volume in the left amygdala and left hippocampus, and a significantly decreased volume in the bilateral hypothalamus compared to TDC, and these were positively correlated with plasma AVP level. (2) Autistic children had a negative FC between the left amygdala and the bilateral supramarginal gyri compared to TDC. The degree of the negative FC between amygdala and supramarginal gyrus was associated with a higher score on the clinical autism behavior checklist. (3) The degree of negative FC between left amygdala and left supramarginal gyrus was associated with a lowering of the circulating AVP concentration in boys with ASD. (4) Autistic children showed a higher FC between left hippocampus and right subcortical area compared to TDC. (5) The circulating AVP was negatively correlated with the visual and listening response score of the childhood autism rating scale. These results strongly suggest that changes in structure and FC in brain regions containing AVP may be involved in the etiology of autism.

  3. Fear extinction in the human brain: A meta-analysis of fMRI studies in healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullana, Miquel A; Albajes-Eizagirre, Anton; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Vervliet, Bram; Cardoner, Narcís; Benet, Olívia; Radua, Joaquim; Harrison, Ben J

    2018-05-01

    The study of fear extinction represents an important example of translational neuroscience in psychiatry and promises to improve the understanding and treatment of anxiety and fear-related disorders. We present the results of a set of meta-analyses of human fear extinction studies in healthy participants, conducted with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and reporting whole-brain results. Meta-analyses of fear extinction learning primarily implicate consistent activation of brain regions linked to threat appraisal and experience, including the dorsal anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices. An overlapping anatomical result was obtained from the meta-analysis of extinction recall studies, except when studies directly compared an extinguished threat stimulus to an unextinguished threat stimulus (instead of a safety stimulus). In this latter instance, more consistent activation was observed in dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions, together with other areas including the hippocampus. While our results partially support the notion of a shared neuroanatomy between human and rodent models of extinction processes, they also encourage an expanded account of the neural basis of human fear extinction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Visual Assessment of Brain Perfusion MRI Scans in Dementia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fällmar, David; Lilja, Johan; Velickaite, Vilma; Danfors, Torsten; Lubberink, Mark; Ahlgren, André; van Osch, Matthias J P; Kilander, Lena; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2016-05-01

    Functional imaging is becoming increasingly important for the detection of neurodegenerative disorders. Perfusion MRI with arterial spin labeling (ASL) has been reported to provide promising diagnostic possibilities but is not yet widely used in routine clinical work. The aim of this study was to compare, in a clinical setting, the visual assessment of subtracted ASL CBF maps with and without additional smoothing, to FDG-PET data. Ten patients with a clinical diagnosis of dementia and 11 age-matched cognitively healthy controls were examined with pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Three diagnostic physicians visually assessed the pCASL maps after subtraction only, and after postprocessing using Gaussian smoothing and GLM-based beta estimate functions. The assessment scores were compared to FDG PET values. Furthermore, the ability to discriminate patients from healthy elderly controls was assessed. Smoothing improved the correlation between visually assessed regional ASL perfusion scores and the FDG PET SUV-r values from the corresponding regions. However, subtracted pCASL maps discriminated patients from healthy controls better than smoothed maps. Smoothing increased the number of false-positive patient identifications. Application of beta estimate functions had only a marginal effect. Spatial smoothing of ASL images increased false positive results in the discrimination of hypoperfusion conditions from healthy elderly. It also decreased interreader agreement. However, regional characterization and subjective perception of image quality was improved. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  5. Disrupted Topological Organization in Whole-Brain Functional Networks of Heroin-Dependent Individuals: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Guihua; Wen, Xue; Qiu, Yingwei; Zhang, Ruibin; Wang, Junjing; Li, Meng; Ma, Xiaofen; Tian, Junzhang; Huang, Ruiwang

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that heroin addiction is related to abnormalities in widespread local regions and in the functional connectivity of the brain. However, little is known about whether heroin addiction changes the topological organization of whole-brain functional networks. Seventeen heroin-dependent individuals (HDIs) and 15 age-, gender-matched normal controls (NCs) were enrolled, and the resting-state functional magnetic resonance images (RS-fMRI) were acquired from these subj...

  6. Imaging tools to study pharmacology: functional MRI on small rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth eJonckers; Disha eShah; Julie eHamaide; Marleen eVerhoye; Annemie eVan Der Linden

    2015-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is an excellent tool to study the effect of pharmacological modulations on brain function in a non-invasive and longitudinal manner. We introduce several blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI techniques, including resting state (rsfMRI), stimulus-evoked (st-fMRI), and pharmacological MRI (phMRI). Respectively, these techniques permit the assessment of functional connectivity during rest as well as brain activation triggered by sensory stimu...

  7. MRI Brain Tumor Segmentation Methods- A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gursangeet, Kaur; Jyoti, Rani

    2016-01-01

    Medical image processing and its segmentation is an active and interesting area for researchers. It has reached at the tremendous place in diagnosing tumors after the discovery of CT and MRI. MRI is an useful tool to detect the brain tumor and segmentation is performed to carry out the useful portion from an image. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of different image segmentation methods like watershed algorithm, morphological operations, neutrosophic sets, thresholding, K-...

  8. Urea cycle disorders: brain MRI and neurological outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bireley, William R; Van Hove, Johan L K; Gallagher, Renata C; Fenton, Laura Z

    2012-04-01

    Urea cycle disorders encompass several enzyme deficiencies that can result in cerebral damage, with a wide clinical spectrum from asymptomatic to severe. The goal of this study was to correlate brain MRI abnormalities in urea cycle disorders with clinical neurological sequelae to evaluate whether MRI abnormalities can assist in guiding difficult treatment decisions. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with urea cycle disorders and symptomatic hyperammonemia. Brain MRI images were reviewed for abnormalities that correlated with severity of clinical neurological sequelae. Our case series comprises six urea cycle disorder patients, five with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and one with citrullinemia type 1. The observed trend in distribution of brain MRI abnormalities as the severity of neurological sequelae increased was the peri-insular region first, extending into the frontal, parietal, temporal and, finally, the occipital lobes. There was thalamic restricted diffusion in three children with prolonged hyperammonemia. Prior to death, this site is typically reported to be spared in urea cycle disorders. The pattern and extent of brain MRI abnormalities correlate with clinical neurological outcome in our case series. This suggests that brain MRI abnormalities may assist in determining prognosis and helping clinicians with subsequent treatment decisions.

  9. Urea cycle disorders: brain MRI and neurological outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bireley, William R. [University of Colorado, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Van Hove, Johan L.K. [University of Colorado, Department of Genetics and Inherited Metabolic Diseases, Aurora, CO (United States); Gallagher, Renata C. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Genetics and Inherited Metabolic Diseases, Aurora, CO (United States); Fenton, Laura Z. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Urea cycle disorders encompass several enzyme deficiencies that can result in cerebral damage, with a wide clinical spectrum from asymptomatic to severe. The goal of this study was to correlate brain MRI abnormalities in urea cycle disorders with clinical neurological sequelae to evaluate whether MRI abnormalities can assist in guiding difficult treatment decisions. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with urea cycle disorders and symptomatic hyperammonemia. Brain MRI images were reviewed for abnormalities that correlated with severity of clinical neurological sequelae. Our case series comprises six urea cycle disorder patients, five with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and one with citrullinemia type 1. The observed trend in distribution of brain MRI abnormalities as the severity of neurological sequelae increased was the peri-insular region first, extending into the frontal, parietal, temporal and, finally, the occipital lobes. There was thalamic restricted diffusion in three children with prolonged hyperammonemia. Prior to death, this site is typically reported to be spared in urea cycle disorders. The pattern and extent of brain MRI abnormalities correlate with clinical neurological outcome in our case series. This suggests that brain MRI abnormalities may assist in determining prognosis and helping clinicians with subsequent treatment decisions. (orig.)

  10. Urea cycle disorders: brain MRI and neurological outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bireley, William R.; Van Hove, Johan L.K.; Gallagher, Renata C.; Fenton, Laura Z.

    2012-01-01

    Urea cycle disorders encompass several enzyme deficiencies that can result in cerebral damage, with a wide clinical spectrum from asymptomatic to severe. The goal of this study was to correlate brain MRI abnormalities in urea cycle disorders with clinical neurological sequelae to evaluate whether MRI abnormalities can assist in guiding difficult treatment decisions. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with urea cycle disorders and symptomatic hyperammonemia. Brain MRI images were reviewed for abnormalities that correlated with severity of clinical neurological sequelae. Our case series comprises six urea cycle disorder patients, five with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and one with citrullinemia type 1. The observed trend in distribution of brain MRI abnormalities as the severity of neurological sequelae increased was the peri-insular region first, extending into the frontal, parietal, temporal and, finally, the occipital lobes. There was thalamic restricted diffusion in three children with prolonged hyperammonemia. Prior to death, this site is typically reported to be spared in urea cycle disorders. The pattern and extent of brain MRI abnormalities correlate with clinical neurological outcome in our case series. This suggests that brain MRI abnormalities may assist in determining prognosis and helping clinicians with subsequent treatment decisions. (orig.)

  11. New ischaemic brain lesions on MRI after stenting or endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis: a substudy of the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonati, Leo H.; Jongen, Lisa M.; Haller, Sven; Flach, H. Zwenneke; Dobson, Joanna; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Macdonald, Sumaira; Gaines, Peter A.; Waaijer, Annet; Waajier, Annet; Stierli, Peter; Jäger, H. Rolf; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Wetzel, Stephan G.; van der Lugt, Aad; Mali, Willem P.; Brown, Martin M.; van der Worp, H. Bart; Engelter, Stefan T.; Koelemaij, M. J. W.; Majoie, C. B. L. M.; Reekers, J. A. A.; Roos, Y. B. W. E. M.; Flach, H. Z.; Hendriks, J. M.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Pattynama, P. M. T.; van Dijk, L. C.; van Sambeek, M. R. H. M.; van der Lugt, A.; van Urk, H.; Verhagen, H. J. M.; de Borst, G. J.; de Kort, G. A. P.; Jongen, L. M.; Kappelle, L. J.; Lo, T. H.; Mali, W. P. Th M.; Moll, F. L.; van der Worp, H. B.; Bonati, L. H.; Engelter, S. T.; Fluri, F.; Haller, S.; Jacob, A. L.; Kirsch, E.; Lyrer, P. A.; Radue, E.-W.; Stierli, P.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) of stenting and endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis found a higher incidence of stroke within 30 days of stenting compared with endarterectomy. We aimed to compare the rate of ischaemic brain injury detectable on MRI between the

  12. MRI assessment of whole-brain structural changes in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Siu, William; D'Arcy, Ryan Cn; Black, Sandra E; Grajauskas, Lukas A; Singh, Sonia; Zhang, Yunting; Rockwood, Kenneth; Song, Xiaowei

    2017-01-01

    One of the central features of brain aging is the accumulation of multiple age-related structural changes, which occur heterogeneously in individuals and can have immediate or potential clinical consequences. Each of these deficits can coexist and interact, producing both independent and additive impacts on brain health. Many of the changes can be visualized using MRI. To collectively assess whole-brain structural changes, the MRI-based Brain Atrophy and Lesion Index (BALI) has been developed. In this study, we validate this whole-brain health assessment approach using several clinical MRI examinations. Data came from three independent studies: the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Phase II (n=950; women =47.9%; age =72.7±7.4 years); the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (n=722; women =55.1%; age =72.7±9.9 years); and the Tianjin Medical University General Hospital Research database on older adults (n=170; women =60.0%; age =62.9±9.3 years). The 3.0-Tesla MRI scans were evaluated using the BALI rating scheme on the basis of T1-weighted (T1WI), T2-weighted (T2WI), T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2-FLAIR), and T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo (T2*GRE) images. Atrophy and lesion changes were commonly seen in each MRI test. The BALI scores based on different sequences were highly correlated (Spearman r 2 >0.69; P age ( r 2 >0.29; P 26.48, P aging and dementia-related decline of structural brain health. Inclusion of additional MRI tests increased lesion differentiation. Further research is to integrate MRI tests for a clinical tool to aid the diagnosis and intervention of brain aging.

  13. MRI of normal fetal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor; Krampl, Elisabeth; Ulm, Barbara; Witzani, Linde; Prayer, Lucas; Brugger, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed

  14. MRI of normal fetal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: Daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Krampl, Elisabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ulm, Barbara [Department of Prenatal Diagnosis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed.

  15. Human brain functional MRI and DTI visualization with virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Moreland, John; Zhang, Jingyu

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI (fMRI) are two active research areas in neuroimaging. DTI is sensitive to the anisotropic diffusion of water exerted by its macromolecular environment and has been shown useful in characterizing structures of ordered tissues such as the brain white matter, myocardium, and cartilage. The diffusion tensor provides two new types of information of water diffusion: the magnitude and the spatial orientation of water diffusivity inside the tissue. This information has been used for white matter fiber tracking to review physical neuronal pathways inside the brain. Functional MRI measures brain activations using the hemodynamic response. The statistically derived activation map corresponds to human brain functional activities caused by neuronal activities. The combination of these two methods provides a new way to understand human brain from the anatomical neuronal fiber connectivity to functional activities between different brain regions. In this study, virtual reality (VR) based MR DTI and fMRI visualization with high resolution anatomical image segmentation and registration, ROI definition and neuronal white matter fiber tractography visualization and fMRI activation map integration is proposed. Rationale and methods for producing and distributing stereoscopic videos are also discussed.

  16. Studies of the correlations between morphological brain changes on MRI and computerized EEG changes in schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Kouzou

    1992-01-01

    Twenty eight schizophrenic patients, who ranged in age from 21 to 39 years with a mean of 30.2, and 21 age- and sex-matched normal volunteers were studied by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and electroencephalography (EEG). ALl subjects were given informed consent prior to the present study. They were all right-handed. Schizophrenic patients showed a significantly larger ventricular brain ratio (VBR) on the axial and coronal planes as compared with the control. The bilateral anterior horns, left body, left posterior horn of the lateral ventricle and the third ventricle were significantly larger in schizophrenic patients than the control. The middle half of the corpus callosum was smaller in schizophrenic patients than the control. Schizophrenia was more likely associated not only with delta and theta activities in the centro-parieto-occipital regions but also with beta 1 and beta 2 activities in the front-central regions. In schizophrenic patients, however, alpha 2 activity was markedly decreased in all regions. There were significant positive correlations between the total scores for brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and the areas of the left anterior and posterior horns of the lateral ventricle. The total BPRS scores positively correlated with the area of the third ventricle. In addition, positive correlations were significant between delata activity and the area of the left anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, between delta activity and the area of the third ventricle, and between beta 1 activity and the area of left posteior horn of the lateral ventricle. These results suggest that a dilated third ventricle is associated with electrophysiological brain pathology and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients. (N.K.) 76 refs

  17. Abnormal brain functional connectivity leads to impaired mood and cognition in hyperthyroidism: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Zhi, Mengmeng; Hou, Zhenghua; Zhang, Yuqun; Yue, Yingying; Yuan, Yonggui

    2017-01-01

    Patients with hyperthyroidism frequently have neuropsychiatric complaints such as lack of concentration, poor memory, depression, anxiety, nervousness, and irritability, suggesting brain dysfunction. However, the underlying process of these symptoms remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we depicted the altered graph theoretical metric degree centrality (DC) and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in 33 hyperthyroid patients relative to 33 healthy controls. The peak points of significantly altered DC between the two groups were defined as the seed regions to calculate FC to the whole brain. Then, partial correlation analyses were performed between abnormal DC, FC and neuropsychological performances, as well as some clinical indexes. The decreased intrinsic functional connectivity in the posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC) and medial frontal gyrus (MeFG), as well as the abnormal seed-based FC anchored in default mode network (DMN), attention network, visual network and cognitive network in this study, possibly constitutes the latent mechanism for emotional and cognitive changes in hyperthyroidism, including anxiety and impaired processing speed. PMID:28009983

  18. Abnormal brain functional connectivity leads to impaired mood and cognition in hyperthyroidism: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Zhi, Mengmeng; Hou, Zhenghua; Zhang, Yuqun; Yue, Yingying; Yuan, Yonggui

    2017-01-24

    Patients with hyperthyroidism frequently have neuropsychiatric complaints such as lack of concentration, poor memory, depression, anxiety, nervousness, and irritability, suggesting brain dysfunction. However, the underlying process of these symptoms remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we depicted the altered graph theoretical metric degree centrality (DC) and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in 33 hyperthyroid patients relative to 33 healthy controls. The peak points of significantly altered DC between the two groups were defined as the seed regions to calculate FC to the whole brain. Then, partial correlation analyses were performed between abnormal DC, FC and neuropsychological performances, as well as some clinical indexes. The decreased intrinsic functional connectivity in the posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC) and medial frontal gyrus (MeFG), as well as the abnormal seed-based FC anchored in default mode network (DMN), attention network, visual network and cognitive network in this study, possibly constitutes the latent mechanism for emotional and cognitive changes in hyperthyroidism, including anxiety and impaired processing speed.

  19. Brain network involved in visual processing of movement stimuli used in upper limb robotic training: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocchi, Federico; Gazzellini, Simone; Grisolia, Carmela; Petrarca, Maurizio; Cannatà, Vittorio; Cappa, Paolo; D'Alessio, Tommaso; Castelli, Enrico

    2012-07-24

    The potential of robot-mediated therapy and virtual reality in neurorehabilitation is becoming of increasing importance. However, there is limited information, using neuroimaging, on the neural networks involved in training with these technologies. This study was intended to detect the brain network involved in the visual processing of movement during robotic training. The main aim was to investigate the existence of a common cerebral network able to assimilate biological (human upper limb) and non-biological (abstract object) movements, hence testing the suitability of the visual non-biological feedback provided by the InMotion2 Robot. A visual functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) task was administered to 22 healthy subjects. The task required observation and retrieval of motor gestures and of the visual feedback used in robotic training. Functional activations of both biological and non-biological movements were examined to identify areas activated in both conditions, along with differential activity in upper limb vs. abstract object trials. Control of response was also tested by administering trials with congruent and incongruent reaching movements. The observation of upper limb and abstract object movements elicited similar patterns of activations according to a caudo-rostral pathway for the visual processing of movements (including specific areas of the occipital, temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes). Similarly, overlapping activations were found for the subsequent retrieval of the observed movement. Furthermore, activations of frontal cortical areas were associated with congruent trials more than with the incongruent ones. This study identified the neural pathway associated with visual processing of movement stimuli used in upper limb robot-mediated training and investigated the brain's ability to assimilate abstract object movements with human motor gestures. In both conditions, activations were elicited in cerebral areas involved in visual

  20. Advance MRI for pediatric brain tumors with emphasis on clinical benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Ra, Young Shin [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Conventional anatomic brain MRI is often limited in evaluating pediatric brain tumors, the most common solid tumors and a leading cause of death in children. Advanced brain MRI techniques have great potential to improve diagnostic performance in children with brain tumors and overcome diagnostic pitfalls resulting from diverse tumor pathologies as well as nonspecific or overlapped imaging findings. Advanced MRI techniques used for evaluating pediatric brain tumors include diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, perfusion imaging, spectroscopy, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging. Because pediatric brain tumors differ from adult counterparts in various aspects, MRI protocols should be designed to achieve maximal clinical benefits in pediatric brain tumors. In this study, we review advanced MRI techniques and interpretation algorithms for pediatric brain tumors.

  1. Acute exercise modulates cigarette cravings and brain activation in response to smoking-related images: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse Van Rensburg, Kate; Taylor, Adrian; Hodgson, Tim; Benattayallah, Abdelmalek

    2009-04-01

    Substances of misuse (such as nicotine) are associated with increases in activation within the mesocorticolimbic brain system, a system thought to mediate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. Pharmacological treatments have been designed to reduce cigarette cravings during temporary abstinence. Exercise has been found to be an effective tool for controlling cigarette cravings. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of exercise on regional brain activation in response to smoking-related images during temporary nicotine abstinence. In a randomized crossover design, regular smokers (n = 10) undertook an exercise (10 min moderate-intensity stationary cycling) and control (passive seating for same duration) session, following 15 h of nicotine abstinence. Following treatments, participants entered a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner. Subjects viewed a random series of smoking and neutral images for 3 s, with an average inter-stimulus-interval (ISI) of 10 s. Self-reported cravings were assessed at baseline, mid-, and post-treatments. A significant interaction effect (time by group) was found, with self-reported cravings lower during and following exercise. During control scanning, significant activation was recorded in areas associated with reward (caudate nucleus), motivation (orbitofrontal cortex) and visuo-spatial attention (parietal lobe, parahippocampal, and fusiform gyrus). Post-exercise scanning showed hypo-activation in these areas with a concomitant shift of activation towards areas identified in the 'brain default mode' (Broadmanns Area 10). The study confirms previous evidence that a single session of exercise can reduce cigarette cravings, and for the first time provides evidence of a shift in regional activation in response to smoking cues.

  2. Evaluation of brain ageing: a quantitative longitudinal MRI study over 7 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracien, Rene-Maxime; Nuernberger, Lucas; Hof, Stephanie-Michelle; Reitz, Sarah C.; Hilker-Roggendorf, Ruediger; Baudrexel, Simon [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Hok, Pavel [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Palacky University, Department of Neurology, Olomouc (Czech Republic); Rueb, Udo [Goethe University, Dr. Senckenberg Chronomedical Institute, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Steinmetz, Helmuth [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Klein, Johannes C. [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Deichmann, Ralf [Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    T1 relaxometry is a promising tool for the assessment of microstructural changes during brain ageing. Previous cross-sectional studies demonstrated increasing T1 values in white and decreasing T1 values in grey matter over the lifetime. However, these findings have not yet been confirmed on the basis of a longitudinal study. In this longitudinal study over 7 years, T1 relaxometry was used to investigate the dynamics of age-related microstructural changes in older healthy subjects. T1 mapping was performed in 17 healthy subjects (range 51-77 years) at baseline and after 7 years. Advanced cortical and white matter segmentation was used to determine mean T1 values in the cortex and white matter. The analysis revealed a decrease of mean cortical T1 values over 7 years, the rate of T1 reduction being more prominent in subjects with higher age. T1 decreases were predominantly localized in the lateral frontal, parietal and temporal cortex. In contrast, mean white matter T1 values remained stable. T1 mapping is shown to be sensitive to age-related microstructural changes in healthy ageing subjects in a longitudinal setting. Data of a cohort in late adulthood and the senescence period demonstrate a decrease of cortical T1 values over 7 years, most likely reflecting decreasing water content and increased iron concentrations. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of brain ageing: a quantitative longitudinal MRI study over 7 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracien, Rene-Maxime; Nuernberger, Lucas; Hof, Stephanie-Michelle; Reitz, Sarah C.; Hilker-Roggendorf, Ruediger; Baudrexel, Simon; Hok, Pavel; Rueb, Udo; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Klein, Johannes C.; Deichmann, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    T1 relaxometry is a promising tool for the assessment of microstructural changes during brain ageing. Previous cross-sectional studies demonstrated increasing T1 values in white and decreasing T1 values in grey matter over the lifetime. However, these findings have not yet been confirmed on the basis of a longitudinal study. In this longitudinal study over 7 years, T1 relaxometry was used to investigate the dynamics of age-related microstructural changes in older healthy subjects. T1 mapping was performed in 17 healthy subjects (range 51-77 years) at baseline and after 7 years. Advanced cortical and white matter segmentation was used to determine mean T1 values in the cortex and white matter. The analysis revealed a decrease of mean cortical T1 values over 7 years, the rate of T1 reduction being more prominent in subjects with higher age. T1 decreases were predominantly localized in the lateral frontal, parietal and temporal cortex. In contrast, mean white matter T1 values remained stable. T1 mapping is shown to be sensitive to age-related microstructural changes in healthy ageing subjects in a longitudinal setting. Data of a cohort in late adulthood and the senescence period demonstrate a decrease of cortical T1 values over 7 years, most likely reflecting decreasing water content and increased iron concentrations. (orig.)

  4. MRI of the brain: malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treguier, C.; Heautot, J.F.; Gandon, Y.; Carsin, M.; Buhe, T.; Weppe, V.

    1990-01-01

    Brain malformations include occlusion, diverticula, neuronal migration abnormalities, cystic malformations, and histogenetic disorders in neurocutaneous syndromes. The multiple planes of section, excellent white/gray matter differentiation and accurate delineation of the brain cortex available with magnetic resonance imaging make it a tool of choice for the diagnosis of malformations, as well as for prognosis and genetic counseling [fr

  5. Exercise Promotes Neuroplasticity in Both Healthy and Depressed Brains: An fMRI Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Gourgouvelis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Memory impairments are a frequently reported cognitive symptom in people suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD and often persist despite antidepressant therapy. Neuroimaging studies have identified abnormal hippocampal activity during memory processes in MDD. Exercise as an ad-on treatment for MDD is a promising therapeutic strategy shown to improve mood, cognitive function, and neural structure and function. To advance our understanding of how exercise impacts neural function in MDD, we must also understand how exercise impacts healthy individuals without MDD. This pilot study used a subsequent memory paradigm to investigate the effects of an eight-week exercise intervention on hippocampal function in low-active healthy (n=8 and low-active MDD (n=8 individuals. Results showed a marked improvement in depression scores for the MDD group (p0.05. Functional imaging results showed a marginally significant decrease in hippocampal activity in both groups following the exercise intervention. Our whole brain analysis collapsed across groups revealed a similar deactivation pattern across several memory-associated regions. These results suggest that exercise may enhance neural efficiency in low-fit individuals while still resulting in a substantially greater mood effect for those suffering from MDD. This trial is registered with clinical trials.gov NCT03191994.

  6. Imaging brain microstructure with diffusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Daniel C; Dyrby, Tim B; Nilsson, Markus

    2018-01-01

    This article gives an overview of microstructure imaging of the brain with diffusion MRI and reviews the state of the art. The microstructure-imaging paradigm aims to estimate and map microscopic properties of tissue using a model that links these properties to the voxel scale MR signal. Imaging ...

  7. Brain morphological and microstructural features in cryptogenic late-onset temporal lobe epilepsy: a structural and diffusion MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Daichi; Sato, Noriko; Kimura, Yukio; Watanabe, Yutaka; Okazaki, Mitsutoshi; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2018-04-13

    Although epilepsy in the elderly has attracted attention recently, there are few systematic studies of neuroimaging in such patients. In this study, we used structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the morphological and microstructural features of the brain in late-onset temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We recruited patients with TLE and an age of onset > 50 years (late-TLE group) and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (control group). 3-Tesla MRI scans, including 3D T1-weighted images and 15-direction DTI, showed normal findings on visual assessment in both groups. We used Statistical Parametric Mapping 12 (SPM12) for gray and white matter structural normalization and comparison and used Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) for fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity comparisons of DTI. In both methods, p < 0.05 (family-wise error) was considered statistically significant. In total, 30 patients with late-onset TLE (mean ± SD age, 66.8 ± 8.4; mean ± SD age of onset, 63.0 ± 7.6 years) and 40 healthy controls (mean ± SD age, 66.6 ± 8.5 years) were enrolled. The late-onset TLE group showed significant gray matter volume increases in the bilateral amygdala and anterior hippocampus and significantly reduced mean diffusivity in the left temporofrontal lobe, internal capsule, and brainstem. No significant changes were evident in white matter volume or fractional anisotropy. Our findings may reflect some characteristics or mechanisms of cryptogenic TLE in the elderly, such as inflammatory processes.

  8. Functional MRI study of the brain with malformations of cortical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Zhou Wenjing; Jin Zhen; Li Ke; Zhang Chaoli

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the patterns of motor and linguistic activation in cortical and its correlations with abnormal gray matter in patients with malformations of cortical development (MCD) and epilepsy. Methods: Seven MCD patients with epilepsy (2 patients with focal cortical dysplasia, 2 heterotopia, 2 schizencephaly, and 1 polymicrogyria) underwent blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) in a 3 T MR scanner when practicing bilateral fingers tapping,toes twisting, verb generation, and picture naming.Functional images were post-processed by using SPM 5 software based on a general linear model (GLM) to generate activations above a uniform threshold with the cluster size (≥30 voxels, P<0.001 corrected). The activations were recognized and classified by two experienced neuroradiologists, and then compared with that in abnormal gray matter. Results: The clusters and intensities of motor activations were mainly located in the sensormotor cortex (SMC) and premotor area (PMA). In linguistic tasks, activations produced by verb generation were found in language-associated cortical regions and PMA with higher activation in Wernicke area, picture naming significantly in the visual cortex, and language in Broca area. Combination of the two linguistic tasks produced significant clusters and intensities in language cortex. For MCD patients with abnormal cortical abnormalities, motor and language task could produce neuronal activities within normal as well as abnormal cortex regions. In 6 patients who underwent respective surgery, epileptic seizures decreased significantly, and the follow-up images demonstrated no new neurological dysfunctions and cognitive impairments. Conclusions: fMRI can visualize neuronal activities in patients with MCD and epilepsy and demonstrate the motor and linguistic activations occurring in normal and abnormal gray matter. It should be cautious for surgery in patient with MCD and epilepsy. (authors)

  9. Age-related changes in brain hemodynamics; A calibrated MRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vis, J B; Hendrikse, J; Bhogal, A

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging signal changes in response to stimuli have been used to evaluate age-related changes in neuronal activity. Contradictory results from these types of experiments have been attributed to differences in cerebral blood....... A dual-echo pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequence was performed during normocapnic, hypercapnic, and hyperoxic breathing challenges. Whole brain and regional gray matter values of CBF, ASL cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), BOLD CVR, oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and CMRO2 were...... calculated. RESULTS: Whole brain CBF was 49 ± 14 and 40 ± 9 ml/100 g/min in young and older subjects respectively (P brain, in the frontal...

  10. Brain activity for spontaneous and explicit mentalizing in adults with autism spectrum disorder: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel D. Nijhof

    Full Text Available The socio-communicative difficulties of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD are hypothesized to be caused by a specific deficit in the ability to represent one's own and others' mental states, referred to as Theory of Mind or mentalizing. However, many individuals with ASD show successful performance on explicit measures of mentalizing, and for this reason, the deficit is thought to be better captured by measures of spontaneous mentalizing. While there is initial behavioral support for this hypothesis, spontaneous mentalizing in ASD has not yet been studied at the neural level. Recent findings indicate involvement of the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ in both explicit and spontaneous mentalizing (Bardi et al., 2016. In the current study, we investigated brain activation during explicit and spontaneous mentalizing in adults with ASD by means of fMRI. Based on our hypothesis of a core mentalizing deficit in ASD, decreased rTPJ activity was expected for both forms of mentalizing. A group of 24 adults with ASD and 21 neurotypical controls carried out a spontaneous and an explicit version of the same mentalizing task. They watched videos in which both they themselves and another agent formed a belief about the location of an object (belief formation phase. Only in the explicit task version participants were instructed to report the agent's belief on some trials. At the behavioral level, no group differences were revealed in either of the task versions. A planned region-of-interest analysis of the rTPJ showed that this region was more active for false- than for true-belief formation, independent of task version, especially when the agent's belief had a positive content (when the agent was expecting the object. This effect of belief was absent in adults with ASD. A whole-brain analysis revealed reduced activation in the anterior middle temporal pole in ASD for false - versus true-belief trials, independent of task version. Our findings

  11. Brain network involved in visual processing of movement stimuli used in upper limb robotic training: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocchi Federico

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of robot-mediated therapy and virtual reality in neurorehabilitation is becoming of increasing importance. However, there is limited information, using neuroimaging, on the neural networks involved in training with these technologies. This study was intended to detect the brain network involved in the visual processing of movement during robotic training. The main aim was to investigate the existence of a common cerebral network able to assimilate biological (human upper limb and non-biological (abstract object movements, hence testing the suitability of the visual non-biological feedback provided by the InMotion2 Robot. Methods A visual functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI task was administered to 22 healthy subjects. The task required observation and retrieval of motor gestures and of the visual feedback used in robotic training. Functional activations of both biological and non-biological movements were examined to identify areas activated in both conditions, along with differential activity in upper limb vs. abstract object trials. Control of response was also tested by administering trials with congruent and incongruent reaching movements. Results The observation of upper limb and abstract object movements elicited similar patterns of activations according to a caudo-rostral pathway for the visual processing of movements (including specific areas of the occipital, temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. Similarly, overlapping activations were found for the subsequent retrieval of the observed movement. Furthermore, activations of frontal cortical areas were associated with congruent trials more than with the incongruent ones. Conclusions This study identified the neural pathway associated with visual processing of movement stimuli used in upper limb robot-mediated training and investigated the brain’s ability to assimilate abstract object movements with human motor gestures. In both conditions

  12. Blood-brain barrier permeability and monocyte infiltration in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis : a quantitative MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floris, S.; Blezer, E.L.A.; Schreibelt, Gerty; Dopp, E.; Pol, van der S.M.A.; Schadee-Eestermans, I.L.; Nicolaij, K.; Dijkstra, C.D.; Vries, de H.E.

    2004-01-01

    Enhanced cerebrovascular permeability and cellular infiltration mark the onset of early multiple sclerosis lesions. So far, the precise sequence of these events and their role in lesion formation and disease progression remain unknown. Here we provide quantitative evidence that blood–brain barrier

  13. Causes and Correlates of Brain Atrophy: A population-based MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. den Heijer (Tom)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In 1906, Alois Alzheimer described for the first time a form of dementia that later became known as Alzheimer’s disease. At necropsy, he had observed that the brain of a 51-year-old woman with progressive cognitive decline was filled with –at that time still

  14. Probing the brain with molecular fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Souparno; Harvey, Peter; Simon, Jacob C; Jasanoff, Alan

    2018-04-09

    One of the greatest challenges of modern neuroscience is to incorporate our growing knowledge of molecular and cellular-scale physiology into integrated, organismic-scale models of brain function in behavior and cognition. Molecular-level functional magnetic resonance imaging (molecular fMRI) is a new technology that can help bridge these scales by mapping defined microscopic phenomena over large, optically inaccessible regions of the living brain. In this review, we explain how MRI-detectable imaging probes can be used to sensitize noninvasive imaging to mechanistically significant components of neural processing. We discuss how a combination of innovative probe design, advanced imaging methods, and strategies for brain delivery can make molecular fMRI an increasingly successful approach for spatiotemporally resolved studies of diverse neural phenomena, perhaps eventually in people. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Study on the Application of Fuzzy Information Seeded Region Growing in Brain MRI Tissue Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuin-Mu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After long-term clinical trials, MRI has been proven to be used in humans harmlessly, and it is popularly used in medical diagnosis. Although MR is highly sensitive, it provides abundant organization information. Therefore, how to transform the multi-spectral images which is easier to be used for doctor’s clinical diagnosis. In this thesis, the fuzzy bidirectional edge detection method is used to solve conventional SRG problem of growing order in the initial seed stages. In order to overcome the problems of the different regions, although it is the same Euclidean distance for region growing and merging process stages, we present the peak detection method to improve them. The standard deviation target generation process (SDTGP is applied to guarantee the regions merging process does not cause over- or undersegmentation. Experimental results reveal that FISRG segments a multispectral MR image much more effectively than FAST and K-means.

  16. Hypertension and white matter lesions are independently associated with apathetic behavior in healthy elderly subjects. The Sefuri brain MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Takashima, Yuki; Mori, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Manabu; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Uchino, Akira; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Apathy is defined as a syndrome of primary loss of motivation not attributable to emotional distress, intellectual impairment or consciousness disturbance. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of vascular risk factors and silent ischemic brain lesions on apathetic behavior of community-dwelling elderly subjects. Brain MRI and other medical examinations were performed on 222 non-demented community-dwelling elderly subjects (96 men and 126 women, average age 70.1 years). The apathy group was defined as the most apathetic quintile determined by Starkstein's apathy scale. Silent infarction, deep white matter lesions (DWMLs) and periventricular hyperintensities were detected in 12.2, 39.2 and 22.5%, respectively. Linear regression analysis (Pearson) revealed that the scores on the apathy scale correlated slightly but significantly with logarithmically transformed scores of the Modified Stroop Test (r=0.135, P=0.045), but not with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The apathy group tended to have more high blood pressure (141.6/82.6 vs. 136.1/79.6 mmHg), less prevalent hyperlipidemia (18 vs. 35%) and lower serum albumin. Multivariate analysis (the forward stepwise method of logistic analysis) revealed an independent correlation between the apathy and grade of DWMLs (odds ratio 1.826, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.129-2.953 per grade) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (odds ratio 1.055, 95% CI 1.0 14-1.098 per mmHg) after adjusting for possible confounders. The mean apathy scale score in the DBP≥90 mmHg group was significantly lower (more apathetic) than that in the DBP<80 group (P=0.011, analysis of covariance). This study showed that hypertension and DWMLs are independently associated with apathy in healthy elderly subjects. (author)

  17. Clinical applications of 7 T MRI in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolk, Anja G. van der; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Zwanenburg, Jaco J.M.; Visser, Fredy; Luijten, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    This review illustrates current applications and possible future directions of 7 Tesla (7 T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the field of brain MRI, in clinical studies as well as clinical practice. With its higher signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) compared to lower field strengths, high resolution, contrast-rich images can be obtained of diverse pathologies, like multiple sclerosis (MS), brain tumours, aging-related changes and cerebrovascular diseases. In some of these diseases, additional pathophysiological information can be gained compared to lower field strengths. Because of clear depiction of small anatomical details, and higher lesion conspicuousness, earlier diagnosis and start of treatment of brain diseases may become possible. Furthermore, additional insight into the pathogenesis of brain diseases obtained with 7 T MRI could be the basis for new treatment developments. However, imaging at high field comes with several limitations, like inhomogeneous transmit fields, a higher specific absorption rate (SAR) and, currently, extensive contraindications for patient scanning. Future studies will be aimed at assessing the advantages and disadvantages of 7 T MRI over lower field strengths in light of clinical applications, specifically the additional diagnostic and prognostic value of 7 T MRI

  18. Clinical applications of 7 T MRI in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, Anja G. van der, E-mail: A.G.vanderKolk@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Postbox 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Hendrikse, Jeroen, E-mail: J.Hendrikse@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Postbox 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Zwanenburg, Jaco J.M., E-mail: J.J.M.Zwanenburg@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Postbox 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Visser, Fredy, E-mail: F.Visser-2@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Postbox 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands); Luijten, Peter R., E-mail: P.Luijten@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Postbox 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    This review illustrates current applications and possible future directions of 7 Tesla (7 T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the field of brain MRI, in clinical studies as well as clinical practice. With its higher signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) compared to lower field strengths, high resolution, contrast-rich images can be obtained of diverse pathologies, like multiple sclerosis (MS), brain tumours, aging-related changes and cerebrovascular diseases. In some of these diseases, additional pathophysiological information can be gained compared to lower field strengths. Because of clear depiction of small anatomical details, and higher lesion conspicuousness, earlier diagnosis and start of treatment of brain diseases may become possible. Furthermore, additional insight into the pathogenesis of brain diseases obtained with 7 T MRI could be the basis for new treatment developments. However, imaging at high field comes with several limitations, like inhomogeneous transmit fields, a higher specific absorption rate (SAR) and, currently, extensive contraindications for patient scanning. Future studies will be aimed at assessing the advantages and disadvantages of 7 T MRI over lower field strengths in light of clinical applications, specifically the additional diagnostic and prognostic value of 7 T MRI.

  19. Effector-independent brain activity during motor imagery of the upper and lower limbs: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Nakata, Hiroki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2014-10-03

    We utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate the common brain region of motor imagery for the right and left upper and lower limbs. The subjects were instructed to repeatedly imagined extension and flexion of the right or left hands/ankles. Brain regions, which included the supplemental motor area (SMA), premotor cortex and parietal cortex, were activated during motor imagery. Conjunction analysis revealed that the left SMA and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)/ventral premotor cortex (vPM) were commonly activated with motor imagery of the right hand, left hand, right foot, and left foot. This result suggests that these brain regions are activated during motor imagery in an effector independent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mapping human whole-brain structural networks with diffusion MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Hagmann

    Full Text Available Understanding the large-scale structural network formed by neurons is a major challenge in system neuroscience. A detailed connectivity map covering the entire brain would therefore be of great value. Based on diffusion MRI, we propose an efficient methodology to generate large, comprehensive and individual white matter connectional datasets of the living or dead, human or animal brain. This non-invasive tool enables us to study the basic and potentially complex network properties of the entire brain. For two human subjects we find that their individual brain networks have an exponential node degree distribution and that their global organization is in the form of a small world.

  1. Prospective demonstration of brain plasticity after intensive abacus-based mental calculation training: An fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.; Wu, T.H.; Cheng, M.C.; Huang, Y.H.; Sheu, C.Y.; Hsieh, J.C.; Lee, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Abacus-based mental calculation is a unique Chinese culture. The abacus experts can perform complex computations mentally with exceptionally fast speed and high accuracy. However, the neural bases of computation processing are not yet clearly known. This study used a BOLD contrast 3T fMRI system to explore the brain activation differences between abacus experts and non-expert subjects. All the acquired data were analyzed using SPM99 software. From the results, different ways of performing calculations between the two groups were seen. The experts tended to adopt efficient visuospatial/visuomotor strategy (bilateral parietal/frontal network) to process and retrieve all the intermediate and final results on the virtual abacus during calculation. By contrast, coordination of several networks (verbal, visuospatial processing and executive function) was required in the normal group to carry out arithmetic operations. Furthermore, more involvement of the visuomotor imagery processing (right dorsal premotor area) for imagining bead manipulation and low level use of the executive function (frontal-subcortical area) for launching the relatively time-consuming sequentially organized process was noted in the abacus expert group than in the non-expert group. We suggest that these findings may explain why abacus experts can reveal the exceptional computational skills compared to non-experts after intensive training

  2. Prospective demonstration of brain plasticity after intensive abacus-based mental calculation training: An fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. L.; Wu, T. H.; Cheng, M. C.; Huang, Y. H.; Sheu, C. Y.; Hsieh, J. C.; Lee, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    Abacus-based mental calculation is a unique Chinese culture. The abacus experts can perform complex computations mentally with exceptionally fast speed and high accuracy. However, the neural bases of computation processing are not yet clearly known. This study used a BOLD contrast 3T fMRI system to explore the brain activation differences between abacus experts and non-expert subjects. All the acquired data were analyzed using SPM99 software. From the results, different ways of performing calculations between the two groups were seen. The experts tended to adopt efficient visuospatial/visuomotor strategy (bilateral parietal/frontal network) to process and retrieve all the intermediate and final results on the virtual abacus during calculation. By contrast, coordination of several networks (verbal, visuospatial processing and executive function) was required in the normal group to carry out arithmetic operations. Furthermore, more involvement of the visuomotor imagery processing (right dorsal premotor area) for imagining bead manipulation and low level use of the executive function (frontal-subcortical area) for launching the relatively time-consuming sequentially organized process was noted in the abacus expert group than in the non-expert group. We suggest that these findings may explain why abacus experts can reveal the exceptional computational skills compared to non-experts after intensive training.

  3. Measurements of brain microstructure and connectivity with diffusion MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Po Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available By probing direction-dependent diffusivity of water molecules, diffusion MRI has shown its capability to reflect the microstructural tissue status and to estimate the neural orientation and pathways in the living brain. This approach has supplied novel insights into in-vivo human brain connections. By detecting the connection patterns, anatomical architecture and structural integrity between cortical regions or subcortical nuclei in the living human brain can be easily identified. It thus opens a new window on brain connectivity studies and disease processes. During the past years, there is a growing interest in exploring the connectivity patterns of the human brain. Specifically, the utilities of noninvasive neuroimaging data and graph theoretical analysis have provided important insights into the anatomical connections and topological pattern of human brain structural networks in vivo. Here, we review the progress of this important technique and the recent methodological and application studies utilizing graph theoretical approaches on brain structural networks with structural MRI and diffusion MRI.

  4. Visioning in the brain: an fMRI study of inspirational coaching and mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Anthony I; Boyatzis, Richard E; Khawaja, Masud S; Passarelli, Angela M; Leckie, Regina L

    2013-01-01

    Effective coaching and mentoring is crucial to the success of individuals and organizations, yet relatively little is known about its neural underpinnings. Coaching and mentoring to the Positive Emotional Attractor (PEA) emphasizes compassion for the individual's hopes and dreams and has been shown to enhance a behavioral change. In contrast, coaching to the Negative Emotional Attractor (NEA), by focusing on externally defined criteria for success and the individual's weaknesses in relation to them, does not show sustained change. We used fMRI to measure BOLD responses associated with these two coaching styles. We hypothesized that PEA coaching would be associated with increased global visual processing and with engagement of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), while the NEA coaching would involve greater engagement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Regions showing more activity in PEA conditions included the lateral occipital cortex, superior temporal cortex, medial parietal, subgenual cingulate, nucleus accumbens, and left lateral prefrontal cortex. We relate these activations to visioning, PNS activity, and positive affect. Regions showing more activity in NEA conditions included medial prefrontal regions and right lateral prefrontal cortex. We relate these activations to SNS activity, self-trait attribution and negative affect.

  5. Moral competence and brain connectivity: a resting-state fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wi Hoon; Prehn, Kristin; Fang, Zhuo; Korczykowski, Marc; Kable, Joseph W.; Rao, Hengyi; Robertson, Diana C.

    2016-01-01

    Moral competence (MC) refers to the ability to apply certain moral orientations in a consistent and differentiated manner when judging moral issues. People greatly differ in terms of MC, however, little is known about how these differences are implemented in the brain. To investigate this question, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and examined resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in n=31 individuals with MC scores in the highest 15% of the population and n=33 individuals with MC scores in the lowest 15%, selected from a large sample of 730 Master of Business Administration (MBA) students. Compared to individuals with lower MC, individuals with higher MC showed greater amygdala-ventromedial prefrontal connectivity, which may reflect better ability to cope with emotional conflicts elicited by moral dilemmas. Moreover, individuals with higher MC showed less inter-network connectivity between the amygdalar and fronto-parietal networks, suggesting a more independent operation of these networks. Our findings provide novel insights into how individual differences in moral judgment are associated with RSFC in brain circuits related to emotion processing and cognitive control. PMID:27456537

  6. Moral competence and brain connectivity: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wi Hoon; Prehn, Kristin; Fang, Zhuo; Korczykowski, Marc; Kable, Joseph W; Rao, Hengyi; Robertson, Diana C

    2016-11-01

    Moral competence (MC) refers to the ability to apply certain moral orientations in a consistent and differentiated manner when judging moral issues. People greatly differ in terms of MC, however, little is known about how these differences are implemented in the brain. To investigate this question, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and examined resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in n=31 individuals with MC scores in the highest 15% of the population and n=33 individuals with MC scores in the lowest 15%, selected from a large sample of 730 Master of Business Administration (MBA) students. Compared to individuals with lower MC, individuals with higher MC showed greater amygdala-ventromedial prefrontal connectivity, which may reflect better ability to cope with emotional conflicts elicited by moral dilemmas. Moreover, individuals with higher MC showed less inter-network connectivity between the amygdalar and fronto-parietal networks, suggesting a more independent operation of these networks. Our findings provide novel insights into how individual differences in moral judgment are associated with RSFC in brain circuits related to emotion processing and cognitive control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. MRI or not to MRI! Should brain MRI be a routine investigation in children with autistic spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeglam, Adel M; Al-Ogab, Marwa F; Al-Shaftery, Thouraya

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the routine usage of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain and estimate the prevalence of brain abnormalities in children presenting to the Neurodevelopment Clinic of Al-Khadra Hospital (NDC-KH), Tripoli, Libya with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The records of all children with ASD presented to NDC-KH over 4-year period (from January 2009 to December 2012) were reviewed. All MRIs were acquired with a 1.5-T Philips (3-D T1, T2, FLAIR coronal and axial sequences). MRIs were reported to be normal, abnormal or no significant abnormalities by a consultant neuroradiologist. One thousand and seventy-five children were included in the study. Seven hundred and eighty-two children (72.7 %) had an MRI brain of whom 555 (71 %) were boys. 26 children (24 males and 2 females) (3.3 %) demonstrated MRI abnormalities (8 leukodystrophic changes, 4 periventricular leukomalacia, 3 brain atrophy, 2 tuberous sclerosis, 2 vascular changes, 1 pineoblastoma, 1 cerebellar angioma, 1 cerebellar hypoplasia, 3 agenesis of corpus callosum, 1 neuro-epithelial cyst). An unexpectedly high rate of MRI abnormalities was found in the first large series of clinical MRI investigations in children with autism. These results could contribute to further research into the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorder.

  8. MRI findings in primary brain lymphoma in immunocompetent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Nadhim Younis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Primary brain lymphoma is an extranodal aggressive intracranial neoplasm of lymphocytic origin originating and confined to the brain parenchyma and meninges. It is rare in immune competent patients, but its incidence is increasing. This retrospective study was conducted to record the MRI features of primary brain lymphoma at the time of diagnosis in immunocompetent patients. Methods: Of the 450 patients diagnosed with the brain tumor during a period of five years from 2008 to 2013, the clinical features and MRI findings of 16 cases of pathologically proven to be non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma were studied. All the patients were tested negative for HIV and there was no history of immune suppression drugs or any other chronic illness. All the patients were examined with MRI observing the tumor location, multifocality, signal intensity in different sequences, enhancement patterns, peritumoral edema, the presence of hemorrhage and calcification. Results: Of the 16 patients, including the monofocal and multifocal cases, 30 lesions exhibited. The mean age at diagnosis was 53 years. Nine patients (56.25% found to have a multifocal disease. In more than 75% of lesions, MRI was hypo to iso signal on T1 and T2. Mild to moderate perilesional edema, strong contrast enhancement and restricted diffusion were seen in all cases. The hemorrhagic tumor was noticed in four lesions (13.3%. No calcification and no leptomeningeal lesions were noted. The MRI images in post steroid therapy were studied within one month of treatment. Tumour regression was noticed in 21/30 (70%, stable in 3/30 (10% and progressing in 6/30 (20%. Conclusion: MRI is a reliable imaging technique in the management of patients with primary brain lymphoma. Early accurate diagnosis is crucial to avoid the unnecessary operation and shift patients from extensive surgery to chemoradiotherapy.

  9. Fetal MRI of pathological brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, P.C.; Prayer, D.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the superior tissue contrast, high spatial resolution, and multiplanar capabilities, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can depict fetal brain pathologies with high accuracy. Pathological fetal brain development may result from malformations or acquired conditions. Differentiation of these etiologies is important with respect to managing the actual pregnancy or counseling future pregnancies. As a widened ventricular system is a common hallmark of both maldevelopment and acquired conditions, it may cause problems in the differential diagnosis. Fetal MRI can provide detailed morphological information, which allows refinement of the diagnosis of ventricular enlargement in a large number of cases. Systematic work-up of morphological details that may be recognized on MR images provides an approach for achieving a correct diagnosis in cases of ventricle enlargement. (orig.) [de

  10. Effects of different correlation metrics and preprocessing factors on small-world brain functional networks: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xia; Wang, Jinhui; Yan, Chaogan; Shu, Ni; Xu, Ke; Gong, Gaolang; He, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Graph theoretical analysis of brain networks based on resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. These analyses often involve the selection of correlation metrics and specific preprocessing steps. However, the influence of these factors on the topological properties of functional brain networks has not been systematically examined. Here, we investigated the influences of correlation metric choice (Pearson's correlation versus partial correlation), global signal presence (regressed or not) and frequency band selection [slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz) versus slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz)] on the topological properties of both binary and weighted brain networks derived from them, and we employed test-retest (TRT) analyses for further guidance on how to choose the "best" network modeling strategy from the reliability perspective. Our results show significant differences in global network metrics associated with both correlation metrics and global signals. Analysis of nodal degree revealed differing hub distributions for brain networks derived from Pearson's correlation versus partial correlation. TRT analysis revealed that the reliability of both global and local topological properties are modulated by correlation metrics and the global signal, with the highest reliability observed for Pearson's-correlation-based brain networks without global signal removal (WOGR-PEAR). The nodal reliability exhibited a spatially heterogeneous distribution wherein regions in association and limbic/paralimbic cortices showed moderate TRT reliability in Pearson's-correlation-based brain networks. Moreover, we found that there were significant frequency-related differences in topological properties of WOGR-PEAR networks, and brain networks derived in the 0.027-0.073 Hz band exhibited greater reliability than those in the 0.01-0.027 Hz band. Taken together, our results provide direct evidence regarding the influences of correlation metrics and specific

  11. Sex differences in the risk profile and male predominance in silent brain infarction in community-dwelling elderly subjects. The Sefuri brain MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Yuki; Mori, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Manabu; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Yao, Hiroshi; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki; Uchino, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Although brain infarction is more common in men, the male predominance of silent brain infarction (SBI) was inconsistent in the earlier studies. This study was to examine the relationship between sex differences in the risk profile and SBI. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional analysis of cardiovascular risk factors and SBI on MRI. We asked all the female participants about the age at natural menopause and parity. SBI was detected in 77 (11.3%) of 680 participants (266 men and 414 women) with a mean age of 64.5 (range 40-93) years. In the logistic analysis, age (odds ratio (OR)=2.760/10 years, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.037-3.738), hypertension (OR=3.465, 95% CI=1.991-6.031), alcohol intake (OR=2.494, 95% CI=1.392-4.466) and smoking (OR=2.302, 95% CI=1.161-4.565) were significant factors concerning SBI. Although SBI was more prevalent among men, this sex difference disappeared on the multivariate model after adjustment for other confounders. In 215 women aged 60 years or older, age at natural menopause, early menopause, duration of menopause, number of children and age at the last parity were not significantly associated with SBI after adjustment for age. Hypertension and age were considered to be the major risk factors for SBI in community-dwelling people. Male predominance in SBI was largely due to higher prevalence of alcohol habit and smoking in men than in women in our population. (author)

  12. A cross-sectional MRI study of brain regional atrophy and clinical characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Applying a cross-sectional design, we set out to further characterize the significance of extrahippocampal brain atrophy in a large sample of \\'sporadic\\' mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE+HS). By evaluating the influence of epilepsy chronicity on structural atrophy, this work represents an important step towards the characterization of MRI-based volumetric measurements as genetic endophenotypes for this condition. METHODS: Using an automated brain segmentation technique, MRI-based volume measurements of several brain regions were compared between 75 patients with \\'sporadic\\' MTLE+HS and 50 healthy controls. Applying linear regression models, we examined the relationship between structural atrophy and important clinical features of MTLE+HS, including disease duration, lifetime number of partial and generalized seizures, and history of initial precipitating insults (IPIs). RESULTS: Significant volume loss was detected in ipsilateral hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and cerebral white matter (WM). In addition, contralateral hippocampal and bilateral cerebellar grey matter (GM) volume loss was observed in left MTLE+HS patients. Hippocampal, amygdalar, and cerebral WM volume loss correlated with duration of epilepsy. This correlation was stronger in patients with prior IPIs history. Further, cerebral WM, cerebellar GM, and contralateral hippocampal volume loss correlated with lifetime number of generalized seizures. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that multiple brain regions beyond the hippocampus are involved in the pathogenesis of MTLE+HS. IPIs are an important factor influencing the rate of regional atrophy but our results also support a role for processes related to epilepsy chronicity. The consequence of epilepsy chronicity on candidate brain regions has important implications on their application as genetic endophenotypes.

  13. Brain MRI findings of neuropsychiatric lupus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang-Wook; Kwon, Bae Ju; Lee, Seung-Ro; Hahm, Chang-Kok; Moon, Won Jin; Jeon, Eui Yong; Bae, Sang-Chul [Hanyang Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    To evaluate the brain MRI findings in patients with neuropsychiatric lupus. In 26 patients (M:F = 2:24 ; aged 9-48 years) in whom the presence of systemic lupus erythematosus was clinically or pathologically proven and in whom neuropsychiatric lupus was also clinically diagnosed, the findings of brain MRI were retrospectively evaluated. MR images were analyzed with regard to the distribution, location, size and number of lesions due to cerebral ischemia or infarction, the presence of cerebral atrophy, and the extent and degree of brain parenchymal and intravascular enhancement. The most common MRI findings were lesions due to cerebral ischemia or infarction occurring in 18 patients (69%), and located within deep periventricular white matter (n=10), subcortical white matter (n=8), the cerebral cortex (n=7), basal ganglia (n=7), or brain stem or cerebellum (n=2). The lesions were single (n=3) or multiple (n=15), and in 17 patients were less than 1cm in diameter in regions other than the cerebral cortex. In six of these patients, lesions of 1-4cm in diameter in this region were combined, and one occurred in the cerebral cortex only. Cerebral atrophy was seen in 16 patients (62%), in ten of whom there was no past history of treatment with steroids for more than six months. In 15 patients (58%), contrast-enhanced MR image revealed diffuse enhancement of the basal ganglia or intravascular enhancement. In no case were MRI findings normal. The primary mainfestations of neuropsychiatric lupus are multifocal ischemia or infarctions in the cerebral cortex, and subcortical and deep white matter, and the cerebral atrophy. Contrast-enhanced MR images also demonstrated diffuse enhancement of the basal ganglia and intravascular enhancement, both thought to be related to the congestion due to the stagnation of cerebral blood flow.

  14. Brain MRI findings of neuropsychiatric lupus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang-Wook; Kwon, Bae Ju; Lee, Seung-Ro; Hahm, Chang-Kok; Moon, Won Jin; Jeon, Eui Yong; Bae, Sang-Chul

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the brain MRI findings in patients with neuropsychiatric lupus. In 26 patients (M:F = 2:24 ; aged 9-48 years) in whom the presence of systemic lupus erythematosus was clinically or pathologically proven and in whom neuropsychiatric lupus was also clinically diagnosed, the findings of brain MRI were retrospectively evaluated. MR images were analyzed with regard to the distribution, location, size and number of lesions due to cerebral ischemia or infarction, the presence of cerebral atrophy, and the extent and degree of brain parenchymal and intravascular enhancement. The most common MRI findings were lesions due to cerebral ischemia or infarction occurring in 18 patients (69%), and located within deep periventricular white matter (n=10), subcortical white matter (n=8), the cerebral cortex (n=7), basal ganglia (n=7), or brain stem or cerebellum (n=2). The lesions were single (n=3) or multiple (n=15), and in 17 patients were less than 1cm in diameter in regions other than the cerebral cortex. In six of these patients, lesions of 1-4cm in diameter in this region were combined, and one occurred in the cerebral cortex only. Cerebral atrophy was seen in 16 patients (62%), in ten of whom there was no past history of treatment with steroids for more than six months. In 15 patients (58%), contrast-enhanced MR image revealed diffuse enhancement of the basal ganglia or intravascular enhancement. In no case were MRI findings normal. The primary mainfestations of neuropsychiatric lupus are multifocal ischemia or infarctions in the cerebral cortex, and subcortical and deep white matter, and the cerebral atrophy. Contrast-enhanced MR images also demonstrated diffuse enhancement of the basal ganglia and intravascular enhancement, both thought to be related to the congestion due to the stagnation of cerebral blood flow

  15. MRI-based quantification of brain damage in cerebrovascular disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bresser, J.H.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Brain diseases can lead to diverse structural abnormalities that can be assessed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. These abnormalities can be quantified by (semi-)automated techniques. The studies described in this thesis aimed to optimize and apply cerebral quantification techniques in

  16. Patterns of brain activation when mothers view their own child and dog: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke E Stoeckel

    Full Text Available Neural substrates underlying the human-pet relationship are largely unknown. We examined fMRI brain activation patterns as mothers viewed images of their own child and dog and an unfamiliar child and dog. There was a common network of brain regions involved in emotion, reward, affiliation, visual processing and social cognition when mothers viewed images of both their child and dog. Viewing images of their child resulted in brain activity in the midbrain (ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra involved in reward/affiliation, while a more posterior cortical brain activation pattern involving fusiform gyrus (visual processing of faces and social cognition characterized a mother's response to her dog. Mothers also rated images of their child and dog as eliciting similar levels of excitement (arousal and pleasantness (valence, although the difference in the own vs. unfamiliar child comparison was larger than the own vs. unfamiliar dog comparison for arousal. Valence ratings of their dog were also positively correlated with ratings of the attachment to their dog. Although there are similarities in the perceived emotional experience and brain function associated with the mother-child and mother-dog bond, there are also key differences that may reflect variance in the evolutionary course and function of these relationships.

  17. Patterns of brain activation when mothers view their own child and dog: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Luke E; Palley, Lori S; Gollub, Randy L; Niemi, Steven M; Evins, Anne Eden

    2014-01-01

    Neural substrates underlying the human-pet relationship are largely unknown. We examined fMRI brain activation patterns as mothers viewed images of their own child and dog and an unfamiliar child and dog. There was a common network of brain regions involved in emotion, reward, affiliation, visual processing and social cognition when mothers viewed images of both their child and dog. Viewing images of their child resulted in brain activity in the midbrain (ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra involved in reward/affiliation), while a more posterior cortical brain activation pattern involving fusiform gyrus (visual processing of faces and social cognition) characterized a mother's response to her dog. Mothers also rated images of their child and dog as eliciting similar levels of excitement (arousal) and pleasantness (valence), although the difference in the own vs. unfamiliar child comparison was larger than the own vs. unfamiliar dog comparison for arousal. Valence ratings of their dog were also positively correlated with ratings of the attachment to their dog. Although there are similarities in the perceived emotional experience and brain function associated with the mother-child and mother-dog bond, there are also key differences that may reflect variance in the evolutionary course and function of these relationships.

  18. Differences between head CT and MRI for selecting patients for intravenous rt-PA during hyperacute brain infarction. Comparative study of intracranial bleeding complications and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Ichiro; Takeda, Hidetaka; Furuya, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in usefulness between head CT and MRI for selecting patients for intravenous injection of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) during hyperacute brain infarction. Of a total of 1280 brain infarction patients who were admitted from October 2005 to March 2009, 45 patients (33 men and 12 women with an average age of 69.2±11.6 years) received intravenous rt-PA. Of these, 16 patients in whom only head CT was performed (593 inpatients from October 2005 to March 2007, CT standard group, 11 men and 5 women, average age 67.4±15.4 years) and 29 patients in whom head CT and MRI were performed (687 inpatients from April 2007 to March 2009, MRI standard group, 21 men and 7 women, average age 70.1±9.0 years) were studied. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores immediately before intravenous rt-PA for the CT and MRI standard groups were 19 and 11, respectively; disease severity was lower for the MRI standard group. Three months later, the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score for the MRI standard group (0-1: 31%, 2-3: 38%, 4-5: 24%, and 6: 12%) was better than for the CT standard group (0-1: 25%, 2-3: 25%, 4-5: 38%, and 6: 12%). The frequency of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was lower for the MRI standard group (6.9%) than for the CT standard group (18.8%). However, there was no statistical difference in the prognosis and incidence of intracranial hemorrhage between the 2 groups, due to the small number of cases. When selecting patients for intravenous rt-PA, brain infarction improved more, prognosis was better three months later, and the frequency of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was lower among patients selected based on MRI standards than among those selected based on CT standards. (author)

  19. Differences in Brain Hemodynamics in Response to Achromatic and Chromatic Cards of the Rorschach: A fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Masahiro; Uchiumi, Chigusa; Jung, Minyoung; Aizawa, Naoki; Makita, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Yugo; Saito, Daisuke N

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of color stimuli of the Rorschach inkblot method (RIM), the cerebral activity of 40 participants with no history of neurological or psychiatric illness was scanned while they engaged in the Rorschach task. A scanned image of the ten RIM inkblots was projected onto a screen in the MRI scanner. Cerebral activation in response to five achromatic color cards and five chromatic cards were compared. As a result, a significant increase in brain activity was observed in bilateral visual areas V2 and V3, parietooccipital junctions, pulvinars, right superior temporal gyrus, and left premotor cortex for achromatic color cards ( p chromatic color, significant increase in brain activity was observed in left visual area V4 and left orbitofrontal cortex ( p < .001). Furthermore, a conjoint analysis revealed various regions were activated in responding to the RIM. The neuropsychological underpinnings of the response process, as described by Acklin and Wu-Holt (1996), were largely confirmed.

  20. Realistic modeling of deep brain stimulation implants for electromagnetic MRI safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Bastien; Serano, Peter; Iacono, Maria Ida; Herrington, Todd M; Widge, Alik S; Dougherty, Darin D; Bonmassar, Giorgio; Angelone, Leonardo M; Wald, Lawrence L

    2018-05-04

    We propose a framework for electromagnetic (EM) simulation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) patients in radiofrequency (RF) coils. We generated a model of a DBS patient using post-operative head and neck computed tomography (CT) images stitched together into a 'virtual CT' image covering the entire length of the implant. The body was modeled as homogeneous. The implant path extracted from the CT data contained self-intersections, which we corrected automatically using an optimization procedure. Using the CT-derived DBS path, we built a model of the implant including electrodes, helicoidal internal conductor wires, loops, extension cables, and the implanted pulse generator. We also built four simplified models with straight wires, no extension cables and no loops to assess the impact of these simplifications on safety predictions. We simulated EM fields induced by the RF birdcage body coil in the body model, including at the DBS lead tip at both 1.5 Tesla (64 MHz) and 3 Tesla (123 MHz). We also assessed the robustness of our simulation results by systematically varying the EM properties of the body model and the position and length of the DBS implant (sensitivity analysis). The topology correction algorithm corrected all self-intersection and curvature violations of the initial path while introducing minimal deformations (open-source code available at http://ptx.martinos.org/index.php/Main_Page). The unaveraged lead-tip peak SAR predicted by the five DBS models (0.1 mm resolution grid) ranged from 12.8 kW kg -1 (full model, helicoidal conductors) to 43.6 kW kg -1 (no loops, straight conductors) at 1.5 T (3.4-fold variation) and 18.6 kW kg -1 (full model, straight conductors) to 73.8 kW kg -1 (no loops, straight conductors) at 3 T (4.0-fold variation). At 1.5 T and 3 T, the variability of lead-tip peak SAR with respect to the conductivity ranged between 18% and 30%. Variability with respect to the position and length of the DBS implant ranged between 9.5% and 27.6%.

  1. Realistic modeling of deep brain stimulation implants for electromagnetic MRI safety studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Bastien; Serano, Peter; Iacono, Maria Ida; Herrington, Todd M.; Widge, Alik S.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Bonmassar, Giorgio; Angelone, Leonardo M.; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2018-05-01

    We propose a framework for electromagnetic (EM) simulation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) patients in radiofrequency (RF) coils. We generated a model of a DBS patient using post-operative head and neck computed tomography (CT) images stitched together into a ‘virtual CT’ image covering the entire length of the implant. The body was modeled as homogeneous. The implant path extracted from the CT data contained self-intersections, which we corrected automatically using an optimization procedure. Using the CT-derived DBS path, we built a model of the implant including electrodes, helicoidal internal conductor wires, loops, extension cables, and the implanted pulse generator. We also built four simplified models with straight wires, no extension cables and no loops to assess the impact of these simplifications on safety predictions. We simulated EM fields induced by the RF birdcage body coil in the body model, including at the DBS lead tip at both 1.5 Tesla (64 MHz) and 3 Tesla (123 MHz). We also assessed the robustness of our simulation results by systematically varying the EM properties of the body model and the position and length of the DBS implant (sensitivity analysis). The topology correction algorithm corrected all self-intersection and curvature violations of the initial path while introducing minimal deformations (open-source code available at http://ptx.martinos.org/index.php/Main_Page). The unaveraged lead-tip peak SAR predicted by the five DBS models (0.1 mm resolution grid) ranged from 12.8 kW kg‑1 (full model, helicoidal conductors) to 43.6 kW kg‑1 (no loops, straight conductors) at 1.5 T (3.4-fold variation) and 18.6 kW kg‑1 (full model, straight conductors) to 73.8 kW kg‑1 (no loops, straight conductors) at 3 T (4.0-fold variation). At 1.5 T and 3 T, the variability of lead-tip peak SAR with respect to the conductivity ranged between 18% and 30%. Variability with respect to the position and length of the DBS implant ranged between 9

  2. Unexplained mental retardation: is brain MRI useful?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decobert, Fabrice; Merzoug, Valerie; Kalifa, Gabriel; Adamsbaum, Catherine [Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, Department of Radiology, 75674 Paris Cedex 14 (France); Grabar, Sophie [Cochin Hospital, Department of Biostatistics and Medical Information, Paris (France); Ponsot, Gerard [Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, Department of Neuropaediatrics, Paris (France); Des Portes, Vincent [Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, Department of Neuropaediatrics, Paris (France); Debrousse Hospital, Department of Neuropaediatrics, Lyon (France)

    2005-06-01

    Mental retardation (MR), defined as an IQ below 70, is a frequent cause of consultation in paediatrics. To evaluate the yield of brain MRI in the diagnostic work-up of unexplained MR in children. Patients and methods: The MRI features and clinical data of 100 patients (age 1-18 years) affected with non-progressive MR of unknown origin were compared to an age-matched control group (n=100). Two radiologists conducted an independent review of the MRI scans. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed a higher incidence of brain anomalies in the MR group than in the control group (53 vs 17, OR=5.7 [2.9-11.1]), for signal abnormalities within the periventricular white matter (OR=20.3 [2.6-155.3]), lateral ventricular dilatation (OR=15.6 [2.0-124]), mild corpus callosum abnormalities (shortness, atrophy) (OR=6.8 [1.8-25.6]) and subtle cerebellar abnormalities, including fissure enlargement (OR=5.2 [1.1-26.2]). The diagnostic value of MRI abnormalities was considered good in 5% of patients (Alexander disease n=1, diffuse cortical malformation n=1, leukomalacia n=1, vermian agenesis n=1, commissural agenesis n=1), and weak in 48% of patients, in whom non-specific abnormalities did not lead to a diagnosis. Some clinical features resulted in a significantly higher percentage of abnormal MRI scans: abnormal neurological examination (82% vs 47%, P=0.008), abnormal skull circumference (66% vs 49%, P=0.04). Motor delay was associated with cerebellar abnormalities (P=0.01). (orig.)

  3. Unexplained mental retardation: is brain MRI useful?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decobert, Fabrice; Merzoug, Valerie; Kalifa, Gabriel; Adamsbaum, Catherine; Grabar, Sophie; Ponsot, Gerard; Des Portes, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    Mental retardation (MR), defined as an IQ below 70, is a frequent cause of consultation in paediatrics. To evaluate the yield of brain MRI in the diagnostic work-up of unexplained MR in children. Patients and methods: The MRI features and clinical data of 100 patients (age 1-18 years) affected with non-progressive MR of unknown origin were compared to an age-matched control group (n=100). Two radiologists conducted an independent review of the MRI scans. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed a higher incidence of brain anomalies in the MR group than in the control group (53 vs 17, OR=5.7 [2.9-11.1]), for signal abnormalities within the periventricular white matter (OR=20.3 [2.6-155.3]), lateral ventricular dilatation (OR=15.6 [2.0-124]), mild corpus callosum abnormalities (shortness, atrophy) (OR=6.8 [1.8-25.6]) and subtle cerebellar abnormalities, including fissure enlargement (OR=5.2 [1.1-26.2]). The diagnostic value of MRI abnormalities was considered good in 5% of patients (Alexander disease n=1, diffuse cortical malformation n=1, leukomalacia n=1, vermian agenesis n=1, commissural agenesis n=1), and weak in 48% of patients, in whom non-specific abnormalities did not lead to a diagnosis. Some clinical features resulted in a significantly higher percentage of abnormal MRI scans: abnormal neurological examination (82% vs 47%, P=0.008), abnormal skull circumference (66% vs 49%, P=0.04). Motor delay was associated with cerebellar abnormalities (P=0.01). (orig.)

  4. Brain iron overload, insulin resistance, and cognitive performance in obese subjects: a preliminary MRI case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Gerard; Puig, Josep; Daunis-I-Estadella, Josep; Molina, Xavier; Xifra, Gemma; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Pedraza, Salvador; Ricart, Wifredo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2014-11-01

    The linkage among the tissue iron stores, insulin resistance (IR), and cognition remains unclear in the obese population. We aimed to identify the factors that contribute to increased hepatic iron concentration (HIC) and brain iron overload (BIO), as evaluated by MRI, and to evaluate their impact on cognitive performance in obese and nonobese subjects. We prospectively recruited 23 middle-aged obese subjects without diabetes (13 women; age 50.4 ± 7.7 years; BMI 43.7 ± 4.48 kg/m2) and 20 healthy nonobese volunteers (10 women; age 48.8 ± 9.5 years; BMI 24.3 ± 3.54 kg/m2) in whom iron load was assessed in white and gray matter and the liver by MRI. IR was measured from HOMA-IR and an oral glucose tolerance test. A battery of neuropsychological tests was used to evaluate the cognitive performance. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify the independent associations of BIO and cognitive performance. A significant increase in iron load was detected at the caudate nucleus (P cognitive performance. Obesity and IR may contribute to increased HIC and BIO being associated with worse cognitive performance. BIO could be a potentially useful MRI biomarker for IR and obesity-associated cognitive dysfunction. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  5. Liver transplantation nearly normalizes brain spontaneous activity and cognitive function at 1 month: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yue; Huang, Lixiang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhong, Jianhui; Ji, Qian; Xie, Shuangshuang; Chen, Lihua; Zuo, Panli; Zhang, Long Jiang; Shen, Wen

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the short-term brain activity changes in cirrhotic patients with Liver transplantation (LT) using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) with regional homogeneity (ReHo) method. Twenty-six cirrhotic patients as transplant candidates and 26 healthy controls were included in this study. The assessment was repeated for a sub-group of 12 patients 1 month after LT. ReHo values were calculated to evaluate spontaneous brain activity and whole brain voxel-wise analysis was carried to detect differences between groups. Correlation analyses were performed to explore the relationship between the change of ReHo with the change of clinical indexes pre- and post-LT. Compared to pre-LT, ReHo values increased in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right inferior parietal lobule (IPL), right supplementary motor area (SMA), right STG and left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in patients post-LT. Compared to controls, ReHo values of post-LT patients decreased in the right precuneus, right SMA and increased in bilateral temporal pole, left caudate, left MFG, and right STG. The changes of ReHo in the right SMA, STG and IFG were correlated with change of digit symbol test (DST) scores (P brain activity of most brain regions with decreased ReHo in pre-LT was substantially improved and nearly normalized, while spontaneous brain activity of some brain regions with increased ReHo in pre-LT continuously increased. ReHo may provide information on the neural mechanisms of LT' effects on brain function.

  6. Brain unidentified bright objects ("UBO") in systemic lupus erythematosus: sometimes they come back. A study of microembolism by cMRI and Transcranial Doppler ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, A; Padovan, M; Azzini, C; De Vito, A; Trotta, F; Govoni, M

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this report are to assess the occurrence of microembolic signals (MES) detected by transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with (NPSLE) and without (SLE) neuropsychiatric involvement, and to verify the correlation between MES, clinical characteristics, especially the patent foramen ovale (PFO), and the presence of punctuate T2-hyperintense white matter lesions (WMHLs) detected by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI). A TCD registration to detect MES from the middle cerebral artery was carried out in SLE and NPSLE patients after exclusion of aortic and/or carotid atheromatous disease. In all patients conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) and transesophageal echocardiography were performed. Patients were stratified in two groups, with and without WMHLs, and compared. Twenty-three SLE patients (16 NPSLE and seven SLE) were enrolled in the study. Overall MES were detected in 12 patients (52.1%), WHMLs were detectable in 15 patients (13 NPSLE and two SLE) while eight patients had normal cMRI (three NPSLE and five SLE). Matching TCD ultrasound and neuroimaging data, MES were detected in 10 (nine NPSLE and one SLE) out of 15 patients with WHMLs and in only two out of eight patients (two NPSLE and six SLE) with normal cMRI, both with NP involvement. A PFO was confirmed in all cases of MES detection. MES are frequent findings in SLE patients, especially in those with focal WMHLs detected by cMRI and correlating with PFO. These findings should be taken into account and suggest caution in the interpretation of cMRI pictures along with a careful evaluation of MES in patients with cMRI abnormalities that should be included in the workup of SLE patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Experimental study of Gadofluorine M enhancement in early diagnosis of radiation brain injury by MRI in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Shoumin; Liao Chengde; Guo Ruomi; Huang Ying; Liang Biling; Shen Jun; Lu Taixiang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of Gadofluorine M, a novel MRI enhancement agent,in the diagnosis the early radiation brain injury. Methods: Seventy-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups. To establish the radiation injury model, the rat's posterior brain was irradiated with 0 (blank controls), 25, 35, 45, 55, and 65 Gy, respectively. After irradiation MR plain scanning and Gadofluorine M enhancement scanning (after the T1WI and T2WI scanning Gf at the dosage of 0.1 mmol/kg was injected intravenously and scanning was performed again 12 h later) were performed once a week for 8 weeks. Another 12 rats were randomly divided into 2 equal groups to exposure to 55 and 65 Gy, respectively, and MR scanning was performed once a week for 8 weeks since the third week after MR. After T1WI and T2WI scanning Gd-DTPA was injected intravenously, MR was conducted again 30 min later, and Gf was injected intravenously (Gd-DTPA enhancement and Gf enhancement contrast). The MR image and the pixel count were compared. Since the third week 2 rats from the Gf enhancement scanning group and 1 rat from the Gd-DTPA enhancement and Gf enhancement contrast were killed after MR with their brains taken out to undergo pathological examination. Results: No abnormal signal changes were found in MRI in 25 and 35 Gy groups within 2 months after irradiation. A high signal in the Gf enhancement T1WI image was found in 45, 55, and 65 Gy groups within the period of 4-6 weeks after radiation. The signal intensity was significantly higher than that of the control, 25, and 35 Gy groups (F=2.15, P<0.05). The emerge time of this signal was negatively correlated with the dose of radiation (r =-0.62, P<0.05). When there was no obvious change was found by Gd-DTPA enhancement, a high signal representing change of injury could be found in Gf enhancement in the same rat. The signal intensity was significantly enhanced in Gf enhancement compared to the Gd-DTPA enhancement (F=2.74, P<0

  8. Training in the adolescent brain : An fMRI training study on divergent thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibeuker, S.W.; Stevenson, C.E.; van der Aar, L.; Overgaauw, S.; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C.; Crone, E.A.

    Prior research suggests that adolescence is a time of enhanced sensitivity for practice and learning. In this study we tested the neural correlates of divergent thinking training in 15-to 16-year-old adolescents relative to an age-matched active control group. All participants performed an

  9. Intraoperative MRI in pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhri, Asim F. [Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Siddiqui, Adeel [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick A. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Semmes-Murphey Neurologic and Spine Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); St. Jude Children' s Hospital, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) has emerged as an important tool in guiding the surgical management of children with brain tumors. Recent advances have allowed utilization of high field strength systems, including 3-tesla MRI, resulting in diagnostic-quality scans that can be performed while the child is on the operating table. By providing information about the possible presence of residual tumor, it allows the neurosurgeon to both identify and resect any remaining tumor that is thought to be safely accessible. By fusing the newly obtained images with the surgical guidance software, the images have the added value of aiding in navigation to any residual tumor. This is important because parenchyma often shifts during surgery. It also gives the neurosurgeon insight into whether any immediate postoperative complications have occurred. If any complications have occurred, the child is already in the operating room and precious minutes lost in transport and communications are saved. In this article we review the three main approaches to an iMRI system design. We discuss the possible roles for iMRI during intraoperative planning and provide guidance to help radiologists and neurosurgeons alike in the collaborative management of these children. (orig.)

  10. Intraoperative MRI in pediatric brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhri, Asim F.; Siddiqui, Adeel; Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick A.

    2015-01-01

    Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) has emerged as an important tool in guiding the surgical management of children with brain tumors. Recent advances have allowed utilization of high field strength systems, including 3-tesla MRI, resulting in diagnostic-quality scans that can be performed while the child is on the operating table. By providing information about the possible presence of residual tumor, it allows the neurosurgeon to both identify and resect any remaining tumor that is thought to be safely accessible. By fusing the newly obtained images with the surgical guidance software, the images have the added value of aiding in navigation to any residual tumor. This is important because parenchyma often shifts during surgery. It also gives the neurosurgeon insight into whether any immediate postoperative complications have occurred. If any complications have occurred, the child is already in the operating room and precious minutes lost in transport and communications are saved. In this article we review the three main approaches to an iMRI system design. We discuss the possible roles for iMRI during intraoperative planning and provide guidance to help radiologists and neurosurgeons alike in the collaborative management of these children. (orig.)

  11. Brain MRI findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Kyu; Byun, Woo Mok; Cho, Jae Ho; Cho Kil Ho; Hwang, Mi Soo; Park, Bok Hwan [Yeungnam Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Yang Gu [Keimyoung Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Jin [Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    To evaluate brain MRI findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. A retrospective review of MRI findings was conducted on six patients with clinically proven spontaneous intracranial hypotension; no patient had a history of previous spinal puncture. Follow-up MRI was available in two patients, and to detect CSF leakage, radio-nuclide cisternography(n=3D5), myelography(n=3D1), and MR myelography(n=3D1) were performed. On contrast-enhanced T1WI, diffuse dural enhancement was seen in all cases, subdural hematoma or hygroma was seen in four cases, pituitary gland prominence in four, dural sinus dilatation in four, downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsil in two, downward displacement of the iter in one, and suprasellar and prepontine cistern effacement in two. In no patient was abnormal CSF leakage found. Although dural enhancement, as seen on MRI, is not specific, diffuse enhancement of the dura mater accompanied by subdural hematoma, hygroma, pituitary gland prominence, dural sinus dilatation, downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsil, or suprasellar and prepontine cistern effacement can strongly suggest intracranial hypotension.=20.

  12. Convergent Findings of Altered Functional and Structural Brain Connectivity in Individuals with High Functioning Autism: A Multimodal MRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Mueller

    Full Text Available Brain tissue changes in autism spectrum disorders seem to be rather subtle and widespread than anatomically distinct. Therefore a multimodal, whole brain imaging technique appears to be an appropriate approach to investigate whether alterations in white and gray matter integrity relate to consistent changes in functional resting state connectivity in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA. We applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, voxel-based morphometry (VBM and resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI to assess differences in brain structure and function between 12 individuals with HFA (mean age 35.5, SD 11.4, 9 male and 12 healthy controls (mean age 33.3, SD 9.0, 8 male. Psychological measures of empathy and emotionality were obtained and correlated with the most significant DTI, VBM and fcMRI findings. We found three regions of convergent structural and functional differences between HFA participants and controls. The right temporo-parietal junction area and the left frontal lobe showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA values along with decreased functional connectivity and a trend towards decreased gray matter volume. The bilateral superior temporal gyrus displayed significantly decreased functional connectivity that was accompanied by the strongest trend of gray matter volume decrease in the temporal lobe of HFA individuals. FA decrease in the right temporo-parietal region was correlated with psychological measurements of decreased emotionality. In conclusion, our results indicate common sites of structural and functional alterations in higher order association cortex areas and may therefore provide multimodal imaging support to the long-standing hypothesis of autism as a disorder of impaired higher-order multisensory integration.

  13. MRI-based brain structure volumes in temporal lobe epilepsy patients and their unaffected siblings: a preliminary study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Scanlon, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Investigating the heritability of brain structure may be useful in simplifying complicated genetic studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). A preliminary study is presented to determine if volume deficits of candidate brain structures present at a higher rate in unaffected siblings than controls subjects.

  14. A functional MRI study of the brain in stroke patients with upper-limb paralysis treated with constraint-induced movement therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Bo; Ma Lin; Weng Changshui; Zheng Zhixin; Sun Tong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and compare the activation patterns of stroke patients with upper-limb paralysis using functional MRI before and after treatment with constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) so as to explore the mechanism of CIMT. Methods: Six patients in chronic stage of brain infarction who have functional disturbance in right upper-limb and 9 normal controls were entered into the study. All of the patients were asked to perform the thumb-to-index finger tapping task and underwent functional MRI before and two weeks after CIMT. The controls underwent fMRI of same protocol once. The patients' upper-limb function scores before and after CIMT were analyzed with SPSS 11.5 by paired t test. The fMRI data were analyzed with analysis of functional neurolmages (AFNI) software. The percentage of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal change for the normal control was analyzed by one-sample t test to indentify the activated brain regions. The percentage change of BOLD signal for the patients before and after CIMT was compared to control's data by independent-samples t test. The percentage change of BOLD signal for the patients before and after CIMT was analyzed by paired-samples t test. The significant difference level was set P<0.05. Results: The fMRI showed the patients' activated brain regions before CIMT were similar to that of the controls', while the activation level was lower. There were wide areas activated to compensate the impaired function especially for the fight upper-limb. Before CIMT, the patients' score for fight upper-limb on the action research arm test was 27±4. After CIMT, the patients' score was 40±3, and the difference was significant (t=14.626, P<0.05), which indicated the improved function. These subjects also displayed cortical reorganization after CIMT on fMRI. The areas responsible for the right hand movement showed increased activation and the activation level at bilateral corpora striata thalami, and cerebella increased

  15. In vitro MRI of brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rados, Marko; Judas, Milos; Kostovic, Ivica

    2006-01-01

    In this review, we demonstrate the developmental appearance, structural features, and reorganization of transient cerebral zones and structures in the human fetal brain using a correlative histological and MRI analysis. The analysis of postmortem aldehyde-fixed specimens (age range: 10 postovulatory weeks to term) revealed that, at 10 postovulatory weeks, the cerebral wall already has a trilaminar appearance and consists of: (1) a ventricular zone of high cell-packing density; (2) an intermediate zone; (3) the cortical plate (in a stage of primary consolidation) with high MRI signal intensity. The anlage of the hippocampus is present as a prominent bulging in the thin limbic telencephalon. The early fetal telencephalon impar also contains the first commissural fibers and fornix bundles in the septal area. The ganglionic eminence is clearly visible as an expanded continuation of the proliferative ventricular zone. The basal ganglia showed an initial aggregation of cells. The most massive fiber system is in the hemispheric stalk, which is in continuity with thalamocortical fibers. During the mid-fetal period (15-22 postovulatory weeks), the typical fetal lamination pattern develops and the cerebral wall consists of the following zones: (a) a marginal zone (visible on MRI exclusively in the hippocampus); (b) the cortical plate with high cell-packing density and high MRI signal intensity; (c) the subplate zone, which is the most prominent zone rich in extracellular matrix and with a very low MRI signal intensity; (d) the intermediate zone (fetal 'white matter'); (e) the subventricular zone; (f) the periventricular fiber-rich zone; (g) the ventricular zone. The ganglionic eminence is still a very prominent structure with an intense proliferative activity. During the next period (22-26 postovulatory weeks), there is the developmental peak of transient MRI features, caused by the high content of hydrophyllic extracellular matrix in the subplate zone and the accumulation

  16. Menopause-related brain activation patterns during visual sexual arousal in menopausal women: An fMRI pilot study using time-course analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2017-02-20

    The aging process and menopausal transition are important factors in sexual dysfunction of menopausal women. No neuroimaging study has assessed the age- and menopause-related changes on brain activation areas associated with sexual arousal in menopausal women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of regional brain activity associated with sexual arousal evoked by visual stimulation in premenopausal and menopausal women, and further to assess the effect of menopause on the brain areas associated with sexual arousal in menopausal women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty volunteers consisting of 15 premenopausal and 15 menopausal women underwent the fMRI. For the activation condition, volunteers viewed sexually arousing visual stimulation. The brain areas with significantly higher activation in premenopausal women compared with menopausal women included the thalamus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) using analysis of covariance adjusting for age (psexual arousal. These findings might help elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with sexual dysfunction in menopausal women. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Putting age-related task activation into large-scale brain networks: A meta-analysis of 114 fMRI studies on healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Jie; Hou, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Han-Hui; Yue, Chun-Lin; Lu, Guang-Ming; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2015-10-01

    Normal aging is associated with cognitive decline and underlying brain dysfunction. Previous studies concentrated less on brain network changes at a systems level. Our goal was to examine these age-related changes of fMRI-derived activation with a common network parcellation of the human brain function, offering a systems-neuroscience perspective of healthy aging. We conducted a series of meta-analyses on a total of 114 studies that included 2035 older adults and 1845 young adults. Voxels showing significant age-related changes in activation were then overlaid onto seven commonly referenced neuronal networks. Older adults present moderate cognitive decline in behavioral performance during fMRI scanning, and hypo-activate the visual network and hyper-activate both the frontoparietal control and default mode networks. The degree of increased activation in frontoparietal network was associated with behavioral performance in older adults. Age-related changes in activation present different network patterns across cognitive domains. The systems neuroscience approach used here may be useful for elucidating the underlying network mechanisms of various brain plasticity processes during healthy aging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Value of repeat brain MRI in children with focal epilepsy and negative findings on initial MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Tae Yeon; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Jee Hun; Yoo, So Young; Hwang, Sook Min; Lee, Mun Hyang [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the value of repeat brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying potential epileptogenic lesions in children with initial MRI-negative focal epilepsy. Our Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement for informed consent. During a 15-year period, 257 children (148 boys and 109 girls) with initial MRI-negative focal epilepsy were included. After re-evaluating both initial and repeat MRIs, positive results at repeat MRI were classified into potential epileptogenic lesions (malformation of cortical development and hippocampal sclerosis) and other abnormalities. Contributing factors for improved lesion conspicuity of the initially overlooked potential epileptogenic lesions were analyzed and classified into lesion factors and imaging factors. Repeat MRI was positive in 21% (55/257) and negative in 79% cases (202/257). Of the positive results, potential epileptogenic lesions comprised 49% (27/55) and other abnormalities comprised 11% of the cases (28/257). Potential epileptogenic lesions included focal cortical dysplasia (n = 11), hippocampal sclerosis (n = 10), polymicrogyria (n = 2), heterotopic gray matter (n = 2), microlissencephaly (n = 1), and cortical tumor (n = 1). Of these, seven patients underwent surgical resection. Contributing factors for new diagnoses were classified as imaging factors alone (n = 6), lesion factors alone (n = 2), both (n = 18), and neither (n = 1). Repeat MRI revealed positive results in 21% of the children with initial MRI-negative focal epilepsy, with 50% of the positive results considered as potential epileptogenic lesions. Enhanced MRI techniques or considering the chronological changes of lesions on MRI may improve the diagnostic yield for identification of potential epileptogenic lesions on repeat MRI.

  19. Value of repeat brain MRI in children with focal epilepsy and negative findings on initial MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Tae Yeon; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Jee Hun; Yoo, So Young; Hwang, Sook Min; Lee, Mun Hyang

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the value of repeat brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying potential epileptogenic lesions in children with initial MRI-negative focal epilepsy. Our Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement for informed consent. During a 15-year period, 257 children (148 boys and 109 girls) with initial MRI-negative focal epilepsy were included. After re-evaluating both initial and repeat MRIs, positive results at repeat MRI were classified into potential epileptogenic lesions (malformation of cortical development and hippocampal sclerosis) and other abnormalities. Contributing factors for improved lesion conspicuity of the initially overlooked potential epileptogenic lesions were analyzed and classified into lesion factors and imaging factors. Repeat MRI was positive in 21% (55/257) and negative in 79% cases (202/257). Of the positive results, potential epileptogenic lesions comprised 49% (27/55) and other abnormalities comprised 11% of the cases (28/257). Potential epileptogenic lesions included focal cortical dysplasia (n = 11), hippocampal sclerosis (n = 10), polymicrogyria (n = 2), heterotopic gray matter (n = 2), microlissencephaly (n = 1), and cortical tumor (n = 1). Of these, seven patients underwent surgical resection. Contributing factors for new diagnoses were classified as imaging factors alone (n = 6), lesion factors alone (n = 2), both (n = 18), and neither (n = 1). Repeat MRI revealed positive results in 21% of the children with initial MRI-negative focal epilepsy, with 50% of the positive results considered as potential epileptogenic lesions. Enhanced MRI techniques or considering the chronological changes of lesions on MRI may improve the diagnostic yield for identification of potential epileptogenic lesions on repeat MRI

  20. Brain responses to erotic and other emotional stimuli in breast cancer survivors with and without distress about low sexual desire: a preliminary fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Jackson, Edward F; Slapin, Aurelija; Cortese, Kristin M; Bevers, Therese B; Schover, Leslie R

    2013-12-01

    Many breast cancer survivors report a loss of sexual desire and arousability, consonant with the new DSM-V category of female sexual interest/arousal disorder. The cause of decreased sexual desire and pleasure after treatment for cancer is unknown. One possibility is that cancer, or treatment for cancer, damages brain circuits that are involved in reward-seeking. To test the hypothesis that brain reward systems are involved in decreased sexual desire in breast cancer survivors, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare brain responses to erotica and other emotional stimuli in two groups of women previously treated for breast cancer with chemotherapy: those who were distressed about a perceived loss of sexual desire and those who may have had low desire, but were not distressed about it. Women distressed about their desire had reduced brain responses to erotica in the anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which are part of the brain reward system. This study is the first to demonstrate, in cancer survivors, that problems with sexual desire/arousability are associated with blunted brain responses to erotica in reward systems. Future research is necessary to determine whether brain responses differ as a result of chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and menopausal status. This may contribute to the development of new, evidence-based interventions for one of the most prevalent and enduring side effects of cancer treatment.

  1. Can induced hypothermia be assured during brain MRI in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintermark, Pia; Labrecque, Michelle; Hansen, Anne; Warfield, Simon K.; DeHart, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Until now, brain MRIs in asphyxiated neonates who are receiving therapeutic hypothermia have been performed after treatment is complete. However, there is increasing interest in utilizing early brain MRI while hypothermia is still being provided to rapidly understand the degree of brain injury and possibly refine neuroprotective strategies. This study was designed to assess whether therapeutic hypothermia can be maintained while performing a brain MRI. Twenty MRI scans were obtained in 12 asphyxiated neonates while they were treated with hypothermia. The median difference between esophageal temperature on NICU departure and return was 0.1 C (range: -0.8 to 0.8 C). We found that therapeutic hypothermia can be safely and reproducibly maintained during a brain MRI. Hypothermia treatment should not prevent obtaining an early brain MRI if clinically indicated. (orig.)

  2. Can induced hypothermia be assured during brain MRI in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintermark, Pia [Children' s Hospital Boston, Division of Newborn Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Montreal Children' s Hospital, Division of Newborn Medicine, Montreal, QC (Canada); Labrecque, Michelle; Hansen, Anne [Children' s Hospital Boston, Division of Newborn Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Warfield, Simon K.; DeHart, Stephanie [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Until now, brain MRIs in asphyxiated neonates who are receiving therapeutic hypothermia have been performed after treatment is complete. However, there is increasing interest in utilizing early brain MRI while hypothermia is still being provided to rapidly understand the degree of brain injury and possibly refine neuroprotective strategies. This study was designed to assess whether therapeutic hypothermia can be maintained while performing a brain MRI. Twenty MRI scans were obtained in 12 asphyxiated neonates while they were treated with hypothermia. The median difference between esophageal temperature on NICU departure and return was 0.1 C (range: -0.8 to 0.8 C). We found that therapeutic hypothermia can be safely and reproducibly maintained during a brain MRI. Hypothermia treatment should not prevent obtaining an early brain MRI if clinically indicated. (orig.)

  3. The effect of alcohol consumption on the adolescent brain: A systematic review of MRI and fMRI studies of alcohol-using youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah W. Feldstein Ewing

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Alcohol consumption during adolescence was associated with significant differences in structure and function in the developing human brain. However, this is a nascent field, with several limiting factors (including small sample sizes, cross-sectional designs, presence of confounding factors within many of the reviewed studies, meaning that results should be interpreted in light of the preliminary state of the field. Future longitudinal and large-scale studies are critical to replicate the existing findings, and to provide a more comprehensive and conclusive picture of the effect of alcohol consumption on the developing brain.

  4. Pre-clinical testing of a phased array ultrasound system for MRI-guided noninvasive surgery of the brain--a primate study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, Kullervo; McDannold, Nathan; Clement, Greg; Jolesz, Ferenc A; Zadicario, Eyal; Killiany, Ron; Moore, Tara; Rosen, Douglas

    2006-08-01

    MRI-guided and monitored focused ultrasound thermal surgery of brain through intact skull was tested in three rhesus monkeys. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of skull heating in an animal model with a head shape similar to that of a human. The ultrasound beam was generated by a 512 channel phased array system (Exablate 3000, InSightec, Haifa, Israel) that was integrated within a 1.5-T MR-scanner. The skin was pre-cooled by degassed temperature controlled water circulating between the array surface and the skin. Skull surface temperature was measured with invasive thermocouple probes. The results showed that by applying surface cooling the skin and skull surface can be protected, and that the brain surface temperature becomes the limiting factor. The MRI thermometry was shown to be useful in detecting the tissue temperature distribution next to the bone, and it should be used to monitor the brain surface temperature. The acoustic intensity values during the 20 s sonications were adequate for thermal ablation in the human brain provided that surface cooling is used.

  5. Sleep Apnea, Sleep Duration and Brain MRI Markers of Cerebral Vascular Disease and Alzheimer's Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L Lutsey

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature has suggested that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and habitual short sleep duration are linked to poor cognitive function. Neuroimaging studies may provide insight into this relation.We tested the hypotheses that OSA and habitual short sleep duration, measured at ages 54-73 years, would be associated with adverse brain morphology at ages 67-89 years.Included in this analysis are 312 ARIC study participants who underwent in-home overnight polysomnography in 1996-1998 and brain MRI scans about 15 years later (2012-2013. Sleep apnea was quantified by the apnea-hypopnea index and categorized as moderate/severe (≥15.0 events/hour, mild (5.0-14.9 events/hour, or normal (<5.0 events/hour. Habitual sleep duration was categorized, in hours, as <7, 7 to <8, ≥8. MRI outcomes included number of infarcts (total, subcortical, and cortical and white matter hyperintensity (WMH and Alzheimer's disease signature region volumes. Multivariable adjusted logistic and linear regression models were used. All models incorporated inverse probability weighting, to adjust for potential selection bias.At the time of the sleep study participants were 61.7 (SD: 5.0 years old and 54% female; 19% had moderate/severe sleep apnea. MRI imaging took place 14.8 (SD: 1.0 years later, when participants were 76.5 (SD: 5.2 years old. In multivariable models which accounted for body mass index, neither OSA nor abnormal sleep duration were statistically significantly associated with odds of cerebral infarcts, WMH brain volumes or regional brain volumes.In this community-based sample, mid-life OSA and habitually short sleep duration were not associated with later-life cerebral markers of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. However, selection bias may have influenced our results and the modest sample size led to relatively imprecise associations.

  6. Neuropsychological deficits and morphological MRI brain scan abnormalities in apparently health non-encephalopathic patients with cirrhosis; A controlled Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.W.; De Lacey, G.; Dunk, A.A.; Sinclair, T.S.; Mowat, M.A.G.; Brunt, P.W. (Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Deans, H. (Aberdeen Univ. (UK). Dept. of Medical Physics (United Kingdom)); Crawford, J.R. (Aberdeen University Medical School (United Kingdom). Department of Psychology (United Kingdom)); Besson, J.A.O. (Aberdeen University Medical School (United Kingdom). Department of Mental Health (United Kingdom))

    1989-11-01

    By means of psychometric testing, we have determined the frequency of latent hepatic encephalopathy in a group of 19 cirrhotics with no clinical evidence of encephalopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was performed in order to determine whether morphological cerebral abnormalities were associated with latent encephalopathy. Nineteen age and educationally matched patient with normal liver function acted as controls. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between cirrhotics and controls were found in tests of short-term visual memory and speed of reaction to light (cirrhotics 326 ( 132 ms vs. controls 225 ) 36 ms), sound (cirrhotics 361 ( 152 ms vs. controls 236 ) 52 ms) and choice (cirrhotics 651 ( 190 ms vs. controls 406 ) 101 ms) stimuli (all values mean S.D.). Reitan trail test performance, however, was similar in both groups. ( Trail A: cirrhotics 43 ( 19 s vs. controls 35 ) 13 s; Trail B: cirrhotics 105 ( 66 s vs. controls 93 ) 36 s.) In patients with cirrhosis, MRI revealed statistically significant increases in the maximum fissure width of right frontal sulci, light and left parietal sulci, inter-hemispheric fissure width and in bicaudafe index. These changes, indicating cerebral atrophy, were largely confined to alcoholics. There was poor correlation between measurements of cerebral morphology and neuropsychological performance, only 10% of associations achieving statistical significance. (author). 2 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs.

  7. Changes in brain activation induced by visual stimulus during and after propofol conscious sedation: a functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohe, Yutaka; Higuchi, Satomi; Sasaki, Makoto; Sato, Masahito; Noda, Mamoru; Joh, Shigeharu; Satoh, Kenichi

    2016-12-07

    Conscious sedation with propofol sometimes causes amnesia while keeping the patient awake. However, it remains unknown how propofol compromises the memory function. Therefore, we investigated the changes in brain activation induced by visual stimulation during and after conscious sedation with propofol using serial functional MRI. Healthy volunteers received a target-controlled infusion of propofol, and underwent functional MRI scans with a block-design paradigm of visual stimulus before, during, and after conscious sedation. Random-effect model analyses were performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping software. Among the areas showing significant activation in response to the visual stimulus, the visual cortex and fusiform gyrus were significantly suppressed in the sedation session and tended to recover in the early-recovery session of ∼20 min (Psedation and early-recovery sessions (Psedation with propofol may cause prolonged suppression of the activation of memory-related structures, such as the hippocampus, during the early-recovery period, which may lead to transient amnesia.

  8. Combined MRI and MRS improves pre-therapeutic diagnoses of pediatric brain tumors over MRI alone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiroishi, Mark S.; Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles/Keck School of Medicine of USC, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles/Keck School of Medicine of USC, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Moore, Kevin R. [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gilles, Floyd H. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles/Keck School of Medicine of USC, Department of Pathology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio [All Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Blueml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles/Keck School of Medicine of USC, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The specific goal of this study was to determine whether the inclusion of MRS had a measureable and positive impact on the accuracy of pre-surgical MR examinations of untreated pediatric brain tumors over that of MRI alone in clinical practice. Final imaging reports of 120 pediatric patients with newly detected brain tumors who underwent combined MRI/MRS examinations were retrospectively reviewed. Final pathology was available in all cases. Group A comprised 60 subjects studied between June 2001 and January 2005, when MRS was considered exploratory and radiologists utilized only conventional MRI to arrive at a diagnosis. For group B, comprising 60 subjects studied between January 2005 and March 2008, the radiologists utilized information from both MRI and MRS. Furthermore, radiologists revisited group A (blind review, time lapse >4 years) to determine whether the additional information from MRS would have altered their interpretation. Sixty-three percent of patients in group A were diagnosed correctly, whereas in 10 % the report was partially correct with the final tumor type mentioned (but not mentioned as most likely tumor), while in 27 % of cases the reports were wrong. For group B, the diagnoses were correct in 87 %, partially correct in 5 %, and incorrect in 8 % of the cases, which is a significant improvement (p < 0.005). Re-review of combined MRI and MRS of group A resulted 87 % correct, 7 % partially correct, and 7 % incorrect diagnoses, which is a significant improvement over the original diagnoses (p < 0.05). Adding MRS to conventional MRI significantly improved diagnostic accuracy in preoperative pediatric patients with untreated brain tumors. (orig.)

  9. Combined MRI and MRS improves pre-therapeutic diagnoses of pediatric brain tumors over MRI alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiroishi, Mark S.; Nelson, Marvin D.; Panigrahy, Ashok; Moore, Kevin R.; Gilles, Floyd H.; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Blueml, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The specific goal of this study was to determine whether the inclusion of MRS had a measureable and positive impact on the accuracy of pre-surgical MR examinations of untreated pediatric brain tumors over that of MRI alone in clinical practice. Final imaging reports of 120 pediatric patients with newly detected brain tumors who underwent combined MRI/MRS examinations were retrospectively reviewed. Final pathology was available in all cases. Group A comprised 60 subjects studied between June 2001 and January 2005, when MRS was considered exploratory and radiologists utilized only conventional MRI to arrive at a diagnosis. For group B, comprising 60 subjects studied between January 2005 and March 2008, the radiologists utilized information from both MRI and MRS. Furthermore, radiologists revisited group A (blind review, time lapse >4 years) to determine whether the additional information from MRS would have altered their interpretation. Sixty-three percent of patients in group A were diagnosed correctly, whereas in 10 % the report was partially correct with the final tumor type mentioned (but not mentioned as most likely tumor), while in 27 % of cases the reports were wrong. For group B, the diagnoses were correct in 87 %, partially correct in 5 %, and incorrect in 8 % of the cases, which is a significant improvement (p < 0.005). Re-review of combined MRI and MRS of group A resulted 87 % correct, 7 % partially correct, and 7 % incorrect diagnoses, which is a significant improvement over the original diagnoses (p < 0.05). Adding MRS to conventional MRI significantly improved diagnostic accuracy in preoperative pediatric patients with untreated brain tumors. (orig.)

  10. A prospective study of patients with brain MRI showing incidental t2 hyperintensities addressed as multiple sclerosis: a lot of work to do before treating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Christine; Cohen, Mikael; Chaussenot, Annabelle; Mondot, Lydiane; Chanalet, Stephane

    2014-12-01

    With the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and publications about radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS), a lot of patients are referred to multiple sclerosis (MS) tertiary centers to confirm diagnosis of RIS or MS when brain T2 abnormalities are identified, whatever their characteristics. We evaluate prospectively the occurrence of RIS or MS and sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of McDonald criteria in diagnosis for patients presenting with incidental brain MRI T2 lesions. The authors ran standardized procedures on 220 consecutive patients addressed by general practitioners or neurologists to confirm RIS or MS diagnosis on brain MRI and give a therapeutic advice. All patients underwent neurological tests, extensive blood screening, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination, visual evoked potential (VEP) and follow-up MRI after 3, 6, 12 and 24 months to consider dissemination in time and space. Patient characteristics were: 165 women and 55 men, mean age: 42.7 years old (23-59). The major symptom motivating MRI was headaches (39%), sensitive atypical manifestations or pain (12%), mood disorders (10%), transient visual symptoms (9%), fatigue (8%), hormonal screening (6%), vertigo (6%), cranial trauma (5%), and dummy run for clinical study (5%). After a structured analysis of T2 lesions, the suspected diagnosis was: inflammatory disease 45%, vascular 33%, non-pathological 19%, genetic 2%, and metabolic 1%. Extensive screening confirmed the proposed diagnosis in 97% of cases. Among all the 220 proposed RIS patients, only 35.4% fulfilled the 2010 McDonald criteria, and 8% can be categorized as RIS. Dissemination in time criteria was present for 82.7% of MS patients and 36% of RIS patients but none of the vascular or non-pathological T2 abnormalities. Even if RIS was initially suspected on MRI, only a third of the patients had an inflammatory disease. Most of the patients had either non-specific T2 lesions or a non-inflammatory disease. Others

  11. MRI with intrathecal MRI gadolinium contrast medium administration: a possible method to assess glymphatic function in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, Per Kristian; Ringstad, Geir

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the “glymphatic system” of the brain has been discovered in rodents, which is a paravascular, transparenchymal route for clearance of excess brain metabolites and distribution of compounds in the cerebrospinal fluid. It has already been demonstrated that intrathecally administered gadolinium (Gd) contrast medium distributes along this route in rats, but so far not in humans. A 27-year-old woman underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with intrathecal administration of gadobutrol, which distributed throughout her entire brain after 1 and 4.5 h. MRI with intrathecal Gd may become a tool to study glymphatic function in the human brain

  12. MRI with intrathecal MRI gadolinium contrast medium administration: a possible method to assess glymphatic function in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Per Kristian; Ringstad, Geir

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the "glymphatic system" of the brain has been discovered in rodents, which is a paravascular, transparenchymal route for clearance of excess brain metabolites and distribution of compounds in the cerebrospinal fluid. It has already been demonstrated that intrathecally administered gadolinium (Gd) contrast medium distributes along this route in rats, but so far not in humans. A 27-year-old woman underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with intrathecal administration of gadobutrol, which distributed throughout her entire brain after 1 and 4.5 h. MRI with intrathecal Gd may become a tool to study glymphatic function in the human brain.

  13. Volumetric quantification of brain development using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, N.; Hamano, K.; Okada, Y.; Horigome, Y.; Nakayama, J.; Takeya, T.; Takita, H.; Nose, T.

    1997-01-01

    We devised a three-dimensional method for estimation of cerebral development and myelination which measures cerebral volume using MRI. Accuracy of the system was estimated using cadaver brains. The mean percentage error in the calculated volumes compared with the real volumes was 2.33 %, range 0.00-5.33 %. We applied the method to the volume of both cerebral hemispheres (CH), basal ganglia, thalamus and internal capsule (BT), and myelinated white matter (WM) in 44 neurologically normal individuals (4 months to 28 years of age), 13 patients with spastic motor disturbances (2-25 years of age), and 9 patients with athetotic motor disturbances (2-23 years of age). In the neurologically normal cases, the volumes of CH, BT and WM increased with age; the volume of MW more slowly than that of CH. In cases with spastic motor disturbances, the volumes of CH, BT and WM were between -1.4 and 3.5 SD, -1.0 and -3.5 SD, and 0.0 and -5.2 SD respectively, of those of neurologically-normal cases. On the other hand, 7 of the 9 cases with athetotic motor disturbances were within 2 SD of the volume of CH in neurologically normal cases. Our method for direct measurement of cerebral volume based on serial MRI should be useful for the accurate assessment of brain development and quantitative analysis of delayed myelination. (orig.)

  14. [Brain plastic alterations in subjects with chronic right-sided sensorineural hearing loss: a resting-state MRI study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L L; Gong, J P; Xu, Y W; Liu, B

    2016-06-21

    To investigate the nodal properties and reorganization of whole-brain functional network in subjects with severe right-sided SNHL. From June 2012 to June 2013, a total of 19 patients with severe right-sided SNHL were collected from Zhongda Hospital or the recruitment advertising along with 31 healthy controls.Based on the graph-theoretical analysis, the whole-brain functional networks were constructed using the BOLD-fMRI data of all subjects.Two sample two-tailed t-tests were used to investigate the differences between two groups in nodal metrics, such as node degree, node betweenness, node global efficiency and node local efficiency.All metrics were corrected by multiple comparisons.Partial correlation analysis was used to estimate the relationship between the significant metrics and the duration or severity of hearing loss. The right-sided SNHL showed significantly increased betweenness centrality in left supramarginal gyrus and right fusiform.However, other nodal parameters showed no statistical difference.Besides, patients exhibited no significant association between the altered metrics and clinical variables. Alterations of local topological properties may underlie cerebral cross-modal plastic reorganization in visual or speech-related regions in severe right-sided SNHL patients.

  15. Electroencephalography and Brain MRI Patterns in Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabulya, Angela; Lesser, Ronald P; Llinas, Rafael; Kaplan, Peter W

    2016-04-01

    Using electroencephalography (EEG) and histology in patients with diffuse encephalopathy, Gloor et al reported that paroxysmal synchronous discharges (PSDs) on EEG required combined cortical gray (CG) and "subcortical" gray (SCG) matter pathology, while polymorphic delta activity (PDA) occurred in patients with white matter pathology. In patients with encephalopathy, we compared EEG findings and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine if MRI reflected similar pathological EEG correlations. Retrospective case control study of 52 cases with EEG evidence of encephalopathy and 50 controls without evidence of encephalopathy. Review of clinical, EEG and MRI data acquired within 4 days of each other. The most common EEG finding in encephalopathy was background slowing, in 96.1%. We found PSDs in 0% of cases with the combination of CG and SCG abnormalities. Although 13.5% (n=7) had PSDs on EEG; 3 of these had CG and 4 had SCG abnormalities. A total of 73.1% (38/52) had white matter abnormalities-of these 28.9% (11/38) had PDA. PSDs were found with either CG or "SCG" MRI abnormalities and did not require a combination of the two. In agreement with Gloor et al, PDA occurred with white matter MRI abnormalities in the absence of gray matter abnormalities. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2015.

  16. Fetal brain volumetry through MRI volumetric reconstruction and segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estroff, Judy A.; Barnewolt, Carol E.; Connolly, Susan A.; Warfield, Simon K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Fetal MRI volumetry is a useful technique but it is limited by a dependency upon motion-free scans, tedious manual segmentation, and spatial inaccuracy due to thick-slice scans. An image processing pipeline that addresses these limitations was developed and tested. Materials and methods The principal sequences acquired in fetal MRI clinical practice are multiple orthogonal single-shot fast spin echo scans. State-of-the-art image processing techniques were used for inter-slice motion correction and super-resolution reconstruction of high-resolution volumetric images from these scans. The reconstructed volume images were processed with intensity non-uniformity correction and the fetal brain extracted by using supervised automated segmentation. Results Reconstruction, segmentation and volumetry of the fetal brains for a cohort of twenty-five clinically acquired fetal MRI scans was done. Performance metrics for volume reconstruction, segmentation and volumetry were determined by comparing to manual tracings in five randomly chosen cases. Finally, analysis of the fetal brain and parenchymal volumes was performed based on the gestational age of the fetuses. Conclusion The image processing pipeline developed in this study enables volume rendering and accurate fetal brain volumetry by addressing the limitations of current volumetry techniques, which include dependency on motion-free scans, manual segmentation, and inaccurate thick-slice interpolation. PMID:20625848

  17. An fMRI study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 38; Issue 5 ... Alcoholism; brain; fMRI; language processing; lexical; semantic judgment ... alcohol dependence is associated with neurocognitive deficits in tasks requiring memory, perceptual ...

  18. MRI abnormalities and related risk factors of the brain in patients with neuromyelitis optica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Hui; Ma Lin; Lou Xin; Cai Youquan; Wang Yulin; Wang Yan; Wu Lei; Wu Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the MRI features of the brain in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and to evaluate the correlation between the brain abnormalities and related risk factors. Methods: Fifty-four patients with definite NMO according to 2006 Wingerchuk diagnosis criteria were enrolled in this study. MRI scanning of the brain was performed in these patients. Distribution and signal features of all the lesions were analyzed. A Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors of brain abnormalities. Results: Twenty-four NMO patients (44.4%) showed unremarkable findings and thirty (55.6%) showed abnormalities on brain MRI. Multiple and non-specific small lesions in the subcortical white matter and grey-white matter junction were the most frequent abnormalities on brain MRI (13/30, 43.3%). Typical lesion locations included corpus callosum, subependyma of ventricles, hypothalamus and brain stem. The lesions showed punctate, patchy and linear abnormal signals. Post-contrast MRI showed no abnormal enhancement in 16 cases. Logistic regression analysis showed that coexisting autoimmune disease or infection. history had correlations with abnormalities of the brain on MRI (OR=3.519, P<0.05). Conclusions: There was a high incidence of brain abnormalities in NMO. Subependymal white matter, corpus callosum, hypothalamus and brain stem were often involved in NMO. NMO patients with coexisting autoimmune disease and infection history had higher risk of brain abnormalities. (authors)

  19. Effects of different correlation metrics and preprocessing factors on small-world brain functional networks: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liang

    Full Text Available Graph theoretical analysis of brain networks based on resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. These analyses often involve the selection of correlation metrics and specific preprocessing steps. However, the influence of these factors on the topological properties of functional brain networks has not been systematically examined. Here, we investigated the influences of correlation metric choice (Pearson's correlation versus partial correlation, global signal presence (regressed or not and frequency band selection [slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz versus slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz] on the topological properties of both binary and weighted brain networks derived from them, and we employed test-retest (TRT analyses for further guidance on how to choose the "best" network modeling strategy from the reliability perspective. Our results show significant differences in global network metrics associated with both correlation metrics and global signals. Analysis of nodal degree revealed differing hub distributions for brain networks derived from Pearson's correlation versus partial correlation. TRT analysis revealed that the reliability of both global and local topological properties are modulated by correlation metrics and the global signal, with the highest reliability observed for Pearson's-correlation-based brain networks without global signal removal (WOGR-PEAR. The nodal reliability exhibited a spatially heterogeneous distribution wherein regions in association and limbic/paralimbic cortices showed moderate TRT reliability in Pearson's-correlation-based brain networks. Moreover, we found that there were significant frequency-related differences in topological properties of WOGR-PEAR networks, and brain networks derived in the 0.027-0.073 Hz band exhibited greater reliability than those in the 0.01-0.027 Hz band. Taken together, our results provide direct evidence regarding the influences of correlation metrics

  20. Chediak-Higashi syndrome: brain MRI and MR spectroscopy manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lolli, Valentina; Soto Ares, Gustavo; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre [Roger Salengro Hospital, CHRU, Neuroradiology Department, Lille (France); Abou Chahla, Wadih [Jeanne de Flandre Hospital, Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Department, Lille (France); Jissendi-Tchofo, Patrice [University Hospital Saint-Pierre, Radiology Department - Pediatric Neuroradiology Section, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-08-15

    Chediak-Higashi syndrome is a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism, immunodeficiency, and neurological dysfunction. We present the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) findings obtained during the accelerated phase of the disorder in an 8-year-old. The brain MRI manifestations at recurrences 15 months and 24 months later are reported as well. (orig.)

  1. Chediak-Higashi syndrome: brain MRI and MR spectroscopy manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lolli, Valentina; Soto Ares, Gustavo; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Abou Chahla, Wadih; Jissendi-Tchofo, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Chediak-Higashi syndrome is a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism, immunodeficiency, and neurological dysfunction. We present the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) findings obtained during the accelerated phase of the disorder in an 8-year-old. The brain MRI manifestations at recurrences 15 months and 24 months later are reported as well. (orig.)

  2. Toward implementing an MRI-based PET attenuation-correction method for neurologic studies on the MR-PET brain prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian; van der Kouwe, Andre; Benner, Thomas; Michel, Christian J; Hamm, Michael; Fenchel, Matthias; Fischl, Bruce; Rosen, Bruce; Schmand, Matthias; Sorensen, A Gregory

    2010-09-01

    Several factors have to be considered for implementing an accurate attenuation-correction (AC) method in a combined MR-PET scanner. In this work, some of these challenges were investigated, and an AC method based entirely on the MRI data obtained with a single dedicated sequence was developed and used for neurologic studies performed with the MR-PET human brain scanner prototype. The focus was on the problem of bone-air segmentation, selection of the linear attenuation coefficient for bone, and positioning of the radiofrequency coil. The impact of these factors on PET data quantification was studied in simulations and experimental measurements performed on the combined MR-PET scanner. A novel dual-echo ultrashort echo time (DUTE) MRI sequence was proposed for head imaging. Simultaneous MR-PET data were acquired, and the PET images reconstructed using the proposed DUTE MRI-based AC method were compared with the PET images that had been reconstructed using a CT-based AC method. Our data suggest that incorrectly accounting for the bone tissue attenuation can lead to large underestimations (>20%) of the radiotracer concentration in the cortex. Assigning a linear attenuation coefficient of 0.143 or 0.151 cm(-1) to bone tissue appears to give the best trade-off between bias and variability in the resulting images. Not identifying the internal air cavities introduces large overestimations (>20%) in adjacent structures. On the basis of these results, the segmented CT AC method was established as the silver standard for the segmented MRI-based AC method. For an integrated MR-PET scanner, in particular, ignoring the radiofrequency coil attenuation can cause large underestimations (i.e., MRI- and CT-based AC methods compare favorably in most of

  3. Topologic analysis and comparison of brain activation in children with epilepsy versus controls: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oweis, Khalid J.; Berl, Madison M.; Gaillard, William D.; Duke, Elizabeth S.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Loew, Murray H.; Zara, Jason M.

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes the development of novel computer-aided analysis algorithms to identify the language activation patterns at a certain Region of Interest (ROI) in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Previous analysis techniques have been used to compare typical and pathologic activation patterns in fMRI images resulting from identical tasks but none of them analyzed activation topographically in a quantitative manner. This paper presents new analysis techniques and algorithms capable of identifying a pattern of language activation associated with localization related epilepsy. fMRI images of 64 healthy individuals and 31 patients with localization related epilepsy have been studied and analyzed on an ROI basis. All subjects are right handed with normal MRI scans and have been classified into three age groups (4-6, 7-9, 10-12 years). Our initial efforts have focused on investigating activation in the Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus (LIFG). A number of volumetric features have been extracted from the data. The LIFG has been cut into slices and the activation has been investigated topographically on a slice by slice basis. Overall, a total of 809 features have been extracted, and correlation analysis was applied to eliminate highly correlated features. Principal Component analysis was then applied to account only for major components in the data and One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) has been applied to test for significantly different features between normal and patient groups. Twenty Nine features have were found to be significantly different (p<0.05) between patient and control groups

  4. Functional MRI brain imaging studies using the Contact Heat Evoked Potential Stimulator (CHEPS in a human volunteer topical capsaicin pain model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ravikiran Shenoy1, Katherine Roberts1, Anastasia Papadaki2, Donald McRobbie2, Maarten Timmers3, Theo Meert3, Praveen Anand11Peripheral Neuropathy Unit, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London; 2Imaging Sciences Department, Charing Cross Hospital, London, United Kingdom; 3Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Beerse, BelgiumAbstract: Acute application of topical capsaicin produces spontaneous burning and stinging pain similar to that seen in some neuropathic states, with local hyperalgesia. Use of capsaicin applied topically or injected intradermally has been described as a model for neuropathic pain, with patterns of activation in brain regions assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and positron emission tomography. The Contact Heat Evoked Potential Stimulator (CHEPS is a noninvasive clinically practical method of stimulating cutaneous A-delta nociceptors. In this study, topical capsaicin (1% was applied to the left volar forearm for 15 minutes of twelve adult healthy human volunteers. fMRI scans and a visual analog pain score were recorded during CHEPS stimulation precapsaicin and postcapsaicin application. Following capsaicin application there was a significant increase in visual analog scale (mean ± standard error of the mean; precapsaicin 26.4 ± 5.3; postcapsaicin 48.9 ± 6.0; P < 0.0001. fMRI demonstrated an overall increase in areas of activation, with a significant increase in the contralateral insular signal (mean ± standard error of the mean; precapsaicin 0.434 ± 0.03; postcapsaicin 0.561 ± 0.07; P = 0.047. The authors of this paper recently published a study in which CHEPS-evoked A-delta cerebral potential amplitudes were found to be decreased postcapsaicin application. In patients with neuropathic pain, evoked pain and fMRI brain responses are typically increased, while A-delta evoked potential amplitudes are decreased. The protocol of recording fMRI following CHEPS stimulation

  5. Semiautomatic segmentation and follow-up of multicomponent low-grade tumors in longitudinal brain MRI studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizman, Lior; Sira, Liat Ben; Joskowicz, Leo; Rubin, Daniel L.; Yeom, Kristen W.; Constantini, Shlomi; Shofty, Ben; Bashat, Dafna Ben

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Tracking the progression of low grade tumors (LGTs) is a challenging task, due to their slow growth rate and associated complex internal tumor components, such as heterogeneous enhancement, hemorrhage, and cysts. In this paper, the authors show a semiautomatic method to reliably track the volume of LGTs and the evolution of their internal components in longitudinal MRI scans. Methods: The authors' method utilizes a spatiotemporal evolution modeling of the tumor and its internal components. Tumor components gray level parameters are estimated from the follow-up scan itself, obviating temporal normalization of gray levels. The tumor delineation procedure effectively incorporates internal classification of the baseline scan in the time-series as prior data to segment and classify a series of follow-up scans. The authors applied their method to 40 MRI scans of ten patients, acquired at two different institutions. Two types of LGTs were included: Optic pathway gliomas and thalamic astrocytomas. For each scan, a “gold standard” was obtained manually by experienced radiologists. The method is evaluated versus the gold standard with three measures: gross total volume error, total surface distance, and reliability of tracking tumor components evolution. Results: Compared to the gold standard the authors' method exhibits a mean Dice similarity volumetric measure of 86.58% and a mean surface distance error of 0.25 mm. In terms of its reliability in tracking the evolution of the internal components, the method exhibits strong positive correlation with the gold standard. Conclusions: The authors' method provides accurate and repeatable delineation of the tumor and its internal components, which is essential for therapy assessment of LGTs. Reliable tracking of internal tumor components over time is novel and potentially will be useful to streamline and improve follow-up of brain tumors, with indolent growth and behavior

  6. Tuberous sclerosis: diffusion MRI findings in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sener, R.N.

    2002-01-01

    Diffusion MRI has mainly been used for detection of acute ischemia, and for distinction of cytotoxic and vasogenic edema. We applied diffusion MRI in patients with tuberous sclerosis in order to evaluate diffusion imaging characteristics of parenchymal changes. Five children with known tuberous sclerosis were included in this study. The MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5-T MR unit. Diffusion MRI was obtained using the echo-planar imaging sequence. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values from the abnormal brain parenchyma were calculated directly from automatically generated ADC maps. Seven normal children were available for comparison. In this control group the mean ADC value of the normal white matter was 0.84±0.12 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. In tuberous sclerosis patients the mean ADC value of the white matter hamartomas (n=20) was apparently high (1.52±0.24 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) compared with that of normal white matter. The ADC value of calcified hamartomas was ''zero''. The ADC value within a giant cell tumor was 0.89 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, similar to that of normal cerebral white matter. The ADC maps were superior to b=1000 s/mm 2 (true diffusion) images with respect to lesion evaluation, and they provided mathematical information on tissue integrity. With respect to detection of the exact numbers and sizes of the parenchymal hamartomas fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were superior to ADC maps. It is believed that diffusion MRI can be useful in evaluation of various parenchymal changes associated with tuberous sclerosis. Further studies on tuberous sclerosis, and on various brain lesions, would provide increasing data on this relatively new MRI sequence. (orig.)

  7. Novel applications of quantitative MRI for the fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clouchoux, Cedric [Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Limperopoulos, Catherine [Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); McGill University, McConnell Brain Imaging Center, Montreal Neurological Institute, Montreal (Canada); McGill University, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal (Canada); Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Fetal and Transitional Medicine, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The advent of ultrafast MRI acquisitions is offering vital insights into the critical maturational events that occur throughout pregnancy. Concurrent with the ongoing enhancement of ultrafast imaging has been the development of innovative image-processing techniques that are enabling us to capture and quantify the exuberant growth, and organizational and remodeling processes that occur during fetal brain development. This paper provides an overview of the role of advanced neuroimaging techniques to study in vivo brain maturation and explores the application of a range of new quantitative imaging biomarkers that can be used clinically to monitor high-risk pregnancies. (orig.)

  8. A correlation of clinical, MRI and brain SPECT in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, S.; Indirani, M.; Gokhale, S.; Anirudhan, N.; Sivakumar, M.R.; Jaganathan, K.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterised by acquired impairment in multiple neuropsycologic and behavior domains including memory, language, speech, visuospatial ability, cognition and mood/personality. Dementia produces deficits in perfusion reflecting decreased metabolic needs. Neuroimaging techniques help in determining whether the cognitive symptoms are organic and in which pattern of cognitive loss the patient may evolve. AIM: To differentiate various types of Dementia, based on the regional perfusion abnormalities seen in Brain SPECT and correlate this with Clinical and MRI findings. Material and methods: Patients suffering from memory impairment and memory loss were referred to our department for Brain SPECT as a part of work up for Dementia. They had undergone a detailed clinical examination, psychometry, mini mental status examination (MMSE), memory/cognitive testing and an MRI. Brain SPECT was done after injecting Tc 99m ECD (Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer ) and imaging after 45 minutes. The images obtained were reconstructed in a conventional way. The various patterns of perfusion abnormalities seen in the SPECT images was studied and correlated with MRI and clinical findings. The patients were thus classified as having Multi Infarct Dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Fronto-Temporal Dementia and Mixed variety. Results: Twenty One Patients were included in our study from February 2003 to February 2004. The mean age of the patients was 73 years ( 37 to 81). 15 were males and 6 were females. Out of 21 patients, 12 had Multi Infarct Dementia, 4 had Alzheimer's disease, 1 had Fronto- Temporal Dementia and 4 had Mixed variety. Conclusion: Brain SPECT aids in substantiating the clinical findings and in correlation with MRI helps in distinguishing various types of Dementia and thus has prognostic implications and helps in instituting early appropriate treatment to the patient. In our study, the majority of the patients have Multi Infarct Dementia

  9. CT and MRI imaging of the brain in MELAS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Wojciech; Zarzycki, Artur; Krzyształowski, Adam; Walecka, Anna

    2013-07-01

    MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like episodes) is a rare, multisystem disorder which belongs to a group of mitochondrial metabolic diseases. As other diseases in this group, it is inherited in the maternal line. In this report, we discussed a case of a 10-year-old girl with clinical and radiological picture of MELAS syndrome. We would like to describe characteristic radiological features of MELAS syndrome in CT, MRI and MR spectroscopy of the brain and differential diagnosis. The rarity of this disorder and the complexity of its clinical presentation make MELAS patients among the most difficult to diagnose. Brain imaging studies require a wide differential diagnosis, primarily to distinguish between MELAS and ischemic stroke. Particularly helpful are the MRI and MR spectroscopy techniques.

  10. CT and MRI imaging of the brain in MELAS syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, Wojciech; Zarzycki, Artur; Krzyształowski, Adam; Walecka, Anna

    2013-01-01

    MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like episodes) is a rare, multisystem disorder which belongs to a group of mitochondrial metabolic diseases. As other diseases in this group, it is inherited in the maternal line. In this report, we discussed a case of a 10-year-old girl with clinical and radiological picture of MELAS syndrome. We would like to describe characteristic radiological features of MELAS syndrome in CT, MRI and MR spectroscopy of the brain and differential diagnosis. The rarity of this disorder and the complexity of its clinical presentation make MELAS patients among the most difficult to diagnose. Brain imaging studies require a wide differential diagnosis, primarily to distinguish between MELAS and ischemic stroke. Particularly helpful are the MRI and MR spectroscopy techniques

  11. Brain Functional Connectivity in Small Cell Lung Cancer Population after Chemotherapy Treatment: an ICA fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromis, K.; Kakkos, I.; Gkiatis, K.; Karanasiou, I. S.; Matsopoulos, G. K.

    2017-11-01

    Previous neurocognitive assessments in Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) population, highlight the presence of neurocognitive impairments (mainly in attention processing and executive functioning) in this type of cancer. The majority of these studies, associate these deficits with the Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation (PCI) that patients undergo in order to avoid brain metastasis. However, there is not much evidence exploring cognitive impairments induced by chemotherapy in SCLC patients. For this reason, we aimed to investigate the underlying processes that may potentially affect cognition by examining brain functional connectivity in nineteen SCLC patients after chemotherapy treatment, while additionally including fourteen healthy participants as control group. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is a functional connectivity measure aiming to unravel the temporal correlation between brain regions, which are called brain networks. We focused on two brain networks related to the aforementioned cognitive functions, the Default Mode Network (DMN) and the Task-Positive Network (TPN). Permutation tests were performed between the two groups to assess the differences and control for familywise errors in the statistical parametric maps. ICA analysis showed functional connectivity disruptions within both of the investigated networks. These results, propose a detrimental effect of chemotherapy on brain functioning in the SCLC population.

  12. Isointense infant brain MRI segmentation with a dilated convolutional neural network

    OpenAIRE

    Moeskops, Pim; Pluim, Josien P. W.

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of brain MRI at the age of 6 months is difficult because of the limited contrast between white matter and gray matter. In this study, we use a dilated triplanar convolutional neural network in combination with a non-dilated 3D convolutional neural network for the segmentation of white matter, gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid in infant brain MR images, as provided by the MICCAI grand challenge on 6-month infant brain MRI segmentation.

  13. Brain MRI findings in infants with primary congenital glaucoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, A. Ibrahym; Saygili, O.

    2007-01-01

    Congenital glaucoma appears in the first months of life, eventually at birth. Isolated congenital glaucoma is characterized by minor malformations of the irido-corneal angle of the anterior chamber of the eye. Clinical manifestations include tearing, photophobia and enlargement of the globe appearing in the first months of life. Imaging technology such as optical coherence tomography and measurement of central corneal thickness may play an important role in the assessment of children with suspected or known glaucoma. However, no MRI findings of the CNS in patients with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) were reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate MRI findings of the brain in infants with PCG. We reviewed the radiological and histopathological and clinical characteristics of infants with primary congenital glaucoma. The records of 17 patients with PCG were reviewed and the MRIs of the brain and associated manifestations were analyzed. Three patients with PCG had abnormal MRI findings suggesting agenesis of the corpus callosum. Two infants had delayed myelinization of the brain. Significant abnormal optic nerve excavation and increased corneal diameters in 2 patients with delayed myelinization may suggest that intraocular pressure can be more striking and more severe, revealing a close relationship with PCG and abnormal myelinization in white matter. Studies with more patients are needed to confirm these results. (author)

  14. Pathological and incidental findings on brain MRI in a single-center study of 229 consecutive girls with early or precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Central precocious puberty may result from organic brain lesions, but is most frequently of idiopathic origin. Clinical or biochemical factors which could predict a pathological brain MRI in girls with CPP have been searched for. With the recent decline in age at pubertal onset among US and Europ...

  15. Abnormal Baseline Brain Activity in Drug-Naïve Patients with Tourette Syndrome: A Resting-state fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua eCui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a childhood-onset chronic disorder characterized by the presence of multiple motor and vocal tics. This study investigated spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations in TS patients during resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scans. We obtained resting-state fMRI scans from seventeen drug-naïve TS children and fifteen demographically matched healthy children. We computed the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF and fractional ALFF (fALFF of resting-state fMRI data to measure spontaneous brain activity, and assessed the between-group differences in ALFF/fALFF and the relationship between ALFF/fALFF and tic severity scores. Our results showed that the children with TS exhibited significantly decreased ALFF in the posterior cingulate gyrus/precuneus and bilateral parietal gyrus. fALFF was decreased in TS children in the anterior cingulated cortex, bilateral middle and superior frontal cortices and superior parietal lobule, and increased in the left putamen and bilateral thalamus. Moreover, we found significantly positive correlations between fALFF and tic severity scores in the right thalamus. Our study provides empirical evidence for abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity in TS patients, which may implicate the underlying neurophysiological mechanism in TS and demonstrate the possibility of applying ALFF/fALFF for clinical TS studies.

  16. MRI of 'brain death'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, Shigeki; Itoh, Takahiko; Tuchida, Shohei; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Asari, Shoji; Nishimoto, Akira (Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Sanou, Kazuo

    1990-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was undertaken for two patients who suffered from severe cerebrovascular diseases and were clinically brain dead. The MRI system we used was Resona (Yokogawa Medical Systems, superconductive system 0.5 T) and the CT apparatus was Toshiba TCT-300. Initial CT and MRI were undertaken as soon as possible after admission, and repeated sequentially. After diagnosis of brain death, we performed angiography to determine cerebral circulatory arrest, and MRI obtained at the same time was compared with the angiogram and CT. Case 1 was a 77-year-old man who was admitted in an unconscious state. CT and MRI on the second day after hospitalization revealed cerebellar infarction. He was diagnosed as brain dead on day 4. Case 2 was a 35-year-old man. When he was transferred to our hospital, he was in cardiorespiratory arrested. Cardiac resuscitation was successful but no spontaneous respiration appeared. CT and MRI on admission revealed right intracerebral hemorrhage. Angiography revealed cessation of contrast medium in intracranial vessels in both of the patients. We found no 'flow signal void sign' in the bilateral internal carotid and basilar arteries on MRI images in both cases after brain death. MRI, showing us the anatomical changes of the brain, clearly revealed brain herniations, even though only nuclear findings of 'brain tamponade' were seen on CT. But in Case 1, we could not see the infarct lesions in the cerebellum on MR images obtained after brain death. This phenomenon was caused by the whole brain ischemia masking the initial ischemic lesions. We concluded that MRI was useful not only the anatomical display of lesions and brain herniation with high contrast resolution but for obtaining information on cerebral circulation of brain death. (author).

  17. Simultaneous fMRI-PET of the opioidergic pain system in human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Catana, Ciprian; Hooker, Jacob M

    2014-01-01

    distinct components of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal has not yet been shown. We obtained sixteen fMRI-PET data sets from eight healthy volunteers. Each subject participated in randomized order in a pain scan and a control (nonpainful pressure) scan on the same day. Dynamic PET......MRI and PET provide complementary information for studying brain function. While the potential use of simultaneous MRI/PET for clinical diagnostic and disease staging has been demonstrated recently; the biological relevance of concurrent functional MRI-PET brain imaging to dissect neurochemically...... data were acquired with an opioid radioligand, [(11)C]diprenorphine, to detect endogenous opioid releases in response to pain. BOLD fMRI data were collected at the same time to capture hemodynamic responses. In this simultaneous human fMRI-PET imaging study, we show co-localized responses in thalamus...

  18. Sleep Apnea, Sleep Duration and Brain MRI Markers of Cerebral Vascular Disease and Alzheimer's Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsey, Pamela L; Norby, Faye L; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Mosley, Thomas; MacLehose, Richard F; Punjabi, Naresh M; Shahar, Eyal; Jack, Clifford R; Alonso, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature has suggested that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and habitual short sleep duration are linked to poor cognitive function. Neuroimaging studies may provide insight into this relation. We tested the hypotheses that OSA and habitual short sleep duration, measured at ages 54-73 years, would be associated with adverse brain morphology at ages 67-89 years. Included in this analysis are 312 ARIC study participants who underwent in-home overnight polysomnography in 1996-1998 and brain MRI scans about 15 years later (2012-2013). Sleep apnea was quantified by the apnea-hypopnea index and categorized as moderate/severe (≥15.0 events/hour), mild (5.0-14.9 events/hour), or normal (sleep duration was categorized, in hours, as sleep study participants were 61.7 (SD: 5.0) years old and 54% female; 19% had moderate/severe sleep apnea. MRI imaging took place 14.8 (SD: 1.0) years later, when participants were 76.5 (SD: 5.2) years old. In multivariable models which accounted for body mass index, neither OSA nor abnormal sleep duration were statistically significantly associated with odds of cerebral infarcts, WMH brain volumes or regional brain volumes. In this community-based sample, mid-life OSA and habitually short sleep duration were not associated with later-life cerebral markers of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. However, selection bias may have influenced our results and the modest sample size led to relatively imprecise associations.

  19. Effects of emotional valence and three-dimensionality of visual stimuli on brain activation: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, A R; Almeida, I; Barbosa, F; Castelo-Branco, M; Monteiro, L; Reis, M; de Sousa, L; Caldas, A Castro

    2013-01-01

    Examining changes in brain activation linked with emotion-inducing stimuli is essential to the study of emotions. Due to the ecological potential of techniques such as virtual reality (VR), inspection of whether brain activation in response to emotional stimuli can be modulated by the three-dimensional (3D) properties of the images is important. The current study sought to test whether the activation of brain areas involved in the emotional processing of scenarios of different valences can be modulated by 3D. Therefore, the focus was made on the interaction effect between emotion-inducing stimuli of different emotional valences (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral valences) and visualization types (2D, 3D). However, main effects were also analyzed. The effect of emotional valence and visualization types and their interaction were analyzed through a 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA. Post-hoc t-tests were performed under a ROI-analysis approach. The results show increased brain activation for the 3D affective-inducing stimuli in comparison with the same stimuli in 2D scenarios, mostly in cortical and subcortical regions that are related to emotional processing, in addition to visual processing regions. This study has the potential of clarify brain mechanisms involved in the processing of emotional stimuli (scenarios' valence) and their interaction with three-dimensionality.

  20. Meta-analysis of real-time fMRI neurofeedback studies using individual participant data: How is brain regulation mediated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert, Kirsten; Kopel, Rotem; Sulzer, James; Brühl, Annette B; Berman, Brian D; Linden, David E J; Horovitz, Silvina G; Breimhorst, Markus; Caria, Andrea; Frank, Sabine; Johnston, Stephen; Long, Zhiying; Paret, Christian; Robineau, Fabien; Veit, Ralf; Bartsch, Andreas; Beckmann, Christian F; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of studies using real-time fMRI neurofeedback have demonstrated that successful regulation of neural activity is possible in various brain regions. Since these studies focused on the regulated region(s), little is known about the target-independent mechanisms associated with neurofeedback-guided control of brain activation, i.e. the regulating network. While the specificity of the activation during self-regulation is an important factor, no study has effectively determined the network involved in self-regulation in general. In an effort to detect regions that are responsible for the act of brain regulation, we performed a post-hoc analysis of data involving different target regions based on studies from different research groups. We included twelve suitable studies that examined nine different target regions amounting to a total of 175 subjects and 899 neurofeedback runs. Data analysis included a standard first- (single subject, extracting main paradigm) and second-level (single subject, all runs) general linear model (GLM) analysis of all participants taking into account the individual timing. Subsequently, at the third level, a random effects model GLM included all subjects of all studies, resulting in an overall mixed effects model. Since four of the twelve studies had a reduced field of view (FoV), we repeated the same analysis in a subsample of eight studies that had a well-overlapping FoV to obtain a more global picture of self-regulation. The GLM analysis revealed that the anterior insula as well as the basal ganglia, notably the striatum, were consistently active during the regulation of brain activation across the studies. The anterior insula has been implicated in interoceptive awareness of the body and cognitive control. Basal ganglia are involved in procedural learning, visuomotor integration and other higher cognitive processes including motivation. The larger FoV analysis yielded additional activations in the anterior cingulate

  1. Long-lasting changes in brain activation induced by a single REAC technology pulse in Wi-Fi bands. Randomized double-blind fMRI qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Salvatore; Mura, Marco; Castagna, Alessandro; Fontani, Vania

    2014-07-11

    The aim of this randomized double-blind study was to evaluate in healthy adult subjects, with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), long lasting changes in brain activation patterns following administration of a single, 250 milliseconds pulse emitted with radio-electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) technology in the Wi-Fi bands. The REAC impulse was not administered during the scan, but after this, according to a protocol that has previously been demonstrated to be effective in improving motor control and postural balance, in healthy subjects and patients. The study was conducted on 33 healthy volunteers, performed with a 1.5 T unit while operating a motor block task involving cyclical and alternating flexion and extension of one leg. Subsequently subjects were randomly divided into a treatment and a sham treatment control group. Repeated fMRI examinations were performed following the administration of the REAC pulse or sham treatment. The Treated group showed cerebellar and ponto-mesencephalic activation components that disappeared in the second scan, while these activation components persisted in the Sham group. This study shows that a very weak signal, such as 250 milliseconds Wi-Fi pulse, administered with REAC technology, could lead to lasting effects on brain activity modification.

  2. Dynamics of cerebral edema and the apparent diffusion coefficient of water changes in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. A prospective MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasco, Anne; Minassian, Aram Ter; Chapon, Catherine; Lemaire, Laurent; Benoit, Jean-Pierre; Jeune, Jean-Jacques Le; Franconi, Florence; Darabi, Dana; Caron, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The distinction between intracellular (ICE) and extracellular edema (ECE) has a crucial prognostic and therapeutic importance in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (STBI). Indeed, ICE usually leads to cellular death, and maintenance of a cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) above 70 mmHg is still under debate since this practice may increase ECE. The purpose of this study was to describe the ECE and ICE kinetics associated with STBI using quantitative diffusion MRI. Twelve patients were prospectively studied. The initial ADC in ICE measured on day 1.3±0.7 is significantly reduced compared to normal-appearing parenchyma (0.51±0.12 * 10 -3 mm 2 /s vs. 0.76±0.03 * 10 -3 mm 2 /s, n=12, P MRI2 =0.40±0.11 * 10 -3 mm 2 /s), ADC values in the extension area at the first MRI were slightly, but not significantly reduced compared to normal parenchyma (0.69±0.05 * 10 -3 mm 2 /s, P=0.29). Normalization occurred equally by day 14. ADC in ECE (1.34±0.22 * 10 -3 mm 2 /s) was elevated and stable with time under CPP therapy. Therefore, ECE is not worsened by CCP therapy, and ICE appears more relevant than ECE in STBI. (orig.)

  3. A novel brain stimulation technology provides compatibility with MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serano, Peter; Angelone, Leonardo M; Katnani, Husam; Eskandar, Emad; Bonmassar, Giorgio

    2015-04-29

    Clinical electrical stimulation systems--such as pacemakers and deep brain stimulators (DBS)--are an increasingly common therapeutic option to treat a large range of medical conditions. Despite their remarkable success, one of the significant limitations of these medical devices is the limited compatibility with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a standard diagnostic tool in medicine. During an MRI exam, the leads used with these devices, implanted in the body of the patient, act as an electric antenna potentially causing a large amount of energy to be absorbed in the tissue, which can lead to serious heat-related injury. This study presents a novel lead design that reduces the antenna effect and allows for decreased tissue heating during MRI. The optimal parameters of the wire design were determined by a combination of computational modeling and experimental measurements. The results of these simulations were used to build a prototype, which was tested in a gel phantom during an MRI scan. Measurement results showed a three-fold decrease in heating when compared to a commercially available DBS lead. Accordingly, the proposed design may allow a significantly increased number of patients with medical implants to have safe access to the diagnostic benefits of MRI.

  4. Automated detection of multiple sclerosis lesions in serial brain MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llado, Xavier; Ganiler, Onur; Oliver, Arnau; Marti, Robert; Freixenet, Jordi; Valls, Laia; Vilanova, Joan C.; Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis; Rovira, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious disease typically occurring in the brain whose diagnosis and efficacy of treatment monitoring are vital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used in serial brain imaging due to the rich and detailed information provided. Time-series analysis of images is widely used for MS diagnosis and patient follow-up. However, conventional manual methods are time-consuming, subjective, and error-prone. Thus, the development of automated techniques for the detection and quantification of MS lesions is a major challenge. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the approaches which deal with the time-series analysis of brain MRI for detecting active MS lesions and quantifying lesion load change. We provide a comprehensive reference source for researchers in which several approaches to change detection and quantification of MS lesions are investigated and classified. We also analyze the results provided by the approaches, discuss open problems, and point out possible future trends. Lesion detection approaches are required for the detection of static lesions and for diagnostic purposes, while either quantification of detected lesions or change detection algorithms are needed to follow up MS patients. However, there is not yet a single approach that can emerge as a standard for the clinical practice, automatically providing an accurate MS lesion evolution quantification. Future trends will focus on combining the lesion detection in single studies with the analysis of the change detection in serial MRI. (orig.)

  5. Automated detection of multiple sclerosis lesions in serial brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llado, Xavier; Ganiler, Onur; Oliver, Arnau; Marti, Robert; Freixenet, Jordi [University of Girona, Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Valls, Laia [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Girona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain); Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious disease typically occurring in the brain whose diagnosis and efficacy of treatment monitoring are vital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used in serial brain imaging due to the rich and detailed information provided. Time-series analysis of images is widely used for MS diagnosis and patient follow-up. However, conventional manual methods are time-consuming, subjective, and error-prone. Thus, the development of automated techniques for the detection and quantification of MS lesions is a major challenge. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the approaches which deal with the time-series analysis of brain MRI for detecting active MS lesions and quantifying lesion load change. We provide a comprehensive reference source for researchers in which several approaches to change detection and quantification of MS lesions are investigated and classified. We also analyze the results provided by the approaches, discuss open problems, and point out possible future trends. Lesion detection approaches are required for the detection of static lesions and for diagnostic purposes, while either quantification of detected lesions or change detection algorithms are needed to follow up MS patients. However, there is not yet a single approach that can emerge as a standard for the clinical practice, automatically providing an accurate MS lesion evolution quantification. Future trends will focus on combining the lesion detection in single studies with the analysis of the change detection in serial MRI. (orig.)

  6. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in amnestic MCI: a voxel-based MRI and FDG-PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbelli, Silvia [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Piccardo, Arnoldo; Villavecchia, Giampiero [Galliera Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Dessi, Barbara; Brugnolo, Andrea; Rodriguez, Guido; Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); Piccini, Alessandra [Cell Biology Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Genoa (Italy); Caroli, Anna [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy); Mario Negri Institute, Medical Imaging Unit, Biomedical Engineering Department, Bergamo (Italy); Frisoni, Giovanni [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    To reveal the morphological and functional substrates of memory impairment and conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) from the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Brain MRI and FDG-PET were performed in 20 patients with aMCI and 12 controls at baseline. During a mean follow-up of about 2 years, 9 patients developed AD (converters), and 11 did not (nonconverters). All images were processed with SPM2. FDG-PET and segmented grey matter (GM) images were compared in: (1) converters versus controls, (2) nonconverters versus controls, and (3) converters versus nonconverters. As compared to controls, converters showed lower GM density in the left parahippocampal gyrus and both thalami, and hypometabolism in the precuneus, posterior cingulate and superior parietal lobule in the left hemisphere. Hypometabolism was found in nonconverters as compared to controls in the left precuneus and posterior cingulated gyrus. As compared to nonconverters, converters showed significant hypometabolism in the left middle and superior temporal gyri. The discordant topography between atrophy and hypometabolism reported in AD is already present at the aMCI stage. Posterior cingulate-precuneus hypometabolism seemed to be an early sign of memory deficit, whereas hypometabolism in the left temporal cortex marked the conversion to AD. (orig.)

  7. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in amnestic MCI: a voxel-based MRI and FDG-PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morbelli, Silvia; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Villavecchia, Giampiero; Dessi, Barbara; Brugnolo, Andrea; Rodriguez, Guido; Nobili, Flavio; Piccini, Alessandra; Caroli, Anna; Frisoni, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    To reveal the morphological and functional substrates of memory impairment and conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) from the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Brain MRI and FDG-PET were performed in 20 patients with aMCI and 12 controls at baseline. During a mean follow-up of about 2 years, 9 patients developed AD (converters), and 11 did not (nonconverters). All images were processed with SPM2. FDG-PET and segmented grey matter (GM) images were compared in: (1) converters versus controls, (2) nonconverters versus controls, and (3) converters versus nonconverters. As compared to controls, converters showed lower GM density in the left parahippocampal gyrus and both thalami, and hypometabolism in the precuneus, posterior cingulate and superior parietal lobule in the left hemisphere. Hypometabolism was found in nonconverters as compared to controls in the left precuneus and posterior cingulated gyrus. As compared to nonconverters, converters showed significant hypometabolism in the left middle and superior temporal gyri. The discordant topography between atrophy and hypometabolism reported in AD is already present at the aMCI stage. Posterior cingulate-precuneus hypometabolism seemed to be an early sign of memory deficit, whereas hypometabolism in the left temporal cortex marked the conversion to AD. (orig.)

  8. Walk-related mimic word activates the extrastriate visual cortex in the human brain: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Naoyuki

    2009-03-02

    I present an fMRI study demonstrating that a mimic word highly suggestive of human walking, heard by the ear with eyes closed, significantly activates the visual cortex located in extrastriate occipital region (BA19, 18) and superior temporal sulcus (STS) while hearing non-sense words that do not imply walk under the same task does not activate these areas in humans. I concluded that BA19 and 18 would be a critical region for generating visual images of walking and related intentional stance, respectively, evoked by an onomatopoeia word that implied walking.

  9. A word expressing affective pain activates the anterior cingulate cortex in the human brain: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Naoyuki; Osaka, Mariko; Morishita, Masanao; Kondo, Hirohito; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2004-08-12

    We present an fMRI study demonstrating that an onomatopoeia word highly suggestive of subjective pain, heard by the ear, significantly activates the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) while hearing non-sense words that did not imply affective pain under the same task does not activate this area in humans. We concluded that the ACC would be a pivotal locus for perceiving affective pain evoked by an onomatopoeia word that implied affective pain closely associated with the unpleasantness of pain. We suggest that the pain affect sustained by pain unpleasantness may depend on ACC-prefrontal cortical interactions that modify cognitive evaluation of emotions associated with word-induced pain.

  10. Optimizing full-brain coverage in human brain MRI through population distributions of brain size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennes, M.; Jenkinson, M.; Valabregue, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Beckmann, C.F.; Smith, S.

    2014-01-01

    When defining an MRI protocol, brain researchers need to set multiple interdependent parameters that define repetition time (TR), voxel size, field-of-view (FOV), etc. Typically, researchers aim to image the full brain, making the expected FOV an important parameter to consider. Especially in 2D-EPI

  11. Efficacy and toxicity in brain tumor treatment - quantitative Measurements using advanced MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Søren

    2016-01-01

    From the clinical introduction in the 1980s, MRI has grown to become an indispensable brain imaging modality, mainly due to its excellent ability to visualize soft tissues. Morphologically, T1- and T2-weighted brain tumor MRI have been part of routine diagnostic radiology for more than two decades...... with the introduction of magnets with higher field strength. Ongoing technical development has enabled a change from semiquantitative measurements to a true quantitative approach. This step is expected to have a great impact on the treatment of brain tumor patients in the future. The aim of this Ph.D. dissertation...... was to explore how different advanced MRI techniques could contribute to a higher degree of individualized treatment of brain tumor patients. The thesis is based on three studies in which advanced MRI is used to evaluate the possible role of fMRI in presurgical planning, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI...

  12. Brain functional BOLD perturbation modelling for forward fMRI and inverse mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer; Calhoun, Vince

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To computationally separate dynamic brain functional BOLD responses from static background in a brain functional activity for forward fMRI signal analysis and inverse mapping. Methods A brain functional activity is represented in terms of magnetic source by a perturbation model: χ = χ0 +δχ, with δχ for BOLD magnetic perturbations and χ0 for background. A brain fMRI experiment produces a timeseries of complex-valued images (T2* images), whereby we extract the BOLD phase signals (denoted by δP) by a complex division. By solving an inverse problem, we reconstruct the BOLD δχ dataset from the δP dataset, and the brain χ distribution from a (unwrapped) T2* phase image. Given a 4D dataset of task BOLD fMRI, we implement brain functional mapping by temporal correlation analysis. Results Through a high-field (7T) and high-resolution (0.5mm in plane) task fMRI experiment, we demonstrated in detail the BOLD perturbation model for fMRI phase signal separation (P + δP) and reconstructing intrinsic brain magnetic source (χ and δχ). We also provided to a low-field (3T) and low-resolution (2mm) task fMRI experiment in support of single-subject fMRI study. Our experiments show that the δχ-depicted functional map reveals bidirectional BOLD χ perturbations during the task performance. Conclusions The BOLD perturbation model allows us to separate fMRI phase signal (by complex division) and to perform inverse mapping for pure BOLD δχ reconstruction for intrinsic functional χ mapping. The full brain χ reconstruction (from unwrapped fMRI phase) provides a new brain tissue image that allows to scrutinize the brain tissue idiosyncrasy for the pure BOLD δχ response through an automatic function/structure co-localization. PMID:29351339

  13. Brain functional BOLD perturbation modelling for forward fMRI and inverse mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zikuan; Robinson, Jennifer; Calhoun, Vince

    2018-01-01

    To computationally separate dynamic brain functional BOLD responses from static background in a brain functional activity for forward fMRI signal analysis and inverse mapping. A brain functional activity is represented in terms of magnetic source by a perturbation model: χ = χ0 +δχ, with δχ for BOLD magnetic perturbations and χ0 for background. A brain fMRI experiment produces a timeseries of complex-valued images (T2* images), whereby we extract the BOLD phase signals (denoted by δP) by a complex division. By solving an inverse problem, we reconstruct the BOLD δχ dataset from the δP dataset, and the brain χ distribution from a (unwrapped) T2* phase image. Given a 4D dataset of task BOLD fMRI, we implement brain functional mapping by temporal correlation analysis. Through a high-field (7T) and high-resolution (0.5mm in plane) task fMRI experiment, we demonstrated in detail the BOLD perturbation model for fMRI phase signal separation (P + δP) and reconstructing intrinsic brain magnetic source (χ and δχ). We also provided to a low-field (3T) and low-resolution (2mm) task fMRI experiment in support of single-subject fMRI study. Our experiments show that the δχ-depicted functional map reveals bidirectional BOLD χ perturbations during the task performance. The BOLD perturbation model allows us to separate fMRI phase signal (by complex division) and to perform inverse mapping for pure BOLD δχ reconstruction for intrinsic functional χ mapping. The full brain χ reconstruction (from unwrapped fMRI phase) provides a new brain tissue image that allows to scrutinize the brain tissue idiosyncrasy for the pure BOLD δχ response through an automatic function/structure co-localization.

  14. Multidimensional Brain MRI segmentation using graph cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecoeur, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the segmentation of multimodal brain MRIs by graph cuts method. First, we propose a method that utilizes three MRI modalities by merging them. The border information given by the spectral gradient is then challenged by a region information, given by the seeds selected by the user, using a graph cut algorithm. Then, we propose three enhancements of this method. The first consists in finding an optimal spectral space because the spectral gradient is based on natural images and then inadequate for multimodal medical images. This results in a learning based segmentation method. We then explore the automation of the graph cut method. Here, the various pieces of information usually given by the user are inferred from a robust expectation-maximization algorithm. We show the performance of these two enhanced versions on multiple sclerosis lesions. Finally, we integrate atlases for the automatic segmentation of deep brain structures. These three new techniques show the adaptability of our method to various problems. Our different segmentation methods are better than most of nowadays techniques, speaking of computation time or segmentation accuracy. (authors)

  15. Motor network plasticity and low-frequency oscillations abnormalities in patients with brain gliomas: a functional MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Niu

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity is often associated with the process of slow-growing tumor formation, which remodels neural organization and optimizes brain network function. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether motor function plasticity would display deficits in patients with slow-growing brain tumors located in or near motor areas, but who were without motor neurological deficits. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to probe motor networks in 15 patients with histopathologically confirmed brain gliomas and 15 age-matched healthy controls. All subjects performed a motor task to help identify individual motor activity in the bilateral primary motor cortex (PMC and supplementary motor area (SMA. Frequency-based analysis at three different frequencies was then used to investigate possible alterations in the power spectral density (PSD of low-frequency oscillations. For each group, the average PSD was determined for each brain region and a nonparametric test was performed to determine the difference in power between the two groups. Significantly reduced inter-hemispheric functional connectivity between the left and right PMC was observed in patients compared with controls (P<0.05. We also found significantly decreased PSD in patients compared to that in controls, in all three frequency bands (low: 0.01-0.02 Hz; middle: 0.02-0.06 Hz; and high: 0.06-0.1 Hz, at three key motor regions. These findings suggest that in asymptomatic patients with brain tumors located in eloquent regions, inter-hemispheric connection may be more vulnerable. A comparison of the two approaches indicated that power spectral analysis is more sensitive than functional connectivity analysis for identifying the neurological abnormalities underlying motor function plasticity induced by slow-growing tumors.

  16. Brain microstructure mapping using quantitative and diffusion MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebois, Alice

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the human brain microstructure mapping using quantitative and diffusion MRI. The T1/T2 quantitative imaging relies on sequences dedicated to the mapping of T1 and T2 relaxation times. Their variations within the tissue are linked to the presence of different water compartments defined by a specific organization of the tissue at the cell scale. Measuring these parameters can help, therefore, to better characterize the brain microstructure. The dMRI, on the other hand, explores the brownian motion of water molecules in the brain tissue, where the water molecules' movement is constrained by natural barriers, such as cell membranes. Thus, the information on their displacement carried by the dMRI signal gives access to the underlying cyto-architecture. Combination of these two modalities is, therefore, a promising way to probe the brain tissue microstructure. The main goal of the present thesis is to set up the methodology to study the microstructure of the white matter of the human brain in vivo. The first part includes the acquisition of a unique MRI database of 79 healthy subjects (the Archi/CONNECT), which includes anatomical high resolution data, relaxometry data, diffusion-weighted data at high spatio-angular resolution and functional data. This database has allowed us to build the first atlas of the anatomical connectivity of the healthy brain through the automatic segmentation of the major white matter bundles, providing an appropriate anatomical reference for the white matter to study individually the quantitative parameters along each fascicle, characterizing its microstructure organization. Emphasis was placed on the construction of the first atlas of the T1/T2 profiles along the major white matter pathways. The profiles of the T1 and T2 relaxation times were then correlated to the quantitative profiles computed from the diffusion MRI data (fractional anisotropy, radial and longitudinal diffusivities, apparent diffusion coefficient

  17. [An fMRI Study of the Brain Activation Related to Intensive Positive Emotions During Viweing Erotic Pictures in 49-74 Old Men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynova, O; Portnova, G; Orlov, I

    2016-01-01

    According to psychological research erotic images are evaluated in the context of positive emotions as the most intense, most associated with emotional arousal, among the variety of pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. However it is difficult to separate areas of the brain that are related to the general emotional process from the activity of the brain areas involved in neuronal representations of reward system. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in the brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in male subjects in evaluating an intensity of pleasant images, including erotic, or unpleasant and neutral pictures. When comparing the condition with evaluation of the pleasant erotic images with conditions containing neutral or unpleasant stimuli, a significant activation was observed in the posterior cingulate cortex; the prefrontal cortex and the right globus pallidus. An increased activity of the right anterior central gyrus was observed in the conditions related to evaluation of pleasant and neutral stimuli. Thus, in the process of evaluating the intensity of emotional images of an erotic nature the active brain areas were related not only to neuronal representations of emotions, but also to motivations and control system of emotional arousal, which should be taken into account while using erotic pictures as intensive positive emotional stimuli.

  18. [Aberrant topological properties of whole-brain functional network in chronic right-sided sensorineural hearing loss: a resting-state functional MRI study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Liu, Bin; Xu, Yangwen; Yang, Ming; Feng, Yuan; Huang, Yaqing; Huan, Zhichun; Hou, Zhaorui

    2015-02-03

    To investigate the topological properties of the functional brain network in unilateral sensorineural hearing loss patients. In this study, we acquired resting-state BOLD- fMRI data from 19 right-sided SNHL patients and 31 healthy controls with normal hearing and constructed their whole brain functional networks. Two-sample two-tailed t-tests were performed to investigate group differences in topological parameters between the USNHL patients and the controls. Partial correlation analysis was conducted to determine the relationships between the network metrics and USNHL-related variables. Both USNHL patients and controls exhibited small-word architecture in their brain functional networks within the range 0. 1 - 0. 2 of sparsity. Compared to the controls, USNHL patients showed significant increase in characteristic path length and normalized characteristic path length, but significant decrease in global efficiency. Clustering coefficient, local efficiency and normalized clustering coefficient demonstrated no significant difference. Furthermore, USNHL patients exhibited no significant association between the altered network metrics and the duration of USNHL or the severity of hearing loss. Our results indicated the altered topological properties of whole brain functional networks in USNHL patients, which may help us to understand pathophysiologic mechanism of USNHL patients.

  19. Headache, migraine, and structural brain lesions and function: population based Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing-MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurth, T.; Mohamed, S.; Zhu, Y.C.; Dufouil, C.; Tzourio, Ch.; Kurth, T.; Zhu, Y.C.; Dufouil, C.; Tzourio, Ch.; Kurth, T.; Maillard, P.; Mazoyer, B.; Zhu, Y.C.; Chabriat, H.; Bousser, M.G.; Tzourio, Ch.; Zhu, Y.C.; Chabriat, H.; Bousser, M.G.; Mazoyer, B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association of overall and specific headaches with volume of white matter hyper-intensities, brain infarcts, and cognition. Design: Population based, cross sectional study. Setting: Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing study, Nantes, France. Participants: 780 participants (mean age 69, 58.5% women) with detailed headache assessment. Main outcome measures: Brain scans were evaluated for volume of white matter hyper-intensities (by fully automated imaging processing) and for classification of infarcts (by visual reading with a standardised assessment grid). Cognitive function was assessed by a battery of tests including the mini-mental state examination. Results: 163 (20.9%) participants reported a history of severe headache and 116 had migraine, of whom 17 (14.7%) reported aura symptoms. An association was found between any history of severe headache and increasing volume of white matter hyper-intensities. The adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest third for total volume of white matter hyper-intensities was 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 3.1, P for trend 0.002) for participants with any history of severe headache when compared with participants without severe headache being in the lowest third. The association pattern was similar for all headache types. Migraine with aura was the only headache type strongly associated with volume of deep white matter hyper-intensities (highest third odds ratio 12.4, 1.6 to 99.4, P for trend 0.005) and with brain infarcts (3.4, 1.2 to 9.3). The location of infarcts was predominantly outside the cerebellum and brain stem. Evidence was lacking for cognitive impairment for any headache type with or without brain lesions. Conclusions: In this population based study, any history of severe headache was associated with an increased volume of white matter hyper-intensities. Migraine with aura was the only headache type associated with brain infarcts. Evidence that headache of any type by itself or in

  20. Imaging tools to study pharmacology: functional MRI on small rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eJonckers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI is an excellent tool to study the effect of pharmacological modulations on brain function in a non-invasive and longitudinal manner. We introduce several blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD fMRI techniques, including resting state (rsfMRI, stimulus-evoked (st-fMRI, and pharmacological MRI (phMRI. Respectively, these techniques permit the assessment of functional connectivity during rest as well as brain activation triggered by sensory stimulation and/or a pharmacological challenge. The first part of this review describes the physiological basis of BOLD fMRI and the hemodynamic response on which the MRI contrast is based. Specific emphasis goes to possible effects of anaesthesia and the animal’s physiological conditions on neural activity and the hemodynamic response. The second part of this review describes applications of the aforementioned techniques in pharmacologically-induced, as well as in traumatic and transgenic disease models and illustrates how multiple fMRI methods can be applied successfully to evaluate different aspects of a specific disorder. For example, fMRI techniques can be used to pinpoint the neural substrate of a disease beyond previously defined hypothesis-driven regions-of-interest (ROIs. In addition, fMRI techniques allow one to dissect how specific modifications (e.g. treatment, lesion etc. modulate the functioning of specific brain areas (st-fMRI, phMRI and how functional connectivity (rsfMRI between several brain regions is affected, both in acute and extended time frames. Furthermore, fMRI techniques can be used to assess/explore the efficacy of novel treatments in depth, both in fundamental research as well as in preclinical settings. In conclusion, by describing several exemplary studies, we aim to highlight the advantages of functional MRI in exploring the acute and long-term effects of pharmacological substances and/or pathology on brain functioning along with

  1. Three-dimensional brain mapping using fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Chuzo; Umeda, Masahiro; Ebisu, Toshihiko; Aoki, Ichio; Higuchi, Toshihiro; Naruse, Shoji.

    1997-01-01

    Functional mapping of the activated brain, the location and extent of the activated area were determined, during motor tasks and sensory stimulation using fMRI superimposed on 3D anatomical MRI. Twelve volunteers were studied. The fMR images were acquired using a 2D gradient echo echo planar imaging sequence. The 3D anatomical MR images of the whole brain were acquired using a conventional 3D gradient echo sequence. Motor tasks were sequential opposition of fingers, clenching a hand and elbow flexion. Somatosensory stimulation were administered by scrubbing the palm and sole with a washing sponge. Visual stimulation consisted of full visual field stimulation. Data were analyzed by the cross-correlation method. Transversal fMR images and anatomical images were reconstructed using both volume-, surface-rendering methods, and reconstructed for coronal and sagittal sections. Activated areas were expressed using the three primary colors. Motor tasks activated the contralateral primary motor area (M1), the primary somatosensory area (S1) and the supplementary motor area (SMA). Somatosensory tasks activated the contralateral S1, M1 and secondary sensory area (S2). Activated areas during full visual field stimulation was observed in the bilateral occipital lobe, including both the primary cortex. Three-dimensional brain mapping allowed visualization of the anatomical location and extent of the activated brain during both motor task and sensory stimulation. Using this method we could obtain a functional map similar to the Penfield's schema. (author)

  2. Modulation of brain activity by multiple lexical and word form variables in visual word recognition: A parametric fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauk, Olaf; Davis, Matthew H; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2008-09-01

    Psycholinguistic research has documented a range of variables that influence visual word recognition performance. Many of these variables are highly intercorrelated. Most previous studies have used factorial designs, which do not exploit the full range of values available for continuous variables, and are prone to skewed stimulus selection as well as to effects of the baseline (e.g. when contrasting words with pseudowords). In our study, we used a parametric approach to study the effects of several psycholinguistic variables on brain activation. We focussed on the variable word frequency, which has been used in numerous previous behavioural, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies, in order to investigate the neuronal network underlying visual word processing. Furthermore, we investigated the variable orthographic typicality as well as a combined variable for word length and orthographic neighbourhood size (N), for which neuroimaging results are still either scarce or inconsistent. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression analysis of event-related fMRI data acquired from 21 subjects in a silent reading paradigm. The frequency variable correlated negatively with activation in left fusiform gyrus, bilateral inferior frontal gyri and bilateral insulae, indicating that word frequency can affect multiple aspects of word processing. N correlated positively with brain activity in left and right middle temporal gyri as well as right inferior frontal gyrus. Thus, our analysis revealed multiple distinct brain areas involved in visual word processing within one data set.

  3. Altered brain function in new onset childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia before chemotherapy: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhanqi; Zou, Dongfang; Mai, Huirong; Yuan, Xiuli; Wang, Lihong; Li, Yue; Liao, Jianxiang; Liu, Liwei; Liu, Guosheng; Zeng, Hongwu; Wen, Feiqiu

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive impairments had been reported in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, what caused the impairments needed to be demonstrated, chemotherapy-related or the disease itself. The primary aim of this exploratory investigation was to determine if there were changes in brain function of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia before chemotherapy. In this study, we advanced a measure named regional homogeneity to evaluate the resting-state brain activities, intelligence quotient test was performed at same time. Using regional homogeneity, we first investigated the resting state brain function in patients with new onset childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia before chemotherapy, healthy children as control. The decreased ReHo values were mainly founded in the default mode network and left frontal lobe, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, bilateral temporal lobe, bilateral occipital lobe, precentral gyrus, bilateral cerebellum in the newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients compared with the healthy control. While in contrast, increased ReHo values were mainly shown in the right frontal lobe (language area), superior frontal gyrus-R, middle frontal gyrus-R and inferior parietal lobule-R for acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients group. There were no significant differences for intelligence quotient measurements between the acute lymphoblastic leukemia patient group and the healthy control in performance intelligence quotient, verbal intelligence quotient, total intelligence quotient. The altered brain functions are associated with cognitive change and language, it is suggested that there may be cognition impairment before the chemotherapy. Regional homogeneity by functional magnetic resonance image is a sensitive way for early detection on brain damage in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Abacus in the brain: a longitudinal functional MRI study of a skilled abacus user with a right hemispheric lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Seki, Keiko; Hanakawa, Takashi; Harada, Madoka; Sugawara, Sho K; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Katsumi; Honda, Manabu

    2012-01-01

    The abacus, a traditional physical calculation device, is still widely used in Asian countries. Previous behavioral work has shown that skilled abacus users perform rapid and precise mental arithmetic by manipulating a mental representation of an abacus, which is based on visual imagery. However, its neurophysiological basis remains unclear. Here, we report the case of a patient who was a good abacus user, but transiently lost her "mental abacus" and superior arithmetic performance after a stroke owing to a right hemispheric lesion including the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments were conducted 6 and 13 months after her stroke. In the mental calculation task, her brain activity was shifted from the language-related areas, including Broca's area and the left dorsolateral prefrontal and IPLs, to the visuospatial-related brain areas including the left superior parietal lobule (SPL), according to the recovery of her arithmetic abilities. In the digit memory task, activities in the bilateral SPL, and right visual association cortex were also observed after recovery. The shift of brain activities was consistent with her subjective report that she was able to shift the calculation strategy from linguistic to visuospatial as her mental abacus became stable again. In a behavioral experiment using an interference paradigm, a visual presentation of an abacus picture, but not a human face picture, interfered with the performance of her digit memory, confirming her use of the mental abacus after recovery. This is the first case report on the impairment of the mental abacus by a brain lesion and on recovery-related brain activity. We named this rare case "abacus-based acalculia." Together with previous neuroimaging studies, the present result suggests an important role for the PMd and parietal cortex in the superior arithmetic ability of abacus users.

  5. Total and regional brain volumes in a population-based normative sample from 4 to 18 years: the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Using a population-based sampling strategy, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development compiled a longitudinal normative reference database of neuroimaging and correlated clinical/behavioral data from a demographically representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged newborn through early adulthood. The present paper reports brain volume data for 325 children, ages 4.5-18 years, from the first cross-sectional time point. Measures included volumes of whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), left and right lateral ventricles, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe GM and WM, subcortical GM (thalamus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem. Associations with cross-sectional age, sex, family income, parental education, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. Key observations are: 1) age-related decreases in lobar GM most prominent in parietal and occipital cortex; 2) age-related increases in lobar WM, greatest in occipital, followed by the temporal lobe; 3) age-related trajectories predominantly curvilinear in females, but linear in males; and 4) small systematic associations of brain tissue volumes with BMI but not with IQ, family income, or parental education. These findings constitute a normative reference on regional brain volumes in children and adolescents.

  6. Branding and a child’s brain: an fMRI study of neural responses to logos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Jared M.; Black, William R.; Lepping, Rebecca J.; Henry, Janice M.; Cherry, Joseph Bradley C.; Martin, Laura E.; Papa, Vlad B.; Davis, Ann M.; Brooks, William M.; Savage, Cary R.

    2014-01-01

    Branding and advertising have a powerful effect on both familiarity and preference for products, yet no neuroimaging studies have examined neural response to logos in children. Food advertising is particularly pervasive and effective in manipulating choices in children. The purpose of this study was to examine how healthy children’s brains respond to common food and other logos. A pilot validation study was first conducted with 32 children to select the most culturally familiar logos, and to match food and non-food logos on valence and intensity. A new sample of 17 healthy weight children were then scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Food logos compared to baseline were associated with increased activation in orbitofrontal cortex and inferior prefrontal cortex. Compared to non-food logos, food logos elicited increased activation in posterior cingulate cortex. Results confirmed that food logos activate some brain regions in children known to be associated with motivation. This marks the first study in children to examine brain responses to culturally familiar logos. Considering the pervasiveness of advertising, research should further investigate how children respond at the neural level to marketing. PMID:22997054

  7. Greater brain response to emotional expressions of their own children in mothers of preterm infants: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, R; Arrigoni, F; Casini, E; Nordio, A; De Carli, P; Di Salle, F; Moriconi, S; Re, M; Reni, G; Borgatti, R

    2017-06-01

    The birth of a preterm infant and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit hospitalization constitute a potentially traumatic experience for mothers. Although behavioral studies investigated the parenting stress in preterm mothers, no study focused on the underlying neural mechanisms. We examined the effect of preterm births in mothers, by comparing brain activation in mothers of preterm and full-term infants. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the cerebral response of 10 first-time mothers of preterm infants (gestational age mothers of full-term infants, viewing happy-, neutral- and distress-face images of their own infant, along with a matched unknown infant. While viewing own infant's face preterm mothers showed increased activation in emotional processing area (i.e., inferior frontal gyrus) and social cognition (i.e., supramarginal gyrus) and affiliative behavior (i.e., insula). Differential brain activation patterns in mothers appears to be a function of the atypical parenthood transition related to prematurity.

  8. A longitudinal observational study of brain atrophy rate reflecting four decades of multiple sclerosis: a comparison of serial 1D, 2D, and volumetric measurements from MRI images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martola, Juha; Zhang, Yi; Aspelin, Peter; Kristoffersen Wiberg, Maria; Bergstroem, Jakob; Fredrikson, Sten; Stawiarz, Leszek; Hillert, Jan; Flodmark, Olof; Lilja, Anders; Ekbom, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a variable progression with an early onset of atrophy. Individual longitudinal radiological evaluations (over decades) are difficult to perform due to the limited availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the past, patients lost in follow-up, and the continuous updating of scanners. We studied a cohort with widespread disease duration at baseline. The observed individual atrophy rates over time of 10 years represented four decades of disease span. Thirty-seven MS patients (age range 24-65 years with disease duration 1-33 years) were consecutively selected and evaluated with MRI at baseline 1995 and in 1996. They were followed up for a decade (mean of 9.25 years, range 7.3-10 years) up to 2003-2005. Brain parenchymal volume and volumes of the supratentorial ventricles were analyzed with semi-automated volumetric measurements at three time points (1995, 1996, and 2003-2005). Volumetric differences were found over shorter periods of time (1-7 months); however, differences vanished by the end of follow-up. A uniform longitudinal decrease in brain volume and increase in ventricle volumes were found. Frontal horn width (1D) correlated strongest to 3D measures. No statistical differences of atrophy rates between MS courses were found. Supratentorial ventricular volumes were associated with disability and this association persisted during follow-up. Despite variable clinical courses, the degenerative effects of MS progression expressed in brain atrophy seem to uniformly progress over longer periods of time. These volumetric changes can be detected using 1D and 2D measurements performed on a routine PACS workstation. (orig.)

  9. Acute caffeine administration impact on working memory-related brain activation and functional connectivity in the elderly: a BOLD and perfusion MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, S; Rodriguez, C; Moser, D; Toma, S; Hofmeister, J; Sinanaj, I; Van De Ville, D; Giannakopoulos, P; Lovblad, K-O

    2013-10-10

    In young individuals, caffeine-mediated blockade of adenosine receptors and vasoconstriction has direct repercussions on task-related activations, changes in functional connectivity, as well as global vascular effects. To date, no study has explored the effect of caffeine on brain activation patterns during highly demanding cognitive tasks in the elderly. This prospective, placebo-controlled crossover design comprises 24 healthy elderly individuals (mean age 68.8 ± 4.0 years, 17 females) performing a 2-back working memory (WM) task in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Analyses include complimentary assessment of task-related activations (general linear model, GLM), functional connectivity (tensorial independent component analysis, TICA), and baseline perfusion (arterial spin labeling). Despite a reduction in whole-brain global perfusion (-22.7%), caffeine-enhanced task-related GLM activation in a local and distributed network is most pronounced in the bilateral striatum and to a lesser degree in the right middle and inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral insula, left superior and inferior parietal lobule as well as in the cerebellum bilaterally. TICA was significantly enhanced (+8.2%) in caffeine versus placebo in a distributed and task-relevant network including the pre-frontal cortex, the supplementary motor area, the ventral premotor cortex and the parietal cortex as well as the occipital cortex (visual stimuli) and basal ganglia. The inverse comparison of placebo versus caffeine had no significant difference. Activation strength of the task-relevant-network component correlated with response accuracy for caffeine yet not for placebo, indicating a selective cognitive effect of caffeine. The present findings suggest that acute caffeine intake enhances WM-related brain activation as well as functional connectivity of blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI in elderly individuals. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. When thoughts become action: an fMRI paradigm to study volitional brain activity in non-communicative brain injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boly, M; Coleman, M R; Davis, M H; Hampshire, A; Bor, D; Moonen, G; Maquet, P A; Pickard, J D; Laureys, S; Owen, A M

    2007-07-01

    The assessment of voluntary behavior in non-communicative brain injured patients is often challenging due to the existence of profound motor impairment. In the absence of a full understanding of the neural correlates of consciousness, even a normal activation in response to passive sensory stimulation cannot be considered as proof of the presence of awareness in these patients. In contrast, predicted activation in response to the instruction to perform a mental imagery task would provide evidence of voluntary task-dependent brain activity, and hence of consciousness, in non-communicative patients. However, no data yet exist to indicate which imagery instructions would yield reliable single subject activation. The aim of the present study was to establish such a paradigm in healthy volunteers. Two exploratory experiments evaluated the reproducibility of individual brain activation elicited by four distinct mental imagery tasks. The two most robust mental imagery tasks were found to be spatial navigation and motor imagery. In a third experiment, where these two tasks were directly compared, differentiation of each task from one another and from rest periods was assessed blindly using a priori criteria and was correct for every volunteer. The spatial navigation and motor imagery tasks described here permit the identification of volitional brain activation at the single subject level, without a motor response. Volunteer as well as patient data [Owen, A.M., Coleman, M.R., Boly, M., Davis, M.H., Laureys, S., Pickard J.D., 2006. Detecting awareness in the vegetative state. Science 313, 1402] strongly suggest that this paradigm may provide a method for assessing the presence of volitional brain activity, and thus of consciousness, in non-communicative brain-injured patients.

  11. Adversarial training and dilated convolutions for brain MRI segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeskops, P.; Veta, M.; Lafarge, M.W.; Eppenhof, K.A.J.; Pluim, J.P.W.

    2017-01-01

    Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been applied to various automatic image segmentation tasks in medical image analysis, including brain MRI segmentation. Generative adversarial networks have recently gained popularity because of their power in generating images that are difficult to

  12. Learning Computational Models of Video Memorability from fMRI Brain Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junwei; Chen, Changyuan; Shao, Ling; Hu, Xintao; Han, Jungong; Liu, Tianming

    2015-08-01

    Generally, various visual media are unequally memorable by the human brain. This paper looks into a new direction of modeling the memorability of video clips and automatically predicting how memorable they are by learning from brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We propose a novel computational framework by integrating the power of low-level audiovisual features and brain activity decoding via fMRI. Initially, a user study experiment is performed to create a ground truth database for measuring video memorability and a set of effective low-level audiovisual features is examined in this database. Then, human subjects' brain fMRI data are obtained when they are watching the video clips. The fMRI-derived features that convey the brain activity of memorizing videos are extracted using a universal brain reference system. Finally, due to the fact that fMRI scanning is expensive and time-consuming, a computational model is learned on our benchmark dataset with the objective of maximizing the correlation between the low-level audiovisual features and the fMRI-derived features using joint subspace learning. The learned model can then automatically predict the memorability of videos without fMRI scans. Evaluations on publically available image and video databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  13. Principal States of Dynamic Functional Connectivity Reveal the Link Between Resting-State and Task-State Brain: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lin; Zhu, Yang; Sun, Junfeng; Deng, Lifu; He, Naying; Yang, Yang; Ling, Huawei; Ayaz, Hasan; Fu, Yi; Tong, Shanbao

    2018-01-25

    Task-related reorganization of functional connectivity (FC) has been widely investigated. Under classic static FC analysis, brain networks under task and rest have been demonstrated a general similarity. However, brain activity and cognitive process are believed to be dynamic and adaptive. Since static FC inherently ignores the distinct temporal patterns between rest and task, dynamic FC may be more a suitable technique to characterize the brain's dynamic and adaptive activities. In this study, we adopted [Formula: see text]-means clustering to investigate task-related spatiotemporal reorganization of dynamic brain networks and hypothesized that dynamic FC would be able to reveal the link between resting-state and task-state brain organization, including broadly similar spatial patterns but distinct temporal patterns. In order to test this hypothesis, this study examined the dynamic FC in default-mode network (DMN) and motor-related network (MN) using Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD)-fMRI data from 26 healthy subjects during rest (REST) and a hand closing-and-opening (HCO) task. Two principal FC states in REST and one principal FC state in HCO were identified. The first principal FC state in REST was found similar to that in HCO, which appeared to represent intrinsic network architecture and validated the broadly similar spatial patterns between REST and HCO. However, the second FC principal state in REST with much shorter "dwell time" implied the transient functional relationship between DMN and MN during REST. In addition, a more frequent shifting between two principal FC states indicated that brain network dynamically maintained a "default mode" in the motor system during REST, whereas the presence of a single principal FC state and reduced FC variability implied a more temporally stable connectivity during HCO, validating the distinct temporal patterns between REST and HCO. Our results further demonstrated that dynamic FC analysis could offer unique

  14. MRI T2 relaxometry of brain regions and cognitive dysfunction following electroconvulsive therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kunigiri, Girish; Jayakumar, P. N.; Janakiramaiah, N.; Gangadhar, B. N.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) causes no structural brain damage, recent studies reported altered brain perfusion acutely following ECT. This is in keeping with brain edema which was noted in animal experiments following electroconvulsive shock. Aim: This study examined alteration in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 relaxation time, a measure of brain edema, and its relation to therapeutic efficacy, orientation and memory impairment with ECT. Materials and Methods: Fi...

  15. The effects of a mid-task break on the brain connectome in healthy participants: A resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Lim, Julian; Dai, Zhongxiang; Wong, KianFoong; Taya, Fumihiko; Chen, Yu; Li, Junhua; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2017-05-15

    Although rest breaks are commonly administered as a countermeasure to reduce mental fatigue and boost cognitive performance, the effects of taking a break on behavior are not consistent. Moreover, our understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of rest breaks and how they modulate mental fatigue is still rudimentary. In this study, we investigated the effects of receiving a rest break on the topological properties of brain connectivity networks via a two-session experimental paradigm, in which one session comprised four successive blocks of a mentally demanding visual selective attention task (No-rest session), whereas the other contained a rest break between the second and third task blocks (Rest session). Functional brain networks were constructed using resting-state functional MRI data recorded from 20 healthy adults before and after the performance of the task blocks. Behaviorally, subjects displayed robust time-on-task (TOT) declines, as reflected by increasingly slower reaction time as the test progressed and lower post-task self-reported ratings of engagement. However, we did not find a significant effect on task performance due to administering a mid-task break. Compared to pre-task measurements, post-task functional brain networks demonstrated an overall decrease of optimal small-world properties together with lower global efficiency. Specifically, we found TOT-related reduced nodal efficiency in brain regions that mainly resided in the subcortical areas. More interestingly, a significant block-by-session interaction was revealed in local efficiency, attributing to a significant post-task decline in No-rest session and a preserved local efficiency when a mid-task break opportunity was introduced in the Rest session. Taken together, these findings augment our understanding of how the resting brain reorganizes following the accumulation of prolonged task, suggest dissociable processes between the neural mechanisms of fatigue and recovery, and provide

  16. The Serotonin Receptor 6 Antagonist Idalopirdine and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor Donepezil Have Synergistic Effects on Brain Activity—A Functional MRI Study in the Awake Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F. Ferris

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The 5-HT6 receptor is a promising target for cognitive disorders, in particular for Alzheimer's disease (AD and other CNS disorders. The high-affinity and selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist idalopirdine (Lu AE58054 is currently in development for mild-moderate AD as adjunct therapy to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs. We studied the effects of idalopirdine alone and in combination with the AChEI donepezil on brain activity using BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in the awake rat. Idalopirdine (2 mg/kg, i.v. alone had a modest effect on brain activity, resulting in activation of eight brain regions at the peak response. Of these, the cholinergic diagonal band of Broca, the infralimbic cortex, the ventral pallidum, the nucleus accumbens shell, and the magnocellular preoptic area were shared with the effects of donepezil (0.3 mg/kg, i.v.. Donepezil alone activated 19 brain regions at the peak response, including several cortical regions, areas of the septo-hippocampal system and the serotonergic raphe nucleus. When idalopirdine and donepezil were combined, there was a robust stimulation pattern with activation of 36 brain regions spread across the extended-amygdala-, striato-pallidal, and septo-hippocampal networks as well as the cholinergic system. These findings indicate that, whilst idalopirdine and donepezil recruit a number of overlapping regions including one of the forebrain cholinergic nuclei, the synergistic effect of both compounds extends beyond the cholinergic system and the effects of donepezil alone toward recruitment of multiple neural circuits and neurotransmitter systems. These data provide new insight into the mechanisms via which idalopirdine might improve cognition in donepezil-treated AD patients.

  17. Current status and future role of brain PET/MRI in clinical and research settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, P.; Barthel, H.; Sabri, O. [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Drzezga, A. [University Hospital Cologne, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Koeln (Germany)

    2015-01-09

    Hybrid PET/MRI systematically offers a complementary combination of two modalities that has often proven itself superior to the single modality approach in the diagnostic work-up of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. Emerging PET tracers, technical advances in multiparametric MRI and obvious workflow advantages may lead to a significant improvement in the diagnosis of dementia disorders, neurooncological diseases, epilepsy and neurovascular diseases using PET/MRI. Moreover, simultaneous PET/MRI is well suited to complex studies of brain function in which fast fluctuations of brain signals (e.g. related to task processing or in response to pharmacological interventions) need to be monitored on multiple levels. Initial simultaneous studies have already demonstrated that these complementary measures of brain function can provide new insights into the functional and structural organization of the brain. (orig.)

  18. Current status and future role of brain PET/MRI in clinical and research settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, P.; Barthel, H.; Sabri, O.; Drzezga, A.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid PET/MRI systematically offers a complementary combination of two modalities that has often proven itself superior to the single modality approach in the diagnostic work-up of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. Emerging PET tracers, technical advances in multiparametric MRI and obvious workflow advantages may lead to a significant improvement in the diagnosis of dementia disorders, neurooncological diseases, epilepsy and neurovascular diseases using PET/MRI. Moreover, simultaneous PET/MRI is well suited to complex studies of brain function in which fast fluctuations of brain signals (e.g. related to task processing or in response to pharmacological interventions) need to be monitored on multiple levels. Initial simultaneous studies have already demonstrated that these complementary measures of brain function can provide new insights into the functional and structural organization of the brain. (orig.)

  19. Anisotropic Diffusion based Brain MRI Segmentation and 3D Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    M. Arfan Jaffar; Sultan Zia; Ghaznafar Latif; AnwarM. Mirza; Irfan Mehmood; Naveed Ejaz; Sung Wook Baik

    2012-01-01

    In medical field visualization of the organs is very imperative for accurate diagnosis and treatment of any disease. Brain tumor diagnosis and surgery also required impressive 3D visualization of the brain to the radiologist. Detection and 3D reconstruction of brain tumors from MRI is a computationally time consuming and error-prone task. Proposed system detects and presents a 3D visualization model of the brain and tumor inside which greatly helps the radiologist to effectively diagnose and ...

  20. Aquaporin-4 facilitator TGN-073 promotes interstitial fluid circulation within the blood-brain barrier: [17O]H2O JJVCPE MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Vincent J; Igarashi, Hironaka; Ueki, Satoshi; Kwee, Ingrid L; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2018-06-13

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which imposes significant water permeability restriction, effectively isolates the brain from the systemic circulation. Seemingly paradoxical, the abundance of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) on the inside of the BBB strongly indicates the presence of unique water dynamics essential for brain function. On the basis of the highly specific localization of AQP-4, namely, astrocyte end feet at the glia limitans externa and pericapillary Virchow-Robin space, we hypothesized that the AQP-4 system serves as an interstitial fluid circulator, moving interstitial fluid from the glia limitans externa to pericapillary Virchow-Robin space to ensure proper glymphatic flow draining into the cerebrospinal fluid. The hypothesis was tested directly using the AQP-4 facilitator TGN-073 developed in our laboratory, and [O]H2O JJ vicinal coupling proton exchange MRI, a method capable of tracing water molecules delivered into the blood circulation. The results unambiguously showed that facilitation of AQP-4 by TGN-073 increased turnover of interstitial fluid through the system, resulting in a significant reduction in [O]H2O contents of cortex with normal flux into the cerebrospinal fluid. The study further suggested that in addition to providing the necessary water for proper glymphatic flow, the AQP-4 system produces a water gradient within the interstitial space promoting circulation of interstitial fluid within the BBB.

  1. Atlas of regional anatomy of the brain using MRI. With functional correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamraz, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The volume provides a unique review of the essential topographical anatomy of the brain from an MRI perspective, correlating high-quality anatomical plates with the corresponding high-resolution MRI images. The book includes a historical review of brain mapping and an analysis of the essential reference planes used for the study of the human brain. Subsequent chapters provide a detailed review of the sulcal and the gyral anatomy of the human cortex, guiding the reader through an interpretation of the individual brain atlas provided by high-resolution MRI. The relationship between brain structure and function is approached in a topographical fashion with analysis of the necessary imaging methodology and displayed anatomy. The central, perisylvian, mesial temporal and occipital areas receive special attention. Imaging of the core brain structures is included. An extensive coronal atlas concludes the book. (orig.)

  2. Spontaneous Brain Activity Did Not Show the Effect of Violent Video Games on Aggression: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Pan; Wei Pan; Wei Pan; Xuemei Gao; Shuo Shi; Fuqu Liu; Chao Li

    2018-01-01

    A great many of empirical researches have proved that longtime exposure to violent video game can lead to a series of negative effects. Although research has focused on the neural basis of the correlation between violent video game and aggression, little is known whether the spontaneous brain activity is associated with violent video game exposure. To address this question, we measured the spontaneous brain activity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used the...

  3. MRI case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggett, S.; Barber, J.

    1989-01-01

    Three case studies are presented to show the value of magnetic resonance imaging used in conjunction with other imaging techniques. In each case MRI proved a vital diagnostic tool and superior to CT in showing firstly the haematoma in a patient with aphasia and right-sided weakness, secondly the size of the disc herniation in a patient with severe leg and ankle pains and thirdly the existence of a metastatic lesion in a patient with a previous history of breast cancer. 11 figs

  4. Gender differences in brain regional homogeneity of healthy subjects after normal sleep and after sleep deprivation: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xi-Jian; Gong, Hong-Han; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Zhou, Fu-Qing; Min, You-Jiang; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Si-Yong; Liu, Bi-Xia; Xiao, Xiang-Zuo

    2012-06-01

    To explore the gender differences of brain regional homogeneity (ReHo) in healthy subjects during the resting-state, after normal sleep, and after sleep deprivation (SD) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the ReHo method. Sixteen healthy subjects (eight males and eight females) each underwent the resting-state fMRI exams twice, i.e., once after normal sleep and again after 24h's SD. According to the gender and sleep, 16 subjects were all measured twice and divided into four groups: the male control group (MC), female control group (FC), male SD group (MSD), and female SD group (FSD). The ReHo method was used to calculate and analyze the data, SPM5 software was used to perform a two-sample T-test and a two-pair T-test with a P value right paracentral lobule (BA3/6), but in no obviously lower regions. Compared with the FC, the FSD showed significantly higher ReHo in bilateral parietal lobes (BA2/3), bilateral vision-related regions of occipital lobes (BA17/18/19), right frontal lobe (BA4/6), and lower ReHo in the right frontal lobe. Compared with the FC, the MC showed significantly higher ReHo in the left occipital lobe (BA18/19), and left temporal lobe (BA21), left frontal lobe, and lower ReHo in the right insula and in the left parietal lobe. Compared with the FSD, the MSD showed significantly higher ReHo in the left cerebellum posterior lobe (uvula/declive of vermis), left parietal lobe, and bilateral frontal lobes, and lower ReHo in the right occipital lobe (BA17) and right frontal lobe (BA4). The differences of brain activity in the resting state can be widely found not only between the control and SD group in a same gender group, but also between the male group and female group. Thus, we should take the gender differences into consideration in future fMRI studies, especially the treatment of brain-related diseases (e.g., depression). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Japanese and English Sentence Reading Comprehension and Writing Systems: An fMRI Study of First and Second Language Effects on Brain Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A.; Hasegawa, Mihoko; Just, Marcel A.

    2009-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activation from native Japanese (L1) readers reading hiragana (syllabic) and kanji (logographic) sentences, and English as a second language (L2). Kanji showed more activation than hiragana in right-hemisphere occipito-temporal lobe areas associated with visuospatial…

  6. Pattern of structural brain changes in social anxiety disorder after cognitive behavioral group therapy: a longitudinal multimodal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, V R; Brühl, A B; Weidt, S; Delsignore, A; Rufer, M; Jäncke, L; Herwig, U; Hänggi, J

    2017-08-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fears of social and performance situations. Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) has in general positive effects on symptoms, distress and avoidance in SAD. Prior studies found increased cortical volumes and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in SAD compared with healthy controls (HCs). Thirty-three participants diagnosed with SAD attended in a 10-week CBGT and were scanned before and after therapy. We applied three neuroimaging methods-surface-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging and network-based statistics-each with specific longitudinal processing protocols, to investigate CBGT-induced structural brain alterations of the gray and white matter (WM). Surface-based morphometry revealed a significant cortical volume reduction (pre- to post-treatment) in the left inferior parietal cortex, as well as a positive partial correlation between treatment success (indexed by reductions in Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale) and reductions in cortical volume in bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis revealed a significant increase in FA in bilateral uncinate fasciculus and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Network-based statistics revealed a significant increase of structural connectivity in a frontolimbic network. No partial correlations with treatment success have been found in WM analyses. For, we believe, the first time, we present a distinctive pattern of longitudinal structural brain changes after CBGT measured with three established magnetic resonance imaging analyzing techniques. Our findings are in line with previous cross-sectional, unimodal SAD studies and extent them by highlighting anatomical brain alterations that point toward the level of HCs in parallel with a reduction in SAD symptomatology.

  7. Hypomelanosis of Ito and brain abnormalities: MRI findings and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, J.; Adamsbaum, C.; Desguerres, I.; Lalande, G.; Raynaud, F.; Ponsot, G.; Kalifa, G.

    1996-01-01

    We report the results of a 14-year retrospective study of brain MRI abnormalities in 12 pediatric patients presenting with hypomelanosis of Ito (HI). Miscellaneous brain abnormalities were found: one patient had a medulloblastoma, three had cortical malformations, and five demonstrated ''minor'' abnormalities such as dilated Virchow-Robin spaces or brain atrophy. We emphasize the polymorphism of brain abnormalities associated with HI. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Homayoun as a Persian Music Scale on Non-Musician’s Brain: an fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Pouladi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to get to a neurological evaluation of one of the Persian music scales, Homayoun, on brain activation of non-musician subjects. We selected this scale because Homayoun is one of the main scales in Persian classical music which is similar to minor mode in western scales. Methods: This study was performed on 19 right handed subjects, Aging 22-31. Here some pieces from Homayoun Dastgah are used in both rhythmic and non-rhythmic. Result: The results of this study revealed the brain activities for each of rhythmic and non-rhythmic versions of Homayoun Dastgah. The activated regions for non-rhythmic Homayoun contained: right and left Subcallosal Cortex, left Medial Frontal cortex, left anterior Cingulate Gyrus, left Frontal Pole and for rhythmic Homayoun contained: left Precentral Gyrus, left Precuneous Cortex, left anterior Supramarginal, left Superior Parietal Lobule, left Postcentral Gyrus. Also, we acquired amygdala area in both pieces of music. Discussion: Based on arousal effects of rhythm and Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis, non-rhythmic Homayoun activates regions related to emotion and thinking while activity of rhythmic Homayoun is related to areas of movement and motion.

  9. Computation of reliable textural indices from multimodal brain MRI: suggestions based on a study of patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goya-Outi, Jessica; Orlhac, Fanny; Calmon, Raphael; Alentorn, Agusti; Nioche, Christophe; Philippe, Cathy; Puget, Stéphanie; Boddaert, Nathalie; Buvat, Irène; Grill, Jacques; Frouin, Vincent; Frouin, Frederique

    2018-05-01

    Few methodological studies regarding widely used textural indices robustness in MRI have been reported. In this context, this study aims to propose some rules to compute reliable textural indices from multimodal 3D brain MRI. Diagnosis and post-biopsy MR scans including T1, post-contrast T1, T2 and FLAIR images from thirty children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) were considered. The hybrid white stripe method was adapted to standardize MR intensities. Sixty textural indices were then computed for each modality in different regions of interest (ROI), including tumor and white matter (WM). Three types of intensity binning were compared : constant bin width and relative bounds; constant number of bins and relative bounds; constant number of bins and absolute bounds. The impact of the volume of the region was also tested within the WM. First, the mean Hellinger distance between patient-based intensity distributions decreased by a factor greater than 10 in WM and greater than 2.5 in gray matter after standardization. Regarding the binning strategy, the ranking of patients was highly correlated for 188/240 features when comparing with , but for only 20 when comparing with , and nine when comparing with . Furthermore, when using or texture indices reflected tumor heterogeneity as assessed visually by experts. Last, 41 features presented statistically significant differences between contralateral WM regions when ROI size slightly varies across patients, and none when using ROI of the same size. For regions with similar size, 224 features were significantly different between WM and tumor. Valuable information from texture indices can be biased by methodological choices. Recommendations are to standardize intensities in MR brain volumes, to use intensity binning with constant bin width, and to define regions with the same volumes to get reliable textural indices.

  10. Evaluation of Brain and Cervical MRI Abnormality Rates in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus With or Without Neurological Manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Saberi, Hazhir; Najafizadeh, Seyed Reza; Hashemi, Seyed Ali

    2011-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement has been observed in 14-80% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an appropriate method for evaluating CNS involvement in these patients. Clinical manifestations and MRI findings of CNS lupus should be differentiated from other mimicking diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of brain and cervical cord MRI lesions of lupus patients. The relationship between neurological signs and symptoms and MRI findings were evaluated as well. Fifty SLE patients who had been referred to the rheumatology clinic of our hospital within 2009 were included in a cross sectional study. All patients fulfilled the revised 1981 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for SLE. We evaluated the neurological signs and symptoms and brain and cervical MRI findings in these patients. Forty-one patients (82%) were female and nine (18%) were male. The mean age was 30.1 ± 9.3 years. Twenty eight (56%) patients had an abnormal brain MRI. No one showed any abnormality in the cervical MRI. The lesions in 20 patients were similar to demyelinative plaques. Seventeen patients with abnormal brain MRI were neurologically asymptomatic. There was only a significant relationship between neurological motor manifestations and brain MRI abnormal findings. Unlike the brain, cervical MRI abnormality and especially asymptomatic cord involvement in MRI is quite rare in SLE patients. This finding may be helpful to differentiate SLE from other CNS disorders such as MS

  11. Experimental study of sector and linear array ultrasound accuracy and the influence of navigated 3D-reconstruction as compared to MRI in a brain tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekmann, Max; Lothes, Thomas; König, Ralph; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Coburger, Jan

    2018-03-01

    Currently, intraoperative ultrasound in brain tumor surgery is a rapidly propagating option in imaging technology. We examined the accuracy and resolution limits of different ultrasound probes and the influence of 3D-reconstruction in a phantom and compared these results to MRI in an intraoperative setting (iMRI). An agarose gel phantom with predefined gel targets was examined with iMRI, a sector (SUS) and a linear (LUS) array probe with two-dimensional images. Additionally, 3D-reconstructed sweeps in perpendicular directions were made of every target with both probes, resulting in 392 measurements. Statistical calculations were performed, and comparative boxplots were generated. Every measurement of iMRI and LUS was more precise than SUS, while there was no apparent difference in height of iMRI and 3D-reconstructed LUS. Measurements with 3D-reconstructed LUS were always more accurate than in 2D-LUS, while 3D-reconstruction of SUS showed nearly no differences to 2D-SUS in some measurements. We found correlations of 3D-reconstructed SUS and LUS length and width measurements with 2D results in the same image orientation. LUS provides an accuracy and resolution comparable to iMRI, while SUS is less exact than LUS and iMRI. 3D-reconstruction showed the potential to distinctly improve accuracy and resolution of ultrasound images, although there is a strong correlation with the sweep direction during data acquisition.

  12. Homing and Tracking of Iron Oxide Labelled Mesenchymal Stem Cells After Infusion in Traumatic Brain Injury Mice: a Longitudinal In Vivo MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sushanta Kumar; Khushu, Subash; Singh, Ajay K; Gangenahalli, Gurudutta

    2018-06-17

    Stem cells transplantation has emerged as a promising alternative therapeutic due to its potency at injury site. The need to monitor and non-invasively track the infused stem cells is a significant challenge in the development of regenerative medicine. Thus, in vivo tracking to monitor infused stem cells is especially vital. In this manuscript, we have described an effective in vitro labelling method of MSCs, a serial in vivo tracking of implanted stem cells at traumatic brain injury (TBI) site through 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Proper homing of infused MSCs was carried out at different time points using histological analysis and Prussian blue staining. Longitudinal in vivo tracking of infused MSCs were performed up to 21 days in different groups through MRI using relaxometry technique. Results demonstrated that MSCs incubated with iron oxide-poly-L-lysine complex (IO-PLL) at a ratio of 50:1.5 μg/ml and a time period of 6 h was optimised to increase labelling efficiency. T2*-weighted images and relaxation study demonstrated a significant signal loss and effective decrease in transverse relaxation time on day-3 at injury site after systemic transplantation, revealed maximum number of stem cells homing to the lesion area. MRI results further correlate with histological and Prussian blue staining in different time periods. Decrease in negative signal and increase in relaxation times were observed after day-14, may indicate damage tissue replacement with healthy tissue. MSCs tracking with synthesized negative contrast agent represent a great advantage during both in vitro and in vivo analysis. The proposed absolute bias correction based relaxometry analysis could be extrapolated for stem cell tracking and therapies in various neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Comparison study of human brain response to acupuncture stimulation vs finger tapping task by using real time fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Zhu Fang; Qi Jianpin; Xia Yeling; Xia Liming; Wang Chengyuan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the central nervous system reaction on acupuncture stimulations of ZUSANLI (S36) and YANGLINGQUAN (G34) by using real time imaging processing (RTIP) functional magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: Functional MR imaging was performed in 17 healthy volunteers with 2 paradigms: acupuncture at acu-points of ZUSANLI (S36 and YANGLINGQUAN (G34) (on the right side) and control stimulations (right finger tapping). Correlation coefficient (CC) of ROI was detected including bilateral sensorimotor area (SMC), pre-motor cortex (PMC), and supplementary motor area (SMA). Only the ROI in which CC ≥ 0.6 and range exceeded 4 pixels was counted as an activated area. Fisher's exact test was performed to analyze the data in SAS software package. Results: In tapping finger task, 16 subjects obtained functional MR images satisfactorily except 1 subjects, and 8 of SMC R , 8 of PMC R , 9 of SMA, 16 of SMC L , and 9 of PMC L were activated. In acupuncture task, 3 subjects were eliminated for gross motion artifacts, there were 6 of SMC R , 10 of PMC R , 8 of SMA, 11 of SMC L , and 10 of PMC L were activated in the rest 14 subjects. Fisher's exact test (2-Tail) (P> 0.05) showed that there was no significant difference in ROI activated by two kinds of stimulus. Conclusion: Real time fMRI was very useful in exploring acupuncture mechanisms. However, its value in practice still requires further study and synthetic appraise integrating clinical acupuncture effect

  14. Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation maps appear more (diffusively distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness, complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix, and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity. To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70% and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients.

  15. MRI visualization of endogenous neural progenitor cell migration along the RMS in the adult mouse brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vreys, Ruth; Vande Velde, Greetje; Krylychkina, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The adult rodent brain contains neural progenitor cells (NPCs), generated in the subventricular zone (SVZ), which migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the olfactory bulb (OB) where they differentiate into neurons. The aim of this study was to visualize endogenous NPC migration...... by a longitudinal MRI study and validated with histology. Here, we visualized endogenous NPC migration in the mouse brain by in vivo MRI and demonstrated accumulation of MPIO-labeled NPCs in the OB over time with ex vivo MRI. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of in situ injection of MPIOs on adult...

  16. Implicit sequence-specific motor learning after sub-cortical stroke is associated with increased prefrontal brain activations: An fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Sean K.; Randhawa, Bubblepreet; Wessel, Brenda; Boyd, Lara A.

    2010-01-01

    Implicit motor learning is preserved after stroke, but how the brain compensates for damage to facilitate learning is unclear. We used a random effects analysis to determine how stroke alters patterns of brain activity during implicit sequence-specific motor learning as compared to general improvements in motor control. Nine healthy participants and 9 individuals with chronic, right focal sub-cortical stroke performed a continuous joystick-based tracking task during an initial fMRI session, over 5 days of practice, and a retention test during a separate fMRI session. Sequence-specific implicit motor learning was differentiated from general improvements in motor control by comparing tracking performance on a novel, repeated tracking sequences during early practice and again at the retention test. Both groups demonstrated implicit sequence-specific motor learning at the retention test, yet substantial differences were apparent. At retention, healthy control participants demonstrated increased BOLD response in left dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) but decreased BOLD response left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; BA 9) during repeated sequence tracking. In contrast, at retention individuals with stroke did not show this reduction in DLPFC during repeated tracking. Instead implicit sequence-specific motor learning and general improvements in motor control were associated with increased BOLD response in the left middle frontal gyrus BA 8, regardless of sequence type after stroke. These data emphasize the potential importance of a prefrontal-based attentional network for implicit motor learning after stroke. The present study is the first to highlight the importance of the prefrontal cortex for implicit sequence-specific motor learning after stroke. PMID:20725908

  17. Selective Changes of Resting-State Brain Oscillations in aMCI: An fMRI Study Using ALFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilian Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI refers to a transitional state between normal aging and dementia and is a syndrome with cognitive decline greater than expected for an individual’s age and educational level. As a subtype of MCI, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI most often leads to Alzheimer’s disease. This study aims to elucidate the altered brain activation in patients with aMCI using resting-state functional magnetic resonance. We observed Frequency-dependent changes in the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in aMCI patients (n=20, and normal subjects (n=18. At the same time, we took gray matter volume as a covariate. We found that aMCI patients had decreased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation signal in left superior temporal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobe, and right postcentral gyrus compared to the control group. Specially, aMCI patients showed increased signal in left superior and middle frontal gyrus. Our results suggested that increased activation in frontal lobe of aMCI patients may indicate effective recruitment of compensatory brain resources. This finding and interpretation may lead to the better understanding of cognitive changes of aMCI.

  18. Serum BDNF correlates with connectivity in the (pre)motor hub in the aging human brain--a resting-state fMRI pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Karsten; Arelin, Katrin; Möller, Harald E; Sacher, Julia; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Villringer, Arno; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2016-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been discussed to be involved in plasticity processes in the human brain, in particular during aging. Recently, aging and its (neurodegenerative) diseases have increasingly been conceptualized as disconnection syndromes. Here, connectivity changes in neural networks (the connectome) are suggested to be the most relevant and characteristic features for such processes or diseases. To further elucidate the impact of aging on neural networks, we investigated the interaction between plasticity processes, brain connectivity, and healthy aging by measuring levels of serum BDNF and resting-state fMRI data in 25 young (mean age 24.8 ± 2.7 (SD) years) and 23 old healthy participants (mean age, 68.6 ± 4.1 years). To identify neural hubs most essentially related to serum BDNF, we applied graph theory approaches, namely the new data-driven and parameter-free approach eigenvector centrality (EC) mapping. The analysis revealed a positive correlation between serum BDNF and EC in the premotor and motor cortex in older participants in contrast to young volunteers, where we did not detect any association. This positive relationship between serum BDNF and EC appears to be specific for older adults. Our results might indicate that the amount of physical activity and learning capacities, leading to higher BDNF levels, increases brain connectivity in (pre)motor areas in healthy aging in agreement with rodent animal studies. Pilot results have to be replicated in a larger sample including behavioral data to disentangle the cause for the relationship between BDNF levels and connectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. MRI patterns in prolonged low response states following traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Peter D; Mabry, Jennifer L; Gurka, Matthew J; Buck, Marcia L; Boatwright, Evelyn; Blackman, James A

    2007-01-01

    To explore the relationship between location and pattern of brain injury identified on MRI and prolonged low response state in children post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). This observational study compared 15 children who spontaneously recovered within 30 days post-TBI to 17 who remained in a prolonged low response state. 92.9% of children with brain stem injury were in the low response group. The predicted probability was 0.81 for brain stem injury alone, increasing to 0.95 with a regional pattern of injury to the brain stem, basal ganglia, and thalamus. Low response state in children post-TBI is strongly correlated with two distinctive regions of injury: the brain stem alone, and an injury pattern to the brain stem, basal ganglia, and thalamus. This study demonstrates the need for large-scale clinical studies using MRI as a tool for outcome assessment in children and adolescents following severe TBI.

  20. Orchestrating Proactive and Reactive Mechanisms for Filtering Distracting Information: Brain-Behavior Relationships Revealed by a Mixed-Design fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Francesco; Demeter, Elise; Roberts, Kenneth C.; Chelazzi, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    probability, thereby aiding task performance. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Irrelevant stimuli distract people and impair their attentional performance. Here, we studied how the brain deals with distracting stimuli using a hybrid block/event-related fMRI design and a task that varied the probability of the occurrence of such distracting stimuli. The results suggest that when distraction is likely, a region in right frontal cortex proactively implements attentional control mechanisms to help filter out any distracting stimuli that might occur. In contrast, when distracting input occurs infrequently, this region is more reactively engaged to help limit the negative consequences of the distracters on behavioral performance. Our results thus help illuminate how the brain flexibly responds under differing attentional demands to engender effective behavior. PMID:26791226

  1. Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosten, N.; Felix, R.

    1994-01-01

    The text reviews MRI findings in a variety of cerebral diseases. Advantages of Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) enhanced MRI over plain MRI and enhanced CT are discussed. Enhanced MRI is far superior to enhanced CT in the detection of meningeal tumor spread, meningeal inflammation, inflammatory lesions of the optic nerve, brain lesions in multiple sclerosis and infarction. Enhanced MRI is today the most sensitive diagnostic tool in hypophaseal adenomas. Also enhancement of gliomas is detected by MRI with higher sensitivity than by CT. Use Gd-DTPA allow to separate of vital tumor tissue from necrosis and edema, improve delineation of tumor extension and improve detection of lesions localized in gray matter

  2. Age-related alterations of brain network underlying the retrieval of emotional autobiographical memories: an fMRI study using independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ruiyang; Fu, Yan; Wang, Dahua; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying

    2014-01-01

    Normal aging has been shown to modulate the neural underpinnings of autobiographical memory and emotion processing. Moreover, previous researches have suggested that aging produces a "positivity effect" in autobiographical memory. Although a few imaging studies have investigated the neural mechanism of the positivity effect, the neural substrates underlying the positivity effect in emotional autobiographical memory is unclear. To understand the age-related neural changes in emotional autobiographical memory that underlie the positivity effect, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study used the independent component analysis (ICA) method to compare brain networks in younger and older adults as they retrieved positive and negative autobiographical events. Compared to their younger counterparts, older adults reported relatively higher positive feelings when retrieving emotional autobiographical events. Imaging data indicated an age-related reversal within the ventromedial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex (VMPFC/ACC) and the left amygdala of the brain networks that were engaged in the retrieval of autobiographical events with different valence. The retrieval of negative events compared to positive events induced stronger activity in the VMPFC/ACC and weaker activity in the amygdala for the older adults, whereas the younger adults showed a reversed pattern. Moreover, activity in the VMPFC/ACC within the task-related networks showed a negative correlation with the emotional valence intensity. These results may suggest that the positivity effect in older adults' autobiographical memories is potentially due to age-related changes in controlled emotional processing implemented by the VMPFC/ACC-amygdala circuit.

  3. Brain activation in teenagers with isolated spelling disorder during tasks involving spelling assessment and comparison of pseudowords. fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowska, Aneta Rita; Francuz, Piotr; Soluch, Paweł; Wolak, Tomasz

    2014-10-01

    The present study aimed at defining the specific traits of brain activation in teenagers with isolated spelling disorder in comparison with good spellers. fMRI examination was performed where the subject's task involved taking a decision 1/whether the visually presented words were spelled correctly or not (the orthographic decision task), and 2/whether the two presented letters strings (pseudowords) were identical or not (the visual decision task). Half of the displays showing meaningful words with an orthographic difficulty contained pairs with both words spelled correctly, and half of them contained one misspelled word. Half of the pseudowords were identical, half of them were not. The participants of the study included 15 individuals with isolated spelling disorder and 14 good spellers, aged 13-15. The results demonstrated that the essential differences in brain activation between teenagers with isolated spelling disorder and good spellers were found in the left inferior frontal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus and right cerebellum posterior lobe, i.e. structures important for language processes, working memory and automaticity of behaviour. Spelling disorder is not only an effect of language dysfunction, it could be a symptom of difficulties in learning and automaticity of motor and visual shapes of written words, rapid information processing as well as automating use of orthographic lexicon. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Blood Flow and Brain Function: Investigations of neurovascular coupling using BOLD fMRI at 7 tesla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siero, J.C.W.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of ultra high field (7 tesla) MRI systems has opened the possibility to probe biological processes of the human body in great detail. Especially for studying brain function using BOLD fMRI there is a large benefit from the increased magnetic field strength. BOLD fMRI is the working horse

  5. Brain MRI changes in chronic liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skehan, S. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Vincent`s Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Norris, S. [Liver Unit, St. Vincent`s Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Hegarty, J. [Liver Unit, St. Vincent`s Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Owens, A. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Vincent`s Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland); MacErlaine, D. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Vincent`s Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    1997-08-01

    Cirrhotic patients are known to have abnormally high signal principally in the globus pallidus on non-contrast T1-weighted MRI. The purpose of this study was to relate MR changes to clinical and pathological features of chronic liver disease. We confirmed abnormally high signal in the globus pallidus on T1-weighted images in 25 of 28 patients with chronic liver disease, showing that it also occurs in patients who have not yet progressed to cirrhosis. Changes were seen in patients both with and without clinical portosystemic shunting. This abnormality is not responsible for hepatic encephalopathy. Cholestatic disease was more likely to produce marked changes than non-cholestatic disease. No statistically significant correlation was demonstrated between the severity of liver disease and the degree of MR abnormality. However, marked improvement in MR appearances was seen after successful liver transplantation. (orig.). With 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Brain MRI changes in chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skehan, S.; Norris, S.; Hegarty, J.; Owens, A.; MacErlaine, D.

    1997-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients are known to have abnormally high signal principally in the globus pallidus on non-contrast T1-weighted MRI. The purpose of this study was to relate MR changes to clinical and pathological features of chronic liver disease. We confirmed abnormally high signal in the globus pallidus on T1-weighted images in 25 of 28 patients with chronic liver disease, showing that it also occurs in patients who have not yet progressed to cirrhosis. Changes were seen in patients both with and without clinical portosystemic shunting. This abnormality is not responsible for hepatic encephalopathy. Cholestatic disease was more likely to produce marked changes than non-cholestatic disease. No statistically significant correlation was demonstrated between the severity of liver disease and the degree of MR abnormality. However, marked improvement in MR appearances was seen after successful liver transplantation. (orig.). With 3 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Different mechanisms of contralateral- or ipsilateral-acupuncture to modulate the brain activity in patients with unilateral chronic shoulder pain: a pilot fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang S

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Shuai Zhang,1,* Xu Wang,2,* Chao-Qun Yan,1 Shang-Qing Hu,3 Jian-Wei Huo,4 Zhong-Yan Wang,4 Ping Zhou,1 Chun-Hong Liu,1 Cun-Zhi Liu3 1Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine affiliated to Capital Medical University, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 2School of Life Sciences, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 3Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Fengtai District, Beijing, 4Department of Medical Imaging, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine affiliated to Capital Medical University, Dongcheng District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Chronic shoulder pain (CSP is a common disease causing pain and functional limitation, which is highly prevalent and has substantial negative effects on the quality of life. Acupuncture has gained popularity and has been accepted gradually by many countries because it can successfully treat patients with chronic pain, but the specific brain mechanisms under acupuncture treatment for CSP remain unclear. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to 1 compare the clinical effects between acupuncture at the contralateral and ipsilateral Tiaokou (ST 38 point in patients with unilateral shoulder pain and 2 explore how contralateral- and ipsilateral-acupuncture modulates the regional homogeneity (ReHo of patients with CSP.Patients and methods: This was a pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI trial. Twenty-four patients with CSP were recruited and randomized to the contralateral acupuncture group (contra-group and the ipsilateral acupuncture group (ipsi-group. All patients completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scans before and after acupuncture treatment. Shoulder pain intensity (visual analog scale [VAS] and shoulder joint function (Constant–Murley score [CMS] were used

  8. Functional connectivity analysis of the brain network using resting-state fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Spatial patterns of spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals reflect the underlying neural architecture. The study of the brain network based on these self-organized patterns is termed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). This review article aims at briefly reviewing a basic concept of this technology and discussing its implications for neuropsychological studies. First, the technical aspects of resting-state fMRI, including signal sources, physiological artifacts, image acquisition, and analytical methods such as seed-based correlation analysis and independent component analysis, are explained, followed by a discussion on the major resting-state networks, including the default mode network. In addition, the structure-function correlation studied using diffuse tensor imaging and resting-state fMRI is briefly discussed. Second, I have discussed the reservations and potential pitfalls of 2 major imaging methods: voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and task fMRI. Problems encountered with voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping can be overcome by using resting-state fMRI and evaluating undamaged brain networks in patients. Regarding task fMRI in patients, I have also emphasized the importance of evaluating the baseline brain activity because the amplitude of activation in BOLD fMRI is hard to interpret as the same baseline cannot be assumed for both patient and normal groups. (author)

  9. PREDICTING APHASIA TYPE FROM BRAIN DAMAGE MEASURED WITH STRUCTURAL MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourganov, Grigori; Smith, Kimberly G.; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Chronic aphasia is a common consequence of a left-hemisphere stroke. Since the early insights by Broca and Wernicke, studying the relationship between the loci of cortical damage and patterns of language impairment has been one of the concerns of aphasiology. We utilized multivariate classification in a cross-validation framework to predict the type of chronic aphasia from the spatial pattern of brain damage. Our sample consisted of 98 patients with five types of aphasia (Broca’s, Wernicke’s, global, conduction, and anomic), classified based on scores on the Western Aphasia Battery. Binary lesion maps were obtained from structural MRI scans (obtained at least 6 months poststroke, and within 2 days of behavioural assessment); after spatial normalization, the lesions were parcellated into a disjoint set of brain areas. The proportion of damage to the brain areas was used to classify patients’ aphasia type. To create this parcellation, we relied on five brain atlases; our classifier (support vector machine) could differentiate between different kinds of aphasia using any of the five parcellations. In our sample, the best classification accuracy was obtained when using a novel parcellation that combined two previously published brain atlases, with the first atlas providing the segmentation of grey matter, and the second atlas used to segment the white matter. For each aphasia type, we computed the relative importance of different brain areas for distinguishing it from other aphasia types; our findings were consistent with previously published reports of lesion locations implicated in different types of aphasia. Overall, our results revealed that automated multivariate classification could distinguish between aphasia types based on damage to atlas-defined brain areas. PMID:26465238

  10. Predicting aphasia type from brain damage measured with structural MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourganov, Grigori; Smith, Kimberly G; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Chronic aphasia is a common consequence of a left-hemisphere stroke. Since the early insights by Broca and Wernicke, studying the relationship between the loci of cortical damage and patterns of language impairment has been one of the concerns of aphasiology. We utilized multivariate classification in a cross-validation framework to predict the type of chronic aphasia from the spatial pattern of brain damage. Our sample consisted of 98 patients with five types of aphasia (Broca's, Wernicke's, global, conduction, and anomic), classified based on scores on the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). Binary lesion maps were obtained from structural MRI scans (obtained at least 6 months poststroke, and within 2 days of behavioural assessment); after spatial normalization, the lesions were parcellated into a disjoint set of brain areas. The proportion of damage to the brain areas was used to classify patients' aphasia type. To create this parcellation, we relied on five brain atlases; our classifier (support vector machine - SVM) could differentiate between different kinds of aphasia using any of the five parcellations. In our sample, the best classification accuracy was obtained when using a novel parcellation that combined two previously published brain atlases, with the first atlas providing the segmentation of grey matter, and the second atlas used to segment the white matter. For each aphasia type, we computed the relative importance of different brain areas for distinguishing it from other aphasia types; our findings were consistent with previously published reports of lesion locations implicated in different types of aphasia. Overall, our results revealed that automated multivariate classification could distinguish between aphasia types based on damage to atlas-defined brain areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in Seizure Disorder: Comparison Brain SPECT, MRI / CT and EEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hyung In [Kyunghee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Ju Hyuk; Choi, Chang Woon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; No, Jae Kyu; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    We studied 115 patients with seizure who had been performed brain SPECT brain MRI of CT and EEG. To evaluate the pattern of brain SPECT in seizure patients 28 of them had secondary epilepsies, 87 had primary epilepsies. In primary epilepsies, 42 were generalized seizure and 45 were partial seizure. The causes of secondary epilepsies were congenital malformation, cerebromalacia, cerebral infarction ultiple sclerosis, AV-malformation. granuloma and etc, in order. In 28 secondary epilepsies, 25 of them, brain SPECT lesions was concordant with MRI or CT lesions. 3 were disconcordant. The brain SPECT findings of generalized seizure were normal in 22 patients, diffuse irregular decreased perfusion in 8, decreased in frontal cortex in 4. temporal in 5 and frontotemporal in 3. In 45 partial seizure, 19 brain SPECT were concordant with EEG (42.4%).

  12. 99mTc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in Seizure Disorder: Comparison Brain SPECT, MRI / CT and EEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hyung In; Im, Ju Hyuk; Choi, Chang Woon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; No, Jae Kyu; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon

    1994-01-01

    We studied 115 patients with seizure who had been performed brain SPECT brain MRI of CT and EEG. To evaluate the pattern of brain SPECT in seizure patients 28 of them had secondary epilepsies, 87 had primary epilepsies. In primary epilepsies, 42 were generalized seizure and 45 were partial seizure. The causes of secondary epilepsies were congenital malformation, cerebromalacia, cerebral infarction ultiple sclerosis, AV-malformation. granuloma and etc, in order. In 28 secondary epilepsies, 25 of them, brain SPECT lesions was concordant with MRI or CT lesions. 3 were disconcordant. The brain SPECT findings of generalized seizure were normal in 22 patients, diffuse irregular decreased perfusion in 8, decreased in frontal cortex in 4. temporal in 5 and frontotemporal in 3. In 45 partial seizure, 19 brain SPECT were concordant with EEG (42.4%).

  13. Interaction vs. observation: distinctive modes of social cognition in human brain and behavior? A combined fMRI and eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylén, Kristian; Allen, Micah; Hunter, Bjørk K; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Human cognition has usually been approached on the level of individual minds and brains, but social interaction is a challenging case. Is it best thought of as a self-contained individual cognitive process aiming at an "understanding of the other," or should it rather be approached as an collective, inter-personal process where individual cognitive components interact on a moment-to-moment basis to form coupled dynamics? In a combined fMRI and eye-tracking study we directly contrasted these models of social cognition. We found that the perception of situations affording social contingent responsiveness (e.g., someone offering or showing you an object) elicited activations in regions of the right posterior temporal sulcus and yielded greater pupil dilation corresponding to a model of coupled dynamics (joint action). In contrast, the social-cognitive perception of someone "privately" manipulating an object elicited activation in medial prefrontal cortex, the right inferior frontal gyrus and right inferior parietal lobus, regions normally associated with Theory of Mind and with the mirror neuron system. Our findings support a distinction in social cognition between social observation and social interaction, and demonstrate that simple ostensive cues may shift participants' experience, behavior, and brain activity between these modes. The identification of a distinct, interactive mode has implications for research on social cognition, both in everyday life and in clinical conditions.

  14. Alteration of functional connectivity within visuospatial working memory-related brain network in patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zong-xia; Huang, Dong-Hong; Ye, Wei; Chen, Zi-rong; Huang, Wen-li; Zheng, Jin-ou

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the resting-state brain network related to visuospatial working memory (VSWM) in patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE). The functional mechanism underlying the cognitive impairment in VSWM was also determined. Fifteen patients with rTLE and 16 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and handedness underwent a 6-min resting-state functional MRI session and a neuropsychological test using VSWM_Nback. The VSWM-related brain network at rest was extracted using multiple independent component analysis; the spatial distribution and the functional connectivity (FC) parameters of the cerebral network were compared between groups. Behavioral data were subsequently correlated with the mean Z-value in voxels showing significant FC difference during intergroup comparison. The distribution of the VSWM-related resting-state network (RSN) in the group with rTLE was virtually consistent with that in the healthy controls. The distribution involved the dorsolateral prefrontal lobe and parietal lobe in the right hemisphere and the partial inferior parietal lobe and posterior lobe of the cerebellum in the left hemisphere (pright superior frontal lobe (BA8), right middle frontal lobe, and right ventromedial prefrontal lobe compared with the controls (pright superior frontal lobe (BA11), right superior parietal lobe, and left posterior lobe of the cerebellum (prights reserved.

  15. Interaction versus Observation: distinctive modes of social cognition in human brain and behavior? A combined fMRI and eye-tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian eTylen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human cognition has usually been approached on the level of individual minds and brains, but social interaction is a challenging case. Is it best thought of as a self-contained individual cognitive process aiming at an ‘understanding of the other’, or should it rather be approached as an collective, inter-personal process where individual cognitive components interact on a moment-to-moment basis to form coupled dynamics? In a combined fMRI and eye tracking study we directly contrasted these models of social cognition. We found that the perception of situations affording social contingent responsiveness (e.g. someone offering or showing you an object elicited activations in regions of the right posterior temporal sulcus and yielded greater pupil dilation corresponding to a model of coupled dynamics (joint action. In contrast, the social-cognitive perception of someone ‘privately’ manipulating an object elicited activation in medial prefrontal cortex, the right inferior frontal gyrus and right inferior parietal lobus, regions normally associated with Theory of Mind and with the mirror neuron system. Our findings support a distinction in social cognition between social observation and social interaction, and demonstrate that simple ostensive cues may shift participants’ experience, behavior and brain activity between these modes. The identification of a distinct, interactive mode has implications for research on social cognition, both in everyday life and in clinical conditions.

  16. Multi-modal MRI of mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnada A. Narayana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI that included high resolution structural imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, magnetization transfer ratio (MTR imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI were performed in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI patients with negative computed tomographic scans and in an orthopedic-injured (OI group without concomitant injury to the brain. The OI group served as a comparison group for mTBI. MRI scans were performed both in the acute phase of injury (~24 h and at follow-up (~90 days. DTI data was analyzed using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS. Global and regional atrophies were calculated using tensor-based morphometry (TBM. MTR values were calculated using the standard method. MRSI was analyzed using LC Model. At the initial scan, the mean diffusivity (MD was significantly higher in the mTBI cohort relative to the comparison group in several white matter (WM regions that included internal capsule, external capsule, superior corona radiata, anterior corona radiata, posterior corona radiata, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, forceps major and forceps minor of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and corticospinal tract in the right hemisphere. TBSS analysis failed to detect significant differences in any DTI measures between the initial and follow-up scans either in the mTBI or OI group. No significant differences were found in MRSI, MTR or morphometry between the mTBI and OI cohorts either at the initial or follow-up scans with or without family wise error (FWE correction. Our study suggests that a number of WM tracts are affected in mTBI in the acute phase of injury and that these changes disappear by 90 days. This study also suggests that none of the MRI-modalities used in this study, with the exception of DTI, is sensitive in detecting changes in the acute phase of mTBI.

  17. Cerebral circulation and metabolism in the patients with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic minor traumatic brain injury. A study by the positron emission tomography in twenty subjects with normal MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabasawa, Hidehiro; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Iida, Akihiko; Matsubara, Michitaka [Nagoya City Rehabilitation and Sports Center (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Many individuals are affected on their higher brain functions, such as intelligence, memory, and attention, even after minor traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Although higher brain dysfunction is based on impairment of the cerebral circulation and metabolism, the precise relationship between them remains unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the cerebral circulation or cerebral metabolism and higher brain dysfunction. Twenty subjects with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic MTBI were studied. They had no abnormal MRI findings. The full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) were quantitatively evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the subjects were classified into the normal group and the impaired group. Concurrent with the evaluation of FIQ, positron emission tomography (PET) was performed by the steady state method with {sup 15}O gases inhalation. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) were calculated in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. First, of all twenty subjects, we investigated rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} in all regions. Then we compared rCBF, OEF, and CMRO{sub 2} between the normal group and the impaired group based on FIQ score. We also studied the change of FIQ score of 13 subjects 9.3 months after the first evaluation. In addition, we investigated the change of rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} along with the improvement of FIQ score. Although rCBF and OEF of all subjects were within the normal range in all regions, CMRO{sub 2} of more than half of subjects was under the lower normal limit in all regions except in the right occipital lobe, showing the presence of ''relative luxury perfusion''. Comparison of rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} between normal group and impaired group revealed that CMRO{sub 2} of the impaired group was significantly lower than that of the

  18. Cerebral circulation and metabolism in the patients with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic minor traumatic brain injury. A study by the positron emission tomography in twenty subjects with normal MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabasawa, Hidehiro; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Iida, Akihiko; Matsubara, Michitaka

    2002-01-01

    Many individuals are affected on their higher brain functions, such as intelligence, memory, and attention, even after minor traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Although higher brain dysfunction is based on impairment of the cerebral circulation and metabolism, the precise relationship between them remains unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the cerebral circulation or cerebral metabolism and higher brain dysfunction. Twenty subjects with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic MTBI were studied. They had no abnormal MRI findings. The full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) were quantitatively evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the subjects were classified into the normal group and the impaired group. Concurrent with the evaluation of FIQ, positron emission tomography (PET) was performed by the steady state method with 15 O gases inhalation. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) were calculated in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. First, of all twenty subjects, we investigated rCBF, OEF and CMRO 2 in all regions. Then we compared rCBF, OEF, and CMRO 2 between the normal group and the impaired group based on FIQ score. We also studied the change of FIQ score of 13 subjects 9.3 months after the first evaluation. In addition, we investigated the change of rCBF, OEF and CMRO 2 along with the improvement of FIQ score. Although rCBF and OEF of all subjects were within the normal range in all regions, CMRO 2 of more than half of subjects was under the lower normal limit in all regions except in the right occipital lobe, showing the presence of ''relative luxury perfusion''. Comparison of rCBF, OEF and CMRO 2 between normal group and impaired group revealed that CMRO 2 of the impaired group was significantly lower than that of the normal group in the bilateral frontal, temporal, and occipital

  19. Learning-based meta-algorithm for MRI brain extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Wang, Li; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-segmentation-and-fusion method has been widely used for brain extraction, tissue segmentation, and region of interest (ROI) localization. However, such studies are hindered in practice by their computational complexity, mainly coming from the steps of template selection and template-to-subject nonlinear registration. In this study, we address these two issues and propose a novel learning-based meta-algorithm for MRI brain extraction. Specifically, we first use exemplars to represent the entire template library, and assign the most similar exemplar to the test subject. Second, a meta-algorithm combining two existing brain extraction algorithms (BET and BSE) is proposed to conduct multiple extractions directly on test subject. Effective parameter settings for the meta-algorithm are learned from the training data and propagated to subject through exemplars. We further develop a level-set based fusion method to combine multiple candidate extractions together with a closed smooth surface, for obtaining the final result. Experimental results show that, with only a small portion of subjects for training, the proposed method is able to produce more accurate and robust brain extraction results, at Jaccard Index of 0.956 +/- 0.010 on total 340 subjects under 6-fold cross validation, compared to those by the BET and BSE even using their best parameter combinations.

  20. Brain regional homogeneity changes following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in cirrhotic patients support cerebral adaptability theory—A resting-state functional MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Ling; Qi, Rongfeng [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhang, Long Jiang, E-mail: kevinzhlj@163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhong, Jianhui [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Zheng, Gang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Wu, Xingjiang; Fan, Xinxin [Department of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The exact neuro-pathophysiological effect of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) on brain function remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal brain activity changes in cirrhotic patients with TIPS insertion using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) with regional homogeneity (ReHo) method. Methods: Fifteen cirrhotic patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) planned for TIPS procedure and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Eleven of the 15 patients underwent repeated fMRI examinations at median 7-day following TIPS, 8 patients in median 3-month, and 7 patients in median 1-year follow-up duration, respectively. Regional homogeneity was calculated by the Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC) and compared between patients before TIPS and healthy controls with two-sample t test as well as pre-and post-TIPS patients with paired t test. Correlations between the pre- and post-TIPS changes of ReHo and the changes of venous blood ammonia level and number connection test type A (NCT-A)/digit symbol test (DST) scores were calculated by crossing subjects. Results: Compared with healthy controls, 15 cirrhotic patients before TIPS procedure showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes and increased ReHo in the bilateral caudate. Compared with the pre-TIPS patients, 11 post-TIPS patients in the median 7-day follow-up examinations demonstrated decreased ReHo in the medial frontal gyrus (MFG), superior parietal gyrus (SPG), middle/superior temporal gyrus (M/STG), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, and increased ReHo in the insula. Eight post-TIPS patients in the median 3-month follow-up examinations showed widespread decreased ReHo in the bilateral frontal and parietal lobes, ACC, caudate, and increased ReHo in the insula and precuneus/cuneus. In the median 1-year follow-up studies, seven post-TIPS patients displayed

  1. Brain regional homogeneity changes following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in cirrhotic patients support cerebral adaptability theory—A resting-state functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Ling; Qi, Rongfeng; Zhang, Long Jiang; Zhong, Jianhui; Zheng, Gang; Wu, Xingjiang; Fan, Xinxin; Lu, Guang Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The exact neuro-pathophysiological effect of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) on brain function remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal brain activity changes in cirrhotic patients with TIPS insertion using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) with regional homogeneity (ReHo) method. Methods: Fifteen cirrhotic patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) planned for TIPS procedure and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Eleven of the 15 patients underwent repeated fMRI examinations at median 7-day following TIPS, 8 patients in median 3-month, and 7 patients in median 1-year follow-up duration, respectively. Regional homogeneity was calculated by the Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC) and compared between patients before TIPS and healthy controls with two-sample t test as well as pre-and post-TIPS patients with paired t test. Correlations between the pre- and post-TIPS changes of ReHo and the changes of venous blood ammonia level and number connection test type A (NCT-A)/digit symbol test (DST) scores were calculated by crossing subjects. Results: Compared with healthy controls, 15 cirrhotic patients before TIPS procedure showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes and increased ReHo in the bilateral caudate. Compared with the pre-TIPS patients, 11 post-TIPS patients in the median 7-day follow-up examinations demonstrated decreased ReHo in the medial frontal gyrus (MFG), superior parietal gyrus (SPG), middle/superior temporal gyrus (M/STG), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, and increased ReHo in the insula. Eight post-TIPS patients in the median 3-month follow-up examinations showed widespread decreased ReHo in the bilateral frontal and parietal lobes, ACC, caudate, and increased ReHo in the insula and precuneus/cuneus. In the median 1-year follow-up studies, seven post-TIPS patients displayed

  2. An optimized voxel-based morphometry MRI study of the brain in patients with first episode schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Su; Huang Xiaoqi; Tang Hehan; Gong Qiyong; Ouyang Luo; Deng Wei; Jiang Lijun; Li Tao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the structural differences between patients with first episode schizophrenia and normal controls using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study. Methods: High resolution T 1 weighted images were obtained using 3.0 T MR from 13 first-episode, untreated schizophrenia and 13 age, sex, handedness matched normal controls. Images were preprocessed by employing the optimized VBM and two sample t-test was used to detect differences between patients and normal controls with respect to both density and volume of gray matter in the brain. Results Patients with schizophrenia had significant lower gray matter density and gray matter volume generally distributed among bilateral hemispheres, especially in bilateral frontal and temporal lobes. However, no significant increase of gray matter density and gray matter volume was observed in these patients. Conclusions: Optimized voxel-based morphometry study is an automatic and effective method to study psychological diseases such as schizophrenia. Compared with normal controls, patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower gray matter density and gray matter volume across the bilateral hemispheres. (authors)

  3. Study of human brain functions by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and spectroscopy (fMRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagannathan, N.R.

    1998-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a powerful tool in the detection and assessment of cerebral pathophysiology and the regional mapping and characterization of cognitive processes such as motor skills, vision, language and memory. The results of the effect of motor cortex stimulation during repetitive hand squeezing task activation using in-vivo single voxel NMR spectroscopy carried out on normal volunteer subjects are presented

  4. Calcitonin gene-related peptide modulates heat nociception in the human brain - An fMRI study in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Becerra, Lino; Larsson, Henrik B.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intravenous infusion of calcitonin-gene-related-peptide (CGRP) provokes headache and migraine in humans. Mechanisms underlying CGRP-induced headache are not fully clarified and it is unknown to what extent CGRP modulates nociceptive processing in the brain. To elucidate this we recorded...... cortex. Sumatriptan injection reversed these changes. Conclusion: The changes in BOLD-signals in the brain after CGRP infusion suggests that systemic CGRP modulates nociceptive transmission in the trigeminal pain pathways in response to noxious heat stimuli....

  5. Parallel workflow tools to facilitate human brain MRI post-processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaixu eCui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques are widely applied in human brain studies. To obtain specific brain measures of interest from MRI datasets, a number of complex image post-processing steps are typically required. Parallel workflow tools have recently been developed, concatenating individual processing steps and enabling fully automated processing of raw MRI data to obtain the final results. These workflow tools are also designed to make optimal use of available computational resources and to support the parallel processing of different subjects or of independent processing steps for a single subject. Automated, parallel MRI post-processing tools can greatly facilitate relevant brain investigations and are being increasingly applied. In this review, we briefly summarize these parallel workflow tools and discuss relevant issues.

  6. How does language distance between L1 and L2 affect the L2 brain network? An fMRI study of Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Say Young; Qi, Ting; Feng, Xiaoxia; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Cao, Fan

    2016-04-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that language distance between first language (L1) and second language (L2) influences the assimilation and accommodation pattern in Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals. The distance between English and Korean is smaller than that between Chinese and Korean in terms of orthographic transparency, because both English and Korean are alphabetic, whereas Chinese is logographic. During fMRI, Korean trilingual participants performed a visual rhyming judgment task in three languages (Korean: KK, Chinese: KC, English: KE). Two L1 control groups were native Chinese and English speakers performing the task in their native languages (CC and EE, respectively). The general pattern of brain activation of KC was more similar to that of CC than KK, suggesting accommodation. Higher accuracy in KC was associated with decreased activation in regions of the KK network, suggesting reduced assimilation. In contrast, the brain activation of KE was more similar to that of KK than EE, suggesting assimilation. Higher accuracy in KE was associated with decreased activation in regions of the EE network, suggesting reduced accommodation. Finally, an ROI analysis on the left middle frontal gyrus revealed greater activation for KC than for KE, suggesting its selective involvement in the L2 with more arbitrary mapping between orthography and phonology (i.e., Chinese). Taken together, the brain network involved in L2 reading is similar to the L1 network when L2 and L1 are similar in orthographic transparency, while significant accommodation is expected when L2 is more opaque than L1. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Accelerated Brain DCE-MRI Using Iterative Reconstruction With Total Generalized Variation Penalty for Quantitative Pharmacokinetic Analysis: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhao; Yin, Fang-Fang; Kirkpatrick, John P; Chang, Zheng

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using undersampled k-space data and an iterative image reconstruction method with total generalized variation penalty in the quantitative pharmacokinetic analysis for clinical brain dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Eight brain dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scans were retrospectively studied. Two k-space sparse sampling strategies were designed to achieve a simulated image acquisition acceleration factor of 4. They are (1) a golden ratio-optimized 32-ray radial sampling profile and (2) a Cartesian-based random sampling profile with spatiotemporal-regularized sampling density constraints. The undersampled data were reconstructed to yield images using the investigated reconstruction technique. In quantitative pharmacokinetic analysis on a voxel-by-voxel basis, the rate constant K trans in the extended Tofts model and blood flow F B and blood volume V B from the 2-compartment exchange model were analyzed. Finally, the quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters calculated from the undersampled data were compared with the corresponding calculated values from the fully sampled data. To quantify each parameter's accuracy calculated using the undersampled data, error in volume mean, total relative error, and cross-correlation were calculated. The pharmacokinetic parameter maps generated from the undersampled data appeared comparable to the ones generated from the original full sampling data. Within the region of interest, most derived error in volume mean values in the region of interest was about 5% or lower, and the average error in volume mean of all parameter maps generated through either sampling strategy was about 3.54%. The average total relative error value of all parameter maps in region of interest was about 0.115, and the average cross-correlation of all parameter maps in region of interest was about 0.962. All investigated pharmacokinetic parameters had no significant differences between

  8. Neural reactivity to visual food stimuli is reduced in some areas of the brain during evening hours compared to morning hours: an fMRI study in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Travis D; Kirwan, C Brock; Davidson, Lance E; LeCheminant, James D

    2016-03-01

    The extent that neural responsiveness to visual food stimuli is influenced by time of day is not well examined. Using a crossover design, 15 healthy women were scanned using fMRI while presented with low- and high-energy pictures of food, once in the morning (6:30-8:30 am) and once in the evening (5:00-7:00 pm). Diets were identical on both days of the fMRI scans and were verified using weighed food records. Visual analog scales were used to record subjective perception of hunger and preoccupation with food prior to each fMRI scan. Six areas of the brain showed lower activation in the evening to both high- and low-energy foods, including structures in reward pathways (P foods compared to low-energy foods (P food stimuli tended to produce greater fMRI responses than low-energy food stimuli in specific areas of the brain, regardless of time of day. However, evening scans showed a lower response to both low- and high-energy food pictures in some areas of the brain. Subjectively, participants reported no difference in hunger by time of day (F = 1.84, P = 0.19), but reported they could eat more (F = 4.83, P = 0.04) and were more preoccupied with thoughts of food (F = 5.51, P = 0.03) in the evening compared to the morning. These data underscore the role that time of day may have on neural responses to food stimuli. These results may also have clinical implications for fMRI measurement in order to prevent a time of day bias.

  9. MRI and brain spect findings in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and normal CT scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Carrilho

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available 26 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy clinically documented by several abnormal interictal surface EEGs with typical unitemporal epileptiform activity and a normal CT scan were studied. Interictal99mTC HMPAO brain SPECT and MRI were performed in all subjects. Abnormalities were shown in 61.5% of MRI (n=16 and 65.4% of SPECT (n=17. Hippocampal atrophy associated to a high signal on T2-weighted MRI slices suggesting mesial temporal sclerosis was the main finding (n=12; 75% of abnormal MRI. MRI correlated well to surface EEG in 50% (n=13. There was also a good correlation between MRI and SPECT in 30.7% (n=8. SPECT and EEG were in agreement in 57.7% (n=l5. MRI, SPECT and EEG were congruent in 26.9% (n=7. These results support the usefulness of interictal brain SPECT and MRI in detecting lateralized abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy. On the other hand, in two cases, interictal SPECT correlated poorly with surface EEG. This functional method should not be used isolately in the detection of temporal lobe foci. MRI is more useful than CT as a neuroimaging technique in temporal lobe epilepsy. It may detect small structural lesions and mesial temporal lobe sclerosis which are not easily seen with traditional CT scanning.

  10. MRI Evaluation and Safety in the Developing Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocchio, Shannon; Kline-Fath, Beth; Kanal, Emanuel; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of the developing brain has dramatically increased over the last decade. Faster acquisitions and the development of advanced MRI sequences such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), perfusion imaging, functional MR imaging (fMRI), and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), as well as the use of higher magnetic field strengths has made MRI an invaluable tool for detailed evaluation of the developing brain. This article will provide an overview of the use and challenges associated with 1.5T and 3T static magnetic fields for evaluation of the developing brain. This review will also summarize the advantages, clinical challenges and safety concerns specifically related to MRI in the fetus and newborn, including the implications of increased magnetic field strength, logistics related to transporting and monitoring of neonates during scanning, sedation considerations and a discussion of current technologies such as MRI-conditional neonatal incubators and dedicated small-foot print neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) scanners. PMID:25743582

  11. Neonatal brain microstructure correlates of neurodevelopment and gait in preterm children 18-22 mo of age: an MRI and DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jessica; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Vassar, Rachel; Yeom, Kristen W; Stecher, Ximena; Stevenson, David K; Hintz, Susan R; Barnea-Goraly, Naama

    2015-12-01

    Near-term brain structure was examined in preterm infants in relation to neurodevelopment. We hypothesized that near-term macrostructural brain abnormalities identified using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and white matter (WM) microstructure detected using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), would correlate with lower cognitive and motor development and slower, less-stable gait at 18-22 mo of age. One hundred and two very-low-birth-weight preterm infants (≤1,500 g birth weight; ≤32 wk gestational age) were recruited prior to routine near-term brain MRI at 36.6 ± 1.8 wk postmenstrual age. Cerebellar and WM macrostructure was assessed on conventional structural MRI. DTI was obtained in 66 out of 102 and WM microstructure was assessed using fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity (MD) in six subcortical brain regions defined by DiffeoMap neonatal atlas. Neurodevelopment was assessed with Bayley-Scales-of-Infant-Toddler-Development, 3rd-Edition (BSID-III); gait was assessed using an instrumented mat. Neonates with cerebellar abnormalities identified using MRI demonstrated lower mean BSID-III cognitive composite scores (89.0 ± 10.1 vs. 97.8 ± 12.4; P = 0.002) at 18-22 mo. Neonates with higher DTI-derived left posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC) MD demonstrated lower cognitive and motor composite scores (r = -0.368; P = 0.004; r = -0.354; P = 0.006) at 18-22 mo; neonates with higher genu MD demonstrated slower gait velocity (r = -0.374; P = 0.007). Multivariate linear regression significantly predicted cognitive (adjusted r(2) = 0.247; P = 0.002) and motor score (adjusted r(2) = 0.131; P = 0.017). Near-term cerebellar macrostructure and PLIC and genu microstructure were predictive of early neurodevelopment and gait.

  12. MRI of the brain and craniocervical junction in Morquio's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.G.; Chadderton, R.D.; Cowie, R.A.; Wraith, J.E.; Jenkins, J.P.R.

    1997-01-01

    We reviewed MRI of the brain and cervical spine in 11 patients with Morquio's disease. No abnormality was seen in the brain. The odontoid peg was abnormal in all patients, with varying degrees of cord compression due to an anterior soft tissue mass and indentation by the posterior arch of the atlas. The degree of cord compression was more marked than suggested by the symptoms and signs. We recommend MRI of the cervical spine in children with Morquio's disease before the development of neurological symptoms, to optimise the timing and type of surgical intervention. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Evaluation of the limits of visual detection of image misregistration in a brain fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET-MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.C.H.; Studholme, C.; Hawkes, D.J.; Maisey, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    In routine clinical work, registration accuracy is assessed by visual inspection. However, the accuracy of visual assessment of registration has not been evaluated. This study establishes the limits of visual detection of misregistration in a registered brain fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to magnetic resonance image volume. The ''best'' registered image volume was obtained by automatic registration using mutual information optimization. Translational movements by 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm, and rotational movements by 1 , 2 , 3 and 4 in the positive and negative directions in the x- (lateral), y- (anterior-posterior) and z- (axial) axes were introduced to this standard. These 48 images plus six ''best'' registered images were presented in random sequence to five observers for visual categorization of registration accuracy. No observer detected a definite misregistration in the ''best'' registered image. Evaluation for inter-observer variation using observer pairings showed a high percentage of agreement in assigned categories for both translational and rotational misregistrations. Assessment of the limits of detection of misregistration showed that a 2-mm translational misregistration was detectable by all observers in the x- and y-axes and 3-mm translational misregistration in the z-axis. With rotational misregistrations, rotation around the z-axis was detectable by all at 2 rotation whereas rotation around the y-axis was detected at 3-4 . Rotation around the x-axis was not symmetric with a positive rotation being identified at 2 whereas negative rotation was detected by all only at 4 . Therefore, visual analysis appears to be a sensitive and practical means to assess image misregistration accuracy. The awareness of the limits of visual detection of misregistration will lead to increase care when evaluating registration quality in both research and clinical settings. (orig.). With 6 figs., 3 tabs

  14. There is less MRI brain lesions and no characteristic MRI Brain findings in IIDDs patients with positive AQP4 serology among Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Suhailah; Fadzli, Farhana; Ramli, Norlisah; Tan, Chong Tin

    2017-02-01

    The recently introduced International Consensus diagnostic criteria for diagnosis of neuromyelitis spectrum disorder include patients who are seronegative for AQP4 antibody. The criteria are dependent on typical MRI changes in the spinal cord, optic nerve and brain. This study aims to determine whether there are significant differences in the MRI brain images between AQP4 positive and negative patients with IIDDs. MRI brain of patients with a diagnosis of IIDDs presented to the Hospital from 2010 to 2015 was analysed. The MRI was assessed by 2 radiologists blinded to the AQP4 status, on features said to be typical of NMOSD and MS. Thirty nine patients fulfilled the criteria and were included in the study. They consisted of 19 AQP4 seropositive and 20 AQP4 seronegative patients. The mean age was older (37.0 vs. 28.8 years) among the AQP4 positive group. The majority of the patients were ethnic Chinese (72%), followed by the Malays and Indians. Those with AQP4 seropositive status generally has less brain lesions, and significantly less fulfilling the McDonald DIS criteria as compared to those with AQP4 seronegative status (15.8% vs. 60.0%, p=0.005). None of the seven cerebral MRI features highlighted in NMOSD 2015 diagnostic criteria, said to be characteristic of NMOSD was more common among the AQP4 positive patients. These features were in fact seen less frequently among the AQP4 seropositive patients. An example was the extensive hemispheric lesion seen in 10.5% of AQP4 seropositive patients vs. 45% of that AQP4 seronegative group. There was no characteristic MRI brain features in the Malaysian AQP4 seropositive IIDD patients versus those who are seronegative. This could be a reflection of ethnical difference. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel frontiers in ultra-structural and molecular MRI of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyn, Jeff H; Koretsky, Alan P

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in the MRI of the brain continue to expand its use in basic and clinical neuroscience. This review highlights some areas of recent progress. Higher magnetic field strengths and improved signal detectors have allowed improved visualization of the various properties of the brain, facilitating the anatomical definition of function-specific areas and their connections. For example, by sensitizing the MRI signal to the magnetic susceptibility of tissue, it is starting to become possible to reveal the laminar structure of the cortex and identify millimeter-scale fiber bundles. Using exogenous contrast agents, and innovative ways to manipulate contrast, it is becoming possible to highlight specific fiber tracts and cell populations. These techniques are bringing us closer to understanding the evolutionary blueprint of the brain, improving the detection and characterization of disease, and help to guide treatment. Recent MRI techniques are leading to more detailed and more specific contrast in the study of the brain.

  16. Incidental use of ecstasy: no evidence for harmful effects on cognitive brain function in a prospective fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, G.; Win, M.M. de; Vervaeke, H.K.; Schilt, T.; Kahn, R.S.; Brink, W. van den; Ree, J.M. van; Ramsey, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale Heavy ecstasy use in humans has been associated with cognitive impairments and changes in cognitive brain function supposedly due to damage to the serotonin system. There is concern that even a single dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine may be neurotoxic, but very little is known

  17. The role of testosterone and estradiol in brain volume changes across adolescence: a longitudinal structural MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Gautam, Prapti; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Kan, Eric; Dahl, Ronald E; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2014-11-01

    It has been postulated that pubertal hormones may drive some neuroanatomical changes during adolescence, and may do so differently in girls and boys. Here, we use growth curve modeling to directly assess how sex hormones [testosterone (T) and estradiol (E₂)] relate to changes in subcortical brain volumes utilizing a longitudinal design. 126 adolescents (63 girls), ages 10 to 14, were imaged and restudied ∼2 years later. We show, for the first time, that best-fit growth models are distinctly different when using hormones as compared to a physical proxy of pubertal maturation (Tanner Stage) or age, to predict brain development. Like Tanner Stage, T and E₂ predicted white matter and right amygdala growth across adolescence in both sexes, independent of age. Tanner Stage also explained decreases in both gray matter and caudate volumes, whereas E₂ explained only gray matter decreases and T explained only caudate volume decreases. No pubertal measures were related to hippocampus development. Although specificity was seen, sex hormones had strikingly similar relationships with white matter, gray matter, right amygdala, and bilateral caudate volumes, with larger changes in brain volume seen at early pubertal maturation (as indexed by lower hormone levels), followed by less robust, or even reversals in growth, by late puberty. These novel longitudinal findings on the relationship between hormones and brain volume change represent crucial first steps toward understanding which aspects of puberty influence neurodevelopment. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Imaging the premature brain: ultrasound or MRI?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, Linda S. de; Benders, Manon J.N.L.; Groenendaal, Floris [UMC Utrecht, Department of Neonatology, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, PO Box 85090, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Neuroimaging of preterm infants has become part of routine clinical care, but the question is often raised on how often cranial ultrasound should be done and whether every high risk preterm infant should at least have one MRI during the neonatal period. An increasing number of centres perform an MRI either at discharge or around term equivalent age, and a few centres have access to a magnet in or adjacent to the neonatal intensive care unit and are doing sequential MRIs. In this review, we try to discuss when best to perform these two neuroimaging techniques and the additional information each technique may provide. (orig.)

  19. Spontaneous Slow Fluctuation of EEG Alpha Rhythm Reflects Activity in Deep-Brain Structures: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Omata

    Full Text Available The emergence of the occipital alpha rhythm on brain electroencephalogram (EEG is associated with brain activity in the cerebral neocortex and deep brain structures. To further understand the mechanisms of alpha rhythm power fluctuation, we performed simultaneous EEGs and functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings in human subjects during a resting state and explored the dynamic relationship between alpha power fluctuation and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD signals of the brain. Based on the frequency characteristics of the alpha power time series (APTS during 20-minute EEG recordings, we divided the APTS into two components: fast fluctuation (0.04-0.167 Hz and slow fluctuation (0-0.04 Hz. Analysis of the correlation between the MRI signal and each component revealed that the slow fluctuation component of alpha power was positively correlated with BOLD signal changes in the brain stem and the medial part of the thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex, while the fast fluctuation component was correlated with the lateral part of the thalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex, but not the brain stem. In summary, these data suggest that different subcortical structures contribute to slow and fast modulations of alpha spectra on brain EEG.

  20. Joint brain connectivity estimation from diffusion and functional MRI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shu-Hsien; Lenglet, Christophe; Parhi, Keshab K.

    2015-03-01

    Estimating brain wiring patterns is critical to better understand the brain organization and function. Anatomical brain connectivity models axonal pathways, while the functional brain connectivity characterizes the statistical dependencies and correlation between the activities of various brain regions. The synchronization of brain activity can be inferred through the variation of blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal from functional MRI (fMRI) and the neural connections can be estimated using tractography from diffusion MRI (dMRI). Functional connections between brain regions are supported by anatomical connections, and the synchronization of brain activities arises through sharing of information in the form of electro-chemical signals on axon pathways. Jointly modeling fMRI and dMRI data may improve the accuracy in constructing anatomical connectivity as well as functional connectivity. Such an approach may lead to novel multimodal biomarkers potentially able to better capture functional and anatomical connectivity variations. We present a novel brain network model which jointly models the dMRI and fMRI data to improve the anatomical connectivity estimation and extract the anatomical subnetworks associated with specific functional modes by constraining the anatomical connections as structural supports to the functional connections. The key idea is similar to a multi-commodity flow optimization problem that minimizes the cost or maximizes the efficiency for flow configuration and simultaneously fulfills the supply-demand constraint for each commodity. In the proposed network, the nodes represent the grey matter (GM) regions providing brain functionality, and the links represent white matter (WM) fiber bundles connecting those regions and delivering information. The commodities can be thought of as the information corresponding to brain activity patterns as obtained for instance by independent component analysis (ICA) of fMRI data. The concept of information

  1. Age-related alterations of brain network underlying the retrieval of emotional autobiographical memories: An fMRI study using independent component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyang eGe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging has been shown to modulate the neural underpinnings of autobiographical memory and emotion processing. Moreover, previous researches have suggested that aging produces a positivity effect in autobiographical memory. Although a few imaging studies have investigated the neural mechanism of the positivity effect, the neural substrates underlying the positivity effect in emotional autobiographical memory is unclear. To understand the age-related neural changes in emotional autobiographical memory that underlie the positivity effect, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study used the independent component analysis (ICA method to compare brain networks in younger and older adults as they retrieved positive and negative autobiographical events. Compared to their younger counterparts, older adults reported relatively higher positive feelings when retrieving emotional autobiographical events. Imaging data indicated an age-related reversal within the ventromedial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex (VMPFC/ACC and the left amygdala of the brain networks that were engaged in the retrieval of autobiographical events with different valence. The retrieval of negative events compared to positive events induced stronger activity in the VMPFC/ACC and weaker activity in the amygdala for the older adults, whereas the younger adults showed a reversed pattern. Moreover, activity in the VMPFC/ACC within the task-related networks showed a negative correlation with the emotional valence intensity. These results may suggest that the positivity effect in older adults’ autobiographical memories is potentially due to age-related changes in controlled emotional processing implemented by the VMPFC/ACC-amygdala circuit.

  2. Brain CT and MRI findings in fat embolism syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shin; Hayashi, Takaki; Ri, Kyoshichi

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate brain CT and MRI findings in fat embolism syndrome (FES), we retrospectively analyzed images from 5 patients with FES during the acute and subacute stages. Brain CT examinations demonstrated brain edema in 2 patients and transient spotty low density lesions in 2 patients. Three patients showed no abnormalities. Brain MRI, however, showed brain abnormalities in all patients during the acute stages. These were revealed as spotty high signal intensity lesions on T2WI, and some showed low intensity on T1WI. These spotty lesions were considered to reflect edematous fluid occurring as a result of the unique pathophysiological condition of FES. While the spotty high signal intensity lesions on T2WI were distributed in the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, thalamus, basal ganglia, internal capsule and corpus callosum, cerebral and cerebellar spotty lesions were characteristically located along the boundary zones of the major vascular territories. This characteristic location might be induced by a hypoxic brain condition in FES because the numerous fat globules present in this condition can block entire brain capillaries. This characteristic signal location on T2WI is a useful indicator for differentiating FES from the primary intra-axial brain injury in patients with multifocal trauma. (author)

  3. Progressive and widespread brain damage in ALS: MRI voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Joe; Kato, Shigenori; Kaga, Tomotsugu; Ito, Mizuki; Atsuta, Naoki; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Naganawa, Shinji; Sobue, Gen

    2011-01-01

    We investigated 17 patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor images (DTI) at baseline and after a six-month follow-up. Compared with 17 healthy controls, ALS patients at baseline showed only minimal white matter volume decreases in the inferior frontal gyrus but marked decreases in the gray matter of several regions, especially in the bilateral paracentral lobule of the premotor cortex. DTI revealed reduced fractional anisotropy in the bilateral corticospinal tracts, insula, ventrolateral premotor cortex, and parietal cortex. Increased mean diffusivity was noted bilaterally in the motor cortex, ventrolateral premotor cortex, insula, hippocampal formation, and temporal gyrus. At the six-month follow-up, ALS patients showed widespread volume decreases in gray matter, and DTI abnormalities extended mainly into the bilateral frontal lobes, while volume changes in the white matter remained minimal but more distinct. Our combined VBM and DTI techniques revealed extra-corticospinal tract neuronal degeneration mainly in the frontotemporal lobe of ALS patients. In particular, follow-up examinations in these patients showed that whole-brain DTI changes occurred predominantly in the regions of brain atrophy. These objective analyses can be used to assess the disease condition of the ALS brain.

  4. Imaging brain microstructure with diffusion MRI: practicality and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Daniel C; Dyrby, Tim B; Nilsson, Markus; Zhang, Hui

    2017-11-29

    This article gives an overview of microstructure imaging of the brain with diffusion MRI and reviews the state of the art. The microstructure-imaging paradigm aims to estimate and map microscopic properties of tissue using a model that links these properties to the voxel scale MR signal. Imaging techniques of this type are just starting to make the transition from the technical research domain to wide application in biomedical studies. We focus here on the practicalities of both implementing such techniques and using them in applications. Specifically, the article summarizes the relevant aspects of brain microanatomy and the range of diffusion-weighted MR measurements that provide sensitivity to them. It then reviews the evolution of mathematical and computational models that relate the diffusion MR signal to brain tissue microstructure, as well as the expanding areas of application. Next we focus on practicalities of designing a working microstructure imaging technique: model selection, experiment design, parameter estimation, validation, and the pipeline of development of this class of technique. The article concludes with some future perspectives on opportunities in this topic and expectations on how the field will evolve in the short-to-medium term. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Anisotropic Diffusion based Brain MRI Segmentation and 3D Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arfan Jaffar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In medical field visualization of the organs is very imperative for accurate diagnosis and treatment of any disease. Brain tumor diagnosis and surgery also required impressive 3D visualization of the brain to the radiologist. Detection and 3D reconstruction of brain tumors from MRI is a computationally time consuming and error-prone task. Proposed system detects and presents a 3D visualization model of the brain and tumor inside which greatly helps the radiologist to effectively diagnose and analyze the brain tumor. We proposed a multi-phase segmentation and visualization technique which overcomes the many problems of 3D volume segmentation methods like lake of fine details. In this system segmentation is done in three different phases which reduces the error chances. The system finds contours for skull, brain and tumor. These contours are stacked over and two novel methods are used to find the 3D visualization models. The results of these techniques, particularly of interpolation based, are impressive. Proposed system is tested against publically available data set [41] and MRI datasets available from MRI aamp; CT center Rawalpindi, Pakistan [42].

  6. Gain- and Loss-Related Brain Activation Are Associated with Information Search Differences in Risky Gambles: An fMRI and Eye-Tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, Alexander Niklas; Oroz Artigas, Sergio; Trautner, Peter; Weber, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    People differ in the way they approach and handle choices with unsure outcomes. In this study, we demonstrate that individual differences in the neural processing of gains and losses relates to attentional differences in the way individuals search for information in gambles. Fifty subjects participated in two independent experiments. Participants first completed an fMRI experiment involving financial gains and losses. Subsequently, they performed an eye-tracking experiment on binary choices between risky gambles, each displaying monetary outcomes and their respective probabilities. We find that individual differences in gain and loss processing relate to attention distribution. Individuals with a stronger reaction to gains in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex paid more attention to monetary amounts, while a stronger reaction in the ventral striatum to losses was correlated with an increased attention to probabilities. Reaction in the posterior cingulate cortex to losses was also found to correlate with an increased attention to probabilities. Our data show that individual differences in brain activity and differences in information search processes are closely linked.

  7. The subcortical role of language processing. High level linguistic features such as ambiguity-resolution and the human brain; an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketteler, Daniel; Kastrau, Frank; Vohn, Rene; Huber, Walter

    2008-02-15

    In the present study, we were interested in the neurofunctional representations of ambiguity processing by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twelve right-handed, healthy adults aged between 21 and 29 years (6 male, 6 female) underwent an ambiguity resolution task with 4 different conditions (dominant vs. non-dominant; dominant vs. distractor; non-dominant vs. distractor; distractor vs. distractor). After subtraction of the corresponding control task (distractor vs. distractor) we found significant activation especially in the thalamus and some parts of the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen). Our findings implicate a participation of the thalamus and other basal ganglia circuits in high level linguistic functions and match with theoretical considerations on this highly controversial topic. Subcortical neural circuits probably become activated when the language processing system cannot rely entirely on automatic mechanisms but has to recruit controlled processes as well. Furthermore, we found broad activation in the inferior parietal lobule, the prefrontal gyrus, pre-SMA and SMA and the cingulate cortex. This might reflect a strategic semantic search mechanism which probably can be illustrated with connectionist models of language processing. According to this, we hypothesize a neuroregulatory role for the thalamus and basal ganglia in regulating and monitoring the release of preformulated language segments for motor programming and semantic verification. According to our findings there is strong evidence, that especially the thalamus, the caudate nucleus, the cingulate cortex, the inferior parietal lobule and the prefrontal cortex are responsible for an accurate ambiguity resolution in the human brain.

  8. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Kasprian, Gregor; Witzani, Linde; Helmer, Hanns; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Eppel, Wolfgang; Langer, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images

  9. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  10. Delineation of early brain development from fetuses to infants with diffusion MRI and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Minhui; Dubois, Jessica; Yu, Qinlin; Mukherjee, Pratik; Huang, Hao

    2018-04-12

    Dynamic macrostructural and microstructural changes take place from the mid-fetal stage to 2 years after birth. Delineating brain structural changes during this early developmental period provides new insights into the complicated processes of both typical brain development and the pathological mechanisms underlying various psychiatric and neurological disorders including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Decades of histological studies have identified strong spatial and functional gradients of maturation in human brain gray and white matter. The recent improvements in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, especially diffusion MRI (dMRI), relaxometry imaging, and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) have provided unprecedented opportunities to non-invasively quantify and map the early developmental changes at whole brain and regional levels. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding early brain structural development during the second half of gestation and the first two postnatal years using modern MR techniques. Specifically, we review studies that delineate the emergence and microstructural maturation of white matter tracts, as well as dynamic mapping of inhomogeneous cortical microstructural organization unique to fetuses and infants. These imaging studies converge into maturational curves of MRI measurements that are distinctive across different white matter tracts and cortical regions. Furthermore, contemporary models offering biophysical interpretations of the dMRI-derived measurements are illustrated to infer the underlying microstructural changes. Collectively, this review summarizes findings that contribute to charting spatiotemporally heterogeneous gray and white matter structural development, offering MRI-based biomarkers of typical brain development and setting the stage for understanding aberrant brain development in neurodevelopmental disorders. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Clinical validation of synthetic brain MRI in children: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Hollie; Leach, James L.; Jones, Blaise V.; Care, Marguerite; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Merrow, Arnold C.; Alvarado, Enrique; Serai, Suraj D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of synthetic MR sequences generated through post-acquisition processing of a single sequence measuring inherent R1, R2, and PD tissue properties compared with sequences acquired conventionally as part of a routine clinical pediatric brain MR exam. Thirty-two patients underwent routine clinical brain MRI with conventional and synthetic sequences acquired (22 abnormal). Synthetic axial T1, T2, and T2 fluid attenuation inversion recovery or proton density-weighted sequences were made to match the comparable clinical sequences. Two exams for each patient were de-identified. Four blinded reviewers reviewed eight patients and were asked to generate clinical reports on each exam (synthetic or conventional) at two different time points separated by a mean of 33 days. Exams were rated for overall and specific finding agreement (synthetic/conventional and compared to gold standard consensus review by two senior reviewers with knowledge of clinical report), quality, and diagnostic confidence. Overall agreement between conventional and synthetic exams was 97%. Agreement with consensus readings was 84% (conventional) and 81% (synthetic), p = 0.61. There were no significant differences in sensitivity, specificity, or accuracy for specific imaging findings involving the ventricles, CSF, brain parenchyma, or vasculature between synthetic or conventional exams (p > 0.05). No significant difference in exam quality, diagnostic confidence, or noise/artifacts was noted comparing studies with synthetic or conventional sequences. Diagnostic accuracy and quality of synthetically generated sequences are comparable to conventionally acquired sequences as part of a standard pediatric brain exam. Further confirmation in a larger study is warranted. (orig.)

  12. Clinical validation of synthetic brain MRI in children: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Hollie; Leach, James L.; Jones, Blaise V.; Care, Marguerite; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Merrow, Arnold C.; Alvarado, Enrique; Serai, Suraj D. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of synthetic MR sequences generated through post-acquisition processing of a single sequence measuring inherent R1, R2, and PD tissue properties compared with sequences acquired conventionally as part of a routine clinical pediatric brain MR exam. Thirty-two patients underwent routine clinical brain MRI with conventional and synthetic sequences acquired (22 abnormal). Synthetic axial T1, T2, and T2 fluid attenuation inversion recovery or proton density-weighted sequences were made to match the comparable clinical sequences. Two exams for each patient were de-identified. Four blinded reviewers reviewed eight patients and were asked to generate clinical reports on each exam (synthetic or conventional) at two different time points separated by a mean of 33 days. Exams were rated for overall and specific finding agreement (synthetic/conventional and compared to gold standard consensus review by two senior reviewers with knowledge of clinical report), quality, and diagnostic confidence. Overall agreement between conventional and synthetic exams was 97%. Agreement with consensus readings was 84% (conventional) and 81% (synthetic), p = 0.61. There were no significant differences in sensitivity, specificity, or accuracy for specific imaging findings involving the ventricles, CSF, brain parenchyma, or vasculature between synthetic or conventional exams (p > 0.05). No significant difference in exam quality, diagnostic confidence, or noise/artifacts was noted comparing studies with synthetic or conventional sequences. Diagnostic accuracy and quality of synthetically generated sequences are comparable to conventionally acquired sequences as part of a standard pediatric brain exam. Further confirmation in a larger study is warranted. (orig.)

  13. Novel whole brain segmentation and volume estimation using quantitative MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J. [Linkoeping University, Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University, Center for Medical Imaging Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping (Sweden); SyntheticMR AB, Linkoeping (Sweden); Warntjes, J.B.M. [Linkoeping University, Center for Medical Imaging Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping (Sweden); SyntheticMR AB, Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University and Department of Clinical Physiology UHL, County Council of Oestergoetland, Clinical Physiology, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping (Sweden); Lundberg, P. [Linkoeping University, Center for Medical Imaging Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University and Department of Radiation Physics UHL, County Council of Oestergoetland, Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University and Department of Radiology UHL, County Council of Oestergoetland, Radiology, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-05-15

    Brain segmentation and volume estimation of grey matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) are important for many neurological applications. Volumetric changes are observed in multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and in normal aging. A novel method is presented to segment brain tissue based on quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) of the longitudinal relaxation rate R{sub 1}, the transverse relaxation rate R{sub 2} and the proton density, PD. Previously reported qMRI values for WM, GM and CSF were used to define tissues and a Bloch simulation performed to investigate R{sub 1}, R{sub 2} and PD for tissue mixtures in the presence of noise. Based on the simulations a lookup grid was constructed to relate tissue partial volume to the R{sub 1}-R{sub 2}-PD space. The method was validated in 10 healthy subjects. MRI data were acquired using six resolutions and three geometries. Repeatability for different resolutions was 3.2% for WM, 3.2% for GM, 1.0% for CSF and 2.2% for total brain volume. Repeatability for different geometries was 8.5% for WM, 9.4% for GM, 2.4% for CSF and 2.4% for total brain volume. We propose a new robust qMRI-based approach which we demonstrate in a patient with MS. (orig.)

  14. Novel whole brain segmentation and volume estimation using quantitative MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.; Warntjes, J.B.M.; Lundberg, P.

    2012-01-01

    Brain segmentation and volume estimation of grey matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) are important for many neurological applications. Volumetric changes are observed in multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and in normal aging. A novel method is presented to segment brain tissue based on quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) of the longitudinal relaxation rate R 1 , the transverse relaxation rate R 2 and the proton density, PD. Previously reported qMRI values for WM, GM and CSF were used to define tissues and a Bloch simulation performed to investigate R 1 , R 2 and PD for tissue mixtures in the presence of noise. Based on the simulations a lookup grid was constructed to relate tissue partial volume to the R 1 -R 2 -PD space. The method was validated in 10 healthy subjects. MRI data were acquired using six resolutions and three geometries. Repeatability for different resolutions was 3.2% for WM, 3.2% for GM, 1.0% for CSF and 2.2% for total brain volume. Repeatability for different geometries was 8.5% for WM, 9.4% for GM, 2.4% for CSF and 2.4% for total brain volume. We propose a new robust qMRI-based approach which we demonstrate in a patient with MS. (orig.)

  15. What Can the Brain Teach Us about Winemaking? An fMRI Study of Alcohol Level Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ram; Quiñones, Ileana; Veldhuizen, Maria; Alava, Jose-Iñaki; Small, Dana; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, wine makers have been producing wines with a higher alcohol content, assuming that they are more appreciated by consumers. To test this hypothesis, we used functional magnetic imaging to compare reactions of human subjects to different types of wine, focusing on brain regions critical for flavor processing and food reward. Participants were presented with carefully matched pairs of high- and low-alcohol content red wines, without informing them of any of the wine attributes. Contrary to expectation, significantly greater activation was found for low-alcohol than for high-alcohol content wines in brain regions that are sensitive to taste intensity, including the insula as well as the cerebellum. Wines were closely matched for all physical attributes except for alcohol content, thus we interpret the preferential response to the low-alcohol content wines as arising from top-down modulation due to the low alcohol content wines inducing greater attentional exploration of aromas and flavours. The findings raise intriguing possibilities for objectively testing hypotheses regarding methods of producing a highly complex product such as wine. PMID:25785844

  16. Altered Brain Functional Connectome in Migraine with and without Restless Legs Syndrome: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chi Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMigraine is frequently comorbid with restless legs syndrome (RLS, both displaying functional connectivity (FC alterations in multiple brain networks, although the neurological basis of this association is unknown.MethodsWe performed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and network-wise analysis of FC in migraine patients with and without RLS and healthy controls (CRL. Network-based statistics (NBS and composite FC matrix analyses were performed to identify the patterns of FC changes. Correlation analyses were performed to identify associations between alterations in FC and clinical profiles.ResultsNBS results revealed that both migraine patients with and without RLS exhibited lower FC than CRL in the dorsal attention, salience, default mode, cingulo-opercular, visual, frontoparietal, auditory, and sensory/somatomotor networks. Further composite FC matrix analyses revealed differences in FC of the salience, default mode to subcortical and frontoparietal, auditory to salience, and memory retrieval networks between migraine patients with and without RLS. There was a trend toward a negative association between RLS severity and cross-network abnormalities in the default mode to subcortical network.DiscussionMigraine patients with and without RLS exhibit disruptions of brain FC. Such findings suggest that these disorders are associated with differential neuropathological mechanisms and may aid in the future development of neuroimaging-driven biomarkers for these conditions.

  17. What can the brain teach us about winemaking? An fMRI study of alcohol level preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ram; Quiñones, Ileana; Veldhuizen, Maria; Alava, Jose-Iñaki; Small, Dana; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, wine makers have been producing wines with a higher alcohol content, assuming that they are more appreciated by consumers. To test this hypothesis, we used functional magnetic imaging to compare reactions of human subjects to different types of wine, focusing on brain regions critical for flavor processing and food reward. Participants were presented with carefully matched pairs of high- and low-alcohol content red wines, without informing them of any of the wine attributes. Contrary to expectation, significantly greater activation was found for low-alcohol than for high-alcohol content wines in brain regions that are sensitive to taste intensity, including the insula as well as the cerebellum. Wines were closely matched for all physical attributes except for alcohol content, thus we interpret the preferential response to the low-alcohol content wines as arising from top-down modulation due to the low alcohol content wines inducing greater attentional exploration of aromas and flavours. The findings raise intriguing possibilities for objectively testing hypotheses regarding methods of producing a highly complex product such as wine.

  18. What can the brain teach us about winemaking? An fMRI study of alcohol level preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Frost

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, wine makers have been producing wines with a higher alcohol content, assuming that they are more appreciated by consumers. To test this hypothesis, we used functional magnetic imaging to compare reactions of human subjects to different types of wine, focusing on brain regions critical for flavor processing and food reward. Participants were presented with carefully matched pairs of high- and low-alcohol content red wines, without informing them of any of the wine attributes. Contrary to expectation, significantly greater activation was found for low-alcohol than for high-alcohol content wines in brain regions that are sensitive to taste intensity, including the insula as well as the cerebellum. Wines were closely matched for all physical attributes except for alcohol content, thus we interpret the preferential response to the low-alcohol content wines as arising from top-down modulation due to the low alcohol content wines inducing greater attentional exploration of aromas and flavours. The findings raise intriguing possibilities for objectively testing hypotheses regarding methods of producing a highly complex product such as wine.

  19. Wilson's disease: two treatment modalities. Correlations to pretreatment and posttreatment brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiros da Costa, Maria do Desterro [Federal University of Paraiba, Movement Disorders Unit, Paraiba (Brazil); Spitz, Mariana; Bacheschi, Luiz Alberto; Barbosa, Egberto Reis [University of Sao Paulo, Movement Disorders Unit, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Leite, Claudia Costa; Lucato, Leandro Tavares [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies on Wilson's disease (WD) show lack of correlations between neurological and neuroimaging features. Long-term follow-up reports with sequential brain MRI in patients with neurological WD comparing different modalities of treatment are scarce. Eighteen patients with neurological WD underwent pretreatment and posttreatment brain MRI scans to evaluate the range of abnormalities and the evolution along these different periods. All patients underwent at least two MRI scans at different intervals, up to 11 years after the beginning of treatment. MRI findings were correlated with clinical picture, clinical severity, duration of neurological symptoms, and treatment with two different drugs. Patients were divided into two groups according to treatment: d-penicillamine (D-P), zinc (Zn), and Zn after the onset of severe intolerance to D-P. MRI scans before treatment showed, in all patients, hypersignal intensity lesions on T2- and proton-density-weighted images bilaterally and symmetrically at basal nuclei, thalamus, brain stem, cerebellum, brain cortex, and brain white matter. The most common neurological symptoms were: dysarthria, parkinsonism, dystonia, tremor, psychiatric disturbances, dysphagia, risus sardonicus, ataxia, chorea, and athetosis. From the neurological point of view, there was no difference on the evolution between the group treated exclusively with D-P and the one treated with Zn. Analysis of MRI scans with longer intervals after the beginning of treatment depicted a trend for neuroimaging worsening, without neurological correspondence, among patients treated with Zn. Neuroimaging pattern of evolution was more favorable for the group that received exclusively D-P. (orig.)

  20. Wilson's disease: two treatment modalities. Correlations to pretreatment and posttreatment brain MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiros da Costa, Maria do Desterro; Spitz, Mariana; Bacheschi, Luiz Alberto; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Leite, Claudia Costa; Lucato, Leandro Tavares

    2009-01-01

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies on Wilson's disease (WD) show lack of correlations between neurological and neuroimaging features. Long-term follow-up reports with sequential brain MRI in patients with neurological WD comparing different modalities of treatment are scarce. Eighteen patients with neurological WD underwent pretreatment and posttreatment brain MRI scans to evaluate the range of abnormalities and the evolution along these different periods. All patients underwent at least two MRI scans at different intervals, up to 11 years after the beginning of treatment. MRI findings were correlated with clinical picture, clinical severity, duration of neurological symptoms, and treatment with two different drugs. Patients were divided into two groups according to treatment: d-penicillamine (D-P), zinc (Zn), and Zn after the onset of severe intolerance to D-P. MRI scans before treatment showed, in all patients, hypersignal intensity lesions on T2- and proton-density-weighted images bilaterally and symmetrically at basal nuclei, thalamus, brain stem, cerebellum, brain cortex, and brain white matter. The most common neurological symptoms were: dysarthria, parkinsonism, dystonia, tremor, psychiatric disturbances, dysphagia, risus sardonicus, ataxia, chorea, and athetosis. From the neurological point of view, there was no difference on the evolution between the group treated exclusively with D-P and the one treated with Zn. Analysis of MRI scans with longer intervals after the beginning of treatment depicted a trend for neuroimaging worsening, without neurological correspondence, among patients treated with Zn. Neuroimaging pattern of evolution was more favorable for the group that received exclusively D-P. (orig.)

  1. MRI brain findings in ephedrone encephalopathy associated with manganese abuse: Single-center perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poniatowska, Renata; Lusawa, Małgorzata; Skierczyńska, Agnieszka; Makowicz, Grzegorz; Habrat, Bogusław; Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Halina

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a well-known toxic agent causing symptoms of parkinsonism in employees of certain branches of industry. Home production of a psychostimulant ephedrone (methcathinone), involving the use of potassium permanganate, became a new cause of intoxications in Poland. This article presents clinical symptoms, initial brain MRI findings and characteristics of changes observed in follow-up examinations in 4 patients with manganese intoxication associated with intravenous administration of ephedrone. All patients in our case series presented symptoms of parkinsonism. T1-WI MRI revealed high intensity signal in globi pallidi in all patients; hyperintense lesions in midbrain were observed in three patients, while lesions located in cerebellar hemispheres and pituitary gland in just one patient. The reduction of signal intensity in the affected brain structures was observed in follow-up studies, with no significant improvement in clinical symptoms. Brain MRI is helpful in the assessment of distribution as well as dynamics of changes in ephedrone encephalopathy. Regression of signal intensity changes visible in brain MRI is not associated with clinical condition improvement. Although brain MRI findings are not characteristic for ephedrone encephalopathy, they may contribute to diagnosing this condition

  2. Prospective longitudinal MRI study of brain volumes and diffusion changes during the first year after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Brezova

    2014-01-01

    Higher ADC values were detected in the cortex in individuals with severe TBI, DAI and PTA > 2 weeks, from 3 months. There were no associations between ADC values and brain volumes, and ADC values did not predict outcome.

  3. Simultaneous MRI and PET imaging of a rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raylman, Raymond R; Majewski, Stan; Lemieux, Susan K; Velan, S Sendhil; Kross, Brian; Popov, Vladimir; Smith, Mark F; Weisenberger, Andrew G; Zorn, Carl; Marano, Gary D

    2006-01-01

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode. Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements coupled through a long fibre optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The use of light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of a 3T MRI scanner where the magnetic field is relatively small. To test the device, simultaneous MRI and PET images of the brain of a male Sprague Dawley rat injected with FDG were successfully obtained. The images revealed no noticeable artefacts in either image set. Future work includes the construction of a full ring PET scanner, improved light guides and construction of a specialized MRI coil to permit higher quality MRI imaging

  4. Simultaneous MRI and PET imaging of a rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raylman, Raymond R [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, Box 9236, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Majewski, Stan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Lemieux, Susan K [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, Box 9236, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Velan, S Sendhil [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, Box 9236, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Kross, Brian [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Popov, Vladimir [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Smith, Mark F [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Weisenberger, Andrew G [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Zorn, Carl [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Marano, Gary D [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, Box 9236, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2006-12-21

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode. Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements coupled through a long fibre optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The use of light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of a 3T MRI scanner where the magnetic field is relatively small. To test the device, simultaneous MRI and PET images of the brain of a male Sprague Dawley rat injected with FDG were successfully obtained. The images revealed no noticeable artefacts in either image set. Future work includes the construction of a full ring PET scanner, improved light guides and construction of a specialized MRI coil to permit higher quality MRI imaging.

  5. Effects of incentives, age, and behavior on brain activation during inhibitory control: A longitudinal fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Paulsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated changes in brain function supporting inhibitory control under age-controlled incentivized conditions, separating age- and performance-related activation in an accelerated longitudinal design including 10- to 22-year-olds. Better inhibitory control correlated with striatal activation during neutral trials, while Age X Behavior interactions in the striatum indicated that in the absence of extrinsic incentives, younger subjects with greater reward circuitry activation successfully engage in greater inhibitory control. Age was negatively correlated with ventral amygdala activation during Loss trials, suggesting that amygdala function more strongly mediates bottom-up processing earlier in development when controlling the negative aspects of incentives to support inhibitory control. Together, these results indicate that with development, reward-modulated cognitive control may be supported by incentive processing transitions in the amygdala, and from facilitative to obstructive striatal function during inhibitory control.

  6. Gender differences in brain activity generated by unpleasant word stimuli concerning body image: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirao, Naoko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Mantani, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Yuri; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2005-01-01

    We have previously reported that the temporomesial area, including the amygdala, is activated in women when processing unpleasant words concerning body image. To detect gender differences in brain activation during processing of these words. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate 13 men and 13 women during an emotional decision task consisting of unpleasant words concerning body image and neutral words. The left medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were activated only among men, and the left amygdala was activated only among women during the task; activation in the apical prefrontal region was significantly greater in men than in women. Our data suggest that the prefrontal region is responsible for the gender differences in the processing of words concerning body image, and may also be responsible for gender differences in susceptibility to eating disorders.

  7. Local activity determines functional connectivity in the resting human brain: a simultaneous FDG-PET/fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Valentin; Bienkowska, Katarzyna; Strobel, Carola; Tahmasian, Masoud; Grimmer, Timo; Förster, Stefan; Friston, Karl J; Sorg, Christian; Drzezga, Alexander

    2014-04-30

    Over the last decade, synchronized resting-state fluctuations of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals between remote brain areas [so-called BOLD resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC)] have gained enormous relevance in systems and clinical neuroscience. However, the neural underpinnings of rs-FC are still incompletely understood. Using simultaneous positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging we here directly investigated the relationship between rs-FC and local neuronal activity in humans. Computational models suggest a mechanistic link between the dynamics of local neuronal activity and the functional coupling among distributed brain regions. Therefore, we hypothesized that the local activity (LA) of a region at rest determines its rs-FC. To test this hypothesis, we simultaneously measured both LA (glucose metabolism) and rs-FC (via synchronized BOLD fluctuations) during conditions of eyes closed or eyes open. During eyes open, LA increased in the visual system, and the salience network (i.e., cingulate and insular cortices) and the pattern of elevated LA coincided almost exactly with the spatial pattern of increased rs-FC. Specifically, the voxelwise regional profile of LA in these areas strongly correlated with the regional pattern of rs-FC among the same regions (e.g., LA in primary visual cortex accounts for ∼ 50%, and LA in anterior cingulate accounts for ∼ 20% of rs-FC with the visual system). These data provide the first direct evidence in humans that local neuronal activity determines BOLD FC at rest. Beyond its relevance for the neuronal basis of coherent BOLD signal fluctuations, our procedure may translate into clinical research particularly to investigate potentially aberrant links between local dynamics and remote functional coupling in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders.

  8. Location of core diagnostic information across various sequences in brain MRI and implications for efficiency of MRI scanner utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aseem; Chatterjee, Arindam; Goyal, Manu; Parsons, Matthew S; Bartel, Seth

    2015-04-01

    Targeting redundancy within MRI can improve its cost-effective utilization. We sought to quantify potential redundancy in our brain MRI protocols. In this retrospective review, we aggregated 207 consecutive adults who underwent brain MRI and reviewed their medical records to document clinical indication, core diagnostic information provided by MRI, and its clinical impact. Contributory imaging abnormalities constituted positive core diagnostic information whereas absence of imaging abnormalities constituted negative core diagnostic information. The senior author selected core sequences deemed sufficient for extraction of core diagnostic information. For validating core sequences selection, four readers assessed the relative ease of extracting core diagnostic information from the core sequences. Potential redundancy was calculated by comparing the average number of core sequences to the average number of sequences obtained. Scanning had been performed using 9.4±2.8 sequences over 37.3±12.3 minutes. Core diagnostic information was deemed extractable from 2.1±1.1 core sequences, with an assumed scanning time of 8.6±4.8 minutes, reflecting a potential redundancy of 74.5%±19.1%. Potential redundancy was least in scans obtained for treatment planning (14.9%±25.7%) and highest in scans obtained for follow-up of benign diseases (81.4%±12.6%). In 97.4% of cases, all four readers considered core diagnostic information to be either easily extractable from core sequences or the ease to be equivalent to that from the entire study. With only one MRI lacking clinical impact (0.48%), overutilization did not seem to contribute to potential redundancy. High potential redundancy that can be targeted for more efficient scanner utilization exists in brain MRI protocols.

  9. Brain activation by short-term nicotine exposure in anesthetized wild-type and beta2-nicotinic receptors knockout mice: a BOLD fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, S.V.; Changeux, J.P.; Granon, S. [Unite de Neurobiologie Integrative du Systeme Cholinergique, URA CNRS 2182, Institut Pasteur, Departement de Neuroscience, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris (France); Amadon, A.; Giacomini, E.; Le Bihan, D. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, 4 place du general Leclerc, 91400 Orsay (France); Wiklund, A. [Section of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Rationale: The behavioral effects of nicotine and the role of the beta2-containing nicotinic receptors in these behaviors are well documented. However, the behaviors altered by nicotine rely on the functioning on multiple brain circuits where the high-affinity {beta}2-containing nicotinic receptors ({beta}2*nAChRs) are located. Objectives We intend to see which brain circuits are activated when nicotine is given in animals naive for nicotine and whether the {beta}2*nAChRs are needed for its activation of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in all brain areas. Materials and methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the brain activation evoked by nicotine (1 mg/kg delivered at a slow rate for 45 min) in anesthetized C57BL/6J mice and {beta}2 knockout (KO) mice. Results: Acute nicotine injection results in a significant increased activation in anterior frontal, motor, and somatosensory cortices and in the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra. Anesthetized mice receiving no nicotine injection exhibited a major decreased activation in all cortical and subcortical structures, likely due to prolonged anesthesia. At a global level, {beta}2 KO mice were not rescued from the globally declining BOLD signal. However, nicotine still activated regions of a meso-cortico-limbic circuit likely via {alpha}7 nicotinic receptors. Conclusions: Acute nicotine exposure compensates for the drop in brain activation due to anesthesia through the meso-cortico-limbic network via the action of nicotine on {beta}2*nAChRs. The developed fMRI method is suitable for comparing responses in wild-type and mutant mice. (authors)

  10. Brain activation by short-term nicotine exposure in anesthetized wild-type and beta2-nicotinic receptors knockout mice: a BOLD fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, S.V.; Changeux, J.P.; Granon, S.; Amadon, A.; Giacomini, E.; Le Bihan, D.; Wiklund, A.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: The behavioral effects of nicotine and the role of the beta2-containing nicotinic receptors in these behaviors are well documented. However, the behaviors altered by nicotine rely on the functioning on multiple brain circuits where the high-affinity β2-containing nicotinic receptors (β2*nAChRs) are located. Objectives We intend to see which brain circuits are activated when nicotine is given in animals naive for nicotine and whether the β2*nAChRs are needed for its activation of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in all brain areas. Materials and methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the brain activation evoked by nicotine (1 mg/kg delivered at a slow rate for 45 min) in anesthetized C57BL/6J mice and β2 knockout (KO) mice. Results: Acute nicotine injection results in a significant increased activation in anterior frontal, motor, and somatosensory cortices and in the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra. Anesthetized mice receiving no nicotine injection exhibited a major decreased activation in all cortical and subcortical structures, likely due to prolonged anesthesia. At a global level, β2 KO mice were not rescued from the globally declining BOLD signal. However, nicotine still activated regions of a meso-cortico-limbic circuit likely via α7 nicotinic receptors. Conclusions: Acute nicotine exposure compensates for the drop in brain activation due to anesthesia through the meso-cortico-limbic network via the action of nicotine on β2*nAChRs. The developed fMRI method is suitable for comparing responses in wild-type and mutant mice. (authors)

  11. Pediatric brain MRI. Pt. 2. Advanced techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Mai-Lan; Campeau, Norbert G.; Welker, Kirk M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Ngo, Thang D. [Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States); Udayasankar, Unni K. [University of Arizona, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Pediatric neuroimaging is a complex and specialized field that uses magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as the workhorse for diagnosis. MR protocols should be tailored to the specific indication and reviewed by the supervising radiologist in real time. Targeted advanced imaging sequences can be added to provide information regarding tissue microstructure, perfusion, metabolism and function. In part 2 of this review, we highlight the utility of advanced imaging techniques for superior evaluation of pediatric neurologic disease. We focus on the following techniques, with clinical examples: phase-contrast imaging, perfusion-weighted imaging, vessel wall imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, task-based functional MRI and MR spectroscopy. (orig.)

  12. Quantitative Machine Learning Analysis of Brain MRI Morphology throughout Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Lior; Long, Joe

    2016-01-01

    While cognition is clearly affected by aging, it is unclear whether the process of brain aging is driven solely by accumulation of environmental damage, or involves biological pathways. We applied quantitative image analysis to profile the alteration of brain tissues during aging. A dataset of 463 brain MRI images taken from a cohort of 416 subjects was analyzed using a large set of low-level numerical image content descriptors computed from the entire brain MRI images. The correlation between the numerical image content descriptors and the age was computed, and the alterations of the brain tissues during aging were quantified and profiled using machine learning. The comprehensive set of global image content descriptors provides high Pearson correlation of ~0.9822 with the chronological age, indicating that the machine learning analysis of global features is sensitive to the age of the subjects. Profiling of the predicted age shows several periods of mild changes, separated by shorter periods of more rapid alterations. The periods with the most rapid changes were around the age of 55, and around the age of 65. The results show that the process of brain aging of is not linear, and exhibit short periods of rapid aging separated by periods of milder change. These results are in agreement with patterns observed in cognitive decline, mental health status, and general human aging, suggesting that brain aging might not be driven solely by accumulation of environmental damage. Code and data used in the experiments are publicly available.

  13. Spontaneous Brain Activity Did Not Show the Effect of Violent Video Games on Aggression: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Gao, Xuemei; Shi, Shuo; Liu, Fuqu; Li, Chao

    2017-01-01

    A great many of empirical researches have proved that longtime exposure to violent video game can lead to a series of negative effects. Although research has focused on the neural basis of the correlation between violent video game and aggression, little is known whether the spontaneous brain activity is associated with violent video game exposure. To address this question, we measured the spontaneous brain activity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) to quantify spontaneous brain activity. The results showed there is no significant difference in ALFF, or fALFF, between violent video game group and the control part, indicating that long time exposure to violent video games won't significantly influence spontaneous brain activity, especially the core brain regions such as execution control, moral judgment and short-term memory. This implies the adverse impact of violent video games is exaggerated.

  14. Spontaneous Brain Activity Did Not Show the Effect of Violent Video Games on Aggression: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A great many of empirical researches have proved that longtime exposure to violent video game can lead to a series of negative effects. Although research has focused on the neural basis of the correlation between violent video game and aggression, little is known whether the spontaneous brain activity is associated with violent video game exposure. To address this question, we measured the spontaneous brain activity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF and fractional ALFF (fALFF to quantify spontaneous brain activity. The results showed there is no significant difference in ALFF, or fALFF, between violent video game group and the control part, indicating that long time exposure to violent video games won’t significantly influence spontaneous brain activity, especially the core brain regions such as execution control, moral judgment and short-term memory. This implies the adverse impact of violent video games is exaggerated.

  15. Spontaneous Brain Activity Did Not Show the Effect of Violent Video Games on Aggression: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Gao, Xuemei; Shi, Shuo; Liu, Fuqu; Li, Chao

    2018-01-01

    A great many of empirical researches have proved that longtime exposure to violent video game can lead to a series of negative effects. Although research has focused on the neural basis of the correlation between violent video game and aggression, little is known whether the spontaneous brain activity is associated with violent video game exposure. To address this question, we measured the spontaneous brain activity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) to quantify spontaneous brain activity. The results showed there is no significant difference in ALFF, or fALFF, between violent video game group and the control part, indicating that long time exposure to violent video games won’t significantly influence spontaneous brain activity, especially the core brain regions such as execution control, moral judgment and short-term memory. This implies the adverse impact of violent video games is exaggerated. PMID:29375416

  16. Unraveling the multiscale structural organization and connectivity of the human brain: the role of diffusion MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eBastiani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The structural architecture and the anatomical connectivity of the human brain show different organizational principles at distinct spatial scales. Histological staining and light microscopy techniques have been widely used in classical neuroanatomical studies to unravel brain organization. Using such techniques is a laborious task performed on 2-dimensional histological sections by skilled anatomists possibly aided by semi-automated algorithms. With the recent advent of modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast mechanisms, cortical layers and columns can now be reliably identified and their structural properties quantified post mortem. These developments are allowing the investigation of neuroanatomical features of the brain at a spatial resolution that could be interfaced with that of histology. Diffusion MRI and tractography techniques, in particular, have been used to probe the architecture of both white and gray matter in three dimensions. Combined with mathematical network analysis, these techniques are increasingly influential in the investigation of the macro-, meso- and microscopic organization of brain connectivity and anatomy, both in vivo and ex vivo. Diffusion MRI-based techniques in combination with histology approaches can therefore support the endeavor of creating multimodal atlases that take into account the different spatial scales or levels on which the brain is organized. The aim of this review is to illustrate and discuss the structural architecture and the anatomical connectivity of the human brain at different spatial scales and how recently developed diffusion MRI techniques can help investigate these.

  17. Brain CT and MRI findings of a long-term case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoshiba, Kazunori; Ota, Kohei; Komatsuzaki, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Itsuro; Maruyama, Shoichi

    1987-11-01

    Our study involved a long-term case (ten years) of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The case began with a 23 year-old experiencing visual deterioration. During the course of his illness, amnesia, autism and abnormal behavior were observed without any myoclonus. On the electroencephalogram, periodic synclonous discharge was shown in the early stage of his illness and subsequently disappeared. The brain CT and the MRI disclosed diffuse lesions in both cortical and subcortical areas of the cerebral hemispheres. The location and spread of lesions were more clearly revealed by the MRI than the brain CT. These findings suggest that the MRI is more useful than the brain CT in the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  18. Brain CT and MRI findings of a long-term case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoshiba, Kazunori; Ota, Kohei; Komatsuzaki, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Itsuro; Maruyama, Shoichi

    1987-01-01

    Our study involved a long-term case (ten years) of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The case began with a 23 year-old experiencing visual deterioration. During the course of his illness, amnesia, autism and abnormal behavior were observed without any myoclonus. On the electroencephalogram, periodic synclonous discharge was shown in the early stage of his illness and subsequently disappeared. The brain CT and the MRI disclosed diffuse lesions in both cortical and subcortical areas of the cerebral hemispheres. The location and spread of lesions were more clearly revealed by the MRI than the brain CT. These findings suggest that the MRI is more useful than the brain CT in the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. (author)

  19. Structural MRI markers of brain aging early after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werden, Emilio; Cumming, Toby; Li, Qi; Bird, Laura; Veldsman, Michele; Pardoe, Heath R; Jackson, Graeme; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Brodtmann, Amy

    2017-07-11

    To examine associations between ischemic stroke, vascular risk factors, and MRI markers of brain aging. Eighty-one patients (mean age 67.5 ± 13.1 years, 31 left-sided, 61 men) with confirmed first-ever (n = 66) or recurrent (n = 15) ischemic stroke underwent 3T MRI scanning within 6 weeks of symptom onset (mean 26 ± 9 days). Age-matched controls (n = 40) completed identical testing. Multivariate regression analyses examined associations between group membership and MRI markers of brain aging (cortical thickness, total brain volume, white matter hyperintensity [WMH] volume, hippocampal volume), normalized against intracranial volume, and the effects of vascular risk factors on these relationships. First-ever stroke was associated with smaller hippocampal volume ( p = 0.025) and greater WMH volume ( p = 0.004) relative to controls. Recurrent stroke was in turn associated with smaller hippocampal volume relative to both first-ever stroke ( p = 0.017) and controls ( p = 0.001). These associations remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, education, and, in stroke patients, infarct volume. Total brain volume was not significantly smaller in first-ever stroke patients than in controls ( p = 0.056), but the association became significant after further adjustment for atrial fibrillation ( p = 0.036). Cortical thickness and brain volumes did not differ as a function of stroke type, infarct volume, or etiology. Brain structure is likely to be compromised before ischemic stroke by vascular risk factors. Smaller hippocampal and total brain volumes and increased WMH load represent proxies for underlying vascular brain injury. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Once-weekly 22microg subcutaneous IFN-beta-1a in secondary progressive MS: a 3-year follow-up study on brain MRI measurements and serum MMP-9 levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, X; Kuusisto, H; Dastidar, P

    2007-01-01

    : There was no obvious effect on the number of contrast medium-enhancing lesions, the volume of T1 or T2 lesions or level of serum MMP-9, nor was any effect detected on the relapse rate and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Brain atrophy progression was not affected by the treatment. CONCLUSION: The lack......OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of weekly injected subcutaneous interferon (IFN)-beta-1a 22 microg on the extent of brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the level of serum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). SUBJECTS...... of effect on MRI, clinical outcomes or the levels of MMP-9 indicates that subcutaneous administration of low-dose low-frequency IFN-beta-1a is insufficient in controlling either the inflammatory constitutes or the neurodegenerative changes of advanced SPMS. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jul...

  1. Paediatrics brain imaging in epilepsy: common presenting symptoms and spectrum of abnormalities detected on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Akram, F.; Khan, G.; Hussain, S.

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy, a common neurological disorder can present at any age and has a number of aetiologies with underlying brain disease being the most common aetiology. Brain imaging becomes important and mandatory in the work up for epilepsy in localization and lateralization of the seizure focus. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of Radiology Ayub Medical Teaching Institution Abbottabad from 1st March 2015 to 31st March 2016. A total of 209 children aged 28 days to 14 years were included in the study who presented with seizures to clinicians. Information obtained from history, clinical examination and investigations especially MRI brains were recorded in a prescribed pro forma. The data was analysed in SPSS 20. Results: MRI examination was unremarkable in 44.01% (n=92) and mild generalized brain atrophy was noted in 12.91% (n=27). Arachnoid cysts, mild unilateral brain atrophy and hydrocephalous due to aqueduct stenosis were recorded in 3.82% (n=8) of each group. Neoplastic lesions were the second most common abnormal MRI finding and constituted 5.74% (n=12). Leukodystrophy was diagnosed in 4.78% (n=10). MRI examination showed ring enhancing lesions (tuberculomas) and AVM in 1.43% (n=3) of each group. Perinatal ischemia and intracranial infection, (focal or generalized) were recorded in 2.87% (n=6) of each group. A 0.95 % (n=2) of children in each group had agenesis of corpus callosum and cavernoma. The radiological MRI diagnosis of Raussmussen encephalitis was made in 3.34% (n=7). Single case, each of mesial temporal sclerosis, subdural haemorrhage, infarct and craniopharyngioma was recorded making 0.47 % of the total patients in each case. Conclusion: MRI examination was abnormal in significant number of patients (55.86%), so therefore if properly utilized, in a good clinical context, this can identify most of the structural brain abnormalities in paediatric patients presenting with seizures. (author)

  2. Safety of a dedicated brain MRI protocol in patients with a vagus nerve stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Jeroen C; Melis, Gerrit I; Gebbink, Tineke A; de Kort, Gérard A P; Leijten, Frans S S

    2014-11-01

    Although implanted metallic devices constitute a relative contraindication to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning, the safety of brain imaging in a patient with a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) is classified as "conditional," provided that specific manufacturer guidelines are followed when a transmit and receive head coil is used at 1.5 or 3.0 Tesla. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of performing brain MRI scans in patients with the VNS. From September 2009 until November 2011, 101 scans were requested in 73 patients with the VNS in The Netherlands. Patients were scanned according to the manufacturer's guidelines. No patient reported any side effect, discomfort, or pain during or after the MRI scan. In one patient, a lead break was detected based on device diagnostics after the MRI-scan. However, because no system diagnostics had been performed prior to MR scanning in this patient, it is unclear whether MR scanning was responsible for the lead break. The indication for most scans was epilepsy related. Twenty-six scans (26%) were part of a (new) presurgical evaluation and could probably better have been performed prior to VNS implantation. Performing brain MRI scans in patients with an implanted VNS is safe when a modified MRI protocol is followed. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. MRI: A method to detect minor brain damage following coronary bypass surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vik, A.; Brubakk, A.O. (Trondheim Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering); Rinck, P.A. (Trondheim Univ. (Norway). MR Center); Sande, E.; Levang, O.W. (Trondheim Univ. Hospital (Norway). Dept. of Surgery); Sellevold, O. (Trondheim Univ. Hospital (Norway). Dept. of Anaesthesiology)

    1991-10-01

    In order to assess the occurrence of minor focal brain lesions after coronary bypass surgery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used. Nine male patients (age 42-63) with angina pectoris were investigated at 0.5 Tesla. The investigation was performed one to seven weeks prior to the operation and one month after the operation. Before surgery, the images demonstrated more than five high intensity spots in the white matter of the brain in all but two patients. No additional spots were found after operation. This pilot study indicates that it might be difficult to use MRI to detect minor parenchymal lesions after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. (orig.).

  4. Effects of hypoglycemia on human brain activation measured with fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Adam W; Heptulla, Rubina A; Driesen, Naomi; Flanagan, Daniel; Goldberg, Philip A; Jones, Timothy W; Rife, Fran; Sarofin, Hedy; Tamborlane, William; Sherwin, Robert; Gore, John C

    2006-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure the effects of acute hypoglycemia caused by passive sensory stimulation on brain activation. Visual stimulation was used to generate blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast, which was monitored during hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic and euglycemic clamp studies. Hypoglycemia (50 +/- 1 mg glucose/dl) decreased the fMRI signal relative to euglycemia in 10 healthy human subjects: the fractional signal change was reduced by 28 +/- 12% (P variations in blood glucose levels may modulate BOLD signals in the healthy brain.

  5. Functional brain activation differences in stuttering identified with a rapid fMRI sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech motor and auditory brain activity in children who stutter closer to the age at which recovery from stuttering is documented. Rapid sequences may be preferred for individuals or populations who do not tolerate long scanning sessions. In this report, we document the application of a picture naming and phoneme monitoring task in three minute fMRI sequences with adults who stutter (AWS). If relevant brain differences are found in AWS with these approaches that conform to previous reports, then these approaches can be extended to younger populations. Pairwise contrasts of brain BOLD activity between AWS and normally fluent adults indicated the AWS showed higher BOLD activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right temporal lobe and sensorimotor cortices during picture naming and and higher activity in the right IFG during phoneme monitoring. The right lateralized pattern of BOLD activity together with higher activity in sensorimotor cortices is consistent with previous reports, which indicates rapid fMRI sequences can be considered for investigating stuttering in younger participants. PMID:22133409

  6. Disrupted Cerebro-cerebellar Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in Young Adults with High-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Data-driven, Whole-brain, High Temporal Resolution fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold Anteraper, Sheeba; Guell, Xavier; D'Mello, Anila; Joshi, Neha; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Joshi, Gagan

    2018-06-13

    To examine the resting-state functional-connectivity (RsFc) in young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) using state-of-the-art f