WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain motor control

  1. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar’s brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi eNaito

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available How very long-term (over many years motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while he rotated his right ankle at 1Hz. We also scanned brain activity when three other age-controlled professional footballers, two top-athlete swimmers and one amateur footballer performed the identical task. A comparison was made between Neymar’s brain activity with that obtained from the others. We found activations in the left medial-wall foot motor regions during the foot movements consistently across all participants. However, the size and intensity of medial-wall activity was smaller in the four professional footballers than in the three other participants, despite no difference in amount of foot movement. Surprisingly, the reduced recruitment of medial-wall foot motor regions became apparent in Neymar. His medial-wall activity was smallest among all participants with absolutely no difference in amount of foot movement. Neymar may efficiently control given foot movements probably by largely conserving motor-cortical neural resources. We discuss this possibility in terms of over-years motor skill training effect, use-dependent plasticity, and efficient motor control.

  2. Reorganization and Preservation of Motor Control of the Brain in Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kokotilo, K J; Eng, J; Curt, A.

    2009-01-01

    Reorganization of brain function in people with CNS damage has been identified as one of the fundamental mechanisms involved in the recovery of sensori-motor function. Spinal cord injury (SCI) brain mapping studies during motor tasks aim for assessing the reorganization and preservation of brain networks involved in motor control. Revealing the activation of cortical and sub-cortical brain areas in people with SCI can indicate principal patterns of brain reorganization when the neurotrauma is...

  3. Sensorless speed control of switched reluctance motor using brain emotional learning based intelligent controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC) is developed to control the switched reluctance motor (SRM) speed. Like other intelligent controllers, BELBIC is model free and is suitable to control nonlinear systems. Motor parameter changes, operating point changes, measurement noise, open circuit fault in one phase and asymmetric phases in SRM are also simulated to show the robustness and superior performance of BELBIC. To compare the BELBIC performance with other intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed. System responses with BELBIC and FLC are compared. Furthermore, by eliminating the position sensor, a method is introduced to estimate the rotor position. This method is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The estimator inputs are four phase flux linkages. Suggested rotor position estimator is simulated in different conditions. Simulation results confirm the accurate rotor position estimation in different loads and speeds.

  4. Sensorless speed control of switched reluctance motor using brain emotional learning based intelligent controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian, E-mail: mirzaeian@eng.ui.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parsapoor, Amir, E-mail: amirparsapoor@yahoo.co [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moallem, Mehdi, E-mail: moallem@cc.iut.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lucas, Caro, E-mail: lucas@ut.ac.i [Centre of Excellence for Control and Intelligent Processing, Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, a brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC) is developed to control the switched reluctance motor (SRM) speed. Like other intelligent controllers, BELBIC is model free and is suitable to control nonlinear systems. Motor parameter changes, operating point changes, measurement noise, open circuit fault in one phase and asymmetric phases in SRM are also simulated to show the robustness and superior performance of BELBIC. To compare the BELBIC performance with other intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed. System responses with BELBIC and FLC are compared. Furthermore, by eliminating the position sensor, a method is introduced to estimate the rotor position. This method is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The estimator inputs are four phase flux linkages. Suggested rotor position estimator is simulated in different conditions. Simulation results confirm the accurate rotor position estimation in different loads and speeds.

  5. Brain-controlled telepresence robot by motor-disabled people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonin, Luca; Carlson, Tom; Leeb, Robert; del R Millán, José

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the first results of users with disabilities in mentally controlling a telepresence robot, a rather complex task as the robot is continuously moving and the user must control it for a long period of time (over 6 minutes) to go along the whole path. These two users drove the telepresence robot from their clinic more than 100 km away. Remarkably, although the patients had never visited the location where the telepresence robot was operating, they achieve similar performances to a group of four healthy users who were familiar with the environment. In particular, the experimental results reported in this paper demonstrate the benefits of shared control for brain-controlled telepresence robots. It allows all subjects (including novel BMI subjects as our users with disabilities) to complete a complex task in similar time and with similar number of commands to those required by manual control. PMID:22255272

  6. Brain-Controlled Telepresence Robot by Motor-Disabled People

    OpenAIRE

    Tonin, Luca; Carlson, Tom; Leeb, Robert; José del R. Millán

    2011-01-01

    Abstract—In this paper we present the first results of users with disabilities in mentally controlling a telepresence robot, a rather complex task as the robot is continuously moving and the user must control it for a long period of time (over 6 minutes) to go along the whole path. These two users drove the telepresence robot from their clinic more than 100 km away. Remarkably, although the patients had never visited the location where the telepresence robot was operating, they achieve simila...

  7. A cerebellar model for predictive motor control tested in a brain-based device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, Jeffrey L; Edelman, Gerald M; Krichmar, Jeffrey L

    2006-02-28

    The cerebellum is known to be critical for accurate adaptive control and motor learning. We propose here a mechanism by which the cerebellum may replace reflex control with predictive control. This mechanism is embedded in a learning rule (the delayed eligibility trace rule) in which synapses onto a Purkinje cell or onto a cell in the deep cerebellar nuclei become eligible for plasticity only after a fixed delay from the onset of suprathreshold presynaptic activity. To investigate the proposal that the cerebellum is a general-purpose predictive controller guided by a delayed eligibility trace rule, a computer model based on the anatomy and dynamics of the cerebellum was constructed. It contained components simulating cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei, and it received input from a middle temporal visual area and the inferior olive. The model was incorporated in a real-world brain-based device (BBD) built on a Segway robotic platform that learned to traverse curved paths. The BBD learned which visual motion cues predicted impending collisions and used this experience to avoid path boundaries. During learning, the BBD adapted its velocity and turning rate to successfully traverse various curved paths. By examining neuronal activity and synaptic changes during this behavior, we found that the cerebellar circuit selectively responded to motion cues in specific receptive fields of simulated middle temporal visual areas. The system described here prompts several hypotheses about the relationship between perception and motor control and may be useful in the development of general-purpose motor learning systems for machines. PMID:16488974

  8. Brain motor control function in a patient with subacute, incomplete, asymmetrical spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-jia; WANG Yi; WEI Peng-xu; XU Jian-min; LI Jian-jun

    2010-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major cause of disability. A serious consequence of SCI is the loss or partial loss of motor control. A number of therapies are currently being developed for restoring motor function in SCI patients.1'2 However, such approaches generally require intact neural motor systems for driving limb movements.

  9. Disrupting the experience of control in the human brain: pre-supplementary motor area contributes to the sense of agency

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, James W; Ruge, Diane; Wenke, Dorit; Rothwell, John; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The feeling of controlling events through one's actions is fundamental to human experience, but its neural basis remains unclear. This ‘sense of agency’ (SoA) can be measured quantitatively as a temporal linkage between voluntary actions and their external effects. We investigated the brain areas underlying this aspect of action awareness by using theta-burst stimulation to locally and reversibly disrupt human brain function. Disruption of the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), a key str...

  10. [Arm Motor Function Recovery during Rehabilitation with the Use of Hand Exoskeleton Controlled by Brain-Computer Interface: a Patient with Severe Brain Damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukova, E V; Pavlova, O G; Kurganskaya, M E; Bobrov, P D; Turbina, L G; Frolov, A A; Davydov, V I; Sil'tchenko, A V; Mokienko, O A

    2016-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of motor function recovery in a patient with severe brain damage in the course of neurorehabilitation using hand exoskeleton controlled by brain-computer interface. For estimating the motor function of paretic arm, we used the biomechanical analysis of movements registered during the course of rehabilitation. After 15 weekly sessions of hand exoskeleton control, the following results were obtained: a) the velocity profile of goal-directed movements of paretic hand became bell-shaped, b) the patient began to extend and abduct the hand which was flexed and adducted in the beginning of rehabilitation, and c) the patient began to supinate the forearm which was pronated in the beginning of rehabilitation. The first result is an evidence of the general improvement of the quality of motor control, while the second and third results prove that the spasticity of paretic arm has decreased. PMID:27188144

  11. Haptic fMRI: combining functional neuroimaging with haptics for studying the brain's motor control representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Samir; Brantner, Gerald; Aholt, Chris; Kay, Kendrick; Khatib, Oussama

    2013-01-01

    A challenging problem in motor control neuroimaging studies is the inability to perform complex human motor tasks given the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner's disruptive magnetic fields and confined workspace. In this paper, we propose a novel experimental platform that combines Functional MRI (fMRI) neuroimaging, haptic virtual simulation environments, and an fMRI-compatible haptic device for real-time haptic interaction across the scanner workspace (above torso ∼ .65×.40×.20m(3)). We implement this Haptic fMRI platform with a novel haptic device, the Haptic fMRI Interface (HFI), and demonstrate its suitability for motor neuroimaging studies. HFI has three degrees-of-freedom (DOF), uses electromagnetic motors to enable high-fidelity haptic rendering (>350Hz), integrates radio frequency (RF) shields to prevent electromagnetic interference with fMRI (temporal SNR >100), and is kinematically designed to minimize currents induced by the MRI scanner's magnetic field during motor displacement (Tesla fMRI scanner's baseline noise variation (∼.85±.1%). Finally, HFI is haptically transparent and does not interfere with human motor tasks (tested for .4m reaches). By allowing fMRI experiments involving complex three-dimensional manipulation with haptic interaction, Haptic fMRI enables-for the first time-non-invasive neuroscience experiments involving interactive motor tasks, object manipulation, tactile perception, and visuo-motor integration. PMID:24110643

  12. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

  13. A cerebellar model for predictive motor control tested in a brain-based device

    OpenAIRE

    McKinstry, Jeffrey L.; Edelman, Gerald M.; Krichmar, Jeffrey L.

    2006-01-01

    The cerebellum is known to be critical for accurate adaptive control and motor learning. We propose here a mechanism by which the cerebellum may replace reflex control with predictive control. This mechanism is embedded in a learning rule (the delayed eligibility trace rule) in which synapses onto a Purkinje cell or onto a cell in the deep cerebellar nuclei become eligible for plasticity only after a fixed delay from the onset of suprathreshold presynaptic activity. To...

  14. Visuo-motor coordination ability predicts performance with brain-computer interfaces controlled by modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Hammer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR was suggested as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. Yet, there is a population of users estimated between 10 to 50% not able to achieve reliable control and only about 20% of users achieve high (80-100% performance. Predicting performance prior to BCI use would facilitate selection of the most feasible system for an individual, thus constitute a practical benefit for the user, and increase our knowledge about the correlates of BCI control. In a recent study, we predicted SMR-BCI performance from psychological variables that were assessed prior to the BCI sessions and BCI control was supported with machine-learning techniques. We described two significant psychological predictors, namely the visuo-motor coordination ability and the ability to concentrate on the task. The purpose of the current study was to replicate these results thereby validating these predictors within a neurofeedback based SMR-BCI that involved no machine learning. Thirty-three healthy BCI novices participated in a calibration session and three further neurofeedback training sessions. Two variables were related with mean SMR-BCI performance: (1 A measure for the accuracy of fine motor skills, i.e. a trade for a person’s visuo-motor control ability and (2 subject’s attentional impulsivity. In a linear regression they accounted for almost 20% in variance of SMR-BCI performance, but predictor (1 failed significance. Nevertheless, on the basis of our prior regression model for sensorimotor control ability we could predict current SMR-BCI performance with an average prediction error of M = 12.07%. In more than 50% of the participants, the prediction error was smaller than 10%. Hence, psychological variables played a moderate role in predicting SMR-BCI performance in a neurofeedback approach that involved no machine learning. Future studies are needed to further consolidate (or reject the present predictors.

  15. Induction motor control design

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, Riccardo; Verrelli, Cristiano M

    2010-01-01

    ""Nonlinear and Adaptive Control Design for Induction Motors"" is a unified exposition of the most important steps and concerns in the design of estimation and control algorithms for induction motors. A single notation and modern nonlinear control terminology is used to make the book accessible to readers who are not experts in electric motors at the same time as giving a more theoretical control viewpoint to those who are. In order to increase readability, the book concentrates on the induction motor, eschewing the much more complex and less-well-understood control of asynchronous motors. The

  16. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... figure out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To have fine motor control, children need: Awareness and planning Coordination ...

  17. Evidence for distinct brain networks in the control of rule-based motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, Joshua A; Sergio, Lauren E

    2015-08-01

    Reach guidance when the spatial location of the viewed target and hand movement are incongruent (i.e., decoupled) necessitates use of explicit cognitive rules (strategic control) or implicit recalibration of gaze and limb position (sensorimotor recalibration). In a patient with optic ataxia (OA) and bilateral superior parietal lobule damage, we recently demonstrated an increased reliance on strategic control when the patient performed a decoupled reach (Granek JA, Pisella L, Stemberger J, Vighetto A, Rossetti Y, Sergio LE. PLoS One 8: e86138, 2013). To more generally understand the fundamental mechanisms of decoupled visuomotor control and to more specifically test whether we could distinguish these two modes of movement control, we tested healthy participants in a cognitively demanding dual task. Participants continuously counted backward while simultaneously reaching toward horizontal (left or right) or diagonal (equivalent to top-left or top-right) targets with either veridical or rotated (90°) cursor feedback. By increasing the overall neural load and selectively compromising potentially overlapping neural circuits responsible for strategic control, the complex dual task served as a noninvasive means to disrupt the integration of a cognitive rule into a motor action. Complementary to our previous results observed in patients with optic ataxia, here our dual task led to greater performance deficits during movements that required an explicit rule, implying a selective disruption of strategic control in decoupled reaching. Our results suggest that distinct neural processing is required to control these different types of reaching because in considering the current results and previous patient results together, the two classes of movement could be differentiated depending on the type of interference. PMID:26133796

  18. [How does the brain control eye movements? Motor and premotor neurons of the brainstem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coubard, O A

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of cognitive and neural architecture and processes that control eye movements has advanced enough to allow precise and quantitative analysis of hitherto unsolved phenomena. In this review, we revisit from a neuropsychological viewpoint Hering vs. Helmholtz' hypotheses on binocular coordination. Specifically, we reexamine the behavior and the neural bases of saccade-vergence movement, to move the gaze in both direction and depth under natural conditions. From the psychophysical viewpoint, neo-Heringian and neo-Helmholtzian authors have accumulated arguments favoring distinct conjugate (for saccades) and disconjugate (for vergence) systems, as well as advocating for monocularly programmed eye movements. From the neurophysiological viewpoint, which reports brain cell recordings during the execution of a given task, neo-Heringian and neo-Helmholtzian physiologists have also provided arguments in favor of both hypotheses at the level of the brainstem premotor circuitry. Bridging the two, we propose that Hering and Helmholtz were both right. The emphasis placed by the latter on adaptive processes throughout life cycle is compatible with the importance of neurobiological constraints pointed out by the former. In the meanwhile, the study of saccade-vergence eye movements recalls how much the psychophysical definition of the task determines the interpretation that is made from neurophysiological data. PMID:25600699

  19. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  20. Step Motor Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangShuochengt; WangDan; QiaoWeimin; JingLan

    2003-01-01

    All kinds of step motors and servomotors are widely used in CSR control system, such as many vacuum valves control that set on the HIRFL-CSR; all kinds of electric switches and knobs of ECR Ion Source; equipment of CSR Beam Diagnostics and a lot of large equipment like Inside Gun Toroid and Collector Toroid of HIRFL. A typical control system include up to 32 16-I/O Control boards, and each 16-I/O Control board can control 4 motors at the same time (including 8 Limit Switches).

  1. A COMPUTATIONAL NEUROANATOMY FOR MOTOR CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Shadmehr, Reza; Krakauer, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The study of patients to infer normal brain function has a long tradition in neurology and psychology. More recently, the motor system has been subject to quantitative and computational characterization. The purpose of this review is to argue that the lesion approach and theoretical motor control can mutually inform each other. Specifically, one may identify distinct motor control processes from computational models and map them onto specific deficits in patients. Here we review some of the i...

  2. Advanced AC Motor Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmierkowski, M.P. [Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a review of control methods for high performance PWM inverter-fed induction motor drives is presented. Starting from the description of an induction motor by the help of the space vectors, three basic control strategic are discussed. As first, the most popular Field Oriented Control (FOC) is described. Secondly, the Direct Torque and Flux vector Control (DTFC) method, which - in contrast to FOC - depart from idea of coordinate transformation and analogy with DC motor, is briefly characterized. The last group is based on Feedback Linearization Control (FLC) and can be easy combined with sliding mode control. The simulation and experimental oscillograms that illustrate the performance of the discussed control strategies are shown. (orig.) 35 refs.

  3. Development of motor control

    OpenAIRE

    Schellekens, Johannes Maria Hubertus

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of a series of investigations into the barrier function of human skin are presented. In these investigations, the barrier function was assessed by water vapour loss measurements of the skin using a method based on gradient estimation. The aim of this thesis is to study the role and efficiency of motor control and anticipation processes in the development of children with and without disturbances in the motor system. Chapter I is a general introduction to the subjec...

  4. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...... publication date for the Annual Review of Neuroscience Volume 39 is July 08, 2016. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates....

  5. Systematic evaluation of non-invasive brain-computer interfaces as assistive devices for persons with severe motor impairment based on a user-centred approach – in controlled settings and independent use

    OpenAIRE

    Holz, Elisa Mira

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are devices that translate signals from the brain into control commands for applications. Within the last twenty years, BCI applications have been developed for communication, environmental control, entertainment, and substitution of motor functions. Since BCIs provide muscle independent communication and control of the environment by circumventing motor pathways, they are considered as assistive technologies for persons with neurological and neurodegenerative...

  6. Brushless DC Motor Speed Control Based on Emotional Intelligent Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza ArabMarkadeh; Ehsan Drayabeigi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an emotional controller for brushless DC motor (BLDC) drive. The proposed controller is called brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC). The utilization of the new controller is based on the emotion processing mechanism in brain. This intelligent control is inspired by the limbic system of mammalian brain, especially amygdala. The controller is successfully implemented in simulation using MATLAB software, brushless dc drive with trapezoidal back-emf. ...

  7. Promoting motor function by exercising the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrey, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    Exercise represents a behavioral intervention that enhances brain health and motor function. The increase in cerebral blood volume in response to physical activity may be responsible for improving brain function. Among the various neuroimaging techniques used to monitor brain hemodynamic response during exercise, functional near-infrared spectroscopy could facilitate the measurement of task-related cortical responses noninvasively and is relatively robust with regard to the subjects' motion. Although the components of optimal exercise interventions have not been determined, evidence from animal and human studies suggests that aerobic exercise with sufficiently high intensity has neuroprotective properties and promotes motor function. This review provides an insight into the effect of physical activity (based on endurance and resistance exercises) on brain function for producing movement. Since most progress in the study of brain function has come from patients with neurological disorders (e.g., stroke and Parkinson's patients), this review presents some findings emphasizing training paradigms for restoring motor function. PMID:24961309

  8. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  9. ac bidirectional motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, K.

    1988-01-01

    Test data are presented and the design of a high-efficiency motor/generator controller at NASA-Lewis for use with the Space Station power system testbed is described. The bidirectional motor driver is a 20 kHz to variable frequency three-phase ac converter that operates from the high-frequency ac bus being designed for the Space Station. A zero-voltage-switching pulse-density-modulation technique is used in the converter to shape the low-frequency output waveform.

  10. Sensorless control of BLDC motor

    OpenAIRE

    Hrbáč, Zbyněk

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is focused on problematics of control of brushless DC motor in the sensor and also in the sensorless mode. Also it interprets possibilities of BLDC motor control with one faulty sensor and derivation and simulation of mathematical model. First part mentions options of rotor position sensing as well as existing methods of sensorless BLDC motor control. Second part describes control algorithms of sensor and sensorless motor control realised on device dSPACE and also realisation of f...

  11. Control linear motor with DSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book consists of control linear motor with DSP, which is composed of two parts. The title of the first part is control Algorithm and software with introduction and tracking controller, drive profile on decision of motion time, floating point DSP and quantization effect, motion override Algorithm and drive profile summary, design of digital controller on design for controller structure and analysis of PID control Loop and Motor turning, design for IIR digital filter and protocol structure for communication wit host. The second part describes control hardware, which mentions Linear motor and Amplifier, motor and power supply, DSP board and interface, control of Micro Linear Stepping Motor and conclusion.

  12. Promoting Motor Function by Exercising the Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Stephane Perrey

    2013-01-01

    Exercise represents a behavioral intervention that enhances brain health and motor function. The increase in cerebral blood volume in response to physical activity may be responsible for improving brain function. Among the various neuroimaging techniques used to monitor brain hemodynamic response during exercise, functional near-infrared spectroscopy could facilitate the measurement of task-related cortical responses noninvasively and is relatively robust with regard to the subjects’ motion. ...

  13. Control of synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Synchronous motors are indubitably the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. Their control law is thus critical for combining at the same time high productivity to reduced energy consummation. As far as possible, the control algorithms must exploit the properties of these actuators. Therefore, this work draws on well adapted models resulting from the Park's transformation, for both the most traditional machines with sinusoidal field distribution and for machines with non-sinusoidal field distribution which are more and more used in

  14. Comparison of frequencies of non motor symptoms in Indian Parkinson's disease patients on medical management versus deep brain stimulation: A case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandadai Rukmini Mridula

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Non motor symptoms (NMS of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD are a major cause of disability and recognition of these symptoms and treatment is important for comprehensive health care. Deep brain stimulation of bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS has been shown to improve motor symptoms in PD and effects on NMS are unknown. To investigate the NMS among PD patients who underwent STN DBS.We recruited prospectively 56 patients with PD, who had undergone bilateral STN DBS and 53 age and duration of illness matched PD patients on dopaminergic therapy (controls. NMS were assessed using 30 item questionnaire NMS Quest. These questions evaluated 9 domains, gastrointestinal, urinary, cardiovascular, sexual, cognition (apathy/attention/memory, anxiety/depression, hallucinations/delusions, sleep and miscellaneous. Comparison was done on individual symptoms as well as in various domains. This study was carried at Nizam's Institution of Medical Sciences and study period was from January 2011 to December 2012.Patients who underwent STN DBS had a significantly lower mean total score on NMS quest (6.7 ± 3.8 compared to controls (8.4 ± 3.7 (P < 0.00100. Symptoms in the domains of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, sleep were significantly less frequent while sexual disturbances were significantly more frequent among patients compared to controls. On individual symptom analysis, nocturia  (P < 0.00010, unexplained pains (P < 0.00010, nausea and vomiting, constipation, lightheadedness, depression, and insomnia were less prevalent, while sexual disturbances were significantly more common in STN DBS group compared to controls.Bilateral STN DBS not only improves the motor symptoms but also improves many NMS in PD patients.

  15. Load-Responsive Motor Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    New circuit controls voltage applied to a three-phase induction motor in response to magnitude of current, so as to reduce power consumption when the motor is idling or operating at less than full load. Control circuit decreases rms applied voltage to match decreases in motor load over entire torque range. This considerably decreases power consumption in motors operating at a fraction of their rated torques.

  16. Quadcopter control in three-dimensional space using a noninvasive motor imagery based brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, Karl; Cassady, Kaitlin; Doud, Alexander; Shades, Kaleb; Rogin, Eitan; He, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Objective At the balanced intersection of human and machine adaptation is found the optimally functioning brain-computer interface (BCI). In this study, we report a novel experiment of BCI controlling a robotic quadcopter in three-dimensional physical space using noninvasive scalp EEG in human subjects. We then quantify the performance of this system using metrics suitable for asynchronous BCI. Lastly, we examine the impact that operation of a real world device has on subjects’ control with comparison to a two-dimensional virtual cursor task. Approach Five human subjects were trained to modulate their sensorimotor rhythms to control an AR Drone navigating a three-dimensional physical space. Visual feedback was provided via a forward facing camera on the hull of the drone. Individual subjects were able to accurately acquire up to 90.5% of all valid targets presented while travelling at an average straight-line speed of 0.69 m/s. Significance Freely exploring and interacting with the world around us is a crucial element of autonomy that is lost in the context of neurodegenerative disease. Brain-computer interfaces are systems that aim to restore or enhance a user’s ability to interact with the environment via a computer and through the use of only thought. We demonstrate for the first time the ability to control a flying robot in the three-dimensional physical space using noninvasive scalp recorded EEG in humans. Our work indicates the potential of noninvasive EEG based BCI systems to accomplish complex control in three-dimensional physical space. The present study may serve as a framework for the investigation of multidimensional non-invasive brain-computer interface control in a physical environment using telepresence robotics. PMID:23735712

  17. Heritability of motor control and motor learning

    OpenAIRE

    Missitzi, Julia; Gentner, Reinhard; Misitzi, Angelica; Geladas, Nickos; Politis, Panagiotis; Klissouras, Vassilis; Classen, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to elucidate the relative contribution of genes and environment on individual differences in motor control and acquisition of a force control task, in view of recent association studies showing that several candidate polymorphisms may have an effect on them. Forty‐four healthy female twins performed brisk isometric abductions with their right thumb. Force was recorded by a transducer and fed back to the subject on a computer screen. The task was to place the...

  18. Promoting Motor Function by Exercising the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Perrey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise represents a behavioral intervention that enhances brain health and motor function. The increase in cerebral blood volume in response to physical activity may be responsible for improving brain function. Among the various neuroimaging techniques used to monitor brain hemodynamic response during exercise, functional near-infrared spectroscopy could facilitate the measurement of task-related cortical responses noninvasively and is relatively robust with regard to the subjects’ motion. Although the components of optimal exercise interventions have not been determined, evidence from animal and human studies suggests that aerobic exercise with sufficiently high intensity has neuroprotective properties and promotes motor function. This review provides an insight into the effect of physical activity (based on endurance and resistance exercises on brain function for producing movement. Since most progress in the study of brain function has come from patients with neurological disorders (e.g., stroke and Parkinson’s patients, this review presents some findings emphasizing training paradigms for restoring motor function.

  19. Quadcopter control in three-dimensional space using a noninvasive motor imagery-based brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, Karl; Cassady, Kaitlin; Doud, Alexander; Shades, Kaleb; Rogin, Eitan; He, Bin

    2013-08-01

    Objective. At the balanced intersection of human and machine adaptation is found the optimally functioning brain-computer interface (BCI). In this study, we report a novel experiment of BCI controlling a robotic quadcopter in three-dimensional (3D) physical space using noninvasive scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) in human subjects. We then quantify the performance of this system using metrics suitable for asynchronous BCI. Lastly, we examine the impact that the operation of a real world device has on subjects' control in comparison to a 2D virtual cursor task. Approach. Five human subjects were trained to modulate their sensorimotor rhythms to control an AR Drone navigating a 3D physical space. Visual feedback was provided via a forward facing camera on the hull of the drone. Main results. Individual subjects were able to accurately acquire up to 90.5% of all valid targets presented while travelling at an average straight-line speed of 0.69 m s-1. Significance. Freely exploring and interacting with the world around us is a crucial element of autonomy that is lost in the context of neurodegenerative disease. Brain-computer interfaces are systems that aim to restore or enhance a user's ability to interact with the environment via a computer and through the use of only thought. We demonstrate for the first time the ability to control a flying robot in 3D physical space using noninvasive scalp recorded EEG in humans. Our work indicates the potential of noninvasive EEG-based BCI systems for accomplish complex control in 3D physical space. The present study may serve as a framework for the investigation of multidimensional noninvasive BCI control in a physical environment using telepresence robotics.

  20. Control motor brushless sensorless

    OpenAIRE

    Solchaga Pérez de Lazárraga, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    El proyecto consiste en la creación de un circuito capaz de controlar la velocidad de un motor brushless sensorless. Este tipo de motores eléctricos tienen como característica que no tienen escobillas para cambiar la polaridad del bobinado de su interior y tampoco precisan de un sensor que indique que ha realizado una vuelta. Los motores brushless que son controlados por este tipo de circuitos son específicos para aeronaves no tripuladas y requieren un diseño diferente a un motor brushless pe...

  1. Alpha oscillatory correlates of motor inhibition in the aged brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene eBoenstrup

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Exerting inhibitory control is a cognitive ability mediated by functions known to decline with age. The goal of this study is to add to the mechanistic understanding of cortical inhibition during motor control in aged brains. Based on behavioral findings of impaired inhibitory control with age we hypothesized that elderly will show a reduced or a lack of EEG alpha-power increase during tasks that require motor inhibition. Since inhibitory control over movements has been shown to rely on prior motor memory formation, we investigated cortical inhibitory processes at two points in time - early after learning and after an overnight consolidation phase and hypothesized an overnight increase of inhibitory capacities. Young and elderly participants acquired a complex finger movement sequence and in each experimental session brain activity during execution and inhibition of the sequence was recorded with multi-channel EEG. We assessed cortical processes of sustained inhibition by means of task-induced changes of alpha oscillatory power. During inhibition of the learned movement, young participants showed a significant alpha power increase at the sensorimotor cortices whereas elderly did not. Interestingly, for both groups, the overnight consolidation phase improved up-regulation of alpha power during sustained inhibition. This points to deficits in the generation and enhancement of local inhibitory mechanisms at the sensorimotor cortices in aged brains. However, the alpha power increase in both groups implies neuroplastic changes that strengthen the network of alpha power generation over time in young as well as elderly brains.

  2. 'Motor control center obsolescence'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant and growing problem within the global nuclear industry is the aging of motor control center (MCC) components. MCC's have a very important role in the safety and critical to generation requirements of a nuclear power plant. Although many OEM's MCC's such as ITE/Telemechanique, GE, Westinghouse, Cutler Hammer, Klockner Moeller, etc. have been used throughout the global nuclear industry, they all have one common aspect obsolescence. Obsolescence of various components within the MCC's such as molded case circuit breakers, starters, relays, heaters, contactors, etc. are impacting the reliability of the MCC to serve its intended function. The paper will discuss the options which the nuclear industry is faced with to increase the reliability of the MCC's while maintaining design control, qualification and meeting budget constraints. The options as listed below shall be discussed in detail with examples to enhance the readers understanding of the situation: 1) Component by component replacement: The hurdles associated with trying to find equivalent components to replace the obsolete components while still worki (mechanically and electrically) in the original cubicle will be presented. 2) Complete MCC cubicle with new internal components replacement: The process of supplying a replacement cubicle, with all new internal components and new door to replace the original cubicle will be discussed. The presentation will conclude with a comparison of the advantages and dis-advantages of the two methods to bring the MCC to an as new condition with the overall goal of increasing reliability. (author)

  3. Stored waveform adaptive motor control

    OpenAIRE

    Beall, Jeffery C.

    1986-01-01

    This study investigates an adaptive control scheme designed to maintain accurate motor speed control in spite of high-frequency periodic variations in load torque, load inertia, and motor parameters. The controller adapts, stores and replays a schedule of torques to be delivered at discrete points throughout the periodic load cycle. The controller also adapts to non-periodic changes in load conditions which occur over several load cycles and contains inherent integrator control action to ...

  4. User Experience May be Producing Greater Heart Rate Variability than Motor Imagery Related Control Tasks during the User-System Adaptation in Brain-Computer Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Valerdi, Luz M.; Gutiérrez-Begovich, David A.; Argüello-García, Janet; Sepulveda, Francisco; Ramírez-Mendoza, Ricardo A.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) is technology that is developing fast, but it remains inaccurate, unreliable and slow due to the difficulty to obtain precise information from the brain. Consequently, the involvement of other biosignals to decode the user control tasks has risen in importance. A traditional way to operate a BCI system is via motor imagery (MI) tasks. As imaginary movements activate similar cortical structures and vegetative mechanisms as a voluntary movement does, heart rate variability (HRV) has been proposed as a parameter to improve the detection of MI related control tasks. However, HR is very susceptible to body needs and environmental demands, and as BCI systems require high levels of attention, perceptual processing and mental workload, it is important to assess the practical effectiveness of HRV. The present study aimed to determine if brain and heart electrical signals (HRV) are modulated by MI activity used to control a BCI system, or if HRV is modulated by the user perceptions and responses that result from the operation of a BCI system (i.e., user experience). For this purpose, a database of 11 participants who were exposed to eight different situations was used. The sensory-cognitive load (intake and rejection tasks) was controlled in those situations. Two electrophysiological signals were utilized: electroencephalography and electrocardiography. From those biosignals, event-related (de-)synchronization maps and event-related HR changes were respectively estimated. The maps and the HR changes were cross-correlated in order to verify if both biosignals were modulated due to MI activity. The results suggest that HR varies according to the experience undergone by the user in a BCI working environment, and not because of the MI activity used to operate the system. PMID:27458384

  5. Effects of Action Observational Training Plus Brain-Computer Interface-Based Functional Electrical Stimulation on Paretic Arm Motor Recovery in Patient with Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, TaeHoon; Kim, SeongSik; Lee, ByoungHee

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether action observational training (AOT) plus brain-computer interface-based functional electrical stimulation (BCI-FES) has a positive influence on motor recovery of paretic upper extremity in patients with stroke. This was a hospital-based, randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor. Thirty patients with a first-time stroke were randomly allocated to one of two groups: the BCI-FES group (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). The BCI-FES group administered to AOT plus BCI-FES on the paretic upper extremity five times per week during 4 weeks while both groups received conventional therapy. The primary outcomes were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity, Motor Activity Log (MAL), Modified Barthel Index and range of motion of paretic arm. A blinded assessor evaluated the outcomes at baseline and 4 weeks. All baseline outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups. After 4 weeks, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity sub-items (total, shoulder and wrist), MAL (MAL-Activity of Use and Quality of Movement), Modified Barthel Index and wrist flexion range of motion were significantly higher in the BCI-FES group (p BCI-based FES is effective in paretic arm rehabilitation by improving the upper extremity performance. The motor improvements suggest that AOT plus BCI-based FES can be used as a therapeutic tool for stroke rehabilitation. The limitations of the study are that subjects had a certain limited level of upper arm function, and the sample size was comparatively small; hence, it is recommended that future large-scale trials should consider stratified and lager populations according to upper arm function. PMID:26301519

  6. Torque control for electric motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Method for adjusting electric-motor torque output to accomodate various loads utilizes phase-lock loop to control relay connected to starting circuit. As load is imposed, motor slows down, and phase lock is lost. Phase-lock signal triggers relay to power starting coil and generate additional torque. Once phase lock is recoverd, relay restores starting circuit to its normal operating mode.

  7. DC Motor Control Predictive Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ravinesh Singh; Godfrey C. Onwubolu; Krishnileshwar Singh; Ritnesh Ram

    2006-01-01

    DC motor speed and position controls are fundamental in vehicles in general and robotics in particular. This study presents a mathematical model for correlating the interactions of some DC motor control parameters such as duty cycle, terminal voltage, frequency and load on some responses such as output current, voltage and speed by means of response surface methodology. For this exercise, a five-level full factorial design was chosen for experimentation using a peripheral interface controller...

  8. Brushless DC Motor Speed Control Based on Emotional Intelligent Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza ArabMarkadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an emotional controller for brushless DC motor (BLDC drive. The proposed controller is called brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC. The utilization of the new controller is based on the emotion processing mechanism in brain. This intelligent control is inspired by the limbic system of mammalian brain, especially amygdala. The controller is successfully implemented in simulation using MATLAB software, brushless dc drive with trapezoidal back-emf. In this work, a novel and simple implementation of BLDC motor drive system is achieved by using the intelligent controller, which controls the motor speed accurately. This emotional intelligent controller has simple structure with high auto learning feature. Simulation results show that both accurate steady state and fast transient speed responses can be achieved in wide range of speed from 20 to 300 [rpm]. Moreover, to evaluate this emotional controller, the performance of the proposed control scheme is compared with both Fuzzy Logic (FL and PID controllers, in different conditions. This indicates proper operating in comparison to the FLC and PID controllers. And also shows excellent promise for industrial scale utilization.

  9. A versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A versatile system for controlling beamlines or complex experimental setups is described. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. There is an ''emergency stop'' key on the front panel keyboard to stop the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors' position. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. DC Motor Control Predictive Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinesh Singh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available DC motor speed and position controls are fundamental in vehicles in general and robotics in particular. This study presents a mathematical model for correlating the interactions of some DC motor control parameters such as duty cycle, terminal voltage, frequency and load on some responses such as output current, voltage and speed by means of response surface methodology. For this exercise, a five-level full factorial design was chosen for experimentation using a peripheral interface controller (PIC-based universal pulse width modulation (PWM H-Bridge motor controller built in-house. The significance of the mathematical model developed was ascertained using regression analysis method. The results obtained show that the mathematical models are useful not only for predicting optimum DC motor parameters for achieving the desired quality but for speed and position optimization. Using the optimal combination of these parameters is useful in minimizing the power consumption and realization of the optimal speed and invariably position control of DC motor operations.

  11. Intelligent Controller for Networked DC Motor Control

    OpenAIRE

    B. Sharmila; N. Devarajan

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the feasibility of Neural Network controller for Networked Control Systems. The Intelligent Controllers has been developed for controlling the speed of the Networked DC Motor by exploiting the features of Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic Controllers. The major challenges in Networked Control Systems are the network induced delays and data packet losses in the closed loop. These challenges degrade the performance and destabilize the systems. The aim of the proposed Neural ...

  12. Cerebellum and Ocular Motor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir eKheradmand

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An intact cerebellum is a prerequisite for optimal ocular motor performance. The cerebellum fine-tunes each of the subtypes of eye movements so they work together to bring and maintain images of objects of interest on the fovea. Here we review the major aspects of the contribution of the cerebellum to ocular motor control. The approach will be based on structural-functional correlation, combining the effects of lesions and the results from physiologic studies, with the emphasis on the cerebellar regions known to be most closely related to ocular motor function: 1 the flocculus/paraflocculus for high-frequency (brief vestibular responses, sustained pursuit eye movements and gaze-holding, 2 the nodulus/ventral uvula for low-frequency (sustained vestibular responses, and 3 the dorsal oculomotor vermis and its target in the posterior portion of the fastigial nucleus (the fastigial oculomotor region for saccades and pursuit initiation.

  13. Motor deficits correlate with resting state motor network connectivity in patients with brain tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Otten, Marc L.; Mikell, Charles B; Youngerman, Brett E.; Liston, Conor; Sisti, Michael B.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Small, Scott A.; McKhann, Guy M.

    2012-01-01

    While a tumour in or abutting primary motor cortex leads to motor weakness, how tumours elsewhere in the frontal or parietal lobes affect functional connectivity in a weak patient is less clear. We hypothesized that diminished functional connectivity in a distributed network of motor centres would correlate with motor weakness in subjects with brain masses. Furthermore, we hypothesized that interhemispheric connections would be most vulnerable to subtle disruptions in functional connectivity....

  14. Altered resting-state effective connectivity of fronto-parietal motor control systems on the primary motor network following stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Inman, Cory S.; James, G. Andrew; Hamann, Stephan; Rajendra, Justin K.; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Butler, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous brain imaging work suggests that stroke alters the effective connectivity (the influence neural regions exert upon each other) of motor execution networks. The present study examines the intrinsic effective connectivity of top-down motor control in stroke survivors (n=13) relative to healthy participants (n=12). Stroke survivors exhibited significant deficits in motor function, as assessed by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) of resting-state...

  15. Ultra-Compact Motor Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, William T.; Crowell, Adam; Hauptman, Traveler; Pratt, Gill Andrews

    2012-01-01

    This invention is an electronically commutated brushless motor controller that incorporates Hall-array sensing in a small, 42-gram package that provides 4096 absolute counts per motor revolution position sensing. The unit is the size of a miniature hockey puck, and is a 44-pin male connector that provides many I/O channels, including CANbus, RS-232 communications, general-purpose analog and digital I/O (GPIO), analog and digital Hall inputs, DC power input (18-90 VDC, 0-l0 A), three-phase motor outputs, and a strain gauge amplifier. This controller replaces air cooling with conduction cooling via a high-thermal-conductivity epoxy casting. A secondary advantage of the relatively good heat conductivity that comes with ultra-small size is that temperature differences within the controller become smaller, so that it is easier to measure the hottest temperature in the controller with fewer temperature sensors, or even one temperature sensor. Another size-sensitive design feature is in the approach to electrical noise immunity. At a very small size, where conduction paths are much shorter than in conventional designs, the ground becomes essentially isopotential, and so certain (space-consuming) electrical noise control components become unnecessary, which helps make small size possible. One winding-current sensor, applied to all of the windings in fast sequence, is smaller and wastes less power than the two or more sensors conventionally used to sense and control winding currents. An unexpected benefit of using only one current sensor is that it actually improves the precision of current control by using the "same" sensors to read each of the three phases. Folding the encoder directly into the controller electronics eliminates a great deal of redundant electronics, packaging, connectors, and hook-up wiring. The reduction of wires and connectors subtracts substantial bulk and eliminates their role in behaving as EMI (electro-magnetic interference) antennas. A shared

  16. A versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, S.K.; Siddons, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A versatile system for controlling beamlines or complex experimental setups is described. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. There is an emergency stop'' key on the front panel keyboard to stop the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors' position. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Thinking, Walking, Talking: Integratory Motor and Cognitive Brain Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Gerry; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Shafir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we argue that motor and cognitive processes are functionally related and most likely share a similar evolutionary history. This is supported by clinical and neural data showing that some brain regions integrate both motor and cognitive functions. In addition, we also argue that cognitive processes coincide with complex motor output. Further, we also review data that support the converse notion that motor processes can contribute to cognitive function, as found by many rehabilitation and aerobic exercise training programs. Support is provided for motor and cognitive processes possessing dynamic bidirectional influences on each other.

  18. Thinking, Walking, Talking: Integratory Motor and Cognitive Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Gerry; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Shafir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we argue that motor and cognitive processes are functionally related and most likely share a similar evolutionary history. This is supported by clinical and neural data showing that some brain regions integrate both motor and cognitive functions. In addition, we also argue that cognitive processes coincide with complex motor output. Further, we also review data that support the converse notion that motor processes can contribute to cognitive function, as found by many rehabilitation and aerobic exercise training programs. Support is provided for motor and cognitive processes possessing dynamic bidirectional influences on each other. PMID:27252937

  19. Motor Control: The Heart of Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    This brief review presents the subjective view of the author on the history of motor control and its current state among the subdisciplines of kinesiology. It summarizes the current controversies and challenges in motor control and emphasizes the necessity for an adequate set of notions that would make motor control (and kinesiology) a science.…

  20. Brain stimulation: Neuromodulation as a potential treatment for motor recovery following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, E; Kinley-Cooper, S K; Weber, R A; Adkins, D L

    2016-06-01

    There is growing evidence that electrical and magnetic brain stimulation can improve motor function and motor learning following brain damage. Rodent and primate studies have strongly demonstrated that combining cortical stimulation (CS) with skilled motor rehabilitative training enhances functional motor recovery following stroke. Brain stimulation following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is less well studied, but early pre-clinical and human pilot studies suggest that it is a promising treatment for TBI-induced motor impairments as well. This review will first discuss the evidence supporting brain stimulation efficacy derived from the stroke research field as proof of principle and then will review the few studies exploring neuromodulation in experimental TBI studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:Brain injury and recovery. PMID:26855256

  1. Brain Connectivity Plasticity in the Motor Network after Ischemic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Jiang; Huijuan Xu; Chunshui Yu

    2013-01-01

    The motor function is controlled by the motor system that comprises a series of cortical and subcortical areas interacting via anatomical connections. The motor function will be disturbed when the stroke lesion impairs either any of these areas or their connections. More and more evidence indicates that the reorganization of the motor network including both areas and their anatomical and functional connectivity might contribute to the motor recovery after stroke. Here, we review recent studie...

  2. Mirroring pain in the brain : emotional expression versus motor imitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budell, Lesley; Kunz, Miriam; Jackson, Philip L; Rainville, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Perception of pain in others via facial expressions has been shown to involve brain areas responsive to self-pain, biological motion, as well as both performed and observed motor actions. Here, we investigated the involvement of these different regions during emotional and motor mirroring of pain ex

  3. Control of non-conventional synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Classical synchronous motors are the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. However, numerous applications require efficient controls in non-conventional situations. Firstly, this is the case with synchronous motors supplied by thyristor line-commutated inverters, or with synchronous motors with faults on one or several phases. Secondly, many drive systems use non-conventional motors such as polyphase (more than three phases) synchronous motors, synchronous motors with double excitation, permanent magnet linear synchronous motors,

  4. Coupling brain-machine interfaces with cortical stimulation for brain-state dependent stimulation: enhancing motor cortex excitability for neurorehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Gharabaghi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor recovery after stroke is an unsolved challenge despite intensive rehabilitation training programs. Brain stimulation techniques have been explored in addition to traditional rehabilitation training to increase the excitability of the stimulated motor cortex. This modulation of cortical excitability augments the response to afferent input during motor exercises, thereby enhancing skilled motor learning by long-term potentiation-like plasticity. Recent approaches examined brain stimulation applied concurrently with voluntary movements to induce more specific use-dependent neural plasticity during motor training for neurorehabilitation. Unfortunately, such approaches are not applicable for the many severely affected stroke patients lacking residual hand function. These patients require novel activity-dependent stimulation paradigms based on intrinsic brain activity. Here, we report on such brain state-dependent stimulation (BSDS combined with haptic feedback provided by a robotic hand orthosis. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex and haptic feedback to the hand were controlled by sensorimotor desynchronization during motor-imagery and applied within a brain-machine interface environment in one healthy subject and one patient with severe hand paresis in the chronic phase after stroke. BSDS significantly increased the excitability of the stimulated motor cortex in both healthy and post-stroke conditions, an effect not observed in non-BSDS protocols. This feasibility study suggests that closing the loop between intrinsic brain state, cortical stimulation and haptic feedback provides a novel neurorehabilitation strategy for stroke patients lacking residual hand function, a proposal that warrants further investigation in a larger cohort of stroke patients.

  5. 4-CLASS MOTOR IMAGERY CLASSIFICATION FOR POST STROKE REHABILITATION USING BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Aarathi Kumar*, Nisha. P. V

    2016-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a mechanism that helps in the control/communication of one’s environment through the brain signals obtained directly from the brain via an EEG signal acquisition unit. A BCI incorporating Motor Imagery for post-stroke rehabilitation of upper limbs and knee in fully disabled patients is designed. It helps in restoring some of the activities of the daily living. It aids post-stroke sufferers to carry out functionalities like movement of right an...

  6. Control of a superconducting synchronous motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Y; Pei, R; Jiang, Q; Hong, Z; Coombs, T A [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    This paper presents a control algorithm for starting up a high temperature superconducting synchronous motor. The mathematical model of the motor has been established in m-file in Matlab and the parameters have been identified by means of the finite-element analysis method. Different starting methods for the motor have been compared and discussed, and eventually a hybrid control algorithm is proposed.

  7. Ipsilateral motor pathways after stroke: implications for noninvasive brain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynley V Bradnam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In humans the two cerebral hemispheres have essential roles in controlling the upper limb. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the potential importance of ipsilateral descending pathways for functional recovery after stroke, and the use of noninvasive brain stimulation (NBS protocols of the contralesional primary motor cortex (M1. Conventionally NBS is used to suppress contralesional M1, and to attenuate transcallosal inhibition onto the ipsilesional M1. There has been little consideration of the fact that contralesional M1 suppression may also reduce excitability of ipsilateral descending pathways that may be important for paretic upper limb control for some patients. One such ipsilateral pathway is the cortico-reticulo-propriospinal pathway (CRPP. In this review we outline a neurophysiological model to explain how contralesional M1 may gain control of the paretic arm via the CRPP. We conclude that the relative importance of the CRPP for motor control in individual patients must be considered before using NBS to suppress contralesional M1. Neurophysiological, neuroimaging and clinical assessments can assist this decision making and facilitate the translation of NBS into the clinical setting.

  8. Control of Separately Excited Dc Motor

    OpenAIRE

    ALIM Abdul; ABUBOKAR Talukdar

    2011-01-01

    Speed control of separately excited DC motor and performance analysis by software simulation has been done. The objective of this paper is to describe the principle of DC motor speed control using nonlinear combined control (armature voltage and field current) and proportional integral- derivative (PID) controller for DC motor drives. In the field control mode, the armature voltage is held constant and an adjustable voltage is applied to the field.Simulation models of separately excited DC mo...

  9. Robust Control of an Induction Motor Drive

    OpenAIRE

    Mosskull, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    This thesis considers robust control of an induction motor drive, consisting of an input filter, a voltage source inverter and one or several induction motors in parallel. The motor torque is here controlled by using the method Indirect Self Control (ISC), and power oscillations between the inverter and the input filter are damped by means of a stabilization controller in an outer feedback loop. Closed-loop performance with ISC is analyzed under the assumption of a stiff inverter input voltag...

  10. Functional MR imaging using sensory and motor task in brain tumors and other focal cerebral lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ok, Chul Su; Lim, Myung Kwan; Yu, Ki Bong; Kim, Hyung Jin; Suh, Chang Hae [College of Medicine, Inha Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To determine the usefulness of the functional MRI (fMRI) using motor and sensory stimuli in patients with brain tumors of focal cerebral lesions. This study involved five patients with brain tumors (n=2) or cerebral lesions (cysticercosis (n=1)), arteriovenous malformation (n=1), focal infarction (n=1) and seven normal controls. For MR examinations a 1.5T scanner was used, and during motor or sensory stimulation, the EPI BOLD technique was employed. For image postprocessing an SPM program was utilized. In volunteers, contralateral sensori-motor cortices were activated by both motor and sensory stimuli, while supplementary motor cortices were activated by motor stimuli and other sensory cortices by sensory stimuli. Preoperative evaluation of the relationship between lesions and important sensory and motor areas was possible, and subsequent surgery was thus successful, involving no severe complications. Activation of ipsilateral or other areas occurred in patients with destruction of a major sensory and/or motor area, suggesting compensatory reorganization. fMRI could be a useful supportive method for determining the best approach to surgery treatment in patients with brain tumors or focal cerebral lesions.

  11. Functional MR imaging using sensory and motor task in brain tumors and other focal cerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the usefulness of the functional MRI (fMRI) using motor and sensory stimuli in patients with brain tumors of focal cerebral lesions. This study involved five patients with brain tumors (n=2) or cerebral lesions (cysticercosis (n=1), arteriovenous malformation (n=1), focal infarction (n=1) and seven normal controls. For MR examinations a 1.5T scanner was used, and during motor or sensory stimulation, the EPI BOLD technique was employed. For image postprocessing an SPM program was utilized. In volunteers, contralateral sensori-motor cortices were activated by both motor and sensory stimuli, while supplementary motor cortices were activated by motor stimuli and other sensory cortices by sensory stimuli. Preoperative evaluation of the relationship between lesions and important sensory and motor areas was possible, and subsequent surgery was thus successful, involving no severe complications. Activation of ipsilateral or other areas occurred in patients with destruction of a major sensory and/or motor area, suggesting compensatory reorganization. fMRI could be a useful supportive method for determining the best approach to surgery treatment in patients with brain tumors or focal cerebral lesions

  12. Motor Skill Acquisition Promotes Human Brain Myelin Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Bimal Lakhani; Borich, Michael R.; Jackson, Jacob N.; Wadden, Katie P.; Sue Peters; Anica Villamayor; MacKay, Alex L.; Vavasour, Irene M.; Alexander Rauscher; Boyd, Lara A.

    2016-01-01

    Experience-dependent structural changes are widely evident in gray matter. Using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), the neuroplastic effect of motor training on white matter in the brain has been demonstrated. However, in humans it is not known whether specific features of white matter relate to motor skill acquisition or if these structural changes are associated to functional network connectivity. Myelin can be objectively quantified in vivo and used to index specific experience-dependent ch...

  13. Development of a Wearable Motor-Imagery-Based Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Shing; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Chu, Tso-Yao; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2016-03-01

    A motor-imagery-based brain-computer interface (BCI) is a translator that converts the motor intention of the brain into a control command to control external machines without muscles. Numerous motor-imagery-based BCIs have been successfully proposed in previous studies. However, several electroencephalogram (EEG) channels are typically required for providing sufficient information to maintain a specific accuracy and bit rate, and the bulk volume of these EEG machines is also inconvenient. A wearable motor imagery-based BCI system was proposed and implemented in this study. A wearable mechanical design with novel active comb-shaped dry electrodes was developed to measure EEG signals without conductive gels at hair sites, which is easy and convenient for users wearing the EEG machine. In addition, a wireless EEG acquisition module was also designed to measure EEG signals, which provides a user with more freedom of motion. The proposed wearable motor-imagery-based BCI system was validated using an electrical specifications test and a hand motor imagery experiment. Experimental results showed that the proposed wearable motor-imagery-based BCI system provides favorable signal quality for measuring EEG signals and detecting motor imagery. PMID:26748791

  14. Brain stimulation and inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Chi-Hung; Muggleton, Neil G

    2012-04-01

    Inhibitory control mechanisms are important in a range of behaviours to prevent execution of motor acts which, having been planned, are no longer necessary or appropriate. Examples of this can be seen in a range of sports, such as cricket and baseball, where the choice between execution and inhibition of a bat swing must be made in a very brief time window. Deficits in inhibitory control have been associated with problems in behavioural regulation in impulsive violence as well as a range of clinical disorders. The roles of various areas, including the frontal eye fields (FEF), the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and the inferior frontal gyrus, in inhibitory control have been investigated using an inhibitory control task and both transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Typically effects on response inhibition but no effects on response generation have been seen. The contributions of these areas to performance seem to differ with, for example, pre-SMA being involved when the task is relatively novel whereas this is not the case for FEF. The findings from brain stimulation studies offer both insight into which areas are necessary for effective inhibitory control and recent extension of findings for the role of the inferior frontal gyrus illustrate how the specific functions by which these areas contribute may be further clarified. Future work, including making use of the temporal specificity of TMS and combination of TMS/tDCS with other neuroimaging techniques, may further clarify the nature and functions played by the network of areas involved in inhibitory control. PMID:22494830

  15. Applied intelligent control of induction motor drives

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Tze Fun

    2011-01-01

    Induction motors are the most important workhorses in industry. They are mostly used as constant-speed drives when fed from a voltage source of fixed frequency. Advent of advanced power electronic converters and powerful digital signal processors, however, has made possible the development of high performance, adjustable speed AC motor drives.This book aims to explore new areas of induction motor control based on artificial intelligence (AI) techniques in order to make the controller less sensitive to parameter changes. Selected AI techniques are applied for different induction motor control s.

  16. A Bayesian framework for speech motor control

    OpenAIRE

    Patri, Jean-François; Diard, Julien; Perrier, Pascal; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The remarkable capacity of the speech motor system to adapt to various speech conditions is due to an excess of degrees of freedom, which enables producing similar acoustical properties with different sets of control strategies. To explain how the Central Nervous System selects one of the possible strategies, a common approach, in line with optimal motor control theories, is to model speech motor planning as the solution of an optimality problem based on cost functions. Despite the success of...

  17. Dopamine from the brain promotes spinal motor neuron generation during development and adult regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Michell M; Norris, Anneliese; Ohnmacht, Jochen; Patani, Rickie; Zhong, Zhen; Dias, Tatyana B; Kuscha, Veronika; Scott, Angela L; Chen, Yu-Chia; Rozov, Stanislav; Frazer, Sarah L; Wyatt, Cameron; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Patton, E Elizabeth; Panula, Pertti; Chandran, Siddharthan; Becker, Thomas; Becker, Catherina G

    2013-06-10

    Coordinated development of brain stem and spinal target neurons is pivotal for the emergence of a precisely functioning locomotor system. Signals that match the development of these far-apart regions of the central nervous system may be redeployed during spinal cord regeneration. Here we show that descending dopaminergic projections from the brain promote motor neuron generation at the expense of V2 interneurons in the developing zebrafish spinal cord by activating the D4a receptor, which acts on the hedgehog pathway. Inhibiting this essential signal during early neurogenesis leads to a long-lasting reduction of motor neuron numbers and impaired motor responses of free-swimming larvae. Importantly, during successful spinal cord regeneration in adult zebrafish, endogenous dopamine promotes generation of spinal motor neurons, and dopamine agonists augment this process. Hence, we describe a supraspinal control mechanism for the development and regeneration of specific spinal cell types that uses dopamine as a signal. PMID:23707737

  18. Controller for computer control of brushless dc motors. [automobile engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieda, L. S. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A motor speed and torque controller for brushless d.c. motors provides an unusually smooth torque control arrangement. The controller provides a means for controlling a current waveform in each winding of a brushless dc motor by synchronization of an excitation pulse train from a programmable oscillator. Sensing of torque for synchronization is provided by a light beam chopper mounted on the motor rotor shaft. Speed and duty cycle are independently controlled by controlling the frequency and pulse width output of the programmable oscillator. A means is also provided so that current transitions from one motor winding to another is effected without abrupt changes in output torque.

  19. Advanced dc-Traction-Motor Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittone, O.

    1985-01-01

    Motor-control concept for battery-powered vehicles includes stateof-the-art power-transistor switching and separate excitation of motor windings in traction and regenerative braking. Switching transistors and other components of power-conditioning subsystem operate under control of computer that coordinates traction, braking, and protective functions.

  20. Brain Connectivity Plasticity in the Motor Network after Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The motor function is controlled by the motor system that comprises a series of cortical and subcortical areas interacting via anatomical connections. The motor function will be disturbed when the stroke lesion impairs either any of these areas or their connections. More and more evidence indicates that the reorganization of the motor network including both areas and their anatomical and functional connectivity might contribute to the motor recovery after stroke. Here, we review recent studies employing models of anatomical, functional, and effective connectivity on neuroimaging data to investigate how ischemic stroke influences the connectivity of motor areas and how changes in connectivity relate to impaired function and functional recovery. We suggest that connectivity changes constitute an important pathophysiological aspect of motor impairment after stroke and important mechanisms of motor recovery. We also demonstrate that therapeutic interventions may facilitate motor recovery after stroke by modulating the connectivity among the motor areas. In conclusion, connectivity analyses improved our understanding of the mechanisms of motor recovery after stroke and may help to design hypothesis-driven treatment strategies and sensitive measures for outcome prediction in stroke patients.

  1. Functional MRI in human motor control studies and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been a useful tool for the noninvasive mapping of brain function associated with various motor and cognitive tasks. Because fMRI is based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, it does not directly record neural activity. With the fMRI technique, distinguishing BOLD signals creased by cortical projection neurons from those created by intracortical neurons appears to be difficult. Two major experimental designs are used in fMRI studies: block designs and event-related designs. Block-designed fMRI presupposes the steady state of regional cerebral blood flow and has been applied to examinations of brain activation caused by tasks requiring sustained or repetitive movements. By contrast, the more recently developed event-related fMRI with time resolution of a few seconds allows the mapping of brain activation associated with a single movement according to the transient aspects of the hemodynamic response. Increasing evidence suggests that multiple motor areas are engaged in a networked manner to execute various motor acts. In order to understand functional brain maps, it is important that one understands sequential and parallel organizations of anatomical connections between multiple motor areas. In fMRI studies of complex motor tasks, elementary parameters such as movement length, force, velocity, acceleration and frequency should be controlled, because inconsistency in those parameters may alter the extent and intensity of motor cortical activation, confounding interpretation of the findings obtained. In addition to initiation of movements, termination of movements plays an important role in the successful achievement of complex movements. Brain areas exclusively related to the termination of movements have been, for the first time, uncovered with an event-related fMRI technique. We propose the application of fMRI to the elucidation of the pathophysiology of movement disorders, particularly dystonia

  2. Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals Heterogeneous Networks Supporting Speech Motor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Zane; Cusack, Rhodri; Johnsrude, Ingrid; MacDonald, Ewen; Munhall, Kevin; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro

    multiple functional components required for detection of errors in speech planning (e.g., Levelt, 1983), neuroimaging studies generally indicate either single brain regions sensitive to speech production errors, or small, discrete networks. Here we demonstrate that the complex system controlling speech is......The everyday act of speaking involves the complex processes of speech motor control. One important feature of such control is regulation of articulation when auditory concomitants of speech do not correspond to the intended motor gesture. While theoretical accounts of speech monitoring posit...... supported by a complex neural network that is involved in linguistic, motoric and sensory processing. With the aid of novel real-time acoustic analyses and representational similarity analyses of fMRI signals, our data show functionally differentiated networks underlying auditory feedback control of speech....

  3. New Heuristics for Interfacing Human Motor System using Brain Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed El-Dosuky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many new forms of interfacing human users to machines. We persevere here electric-mechanical form of interaction between human and machine. The emergence of brain-computer interface allows mind-to-movement systems. The story of the Pied Piper inspired us to devise some new heuristics for interfacing human motor system using brain waves, by combining head helmet and LumbarMotionMonitor. For the simulation we use java GridGain. Brain responses of classified subjects during training indicates that Probe can be the best stimulus to rely on in distinguishing between knowledgeable and not knowledgeable

  4. New Heuristics for Interfacing Human Motor System using Brain Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed El-Dosuky; Ahmed El-Bassiouny; Taher Hamza; Magdy Rashad

    2012-01-01

    There are many new forms of interfacing human users to machines. We persevere here electric-mechanical form of interaction between human and machine. The emergence of brain-computer interface allows mind-to-movement systems. The story of the Pied Piper inspired us to devise some new heuristics for interfacing human motor system using brain waves, by combining head helmet and LumbarMotionMonitor. For the simulation we use java GridGain. Brain responses of classified subjects during training in...

  5. Low brain histamine content affects ethanol-induced motor impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Minnamaija; Raatesalmi, Kristiina; Sallmen, Tina; Anichtchik, Oleg; Karlstedt, Kaj; Kaslin, Jan; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Korpi, Esa R; Panula, Pertti

    2002-02-01

    The effect of ethanol on motor performance in humans is well established but how neural mechanisms are affected by ethanol action remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the brain histaminergic system is important in it, we used a genetic model consisting of rat lines selectively outbred for differential ethanol sensitivity. Ethanol-sensitive rats had lower levels of brain histamine and lower densities of histamine-immunoreactive fibers than ethanol-insensitive rats, although both rat lines showed no changes in histamine synthesizing neurons. Lowering the high brain histamine content of the ethanol-insensitive rats with alpha-fluoromethylhistidine before ethanol administration increased their ethanol sensitivity in a behavioral motor function test. Higher H3 receptor ligand binding and histamine-induced G-protein activation was detected in several brain regions of ethanol-naive ethanol-sensitive rats. Brain histamine levels and possibly signaling via H3 receptors may thus correlate with genetic differences in ethanol-induced motor impairment. PMID:11848689

  6. Speed Control of Bldc Motor Drive By Using Pid Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Narendra Kumar,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly deals with the Brushless DC (BLDC motor speed driving systems have sprouted in various small scale and large scale applications like automobile industries, domestic appliances etc. This leads to the development in Brushless DC motor (BLDCM. The usage of BLDC Motor enhances various performance factors ranging from higher efficiency, higher torque in low-speed range, high power density ,low maintenance and less noise than other motors. The BLDC Motor can act as an alternative for traditional motors like induction and switched reluctance motors. In this paper PID controller is implemented with speed feedback loop and it is observe that torque ripples are minimized. Simulation is carried out using MATLAB / SIMULINK. The results show that the performance of BLDC Motor is quite satisfactory for various loading conditions. Brushless DC motor drives are typically employed in speed controlled applications.

  7. The minimum transition hypothesis for intermittent hierarchical motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir eKarniel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In intermittent control, instead of continuously calculating the control signal, the controller occasionally changes this signal at certain sparse points in time. The control law may include feedback, adaptation, optimization, or any other control strategies. When, where, and how does the brain employ intermittency as it controls movement? These are open questions in motor neuroscience. Evidence for intermittency in human motor control has been repeatedly observed in the neural control of movement literature. Moreover, some researchers have provided theoretical models to address intermittency. Even so, the vast majority of current models, and I would dare to say the dogma in most of the current motor neuroscience literature involves continuous control. In this paper, I focus on an area in which intermittent control has not yet been thoroughly considered, the structure of muscle synergies. A synergy in the muscle space is a group of muscles activated together by a single neural command. Under the assumption that the motor control is intermittent, I present the minimum transition hypothesis and its predictions with regards to the structure of muscle synergies. The minimum transitions hypothesis (MTH asserts that the purpose of synergies is to minimize the effort of the higher level in the hierarchy by minimizing the number of transitions in an intermittent control signal. The implications of the MTH are not only for the structure of the muscle synergies but also to the intermittent and hierarchical nature of the motor system, with various predictions as to the process of skill learning, and important implications to the design of brain machine interfaces and human robot interaction.

  8. Ultra-Compact Motor Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, William T.; Cromwell, Adam; Hauptman, Traveler; Pratt, Gill Andrews

    2012-01-01

    This invention is an electronically commutated brushless motor contro ller that incorporates Hall-array sensing in a small, 42-gram packag e that provides 4096 absolute counts per motor revolution position s ensing. The unit is the size of a miniature hockey puck, and is a 44 -pin male connector that provides many I/O channels, including CANbus , RS-232 communications, general-purpose analog and digital I/O (GPI O), analog and digital Hall inputs, DC power input (18-90 VDC, 0-l0 A), three-phase motor outputs, and a strain gauge amplifier.

  9. Brain volumetric and microstructural correlates of executive and motor performance in aged rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadhavi eSridharan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aged rhesus macaque exhibits brain atrophy and behavioral deficits similar to normal aging in humans. Here we studied the association between cognitive and motor performance and anatomic and microstructural brain integrity measured with 3T magnetic resonance imaging in aged monkeys. About half of these animals were maintained on moderate calorie restriction, the only intervention shown to delay the aging process in lower animals. T1-weighted anatomic and diffusion tensor images were used to obtain gray matter volume, and fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity, respectively. We tested the extent to which brain health indexed by gray matter volume, fractional anisotropy, and mean diffusivity were related to executive and motor function, and determined the effect of the dietary intervention on this relationship. We hypothesized that fewer errors on the executive function test and faster motor times would be correlated with higher volume, higher fractional anisotropy, and lower mean diffusivity in frontal areas that mediate executive function, and in motor, premotor, subcortical, and cerebellar areas underlying goal-directed motor behaviors. Higher error percentage on a cognitive conceptual shift task was significantly associated with lower gray matter volume in frontal and parietal cortices, and lower fractional anisotropy in major association fiber bundles. Similarly, slower performance time on the motor task was significantly correlated with lower volumetric measures in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar areas and decreased fractional anisotropy in several major association fiber bundles. Notably, performance during the acquisition phase of the hardest level of the motor task was significantly associated with anterior mesial temporal lobe volume. Finally, these brain-behavior correlations for the motor task were attenuated in calorie restricted animals compared to controls, indicating a potential protective effect of the dietary

  10. Speed controller for an alternating - current motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A controller for a multi-phase ac motor that is subject to a large inertial load, e.g. an induction motor driving a heavy spinning rotor of a neutron chopper that must be rotated in phase-locked synchronism with a reference pulse train that is representative of an ac power supply signal Esub(L) having a meandering line frequency, includes a sensor which provides a feedback pulse train representative of the actual speed of the motor which is compared (by counting clock pulses between feedback pulses) with a reference clock signal in a computing unit to provide a motor control signal Esub(c). The motor control signal is a weighted linear sum of a speed error signal, a phase error signal, and a drift error signal, the magnitudes of which are recalculated and updated with each revolution of the motor shaft. The speed error signal is constant for large speed errors but highly sensitive to small speed errors. The stator windings of the motor are driven by variable-frequency power amplifiers which are controlled by the motor control signal Esub(c) via PROMs which store digital representations of sine and cosine waveforms in quadrature. (author)

  11. Real-Time Brain-Computer Interface System Based on Motor Imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tie-Jun Liu; Ping Yang; Xu-Yong Peng; Yu Huang; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) real-time system based on motor imagery translates the user's motor intention into a real-time control signal for peripheral equipments.A key problem to be solved for practical applications is real-time data collection and processing.In this paper,a real-time BCI system is implemented on computer with electroencephalogram amplifier.In our implementation,the on-line voting method is adopted for feedback control strategy,and the voting results are used to control the cursor horizontal movement.Three subjects take part in the experiment.The results indicate that the best accuracy is 90%.

  12. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    system. The dynamic performances were also evaluated in a vector controlled drive for CT applications. Based on these tests, the displacement power factor control and the direct air-gap flux control appeared to be best for small HVAC applications. Energy optimal control of medium-size drives was analyzed......This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic...... purpose is demonstrate how this can be done for low-cost PWM-VSI drives without bringing the robustness of the drive below an acceptable level. Four drives are investigated with respect to energy optimal control: 2.2 kW standard and high-efficiency motor drives, 22 kW and 90 kW standard motor drives. The...

  13. Computerized Torque Control for Large dc Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Richard M.; Carroll, Michael J.; Geiger, Ronald V.

    1987-01-01

    Speed and torque ranges in generator mode extended. System of shunt resistors, electronic switches, and pulse-width modulation controls torque exerted by large, three-phase, electronically commutated dc motor. Particularly useful for motor operating in generator mode because it extends operating range to low torque and high speed.

  14. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.

    1988-08-30

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.

  15. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slicker, James M. (Union Lake, MI); Sereshteh, Ahmad (Union Lake, MI)

    1988-01-01

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify thetorque commands applied to the motor.

  16. Alterations of motor performance and brain cortex mitochondrial function during ethanol hangover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Juanita; Karadayian, Analia G; Lores-Arnaiz, Silvia; Cutrera, Rodolfo A

    2012-08-01

    Ethanol has been known to affect various behavioral parameters in experimental animals, even several hours after ethanol (EtOH) is absent from blood circulation, in the period known as hangover. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of acute ethanol hangover on motor performance in association with the brain cortex energetic metabolism. Evaluation of motor performance and brain cortex mitochondrial function during alcohol hangover was performed in mice 6 hours after a high ethanol dose (hangover onset). Animals were injected i.p. either with saline (control group) or with ethanol (3.8 g/kg BW) (hangover group). Ethanol hangover group showed a bad motor performance compared with control animals (p hangover animals showed a 34% decrease in the respiratory control rate as compared with the control group. Mitochondrial complex activities were decreased being the complex I-III the less affected by the hangover condition; complex II-III was markedly decreased by ethanol hangover showing 50% less activity than controls. Complex IV was 42% decreased as compared with control animals. Hydrogen peroxide production was 51% increased in brain cortex mitochondria from the hangover group, as compared with the control animals. Quantification of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential indicated that ethanol injected animals presented 17% less ability to maintain the polarized condition as compared with controls. These results indicate that a clear decrease in proton motive force occurs in brain cortex mitochondria during hangover conditions. We can conclude that a decreased motor performance observed in the hangover group of animals could be associated with brain cortex mitochondrial dysfunction and the resulting impairment of its energetic metabolism. PMID:22608205

  17. Brain Plasticity and Motor Practice in Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyang eCai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For more than two decades, there have been extensive studies of experience-based neural plasticity exploring effective applications of brain plasticity for cognitive and motor development. Research suggests that human brains continuously undergo structural reorganization and functional changes in response to stimulations or training. From a developmental point of view, the assumption of lifespan brain plasticity has been extended to older adults in terms of the benefits of cognitive training and physical therapy. To summarize recent developments, first, we introduce the concept of neural plasticity from a developmental perspective. Secondly, we note that motor learning often refers to deliberate practice and the resulting performance enhancement and adaptability. We discuss the close interplay between neural plasticity, motor learning and cognitive aging. Thirdly, we review research on motor skill acquisition in older adults with, and without, impairments relative to aging-related cognitive decline. Finally, to enhance future research and application, we highlight the implications of neural plasticity in skills learning and cognitive rehabilitation for the aging population.

  18. Brain plasticity and motor practice in cognitive aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liuyang; Chan, John S. Y.; Yan, Jin H.; Peng, Kaiping

    2014-01-01

    For more than two decades, there have been extensive studies of experience-based neural plasticity exploring effective applications of brain plasticity for cognitive and motor development. Research suggests that human brains continuously undergo structural reorganization and functional changes in response to stimulations or training. From a developmental point of view, the assumption of lifespan brain plasticity has been extended to older adults in terms of the benefits of cognitive training and physical therapy. To summarize recent developments, first, we introduce the concept of neural plasticity from a developmental perspective. Secondly, we note that motor learning often refers to deliberate practice and the resulting performance enhancement and adaptability. We discuss the close interplay between neural plasticity, motor learning and cognitive aging. Thirdly, we review research on motor skill acquisition in older adults with, and without, impairments relative to aging-related cognitive decline. Finally, to enhance future research and application, we highlight the implications of neural plasticity in skills learning and cognitive rehabilitation for the aging population. PMID:24653695

  19. Design of Intelligent Stepping Motor Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-cheng Wang; Guo-qiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    According to the applications of stepping motor in industrial controlling fields, an intelligent control system is designed based on personal computer and single chip machine in this paper. The working principle and control mode of stepping motor are introduced firstly. Then, the hardware of single chip machine system is introduced; especially the crystal oscillator circuit, driving circuit, power circuit, LED display circuit, watchdog circuit and serial communication circuit are analyzed in ...

  20. The Interface communicate to DC motor control

    OpenAIRE

    Retuerta Cornet, Iu

    2010-01-01

    Mälardalens University makes internationally recognized research in the field of Robotics. This technological work shows an electrical engine control developed at Mälardalens University. The target of this project is to make an interface able to communicate with a platform/robot to move the platform/robot using an electric engine control in ADA language. There are different kinds of electric engines, AC, DC, stepper motor, etc. This control focuses on DC electric motors beca...

  1. Structural and functional hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progression in motor- and memory-related brain regions

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Michael Stoppel; Stefan Vielhaber; Cindy Eckart; Judith Machts; Jörn Kaufmann; Hans-Jochen Heinze; Katja Kollewe; Susanne Petri; Reinhard Dengler; Jens-Max Hopf; Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) multiple motor and extra-motor regions display structural and functional alterations. However, their temporal dynamics during disease-progression are unknown. To address this question we employed a longitudinal design assessing motor- and novelty-related brain activity in two fMRI sessions separated by a 3-month interval. In each session, patients and controls executed a Go/NoGo-task, in which additional presentation of n...

  2. Motor Network Plasticity and Low-Frequency Oscillations Abnormalities in Patients with Brain Gliomas: A Functional MRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chen; Zhang, Ming; Min, Zhigang; Rana, Netra; Zhang, Qiuli; Liu, Xin; Li, Min; Lin, Pan

    2014-01-01

    Brain plasticity is often associated with the process of slow-growing tumor formation, which remodels neural organization and optimizes brain network function. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether motor function plasticity would display deficits in patients with slow-growing brain tumors located in or near motor areas, but who were without motor neurological deficits. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to probe motor networks in 15 patients with histopathologically confirmed brain gliomas and 15 age-matched healthy controls. All subjects performed a motor task to help identify individual motor activity in the bilateral primary motor cortex (PMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA). Frequency-based analysis at three different frequencies was then used to investigate possible alterations in the power spectral density (PSD) of low-frequency oscillations. For each group, the average PSD was determined for each brain region and a nonparametric test was performed to determine the difference in power between the two groups. Significantly reduced inter-hemispheric functional connectivity between the left and right PMC was observed in patients compared with controls (P<0.05). We also found significantly decreased PSD in patients compared to that in controls, in all three frequency bands (low: 0.01–0.02 Hz; middle: 0.02–0.06 Hz; and high: 0.06–0.1 Hz), at three key motor regions. These findings suggest that in asymptomatic patients with brain tumors located in eloquent regions, inter-hemispheric connection may be more vulnerable. A comparison of the two approaches indicated that power spectral analysis is more sensitive than functional connectivity analysis for identifying the neurological abnormalities underlying motor function plasticity induced by slow-growing tumors. PMID:24806463

  3. Motor network plasticity and low-frequency oscillations abnormalities in patients with brain gliomas: a functional MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Niu

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity is often associated with the process of slow-growing tumor formation, which remodels neural organization and optimizes brain network function. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether motor function plasticity would display deficits in patients with slow-growing brain tumors located in or near motor areas, but who were without motor neurological deficits. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to probe motor networks in 15 patients with histopathologically confirmed brain gliomas and 15 age-matched healthy controls. All subjects performed a motor task to help identify individual motor activity in the bilateral primary motor cortex (PMC and supplementary motor area (SMA. Frequency-based analysis at three different frequencies was then used to investigate possible alterations in the power spectral density (PSD of low-frequency oscillations. For each group, the average PSD was determined for each brain region and a nonparametric test was performed to determine the difference in power between the two groups. Significantly reduced inter-hemispheric functional connectivity between the left and right PMC was observed in patients compared with controls (P<0.05. We also found significantly decreased PSD in patients compared to that in controls, in all three frequency bands (low: 0.01-0.02 Hz; middle: 0.02-0.06 Hz; and high: 0.06-0.1 Hz, at three key motor regions. These findings suggest that in asymptomatic patients with brain tumors located in eloquent regions, inter-hemispheric connection may be more vulnerable. A comparison of the two approaches indicated that power spectral analysis is more sensitive than functional connectivity analysis for identifying the neurological abnormalities underlying motor function plasticity induced by slow-growing tumors.

  4. Induction motors. Analysis and torque control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, B. [INRETS, Arcueil (France)

    2002-07-01

    This book provides a thorough approach for mastering the behavior and operation of induction motors, an essential device in the modern industrial world. Its way of presentation renders this book suitable for selfteaching by students, engineers, and researchers in the field of electrical engineering. It covers the modern theory of induction motor applications and control methods. The transient analysis of both three-phase and single-phase induction motors as well as that of the double-cage motors are developed. The principles of such modern control methods as Field-Oriented Control, Direct Torque Control and Computed Charges Acceleration Method are clearly treated in this monograph. Numerous equations, simulations, and figures are presented. (orig.)

  5. Linearizing Control of Induction Motor Based on Networked Control Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Ren; Chun-Wen Li; De-Zong Zhao

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to speed control of induction motors is developed by introducing networked control systems (NCSs) into the induction motor driving system. The control strategy is to stabilize and track the rotor speed of the induction motor when the network time delay occurs in the transport medium of network data. First, a feedback linearization method is used to achieve input-output linearization and decoupling control of the induction motor driving system based on rotor flux model, and then the characteristic of network data is analyzed in terms of the inherent network time delay. A networked control model of an induction motor is established. The sufficient condition of asymptotic stability for the networked induction motor driving system is given, and the state feedback controller is obtained by solving the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Simulation results verify the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  6. Torque control of switched reluctance motors

    OpenAIRE

    Moron Fernandez, Carlos; Garcia Garcia, Alfonso; Tremps Guerra, Enrique; Somolinos Sanchez, Jose Andres

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the performance of an instantaneous torque control method. The simulation and experimental results illustrate the capability of Switched Reluctance Motors (SRM) being used in the motor drive industry. Based on experimental data, the advantages of this control method and its disadvantages in practical implementation were studied. The model used in the simulation is the linear magnetic model which has the 12/8 structure, the same structure as the experimental switched re...

  7. Remote PID control of a DC Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, V.; Carvalho, V.; R. M. Vasconcelos; Soares, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a remote experiment for controlling a DC motor. This work was part of a final year graduation project of the Industrial Electronics Course at the University of Minho. It was implemented by an undergraduate student for student use. The experiment is controlled using a PID algorithm programmed in LabView environment. The remote user can test PID digital algorithms and parameters, change reference velocity values and register the motor output velocity profile.

  8. Deep networks for motor control functions

    OpenAIRE

    Berniker, Max; Kording, Konrad P.

    2015-01-01

    The motor system generates time-varying commands to move our limbs and body. Conventional descriptions of motor control and learning rely on dynamical representations of our body's state (forward and inverse models), and control policies that must be integrated forward to generate feedforward time-varying commands; thus these are representations across space, but not time. Here we examine a new approach that directly represents both time-varying commands and the resulting state trajectories w...

  9. Vector controlled induction motor drive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bharadwaj, Aravind S.

    1993-01-01

    Over the years, dc motors have been widely used for variable speed drives for numerous industrial applications despite the fact that ac machines are robust, less expensive, and have low inertia rotors. The main disadvantage of the ac machines is the complexity in control and the cost of the related circuitry. With the advent of vector control, ac machines have overcome this disadvantage and are being employed in different applications where dc motors were traditionally used. The d-q modeling,...

  10. BRAIN-COMPUTER-INTERFACE – SUPPORTED MOTOR IMAGERY TRAININTG FOR PATIENTS WITH HEMIPARESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Mokienko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to assess the feasibility of motor imagery supported brain-computer interface in patients with hemiparesis. 13 patients with central paresis of the hand and 15 healthy volunteers were learning to control EEG-based interface with feedback. No differences on interface control quality were found between patients and healthy subjects. The trainings were accompanied by the desynchronization of sensorimotor rhythm. In patients with cortical damage the source of EEG-activity was dislocated.

  11. Induction motor modelling for vector control purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, M.

    2000-07-01

    Widely used in many industrial applications, the induction motors represent the starting point when an electrical drive system has to be designed. In modern control theory, the induction motor is described by different mathematical models, according to the employed control method. In the symmetrical three-phase version or in the unsymmetrical two-phase version, this electrical motor type can be associated with vector control strategy. Through this control method, the induction motor operation can be analysed in a similar way to a DC motor. The goal of this research is to summarize the existing models and to develop new models, in order to obtain a unified approach on modelling of the induction machines for vector control purposes. Starting from vector control principles, the work suggests the d-q axes unified approach for all types of the induction motors. However, the space vector analysis is presented as a strong tool in modelling of the symmetrical induction machines. When an electrical motor is viewed as a mathematical system, with inputs and outputs, it can be analysed and described in multiple ways, considering different reference frames and state-space variables. All the mathematical possible models are illustrated in this report. The suggestions for what model is suitable for what application, are defined as well. As the practical implementation of the vector control strategies require digital signal processors (DSP), from the continuous time domain models are derived the discrete time domain models. The discrete models permit the implementation of the mathematical model of the induction motors, in order to obtain high efficiency sensorless drives. The stability of these various models is analysed. (orig.)

  12. Lubrication control of motors in paper mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, Yasuo

    1987-12-01

    This review is focused lubrication control of motors in paper mills. Smaller motors use deep groove ball bearings and lubricating grease. They need no make-up grease. Medium-size motors incorporate both sealed and open bearings or only open bearings and the grade, make-up intervals and make-up volume of the lubricating grease to be used are specified. Methods for automatic grease supply include the use of an automatic grease cup with improved injection mechanism, use of an injection pump for automatic supply to each motor, and group-control for parallel supply to several motors through distribution valves. For large-size motors, oil-bath lubricating is usually adopted in combination with a circulating oil supply device, etc. Improved techniques are currently available for automatization of the main systems and for automatization and reduction in cost of electric instrumentation. However, grease up of bearings, especially for medium-size motors, is performed by hand. Effective lubrication control and increased productivity are expected to be achieved by the combined use of automatic oil supply and monitoring devices. (14 figs, 4 tabs)

  13. Digital Signal Controller Based Digital Control of Brushless DC Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Anjana Elizabeth Thomas; Salim Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the digital control of a brushless dc (BLDC) motor using TMS320F2812 DSP controller and an EPROM. The real-time control of electrical motors is an application area that is not usually the domain of Digital Signal Processors. The TMS320F2812 has got dedicated modules for digital motor control. Control algorithms used for the control has been in TMS320F2812 DSP controller. The output of the driver is 6 independent PWM pulses that have to be given to the corresponding gates o...

  14. Training-induced behavioral and brain plasticity in inhibitory control

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas eSpierer; Camille eChavan; Aurelie Lynn Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in inhibitory control, the ability to suppress ongoing or planned motor or cognitive processes, contribute to many psychiatric and neurological disorders. The rehabilitation of inhibition-related disorders may therefore benefit from neuroplasticity-based training protocols aiming at normalizing inhibitory control proficiency and the underlying brain networks. Current literature on training-induced behavioral and brain plasticity in inhibitory control suggests that improvements may fo...

  15. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL OF ELECTRIC MOTORS AND MOTOR DRIVES: FEASIBILITY STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study (part 1) of fuzzy logic motor control (FLMC). The study included: 1) reviews of existing applications of fuzzy logic, of motor operation, and of motor control; 2) a description of motor control schemes that can utilize FLMC; 3) selection of a m...

  16. Adaptive Vector Control of Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Opeiko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of adaptive PID controller has been executed for flux linkage and speed channels of a vector control system for an induction short-circuited motor. While using an imitation simulation method results of a synthesized system analysis show that the adaptive PID controller has some advantages under conditions of parametric disturbances affecting the object.

  17. Backstepping Strategy for Induction Motor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    2000-01-01

    Using backstepping, which is a recursive nonlinear design method, a novel approach to control of induction motors is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear controller for the torque and the amplitude of the field. A combination of nonlinear damping and observer backstepping with a...... simple flux observer is used in the design. Assuming known motor parameters the design achieves stability with guaranteed region of attraction. It is also shown how a conventional field oriented controller may be obtained by omitting parts of the nonlinear controller....

  18. Perinatal Development of the Motor Systems Involved in Postural Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Vinay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor behaviors of some species, such as the rat and the human baby, are quite immature at birth. Here we review recent data on some of the mechanisms underlying the postnatal maturation of posture in the rat, in particular the development of pathways descending from the brain stem and projecting onto the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. A short-lasting depletion in serotonin affects both posture and the excitability of motoneurons. Here we try to extrapolate to human development and suggest that the abnormalities in motor control observed in childhood—e.g, deficits in motor coordination—might have their roots in the prenatal period, in particular serotonin depletion due to exposure to several environmental and toxicological factors during pregnancy.

  19. The SM-200 step motor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main nodes of the stand for testing and modeling solenoid coils, which define the focus of the beam of charged particles in the accelerator LUE-200 (IREN), is a device for positioning Hall sensors (HS). The mechanism of movement of the platform where HS are installed is activated by the step motor. This paper describes the control device of the step motor SM-200

  20. Serotonergic modulation of spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, Jean-Francois Marie; Cotel, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a monoamine that powerfully modulates spinal motor control by acting on intrasynaptic and extrasynaptic receptors. Here we review the diversity of 5-HT actions on locomotor and motoneuronal activities. Two approaches have been used on in vitro spinal cord preparations: either...... and promotes the excitability of motoneurons, while stronger release inhibits rhythmic activity and motoneuron firing. This latter effect is responsible for central fatigue and secures rotation of motor units....

  1. Electroencephalographic Motor Imagery Brain Connectivity Analysis for BCI: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Mahyar; Salleh, Sh-Hussain; Noor, Alias Mohd

    2016-06-01

    Recent research has reached a consensus on the feasibility of motor imagery brain-computer interface (MI-BCI) for different applications, especially in stroke rehabilitation. Most MI-BCI systems rely on temporal, spectral, and spatial features of single channels to distinguish different MI patterns. However, no successful communication has been established for a completely locked-in subject. To provide more useful and informative features, it has been recommended to take into account the relationships among electroencephalographic (EEG) sensor/source signals in the form of brain connectivity as an efficient tool of neuroscience. In this review, we briefly report the challenges and limitations of conventional MI-BCIs. Brain connectivity analysis, particularly functional and effective, has been described as one of the most promising approaches for improving MI-BCI performance. An extensive literature on EEG-based MI brain connectivity analysis of healthy subjects is reviewed. We subsequently discuss the brain connectomes during left and right hand, feet, and tongue MI movements. Moreover, key components involved in brain connectivity analysis that considerably affect the results are explained. Finally, possible technical shortcomings that may have influenced the results in previous research are addressed and suggestions are provided. PMID:27137671

  2. Open questions in computational motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karniel, Amir

    2011-09-01

    Computational motor control covers all applications of quantitative tools for the study of the biological movement control system. This paper provides a review of this field in the form of a list of open questions. After an introduction in which we define computational motor control, we describe: a Turing-like test for motor intelligence; internal models, inverse model, forward model, feedback error learning and distal teacher; time representation, and adaptation to delay; intermittence control strategies; equilibrium hypotheses and threshold control; the spatiotemporal hierarchy of wide sense adaptation, i.e., feedback, learning, adaptation, and evolution; optimization based models for trajectory formation and optimal feedback control; motor memory, the past and the future; and conclude with the virtue of redundancy. Each section in this paper starts with a review of the relevant literature and a few more specific studies addressing the open question, and ends with speculations about the possible answer and its implications to motor neuroscience. This review is aimed at concisely covering the topic from the author's perspective with emphasis on learning mechanisms and the various structures and limitations of internal models. PMID:21960308

  3. Speed Control of Separately Excited DC Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Moleykutty George

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes the speed control of a separately excited dc motor (SEDM) by varying armature voltage. The novelty of this paper lies in the application of nonlinear autoregressive-moving average (NARMA)L2 controller for the speed control of SEDM. This paper also discusses speed control of a SEDM using chopper circuit. The performance of the proposed system has been compared with the traditional one using conventional controllers. The entire system has been modeled using MATLAB 7.0 toolbo...

  4. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), as appropriate, for the location where it is installed. In... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) provides guidance on the differences between devices meeting... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers....

  5. Cascade Speed Control Of Dc Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Anagha, Ranjith K; Anand C.P; Rahul Das; Anusha A.S

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper presents a MATLAB aided Cascade designed controller to control and monitor the DC motor speed. First, design the driver circuit of the DC motor and use the microcontroller PIC16F877A to collect the feedback signals from the current sensor and optical encoder. The measured speed and current are serially transmitted to PC using RS232. By the MATLAB aided cascade controller, where inner loop is the current loop and outer loop is the speed loop, the parameters are adjusted to...

  6. Representation and control in closed-loop brain-machine interface systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moorman, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Brain-machine interface (BMI) systems attempt to restore motor function lost due to injury or neurodegenerative disease by bypassing natural motor pathways and allowing direct neural control of a movement actuator. Such systems also hold promise for investigating questions about learning and motor control in a highly controlled and observable system. Here we utilize a BMI paradigm in which single unit neural spiking activity recorded from motor cortical areas in non-human primates is used to ...

  7. Brain versus Machine Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Octopus, the villain of the movie "Spiderman 2", is a fusion of man and machine. Neuroscientist Jose Carmena examines the facts behind this fictional account of a brain- machine interface

  8. Motor Skill Acquisition Promotes Human Brain Myelin Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhani, Bimal; Borich, Michael R; Jackson, Jacob N; Wadden, Katie P; Peters, Sue; Villamayor, Anica; MacKay, Alex L; Vavasour, Irene M; Rauscher, Alexander; Boyd, Lara A

    2016-01-01

    Experience-dependent structural changes are widely evident in gray matter. Using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), the neuroplastic effect of motor training on white matter in the brain has been demonstrated. However, in humans it is not known whether specific features of white matter relate to motor skill acquisition or if these structural changes are associated to functional network connectivity. Myelin can be objectively quantified in vivo and used to index specific experience-dependent change. In the current study, seventeen healthy young adults completed ten sessions of visuomotor skill training (10,000 total movements) using the right arm. Multicomponent relaxation imaging was performed before and after training. Significant increases in myelin water fraction, a quantitative measure of myelin, were observed in task dependent brain regions (left intraparietal sulcus [IPS] and left parieto-occipital sulcus). In addition, the rate of motor skill acquisition and overall change in myelin water fraction in the left IPS were negatively related, suggesting that a slower rate of learning resulted in greater neuroplastic change. This study provides the first evidence for experience-dependent changes in myelin that are associated with changes in skilled movements in healthy young adults. PMID:27293906

  9. Motor Skill Acquisition Promotes Human Brain Myelin Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimal Lakhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience-dependent structural changes are widely evident in gray matter. Using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, the neuroplastic effect of motor training on white matter in the brain has been demonstrated. However, in humans it is not known whether specific features of white matter relate to motor skill acquisition or if these structural changes are associated to functional network connectivity. Myelin can be objectively quantified in vivo and used to index specific experience-dependent change. In the current study, seventeen healthy young adults completed ten sessions of visuomotor skill training (10,000 total movements using the right arm. Multicomponent relaxation imaging was performed before and after training. Significant increases in myelin water fraction, a quantitative measure of myelin, were observed in task dependent brain regions (left intraparietal sulcus [IPS] and left parieto-occipital sulcus. In addition, the rate of motor skill acquisition and overall change in myelin water fraction in the left IPS were negatively related, suggesting that a slower rate of learning resulted in greater neuroplastic change. This study provides the first evidence for experience-dependent changes in myelin that are associated with changes in skilled movements in healthy young adults.

  10. Motor Skill Acquisition Promotes Human Brain Myelin Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhani, Bimal; Borich, Michael R.; Jackson, Jacob N.; Wadden, Katie P.; Peters, Sue; Villamayor, Anica; MacKay, Alex L.; Vavasour, Irene M.; Rauscher, Alexander; Boyd, Lara A.

    2016-01-01

    Experience-dependent structural changes are widely evident in gray matter. Using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), the neuroplastic effect of motor training on white matter in the brain has been demonstrated. However, in humans it is not known whether specific features of white matter relate to motor skill acquisition or if these structural changes are associated to functional network connectivity. Myelin can be objectively quantified in vivo and used to index specific experience-dependent change. In the current study, seventeen healthy young adults completed ten sessions of visuomotor skill training (10,000 total movements) using the right arm. Multicomponent relaxation imaging was performed before and after training. Significant increases in myelin water fraction, a quantitative measure of myelin, were observed in task dependent brain regions (left intraparietal sulcus [IPS] and left parieto-occipital sulcus). In addition, the rate of motor skill acquisition and overall change in myelin water fraction in the left IPS were negatively related, suggesting that a slower rate of learning resulted in greater neuroplastic change. This study provides the first evidence for experience-dependent changes in myelin that are associated with changes in skilled movements in healthy young adults. PMID:27293906

  11. Neuro-Genetic Adaptive Optimal Controller for DC Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Mohamed Elkholy; Mohammed Abd Elhameed Abd Elnaiem

    2014-01-01

    Conventional speed controllers of DC motors suffer from being not adaptive, this is because of the nonlinearity in the motor model due to saturation. Structure of DC motor speed controller should vary according to its operating conditions, so that the transient performance is acceptable. In this paper an adaptive and optimal Neuro-Genetic controller is used to control a DC motor speed. GA will be used first to obtain the optimal controller parameter for each load torque and motor refer...

  12. Digital Signal Controller Based Digital Control of Brushless DC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Elizabeth Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the digital control of a brushless dc (BLDC motor using TMS320F2812 DSP controller and an EPROM. The real-time control of electrical motors is an application area that is not usually the domain of Digital Signal Processors. The TMS320F2812 has got dedicated modules for digital motor control. Control algorithms used for the control has been in TMS320F2812 DSP controller. The output of the driver is 6 independent PWM pulses that have to be given to the corresponding gates of the six MOSFETs power switches used in the three-phase bridge driving circuit whose output is given to the stator of the Brushless DC Motor. The commutation technique used in this work is the trapezoidal commutation owing to its excellent speed and current control and it has been implemented using an EPROM

  13. Deep networks for motor control functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max eBerniker

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The motor system generates time-varying commands to move our limbs and body. Conventional descriptions of motor control and learning rely on dynamical representations of our body’s state (forward and inverse models, and control policies that must be integrated forward to generate feedforward time-varying commands; thus these are representations across space, but not time. Here we examine a new approach that directly represents both time-varying commands and the resulting state trajectories with a function; a representation across space and time. Since the output of this function includes time, it necessarily requires more parameters than a typical dynamical model. To avoid the problems of local minima these extra parameters introduce, we exploit recent advances in machine learning to build our function using a stacked autoencoder, or deep network. With initial and target states as inputs, this deep network can be trained to output an accurate temporal profile of the optimal command and state trajectory for a point-to-point reach of a nonlinear limb model, even when influenced by varying force fields. In a manner that mirrors motor babble, the network can also teach itself to learn through trial and error. Lastly, we demonstrate how this network can learn to optimize a cost objective. This functional approach to motor control is a sharp departure from the standard dynamical approach, and may offer new insights into the neural implementation of motor control.

  14. Deep networks for motor control functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berniker, Max; Kording, Konrad P

    2015-01-01

    The motor system generates time-varying commands to move our limbs and body. Conventional descriptions of motor control and learning rely on dynamical representations of our body's state (forward and inverse models), and control policies that must be integrated forward to generate feedforward time-varying commands; thus these are representations across space, but not time. Here we examine a new approach that directly represents both time-varying commands and the resulting state trajectories with a function; a representation across space and time. Since the output of this function includes time, it necessarily requires more parameters than a typical dynamical model. To avoid the problems of local minima these extra parameters introduce, we exploit recent advances in machine learning to build our function using a stacked autoencoder, or deep network. With initial and target states as inputs, this deep network can be trained to output an accurate temporal profile of the optimal command and state trajectory for a point-to-point reach of a non-linear limb model, even when influenced by varying force fields. In a manner that mirrors motor babble, the network can also teach itself to learn through trial and error. Lastly, we demonstrate how this network can learn to optimize a cost objective. This functional approach to motor control is a sharp departure from the standard dynamical approach, and may offer new insights into the neural implementation of motor control. PMID:25852530

  15. Projective DC Motor Control Under Disturbance Torques

    OpenAIRE

    Zuglem, Ismael; Doruk, Resat Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we will present the design of a linear DC motor controller by projective linear qudratic servo feedback (P-LQSF) and analyze its stability through the notion of input to state stability theory. The projective control approach allows one to design an output feedback controller which approximates the eigenspectrum of a full state feedback closed loop. The performance and stability of the controllers will be analyzed both theoretically and through simulation. Apart from basic line...

  16. Implementing two DC motor speed control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Danilo Rairán Antolines

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available While linear control techniques for dynamic systems have been widely tested, systems are not linear in practice. This means that controllers must be re-tuned to make them useful in an experimental setup. This article presents the tuning and re-tuning process for two control strategies: a PID and an algorithm based on the choice of overall transfer function controlling a DC permanent magnet motor. The algorithms’ performance is evaluated and some recommendations are made.

  17. Implementing two DC motor speed control strategies

    OpenAIRE

    José Danilo Rairán Antolines; Yeni Paola Sierra Niño; Néstor Iván Moreno Roballo

    2010-01-01

    While linear control techniques for dynamic systems have been widely tested, systems are not linear in practice. This means that controllers must be re-tuned to make them useful in an experimental setup. This article presents the tuning and re-tuning process for two control strategies: a PID and an algorithm based on the choice of overall transfer function controlling a DC permanent magnet motor. The algorithms’ performance is evaluated and some recommendations are made.

  18. Summary of electric vehicle dc motor-controller tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbrien, E. F.; Tryon, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    The differences in the performance of dc motors are evaluated when operating with chopper type controllers, and when operating on direct current. The interactions between the motor and the controller which cause these differences are investigated. Motor-controlled tests provided some of the data the quantified motor efficiency variations for both ripple free and chopper modes of operation.

  19. Brain-Computer Interface Based on Motor Imagery: the Most Relevant Sources of Electrical Brain Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Snášel, V.; Bobrov, P.; Mokienko, O.; Tintěra, J.; Rydlo, J.

    Cham: Springer, 2014 - (Snášel, V.; Krömer, P.; Köppen, M.; Schaefer, G.), s. 153-163. (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. 223). ISBN 978-3-319-00929-2. ISSN 2194-5357. [Online World Conference on Soft Computing in Industrial Applications /17./. Anywhere on Earth, 10.12.2012-21.12.2012)] Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0070; GA MŠk(CZ) EE.2.3.20.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Image and Signal Processing * Brain-Computer Interface * Independent Component Analysis * EEG Pattern Classification * fMRI * Motor Image ry * Pattern Recognition Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://dap.vsb.cz/wsc17conf/brain-computer-interface-based-on-motor- image ry---the-most-relevant-sources-of-electrical-brain-activity

  20. Speed Control of BLDC Motor Using DSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.MadhusudhanaRao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed the speed control of brushless dc motor drive employing PWM technique using TMS320F240 digital signal processor. BLDC is widely used because of its high mechanical power density, simplicity and cost effectiveness. The complete controller for BLDC is developed using TMS 320F240 digital signal processor, which has thespecial features for digital motor control. A mathematical model of the drive system is developed to analyze the performance of the proposed drive. The hall sensor signals are used to sense the rotor position. A shunt resistor is used to sense the actual current entering into the motor. These hall signals, phase current sensing signal and the speed command are the input to the DSP. Both the outer velocity control loop and inner current control loop uses PI controller that has been implemented by programming in TMS320F240 DSP processor [8]. According to the input command, feedback command andcontrol algorithm, the PWM pulses for each phase generated by the DSP is given to IGBT driver. The output of the driver is 6 independent PWM pulses that have to be given to the corresponding gate of the six IGBTs power switches used in the three-phase bridge inverter whose output is given to the stator of the BLDC motor. The drive performance is studied for starting, speed reversal and load perturbation.

  1. A comparison of different models with motor dysfunction after traumatic brain injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Pu, Hongjian; Liu, Yingchao; Wang, Zengtao; Wang, Bomin; Xu, Wendong

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the model that could produce reproducible and persistent motor weakness and define the accurate tasks and testing parameters for longitudinal assessment of neurological deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We compared the effects of two rat models that suffered different controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury, as well as extensive motor cortex resection model, on behavior recovery and brain morphology. Behavioral tests including the skilled reaching task, limb-use asymmetry test and the grasping test were employed to evaluate neurofunctional recovery from pre- to 12 weeks after the injury. The results demonstrated that all the rats in four groups showed spontaneous functional improvement with the past of time after surgery, especially in rats with mild and moderate CCI injury. At the end of the experiment, the animals' performance reached preoperative base lines on reaching task and limb-use asymmetry test in mild and moderate groups, while severe motor weakness could be observed in rats with severe CCI injury, as well as rats with extended motor cortex resection. Overall, the results of this study indicated that both models with severe CCI injury and extended resection of the motor cortex developed reproducible and long-lasting motor weakness, comparable in severity and duration and identified skilled reaching task, as well as limb-use asymmetry test, as sensitive assessments for slight neurological deficits after brain injury. This will help to provide the basis for further research of the processes after the TBI and development of novel therapies. PMID:25385190

  2. Speed Control of Separately Excited DC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moleykutty George

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the speed control of a separately excited dc motor (SEDM by varying armature voltage. The novelty of this paper lies in the application of nonlinear autoregressive-moving average (NARMA–L2 controller for the speed control of SEDM. This paper also discusses speed control of a SEDM using chopper circuit. The performance of the proposed system has been compared with the traditional one using conventional controllers. The entire system has been modeled using MATLAB 7.0 toolbox. It has been found that both PI and hysteresis current controllers could be eliminated by the use of NARMA-L2 controller.

  3. Control system for bearingless motor-generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Peter E. (Inventor); Jansen, Ralph H. (Inventor); Dever, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A control system for an electromagnetic rotary drive for bearingless motor-generators comprises a winding configuration comprising a plurality of individual pole pairs through which phase current flows, each phase current producing both a lateral force and a torque. A motor-generator comprises a stator, a rotor supported for movement relative to the stator, and a control system. The motor-generator comprises a winding configuration supported by the stator. The winding configuration comprises at least three pole pairs through which phase current flows resulting in three three-phase systems. Each phase system has a first rotor reference frame axis current that produces a levitating force with no average torque and a second rotor reference frame axis current that produces torque.

  4. Different brain circuits underlie motor and perceptual representations of temporal intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bueti, Doemnica; Walsh, Vincent; Frith, Christopher;

    2008-01-01

    information when either a motor or a perceptual representation is used. Participants viewed two identical sequences of visual stimuli and used the information differently to perform either a temporal reproduction or a temporal estimation task. By comparing brain activity evoked by these tasks and control...... conditions, we explored commonalities and differences in brain areas involved in reproduction and estimation of temporal intervals. The basal ganglia and the cerebellum were commonly active in both temporal tasks, consistent with suggestions that perception and production of time are subserved by the same...... V5/MT. Our findings point to a role for the parietal cortex as an interface between sensory and motor processes and suggest that it may be a key node in translation of temporal information into action. Furthermore, we discuss the potential importance of the extrastriate cortex in processing visual...

  5. Research on DSP-based Asynchronous Motor Control Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Yao; Xiangxin Qiao; Xin Wang

    2013-01-01

    The Motor in a variety of electrical transmission and position servo system occupies an extremely important position. After the DSP technology being applied to the motor control, the unification of the hardware and the flexibility of the software can be combined. Take the brushless DC motor for example, studied the mathematical model and the structure of the motor control system, also obtained the design scheme of the DSP-based asynchronous motor control system. With TI's 32 bit fixed point D...

  6. Sensorless control of a DC series motor

    OpenAIRE

    Amet, Leonardo; Ghanes, Malek; Barbot, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a sensorless speed control for a DC series motor is presented. In this context, an observability analysis is performed, revealing that the system is inobservable at zero current. In order to overcome this problem we propose the joint use of an estimator and an observer, the latter being based on second order sliding modes techniques. The simulation results highlight the good performance of the proposed control.

  7. How do glial cells contribute to motor control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rasmus Kordt; Petersen, Anders Victor; Perrier, Jean-Francois Marie

    2013-01-01

    activated by neurotransmitters during synaptic transmission. In turn they release other transmitters - called gliotransmitters - that bind to neuronal receptors and modulate synaptic transmission. This feedback, which led to the concept of the tripartite synapse, has been reported with various transmitters...... glia play an active role in several physiological functions. The discovery that a bidirectional communication takes place between astrocytes (the star shaped glial cell of the brain) and neurons, was a major breakthrough in the field of synaptic physiology. Astrocytes express receptors that get...... including glutamate, ATP, GABA or serine. In the present review we will focus on astrocytes and review the evidence suggesting and demonstrating their role in motor control. Rhythmic motor behaviors such as locomotion, swimming or chewing are generated by networks of neurons termed central pattern...

  8. Neurological rehabilitation of stroke patients via motor imaginary-based brain-computer interface technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyu Sun; Yang Xiang; Mingdao Yang

    2011-01-01

    The present study utilized motor imaginary-based brain-computer interface technology combined with rehabilitation training in 20 stroke patients. Results from the Berg Balance Scale and the Holden Walking Classification were significantly greater at 4 weeks after treatment (P < 0.01), which suggested that motor imaginary-based brain-computer interface technology improved balance and walking in stroke patients.

  9. Basal ganglia contributions to motor control: a vigorous tutor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert S; Desmurget, Michel

    2010-12-01

    The roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in motor control are much debated. Many influential hypotheses have grown from studies in which output signals of the BG were not blocked, but pathologically disturbed. A weakness of that approach is that the resulting behavioral impairments reflect degraded function of the BG per se mixed together with secondary dysfunctions of BG-recipient brain areas. To overcome that limitation, several studies have focused on the main skeletomotor output region of the BG, the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Using single-cell recording and inactivation protocols these studies provide consistent support for two hypotheses: the BG modulates movement performance ('vigor') according to motivational factors (i.e. context-specific cost/reward functions) and the BG contributes to motor learning. Results from these studies also add to the problems that confront theories positing that the BG selects movement, inhibits unwanted motor responses, corrects errors on-line, or stores and produces well-learned motor skills. PMID:20850966

  10. An adaptive filter bank for motor imagery based Brain Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kavitha P; Guan, Cuntai; Tong, Lau Chiew; Prasad, Vinod A

    2008-01-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) provides an alternative communication and control method for people with severe motor disabilities. Motor imagery patterns are widely used in Electroencephalogram (EEG) based BCIs. These motor imagery activities are associated with variation in alpha and beta band power of EEG signals called Event Related Desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS). The dominant frequency bands are subject-specific and therefore performance of motor imagery based BCIs are sensitive to both temporal filtering and spatial filtering. As the optimum filter is strongly subject-dependent, we propose a method that selects the subject-specific discriminative frequency components using time-frequency plots of Fisher ratio of two-class motor imagery patterns. We also propose a low complexity adaptive Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter bank system based on coefficient decimation technique which can realize the subject-specific bandpass filters adaptively depending on the information of Fisher ratio map. Features are extracted only from the selected frequency components. The proposed adaptive filter bank based system offers average classification accuracy of about 90%, which is slightly better than the existing fixed filter bank system. PMID:19162856

  11. Motor imagery and EEG-based control of spelling devices and neuroprostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuper, Christa; Müller-Putz, Gernot R; Scherer, Reinhold; Pfurtscheller, Gert

    2006-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) transforms signals originating from the human brain into commands that can control devices or applications. With this, a BCI provides a new non-muscular communication channel, which can be used to assist patients who have highly compromised motor functions. The Graz-BCI uses motor imagery and associated oscillatory EEG signals from the sensorimotor cortex for device control. As a result of research in the past 15 years, the classification of ERD/ERS patterns in single EEG trials during motor execution and motor imagery forms the basis of this sensorimotor-rhythm controlled BCI. The major frequency bands of cortical oscillations considered here are the 8-13 and 15-30 Hz bands. This chapter describes the basic methods used in Graz-BCI research and outlines possible clinical applications. PMID:17071244

  12. Using non-invasive brain stimulation to augment motor training-induced plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual-Leone Alvaro; Bolognini Nadia; Fregni Felipe

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Therapies for motor recovery after stroke or traumatic brain injury are still not satisfactory. To date the best approach seems to be the intensive physical therapy. However the results are limited and functional gains are often minimal. The goal of motor training is to minimize functional disability and optimize functional motor recovery. This is thought to be achieved by modulation of plastic changes in the brain. Therefore, adjunct interventions that can augment the response of th...

  13. Direct Torque Control of the Asynchronous Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Girovský

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with the proposal of direct torque control (DTC of asynchronous motor (AMwith the help of fuzzy logic. The whole structure of DTC is designed in software Matlab – Simulink, the fuzzy regulator is designed with the help of Fuzzy Toolbox. The results of DTC with fuzzy regulator are compared with DTC with the help of Depenbrock method and DTC with the help of Takahashi method.

  14. Direct Torque Control of the Asynchronous Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Girovský; Jaroslava Žilková; Ľubomír Cibuľa; Jaroslav Timko

    2008-01-01

    This contribution deals with the proposal of direct torque control (DTC) of asynchronous motor (AM)with the help of fuzzy logic. The whole structure of DTC is designed in software Matlab – Simulink, the fuzzy regulator is designed with the help of Fuzzy Toolbox. The results of DTC with fuzzy regulator are compared with DTC with the help of Depenbrock method and DTC with the help of Takahashi method.

  15. Motor recovery at 6 months after admission is related to structural and functional reorganization of the spine and brain in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jingming; Xiang, Zimin; Yan, Rubing; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Yongtao; Zhong, Jianfeng; Guo, Lei; Li, Haitao; Wang, Jian; Wu, Jixiang; Sun, Tiansheng; Liu, Hongliang

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to explore structural and functional reorganization of the brain in the early stages of spinal cord injury (SCI) and identify brain areas that contribute to motor recovery. We studied 25 patients with SCI, including 10 with good motor recovery and 15 with poor motor recovery, along with 25 matched healthy controls. The mean period post-SCI was 9.2 ± 3.5 weeks in good recoverers and 8.8 ± 2.6 weeks in poor recoverers. All participants underwent structural and functional MRI on a 3-T magnetic resonance system. We evaluated differences in cross-sectional spinal cord area at the C2/C3 level, brain cortical thickness, white matter microstructure, and functional connectivity during the resting state among the three groups. We also evaluated associations between structural and functional reorganization and the rate of motor recovery. After SCI, compared with good recoverers, poor recoverers had a significantly decreased cross-sectional spinal cord area, cortical thickness in the right supplementary motor area and premotor cortex, and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the right primary motor cortex and posterior limb of the internal capsule. Meanwhile, poor recoverers showed decreased functional connectivity between the primary motor cortex and higher order motor areas (supplementary motor area and premotor cortex), while good recoverers showed increased functional connectivity among these regions. The structural and functional reorganization of the spine and brain was associated with motor recovery rate in all SCI patients. In conclusion, structural and functional reorganization of the spine and brain directly affected the motor recovery of SCI. Less structural atrophy and enhanced functional connectivity are associated with good motor recovery in patients with SCI. Multimodal imaging has the potential to predict motor recovery in the early stage of SCI. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2195-2209, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26936834

  16. Artificial Intelligent Controller for a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari, Hadi; Ranjbar Noiey, Abolzafl; Minagar, Sara

    The Speed and position control of DC motors is addressed in this paper. An optimal intelligent control scheme is proposed for the system. Preliminary a PID controller is designed using Genetic Algorithms (GA). The proposed controller is implemented by using optimal integral state feedback control with GA and Kalman filter. In the proposed scheme, performance depends on choosing weighting matrices Q and R in the cost function, and accordingly GA is used to find these proper weighting matrices. In order to reduce the control performance degradation due to system parameters variation, a Kalman filter is gained. The performance of the proposed technique (ISF) is compared with PID controller. Computer simulation validates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme even in presence of uncertainties.

  17. High speed DC brushless motor controlled by microntroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents an example of DC Brushless motor used to rotate high vacuum turbo molecular pumps. Both the motor and the electronic drive system, controlled by microcontroller PIC16F877, are designed and made in our institute. DC Brushless motors are one of the motor types which have had the fastest development. This type of motor is especially used in industries such as Industrial Automation Equipment and Instrumentation, Medical, Automotive etc. DC Brushless motors do not use brushes for commutation of the current. The phase of the motor are electronically commutated. Comparative with DC Brushed motors and induction motors, DC Brushless motors have the followings advantages: -high speed ranges; - long operating life; - high efficiency; -better speed versus torque characteristics; - high dynamic response; - noiseless operation; Also, the ratio of torque provided to the size of the motor is higher, making it useful in applications where space and weight are limited. (authors)

  18. An ARM-based motor control system in EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper,a motor control system,formed by a S3C2440 computer, the Linux operating system and a MAXnet motor controller,is developed in EPICS at SSRF(Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility). A detailed analysis of the system design, and software development, are provided. It indicates that an ARM-based motor control system is feasible. Test results show that it has an equivalent performance in position control, with greatly reduced cost and volume, though the time response is not as good as the present motor control system. It provides a reference for designing new motor control systems of SSRF. (authors)

  19. Design and control of a superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Y [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Pei, R [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Hong, Z [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Song, J [Huazhong University of Science of Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Fang, F [Huazhong University of Science of Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Coombs, T A [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    This paper gives a detailed description of the design of a superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor. The parameters of the motor have been identified, and the torque equation has been stated. A direct torque control algorithm is introduced and applied to a traditional permanent magnet synchronous motor and the superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor described in this paper. The motor performance shows that the direct torque control algorithm provides excellent control to the superconducting motor, and guarantees that the magnitude of the operational armature currents is smaller than the value of the critical current of the superconducting tape used for stator winding.

  20. Research on DSP-based Asynchronous Motor Control Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Motor in a variety of electrical transmission and position servo system occupies an extremely important position. After the DSP technology being applied to the motor control, the unification of the hardware and the flexibility of the software can be combined. Take the brushless DC motor for example, studied the mathematical model and the structure of the motor control system, also obtained the design scheme of the DSP-based asynchronous motor control system. With TI's 32 bit fixed point DSPTMS320F2812 as the core design of the hardware system, we wrote the system software, debug the motor control system and the results show that the system achieves the expected effect. The results of the research can be applied to brushless DC motor and other motor control, it will have a wide application prospects.

  1. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation does not improve visuo-motor impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D Israeli-Korn

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS affects visuo-motor coordination (VMC in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. BACKGROUND: VMC involves multi-sensory integration, motor planning, executive function and attention. VMC deficits are well-described in PD. STN-DBS conveys marked motor benefit in PD, but pyscho-cognitive complications are recognized and the effect on VMC is not known. METHODS: Thirteen PD patients with bilateral STN-DBS underwent neurological, cognitive, and mood assessment before VMC testing with optimal DBS stimulation parameters ('on-stimulation' and then, on the same day without any medication changes, after DBS silencing and establishing motor function deterioration ('off-stimulation'. Twelve age-matched healthy controls performed 2 successive VMC testing sessions, with a break of similar duration to that of the PD group. The computer cursor was controlled with a dome-shaped 'mouse' hidden from view that minimized tremor effects. Movement duration, hand velocity, tracking continuity, directional control variables, and feedback utilization variables were measured. MANOVA was performed on (1 clinically measured motor function, (2 VMC performance and (3 mood and attention, looking for main and interaction effects of: (1 group (controls/PD, (2 test-order (controls: first/second, PD: on-stimulation/off-stimulation, (3 path (sine/square/circle and (4 hand (dominant/non-dominant. RESULTS: Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS Part III worsened off-stimulation versus on-stimulation (mean: 42.3 versus 21.6, p = 0.02, as did finger tapping (p = 0.02, posture-gait (p = 0.01, upper limb function (p<0.001 and backwards digit span (p = 0.02. Stimulation state did not affect mood. PD patients performed worse in non-velocity related VMC variables than controls (F(5,18 = 8.5, p<0.001. In the control group there were significant main effects of hand (dominant/non-dominant, path

  2. Permanent magnet brushless DC motor drives and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Chang-liang

    2012-01-01

    An advanced introduction to the simulation and hardware implementation of BLDC motor drives A thorough reference on the simulation and hardware implementation of BLDC motor drives, this book covers recent advances in the control of BLDC motor drives, including intelligent control, sensorless control, torque ripple reduction and hardware implementation. With the guidance of the expert author team, readers will understand the principle, modelling, design and control of BLDC motor drives. The advanced control methods and new achievements of BLDC motor drives, of interest to more a

  3. Permanent magnet brushless motor control based on ADRC

    OpenAIRE

    Li Xiaokun; Wang Song; Wang XiaoFan; Shi Tingting

    2016-01-01

    Permanent magnet brushless motor is a nonlinear system with multiple variables, the mathematical model of Permanent magnet brushless motor is difficult to establish, and since that the classic PID control is hard to precisely control the motor. Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) technique is a new nonlinear controller which does not depend on the system model. It is starting from the classic PID control, and establishing the loop control system by error negative feedback, the ESO(ext...

  4. Improved Rotor Speed Brushless DC Motor Using Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Mostafapour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A brushless DC (BLDC Motors have advantages over brushed, Direct current (DC Motors and , Induction motor (IM. They have better speed verses torque characteristics, high dynamic response, high efficiency, long operating life, noiseless operation, higher speed ranges, and rugged construction. Also, torque delivered to motor size is higher, making it useful in application where space and weight are critical factors. With these advantages BLDC motors find wide spread application in automotive appliance, aerospace medical, and instrumentation and automation industries This paper can be seen as fuzzy controllers compared to PI control BLDC motor rotor speed has improved significantly and beter result can be achieve.

  5. Robust position control of induction motor using fuzzy logic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, fuzzy logic or fuzzy set theory has reveived attention of a number of researchers in the area of power electronics and motion control. The paper describes a vector-controlled induction motor position servo drive where fuzzy control is used to get robustness against parameter variation and load torque disturbance effects. Both coarse and fine control with the help of look-up rule tables are used to improve transient response and system settling time. The performance characteristics are then compared with those of proportional-integral(PI) control. The simulation results clearly indicate the superiority of fuzzy control with larger number of rules. The fuzzy controller was implemented with a 16-bit microprocessor and tested in laboratory on a 3-hp IGBT inverter induction motor drive system. The test results verify the simulation performance. (Author)

  6. The effects of voluntary, involuntary, and forced exercises on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and motor function recovery: a rat brain ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stroke rehabilitation with different exercise paradigms has been investigated, but which one is more effective in facilitating motor recovery and up-regulating brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF after brain ischemia would be interesting to clinicians and patients. Voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and involuntary muscle movement caused by functional electrical stimulation (FES have been individually demonstrated effective as stroke rehabilitation intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these three common interventions on brain BDNF changes and motor recovery levels using a rat ischemic stroke model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and seventeen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups: Control (Con, Voluntary exercise of wheel running (V-Ex, Forced exercise of treadmill running (F-Ex, and Involuntary exercise of FES (I-Ex with implanted electrodes placed in two hind limb muscles on the affected side to mimic gait-like walking pattern during stimulation. Ischemic stroke was induced in all rats with the middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion model and fifty-seven rats had motor deficits after stroke. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, rats were arranged to their intervention programs. De Ryck's behavioral test was conducted daily during the 7-day intervention as an evaluation tool of motor recovery. Serum corticosterone concentration and BDNF levels in the hippocampus, striatum, and cortex were measured after the rats were sacrificed. V-Ex had significantly better motor recovery in the behavioral test. V-Ex also had significantly higher hippocampal BDNF concentration than F-Ex and Con. F-Ex had significantly higher serum corticosterone level than other groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Voluntary exercise is the most effective intervention in upregulating the hippocampal BDNF level, and facilitating motor recovery. Rats that exercised voluntarily also showed less

  7. Similar brain networks for detecting visuo-motor and visuo-propriceptive synchrony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Lund, Torben Ellegaard;

    2006-01-01

    The ability to recognize feedback from own movement as opposed to the movement of someone else is important for motor control and social interaction. The neural processes involved in feedback recognition are incompletely understood. Two competing hypotheses have been proposed: the stimulus is...... compared with either (a) the proprioceptive feedback or with (b) the motor command and if they match, then the external stimulus is identified as feedback. Hypothesis (a) predicts that the neural mechanisms or brain areas involved in distinguishing self from other during passive and active movement are...... the visual stimulus was feedback from own movement and to contrast the functional activation maps for active and passive movement. We found activity increases in the right temporoparietal cortex in the condition with asynchronous relative to synchronous visual feedback from both active and passive...

  8. Similar brain networks for detecting visuo-motor and visuo-proprioceptive synchrony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Å; Ellegaard Lund, Torben;

    2006-01-01

    The ability to recognize feedback from own movement as opposed to the movement of someone else is important for motor control and social interaction. The neural processes involved in feedback recognition are incompletely understood. Two competing hypotheses have been proposed: the stimulus is...... compared with either (a) the proprioceptive feedback or with (b) the motor command and if they match, then the external stimulus is identified as feedback. Hypothesis (a) predicts that the neural mechanisms or brain areas involved in distinguishing self from other during passive and active movement are...... the visual stimulus was feedback from own movement and to contrast the functional activation maps for active and passive movement. We found activity increases in the right temporoparietal cortex in the condition with asynchronous relative to synchronous visual feedback from both active and passive...

  9. Bipolar electrode selection for a motor imagery based brain computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Bin; Hong, Bo; Gao, Xiaorong; Gao, Shangkai

    2008-09-01

    A motor imagery based brain-computer interface (BCI) provides a non-muscular communication channel that enables people with paralysis to control external devices using their motor imagination. Reducing the number of electrodes is critical to improving the portability and practicability of the BCI system. A novel method is proposed to reduce the number of electrodes to a total of four by finding the optimal positions of two bipolar electrodes. Independent component analysis (ICA) is applied to find the source components of mu and alpha rhythms, and optimal electrodes are chosen by comparing the projection weights of sources on each channel. The results of eight subjects demonstrate the better classification performance of the optimal layout compared with traditional layouts, and the stability of this optimal layout over a one week interval was further verified.

  10. SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR WITH PIC 16F877

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOLAK, İlhami; Ramazan BAYINDIR

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a PI controlled separately excited direct current (DC) motor speed has been controlled using PIC 16F877 controller. In the PIC 16F877 programming as a PI controller, the speed of the motor is expected to follow the reference speed. Speed of the motor is measured by a tacho generator and then, the voltage applied to the motor is adjusted by a semiconductor power switch using pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. Drive circuit was tested with 0.9 kW DC motor. Experimental resul...

  11. Voice-Based Control of a DC Servo Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Musaab Hassan; Hammam Mahjoub; Mohammed Obed

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Motors play a very important role in our life and among which is the DC servo motors. The techniques of controlling these DC motors are plenty, among which is sound. In this study, a voce-based technique was implemented to control the speed and the direction of rotation for a DC motor. Approach: A Microcontroller-based electronic control circuit was designed and implemented to achieve this goal. Results: The speed of the motor was controlled, in both directions, using pulse...

  12. SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR WITH PIC 16F877

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhami ÇOLAK

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a PI controlled separately excited direct current (DC motor speed has been controlled using PIC 16F877 controller. In the PIC 16F877 programming as a PI controller, the speed of the motor is expected to follow the reference speed. Speed of the motor is measured by a tacho generator and then, the voltage applied to the motor is adjusted by a semiconductor power switch using pulse width modulation (PWM technique. Drive circuit was tested with 0.9 kW DC motor. Experimental results show that the drive circuit developed is very simple, useful, sensible, economical and flexible to apply for different applications.

  13. Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor with Extended Kalman Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Pai, Dinesh A; Umanand, L; Rao, NJ

    2000-01-01

    Induction motor speed control is an area of research that has been in prominence for some time now. Recent advances in this field have made it possible to replace the DC motor by induction machines, even in applications that demand a fast dynamic response. Many industrial applications demand high performance speed sensorless operation due to various reasons. Direct torque control (DTC) of induction motors is a popular method because of the resulting fast dynamic response of the motor, lower s...

  14. Functional and Structural Brain Plasticity Enhanced by Motor and Cognitive Rehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Prosperini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is recognized to be important in ameliorating motor and cognitive functions, reducing disease burden, and improving quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. In this systematic review, we summarize the existing evidences that motor and cognitive rehabilitation may enhance functional and structural brain plasticity in patients with MS, as assessed by means of the most advanced neuroimaging techniques, including diffusion tensor imaging and task-related and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In most cases, the rehabilitation program was based on computer-assisted/video game exercises performed in either an outpatient or home setting. Despite their heterogeneity, all the included studies describe changes in white matter microarchitecture, in task-related activation, and/or in functional connectivity following both task-oriented and selective training. When explored, relevant correlation between improved function and MRI-detected brain changes was often found, supporting the hypothesis that training-induced brain plasticity is specifically linked to the trained domain. Small sample sizes, lack of randomization and/or an active control group, as well as missed relationship between MRI-detected changes and clinical performance, are the major drawbacks of the selected studies. Knowledge gaps in this field of research are also discussed to provide a framework for future investigations.

  15. Functional and Structural Brain Plasticity Enhanced by Motor and Cognitive Rehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosperini, Luca; Piattella, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation is recognized to be important in ameliorating motor and cognitive functions, reducing disease burden, and improving quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this systematic review, we summarize the existing evidences that motor and cognitive rehabilitation may enhance functional and structural brain plasticity in patients with MS, as assessed by means of the most advanced neuroimaging techniques, including diffusion tensor imaging and task-related and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In most cases, the rehabilitation program was based on computer-assisted/video game exercises performed in either an outpatient or home setting. Despite their heterogeneity, all the included studies describe changes in white matter microarchitecture, in task-related activation, and/or in functional connectivity following both task-oriented and selective training. When explored, relevant correlation between improved function and MRI-detected brain changes was often found, supporting the hypothesis that training-induced brain plasticity is specifically linked to the trained domain. Small sample sizes, lack of randomization and/or an active control group, as well as missed relationship between MRI-detected changes and clinical performance, are the major drawbacks of the selected studies. Knowledge gaps in this field of research are also discussed to provide a framework for future investigations. PMID:26064692

  16. Functional and Structural Brain Plasticity Enhanced by Motor and Cognitive Rehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosperini, Luca; Piattella, Maria Cristina; Giannì, Costanza; Pantano, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation is recognized to be important in ameliorating motor and cognitive functions, reducing disease burden, and improving quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this systematic review, we summarize the existing evidences that motor and cognitive rehabilitation may enhance functional and structural brain plasticity in patients with MS, as assessed by means of the most advanced neuroimaging techniques, including diffusion tensor imaging and task-related and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In most cases, the rehabilitation program was based on computer-assisted/video game exercises performed in either an outpatient or home setting. Despite their heterogeneity, all the included studies describe changes in white matter microarchitecture, in task-related activation, and/or in functional connectivity following both task-oriented and selective training. When explored, relevant correlation between improved function and MRI-detected brain changes was often found, supporting the hypothesis that training-induced brain plasticity is specifically linked to the trained domain. Small sample sizes, lack of randomization and/or an active control group, as well as missed relationship between MRI-detected changes and clinical performance, are the major drawbacks of the selected studies. Knowledge gaps in this field of research are also discussed to provide a framework for future investigations. PMID:26064692

  17. Integrated-Circuit Controller For Brushless dc Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dong Tuan

    1994-01-01

    Generic circuit performs commutation-logic and power-switching functions for control of brushless dc motor. Controller includes commutation-logic and associated control circuitry, power supply, and inverters containing power transistors. Major advantages of controller are size, weight, and power consumption can be made less than other brushless-dc-motor controllers.

  18. Comparison On Sensorless Control Of Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu KREINDLER

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper compares two different methods for speed and position estimation in AC permanent magnet synchronous motors vector control applications. The first method implies two observer blocks — one for the speed, and the other for the electrical position, using the voltage equations in the (d,q reference frames. The second method estimates the same variables starting from the calculation of instantaneous reactive power. The tests have proved excellent behaviour in steady state (method 1 as well as in transient state (method 2. The implementation has been made on the 16 bits fixed-point DSP - TMS320F240 from Texas Instruments.

  19. SIMULATION OF BLDC MOTOR CONTROL USING SLIDING MODE CONTROL TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Namita P. Galphade; Subhash S. Sankeshwari

    2015-01-01

    Mostly, Brushless DC motors have been used in various industrial and domestic applications because of its advantages like simple structure, large torque, long use time, good speed regulation. Generally the BLDCM systems have uncertain and nonlinear characteristics which degrade performance of controllers. Based on these reasons, Sliding Mode Control (SMC) is one of the popular control strategies to deal with the nonlinear uncertain system. In This work implemented a SMC scheme for effective s...

  20. Vector Controlled Two Phase Induction Motor and To A Three Phase Induction Motor

    OpenAIRE

    K.krishna Rao (PG student ); Ramesh Kumar, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents vector controlled of single phase induction motor. some problems are with vector controlled SPIM.As SPIM’s are typically to maintain speed and also about the complex implementation of vector controlled SPIM.the implemantion of the proposed vector controlled TPIM compared to the vector controlled SPIM. The general modal sutable for vector control of the unsymmentrical two phase induction motor and also stator flux oriented controlled strategies are analized. the...

  1. Recovery of post stroke proximal arm function, driven by complex neuroplastic bilateral brain activation patterns and predicted by baseline motor dysfunction severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana ePundik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Neuroplastic changes that drive recovery of shoulder/elbow function after stoke have been poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between neuroplastic brain changes related to shoulder/elbow movement control in response to treatment and recovery of arm motor function in chronic stroke survivors. Methods: Twenty-three chronic stroke survivors were treated with 12 weeks of arm rehabilitation. Outcome measures included functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI for the shoulder/elbow components of reach and a skilled motor function test (Arm Motor Abilities Test (AMAT, collected before and after treatment.Results: We observed two patterns of neuroplastic changes that were associated with gains in motor function: decreased or increased task-related brain activation. Those with significantly better motor function at baseline exhibited a decrease in brain activation in response to treatment, evident in the ipsilesional primary motor and contralesional supplementary motor regions; in contrast, those with greater baseline motor impairment, exhibited increased brain activation in response to treatment. There was an linear relationship between greater functional gain (AMAT and increased activation in bilateral primary motor, contralesional primary and secondary sensory regions, and contralesional lateral premotor area, after adjusting for baseline AMAT, age, and time since stroke. Conclusions: Recovery of functional reach involves recruitment of several contralesional and bilateral primary motor regions. In response to intensive therapy, the direction of functional brain change (i.e. increase or decrease in task-related brain recruitment for shoulder/elbow reach components depends on baseline level of motor function and may represent either different phases or different strategies of neuroplasticity that drive functional recovery.

  2. Controller for a High-Power, Brushless dc Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David J.; Makdad, Terence A.

    1987-01-01

    Driving and braking torques controllable. Control circuit operates 7-kW, 45-lb-ft (61-N-m), three-phase, brushless dc motor in both motor and generator modes. In motor modes, energy from power source is pulse-width modulated to motor through modified "H-bridge" circuit, in generator mode, energy from motor is pulse-width modulated into bank of load resistors to provide variable braking torques. Circuit provides high-resolution torque control in both directions over wide range of speeds and torques. Tested successfully at bus voltages up to 200 Vdc and currents up to 45 A.

  3. Patterns of regional brain activation associated with different forms of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilardi, M; Ghez, C; Dhawan, V; Moeller, J; Mentis, M; Nakamura, T; Antonini, A; Eidelberg, D

    2000-07-14

    To examine the variations in regional cerebral blood flow during execution and learning of reaching movements, we employed a family of kinematically and dynamically controlled motor tasks in which cognitive, mnemonic and executive features of performance were differentiated and characterized quantitatively. During 15O-labeled water positron emission tomography (PET) scans, twelve right-handed subjects moved their dominant hand on a digitizing tablet from a central location to equidistant targets displayed with a cursor on a computer screen in synchrony with a tone. In the preceding week, all subjects practiced three motor tasks: 1) movements to a predictable sequence of targets; 2) learning of new visuomotor transformations in which screen cursor motion was rotated by 30 degrees -60 degrees; 3) learning new target sequences by trial and error, by using previously acquired routines in a task placing heavy load on spatial working memory. The control condition was observing screen and audio displays. Subtraction images were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping to identify significant brain activation foci. Execution of predictable sequences was characterized by a modest decrease in movement time and spatial error. The underlying pattern of activation involved primary motor and sensory areas, cerebellum, basal ganglia. Adaptation to a rotated reference frame, a form of procedural learning, was associated with decrease in the imposed directional bias. This task was associated with activation in the right posterior parietal cortex. New sequences were learned explicitly. Significant activation was found in dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In this study, we have introduced a series of flexible motor tasks with similar kinematic characteristics and different spatial attributes. These tasks can be used to assess specific aspects of motor learning with imaging in health and disease. PMID:10882792

  4. Fuzzy Logic Based Controller for Brushless DC Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Trinayani Chittajallu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a model of a three phase star – connected brushless direct current (BLDC) motor is presented. The state-space model for a BLDC motor is derived and is implemented using Matlab/Simulink. Torque and Speed control is applied using hysteresis band control and variable DC-link voltage control. The different control strategies are tested on the BLDC motor and their performance is evaluated. A Fuzzy Logic Controller(FLC) is also developed to control the torque and speed of BLDC motor ...

  5. Robot Control Through Brain Computer Interface For Patterns Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belluomo, P.; Bucolo, M.; Fortuna, L.; Frasca, M.

    2011-09-01

    A Brain Computer Interface (BCI) system processes and translates neuronal signals, that mainly comes from EEG instruments, into commands for controlling electronic devices. This system can allow people with motor disabilities to control external devices through the real-time modulation of their brain waves. In this context an EEG-based BCI system that allows creative luminous artistic representations is here presented. The system that has been designed and realized in our laboratory interfaces the BCI2000 platform performing real-time analysis of EEG signals with a couple of moving luminescent twin robots. Experiments are also presented.

  6. Evidence suggesting individual ocular motor control of each eye (muscle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, L F

    1994-01-01

    Current models of the ocular motor system are usually presented in their most reduced form, are unilateral in architecture, and precise yoking is presumed. Although this simplifies the models, it does not accurately simulate the actual neuroanatomy and limits the models to simple, stereotyped responses. Studies of normal humans and monkeys have demonstrated striking disconjugacies in normal responses. Normal saccades may be disconjugate, or 1 eye may exhibit a dynamic overshoot. Asymmetric vergence can result in disconjugate saccades, unequal magnification spectacles cause differential saccadic gain adjustment, and saccades to unequal disparities also cause unequal saccades in the 2 eyes. In strabismus, deviated eyes typically do not mimic the movements of the fixating eye nor do their latent or congenital nystagmus waveforms duplicate those of the fixating eye. In spasmus nutans, each eye oscillates independently of the other. In achiasmatic dogs, uni-ocular saccades and uni-ocular nystagmus waveforms are seen; the same may be true in human achiasma. These data from both normals and those with abnormalities suggest that current models for ocular motor control are inadequate representations of the actual system. The inability of unilateral, yoked control (or even bilateral, yoked control) system models to duplicate the ocular motor responses of binocular mammals suggests that their ocular motor systems evolved from the bilateral, independent control systems seen in chameleons. One need only postulate a yoking overlay superimposed on two independent control systems to achieve conjugacy (bilateral, yoked, independent control) of the eyes. Abnormalities producing grossly disconjugate eye movements may then be simulated using the independent control of each eye released by a deficiency in the yoking overlay. Independent control of each eye coupled with the essential bilateral brain stem architecture implies that each individual muscle is driven by independent

  7. Three-dimensional visualization of functional brain tissue and functional magnetic resonance imaging-integrated neuronavigation in the resection of brain tumor adjacent to motor cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the value of three -dimensional visualization of functional brain tissue and the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-integrated neuronavigation in the resection of brain tumor adjacent to motor cortex. Method: Sixty patients with tumor located in the central sulcus were enrolled. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to function group and 30 to control group. Patients in function group underwent fMRI to localize the functional brain tissues. Then the function information was transferred to the neurosurgical navigator. The patients in control group underwent surgery with navigation without function information. The therapeutic effect, excision rate. improvement of motor function, and survival quality during follow-up were analyzed. Result: All patients in function group were accomplished visualization of functional brain tissues and fMRI-integrated neuronavigation. The locations of tumors, central sulcus and motor cortex were marked during the operation. The fMRI -integrated information played a great role in both pre- and post-operation. Pre-operation: designing the location of the skin flap and window bone, determining the relationship between the tumor and motor cortex, and designing the pathway for the resection. Post- operation: real-time navigation of relationship between the tumor and motor cortex, assisting to localize the motor cortex using interoperation ultra-sound for correcting the displacement by the CSF outflow and collapsing tumor. The patients in the function group had better results than the patients in the control group in therapeutic effect (u=2.646, P=0.008), excision rate (χ=7.200, P<0.01), improvement of motor function (u=2.231, P=0.026), and survival quality (KPS uc= 2.664, P=0.008; Zubrod -ECOG -WHO uc=2.135, P=0.033). Conclusions: Using preoperative three -dimensional visualization of cerebral function tissue and the fMRI-integrated neuronavigation technology, combining intraoperative accurate positioning

  8. Motor Network Plasticity and Low-Frequency Oscillations Abnormalities in Patients with Brain Gliomas: A Functional MRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Chen; Zhang, Ming; Min, Zhigang; Rana, Netra; Zhang, Qiuli; Liu, Xin; Li, Min; Lin, Pan

    2014-01-01

    Brain plasticity is often associated with the process of slow-growing tumor formation, which remodels neural organization and optimizes brain network function. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether motor function plasticity would display deficits in patients with slow-growing brain tumors located in or near motor areas, but who were without motor neurological deficits. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to probe motor networks in 15 patients with histopatholo...

  9. Computational motor control as a window to understanding schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Jun; Asai, Tomohisa; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    In addition to mental disorders such as attention, emotion, delusions, hallucinations, and difficulties in social skills, the patients with schizophrenia exhibits significant abnormality in sensorimotor perception and control. To seek a neurobiological cause of the heterogeneous symptoms in schizophrenia, we focused on the impaired inference mechanism of the self-agency of the schizophrenia's brain where the sensory outcome generated by the self-initiated action was misattributed to the other agent's action. By developing a novel computational model of agency experience using a Bayesian decision making framework, we united the computational mechanisms of agency and motor control via internal model: a model for one to predict the sensory consequence of action. Our theory based on optimal feedback control with Kalman filtering successfully predicted a variety of schizophrenia's motor abnormalities assuming a deformed internal model. To discuss the plausibility of these model predictions, we reviewed literature that might support these predictions. We further proposed some experiments that potentially examine the proposed model of schizophrenia. Our approach in investigating a problem of mind by projecting it on the coordinates system of the embodiment effectively shed light on a central neuropathology of this disease that had been latent behind the observed behaviors. PMID:26592778

  10. Brain Maps on the Go: Functional Imaging During Motor Challenge in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Holschneider, DP; Maarek, J-M I

    2008-01-01

    Brain mapping in the freely-moving animal is useful for studying motor circuits, not only because it avoids the potential confound of sedation or restraints, but because activated brain states may serve to accentuate differences that only manifest partially while a subject is in the resting state. Perfusion or metabolic mapping using autoradiography allows one to examine changes in brain function at the circuit level across the entire brain with a spatial resolution (∼100 microns) appropriate...

  11. Vector Controlled Two Phase Induction Motor and To A Three Phase Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.krishna Rao (PG student

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents vector controlled of single phase induction motor. some problems are with vector controlled SPIM.As SPIM’s are typically to maintain speed and also about the complex implementation of vector controlled SPIM.the implemantion of the proposed vector controlled TPIM compared to the vector controlled SPIM. The general modal sutable for vector control of the unsymmentrical two phase induction motor and also stator flux oriented controlled strategies are analized. the comparative performance of both has been presented in this work with help of a practical three phase motor.

  12. Voice-Based Control of a DC Servo Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaab Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Motors play a very important role in our life and among which is the DC servo motors. The techniques of controlling these DC motors are plenty, among which is sound. In this study, a voce-based technique was implemented to control the speed and the direction of rotation for a DC motor. Approach: A Microcontroller-based electronic control circuit was designed and implemented to achieve this goal. Results: The speed of the motor was controlled, in both directions, using pulse width modulation and a microcontroller was used to generate the right signal to be applied to the motor. Conclusion: The loudness of human voice was successfully divided into different levels where each level drives the motor at different speed."

  13. Motor-related brain activity during action observation: a neural substrate for electrocorticographic brain-computer interfaces after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Collinger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available After spinal cord injury (SCI, motor commands from the brain are unable to reach peripheral nerves and muscles below the level of the lesion. Action observation, in which a person observes someone else performing an action, has been used to augment traditional rehabilitation paradigms. Similarly, action observation can be used to derive the relationship between brain activity and movement kinematics for a motor-based brain-computer interface (BCI even when the user cannot generate overt movements. BCIs use brain signals to control external devices to replace functions that have been lost due to SCI or other motor impairment. Previous studies have reported congruent motor cortical activity during observed and overt movements using magnetoencephalography (MEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Recent single-unit studies using intracortical microelectrodes also demonstrated that a large number of motor cortical neurons had similar firing rate patterns between overt and observed movements. Given the increasing interest in electrocorticography (ECoG-based BCIs, our goal was to identify whether action observation-related cortical activity could be recorded using ECoG during grasping tasks. Specifically, we aimed to identify congruent neural activity during observed and executed movements in both the sensorimotor rhythm (10-40 Hz and the high-gamma band (65-115 Hz which contains significant movement-related information. We observed significant motor-related high-gamma band activity during action observation in both able-bodied individuals and one participant with a complete C4 SCI. Furthermore, in able-bodied participants, both the low and high frequency bands demonstrated congruent activity between action execution and observation. Our results suggest that action observation could be an effective and critical procedure for deriving the mapping from ECoG signals to intended movement for an ECoG-based BCI system for individuals with

  14. Effect of instructive visual stimuli on neurofeedback training for motor imagery-based brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Toshiyuki; Saeki, Midori; Hayashi, Yoshikatsu; Nakayashiki, Kosei; Takata, Yohei

    2015-10-01

    Event-related desynchronization (ERD) of the electroencephalogram (EEG) from the motor cortex is associated with execution, observation, and mental imagery of motor tasks. Generation of ERD by motor imagery (MI) has been widely used for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) linked to neuroprosthetics and other motor assistance devices. Control of MI-based BCIs can be acquired by neurofeedback training to reliably induce MI-associated ERD. To develop more effective training conditions, we investigated the effect of static and dynamic visual representations of target movements (a picture of forearms or a video clip of hand grasping movements) during the BCI neurofeedback training. After 4 consecutive training days, the group that performed MI while viewing the video showed significant improvement in generating MI-associated ERD compared with the group that viewed the static image. This result suggests that passively observing the target movement during MI would improve the associated mental imagery and enhance MI-based BCIs skills. PMID:25467185

  15. Simulation of Brushless DC Motor using Direct Torque Control

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs.G. Kusuma; S. Rukhsana Begum

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with modelling of three phases brushless dc motor with MATLAB/SIMULINK software BLDC motor have advantages according to brushless dc motor and induction motor’s. They have improve speed torque charactistics, high efficiency high transient response and small size. It approaches for reducing the torque ripples of BLDC motor using DTC, by using control technique’s ,but present work mainly concentrate on advanced method. The whole drive system is simulated based o...

  16. Permanent Magnet DC Motor Control Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Chadha, Jai Prakash

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many application that have been developed based on motor control in electronic and electrical field such as automation, flexible manufacturing system and computer integrated manufacturing. Various DC motor control techniques are used such as chopper circuits for dc motor control, using power MOS devices in drives and switched mode controller for DC motors. Also there are various microcontroller based DC motor controllers available but it will result in limitations regarding remote control applications of robotics. This work deals with the direction and speed control of Permanent Magnet dc motor through image processing in Matlab. Motor will be controlled on the basis of image of hand captured by webcam. Image will be acquired and processed through Image processing Programming in Matlab. On the basis of movement of hand on both the sides the motor will rotate in both directions clock-wise and anti-clockwise along with its speed control. Among various microcontrollers Atmega 16 8 bit microcontroller is used due to its high performance, low power, advanced architecture and many more features. The goal of this work is to obtain a microcontroller based PMDC motor control through image processing programming in Matlab which will result in remote control of wide range of robotic applications.

  17. Hemispheric asymmetries and the control of motor sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrien, Deborah J; Sovijärvi-Spapé, Michiel M

    2015-04-15

    Sequencing of finger positions reflects a prototype of skilled behaviour. In order to perform sequencing, cognitive control supports the requirements and postural transitions. In this electroencephalography (EEG) study, we evaluate the effects of hand dominance and assess the neural correlates of unimanual and bimanual sequencing in left- and right-handers. The behavioural measurements provided an index of response planning (response time to first key press) and response execution (time between successive key presses, taps/s and percentage of correct responses), whereas the neural dynamics was determined by means of EEG coherence, expressing the functional connectivity between brain areas. Correlations between brain activity and behaviour were calculated for exploring the neural correlates that are functionally relevant for sequencing. Brain-behavioural correlations during response planning and execution revealed the significance of circuitry in the left hemisphere, underlining its significant role in the organisation of goal-directed behaviour. This lateralisation profile was independent of intrinsic constraints (hand dominance) and extrinsic demands (task requirements), suggesting essential higher-order computations in the left hemisphere. Overall, the observations highlight that the left hemisphere is specialised for sequential motor organisation in left- and right-handers, suggesting an endogenous hemispheric asymmetry for compound actions and the representation of skill; processes that can be separated from those that are involved in hand dominance. PMID:25617529

  18. Reliability of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Trishna; Pfeifer, Megan; Banerjee-Guenette, Priyanka; Hunter, Theresa; Ito, Julia; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, Virginia; Levac, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate reliability and feasibility of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument (MLSRI) in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). The MLSRI quantifies the extent to which motor learning strategies (MLS) are used within physiotherapy (PT) interventions. Methods: PT sessions conducted by ABI team physiotherapists with a…

  19. Real Time Flux Control in PM Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2005-09-27

    Significant research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) is being conducted to develop ways to increase (1) torque, (2) speed range, and (3) efficiency of traction electric motors for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) within existing current and voltage bounds. Current is limited by the inverter semiconductor devices' capability and voltage is limited by the stator wire insulation's ability to withstand the maximum back-electromotive force (emf), which occurs at the upper end of the speed range. One research track has been to explore ways to control the path and magnitude of magnetic flux while the motor is operating. The phrase, real time flux control (RTFC), refers to this mode of operation in which system parameters are changed while the motor is operating to improve its performance and speed range. RTFC has potential to meet an increased torque demand by introducing additional flux through the main air gap from an external source. It can augment the speed range by diverting flux away from the main air gap to reduce back-emf at high speeds. Conventional RTFC technology is known as vector control [1]. Vector control decomposes the stator current into two components; one that produces torque and a second that opposes (weakens) the magnetic field generated by the rotor, thereby requiring more overall stator current and reducing the efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by selecting a RTFC method that reduces the back-emf without increasing the average current. This favors methods that use pulse currents or very low currents to achieve field weakening. Foremost in ORNL's effort to develop flux control is the work of J. S. Hsu. Early research [2,3] introduced direct control of air-gap flux in permanent magnet (PM) machines and demonstrated it with a flux-controlled generator. The configuration eliminates the problem of demagnetization because it diverts all the flux from the

  20. Direct Torque Control of Matrix Converter Fed Induction Motor Drive

    OpenAIRE

    JAGADEESAN Karpagam; NIRMAL Kumar; MUTHUSAMY Suresh

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the Direct TorqueControl (DTC) of induction motor drive using matrixconverters. DTC is a high performance motor controlscheme with fast torque and flux responses. However,the main disadvantage of conventional DTC iselectromagnetic torque ripple. In this paper, directtorque control for Induction Motors using MatrixConverters is analysed and points out the problem ofthe electromagnetic torque ripple which is one of themost important drawbacks of the Direct TorqueControl. Bes...

  1. SELF CONTROL OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FED BY MATRIX CONVERTER

    OpenAIRE

    CALISKAN, ABUZER; Orhan, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    In this study self control of synchronous motor fed by matrix converter was examined by developing a Matlab/simulink model. Self control of synchronous motor was performed by fixing frequency of stator voltage to rotor speed. Thus, the probable danger of asynchronism of the motor during transient operation in open loop control is removed. In the developed model, simplified Venturini modulation algorithm was used. This algorithm provides unity fundamental displacement factor at the input regar...

  2. Reactive power compensation using a fuzzy logic controlled synchronous motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the use of a fuzzy logic controlled synchronous motor for reactive power compensation. The fuzzy logic controlled synchronous motor can give a very fast response to the reactive power required by the load. Therefore, the over or under compensation and time delay are eliminated in this system. It is concluded that the reactive power compensation system with a fuzzy logic controlled synchronous motor is reliable, sensitive, economical, faster and more efficient than an other one with capacitor groups

  3. A natural basis for efficient brain-actuated control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeig, S.; Enghoff, S.; Jung, T. P.; Sejnowski, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    The prospect of noninvasive brain-actuated control of computerized screen displays or locomotive devices is of interest to many and of crucial importance to a few 'locked-in' subjects who experience near total motor paralysis while retaining sensory and mental faculties. Currently several groups are attempting to achieve brain-actuated control of screen displays using operant conditioning of particular features of the spontaneous scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) including central mu-rhythms (9-12 Hz). A new EEG decomposition technique, independent component analysis (ICA), appears to be a foundation for new research in the design of systems for detection and operant control of endogenous EEG rhythms to achieve flexible EEG-based communication. ICA separates multichannel EEG data into spatially static and temporally independent components including separate components accounting for posterior alpha rhythms and central mu activities. We demonstrate using data from a visual selective attention task that ICA-derived mu-components can show much stronger spectral reactivity to motor events than activity measures for single scalp channels. ICA decompositions of spontaneous EEG would thus appear to form a natural basis for operant conditioning to achieve efficient and multidimensional brain-actuated control in motor-limited and locked-in subjects.

  4. Permanent Magnet DC Motor Sliding Mode Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaez-Zadeh, S.; Zamanian, M.

    2000-09-01

    In this paper a sliding mode controller (SMC) is designed for a permanent magnet, direct current (PMDC) motor to enhance the motor performance in the presence of unwanted uncertainties. Both the electrical and mechanical signals are used as the inputs to the SMC. The complete motor control system is simulated on a personal computer with different design parameters and desirable system performance is obtained. The experimental implementation of the motor control system is also presented. The test results confirm the simulation results and validate the proposed control system.

  5. Touch Screen based Speed Control of Single Phase Induction Motor

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mallika; W. Razia Sultana; Sarat Kumar Sahoo*

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea of touch screen technology and its interfacing with a controller to control the speed of single phase induction motor. Here touch screen technology and Programmable System on Chip (PSOC) microcontroller concept is utilized which is less spaceconsumption and easy to design. The aim of this paper is to have remote sensing and speed control of an AC motor.

  6. Controlling Assistive Machines in Paralysis Using Brain Waves and Other Biosignals

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Rogério de Almeida Ribeiro; Fabricio Lima Brasil; Matthias Witkowski; Farid Shiman; Christian Cipriani; Nicola Vitiello; Maria Chiara Carrozza; Surjo Raphael Soekadar

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which humans can interact with machines significantly enhanced through inclusion of speech, gestures, and eye movements. However, these communication channels depend on a functional motor system. As many people suffer from severe damage of the motor system resulting in paralysis and inability to communicate, the development of brain-machine interfaces (BMI) that translate electric or metabolic brain activity into control signals of external devices promises to overcome this depe...

  7. A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of motor control in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome during imagined and executed movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapparoli, Laura; Porta, Mauro; Gandola, Martina; Invernizzi, Paola; Colajanni, Valeria; Servello, Domenico; Zerbi, Alberto; Banfi, Giuseppe; Paulesu, Eraldo

    2016-02-01

    The current study investigated the neural correlates of voluntary motor control in 24 adult Gilles de la Tourette (GTS) patients. We examined whether imagination and the execution of the same voluntary movement - finger oppositions with either hand - were associated with specific patterns of activation. We also explored whether these patterns correlated with the severity of the syndrome, as measured by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) for motor tics. The presence of brain morphometric abnormalities was also assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Crucial to our experiment was the manipulation of the presence of an explicit motor outflow in the tasks. We anticipated a reduction in the ticking manifestation during the explicit motor task and brain activation differences between GTS patients and 24 age/gender-matched normal controls. The anticipated differences were all evident in the form of hyperactivations in the GTS patients in the premotor and prefrontal areas for both motor tasks for both hands; however, the motor imagery hyperactivations also involved rostral pre-frontal and temporo-parietal regions of the right hemisphere. The blood oxygen level-dependent responses of the premotor cortices during the motor imagery task were significantly correlated with the YGTSS scores. In contrast, no significant brain morphometric differences were found. This study provides evidence of a different neurofunctional organisation of motor control between adult patients with GTS and healthy controls that is independent from the actual execution of motor acts. The presence of an explicit motor outflow in GTS mitigates the manifestation of tics and the need for compensatory brain activity in the brain regions showing task-dependent hyperactivations. PMID:26566185

  8. Brain Topological Correlates of Motor Performance Changes After Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chang-hyun; Chang, Won Hyuk; Yoo, Woo-Kyoung; Shin, Yong-Il; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) influences the brain temporally beyond the stimulation period and spatially beyond the stimulation site. Application of rTMS over the primary motor cortex (M1) has been shown to lead to plastic changes in interregional connectivity over the motor system as well as alterations in motor performance. With a sequential combination of rTMS over the M1 and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we sought changes in the topology of brain net...

  9. Brain gray matter volume changes associated with motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dezhi Kang; Fuyong Chen; Fangyu Wang; Guorong Wu; Ying Liu; Gang Wu; Lianghong Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease.Most studies have found that the histopathological lesion is not only localized at the extrapyramidal area (basal ganglia) but also at the cortex in PD patients.Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on the voxel as a unit is described for quantitative detection of density and volume of brain tissue.In this study,VBM was used to investigate the brain gray matter changes associated with motor symptoms in PD patients.Methods:Twelve outpatients with PD and 12 healthy controls were recruited in our hospital from September 2013 to March 2014.VBM was performed on the whole brain of all subjects.Image processing and statistical analysis were performed using SPM8.A two-sample t test and multiple regression analysis were performed.Results were displayed with a threshold of P < 0.01,corrected by false discovery rate (FDR) correction and cluster size >30 voxels.Results:Comparing control healthy subjects with the patients,the data showed that PD patients had reduced gray matter volume in the postcentral gyrus,the right supramarginal center,superior temporal gyrus,precentral gyrus,Brodmann area 41,transverse temporal gyrus,Brodmann area 3,and inferior parietal Iobule.The data also found that between gray matter volume and UPDRSIII in PD patients,there were negative correlations in the right middle frontal gyrus,BA06,right precentral gyrus,right superior frontal gyrus,and medial frontal gyrus,and between gray matter volume and Hoehn-Yahr (HY) in PD patients,there were negative correlations in the right middle frontal gyrus,right superior frontal gyrus,BA6,and right precentral gyrus.Conclusions:These data supported that extensive changes associated with motor symptoms in the gray matter volume was mainly located in the related area of movement,which had obvious relevance with the progression of PD.

  10. Using non-invasive brain stimulation to augment motor training-induced plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual-Leone Alvaro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Therapies for motor recovery after stroke or traumatic brain injury are still not satisfactory. To date the best approach seems to be the intensive physical therapy. However the results are limited and functional gains are often minimal. The goal of motor training is to minimize functional disability and optimize functional motor recovery. This is thought to be achieved by modulation of plastic changes in the brain. Therefore, adjunct interventions that can augment the response of the motor system to the behavioural training might be useful to enhance the therapy-induced recovery in neurological populations. In this context, noninvasive brain stimulation appears to be an interesting option as an add-on intervention to standard physical therapies. Two non-invasive methods of inducing electrical currents into the brain have proved to be promising for inducing long-lasting plastic changes in motor systems: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. These techniques represent powerful methods for priming cortical excitability for a subsequent motor task, demand, or stimulation. Thus, their mutual use can optimize the plastic changes induced by motor practice, leading to more remarkable and outlasting clinical gains in rehabilitation. In this review we discuss how these techniques can enhance the effects of a behavioural intervention and the clinical evidence to date.

  11. Simulation of Brushless DC Motor using Direct Torque Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs.G. Kusuma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with modelling of three phases brushless dc motor with MATLAB/SIMULINK software BLDC motor have advantages according to brushless dc motor and induction motor’s. They have improve speed torque charactistics, high efficiency high transient response and small size. It approaches for reducing the torque ripples of BLDC motor using DTC, by using control technique’s ,but present work mainly concentrate on advanced method. The whole drive system is simulated based on the system devices, BLDC motor source inverter, space vector modulation.

  12. CLOSED LOOP SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR USING PWM

    OpenAIRE

    Mangesh J Nemade

    2015-01-01

    In This work reveals the digital closed loop control system for speed control of DC motor using PWM technique. In present days the power semiconductor devices have co mpletely revolutionized the control of drives especially in the area of control usage of thyristors IGBT’s power MOSFET etc., was increased. The digital circuit can be interfaced to microcontroller. So that the speed can be controlled by Microcontroller there by making speed control of DC motor even more easil...

  13. The influence of scopolamine on motor control and attentional processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bestaven, Emma; Kambrun, Charline; Guehl, Dominique; Cazalets, Jean-René; Guillaud, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Motion sickness may be caused by a sensory conflict between the visual and the vestibular systems. Scopolamine, known to be the most effective therapy to control the vegetative symptoms of motion sickness, acts on the vestibular nucleus and potentially the vestibulospinal pathway, which may affect balance and motor tasks requiring both attentional process and motor balance. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of scopolamine on motor control and attentional processes. M...

  14. Speed Control of an Eleven-Phase Brushless DC Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Azadi; Ahmad Darabi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an eleven-phase permanent magnet brushless DC motor fed by an eleven-leg two-level inverter is modeled and simulated. In order to produce trapezoidal back electromotive force waveforms by permanent magnet rotor, the motor has concentrated stator windings. The motor speed is controlled by Mamdani-type fuzzy incremental controller. The hysteresis modulation is used for switching operation. The simulation is carried out by Matlab/Simulink.

  15. A microprocessor-based speed controller for DC motors

    OpenAIRE

    Bertran Albertí, Eduardo; Herranz, J.; Martinez, L.; Miguel, J.; Munilla, I.

    1983-01-01

    The introduction of microprocessors into electric vehicles has opened many interesting possibilities for improving the operation and maintenance of such automotive systems. On the other hand, microcomputer-based motor control systems are playing an ever increasing role in research on applied electronics. In this paper, a microcomputer-based digital dynamic control system (DDC) for a de motor is described. The description includes motor identification and corrector digital implementation, as w...

  16. Sensorless Speed Control of Traveling Wave Ultrasonic Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Flückiger, Markus; Bullo, Matteo; Perriard, Yves

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasonic motors are a good alternative to electromagnetic motors in medical robotics, since they are electromagnetically compatible. Estimating speed instead of using encoders reduces cost and dimension of the robot on the one hand and increases reliability on the other hand. However, no sensorless speed controller is yet industrialized. Analytical models of the traveling wave ultrasonic motor being too complex to be exploited for sensorless control purpose, we suggest speed estimation base...

  17. Three-phase Brushless DC Motor Control

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xinwei

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing demand of using electric power and unpleasant of using brush motor; the usage of Three-phase Brushless Motor has been significantly developed in industry. However, with market-standard motor driver, there are many inconveniences for small institutions or companies in either application developments or education purposes. For instance, the size and the price of driver. Therefore, the object of this thesis was design modular sections (Software program, PCB driver and PCB con...

  18. Physiological basis and image processing in functional magnetic resonance imaging: Neuronal and motor activity in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is recently developing as imaging modality used for mapping hemodynamics of neuronal and motor event related tissue blood oxygen level dependence (BOLD in terms of brain activation. Image processing is performed by segmentation and registration methods. Segmentation algorithms provide brain surface-based analysis, automated anatomical labeling of cortical fields in magnetic resonance data sets based on oxygen metabolic state. Registration algorithms provide geometric features using two or more imaging modalities to assure clinically useful neuronal and motor information of brain activation. This review article summarizes the physiological basis of fMRI signal, its origin, contrast enhancement, physical factors, anatomical labeling by segmentation, registration approaches with examples of visual and motor activity in brain. Latest developments are reviewed for clinical applications of fMRI along with other different neurophysiological and imaging modalities.

  19. Controlling An Inverter-Driven Three-Phase Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolland, C.

    1984-01-01

    Control system for three-phase permanent-magnet motor driven by linecommutated inverter uses signals generated by integrating back emf of each phase of motor. High-pass filter network eliminates low-frequency components from control loop while maintaining desired power factor.

  20. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AQ86 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle... hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor... cars, light-duty trucks, medium- duty passenger vehicles, and some heavy-duty vehicles. This...

  1. Functional Neuroimaging of Motor Control inParkinson’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian M; Eickhoff, Simon B; Løkkegaard, Annemette;

    2014-01-01

    denervation affects neural processing in the denervated striatal motor territory. In contrast, fronto-parietal motor areas display both increases as well as decreases in movement related activation. This points to a more complex relationship between altered cortical physiology and nigrostriatal dopaminergic...... and yielded consistent alterations in neural activity in patients with PD. Differences in cortical activation between PD patients and healthy controls converged in a left-lateralized fronto-parietal network comprising the presupplementary motor area, primary motor cortex, inferior parietal cortex, and...... posterior motor putamen, which improved with dopaminergic medication. The likelihood of detecting a decrease in putaminal activity increased with motor impairment. This reduced motor activation of the posterior putamen across previous neuroimaging studies indicates that nigrostriatal dopaminergic...

  2. Analysis of neural activity in human motor cortex -- Towards brain machine interface system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secundo, Lavi

    The discovery of directional tuned neurons in the primary motor cortex has advanced motor research in several domains. For instance, in the area of brain machine interface (BMI), researchers have exploited the robust characteristic of tuned motor neurons to allow monkeys to learn control of various machines. In the first chapter of this work we examine whether this phenomena can be observed using the less invasive method of recording electrocorticographic signals (ECoG) from the surface of a human's brain. Our findings reveal that individual ECoG channels contain complex movement information about the neuronal population. While some ECoG channels are tuned to hand movement direction (direction specific channels), others are associated to movement but do not contain information regarding movement direction (non-direction specific channels). More specifically, directionality can vary temporally and by frequency within one channel. In addition, a handful of channels contain no significant information regarding movement at all. These findings strongly suggest that directional and non-directional regions of cortex can be identified with ECoG and provide solutions to decoding movement at the signal resolution provided by ECoG. In the second chapter we examine the influence of movement context on movement reconstruction accuracy. We recorded neuronal signals recorded from electro-corticography (ECoG) during performance of cued- and self-initiated movements. ECoG signals were used to train a reconstruction algorithm to reconstruct continuous hand movement. We found that both cued- and self-initiated movements could be reconstructed with similar accuracy from the ECoG data. However, while an algorithm trained on the cued task could reconstruct performance on a subsequent cued trial, it failed to reconstruct self-initiated arm movement. The same task-specificity was observed when the algorithm was trained with self-initiated movement data and tested on the cued task. Thus

  3. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders; Fedder, Jens; Laurberg, Peter; Østergaard, John R; Hertz, Jens Michael; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) (KS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS relative to a group of Controls to basic motor, perceptual, executive and adaptation tasks. Participants (N: KS = 49; Controls = 49) responded to whether the words "GREEN" or "RED" were displayed in green or red (incongruent versus congruent colors). One of the colors was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying "GREEN" or "RED" had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop) or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain's motor network with no difference between groups. No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system. PMID:26958463

  4. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Wallentin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY (KS is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS relative to a group of Controls to basic motor, perceptual, executive and adaptation tasks. Participants (N: KS = 49; Controls = 49 responded to whether the words “GREEN” or “RED” were displayed in green or red (incongruent versus congruent colors. One of the colors was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying “GREEN” or “RED” had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain's motor network with no difference between groups. No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system.

  5. How feedback, motor imagery, and reward influence brain self-regulation using real-time fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Pradyumna; Sitaram, Ranganatha; Rana, Mohit; Montalba, Cristian; Tejos, Cristian; Ruiz, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    The learning process involved in achieving brain self-regulation is presumed to be related to several factors, such as type of feedback, reward, mental imagery, duration of training, among others. Explicitly instructing participants to use mental imagery and monetary reward are common practices in real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback (NF), under the assumption that they will enhance and accelerate the learning process. However, it is still not clear what the optimal strategy is for improving volitional control. We investigated the differential effect of feedback, explicit instructions and monetary reward while training healthy individuals to up-regulate the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal in the supplementary motor area (SMA). Four groups were trained in a two-day rtfMRI-NF protocol: GF with NF only, GF,I with NF + explicit instructions (motor imagery), GF,R with NF + monetary reward, and GF,I,R with NF + explicit instructions (motor imagery) + monetary reward. Our results showed that GF increased significantly their BOLD self-regulation from day-1 to day-2 and GF,R showed the highest BOLD signal amplitude in SMA during the training. The two groups who were instructed to use motor imagery did not show a significant learning effect over the 2 days. The additional factors, namely motor imagery and reward, tended to increase the intersubject variability in the SMA during the course of training. Whole brain univariate and functional connectivity analyses showed common as well as distinct patterns in the four groups, representing the varied influences of feedback, reward, and instructions on the brain. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3153-3171, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27272616

  6. Pneumatic motor speed control by trajectory tracking fuzzy logic controller

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cengiz Safak; Vedat Topuz; A Fevzi Baba

    2010-02-01

    In this study, trajectory tracking fuzzy logic controller (TTFLC) is proposed for the speed control of a pneumatic motor (PM). A third order trajectory is defined to determine the trajectory function that has to be tracked by the PM speed. Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to find the TTFLC boundary values of membership functions (MF) and weights of control rules. In addition, artificial neural networks (ANN) modelled dynamic behaviour of PM is given. This ANN model is used to find the optimal TTFLC parameters by offline GA approach. The experimental results show that designed TTFLC successfully enables the PM speed track the given trajectory under various working conditions. The proposed approach is superior to PID controller. It also provides simple and easy design procedure for the PM speed control problem.

  7. Speed Control Of Induction Motor Using Dspic30f2023

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Aspalli; Laxmi

    2013-01-01

    AC motor drives are widely used to control the speed of conveyor systems, blower speeds, pump speeds, machine tool speeds and other applications that require variable speed with variable torque. The main aim of the work is to design and develop an electronic system that can be used to control the speed of a three phase induction motor.The speed of the three phase induction motor can be controlled by various methods. The stator frequency control is one of the simplest methods to control the sp...

  8. AC electric motors control advanced design techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Giri, Fouad

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of AC motor control lies in the multivariable and nonlinear nature of AC machine dynamics. Recent advancements in control theory now make it possible to deal with long-standing problems in AC motors control. This text expertly draws on these developments to apply a wide range of model-based control designmethods to a variety of AC motors. Contributions from over thirty top researchers explain how modern control design methods can be used to achieve tight speed regulation, optimal energetic efficiency, and operation reliability and safety, by considering online state var

  9. Self-Control and the Developing Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Obradovic, Jelena; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2009-01-01

    Self-control is a skill that children need to succeed academically, socially, and emotionally. Brain regions essential to self-control are immature at birth and develop slowly throughout childhood. From ages 3 to 6 years, as these brain regions become more mature, children show improved ability to control impulses, shift their attention flexibly,…

  10. Clinical evaluation of BrainTree, a motor imagery hybrid BCI speller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdikis, S.; Leeb, R.; Williamson, J.; Ramsay, A.; Tavella, M.; Desideri, L.; Hoogerwerf, E.-J.; Al-Khodairy, A.; Murray-Smith, R.; Millán, J. d. R.

    2014-06-01

    Objective. While brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for communication have reached considerable technical maturity, there is still a great need for state-of-the-art evaluation by the end-users outside laboratory environments. To achieve this primary objective, it is necessary to augment a BCI with a series of components that allow end-users to type text effectively. Approach. This work presents the clinical evaluation of a motor imagery (MI) BCI text-speller, called BrainTree, by six severely disabled end-users and ten able-bodied users. Additionally, we define a generic model of code-based BCI applications, which serves as an analytical tool for evaluation and design. Main results. We show that all users achieved remarkable usability and efficiency outcomes in spelling. Furthermore, our model-based analysis highlights the added value of human-computer interaction techniques and hybrid BCI error-handling mechanisms, and reveals the effects of BCI performances on usability and efficiency in code-based applications. Significance. This study demonstrates the usability potential of code-based MI spellers, with BrainTree being the first to be evaluated by a substantial number of end-users, establishing them as a viable, competitive alternative to other popular BCI spellers. Another major outcome of our model-based analysis is the derivation of a 80% minimum command accuracy requirement for successful code-based application control, revising upwards previous estimates attempted in the literature.

  11. Implicit short-lived motor representations of space in brain damaged and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Y

    1998-09-01

    This article reviews experimental evidence for a specific sensorimotor function which can be dissociated from higher level representations of space. It attempts to delineate this function on the basis of results obtained by psychophysical experiments performed with brain damaged and healthy subjects. Eye and hand movement control exhibit automatic features, such that they are incompatible with conscious control. In addition, they rely on a reference frame different from the one used by conscious perception. Neuropsychological cases provide a strong support for this specific motor representation of space, which can be spared in patients with lesions of primary sensory systems who have lost conscious perception of visual, tactile or proprioceptive stimuli. Observation of these patients also showed that their motor behavior can be "attracted" by a goal only under specific conditions, that is, when the response is immediate and when no cognitive representation of this goal is elaborated at the same time. Beyond the issue of the dissociation between an implicit motor representation and more cognitive processing of spatial information, the issue of the interaction between these two systems is thus a matter of interest. It is suggested that the conscious, cognitive representation of a stimulus can contaminate or override the short-lived motor representation, but no reciprocal influence seem to occur. The interaction observed in patients can also be investigated in normals. The literature provides examples of interaction between sensorimotor and cognitive framing of space, which confirm that immediate action is not mediated by the same system as delayed action, and that elaborating a categorial representation of the action goal prevents the expression of the short-lived sensorimotor representation. It is concluded that action can be controlled by a sensory system which is specialized for on-line processing of relevant goal characteristics. The temporal constraints of this

  12. New method for speed control of single phase induction motor with improved motor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, H.M.B. [Zagazig University (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a new method of speed control for the single phase induction motor is introduced to overcome the disadvantages of the conventional methods. In this method, the magnitude of the main winding current and its angle are controlled to control the motor speed, as well as to increase the starting torque at all speed settings. In the meanwhile, the voltage applied to the auxiliary winding is kept constant at the rated value. The performance of a 1 hp capacitor run single phase induction motor is experimentally and theoretically investigated, using this method of speed control. The experimental rig is built in the laboratory and a complete set of test results is obtained. On the other hand, a mathematical model for the motor is developed and the motor performance is calculated. Good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results is obtained. These results show that the new method of speed control gives much higher starting torque. This enables the motor to start at low speed settings. Also, a great improvement in motor efficiency and power factor at all speeds is achieved. (author)

  13. DC motor proportional control system for orthotic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, H. T.; Allen, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Multi-channel proportional control system for operation of dc motors for use with externally-powered orthotic arm braces is described. Components of circuitry and principles of operation are described. Schematic diagram of control circuit is provided.

  14. Functional connectivity of the human rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas in the brain resting state at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Christophe [CHNO des Quinze-Vingts, UPMC Paris 6, Service de NeuroImagerie, Paris (France)

    2010-01-15

    Three cingulate motor areas have been described in monkeys, the rostral, dorsal, and ventral cingulate motor areas, and would control limbic-related motor activity. However, little anatomical data are available in human about the functional networks these cingulate areas underlie. Therefore, networks anchored in the rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas (rCMA and cCMA, respectively) were studied in human using functional connectivity during the brain resting state. Since the rCMA and cCMA are located just under the pre-supplementary and supplementary motor areas (pre-SMA and SMA), the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks were also studied to ensure that these four circuits were correctly dissociated. Data from 14 right-handed healthy volunteers were acquired at rest and analyzed by region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity. The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations of separate ROIs located in rCMA, cCMA, pre-SMA, and SMA were successively used to identify significant temporal correlations with BOLD signal fluctuations of other brain regions. Low-frequency BOLD signal of the CMA was correlated with signal fluctuations in the prefrontal, cingulate, insular, premotor, motor, medial and inferior parietal cortices, putamen and thalamus, and anticorrelated with the default-mode network. rCMA was more in relation with prefrontal, orbitofrontal, and language-associated cortices than cCMA more related to sensory cortex. These cingulate networks were very similar to the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks, although pre-SMA and SMA showed stronger correlation with the prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices and with the cerebellum and the superior parietal cortex, respectively. The human cingulate motor areas constitute an interface between sensorimotor, limbic and executive systems, sharing common cortical, striatal, and thalamic relays with the overlying premotor medial areas. (orig.)

  15. Functional connectivity of the human rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas in the brain resting state at 3T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three cingulate motor areas have been described in monkeys, the rostral, dorsal, and ventral cingulate motor areas, and would control limbic-related motor activity. However, little anatomical data are available in human about the functional networks these cingulate areas underlie. Therefore, networks anchored in the rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas (rCMA and cCMA, respectively) were studied in human using functional connectivity during the brain resting state. Since the rCMA and cCMA are located just under the pre-supplementary and supplementary motor areas (pre-SMA and SMA), the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks were also studied to ensure that these four circuits were correctly dissociated. Data from 14 right-handed healthy volunteers were acquired at rest and analyzed by region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity. The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations of separate ROIs located in rCMA, cCMA, pre-SMA, and SMA were successively used to identify significant temporal correlations with BOLD signal fluctuations of other brain regions. Low-frequency BOLD signal of the CMA was correlated with signal fluctuations in the prefrontal, cingulate, insular, premotor, motor, medial and inferior parietal cortices, putamen and thalamus, and anticorrelated with the default-mode network. rCMA was more in relation with prefrontal, orbitofrontal, and language-associated cortices than cCMA more related to sensory cortex. These cingulate networks were very similar to the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks, although pre-SMA and SMA showed stronger correlation with the prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices and with the cerebellum and the superior parietal cortex, respectively. The human cingulate motor areas constitute an interface between sensorimotor, limbic and executive systems, sharing common cortical, striatal, and thalamic relays with the overlying premotor medial areas. (orig.)

  16. Control Of Stepper Motor Movement By DC Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumentation for controlling the power of reactor of TRIGA Mark II uses the stepper motor to move the control rod of neutron absorbers. The direction and speed of control rod movement are determined by the polarity and the amplitude of DC voltage as an error signal that is the difference of set point of power and the power of being measured on the control system. The unit of stepper motor controller of reactor instrumentation of TRIGA Mark II uses patent module of trade Mark of Vexta, USA. In this chance, the electronic circuit is made to function as the control of stepper motor movement by using the DC voltage to anticipate the problem may be faced in case of repair and maintenance of reactor instrumentation. As a result of experiment, it is stated that the control of motor movement by using DC voltage is performed into 2 stages. First, by making the oscillator that is proportional to the positive DC voltage. Secondly, by making the translator to translate the oscillator signal to be a logic pattern for controlling the movement of stepper motor. Translator and motor driver are made by using the L297 and L298 as a pair of stepper motor controller of SGSTHOMSON

  17. Nonlinear Observer Based Sensorless Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Pai, Dinesh A; Mangsuli, Purnaprajna R; Rao, NJ

    2000-01-01

    Induction motor speed control is an area of research that has been in prominence for some time now. Recent advances in this field have made it possible to replace the DC motor by induction machines, even in applications that demand a fast dynamic response. Many industrial applications demand speed sensorless operations, due to various reasons. It is also required to strictly maintain the speed of the motor within certain permissible tolerance, irrespective of the load changes that occur in th...

  18. Brushless DC motor Drive during Speed regulation with Current Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Bhikshalu Manchala; T.Amar Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Brushless DC Motor (BLDC) is one of the best electrical drives that have increasing popularity, due to their high efficiency, reliability, good dynamic response and very low maintenance. Due to the increasing demand for compact & reliable motors and the evolution of low cost power semiconductor switches and permanent magnet (PM) materials, brushless DC motors become popular in every application from home appliances to aerospace industry. The conventional techniques for controlling...

  19. A unifying computational framework for motor control and social interaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolpert, Daniel M; Doya, Kenji; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    Recent empirical studies have implicated the use of the motor system during action observation, imitation and social interaction. In this paper, we explore the computational parallels between the processes that occur in motor control and in action observation, imitation, social interaction and theory of mind. In particular, we examine the extent to which motor commands acting on the body can be equated with communicative signals acting on other people and suggest that computational solutions ...

  20. Design of BLDCM Driving and Control System for Motorized Treadmill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Zhang; Hui Li; Li-Bin Wang

    2007-01-01

    To satisfy the requirement of developing a new generation of motorized treadmill for a famous domestic manufacturer, a brushless DC motor (BLDCM) driving and control system for motorized treadmill is developed. High integration and reliability of this system are ensured under the condition that intelligent power module (TPM) is used and the protection module is included. Periodic current control method is applied to reduce the average current flowing through the armature winding of the motor when the treadmill is required to start with low speed while large load is added. Piecewise proportion-integration-differentiation (PID) control algorithm is applied to solve the problem of speed fluctuation when impulse load is added. The motorized treadmill of a new generation with the driving and control system has the advantages of high reliability, good speed stability, wide timing scope, low cost, and long life-span. And it is very promising for practical applications.

  1. Genetic Algorithm Based Proportional Integral Controller Design for Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanasundaram Kuppusamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study has expounded the application of evolutionary computation method namely Genetic Algorithm (GA for estimation of feedback controller parameters for induction motor. GA offers certain advantages such as simple computational steps, derivative free optimization, reduced number of iterations and assured near global optima. The development of the method is well documented and computed and measured results are presented. Approach: The design of PI controller parameter for three phase induction motor drives was done using Genetic Algorithm. The objective function of motor current reduction, using PI controller, at starting is formulated as an optimization problem and solved with Genetic Algorithm. Results: The results showed the selected values of PI controller parameter using genetic algorithm approach, with objective of induction motor starting current reduction. Conclusions/Recommendation: The results proved the robustness and easy implementation of genetic algorithm selection of PI parameters for induction motor starting.

  2. ARDOLORES: an Arduino based motors control system for DOLORES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Manuel; Ventura, H.; San Juan, J.; Di Fabrizio, L.

    2014-07-01

    We present ARDOLORES a custom made motor control system for the DOLORES instrument in use at the TNG telescope. ARDOLORES replaced the original PMAC based motor control system at a fraction of the cost. The whole system is composed by one master Arduino ONE with its Ethernet shield, to handle the communications with the external world through an Ethernet socket, and by one Arduino ONE with its custom motor shield for each axis to be controlled. The communication between the master and slaves Arduinos is made possible through the I2C bus. Also a Java web-service has been written to control the motors from an higher level and provides an external API for the scientific GUI. The system has been working since January 2012 handling the DOLORES motors and has demonstrated to be stable, reliable, and with easy maintenance in both the hardware and the software parts.

  3. Induction Motor Control through AC/DC/AC Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Elfadili, Abderrahim; Giri, Fouad; Ouadi, Hamid; El Magri, Abdelmounime; Dugard, Luc; Abouloifa, Abdelmajid

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of controlling inductions motors driven through AC/DC rectifiers and DC/AC inverters. The control objectives are threefold: (i) forcing the motor speed to track a reference signal, (ii) regulating the DC Link voltage, (iii) assuring a satisfactory power factor correction (PFC) with respect to the power supply net. First, a nonlinear model of the whole controlled system is developed in the Park-coordinates. Then, a nonlinear multi-loop controller is synthesized using th...

  4. System of control of brushless DC motors using CPLD

    OpenAIRE

    Sivkov Stepan Igorevich; Novikov Leonid Grigorievich

    2012-01-01

    The developed system of control of brushless DC (BLDC) motors is realized on the complex pro-grammable logic device (CPLD). Using CPLD reduces the power consumption required for calculation the control vector and also the cost of the system. As opposed to the modern systems of control of BLDC motors, the given system uses only two Hall’s sensors. The control circuit is based on the operators of the logical signal convolution that significantly reduces power consumption during the formation of...

  5. Molecular mapping of movement-associated areas in the avian brain: a motor theory for vocal learning origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Feenders

    Full Text Available Vocal learning is a critical behavioral substrate for spoken human language. It is a rare trait found in three distantly related groups of birds-songbirds, hummingbirds, and parrots. These avian groups have remarkably similar systems of cerebral vocal nuclei for the control of learned vocalizations that are not found in their more closely related vocal non-learning relatives. These findings led to the hypothesis that brain pathways for vocal learning in different groups evolved independently from a common ancestor but under pre-existing constraints. Here, we suggest one constraint, a pre-existing system for movement control. Using behavioral molecular mapping, we discovered that in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds, all cerebral vocal learning nuclei are adjacent to discrete brain areas active during limb and body movements. Similar to the relationships between vocal nuclei activation and singing, activation in the adjacent areas correlated with the amount of movement performed and was independent of auditory and visual input. These same movement-associated brain areas were also present in female songbirds that do not learn vocalizations and have atrophied cerebral vocal nuclei, and in ring doves that are vocal non-learners and do not have cerebral vocal nuclei. A compilation of previous neural tracing experiments in songbirds suggests that the movement-associated areas are connected in a network that is in parallel with the adjacent vocal learning system. This study is the first global mapping that we are aware for movement-associated areas of the avian cerebrum and it indicates that brain systems that control vocal learning in distantly related birds are directly adjacent to brain systems involved in movement control. Based upon these findings, we propose a motor theory for the origin of vocal learning, this being that the brain areas specialized for vocal learning in vocal learners evolved as a specialization of a pre-existing motor

  6. Design and Implementation of Motor Speed control and Temperature sensing unit using PIC Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Ei Ei Thaw; Zaw Min Min Htun

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to design and implementation of DC motor speed, temperature sensing of material. This project is mainly concerned on DC motor speed control system by using microcontroller PIC 16F877A. Motor speed can be control with variable resistor. So, this programming device can be used any motor to control their speed. Temperature sensing device display the temperature of any place. At the heart of the circuit is the LM35 and microcontroller which controls all ...

  7. The amygdalo-motor pathway and the control of facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin M Gothard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions reflect decisions about the perceived meaning of social stimuli emitted by others and the expected socio-emotional outcome of the reciprocating expression. The decision to produce a facial expression emerges from the joint activity of a network of structures that include the amygdala and multiple, interconnected cortical and subcortical motor areas. Reciprocal transformations between sensory and motor signals give rise to distinct brain states that promote, or impede the production of facial expressions. The muscles of the upper and lower face are controlled by anatomically distinct motor areas and thus require distinct patterns of motor commands. Concomitantly multiple areas, including the amygdala, monitor the ongoing overt behavior (the expression of self and the covert, autonomic responses that accompany emotional expressions. Interoceptive signals and visceral states, therefore, should be incorporated into the formalisms of decision making in order account for decisions that govern the receiving-emitting cycle of facial expressions.

  8. PID controller simulator software for DC motor of gamma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostly PID controller (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) has been used in industry. For certain applications, it can be used as a Proportional (P) model only, or as a Proportional-Integral (PI) model. The aim of this paper is to design a PID controller simulator software for DC motor which is used in gamma scanning system. A DC motor is described as a plant of SISO (Single Input Single Output) which is used for pulling down the load (detector + casing) and gamma radiation source (Co-60 + container) by using sling cable. A DC motor consist of an armature and a rotor, the equivalent circuit of DC motor is shown in a transfer function equation between output parameter (angular speed DC motor) and input parameter (voltage of DC motor). Methods used for the process of PID controller design is to arrange the PID controller parameter (Kc, Ti, Td) so that there are more PID controller transfer function model which are able to control angular speed of DC motor in stable condition, as design criteria requirement is needed. Design criteria requirement for control system are the settling time < 3 second, overshoot < 5%, rise time = 0.25 second, steady state gain = 1 and peak time < 3 second with step response reference 1 rad/second. The result of simulation gives several models of PID controller in function transfer equation which is similar with design criteria requirement in a equation of function transfer of order 2 for numerator and order 1 for denominator. (author)

  9. Longitudinal Changes in the Motor Learning-Related Brain Activation Response in Presymptomatic Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtbernd, Florian; Tang, Chris C.; Feigin, Andrew; Dhawan, Vijay; Ghilardi, Maria Felice; Paulsen, Jane S.; Guttman, Mark; Eidelberg, David

    2016-01-01

    Neurocognitive decline, including deficits in motor learning, occurs in the presymptomatic phase of Huntington’s disease (HD) and precedes the onset of motor symptoms. Findings from recent neuroimaging studies have linked these deficits to alterations in fronto-striatal and fronto-parietal brain networks. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these networks when subjects approach phenoconversion. Here, 10 subjects with presymptomatic HD were scanned with 15O-labeled water at baseline and again 1.5 years later while performing a motor sequence learning task and a kinematically matched control task. Spatial covariance analysis was utilized to characterize patterns of change in learning-related neural activation occurring over time in these individuals. Pattern expression was compared to corresponding values in 10 age-matched healthy control subjects. Spatial covariance analysis revealed significant longitudinal changes in the expression of a specific learning-related activation pattern characterized by increasing activity in the right orbitofrontal cortex, with concurrent reductions in the right medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate regions, the left insula, left precuneus, and left cerebellum. Changes in the expression of this pattern over time correlated with baseline measurements of disease burden and learning performance. The network changes were accompanied by modest improvement in learning performance that took place concurrently in the gene carriers. The presence of increased network activity in the setting of stable task performance is consistent with a discrete compensatory mechanism. The findings suggest that this effect is most pronounced in the late presymptomatic phase of HD, as subjects approach clinical onset. PMID:27192167

  10. Remote PID Control of a DC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a remote experiment forcontrolling a DC motor. This work was part of a final yeargraduation project of the Industrial Electronics Course atthe University of Minho. It was implemented by anundergraduate student for students use. The experiment iscontrolled using a PID algorithm programmed in LabViewenvironment. The remote user can test PID digitalalgorithms and parameters, change reference velocity valuesand register the motor output velocity profile.

  11. Speed Control of Bldc Motor Drive By Using Pid Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Y.Narendra Kumar,; P.Eswara Rao

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with the Brushless DC (BLDC) motor speed driving systems have sprouted in various small scale and large scale applications like automobile industries, domestic appliances etc. This leads to the development in Brushless DC motor (BLDCM). The usage of BLDC Motor enhances various performance factors ranging from higher efficiency, higher torque in low-speed range, high power density ,low maintenance and less noise than other motors. The BLDC Motor can act ...

  12. Motor imagery of hand actions: Decoding the content of motor imagery from brain activity in frontal and parietal motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgramm, Sebastian; de Haas, Benjamin; Helm, Fabian; Zentgraf, Karen; Stark, Rudolf; Munzert, Jörn; Krüger, Britta

    2016-01-01

    How motor maps are organized while imagining actions is an intensely debated issue. It is particularly unclear whether motor imagery relies on action-specific representations in premotor and posterior parietal cortices. This study tackled this issue by attempting to decode the content of motor imagery from spatial patterns of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signals recorded in the frontoparietal motor imagery network. During fMRI-scanning, 20 right-handed volunteers worked on three experimental conditions and one baseline condition. In the experimental conditions, they had to imagine three different types of right-hand actions: an aiming movement, an extension-flexion movement, and a squeezing movement. The identity of imagined actions was decoded from the spatial patterns of BOLD signals they evoked in premotor and posterior parietal cortices using multivoxel pattern analysis. Results showed that the content of motor imagery (i.e., the action type) could be decoded significantly above chance level from the spatial patterns of BOLD signals in both frontal (PMC, M1) and parietal areas (SPL, IPL, IPS). An exploratory searchlight analysis revealed significant clusters motor- and motor-associated cortices, as well as in visual cortices. Hence, the data provide evidence that patterns of activity within premotor and posterior parietal cortex vary systematically with the specific type of hand action being imagined. PMID:26452176

  13. Sensorless Control of PM Synchronous Motors and Brushless DC Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesinos, D.; Galceran, Samuel; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the literature addressing sensorless operation methods of PM brushless machines. The methods explained are state-of-the-art of open and closed loop control strategies. The closed loop review includes those methods based on voltage and current measurements, those...

  14. Vector Control of Induction Motor with Split Phase Stator Windings

    OpenAIRE

    Gopakumar, K.; Ranganathan, VT; Bhat, SR

    1994-01-01

    A vector controlled scheme is described for induction motor with split phase windings. Such a motor is obtained by splitting the phase windings of a conventional three phase motor with an angular seperation of 30 electrical degrees between the axes of the two halves. In the proposed scheme the motor is run as a three phase machine by connecting the split phase windings in series. However the winding taps are utilized for making voltage measurements. Based on a space phasor model of the split ...

  15. A novel robust speed controller scheme for PMBLDC motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirusakthimurugan, P; Dananjayan, P

    2007-10-01

    The design of speed and position controllers for permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDC) drive remains as an open problem in the field of motor drives. A precise speed control of PMBLDC motor is complex due to nonlinear coupling between winding currents and rotor speed. In addition, the nonlinearity present in the developed torque due to magnetic saturation of the rotor further complicates this issue. This paper presents a novel control scheme to the conventional PMBLDC motor drive, which aims at improving the robustness by complete decoupling of the design besides minimizing the mutual influence among the speed and current control loops. The interesting feature of this robust control scheme is its suitability for both static and dynamic aspects. The effectiveness of the proposed robust speed control scheme is verified through simulations. PMID:17544426

  16. A brushless dc spin motor for momentum exchange altitude control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, D.; Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Brushless dc spin motor is designed to use Hall effect probes as means of revolving rotor position and controlling motor winding currents. This results in 3 to 1 reduction in watt-hours required for wheel acceleration, a 2 to 1 reduction in power to run wheel, and a 10 to 1 reduction in the electronics size and weight.

  17. Gestalt Principles in the Control of Motor Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Stuart T.; Jagacinski, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    We argue that 4 fundamental gestalt phenomena in perception apply to the control of motor action. First, a motor gestalt, like a perceptual gestalt, is holistic in the sense that it is processed as a single unit. This notion is consistent with reaction time results indicating that all gestures for a brief unit of action must be programmed prior to…

  18. Improvements in direct torque control of induction motors

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Pujol, Antoni

    2001-01-01

    This thesis is mainly devoted to the investigation of speed control methods for three phase cage induction motors with particular emphasis being given to Direct Torque Control (DTC) improved techniques.Classical Direct Torque Control has inherent disadvantages such as: problems during starting resulting from the null states, the compulsory requirement of torque and flux estimators, and torque ripple. In the classical DTC induction motor drive a voltage vector is applied for the entire period,...

  19. Sensorless Passivity Based Control of a DC Motor

    OpenAIRE

    M.Seethamathavi; T.Vignesh

    2015-01-01

    In last couple of decades, the control of motors has increased drastically. With this increase, current control techniques are developed. In sensor-less passivity control of a DC Motor the term passivity means the property of stability in an input and output. To maintain the stability at the input side the solar pv panel is connected with MPPT which extract maximum and stable voltage. For output we simultaneously regulate, both, the output voltage of the SEPIC-converter t...

  20. Switch Reluctance Motor Control Based on Fuzzy Logic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aleksandrovsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its intrinsic simplicity and reliability, the switched reluctance motor (SRM has now become a promising candidate for variable-speed drive applications as an alternative induction motor in various industrial application. However, the SRM has the disadvantage of nonlinear characteristic and control. It is suggested to use controller based on fuzzy logic system. Design of FLS controller and simulation model presented.

  1. Touch Screen based Speed Control of Single Phase Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mallika

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief idea of touch screen technology and its interfacing with a controller to control the speed of single phase induction motor. Here touch screen technology and Programmable System on Chip (PSOC microcontroller concept is utilized which is less spaceconsumption and easy to design. The aim of this paper is to have remote sensing and speed control of an AC motor.

  2. Nonlinear Control of Induction Motors: A Performance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    1998-01-01

    A novel approach to control of induction motors based on nonlinear state feedback has previously been presented by the authors. The resulting scheme gives a linearized input-output decoupling of the torque and the amplitude of the field. The proposed approach is used to design controllers for the...... field amplitude and the motor torque. The method is compared with the traditional Rotor Field Oriented Control method as regards variations in rotor resistance an magnetizing inductance...

  3. Fractional order control of a DC motor with load changes

    OpenAIRE

    Copot, Cosmin; Muresan, Cristina; Ionescu, Clara-Mihaela; De Keyser, Robain

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the robustness of a fractional-order controller against the load changes of a DC motor. The gains and time constants of the DC motor are modified by means of a change in the brake. Two different setups of a DC motor, one with 25% brake and the other with 50% brake are considered in the experimental evaluation. The closed-loop performances of the fractional-order controller are compared with integer-order controller using the same performance criteria and the same tunin...

  4. Adaptive position controller for double armature brushless dc linear motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirci, R. [Abant Izzet Baysal Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Electrical Dept., Dunez (Turkey); Dursun, M. [Gazi University, Technical Education Faculty, Electrical Dept., Ankara (Turkey)

    2000-08-01

    An adaptive position controller has been proposed for double armature brushless DC linear motor. The proposed position control system comprises an inner model reference adaptive velocity control loop and an outer position control loop. The parameters of the adaptive controller have been adjusted by using modified gradient type parameter adaptation algorithm. (orig.)

  5. Juggling with the brain - thought and action in the human motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfensteller, Uta

    2009-01-01

    Empirical findings from various research fields indicate that cognitive and motor processes are far less dissimilar than previously thought. The present chapter takes a neuroscientific perspective and offers evidence for similarities between cognition and action focusing on three key players of the classical motor system: the primary motor cortex, the cerebellum, and the premotor cortex. Briefly, although movement execution is apparently supported in part by the same cerebral resources engaged in cognitive processes, the three brain regions reviewed here are differentially engaged in more or less action-bound cognitive processes. PMID:19477347

  6. Robust Speed Control of DC Servo Motor Using PID-Neural Network Hybrid Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Wal Seo; Jeon, Jeong Chay [Wonkwang University (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-01

    Robust control for DC servo motor is needed according to the highest precision of industrial automation. However, when a motor control system with PID controller has an effect of load disturbance, it is very difficult to guarantee the robustness of control system. As a compensation method solving this problem, in this paper, PID-neural network hybrid control method for motor control system is presented. The output of neural network controller is determined by error and rate of error change occurring in load disturbance. The robust control of DC servo motor using neural network controller is demonstrated by computer simulation. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Brushless DC Motor Control System Design Based on DSP2812

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By comparison various control methods currently for permanent magnet brushless DC motor, on the basis of motor principle analysis, a current smallest and most real-time all-digital rare earth permanent magnet brushless DC motor control system is designed. The high-speed digital signal processor DSP2812 is applied as the main control unit. The fuzzy PID control algorithm is used to control rectifier regulator and speed, which the speed and current is double closed loop in the system. The principle of control system, control strategy and software is analyzed in this paper. The system has some features such as less overshoot, rapid response speed, good performance of anti-jamming, simple structure, high control precision, flexible in changing control policies and so on. Validity of the design is verified by prototype test.

  8. Modeling and Analysis of PI Controller Based Speed Control of Brushless DC Motor Drive.

    OpenAIRE

    Mr.P.Nagasekhar Reddy

    2013-01-01

    The Brushless DC motors (BLDC) find widespread applications in domestic and industries due to their low and high power density and ease of speed control. To accomplish desired level of performance the motor requires suitable speed controllers. In case of permanent magnet Brushless DC motors, usually control of speed is reached by using proportional integral (PI) controller. Although the conventional PI controllers are widely used in the industry due to their simple control structure and ease ...

  9. Universal Brushless-DC Motor Controller for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this SBIR is to adapt an initial prototype ultra-miniature high-performance brushless-DC-motor controller, code named 'Puck', for use by NASA across a...

  10. Broad Application of a Reconfigurable Motor Controller Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An ultra-miniature (<50 grams) high-performance brushless-motor controller, code named 'Puck', has been developed by Barrett for Earth-based mobile-manipulation...

  11. Closed Loop Speed Control of a BLDC Motor Drive Using Adaptive Fuzzy Tuned PI Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Latha Eti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Brushless DC Motors are widely used for many industrial applications because of their high efficiency, high torque and low volume. This paper proposed an improved Adaptive Fuzzy PI controller to control the speed of BLDC motor. This paper provides an overview of different tuning methods of PID Controller applied to control the speed of the transfer function model of the BLDC motor drive and then to the mathematical model of the BLDC motor drive. It is difficult to tune the parameters and get satisfied control characteristics by using normal conventional PI controller. The experimental results verify that Adaptive Fuzzy PI controller has better control performance than the conventional PI controller. The modeling, control and simulation of the BLDC motor have been done using the MATLAB/SIMULINK software. Also, the dynamic characteristics of the BLDC motor (i.e. speed and torque as well as currents and voltages of the inverter components are observed by using the developed model.

  12. Modeling and Analysis of PI Controller Based Speed Control of Brushless DC Motor Drive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.P.Nagasekhar Reddy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brushless DC motors (BLDC find widespread applications in domestic and industries due to their low and high power density and ease of speed control. To accomplish desired level of performance the motor requires suitable speed controllers. In case of permanent magnet Brushless DC motors, usually control of speed is reached by using proportional integral (PI controller. Although the conventional PI controllers are widely used in the industry due to their simple control structure and ease of implementation, these controllers pose difficulties where there are some control complexity such as nonlinearity, load disturbances and parametric variations. Moreover PI controllers require precise linear mathematical models. In this paper, the analysis and mathematical modeling of BLDC motor is implemented. Also, speed control of three phase BLDC motor drive using power electronic device is projected by using matlab/Simulink. The simulation result shows the improved performance of developed Brushless DC motor drive.

  13. Hardware Evolution of Analog Speed Controllers for a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the design of analog speed controllers for DC motors on aerospace systems. The presentation includes an overview of controller evolution, evolvable controller configuration, an emphasis on proportion integral (PI) controllers, schematic diagrams, and experimental results.

  14. Soft-Starting Power-Factor Motor Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    Three-phase power-factor controller with soft start is based on earlier version that does not control starting transients. Additional components serve to turn off "run" command signal and substitute gradual startup command signal during preset startup interval. Improved controller reduces large current surge that usually accompanies starting. Controller applies power smoothly, without causing motor vibrations.

  15. Motivation and Motor Control: Hemispheric Specialization for Approach Motivation Reverses with Handedness

    OpenAIRE

    Brookshire, G.; Casasanto, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: According to decades of research on affective motivation in the human brain, approach motivational states are supported primarily by the left hemisphere and avoidance states by the right hemisphere. The underlying cause of this specialization, however, has remained unknown. Here we conducted a first test of the Sword and Shield Hypothesis (SSH), according to which the hemispheric laterality of affective motivation depends on the laterality of motor control for the dominant hand (i...

  16. Advanced conduction angle control of permanent magnet brushless motor drives

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, J.; Chan, CC; Jiang, JZ; Chau, KT

    1998-01-01

    A novel advanced conduction angle control scheme for permanent magnet brushless motor drives is presented in this paper. The originality of this scheme is to employ the transformer EMF in stator windings to counteract the rotational EMF by controlling the advanced conduction angle when the motor drive operates above the base speed. Hence the constant-power operation region can be extended considerably, even though the current regulator is in saturation. The attractive feature of the proposed ...

  17. Quantifying the role of motor imagery in brain-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesotti, Silvia; Bassolino, Michela; Serino, Andrea; Bleuler, Hannes; Blanke, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    Despite technical advances in brain machine interfaces (BMI), for as-yet unknown reasons the ability to control a BMI remains limited to a subset of users. We investigate whether individual differences in BMI control based on motor imagery (MI) are related to differences in MI ability. We assessed whether differences in kinesthetic and visual MI, in the behavioral accuracy of MI, and in electroencephalographic variables, were able to differentiate between high- versus low-aptitude BMI users. High-aptitude BMI users showed higher MI accuracy as captured by subjective and behavioral measurements, pointing to a prominent role of kinesthetic rather than visual imagery. Additionally, for the first time, we applied mental chronometry, a measure quantifying the degree to which imagined and executed movements share a similar temporal profile. We also identified enhanced lateralized μ-band oscillations over sensorimotor cortices during MI in high- versus low-aptitude BMI users. These findings reveal that subjective, behavioral, and EEG measurements of MI are intimately linked to BMI control. We propose that poor BMI control cannot be ascribed only to intrinsic limitations of EEG recordings and that specific questionnaires and mental chronometry can be used as predictors of BMI performance (without the need to record EEG activity).

  18. Space motion sickness: The sensory motor controls and cardiovascular correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvestre, Philippe A.; Blaber, Andrew P.; Landrock, Clinton K.

    Background and PurposeSpace motion sickness (SMS) and related symptoms remain a major limiting factor in Space operations. A recent comprehensive literature review [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y] concluded that SMS does not represent a unique diagnostic entity, and there is no adequate predictor of SMS' susceptibility and severity. No countermeasure has been found reliable to prevent or treat SMS symptoms onset. Recent neurophysiological findings on sensory-motor controls monitoring [P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] and heart-rate variability (HRV) measurements relationship could explain post-flight orthostatic intolerance (PFOI) in astronauts [A.P. Blaber, R.L. Bondar, M.S. Kassam, Heart rate variability and short duration space flight: relationship to post-flight orthostatic intolerance, BMC Physiology 4 (2004) 6]. These two methodologies are generally overlooked in SMS' analysis. In this paper we present the case for a strong relationship between sensory-motor controls related symptoms, including orthostatic intolerance (OI) and SMS symptoms. MethodsThis paper expands on several previously published papers [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y; P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] along with an updated literature review. An analysis of a 10-year period clinical data from trauma patients experiencing postural deficiency syndrome (PDS) show assessment and monitoring techniques which successfully identify trauma

  19. Motor Control Center (MCC) based technology study for safety-related motor operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to monitor periodically the operability of safety-related Motor-Operated Valves (MOVs) in nuclear power plants. However, acquiring diagnostic signals for MOVs is very difficult, and doing so requires an excessive amount of time, effort, and expenditure. This paper introduces an accurate and economical method to evaluate the performance of MOVs remotely. The technique to be utilized includes electrical measurements and signal processing to estimate the motor torque and the stem thrust, which have been cited as the two most effective parameters in diagnosing MOVs by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The motor torque is calculated by using electrical signals, which can be measured in the Motor Control Center (MCC). Some advantages of using the motor torque signature over other signatures are examined. The stem thrust is calculated considering the characteristics of the MOV and the estimated motor torque. The basic principle of estimating stem thrust is explained. The developed method is implemented in diagnostic equipment, namely, the Motor Operated Valve Intelligent Diagnostic System (MOVIDS), which is used to obtain the accuracy of and to validate the applicability of the developed method in nuclear power plants. Finally, the accuracy of the developed method is presented and some examples applied to field data are discussed

  20. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging with fluorescein sodium dyeing for surgery of gliomas in brain motor functional areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jia-gang; YANG Shuai-feng; LIU Yan-hui; WANG Xiang; MAO Qing

    2013-01-01

    Background Tumor surgery in brain motor functional areas remains challenging.Novel techniques are being developed to gain maximal and safe resection for brain tumor surgery.Herein,we assessed the magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) and fluorescein sodium dyeing (FLS) guiding technique for surgery of glioma located in brain motor functional areas.Methods Totally 83 patients were enrolled according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria (56 patients in experimental group,27 patients in control group).In the experimental group,the surgical approach was designed by DTI imaging,which showed the relationship between the tumor and motor tract.The range of resection in the operation was determined using the FLS-stained area,which recognized the tumor and its infiltrated tissue.The traditional routine method was used in the control group.Postoperatively,all patients underwent enhanced brain MRI within 72 hours to ascertain the extent of resection.Patients were followed in our outpatient clinic over 6-24 months.Neurological deficits and Karnofsky scoring (KPS) were evaluated.Results There were no significant differences in balance test indexes of preoperative data (sex,age,lesion location and volume,and neurological deficits before operation) and diagnosis of histopathology between the two groups.There was a trend in the experimental group for greater rates of gross total resection (80.4% vs.40.7%),and the paralysis rate caused by surgery was lower in experimental (25.0%) vs.control (66.7%) groups (P <0.05).The 6-month KPS in the low-grade and high-grade gliomas was 91±11 and 73±26,respectively,in the experimental group vs.82±9 and 43±27,respectively,in the control group (P <0.05 for both).Conclusions MR-DTI and FLS dye guiding for surgery of glioma located in brain motor functional areas can increase the gross total resection rate,decrease the paralysis rate caused by surgery,and improve patient quality of life compared with traditional

  1. Classifying Single Trail Electroencephalogram Using Gaussian Smoothened Fast Hartley Transform for Brain Computer Interface during Motor Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Deepa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Brain-Computer Interface (BCI is a emerging research area which translates the brain signals for any motor related actions into computer understandable signals by capturing the signal, processing the signal and classifying the motor imagery. This area of work finds various applications in neuroprosthetics. Mental activity leads to changes of electrophysiological signals like the Electroencephalogram (EEG or Electrocorticogram (ECoG. Approach: The BCI system detects such changes and transforms it into a control signal which can, for example, be used as to control a electric wheel. In this study the BCI paradigm is tested by our proposed Gaussian smoothened Fast Hartley Transform (GS-FHT which is used to compute the energies of different motor imageries the subject thinks after selecting the required frequencies using band pass filter. Results: We apply this procedure to BCI Competition dataset IVA, a publicly available EEG repository. Conclusion: The evaluations of preprocessed signals showed that the extracted features were interpretable and can lead to high classification accuracy by various mining algorithms.

  2. Steering Control of Wheeled Armored Vehicle with Brushless DC Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Considering the steering characters of one type of wheeled armored vehicle, a brushless direct current (DC) motor is adapted as the actuator for steering control. After investigating the known algorithms, one kind of algorithm, which combines the fuzzy logic control with the self-adapting PID control and the startup and pre-brake control, is put forward. Then a test-bed is constructed, and an experiment is conducted. The result of experiment confirms the validity of this algorithm in steering control of wheeled armored vehicle with brushless DC motor.

  3. A Neuro-controller for DC Motor Containing Nonlinear Friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jun Oh; Jeon, Gi Joon [Kyung Pook National University (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    This paper represents the application of a neuro-controller for compensating the effects of the friction in a DC motor system. A bound on the tracking error is derived from the analysis of the tracking error dynamics. The proposed neuro-controller is a combination of a linear controller and a neural network, and is trained by indirect learning scheme. The proposed neuro-controller is implemented and tested on an IBM PC - based DC motor system. The ideas, algorithm, simulation, and experiment results are described. Experimental results are shown to be superior to those of conventional control in terms of friction compensation. (author). 17 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Discrete-Time LPV Current Control of an Induction Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we apply a new method for gain-scheduled output feedback control of nonlinear systems to current control of an induction motor. The method relies on recently developed controller synthesis results for linear parameter-varying (LPV) systems, where the controller synthesis is formulated...... as a set of linear matrix inequalities with full-block multipliers. A standard nonlinear model of the motor is constructed and written on LPV form. We then show that, although originally developed in continuous time, the controller synthesis results can be applied to a discrete-time model as well...

  5. Discrete-Time LPV Current Control of an Induction Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we apply a new method for gain-scheduled output feedback control of nonlinear systems to current control of an induction motor. The method relies on recently developed controller synthesis results for linear parameter-varying (LPV) systems, where the controller synthesis is formulated...... as a set of linear matrix inequalities with full-block multipliers. A standard nonlinear model of the motor is then constructed and written on LPV form. We then show that, although originally developed in continuous time, the controller synthesis results can be applied to a discrete-time model as...

  6. Analysis and Design of PLL Motor Speed Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Chao Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase-locked technology in motor speed control system has a wide range of applications, Especially for high accuracy in the motor steady speed operation situation, more and more use of phase-locked servo control system. This paper describes the block diagram and mathematical model of phase-locked control system, Shows the circuit parameter calculation method This and combined with design example analysis of phase-locked control system, Indicated through the theory and practice, using PLL can obtain good speed control precision.

  7. Natural movement with concurrent brain-computer interface control induces persistent dissociation of neural activity

    OpenAIRE

    Bashford, Luke; Wu, Jing; Sarma, Devapratim; Collins, Kelly; Ojemann, Jeff; Mehring, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    As Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology develops it is likely it may be incorporated into protocols that complement and supplement existing movements of the user. Two possible scenarios for such a control could be: the increasing interest to control artificial supernumerary prosthetics, or in cases following brain injury where BCI can be incorporated alongside residual movements to recover ability. In this study we explore the extent to which the human motor cortex is able to concurrentl...

  8. Development of Motor Model of Rotor Slot Harmonics for Speed Sensorless Control of Induction Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Tatsuya; Ishida, Muneaki; Doki, Shinji

    This paper proposes a novel mathematical dynamic model to represent steady-state and transient-state characteristics of rotor slot harmonics of an induction motor for sensorless control. Although it is well known that the rotor slot harmonics originate from the mechanical structure of the induction motor, a mathematical model that describes the relationship between stator/rotor currents of the induction motor and the slot harmonics has not yet been proposed. Therefore, in this paper, a three-phase model of the induction motor that depicts the rotor slot harmonics is developed by taking into consideration the magnetomotive force harmonics and the change in the magnetic air gap caused by the rotor slots. Moreover, the validity of the proposed model is verified by comparing the experimental results and the calculated values.

  9. Learned EEG-based regulation of motor-related brain oscillations during application of transcranial electric currents: feasibility and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjo R Soekadar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS improves motor learning and can influence emotional processing or attention. However, it remained unclear whether learned electroencephalography (EEG-based brain-machine interface (BMI control during tDCS is feasible and how application of transcranial electric currents during BMI control would interfere with feature-extraction of physiological brain signals. Here we tested this combination and evaluated stimulation-dependent artifacts across different EEG frequencies and stability of motor imagery-based BMI control. Approach: Ten healthy volunteers were invited to two BMI-sessions, each comprising two 60-trial blocks. During the trials, modulation of mu-rhythms (8-15Hz associated with motor imagery recorded over C4 was translated into online cursor movements on a computer screen. During block 2, either sham (session A or anodal tDCS (session B was applied at 1mA with the stimulation electrode placed 1cm anterior of C4. Main results: tDCS was associated with a significant signal power increase in the lower frequencies most evident in the signal spectrum of the EEG channel closest to the stimulation electrode. Stimulation-dependent signal power increase exhibited a decay of 12dB per decade, leaving frequencies above 9Hz unaffected. Analysis of BMI control performance did not indicate a difference between blocks and tDCS conditions. Conclusion: Application of tDCS during learned EEG-based self-regulation of brain oscillations above 9Hz is feasible and safe, and might improve applicability of BMI systems in patient populations.

  10. Decoding cognitive states and motor intentions from intracranial EEG: How promising is high-frequency brain activity for brain-machine interfaces?

    OpenAIRE

    Jerbi, Karim; Combrisson, Etienne; Dalal, Sarang,; Vidal, Juan; Hamame, Carlos,; Bertrand, Olivier; Berthoz, Alain; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    We provide a brief overview of our recent research into decoding cognitive states and motor intentions from intracranial EEG using high-frequency brain activity for brain-machine interfaces. Appears in: Korczyn AD et al. Epilepsy, cognition, and neuropsychiatry (Epilepsy, Brain, and Mind, part 2), Epilepsy Behav (in press), doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.03.012

  11. Analysis of Brain Cognitive State for Arithmetic Task and Motor Task Using Electroencephalography Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kalpana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To localize the brain dynamics for cognitive processes from EEG signature has been a challenging taskfrom last two decades. In this paper we explore the spatial-temporal correlations of brain electricalneuronal activity for cognitive task such as Arithmetic and Motor Task using 3D cortical distributionmethod. Ten healthy right handed volunteers participated in the experiment. EEG signal was acquiredduring resting state with eyes open and eyes closed; performing motor task and arithmetic calculations.The signal was then computed for three dimensional cortical distributions on realistic head model withMNI152 template using standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA. Thiswas followed by an appropriate standardization of the current density, producing images of electricneuronal activity without localization bias. Neuronal generators responsible for cognitive state such asArithmetic Task and Motor Task were localized. The result was correlated with the previous neuroimaging(fMRI study investigation. Hence our result directed that the neuronal activity from EEG signal can bedemonstrated in cortical level with good spatial resolution. 3D cortical distribution method, thus, may beused to obtain both spatial and temporal information from EEG signal and may prove to be a significanttechnique to investigate the cognitive functions in mental health and brain dysfunctions. Also, it may behelpful for brain/human computer interfacing.

  12. Indirect Vector Control of Three Phase Induction Motor using PSIM

    OpenAIRE

    Nagulapati Kiran

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of indirect vector control of three phase Induction Motor using Hysteresis Band PWM current control and Synchronous Current Control in PSIM environment. In any machine drive system, current control directly influences both flux and torque developed directly. In Hysteresis current control method, actual current tracks the command current within a hysteresis band. There is no difficulty in current control tracking when CEMF is low, but at higher speeds, cu...

  13. Direct Torque Control System for a Three Phase Induction Motor With Fuzzy Logic Based Speed Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Turki Y. Abdalla; Haroution Antranik Hairik; Adel M. Dakhil

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for improving the speed profile of a three phase induction motor in direct torque control (DTC) drive system using a proposed fuzzy logic based speed controller. A complete simulation of the conventional DTC and closed-loop for speed control of three phase induction motor was tested using well known Matlab/Simulink software package. The speed control of the induction motor is done by using the conventional proportional integral (PI) cont...

  14. Distributed Motor Controller (DMC) for Operation in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Colin M.; Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Some, Rafi; Sirota, Allen; Kopf, Ted; Stern, Ryan; Hunter, Don

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an extreme environment capable Distributed Motor Controller (DMC) module suitable for operation with a distributed architecture of future spacecraft systems. This motor controller is designed to be a bus-based electronics module capable of operating a single Brushless DC motor in extreme space environments: temperature (-120 C to +85 C required, -180 C to +100 C stretch goal); radiation (>;20K required, >;100KRad stretch goal); >;360 cycles of operation. Achieving this objective will result in a scalable modular configuration for motor control with enhanced reliability that will greatly lower cost during the design, fabrication and ATLO phases of future missions. Within the heart of the DMC lies a pair of cold-capable Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) that enable its miniaturization and operation in extreme environments. The ASICs are fabricated in the IBM 0.5 micron Silicon Germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS process and are comprised of Analog circuitry to provide telemetry information, sensor interface, and health and status of DMC. The FPGA contains logic to provide motor control, status monitoring and spacecraft interface. The testing and characterization of these ASICs have yielded excellent functionality in cold temperatures (-135 C). The DMC module has demonstrated successful operation of a motor at temperature.

  15. Redundant speed control for brushless Hall effect motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A speed control system for a brushless Hall effect device equipped direct current (D.C.) motor is described. Separate windings of the motor are powered by separate speed responsive power sources. A change in speed, upward or downward, because of the failure of a component of one of the power sources results in a corrective signal being generated in the other power source to supply an appropriate power level and polarity to one winding to cause the motor to be corrected in speed.

  16. Control of Rotor Function in Light-Driven Molecular Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Lubbe, Anouk S.; Ruangsupapichat, Nopporn; Caroli, Giuseppe; Feringa, Ben L.

    2011-01-01

    A study is presented on the control of rotary motion of an appending rotor unit in a light-driven molecular motor. Two new light driven molecular motors were synthesized that contain aryl groups connected to the stereogenic centers. The aryl groups behave as bidirectional free rotors in three of the four isomers of the 360 degrees rotation cycle, but rotation of the rotors is hindered in the fourth isomer. Kinetic studies of both motor and rotor functions of the two new compounds are given, u...

  17. A flight simulator control system using electric torque motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, R. O.; Wagner, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Control systems are required in flight simulators to provide representative stick and rudder pedal characteristics. A system has been developed that uses electric dc torque motors instead of the more common hydraulic actuators. The torque motor system overcomes certain disadvantages of hydraulic systems, such as high cost, high power consumption, noise, oil leaks, and safety problems. A description of the torque motor system is presented, including both electrical and mechanical design as well as performance characteristics. The system develops forces sufficiently high for most simulations, and is physically small and light enough to be used in most motion-base cockpits.

  18. Control of BLDC motors for a terrestrial lunar rover prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Gónzalez, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A lo largo de los años se han utilizado varios tipos de motores eléctricos. Hoy en día, los motores BLDC son cada vez más importantes en las aplicaciones industriales, en la investigación y exploración espacial. El objetivo de este Proyecto Fin de Máster es el desarrollo de un control de motores BLDC en un microprocesador ARM Cortex-A8 que se encuentra dentro de la plataforma de desarollo BeagleBone Black, y el uso de MatLab/Simulink para crear un regulador Proporcional-Integral que se utiliz...

  19. Interfaz cerebro computador basada en P300 para la comunicación alternativa: estudio de caso en dos adolescentes en situación de discapacidad motora [P300 based Brain Computer Interface for alternative communication: a case study with two teenagers with motor disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Cossio, E.; Fernandez, C.; Gaviria, M.E.; Palacio, C.; Alvaran, L.; Torres Villa, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Brain computer interface systems use brain signals to enable the control of external devices, such as: wheelchairs, communicators, neuro-prosthesis, among others; in people with severe motor disabilities. In this study two young men with motor disabilities were trained to learn how to control a brai

  20. Micro-stepping motor control for tuner and coupler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the superconducting linear accelerator at PLF, Mumbai each RF cavity is fitted with a coupler for feeding RF power and a tuner for frequency adjustment, The coupler/tuner are controlled using a stepper motor coupled to a suitable mechanical arrangement. Presently, bipolar stepper motors are used with a single channel motor controller. Thus any dynamic adjustment on multiple cavities during the beam operation requires interruption in beam. Further, this bipolar motor doesn't have the micro-stepping control and hence operations in cold condition are not always smooth. Therefore, an improved control module for multichannel control with communication to PC is designed. The design is based on Leadshine make EM503 micro-stepping module and uses Silicon lab make C8051F020 microcontroller. The module can control upto 16 couplers/tuners. The multiplexing is done using high current four pole relays. The design also has additional features like motor selection, start/stop, speed change, limit control and remote operation. (author)

  1. Speed Control of Induction Motor Using PLC and SCADA System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Seksak Elsaid,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automation or automatic control is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat-treating ovens, switching in telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. Some processes have been completely automated. The motor speed is controlled via the driver as an open loop control. To make a more precise closed loop control of motor speed we will use a tachometer to measure the speed and feed it back to the PLC, which compares to the desired value and take a control action, then the signal is transferred to the motor – via driver – to increase / decrease the speed. We will measure the speed of the motor using an incremental rotary encoder by adjusting parameters (PLC, driver and also we need to reduce the overall cost of the system. Our control system will be held using the available Siemens PLC. In addition, we will monitor motor parameters via SCADA system.

  2. A Molecular Motor, KIF13A, Controls Anxiety by Transporting the Serotonin Type 1A Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruyun Zhou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular motors are fundamental to neuronal morphogenesis and function. However, the extent to which molecular motors are involved in higher brain functions remains largely unknown. In this study, we show that mice deficient in the kinesin family motor protein KIF13A (Kif13a−/− mice exhibit elevated anxiety-related behavioral phenotypes, probably because of a reduction in 5HT1A receptor (5HT1AR transport. The cell-surface expression level of the 5HT1AR was reduced in KIF13A-knockdown neuroblastoma cells and Kif13a−/− hippocampal neurons. Biochemical analysis showed that the forkhead-associated (FHA domain of KIF13A and an intracellular loop of the 5HT1AR are the interface between the motor and cargo vesicles. A minimotor consisting of the motor and FHA domains is able to transport 5HT1AR-carrying organelles in in vitro reconstitution assays. Collectively, our results suggest a role for this molecular motor in anxiety control.

  3. Brain Computer Interface for Virtual Reality Control

    OpenAIRE

    Guger, C; Groenegress, C.; Holzner, C.; Edlinger, G.; Slater, Mel; Sánchez-Vives, María Victoria

    2009-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a new communication channel between the human brain and a computer. Applications of BCI systems comprise the restoration of movements, communication and environmental control. In this study experiments were made that used the BCI system to control or to navigate in virtual environments (VE) just by thoughts. BCI experiments for navigation in VR were conducted so far with synchronous BCI and asynchronous BCI systems. The synchronous BCI analyzes the EEG patt...

  4. Fault tolerant vector control of induction motor drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odnokopylov, G.; Bragin, A.

    2014-10-01

    For electric composed of technical objects hazardous industries, such as nuclear, military, chemical, etc. an urgent task is to increase their resiliency and survivability. The construction principle of vector control system fault-tolerant asynchronous electric. Displaying recovery efficiency three-phase induction motor drive in emergency mode using two-phase vector control system. The process of formation of a simulation model of the asynchronous electric unbalance in emergency mode. When modeling used coordinate transformation, providing emergency operation electric unbalance work. The results of modeling transient phase loss motor stator. During a power failure phase induction motor cannot save circular rotating field in the air gap of the motor and ensure the restoration of its efficiency at rated torque and speed.

  5. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller of switched reluctance motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahour Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS control for switched reluctance motor (SRM speed. The ANFIS has the advantages of expert knowledge of the fuzzy inference system and the learning capability of neural networks. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller of the motor speed is then designed and simulated. Digital simulation results show that the designed ANFIS speed controller realizes a good dynamic behaviour of the motor, a perfect speed tracking with no overshoot and a good rejection of impact loads disturbance. The results of applying the adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller to a SRM give better performance and high robustness than those obtained by the application of a conventional controller (PI.

  6. Selection of motor programs for suppressing food intake and inducing locomotion in the Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoofs, Andreas; Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Schlegel, Philipp; Miroschnikow, Anton; Peters, Marc; Zeymer, Malou; Spieß, Roland; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Pankratz, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    Central mechanisms by which specific motor programs are selected to achieve meaningful behaviors are not well understood. Using electrophysiological recordings from pharyngeal nerves upon central activation of neurotransmitter-expressing cells, we show that distinct neuronal ensembles can regulate different feeding motor programs. In behavioral and electrophysiological experiments, activation of 20 neurons in the brain expressing the neuropeptide hugin, a homolog of mammalian neuromedin U, simultaneously suppressed the motor program for food intake while inducing the motor program for locomotion. Decreasing hugin neuropeptide levels in the neurons by RNAi prevented this action. Reducing the level of hugin neuronal activity alone did not have any effect on feeding or locomotion motor programs. Furthermore, use of promoter-specific constructs that labeled subsets of hugin neurons demonstrated that initiation of locomotion can be separated from modulation of its motor pattern. These results provide insights into a neural mechanism of how opposing motor programs can be selected in order to coordinate feeding and locomotive behaviors. PMID:24960360

  7. Selection of motor programs for suppressing food intake and inducing locomotion in the Drosophila brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schoofs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Central mechanisms by which specific motor programs are selected to achieve meaningful behaviors are not well understood. Using electrophysiological recordings from pharyngeal nerves upon central activation of neurotransmitter-expressing cells, we show that distinct neuronal ensembles can regulate different feeding motor programs. In behavioral and electrophysiological experiments, activation of 20 neurons in the brain expressing the neuropeptide hugin, a homolog of mammalian neuromedin U, simultaneously suppressed the motor program for food intake while inducing the motor program for locomotion. Decreasing hugin neuropeptide levels in the neurons by RNAi prevented this action. Reducing the level of hugin neuronal activity alone did not have any effect on feeding or locomotion motor programs. Furthermore, use of promoter-specific constructs that labeled subsets of hugin neurons demonstrated that initiation of locomotion can be separated from modulation of its motor pattern. These results provide insights into a neural mechanism of how opposing motor programs can be selected in order to coordinate feeding and locomotive behaviors.

  8. Direct Torque Control of a Permanent Magnet synchronous Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Ocen, David

    2005-01-01

    This work presents an improved variant of the Direct Torque Control (DTC) for a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM). The improved DTC use a higher number of voltage space vectors by introducing a kind of Space Vector Modulation technique. The higher number of space vectors are tabulated in more precise switch tables which also take the emf induced in the stator windings into account. The emf voltage significantly affect the motor behavior from a given space vector. It is discussed how t...

  9. INDUCTION MOTOR DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL – FUZZY LOGIC CONTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    CHIKHI, ABDESLEM; CHIKHI, KHALED; BELKACEM, SEBTI

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present the simulation results of the induction motor speed regulation by the direct torque control with a classic PI regulator. The MATLAB SIMULINK programming environment is used as a simulation tool. The results obtained, using a fuzzy logic, shows the importance of this method in the improvement of the performance of such regulationKeywords: DTC, Induction motor, PI, Fuzzy logic, FLR( Fuzzy logic regulator)

  10. Tuning PID controlling parameters for DC motor speed regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanov, Done; Cveta MARTINOVSKA

    2013-01-01

    Modern robots are sophisticated and complex systems, composed of: sensors, high-speed processors and actuators. Different size DC electrical motors are used as actuators, converting electrical energy into mechanical movement. Without them, robots can’t perform movements, what is completely on the contrary on modern robotics concepts. Motor speed regulation is an important engineering task. Having appropriately tuned the controller, the desired speed is reached in a short time interval, with m...

  11. Hybrid circuit modules for motor commutation and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekramer, C.

    1972-01-01

    Thick film hybrid techniques are used to develop circuitry for a brushless dc motor commutator. The power commutator contains the driving circuit and an amplifier that controls the armature current. A position decoder contains digital integrated circuits which receive the signals from the armature position sensors and generate the driving signals for the power commutator in the proper sequence. These units drive motors with stall currents up to about 400 mA.

  12. Alcohol Control Policies and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloupka, Frank J.; Henry Saffer; Michael Grossman

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the effects of drunk driving deterrents and other alcohol related policies on drunk driving. The data set employed is an annual time-series of state cross-sections for the 48 contiguous states of the U.S. from 1982 through 1988. Total and alterative alcohol involved motor vehicle fatality rates, for the general population and for 18 to 20 year olds, are used as measures of drunk driving. The results indicate that the moat effective policies are increas...

  13. Brushless DC motor Drive during Speed regulation with Current Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhikshalu Manchala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Brushless DC Motor (BLDC is one of the best electrical drives that have increasing popularity, due to their high efficiency, reliability, good dynamic response and very low maintenance. Due to the increasing demand for compact & reliable motors and the evolution of low cost power semiconductor switches and permanent magnet (PM materials, brushless DC motors become popular in every application from home appliances to aerospace industry. The conventional techniques for controlling the stator phase current in a brushless DC drive are practically effective in low speed and cannot reduce the commutation torque ripple in high speed range. This paper presents the PI controller for speed control of BLDC motor. The output of the PI controllers is summed and is given as the input to the current controller. The BLDC motor is fed from the inverter where the rotor position and current controller is the input. The complete model of the proposed drive system is developed and simulated using MATLAB/Simulink software. The operation principle of using component is analysed and the simulation results are presented in this to verify the theoretical analysis.

  14. Advanced dc motor controller for battery-powered electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor generation set is connected to run from the dc source and generate a voltage in the traction motor armature circuit that normally opposes the source voltage. The functional feasibility of the concept is demonstrated with tests on a Proof of Principle System. An analog computer simulation is developed, validated with the results of the tests, applied to predict the performance of a full scale Functional Model dc Controller. The results indicate high efficiencies over wide operating ranges and exceptional recovery of regenerated energy. The new machine integrates both motor and generator on a single two bearing shaft. The control strategy produces a controlled bidirectional plus or minus 48 volts dc output from the generator permitting full control of a 96 volt dc traction motor from a 48 volt battery, was designed to control a 20 hp traction motor. The controller weighs 63.5 kg (140 lb.) and has a peak efficiency of 90% in random driving modes and 96% during the SAE J 227a/D driving cycle.

  15. Recasting brain-machine interface design from a physical control system perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Chase, Steven M

    2015-10-01

    With the goal of improving the quality of life for people suffering from various motor control disorders, brain-machine interfaces provide direct neural control of prosthetic devices by translating neural signals into control signals. These systems act by reading motor intent signals directly from the brain and using them to control, for example, the movement of a cursor on a computer screen. Over the past two decades, much attention has been devoted to the decoding problem: how should recorded neural activity be translated into the movement of the cursor? Most approaches have focused on this problem from an estimation standpoint, i.e., decoders are designed to return the best estimate of motor intent possible, under various sets of assumptions about how the recorded neural signals represent motor intent. Here we recast the decoder design problem from a physical control system perspective, and investigate how various classes of decoders lead to different types of physical systems for the subject to control. This framework leads to new interpretations of why certain types of decoders have been shown to perform better than others. These results have implications for understanding how motor neurons are recruited to perform various tasks, and may lend insight into the brain's ability to conceptualize artificial systems. PMID:26142906

  16. Direct Torque Control System for a Three Phase Induction Motor With Fuzzy Logic Based Speed Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki Y. Abdalla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for improving the speed profile of a three phase induction motor in direct torque control (DTC drive system using a proposed fuzzy logic based speed controller. A complete simulation of the conventional DTC and closed-loop for speed control of three phase induction motor was tested using well known Matlab/Simulink software package. The speed control of the induction motor is done by using the conventional proportional integral (PI controller and the proposed fuzzy logic based controller. The proposed fuzzy logic controller has a nature of (PI to determine the torque reference for the motor. The dynamic response has been clearly tested for both conventional and the proposed fuzzy logic based speed controllers. The simulation results showed a better dynamic performance of the induction motor when using the proposed fuzzy logic based speed controller compared with the conventional type with a fixed (PI controller.

  17. Permanent magnet brushless motor control based on ADRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaokun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Permanent magnet brushless motor is a nonlinear system with multiple variables, the mathematical model of Permanent magnet brushless motor is difficult to establish, and since that the classic PID control is hard to precisely control the motor. Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC technique is a new nonlinear controller which does not depend on the system model. It is starting from the classic PID control, and establishing the loop control system by error negative feedback, the ESO(extended state observer observing system which comes from the observer theory of modern control theory to observe internal and external perturbations. ADRC inherits the advantages of PID with little overshoot, high convergence speed, high accuracy, strong anti-interference ability and other characteristics, and it has a strong disturbance adaptability and robustness as for the uncertainty perturbation and their internal disturbance of control objects. Therefore, This paper attempts to use Active disturbance rejection control(ADRC, in order to improve the control of permanent magnet brushless motor. In this design of control system, the simulation of the system is realized based on MATLAB, and then the discrete control algorithm is transplanted to the embedded system to control the permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM. The control system is implemented on the DSP-F28335 digital signal processor, and the DSP also provides the functions like voltage and current AD sampling, PWM driver generation, speed and rotor position calculation, etc. The simulation and experiment results indicate that, the system has good dynamic performance and anti-disturbance performance.

  18. ON THE ISSUE OF VECTOR CONTROL OF THE ASYNCHRONOUS MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Firago

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the issue of one of the widespread types of vector control realization for the asynchronous motors with a short-circuited rotor. Of all more than 20 vector control types known presently, the following are applied most frequently: direct vector control with velocity pickup (VP, direct vector control without VP, indirect vector control with VP and indirect vector control without VP. Despite the fact that the asynchronous-motor indirect vector control without VP is the easiest and most spread, the absence of VP does not allow controlling the motor electromagnetic torque at zero velocity. This is the reason why for electric motor drives of such requirements they utilize the vector control with a velocity transducer. The systems of widest dissemination became the direct and indirect vector control systems with X-axis alignment of the synchronously rotating x–y-coordinate frame along the rotor flux-linkage vector inasmuch as this provides the simplest correlations for controlling variables. Although these two types of vector control are well presented in literature, a number of issues concerning their realization and practical application require further elaboration. These include: the block schemes adequate representation as consisted with the modern realization of vector control and clarification of the analytical expressions for evaluating the regulator parameters.The authors present a technique for evaluating the dynamics of an asynchronous electric motor drive with direct vector control and x-axis alignment along the vector of rotor flux linkage. The article offers a generalized structure of this vector control type with detailed description of its principal blocks: controlling system, frequency converter, and the asynchronous motor.The paper presents a direct vector control simulating model developed in the MatLab environment on the grounds of this structure. The authors illustrate the described technique with the results

  19. Performance of Networked DC Motor with Fuzzy Logic Controller

    OpenAIRE

    B. Sharmila; N. Devarajan

    2010-01-01

    In the recent years the usage of data networks has been increased due to its cost effective and flexible applications. A shared data network can effectively reduce complicated wiring connections, installation and maintenance for connecting a complex control system with various sensors, actuators, and controllers as a networked control system. For the time-sensitive application with networked control system the remote dc motor actuation control has been chosen. Due to time-varying network traf...

  20. Motor control differs for increasing and releasing force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seoung Hoon; Kwon, MinHyuk; Solis, Danielle; Lodha, Neha; Christou, Evangelos A

    2016-06-01

    Control of the motor output depends on our ability to precisely increase and release force. However, the influence of aging on force increase and release remains unknown. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine whether force control differs while increasing and releasing force in young and older adults. Sixteen young adults (22.5 ± 4 yr, 8 females) and 16 older adults (75.7 ± 6.4 yr, 8 females) increased and released force at a constant rate (10% maximum voluntary contraction force/s) during an ankle dorsiflexion isometric task. We recorded the force output and multiple motor unit activity from the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle and quantified the following outcomes: 1) variability of force using the SD of force; 2) mean discharge rate and variability of discharge rate of multiple motor units; and 3) power spectrum of the multiple motor units from 0-4, 4-10, 10-35, and 35-60 Hz. Participants exhibited greater force variability while releasing force, independent of age (P Increased force variability during force release was associated with decreased modulation of multiple motor units from 35 to 60 Hz (R(2) = 0.38). Modulation of multiple motor units from 35 to 60 Hz was further correlated to the change in mean discharge rate of multiple motor units (r = 0.66) and modulation from 0 to 4 Hz (r = -0.64). In conclusion, these findings suggest that force control is altered while releasing due to an altered modulation of the motor units. PMID:26961104

  1. Power control of linear stepping motor of WWER-1000 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation is described of the power feeding of a linear stepping motor designed for driving control elements of a WWER-1000 reactor. This provides a control of the size and time course of current flow into the electromagnets of the drive, a switch-over to standby dc supply, motor upwards and downwards run according to orders from the reactor control system, and continuous self-control. The motor is supplied from a three phase insulated system 3x220 V, 50 Hz; standby supply is from a 110 V battery. A block diagram is given of the power feeding. Power feeding units are mounted in groups of four into one switchboard. (Z.M.)

  2. Optimum control of electric motor drives for industrial robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guez, A.; Roberts, M.

    1983-04-01

    The industrial robot employs many actuators (electric motor drives) to perform a variety of tasks. Multilink manipulator arms, metal contouring machines, remote control tanks, and solar panels for satellites are just a few examples of applications for multiactuator systems. The first major problem is in the coupled, nonlinear structure of the interacting actuators. The second major problem is to find the optimum trajectories of motion. Determining the optimum control input for each drive is a difficult problem to solve. Due to the complex set of equations which govern the system, a great deal of simplification is necessary if a real-time computer is to be used to optimally control the motor drives. This paper describes a method for optimizing the performance (in this case, to minimize time of control) of these motorized actuators by automatically generating the input voltage signals.

  3. AC motor controller with 180 degree conductive switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oximberg, Carol A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An ac motor controller is operated by a modified time-switching scheme where the switches of the inverter are on for electrical-phase-and-rotation intervals of 180.degree. as opposed to the conventional 120.degree.. The motor is provided with three-phase drive windings, a power inverter for power supplied from a dc power source consisting of six switches, and a motor controller which controls the current controlled switches in voltage-fed mode. During full power, each switch is gated continuously for three successive intervals of 60.degree. and modulated for only one of said intervals. Thus, during each 60.degree. interval, the two switches with like signs are on continuously and the switch with the opposite sign is modulated.

  4. A Neuro-Inspired Spike-Based PID Motor Controller for Multi-Motor Robots with Low Cost FPGAS

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Civit-Balcells; Rafael Paz-Vicente; Dominguez-Morales, Manuel J.; Alejandro Linares-Barranco; Gabriel Jimenez-Moreno; Angel Jimenez-Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a neuro-inspired spike-based close-loop controller written in VHDL and implemented for FPGAs. This controller has been focused on controlling a DC motor speed, but only using spikes for information representation, processing and DC motor driving. It could be applied to other motors with proper driver adaptation. This controller architecture represents one of the latest layers in a Spiking Neural Network (SNN), which implements a bridge between robotics actuators and s...

  5. Speed Control of DC Motor under Varying Load Using PID Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Rafay Khan; Aleem Ahmed Khan; Umer Ghazali

    2015-01-01

    DC motors are used extensively in industrial variable speed applications because of most demanding speed-torque characteristics and are simple in controlling aspects. This paper presents a DC motor speed controlling technique under varying load condition. The linear system model of separately excited DC motor with Torque-variation is designed using PID controller. A Matlab simulation of proposed system with no-Load and full-load condition is performed on Simulink platform to observe the syste...

  6. Rapid Control Prototyping Plataform for Didactic Plant Motor DC

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Bazán-Orobio; Juan F. Flórez-Marulanda

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a design, implementation and validation of a Rapid Control Prototype platform for a plant based on a DC motor is proposed. This low-cost prototype provides of an electronic card (with a motor DC and sensors) manipulated by PC with free software tools using Linux, Scilab / Scicos and RTAI-Lab. This RCP System allows developing speed -position control trainings by using different types of PID industrial controllers with anti – wind up and bump less transfer schemes. We develop a s...

  7. Design and Implementation of Three Phase Unbalanced Voltage Motor Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. A. Mashud

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art-technology was used to design the unbalanced three phase motor controller. The fluctuation of line voltage has been questioned in recent times due to the use of heavy powered machine with three phases. This paper is focused on deriving a control scheme to drive a three phase motor that could be used in industry or households. The very simple circuitry has been employed in this design. To do this, extensive MATLAB analysis and PSpice software was conducted in order to optimize the control system and finally the results are practically verified.

  8. Classifications of Motor Imagery Tasks in Brain Computer Interface Using Linear Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Aldea

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address a method for motor imagery feature extraction for brain computer interface (BCI. The wavelet coefficients were used to extract the features from the motor imagery EEG and the linear discriminant analysis was utilized to classify the pattern of left or right hand imagery movement and rest. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using EEG data recorded by us, with 8 g.tec active electrodes by means of g.MOBIlab+ module. The maximum accuracy of classification is 91%.

  9. Cognitive and Neurophysiological Effects of Non-invasive Brain Stimulation in Stroke Patients after Motor Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agata, Federico; Peila, Elena; Cicerale, Alessandro; Caglio, Marcella M; Caroppo, Paola; Vighetti, Sergio; Piedimonte, Alessandro; Minuto, Alice; Campagnoli, Marcello; Salatino, Adriana; Molo, Maria T; Mortara, Paolo; Pinessi, Lorenzo; Massazza, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two specific Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS) paradigms, the repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS), and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), in the upper limb rehabilitation of patients with stroke. Short and long term outcomes (after 3 and 6 months, respectively) were evaluated. We measured, at multiple time points, the manual dexterity using a validated clinical scale (ARAT), electroencephalography auditory event related potentials, and neuropsychological performances in patients with chronic stroke of middle severity. Thirty four patients were enrolled and randomized. The intervention group was treated with a NIBS protocol longer than usual, applying a second cycle of stimulation, after a washout period, using different techniques in the two cycles (rTMS/tDCS). We compared the results with a control group treated with sham stimulation. We split the data analysis into three studies. In this first study we examined if a cumulative effect was clinically visible. In the second study we compared the effects of the two techniques. In the third study we explored if patients with minor cognitive impairment have most benefit from the treatment and if cognitive and motor outcomes were correlated. We found that the impairment in some cognitive domains cannot be considered an exclusion criterion for rehabilitation with NIBS. ERP improved, related to cognitive and attentional processes after stimulation on the motor cortex, but transitorily. This effect could be linked to the restoration of hemispheric balance or by the effects of distant connections. In our study the effects of the two NIBS were comparable, with some advantages using tDCS vs. rTMS in stroke rehabilitation. Finally we found that more than one cycle (2-4 weeks), spaced out by washout periods, should be used, only in responder patients, to obtain clinical relevant results. PMID:27445730

  10. Design and Comparison Direct Torque Control Techniques for Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; Zelechowski, Marcin;

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a comparison of two significant control methods of induction motor are presented. The first one is a classical Direct Torque and Flux Control (DTC) and is compared with a scheme, which uses Space Vector Modulator (DTC-SVM). A comparison in respect to dynamic and steady state...

  11. Motor control of jaw movements: An fMRI study of parafunctional clench and grind behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Donald; Dzemidzic, Mario; Talavage, Thomas M; Romito, Laura M; Byrd, Kenneth E

    2011-04-01

    Jaw-clenching and tooth-grinding associated with bruxism can contribute to abnormal tooth wear and pain in the masticatory system. Clench and tooth-grinding jaw-movement tasks were evaluated in a block-design fMRI study comparing a dental-control (DC) group with a tooth-grinding (TG) group. Group classification was made prior to imaging based upon self-reported parafunctional clench and grind behavior and clinical evidence of abnormal tooth wear. Group differences in brain activation patterns were found for each task compared to the resting baseline. The DC group showed a more widely distributed pattern; more extensive activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA) proper that extended into the pre-SMA; and, for clench, activity in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The DC group activated more than the TG subjects the left IPL for clench, and pre-SMA for grind. Neither task elicited more activity in the TG than DC subjects. Our group findings suggest that jaw-movement tasks executed by the TG group elicited (1) more efficient brain activation pattern consistent with other studies that found less extensive activity with executing "over-learned" tasks; (2) "underactive" SMA activity that underlies reduced motor planning; (3) decreased inferior parietal activity that is associated with lesser motor-attentional demands. Thus orofacial parafunctional habits may influence brain circuits recruited for jaw movements, providing a possible basis for understanding involuntary jaw movements in bruxism and oral movement disorders in general. PMID:21295015

  12. Speed Sensorless Variable Structure Torque Control of Induction Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Jezernik, Karel; Şabanoviç, Asif; SABANOVIC, Asif

    2008-01-01

    Abstract— Induction motor speed sensorless torque control, which allows operation at low and zero speed, optimizing both torque response and efficiency, is proposed. The control is quite different than the conventional field-oriented or direct torque control. A new discontinuous stator current FPGA based controller and rotor flux observer based on continuous sliding mode and Lyapunov theory are developed. A smooth transition into the field weakening region and the full ut...

  13. Classical Model Predictive Control of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Stumper, Jean-Francois; Dötlinger, Alexander; Kennel, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    A model predictive control (MPC) scheme for a permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is presented. The torque controller optimizes a quadratic cost consisting of control error and machine losses repeatedly, accounting the voltage and current limitations. The scheme extensively relies on optimization, to meet the runtime limitation, a suboptimal algorithm based on differential flatness, continuous parameterization and linear programming is introduced. The multivariable controller exploits c...

  14. Treatment of Wilson's disease motor complications with deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedera, Peter

    2014-05-01

    A considerable proportion of patients with Wilson's disease (WD) experience neurologic symptoms that are functionally disabling. The most common neurologic problems in advanced WD include dystonia and tremor. Medically refractory idiopathic dystonia and essential tremor (ET) have been successfully treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS), functional surgical therapy targeting the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), or the ventral intermediate (Vim) thalamic nucleus. Even though the pathophysiology of tremor is different in WD and ET, available experience supports DBS targeting the Vim for WD patients. Dystonia associated with WD is classified as secondary dystonia and GPi stimulation has yielded mixed results in these patients. The presence of structural changes in the basal ganglia may limit the therapeutic success of DBS for WD dystonia compared with idiopathic dystonia. In spite of these limitations, DBS in WD may be an effective approach to treat medically refractory residual neurologic symptoms in carefully selected patients. PMID:24547944

  15. Brain-Computer Interface In Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Soukup, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a system that allows for direct communication between the brain and an external device. Originally, the motivation for developing BCIs has been to provide severely disabled individuals with a basic communication system. Recent years, BCIs directed at regular consumers in practical control applications have gained popularity as well, for which the ultimate goal is to provide a more natural way of communicating with machines. However, BCIs intended at use in ...

  16. Rapid Control Prototyping Plataform for Didactic Plant Motor DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Bazán-Orobio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a design, implementation and validation of a Rapid Control Prototype platform for a plant based on a DC motor is proposed. This low-cost prototype provides of an electronic card (with a motor DC and sensors manipulated by PC with free software tools using Linux, Scilab / Scicos and RTAI-Lab. This RCP System allows developing speed -position control trainings by using different types of PID industrial controllers with anti – wind up and bump less transfer schemes. We develop a speed control application structured in four steps: identification, controller design, simulation and real time control, where there are pedagogical advantages of a platform that not only allows simulation but also real-time control of a plant.

  17. PMBLDC motor drive with power factor correction controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, G.J.; Ramachandran, Rakesh; Arun, N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a boost converter configuration, control scheme and design of single phase power factor controller for permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM) drive. PMBLDC motors are the latest choice of researchers, due to the high efficiency, silent operation, compact size, high...... reliability, and low maintenance requirements. The proposed Power Factor Controller topology improves power quality by improving performance of PMBLDCM drive, such as reduction of AC main current harmonics, near unity power factor. PFC converter forces the drive to draw sinusoidal supply current in phase with...... supply voltage. It uses a boost converter to obtain unity power factor with improved performance. The system includes a speed controller for PMBLDC drive and a voltage controller for boost converter.. The voltage or speed controllers can be realized using proportional integral (PI) controller...

  18. Control of asynchronous motors. Volume 1. Modeling, vectorial control and direct torque control; Commande des moteurs asynchrones. Volume 1. Modelisation, controle vectoriel et DTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canudas de Wit, C. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Ingenieurs de Genie Chimique, ENSIGC, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2000-07-01

    This first volume deals with the problems of control of asynchronous motors in industrial environments: industrial environment, variable speed, asynchronous motors and power supplies, modeling, direct torque control laws, control by controlled limit cycles under frequency constraints. (J.S.)

  19. Design and Implementation of Three Phase Unbalanced Voltage Motor Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Mashud, M. A. A.; S. C. Barman; M. R. A. Bhuiyan; Md. Serajul Islam

    2013-01-01

    A state-of-the-art-technology was used to design the unbalanced three phase motor controller. The fluctuation of line voltage has been questioned in recent times due to the use of heavy powered machine with three phases. This paper is focused on deriving a control scheme to drive a three phase motor that could be used in industry or households. The very simple circuitry has been employed in this design. To do this, extensive MATLAB analysis and PSpice software was conducted in order to optimi...

  20. Controlling Chaos in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Control System via Fuzzy Guaranteed Cost Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-You Hou

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the guaranteed cost control of chaos problem in permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) via Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy method approach. Based on Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique, a state feedback controller is proposed to stabilize the PMSM systems. An illustrative example is provided to verify the validity of the results developed in this paper.

  1. Active Fault Tolerant Control for Ultrasonic Piezoelectric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhnifer, Moussa

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasonic piezoelectric motor technology is an important system component in integrated mechatronics devices working on extreme operating conditions. Due to these constraints, robustness and performance of the control interfaces should be taken into account in the motor design. In this paper, we apply a new architecture for a fault tolerant control using Youla parameterization for an ultrasonic piezoelectric motor. The distinguished feature of proposed controller architecture is that it shows structurally how the controller design for performance and robustness may be done separately which has the potential to overcome the conflict between performance and robustness in the traditional feedback framework. A fault tolerant control architecture includes two parts: one part for performance and the other part for robustness. The controller design works in such a way that the feedback control system will be solely controlled by the proportional plus double-integral PI2 performance controller for a nominal model without disturbances and H∞ robustification controller will only be activated in the presence of the uncertainties or an external disturbances. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault tolerant control architecture.

  2. Neural changes in the primate brain correlated with the evolution of complex motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Y; Hikishima, K; Saiki, M; Inada, M; Sasaki, E; Lemon, R N; Price, C J; Okano, H; Iriki, A

    2016-01-01

    Complex motor skills of eventual benefit can be learned after considerable trial and error. What do structural brain changes that accompany such effortful long-term learning tell us about the mechanisms for developing innovative behavior? Using MRI, we monitored brain structure before, during and after four marmosets learnt to use a rake, over a long period of 10-13 months. Throughout learning, improvements in dexterity and visuo-motor co-ordination correlated with increased volume in the lateral extrastriate cortex. During late learning, when the most complex behavior was maintained by sustained motivation to acquire the skill, the volume of the nucleus accumbens increased. These findings reflect the motivational state required to learn, and show accelerated function in higher visual cortex that is consistent with neurocognitive divergence across a spectrum of primate species. PMID:27498966

  3. Computational motor control: redundancy and invariance.

    OpenAIRE

    Guigon, Emmanuel; Baraduc, Pierre; Desmurget, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The nervous system controls the behavior of complex kinematically redundant biomechanical systems. How it computes appropriate commands to generate movements is unknown. Here we propose a model based on the assumption that the nervous system: 1) processes static (e.g., gravitational) and dynamic (e.g., inertial) forces separately; 2) calculates appropriate dynamic controls to master the dynamic forces and progress toward the goal according to principles of optimal feedback control; 3) uses th...

  4. An Algorithm for Idle-State Detection in Motor-Imagery-Based Brain-Computer Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Yijun Wang; Dan Zhang; Xiaorong Gao; Bo Hong; Shangkai Gao

    2007-01-01

    For a robust brain-computer interface (BCI) system based on motor imagery (MI), it should be able to tell when the subject is not concentrating on MI tasks (the “idle state”) so that real MI tasks could be extracted accurately. Moreover, because of the diversity of idle state, detecting idle state without training samples is as important as classifying MI tasks. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for solving this ...

  5. Subject-oriented training for motor imagery brain-computer interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Perdikis, Serafeim; Leeb, Robert; Millán, José del R.

    2014-01-01

    Successful operation of motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCI) requires mutual adaptation between the human subject and the BCI. Traditional training methods, as well as more recent ones based on co-adaptation, have mainly focused on the machine-learning aspects of BCI training. This work presents a novel co-adaptive training protocol shifting the focus on subject-related performances and the optimal accommodation of the interactions between the two learning agents of the BC...

  6. Localization of Brain Electrical Activity Sources and Hemodynamic Activity Foci during Motor Imagery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Mokienko, O.; Bobrov, P.; Chernikova, L.; Konovalov, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 3 (2014), s. 273-283. ISSN 0362-1197 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0070; GA MŠk(CZ) EE.2.3.20.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : brain computer interface * independent component analysis * EEG pattern classification * motor imagery * inverse EEG problem Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  7. Embedded target toolbox for DSP control applications of BLDC motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benk Enikö

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Matlab embedded target toolbox used for the DC brushless (BLDC motor applications. The synthesis, code generation, and the implementation of the control program, and also the control task itself are carried out on the host PC, under the Simulink. The target system is a brushless DC motor control kit – MSK243, connected on serial port COM to the host computer. With this real time library, it is possible to develop a Rapid Control Prototyping and Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulations. During the running control task on the target, the full functionality of Matlab/Simulink can be used for parameter’s visualization without interrupting or impeding the control process on the MSK240 board.

  8. APPLICATION OF MODIFIED REPETITIVE CONTROL STRATEGY FOR A DC MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.VIJAYAKARTHICK

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, design and implementation of Modified Repetitive Control Strategy (MRCS for a DC Motor System is proposed. MRCS developed by Hara et.al, is considered as a base in this study. Key factors such as Learning filter (L and Robustness filter (Q in the learning control strategy are identified using Zero Phase Error Tracking Control (ZPETC technique and frequency method respectively. Design and implementation of the MRCS approach involves the approximation of First Order process (FOP that includes ZNTR based PControl settings and sine wave generation. Simulation runs of the DC Motor System are carried out for the periodic reference tracking with MRCS based P mode control loop. A similar test run with Repetitive Control Strategy (RCS based P mode and conventional P-mode are carried out for comparison purpose. Results confirm the supremacy of MRCS based P mode control loop. A robustness of the MRCS is also analyzed.

  9. Piano training in youths with hand motor impairments after damage to the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Renée; Thienel, Anna; Mitternacht, Jürgen; Blumenstein, Tobias; Turova, Varvara; Alves-Pinto, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Damage to the developing brain may lead to impairment of the hand motor function and negatively impact on patients' quality of life. Development of manual dexterity and finger and hand motor function may be promoted by learning to play the piano. The latter brings together music with the intensive training of hand coordination and fine finger mobility. We investigated if learning to play the piano helped to improve hand motor skills in 18 youths with hand motor disorders resulting from damage during early brain development. Participants trained 35-40 minutes twice a week for 18 months with a professional piano teacher. With the use of a Musical Instrument Digital Interface piano, the uniformity of finger strokes could be objectively assessed from the timing of keystrokes. The analysis showed a significant improvement in the uniformity of keystrokes during the training. Furthermore, the youths showed strong motivation and engagement during the study. This is nevertheless an open study, and further studies remain needed to exclude effects of growth and concomitant therapies on the improvements observed and clarify which patients will more likely benefit from learning to play the piano. PMID:26345312

  10. Prediction of motor imagery based brain computer interface performance using a reaction time test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Sam; Abbott, Derek; Baumert, Mathias

    2015-08-01

    Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) enable human brains to interact directly with machines. Motor imagery based BCI (MI-BCI) encodes the motor intentions of human agents and provides feedback accordingly. However, 15-30% of people are not able to perform vivid motor imagery. To save time and monetary resources, a number of predictors have been proposed to screen for users with low BCI aptitude. While the proposed predictors provide some level of correlation with MI-BCI performance, simple, objective and accurate predictors are currently not available. Thus, in this study we have examined the utility of a simple reaction time (SRT) test for predicting MI-BCI performance. We enrolled 10 subjects and measured their motor imagery performance with either visual or proprioceptive feedback. Their reaction time was also measured using a SRT test. The results show a significant negative correlation (r ≈ -0.67) between SRT and MI-BCI performance. Therefore SRT may be used as a simple and reliable predictor of MI-BCI performance. PMID:26736893

  11. Stepping Motors and Associated Electronic Circuits for Reactor Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical stepping motors are now available which, because of their high torque and precise motion, are very suitable for use with reactor control rods. A typical motor will produce a torque of about 30 kg cm at 10 rev/min and make about 150 steps per revolution, so that a positional accuracy of 1 part in 10000 can be obtained on the control absorber. The motors may have three or four windings and are driven by d.c. pulse-generators specially designed for the particular reactor application. The low-frequency pulses may be produced in many ways, including: (a) rotating shutters moving over photo-transistors, (b) assemblies of standard computing elements, such as synchro-transmitters, and (c) circuits which cause frequency-reduction and squaring of the 50 c/s or 60 c/s electrical supply. It is advisable to arrange variation of the on/off ratio of pulses to obtain maximum torque or reduce energy losses in the motors. The usual electronic circuit consists of binary frequency-dividing circuits connected to Schmitt trigger circuits which switch a low-voltage d.c. supply to the motors via transistor amplifiers. A typical design will permit an absorber to be driven in steps over 60 cm in 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 or 100 min in the direction required. In the electronic circuits, separate channels are used for each speed and direction to give high reliability and solid-state components on portable cards are used throughout for ease of maintenance. Auto control may be applied, by using a two-phase motor to drive a rotary pulse-generator or by means of frequency- modulation about a chosen reference. It is convenient to measure position by displaying the number of pulses fed to the motor on a two-way counter. Various monitoring circuits may be used to verify that the motor has moved in the correct direction and the use of groups of three or more units permits redundancy principles to be applied. Six vertically-acting control rods with stepping motors will be installed in the high

  12. Flux-weakening control methods for hybrid excitation synchronous motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid excitation synchronous motor (HESM, which aim at combining the advantages of permanent magnet motor and wound excitation motor, have the characteristics of low-speed high-torque hill climbing and wide speed range. Firstly, a new kind of HESM is presented in the paper, and its structure and mathematical model are illustrated. Then, based on a space voltage vector control, a novel flux-weakening method for speed adjustment in the high speed region is presented. The unique feature of the proposed control method is that the HESM driving system keeps the q-axis back-EMF components invariable during the flux-weakening operation process. Moreover, a copper loss minimization algorithm is adopted to reduce the copper loss of the HESM in the high speed region. Lastly, the proposed method is validated by the simulation and the experimental results.

  13. Training-induced behavioral and brain plasticity in inhibitory control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas eSpierer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in inhibitory control, the ability to suppress ongoing or planned motor or cognitive processes, contribute to many psychiatric and neurological disorders. The rehabilitation of inhibition-related disorders may therefore benefit from neuroplasticity-based training protocols aiming at normalizing inhibitory control proficiency and the underlying brain networks. Current literature on training-induced behavioral and brain plasticity in inhibitory control suggests that improvements may follow either from the development of automatic forms of inhibition or from the strengthening of top-down, controlled inhibition. Automatic inhibition develops in conditions of consistent and repeated associations between inhibition-triggering stimuli and stopping goals. Once established, the stop signals directly elicit inhibition, thereby bypassing slow, top-down executive control and accelerating stopping processes. In contrast, training regimens involving varying stimulus-response associations or frequent inhibition failures prevent the development of automatic inhibition and thus strengthen top-down inhibitory processes rather than bottom-up ones. We discuss these findings in terms of developing optimal inhibitory control training regimens for rehabilitation purposes.

  14. Energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on the adaptive neuro-controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Karandeev, D.

    2015-10-01

    The ongoing evolution of the power system towards a Smart Grid implies an important role of intelligent technologies, but poses strict requirements on their control schemes to preserve stability and controllability. This paper presents the adaptive neuro-controller for the vector control of induction motor within Smart Gird. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on adaptive neuro-controller are verified by simulation results at different operating conditions over a wide speed range of induction motor.

  15. A Wearable Channel Selection-Based Brain-Computer Interface for Motor Imagery Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chi-Chun; Chien, Tsung-Yi; Chen, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Shang-Ho; Fang, Wai-Chi; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery-based brain-computer interface (BCI) is a communication interface between an external machine and the brain. Many kinds of spatial filters are used in BCIs to enhance the electroencephalography (EEG) features related to motor imagery. The approach of channel selection, developed to reserve meaningful EEG channels, is also an important technique for the development of BCIs. However, current BCI systems require a conventional EEG machine and EEG electrodes with conductive gel to acquire multi-channel EEG signals and then transmit these EEG signals to the back-end computer to perform the approach of channel selection. This reduces the convenience of use in daily life and increases the limitations of BCI applications. In order to improve the above issues, a novel wearable channel selection-based brain-computer interface is proposed. Here, retractable comb-shaped active dry electrodes are designed to measure the EEG signals on a hairy site, without conductive gel. By the design of analog CAR spatial filters and the firmware of EEG acquisition module, the function of spatial filters could be performed without any calculation, and channel selection could be performed in the front-end device to improve the practicability of detecting motor imagery in the wearable EEG device directly or in commercial mobile phones or tablets, which may have relatively low system specifications. Finally, the performance of the proposed BCI is investigated, and the experimental results show that the proposed system is a good wearable BCI system prototype. PMID:26861347

  16. APPLICATION OF MODIFIED REPETITIVE CONTROL STRATEGY FOR A DC MOTOR

    OpenAIRE

    M.VIJAYAKARTHICK; S. Sathishbabu; Bhaba, P. K.; S.N.SIVARAJ

    2011-01-01

    In this work, design and implementation of Modified Repetitive Control Strategy (MRCS) for a DC Motor System is proposed. MRCS developed by Hara et.al, is considered as a base in this study. Key factors such as Learning filter (L) and Robustness filter (Q) in the learning control strategy are identified using Zero Phase Error Tracking Control (ZPETC) technique and frequency method respectively. Design and implementation of the MRCS approach involves the approximation of First Order process (F...

  17. Robust Control of a Brushless Servo Motor Using Sliding Mode

    OpenAIRE

    Radita Arindya

    2012-01-01

    The application of sliding mode techniques the position control of a brushless servo motor is discussed. Such control laws are well suited for electric power inverter. However, high frequency commutations are avoided due to the mechanical systems. Various recent schemes are studied and operated to derive control solutions which are technically feasible. In spite of straightforward applications the resulting systems show robust performances to parametric variations and disturbances. Robustness...

  18. Voluntary motor commands reveal awareness and control of involuntary movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Havas, Jack; Ghosh, Arko; Gomi, Hiroaki; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    The capacity to inhibit actions is central to voluntary motor control. However, the control mechanisms and subjective experience involved in voluntarily stopping an involuntary movement remain poorly understood. Here we examined, in humans, the voluntary inhibition of the Kohnstamm phenomenon, in which sustained voluntary contraction of shoulder abductors is followed by involuntary arm raising. Participants were instructed to stop the involuntary movement, hold the arm in a constant position, and 'release' the inhibition after ∼2s. Participants achieved this by modulating agonist muscle activity, rather than by antagonist contraction. Specifically, agonist muscle activity plateaued during this voluntary inhibition, and resumed its previous increase thereafter. There was no discernible antagonist activation. Thus, some central signal appeared to temporarily counter the involuntary motor drive, without directly affecting the Kohnstamm generator itself. We hypothesise a form of "negative motor command" to account for this novel finding. We next tested the specificity of the negative motor command, by inducing bilateral Kohnstamm movements, and instructing voluntary inhibition for one arm only. The results suggested negative motor commands responsible for inhibition are initially broad, affecting both arms, and then become focused. Finally, a psychophysical investigation found that the perceived force of the aftercontraction was significantly overestimated, relative to voluntary contractions with similar EMG levels. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that the Kohnstamm generator does not provide an efference copy signal. Our results shed new light on this interesting class of involuntary movement, and provide new information about voluntary inhibition of action. PMID:27399155

  19. Controller Design for Direct Torque Controlled Space Vector Modulated (DTC-SVM) Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelechowski, M.; Kazmierkowski, M.P.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper two different methods of PI controllers for direct torque controlled-space vector modulated induction motor drives have been studied. The first one is simple method based only on symmetric optimum criterion. The second approach takes into account the full model of induction motor in...

  20. Experimental Setup and Robust Servo DC Motor Position Control Based on Gain Schedule Sliding Mode Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed M. Kassem; Ali Mohamed Yousef

    2012-01-01

    A position control of DC motor servo drive based on the Sliding Mode (SM) approach is presented. The modeling and analysis of the servo DC motor are obtained. The Sliding Mode Controller (SMC) design changes such that its performance is substantially improved. To improve the controller performance in steady stat (zero error) the Integral Sliding Mode Controller (ISMC) is used. Since the main drawback of SMC is a phenomenon, the so-called chattering, resulting from discontinuous controllers. A...

  1. Simulation Of Speed Control Of Brushless Dc Motor, With Fuzzy Logic Controller

    OpenAIRE

    C.Sheeba Joice; P.Nivedhitha

    2014-01-01

    Abstract— The electronically commuted Brushless DC motors are widely used in many industrial applications which increase the need for design of efficient control strategy for these noiseless motors. This paper deals with the efficient speed control mechanisms for these drives using meaningful fuzzy sets and rules. The fuzzy logic controller is developed using a MATLAB/ Simulink tool. The paper deals with the possibility of designing a control strategy, to achieve accurate speed control with t...

  2. Speed Control of DC Motor under Varying Load Using PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rafay Khan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available DC motors are used extensively in industrial variable speed applications because of most demanding speed-torque characteristics and are simple in controlling aspects. This paper presents a DC motor speed controlling technique under varying load condition. The linear system model of separately excited DC motor with Torque-variation is designed using PID controller. A Matlab simulation of proposed system with no-Load and full-load condition is performed on Simulink platform to observe the system response. The motor speed is kept constant in this experiment. The simulation result of the experiment shows that a motor is running approximately at a constant speed regardless of a motor load. The Simulink results show that the speed of the motor is slow down only for about 270 rpm (9% in 980 milliseconds under the effect of full load. However, the motor speed is hunting about 200 rpm (6.66% in 900 milliseconds on unloading condition. It is concluded that a PID controller is successful tool for controlling the motor speed in presence of load disturbances.

  3. Optimal motor control may mask sensory dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Carver, Sean G.; Kiemel, Tim; Cowan, Noah J.; John J Jeka

    2009-01-01

    Properties of neural controllers for closed-loop sensorimotor behavior can be inferred with system identification. Under the standard paradigm, the closed-loop system is perturbed (input), measurements are taken (output), and the relationship between input and output reveals features of the system under study. Here we show that under common assumptions made about such systems (e.g. the system implements optimal control with a penalty on mechanical, but not sensory, states) important aspects o...

  4. Fuzzy Mixed-Sensitivity Control of Uncertain Nonlinear Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Azimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we investigate on robust mixed-sensitivity H∞ control for speed and torque control of inductional motor (IM. In order to simplify the design procedure the Takagi–Sugeno (T–S fuzzy approach is introduced to solve the nonlinear model Problem. Loop-shaping methodology and Mixed-sensitivity problem are developed to formulate frequency-domain specifications. Then a regional pole-placement output feedback H∞ controller is employed by using linear matrix inequalities(LMIs teqnique for each linear subsystem of IM T-S fuzzy model. Parallel Distributed Compensation (PDC is used to design the controller for the overall system . Simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed controller even in the presence of motor parameter variations and unknown load disturbance.

  5. Simple Approach For Induction Motor Control Using Reconfigurable Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József VÁSÁRHELYI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with rotor-field-oriented vector control structures for the induction motor drives fed by the so-called tandem frequency converter. It is composed of two different types of DC-link converters connected in parallel arrangement. The larger-power one has current-source character and is operating synchronized in time and in amplitude with the stator currents. The other one has voltage-source character and it is the actuator of the motor control system. The drive is able to run also with partial-failed tandem converter, if the control strategy corresponds to the actual operating mode. A reconfigurable hardware implemented in configurable logic cells ensures the changing of the vector-control structure. The proposed control schemes were tested by simulation based on Matlab-Simulink model.

  6. Effective and Robust Generalized Predictive Speed Control of Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patxi Alkorta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and validates a new proposal for effective speed vector control of induction motors based on linear Generalized Predictive Control (GPC law. The presented GPC-PI cascade configuration simplifies the design with regard to GPC-GPC cascade configuration, maintaining the advantages of the predictive control algorithm. The robust stability of the closed loop system is demonstrated by the poles placement method for several typical cases of uncertainties in induction motors. The controller has been tested using several simulations and experiments and has been compared with Proportional Integral Derivative (PID and Sliding Mode (SM control schemes, obtaining outstanding results in speed tracking even in the presence of parameter uncertainties, unknown load disturbance, and measurement noise in the loop signals, suggesting its use in industrial applications.

  7. Acupuncture De Qi in Stable Somatosensory Stroke Patients: Relations with Effective Brain Network for Motor Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Bai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has been widely used for treating stroke and De Qi may play an important role. In spite of its acceptance, the neural mechanism underlying acupuncture for motor recovery is still elusive. Particularly, by what extent De Qi sensations can reliably predict the therapeutical acupuncture effect on the mediating recovery from stroke is urgent to investigate. Nine stroke patients were assessed by De Qi, neurological examination, and scanned with acupuncture stimuli across two time points at an interval of two weeks. And we adopted multivariate Granger causality analysis to explore the interregional influences within motor executive brain network during post-acupuncture resting state. Our findings indicated that acupuncture at GB34 can enhance the recovery of stroke mainly by strengthening causal influences between the ipsilesional and contralesional motor cortex. Moreover, centrality of some motor-related regions correlated with clinical variables and thus served as a predictor of stroke recovery. Along the same line, the centrality of these motor-related regions has also high relations with the De Qi sensation. Our findings suggest that De Qi having relatively stable reliability may be essential and used as a predictor to the therapeutic effectiveness of acupuncture for stroke recovery.

  8. Sensorless Passivity Based Control of a DC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Seethamathavi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In last couple of decades, the control of motors has increased drastically. With this increase, current control techniques are developed. In sensor-less passivity control of a DC Motor the term passivity means the property of stability in an input and output. To maintain the stability at the input side the solar pv panel is connected with MPPT which extract maximum and stable voltage. For output we simultaneously regulate, both, the output voltage of the SEPIC-converter to a value larger than the solar panel output voltage, and the speed of motor, in any of the turning senses, so that it tracks a prespecified constant reference. For a sensor less current control of a PMDC motor, its small-signal model that contains a number of parasitic parameters the observed current may diverge due to the parasitic resistors and the forward conduction voltage of the diode. Moreover, the divergence of the observed current will cause steady state errors in the output voltage a self-correction differential current observer (SDCO is proposed to eliminate this steady-state error and gain high transient response speed. By carrying out a series of MATLAB simulation verifications, further investigation proves that the proposed algorithm has good robustness.

  9. Sensorless Control of Electric Motors with Kalman Filters: Applications to Robotic and Industrial Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gerasimos G. Rigatos; Pierluigi Siano

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies sensorless control for DC and induction motors, using Kalman Filtering techniques. First the case of a DC motor is considered and Kalman Filter-based control is implemented. Next the nonlinear model of a field-oriented induction motor is examined and the motor

  10. Speed Control Of Induction Motor Using Dspic30f2023

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Aspalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AC motor drives are widely used to control the speed of conveyor systems, blower speeds, pump speeds, machine tool speeds and other applications that require variable speed with variable torque. The main aim of the work is to design and develop an electronic system that can be used to control the speed of a three phase induction motor.The speed of the three phase induction motor can be controlled by various methods. The stator frequency control is one of the simplest methods to control the speed of IM and the same method is employed.In the proposed scheme, dsPIC30F2023 controller is used to produce control signals for switches (IGBTs. It is a 44 pin IC. As compared to the PIC controller and DSP, dsPIC is cheaper and most reliable. The dsPIC DSC has the “heart” of a 16-bit MCU with robust peripherals and fast interrupt handling capability and the “brain” of a DSP that manages high computation activities, creating the optimum single chip solution for embedded system designs.

  11. Decoding attentional shifts from motor preparatory brain activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Bednark

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to the premotor theory of attention, movement preparation and shifts of attention are intrinsically linked because they are controlled by shared sensorimotor mechanisms. However, the precise nature of the coupling between attention and voluntary movement preparation is unclear. In the present study, we used multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI activity to investigate whether shifts of attention towards an effector are encoded in the pre-movement activity. Meth...

  12. Velocity control in three-phase induction motors using PIC; Controle de velocidade de motor de inducao trifasico usando PIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelino, M.A.; Silva, G.B.S.; Grandinetti, F.J. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia; Universidade de Taubate (UNITAU), SP (Brazil)], Emails: abud@feg.unesp.br, gabonini@yahoo.com.br, grandinetti@unitau.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a technique for speed control three-phase induction motor using the pulse width modulation (PWM), in open loop while maintaining the tension for constant frequency. The technique is adapted from a thesis entitled 'Control of the three-phase induction motor, using discrete PWM generation, optimized and synchronized', where studies are presented aimed at their application in home appliances, to eliminate mechanical parts, replaced by low cost electronic control, thus having a significant reduction in power consumption. Initially the experiment was done with the Intel 80C31 micro controller. In this paper, the PWM modulation is implemented using a PIC micro controller, and the speed control kept a low profile, based on tables, synchronized with transitions and reduced generation of harmonics in the network. Confirmations were made using the same process of building tables, but takes advantage of the program of a RISC device.

  13. Interfaz cerebro computador basada en P300 para la comunicación alternativa: estudio de caso en dos adolescentes en situación de discapacidad motora [P300 based Brain Computer Interface for alternative communication: a case study with two teenagers with motor disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Cossio, E.; Fernandez, C; Gaviria, M.E.; Palacio, C.; Alvaran, L.; Torres Villa, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Brain computer interface systems use brain signals to enable the control of external devices, such as: wheelchairs, communicators, neuro-prosthesis, among others; in people with severe motor disabilities. In this study two young men with motor disabilities were trained to learn how to control a brain computer interface (BCI) using the P300 evoked potential recorded by electroencephalography (EEG). This interface enables the verbal communication through a stimulation matrix (4x3 rows and colum...

  14. Voice-controlled Internet Browsing for Motor-handicapped Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Tom; Aaskoven, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The public-funded project "Indtal" ("Speak-it") has succeeded in developing a Danish voice-controlled utility for internet browsing targeting motor-handicapped users having difficulties using a standard keyboard and/or a standard mouse. The system has been designed and implemented in collaboration...... with an advisory board of motor-handicapped (potential) end-users and underlies a number of a priori defined design criteria: learnability and memorability rather than naturalness, minimal need for maintenance after release, support for "all" web standards (not just HTML conforming to certain...

  15. Control and Diagnostic Model of Brushless Dc Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Ivan V.; Nikitin, Yury R.; Abramov, Andrei I.; Sosnovich, Ella V.; Božek, Pavol

    2014-09-01

    A simulation model of brushless DC motor (BLDC) control and diagnostics is considered. The model has been developed using a freeware complex "Modeling in technical devices". Faults and diagnostic parameters of BLDC are analyzed. A logicallinguistic diagnostic model of BLDC has been developed on basis of fuzzy logic. The calculated rules determine dependence of technical condition on diagnostic parameters, their trends and utilized lifetime of BLDC. Experimental results of BLDC technical condition diagnostics are discussed. It is shown that in the course of BLDC degradation the motor condition change depends on diagnostic parameter values

  16. Electric fields of motor and frontal tDCS in a standard brain space: A computer simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Tanaka, Satoshi; Mikkonen, Marko; Koyama, Soichiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-08-15

    The electric field produced in the brain is the main physical agent of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Inter-subject variations in the electric fields may help to explain the variability in the effects of tDCS. Here, we use multiple-subject analysis to study the strength and variability of the group-level electric fields in the standard brain space. Personalized anatomically-accurate models of 62 subjects were constructed from T1- and T2-weighted MRI. The finite-element method was used to computationally estimate the individual electric fields, which were registered to the standard space using surface based registration. Motor cortical and frontal tDCS were modelled for 16 electrode montages. For each electrode montage, the group-level electric fields had a consistent strength and direction in several brain regions, which could also be located at some distance from the electrodes. In other regions, the electric fields were more variable, and thus more likely to produce variable effects in each individual. Both the anode and cathode locations affected the group-level electric fields, both directly under the electrodes and elsewhere. For motor cortical tDCS, the electric fields could be controlled at the group level by moving the electrodes. However, for frontal tDCS, the group-level electric fields were more variable, and the electrode locations had only minor effects on the group average fields. Our results reveal the electric fields and their variability at the group level in the standard brain space, providing insights into the mechanisms of tDCS for plasticity induction. The data are useful for planning, analysing and interpreting tDCS studies. PMID:27188218

  17. A novel Morse code-inspired method for multiclass motor imagery brain-computer interface (BCI) design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Zongtan; Yin, Erwei; Yu, Yang; Liu, Yadong; Hu, Dewen

    2015-11-01

    Motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) allow disabled individuals to control external devices voluntarily, helping us to restore lost motor functions. However, the number of control commands available in MI-based BCIs remains limited, limiting the usability of BCI systems in control applications involving multiple degrees of freedom (DOF), such as control of a robot arm. To address this problem, we developed a novel Morse code-inspired method for MI-based BCI design to increase the number of output commands. Using this method, brain activities are modulated by sequences of MI (sMI) tasks, which are constructed by alternately imagining movements of the left or right hand or no motion. The codes of the sMI task was detected from EEG signals and mapped to special commands. According to permutation theory, an sMI task with N-length allows 2 × (2(N)-1) possible commands with the left and right MI tasks under self-paced conditions. To verify its feasibility, the new method was used to construct a six-class BCI system to control the arm of a humanoid robot. Four subjects participated in our experiment and the averaged accuracy of the six-class sMI tasks was 89.4%. The Cohen's kappa coefficient and the throughput of our BCI paradigm are 0.88 ± 0.060 and 23.5bits per minute (bpm), respectively. Furthermore, all of the subjects could operate an actual three-joint robot arm to grasp an object in around 49.1s using our approach. These promising results suggest that the Morse code-inspired method could be used in the design of BCIs for multi-DOF control. PMID:26340647

  18. Combined vector control and direct torque control method for high performance induction motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaez-Zadeh, S.; Jalali, E. [Advanced Motion Systems Research Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, North Kargar Ave., P.O. Box 14395/515, Tehran (Iran)

    2007-12-15

    A new control method is proposed for three phase high performance induction motor drives. The control system enjoys the advantages of vector control and direct torque control and avoids some of the implementation difficulties of either of the two control methods. In particular, the proposed control system includes a current vector control in connection with a switching table. An extensive comparative performance evaluation of a motor under the proposed control method confirms the effectiveness of the method and its partial superiority over either vector control or direct torque control despite its relative structural simplicity. (author)

  19. Combined vector control and direct torque control method for high performance induction motor drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new control method is proposed for three phase high performance induction motor drives. The control system enjoys the advantages of vector control and direct torque control and avoids some of the implementation difficulties of either of the two control methods. In particular, the proposed control system includes a current vector control in connection with a switching table. An extensive comparative performance evaluation of a motor under the proposed control method confirms the effectiveness of the method and its partial superiority over either vector control or direct torque control despite its relative structural simplicity

  20. ANFIS Based Torque Control of Switched Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponrajan. P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an ANFIS based torque control of SRM to reduce the torque ripple. The ANFIS has the advantages of expert knowledge of the fuzzy inference system and the learning capability of neural networks. This controller realizes a good dynamic behavior of the motor, a perfect speed tracking with no overshoot and a good rejection of impact loads disturbance. The results of applying the adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller to a SRM give better performance and high robustness than those obtained by the application of a conventional controller (PI. The above controller was realized using MATLAB/Simulink.

  1. Microgravity induced changes in the control of motor units

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, C.; Roy, S.

    The goal of this project is to understand the effects of microgravity on the control of muscles. It is motivated by the notion that in order to adequately address microgravity-induced deterioration in the force generating capacity of muscles, one needs to understand the changes in the control aspects in addition to histochemical and morphological changes. The investigations into muscle control need to include the regulation of the firing activity of motor units that make up a muscle and the coordination of different muscles responsible for the control of a joint. In order to understand the effects of microgravity on these two aspects of muscle control, we will test astronauts before and after spaceflight. The investigations of the control of motor units will involve intramuscular EMG techniques developed in our laboratory. We will use a quadrifilar electrode to detect simultaneously three differential channels of EMG activity. These data will be decomposed accurately using a sophisticated set of algorithms constructed with artificial intelligence knowledge- based techniques. Particular attention will be paid to the firing rate and recruitment behavior of motor units and we will study the degree of cross-correlation of the firing rates. This approach will enable us to study the firing behavior of several (approx. 10) concurrently active motor units. This analysis will enable us to detect modifications in the control of motor units. We will perform these investigations in a hand muscle, which continues being used in prehensile tasks in space, and a leg muscle whose antigravity role is not needed in space. The comparison of the effects of weightlessness on these muscles will determine if continued use of muscles in space deters the possible deleterious effects of microgravity on the control of motor units, in addition to slowing down atrophy. We are particularly interested in comparing the results of this study to similar data already obtained from elderly subjects

  2. Impulse control in developing brain

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Miu-ching, Adelina.; 劉妙貞.

    2012-01-01

    Impulsivity is a complex, multifaceted domain with cognitive (level of attention), affective (emotion regulation) and behavioural (reward responsiveness) manifestations. No study had been done so far on trajectory of impulse control, attention and reward responsiveness in child development. The aim of the present study is to compare the level of impulsivity, attention and reward responsiveness among children at different stages of development. Forty Chines...

  3. Control of Non-conventional Synchronous Motors

    OpenAIRE

    SEMAIL, Eric; Kestelyn, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to the modeling and control of electrical machines having at least two independent statoric currents. The star-coupled three-phase machine without a neutral terminal or the triangle-coupled three-phase machine is the most basic of them. More precisely, the aim of this chapter is to emphasize the particularities created by a number of independent currents greater than two with respect to the classical three-phase machine.

  4. Risks of postoperative paresis in motor eloquently and non-eloquently located brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When treating cerebral metastases all involved multidisciplinary oncological specialists have to cooperate closely to provide the best care for these patients. For the resection of brain metastasis several studies reported a considerable risk of new postoperative paresis. Pre- and perioperative chemotherapy (Ctx) or radiotherapy (Rtx) alter vasculature and adjacent fiber tracts on the one hand, and many patients already present with paresis prior to surgery on the other hand. As such factors were repeatedly considered risk factors for perioperative complications, we designed this study to also identify risk factors for brain metastases resection. Between 2006 and 2011, we resected 206 brain metastases consecutively, 56 in eloquent motor areas and 150 in non-eloquent ones. We evaluated the influences of preoperative paresis, previous Rtx or Ctx as well as recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class on postoperative outcome. In general, 8.7% of all patients postoperatively developed a new permanent paresis. In contrast to preoperative Ctx, previous Rtx as a single or combined treatment strategy was a significant risk factor for postoperative motor weakness. This risk was even increased in perirolandic and rolandic lesions. Our data show significantly increased risk of new deficits for patients assigned to RPA class 3. Even in non-eloquently located brain metastases the risk of new postoperative paresis has not to be underestimated. Despite the microsurgical approach, our cohort shows a high rate of unexpected residual tumors in postoperative MRI, which supports recent data on brain metastases’ infiltrative nature but might also be the result of our strict study protocol. Surgical resection is a safe treatment of brain metastases. However, preoperative Rtx and RPA score 3 have to be taken into account when surgical resection is considered

  5. Analysis and Design of Conventional Controller for Speed Control of DC Motor -A MATLAB Approach

    OpenAIRE

    C. S. Linda; K. K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to control the speed of the motor using conventional controller; compensator is used to improve the steady state error. To evaluate the performance of the controller, time response analysis is carried out. The time response analysis consists of two type of analysis. One is unit step response analysis and other is performance indices analysis. The paper describes the designing of a closed loop model of the dc motor drive for controlling speed. Accurac...

  6. METHODICAL TUNING OF PROPORTIONAL PLUS INTEGRAL CONTROLLERS FOR CASCADE CONTROL OF SEPARATELY EXCITED DC MOTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Al-Abbas

    2012-01-01

    The cascade control of DC motors by PI controllers was extensively used in industry. Approximation rules based on plotting the output of the system or on computer simulation were used to determine the parameters of these controllers. This study was done to develop mathematical expressions to calculate the parameters of these controllers. Output time functions of the system and there derivatives were used to obtain mathematical relationships relating directly the motor parameters and the contr...

  7. DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL FOR INDUCTION MOTOR USING INTELLIGENT TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Toufouti

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose two approach intelligent techniques of improvement of Direct Torque Control (DTC of Induction motor such as fuzzy logic (FL and artificial neural network (ANN, applied in switching select voltage vector .The comparison with conventional direct torque control (DTC, show that the use of the DTC_FL and DTC_ANN, reduced the torque, stator flux, and current ripples. The validity of the proposed methods is confirmed by the simulative results.

  8. DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL FOR INDUCTION MOTOR USING INTELLIGENT TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    R. Toufouti; S.Meziane; Benalla, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two approach intelligent techniques of improvement of Direct Torque Control (DTC) of Induction motor such as fuzzy logic (FL) and artificial neural network (ANN), applied in switching select voltage vector .The comparison with conventional direct torque control (DTC), show that the use of the DTC_FL and DTC_ANN, reduced the torque, stator flux, and current ripples. The validity of the proposed methods is confirmed by the simulative results.

  9. Speed Control of Induction Motor using FOC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafeezul Haq

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of applications in high performing electrical drive systems use nowadays, squirrel-cage induction motors. This paper describes a simplified method for the speed control of a three phase AC drive using Proportional-Integral controller. The simulation results show that the step response of the model is very fast, steady and able to work in four quadrants, and robustness and high performance is achieved.

  10. Digital current loop control of a brushless DC motor

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Noel Patrick

    1987-01-01

    Servo control of motors has important applications m such areas as robotics, numerically controlled machines and 'fly by wire* aircraft systems. The development of high power high coercivity magnetic alloys, such as samarium cobalt, has led to the advent of the brushless dc machine, which offers a more advantageous alternative to the brush machine. The brushless DC machine eliminates the need for brush contacts, through the use of electronic commutation. It has better thermal charact...

  11. Development of a control system for DC-motor

    OpenAIRE

    Siewert, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    A control system for a BLDC (Brushless Direct Current) motor has been developed in Labview 2009. This report explains how it works, conclusions and some information about things that could have been done differently. This report is also a good introduction to Labview including its advantages and disadvantages. It also explains how a FOC (Field Oriented Control) works. This is the public version of the report which does not include any results or information about the implementation. This info...

  12. Brain Activity During a Motor Learning Task: An fMRI and Skin Conductance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, Bradley J.; Mraz, Richard; McIlroy, William E.; Graham, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring electrodermal activity (EDA) during fMRI is an effective means of studying the influence of task-related arousal, inferred from autonomic nervous system activity, on brain activation patterns. The goals of this study were: (1) to measure reliable EDA from healthy individuals during fMRI involving an effortful unilateral motor task, (2) to explore how EDA recordings can be used to augment fMRI data analysis. In addition to conventional hemodynamic modeling, skin conductance time series data were used as model waveforms to generate activation images from fMRI data. Activations from the EDA model produced significantly different brain regions from those obtained with a standard hemodynamic model, primarily in the insula and cingulate cortices. Onsets of the EDA changes were synchronous with the hemodynamic model, but EDA data showed additional transient features, such as a decrease in amplitude with time, and helped to provide behavioral evidence suggesting task difficulty decreased with movement repetition. Univariate statistics also confirmed that several brain regions showed early versus late session effects. Partial least squares (PLS) multivariate analysis of EDA and fMRI data provided complimentary, additional insight on how the motor network varied over the course of a single fMRI session. Brain regions identified in this manner included the insula, cingulate gyrus, pre- and postcentral gyri, putamen and parietal cortices. These results suggest that recording EDA during motor fMRI experiments provides complementary information that can be used to improve the fMRI analysis, particularly when behavioral or task effects are difficult to model a priori. PMID:17318835

  13. Interruption-free motor control. Electromagnetically compatible DD motor control with pulse width modulation; Stoerungsfreie Motorsteuerungen. Auf elektromagnetische Vertraeglichkeit getrimmter DC-Motor-Regler mit Pulsbreitenmodulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, W.; Ritz, S. [Austria Mikro Systeme International AG, Dresden (Germany). Design Center

    2001-06-12

    The AS8410 circuit for PWM control of DC motors combines two near-incompatible characteristics, i.e. high efficiency (>95$) and low electromagnetic radiation (below the standards set in VDE0871, VDE0875, VDE0879) even in the high-frequency spectral range in spite of high PWM frequencies. Comprehensive error diagnosis and error remedy routines as well as simply programmable modes of operation enable reliable, low-cost applications in a wide spectrum of DC motor control. [German] Der Steuerschaltkreis AS8410 zur PWM-Ansteuerung von DC-Motoren kombiniert zwei bisher als unvereinbar geltende Eigenschaften bei elektronisch gesteuerten Gleichstrommotoren: Einen hohen Wirkungsgrad (>95%) und niedrige elektromagnetische Abstrahlungen, sogar im hochfrequenten Spektralbereich, die deutlich unterhalb der Normen VDE0871, VDE0875, VDE0879 liegen, und das trotz gleichzeitig hoher PWM-Frequenzen. Eine umfangreiche Lastfehlerdiagnose mit Fehlerbehandlungsroutinen sowie einfach programmierbare Betriebsmodi ermoeglichen sichere und preiswerte Applikationen in einem breiten Applikationsspektrum von DC-Motor-Steuerungen. (orig.)

  14. Modeling and control of V/f controlled induction motor using genetic-ANFIS algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustun, Seydi Vakkas (Vocational High School, Adiyaman University, Adiyaman/Turkey); Demirtas, Metin (Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Balikesir University, Balikesir/Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    This paper deals with modeling and performance analysis of the voltage/frequency (V/f) control of induction motor drives. The V/f control, which realizes a low cost and simple design, is advantageous in the middle to high-speed range. Its torque response depends on the electrical time constant of the motor and adjustments of the control parameters are not need. Therefore, V/f control of induction motor is carried out. Space vector pulse width modulation is used for controlling the motor because of including minimum harmonics according to the other PWM techniques. Proportional Integral (PI) controller is used to control speed of induction motor. In this work, optimization of PI coefficients is carried out by Ziegler-Nichols model and Genetic-Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model. These controllers are applied to drive system with 0.55 kW induction motor. A digital signal processor controller (dsPIC30F6010) is used to carry out control applications. The proposed method is compared Ziegler-Nichols model. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed control method. (author)

  15. Signal differentiation in position tracking control of dc motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An asymptotic differentiation approach with respect to time is used for on-line estimation of velocity and acceleration signals in controlled dc motors. The attractive feature of this differentiator of signals is that it does not require any system mathematical model, which allows its use in engineering systems that require the signal differentiation for its control, identification, fault detection, among other applications. Moreover, it is shown that the differentiation approach can be applied for output signals showing a chaotic behavior. In addition a differential flatness control scheme with additional integral compensation of the output error is proposed for tracking tasks of position reference trajectories for direct current electric motors using angular position measurements only

  16. Efficiency optimized control of medium-size induction motor drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, F.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim;

    2000-01-01

    The efficiency of a variable speed induction motor drive can be optimized by adaption of the motor flux level to the load torque. In small drives (<10 kW) this can be done without considering the relatively small converter losses, but for medium-size drives (10-1000 kW) the losses can not be disr...... robustness towards load disturbances may unnecessarily be reduced. Both displacement power factor and model-based efficiency optimizing control methods perform well in medium-size drives. The last strategy is also tested on a 22 kW drive with good results.......The efficiency of a variable speed induction motor drive can be optimized by adaption of the motor flux level to the load torque. In small drives (<10 kW) this can be done without considering the relatively small converter losses, but for medium-size drives (10-1000 kW) the losses can not be...... disregarded without further analysis. The importance of the converter losses on efficiency optimization in medium-size drives is analyzed in this paper. Based on the experiments with a 90 kW drive it is found that it is not critical if the converter losses are neglected in the control, except that the...

  17. Advanced induction motor drive control with single current sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Evgenije M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes induction motor drive control method which uses minimal number of sensors, providing only DC-link current as a feedback signal. Improved DC-link current sampling scheme and modified asymmetrical switching pattern cancels characteristic waveform errors which exist in all three reconstructed motor line-currents. Motor linecurrent harmonic content is reduced to an acceptable level, eliminating torque and speed oscillations which were inherent for conventional single sensor drives. Consequently, use of single current sensor and line-current reconstruction technique is no longer acceptable only for low and medium performance drives, but also for drives where priority is obtaining a highly accurate, stable and fast response. Proposed control algorithm is validated using induction motor drive hardware prototype based on TMS320F2812 digital signal processor. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 042004 and by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of AP Vojvodina under contract No. 114-451-3508/2013-04

  18. Programmable logic device based brushless DC motor control

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bossche, Alex; Bozalakov, Dimitar; Vyncke, Thomas; Valchev, Vencislav

    2011-01-01

    In this article a three-phase BLDC motor controller for use in an Ultra-Light Electrical Vehicle is presented. The control is performed using a Programmable Logic Device (CPLD), which doesn’t require any additional processor. In this way a robust and low-complexity control is obtained. For extending the speed range of the BLDC, a phase advance circuit is implemented as well. The power consumption of the controller is very low which is an interesting feature in battery applications.

  19. Modeling and Implementation for Embedded DC Motor Ethernet Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Lingbo; Dai, Guanzhong; Shi, Li; Lin-Shi, Xuefang; Rétif, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a model of Embedded DC Motor Ethernet Control System is proposed with analysis on transmission time delay and data packet dropout. Based on this model, the ECS is described as a two-state asynchronous dynamical system with output feedback control and then implemented on a platform which uses a PC as a central controller and an ARM9 kit as a remote controller. As a key part of developments, embedded programs including client program and Linux Module are realized on the kit. The ...

  20. Motor Control and Regulation for a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara; Lyons, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    This talk will focus on the motor control algorithms used to regulate the flywheel system at the NASA Glenn Research Center. First a discussion of the inner loop torque control technique will be given. It is based on the principle of field orientation and is implemented without a position or speed sensor (sensorless control). Then the outer loop charge and discharge algorithm will be presented. This algorithm controls the acceleration of the flywheel during charging and the deceleration while discharging. The algorithm also allows the flywheel system to regulate the DC bus voltage during the discharge cycle.

  1. Comparative Study of Controller Design for Four Quadrant Operation of Three Phase BLDC Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Ms.K.Suganya*1

    2014-01-01

    Brushless DC motor drives are becoming more popular in industrial and traction applications. The control of BLDC motor in four quadrants is very vital. The three-phase permanent magnet brushless dc motor inherently needs an electronic commutation circuit to drive it, because it is not a self-commutating motor. It is contrary to the conventional brush motor which commutates itself. This paper presents a comparison study of three type of control such as PI, PID & fuzzy. The char...

  2. Effects of muscle atrophy on motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    As a biological tissue, muscle adapts to the demands of usage. One traditional way of assessing the extent of this adaptation has been to examine the effects of an altered-activity protocol on the physiological properties of muscles. However, in order to accurately interpret the changes associated with an activity pattern, it is necessary to employ an appropriate control model. A substantial literature exists which reports altered-use effects by comparing experimental observations with those from animals raised in small laboratory cages. Some evidence suggests that small-cage-reared animals actually represent a model of reduced use. For example, laboratory animals subjected to limited physical activity have shown resistance to insulin-induced glucose uptake which can be altered by exercise training. This project concerned itself with the basic mechanisms underlying muscle atrophy. Specifically, the project addressed the issue of the appropriateness of rats raised in conventional-sized cages as experimental models to examine this phenomenon. The project hypothesis was that rats raised in small cages are inappropriate models for the study of muscle atrophy. The experimental protocol involved: 1) raising two populations of rats, one group in conventional (small)-sized cages and the other group in a much larger (133x) cage, from weanling age (21 days) through to young adulthood (125 days); 2) comparison of size- and force-related characteristics of selected test muscles in an acute terminal paradigm.

  3. Brain oscillatory activity during motor imagery in EEG-fMRI coregistration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaggio, Emanuela; Storti, Silvia Francesca; Cerini, Roberto; Fiaschi, Antonio; Manganotti, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate the correlation between topographical changes in brain oscillatory activity and the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal during a motor imagery (MI) task using electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) coregistration. EEG was recorded in 7 healthy subjects inside a 1.5 T MR scanner during the imagination of the kinesthetic experience of movement. A Fast Fourier Transform was applied to EEG signal in the rest and active conditions. We used the event-related-synchronization (ERS)/desynchronization (ERD) approach to characterize where the imagination of movement produces a decrease in alpha and beta power. The mean alpha map showed ERD decrease localized over the contralateral sensory motor area (SM1c) and a light desynchronization in the ipsilateral sensory motor area (SM1i); whereas the mean beta map showed ERD decrease over the supplementary motor area (SMA). fMRI showed significant activation in SMA, SM1c, SM1i. The correlation is negative in the contralateral side and positive in the ipsilateral side. Using combined EEG-fMRI signals we obtained useful new information on the description of the changes in oscillatory activity in alpha and beta bands during MI and on the investigation of the sites of BOLD activity as possible sources in generating these rhythms. By correlating BOLD and ERD/ERS we may identify more accurately which regions contribute to changes of the electrical response. PMID:20850237

  4. Adaptive Motor Imagery: A Multimodal Study of Immobilization-Induced Brain Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burianová, Hana; Sowman, Paul F; Marstaller, Lars; Rich, Anina N; Williams, Mark A; Savage, Greg; Al-Janabi, Shahd; de Lissa, Peter; Johnson, Blake W

    2016-03-01

    The consequences of losing the ability to move a limb are traumatic. One approach that examines the impact of pathological limb nonuse on the brain involves temporary immobilization of a healthy limb. Here, we investigated immobilization-induced plasticity in the motor imagery (MI) circuitry during hand immobilization. We assessed these changes with a multimodal paradigm, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure neural activation, magnetoencephalography (MEG) to track neuronal oscillatory dynamics, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to assess corticospinal excitability. fMRI results show a significant decrease in neural activation for MI of the constrained hand, localized to sensorimotor areas contralateral to the immobilized hand. MEG results show a significant decrease in beta desynchronization and faster resynchronization in sensorimotor areas contralateral to the immobilized hand. TMS results show a significant increase in resting motor threshold in motor cortex contralateral to the constrained hand, suggesting a decrease in corticospinal excitability in the projections to the constrained hand. These results demonstrate a direct and rapid effect of immobilization on MI processes of the constrained hand, suggesting that limb nonuse may not only affect motor execution, as evidenced by previous studies, but also MI. These findings have important implications for the effectiveness of therapeutic approaches that use MI as a rehabilitation tool to ameliorate the negative effects of limb nonuse. PMID:25477368

  5. Extracting an evaluative feedback from the brain for adaptation of motor neuroprosthetic decoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Babak; Principe, Jose C; Sanchez, Justin C

    2010-01-01

    The design of Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) neural decoders that have robust performance in changing environments encountered in daily life activity is a challenging problem. One solution to this problem is the design of neural decoders that are able to assist and adapt to the user by participating in their perception-action-reward cycle (PARC). Using inspiration both from artificial intelligence and neurobiology reinforcement learning theories, we have designed a novel decoding architecture that enables a symbiotic relationship between the user and an Intelligent Assistant (IA). By tapping into the motor and reward centers in the brain, the IA adapts the process of decoding neural motor commands into prosthetic actions based on the user's goals. The focus of this paper is on extraction of goal information directly from the brain and making it accessible to the IA as an evaluative feedback for adaptation. We have recorded the neural activity of the Nucleus Accumbens in behaving rats during a reaching task. The peri-event time histograms demonstrate a rich representation of the reward prediction in this subcortical structure that can be modeled on a single trial basis as a scalar evaluative feedback with high precision. PMID:21096396

  6. Rapid control prototyping using MATLAB/Simulink and a DSP-based motor controller

    OpenAIRE

    Hercog, Darko; Jezernik, Karel

    2012-01-01

    A rapid control prototyping (RCP) system, based on commercially available software and custom in-house developed hardware is presented. An RCP system successfully combines the well-known simulation program MATLAB/Simulink and the custom DSP-based floating point motor controller. An RCP system provides smooth and fast transition from off-line simulation in Simulink to real-time operation on the embedded motor controller. On-the-fly parameter tuning and data visualization are provided in additi...

  7. Neuromolecular Imaging Shows Temporal Synchrony Patterns between Serotonin and Movement within Neuronal Motor Circuits in the Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia A. Broderick

    2013-01-01

    The present discourse links the electrical and chemical properties of the brain with neurotransmitters and movement behaviors to further elucidate strategies to diagnose and treat brain disease. Neuromolecular imaging (NMI), based on electrochemical principles, is used to detect serotonin in nerve terminals (dorsal and ventral striata) and somatodendrites (ventral tegmentum) of reward/motor mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal brain circuits. Neuronal release of serotonin is detected at the sa...

  8. Brain N-acetylaspartate levels correlate with motor function in metachromatic leukodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    í Dali, Christine; Hanson, Lars G.; Barton, N. W.;

    2010-01-01

    oligodendrocytes and is known as a marker for neuronal and axonal loss. NAA and other metabolite levels measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) correlate with performance of the brain in normal children. There is a need for sensitive measures of disease progression in patients with MLD to enable...... development of future reatments. Methods: A cross-section of 13 children with late infantile MLD were examined by proton MRS. Signals from NAA, total choline, and total creatine in the deep white matter were measured and correlated with the results of cognitive and motor function tests. Results: The NAA...... observed in cognitive function. We report strong positive correlations between standardized measures of motor and cognitive function and NAA levels in the deep white matter. Conclusions: We suggest that NAA levels could serve as a sensitive biomarker in children with MLD. Proton MRS may provide a valuable...

  9. Motor-operated valve performance testing and condition monitoring using data from the motor control center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much progress has been made over the past 20 years at CANDU nuclear stations to understand and improve Motor-Operated Valve (MOV) performance and reliability. If set up properly, most MOVs show very repeatable and predictable results when tested during outages. In fact, it is believed that, to some extent, a few of the encountered MOV failures stem from repeated maintenance operations and intrusive test methods. In this context, the potential for assessing MOV performance and monitoring their condition using electrical data acquired at the Motor Control Center (MCC) has generated considerable interest over the past few years. The overall approach consists of acquiring current and voltage signals at the MCC to derive motor power and motor torque traces. A correlation between the output parameters typically measured at the valve and the derived motor data is usually established through initial baseline tests. Following subsequent tests at the MCC, several valve performance indicators are derived using the original baseline data and the newly acquired MCC data to assess the valve performance and monitor its condition. The potential benefits from acquiring data at the MCC are the increased trending/monitoring capability and also the cost savings associated with the potential identification of MOVs that may not need 'at-the-valve' testing as initially scheduled. This would help reduce maintenance costs and radiation exposure to personnel. At CANDU stations, MOV testing is currently performed almost exclusively at the valve. Voltage and current are occasionally measured at the MCC to generate motor power traces, but not with the intent of performing extensive MCC-based valve diagnostics since most CANDU stations have yet to acquire the tools required for this type of analysis. In this context, a COG (CANDU Owners Group) R and D program was launched to assess the potential and reliability of the various methods/systems used for MCC valve diagnostic testing. This paper

  10. Piano training in youths with hand motor impairments after damage to the developing brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampe R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Renée Lampe,1,* Anna Thienel,2 Jürgen Mitternacht,1 Tobias Blumenstein,1 Varvara Turova,1 Ana Alves-Pinto1,* 1Research Unit for Paediatric Neuroorthopaedics and Cerebral Palsy, Orthopaedics Department, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 2Department Sonderpädagogik, Ludwig Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Damage to the developing brain may lead to impairment of the hand motor function and negatively impact on patients’ quality of life. Development of manual dexterity and finger and hand motor function may be promoted by learning to play the piano. The latter brings together music with the intensive training of hand coordination and fine finger mobility. We investigated if learning to play the piano helped to improve hand motor skills in 18 youths with hand motor disorders resulting from damage during early brain development. Participants trained 35–40 minutes twice a week for 18 months with a professional piano teacher. With the use of a Musical Instrument Digital Interface piano, the uniformity of finger strokes could be objectively assessed from the timing of keystrokes. The analysis showed a significant improvement in the uniformity of keystrokes during the training. Furthermore, the youths showed strong motivation and engagement during the study. This is nevertheless an open study, and further studies remain needed to exclude effects of growth and concomitant therapies on the improvements observed and clarify which patients will more likely benefit from learning to play the piano. Keywords: manual skill, cerebral palsy, neurodevelopmental disorder, music, rehabilitation

  11. Predicting brain activation patterns associated with individual lexical concepts based on five sensory-motor attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Humphries, Colin J; Seidenberg, Mark S; Gross, William L; Conant, Lisa L; Binder, Jeffrey R

    2015-09-01

    While major advances have been made in uncovering the neural processes underlying perceptual representations, our grasp of how the brain gives rise to conceptual knowledge remains relatively poor. Recent work has provided strong evidence that concepts rely, at least in part, on the same sensory and motor neural systems through which they were acquired, but it is still unclear whether the neural code for concept representation uses information about sensory-motor features to discriminate between concepts. In the present study, we investigate this question by asking whether an encoding model based on five semantic attributes directly related to sensory-motor experience - sound, color, visual motion, shape, and manipulation - can successfully predict patterns of brain activation elicited by individual lexical concepts. We collected ratings on the relevance of these five attributes to the meaning of 820 words, and used these ratings as predictors in a multiple regression model of the fMRI signal associated with the words in a separate group of participants. The five resulting activation maps were then combined by linear summation to predict the distributed activation pattern elicited by a novel set of 80 test words. The encoding model predicted the activation patterns elicited by the test words significantly better than chance. As expected, prediction was successful for concrete but not for abstract concepts. Comparisons between encoding models based on different combinations of attributes indicate that all five attributes contribute to the representation of concrete concepts. Consistent with embodied theories of semantics, these results show, for the first time, that the distributed activation pattern associated with a concept combines information about different sensory-motor attributes according to their respective relevance. Future research should investigate how additional features of phenomenal experience contribute to the neural representation of conceptual

  12. Vector Control Algorithm for Electric Vehicle AC Induction Motor Based on Improved Variable Gain PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration performance of EV, which affects a lot of performances of EV such as start-up, overtaking, driving safety, and ride comfort, has become increasingly popular in recent researches. An improved variable gain PID control algorithm to improve the acceleration performance is proposed in this paper. The results of simulation with Matlab/Simulink demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm through the control performance of motor velocity, motor torque, and three-phase current of motor. Moreover, it is investigated that the proposed controller is valid by comparison with the other PID controllers. Furthermore, the AC induction motor experiment set is constructed to verify the effect of proposed controller.

  13. Optimum torque control of a two-phase asymmetric induction motor fed with controlled currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, M.A.A.; Andrade, D.A.; Martins Neto, L.; Bissochi, C.A. Jr [Univ. of Uberlandia, Dept. of Electrical Engineering (Brazil)

    2000-08-01

    This work presents an analysis of the behaviour of a too phase asymmetrical induction motor fed with controlled currents, with a view to torque control. The mathematical model of the asymmetric two-phase motor in the reference frame ab/AB with no transformation of co-ordinates presented. Optimum torque control is obtained with vector control technique, and the conditions to obtain vector control are outlined. Digital simulation is performed under different conditions as follows: balanced and unbalanced voltage supply, amplitude control of the stator mmf and vector control. The possibility for high dynamic performance using the asymmetrical induction machine is shown to be easily obtainable. (orig.)

  14. Low speed phaselock speed control system. [for brushless dc motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, R. W.; Sudey, J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A motor speed control system for an electronically commutated brushless dc motor is provided which includes a phaselock loop with bidirectional torque control for locking the frequency output of a high density encoder, responsive to actual speed conditions, to a reference frequency signal, corresponding to the desired speed. The system includes a phase comparator, which produces an output in accordance with the difference in phase between the reference and encoder frequency signals, and an integrator-digital-to-analog converter unit, which converts the comparator output into an analog error signal voltage. Compensation circuitry, including a biasing means, is provided to convert the analog error signal voltage to a bidirectional error signal voltage which is utilized by an absolute value amplifier, rotational decoder, power amplifier-commutators, and an arrangement of commutation circuitry.

  15. Operating experience and aging assessment of motor control centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program (NPAR), an assessment was made of the characteristics of aging and service wear of motor control centers (MCCs). MCCs perform an important function in the operation and control of a large number of safety-related motors; thus, the operability and reliability of MCCs can impact the overall safety of nuclear plants. This report follows the NPAR strategy and investigates the operational performance, the design and manufacturing methods, and the current maintenance, surveillance and monitoring techniques of MCCs. A significant result described in this report concerns the identification of important MCC failure modes, causes, and mechanisms from plant operational experience. Frequencies of failure determined for the various subcomponents of MCCs also are described. In addition, recommendations are provided for functional indicators to monitor the performance of MCCs. 22 refs., 27 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Study of Predictive Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belda, Květoslav

    Szczecin: West Pomeranian University of Technology, 2012, s. 522-527. ISBN 978-1-4673-2123-5. [17th International Conference on Methods and Models in Automation and Robotics . Miedzyzdroje (PL), 27.08.2012-30.08.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0437 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : PMSM drive * Predictive control * three-phase system Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/AS/belda-study of predictive control for permanent magnet synchronous motor drives.pdf

  17. Fuzzy Decsion Based Soft Multi Agent Controller for Speed Control of Three Phase Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathod Nirali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft Multi agent controllers are used for control of complex systems. Induction motor is widely used inindustrial applications. But due to its highly non linear behavior its control is very complex. Non linearspeed control techniques are employed to improve dynamic performance of electric drives.Paper describes multi agent based approach to control speed of Induction motor. Design and simulationof Multi Agent System is developed for Indirect vector controlled 3-phase Induction motor. Soft computingtechniques are used for implementation. Three types of controllers: Classical controller (PI, Fuzzy (FLC& Neural Network ANN are constitutant of the Multi Agent system. Simulated speed responses parametersviz: rise time, steady state error and overshoot of SIMULINK models are used to make by a fuzzy logic isused to select the best controller from the constituents.

  18. FPGA-Based Implementation Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Saber Krim; Soufien Gdaim; Abdellatif Mtibaa; Mohamed Faouzi Mimouni

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a digital implementation of the direct torque control (DTC) of an Induction Motor (IM) with an observation strategy on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The hardware solution based on the FPGA is caracterised by fast processing speed due to the parallel processing. In this study the FPGA is used to overcome the limitation of the software solutions (Digital Signal Processor (DSP) and Microcontroller). Also, the DTC of IM has many drawbacks such as for example; The o...

  19. Robust Precision Positioning Control on Linear Ultrasonic Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Minh H-T; Tan, Kok Kiong; Liang, Wenyu; Teo, Chek Sing

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic motors used in high-precision mechatronics are characterized by strong frictional effects, which are among the main problems in precision motion control. The traditional methods apply model-based nonlinear feedforward to compensate the friction, thus requiring closed-loop stability and safety constraint considerations. Implementation of these methods requires complex designed experiments. This paper introduces a systematic approach using piecewise affine models to emulate the frict...

  20. Neuromodulation of lower limb motor control in restorative neurology

    OpenAIRE

    Minassian, Karen; Hofstoetter, Ursula; Tansey, Keith; Mayr, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    One consequence of central nervous system injury or disease is the impairment of neural control of movement, resulting in spasticity and paralysis. To enhance recovery, restorative neurology procedures modify altered, yet preserved nervous system function. This review focuses on functional electrical stimulation (FES) and spinal cord stimulation (SCS) that utilize remaining capabilities of the distal apparatus of spinal cord, peripheral nerves and muscles in upper motor neuron dysfunctions. F...

  1. Study on Rotor IGBT Chopper Control for Induction Motor Drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Rotor chopper control is a simple and effective drive method for induction motor. This paper presents a novel IGBT chopper topology,which can both adjust rotor resistance and protect IGBT efficiently. Investigation on the quasi-transient state of the rotor rectifying circuit is made, and a nonlinear mapping between the equivalent resistance and the duty cycle is deduced. Furthermore, the method for determining the magnitude of the external resistor is introduced.

  2. Inter-examiner reproducibility of tests for lumbar motor control

    OpenAIRE

    Elkjaer Arne; Remvig Lars; Kjaer Per; Enoch Flemming; Juul-Kristensen Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many studies show a relation between reduced lumbar motor control (LMC) and low back pain (LBP). However, test circumstances vary and during test performance, subjects may change position. In other words, the reliability - i.e. reproducibility and validity - of tests for LMC should be based on quantitative data. This has not been considered before. The aim was to analyse the reproducibility of five different quantitative tests for LMC commonly used in daily clinical practi...

  3. Mechanisms of motor adaptation in reactive balance control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrence D J Welch

    Full Text Available Balance control must be rapidly modified to provide stability in the face of environmental challenges. Although changes in reactive balance over repeated perturbations have been observed previously, only anticipatory postural adjustments preceding voluntary movements have been studied in the framework of motor adaptation and learning theory. Here, we hypothesized that adaptation occurs in task-level balance control during responses to perturbations due to central changes in the control of both anticipatory and reactive components of balance. Our adaptation paradigm consisted of a Training set of forward support-surface perturbations, a Reversal set of novel countermanding perturbations that reversed direction, and a Washout set identical to the Training set. Adaptation was characterized by a change in a motor variable from the beginning to the end of each set, the presence of aftereffects at the beginning of the Washout set when the novel perturbations were removed, and a return of the variable at the end of the Washout to a level comparable to the end of the Training set. Task-level balance performance was characterized by peak center of mass (CoM excursion and velocity, which showed adaptive changes with repetitive trials. Only small changes in anticipatory postural control, characterized by body lean and background muscle activity were observed. Adaptation was found in the evoked long-latency muscular response, and also in the sensorimotor transformation mediating that response. Finally, in each set, temporal patterns of muscle activity converged towards an optimum predicted by a trade-off between maximizing motor performance and minimizing muscle activity. Our results suggest that adaptation in balance, as well as other motor tasks, is mediated by altering central sensitivity to perturbations and may be driven by energetic considerations.

  4. Electric drive; Motor and controller technology in detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, K.

    The inclusion of urban electric cars into the automotive car makers' product range presses home a need for automotive engineers to extend their working knowledge and appreciation of the various trends in electric car development. This article presents basic information on motors, characteristics and performance, controllers and systems, batteries and drive train, together with a look at what car makers are doing. (author)

  5. Construction of AC Motor Controllers for NOvA Experiment Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Cooley, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    I have been constructing Alternating Current (AC) motor controllers for manipulation of particle beam detectors. The capability and reliability of these motor controllers are essential to the Laboratory's mission of accurate analysis of the particle beam's position. The device is moved in and out of the beam's path by the motor controller followed by the Neutrinos at the Main Injector Off-Axis {\

  6. The brain decade in debate: VI. Sensory and motor maps: dynamics and plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Das

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an edited transcription of a virtual symposium promoted by the Brazilian Society of Neuroscience and Behavior (SBNeC. Although the dynamics of sensory and motor representations have been one of the most studied features of the central nervous system, the actual mechanisms of brain plasticity that underlie the dynamic nature of sensory and motor maps are not entirely unraveled. Our discussion began with the notion that the processing of sensory information depends on many different cortical areas. Some of them are arranged topographically and others have non-topographic (analytical properties. Besides a sensory component, every cortical area has an efferent output that can be mapped and can influence motor behavior. Although new behaviors might be related to modifications of the sensory or motor representations in a given cortical area, they can also be the result of the acquired ability to make new associations between specific sensory cues and certain movements, a type of learning known as conditioning motor learning. Many types of learning are directly related to the emotional or cognitive context in which a new behavior is acquired. This has been demonstrated by paradigms in which the receptive field properties of cortical neurons are modified when an animal is engaged in a given discrimination task or when a triggering feature is paired with an aversive stimulus. The role of the cholinergic input from the nucleus basalis to the neocortex was also highlighted as one important component of the circuits responsible for the context-dependent changes that can be induced in cortical maps.

  7. Non-invasive brain stimulation: enhancing motor and cognitive functions in healthy old subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Zimerman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is accompanied by changes in cognitive and motor functions that result in impairment of activities of daily living. This process involves a number of modifications in the brain and is associated with metabolic, structural and physiological changes; some of these serving as adaptive responses to the functional declines. Up to date there are no universally accepted strategies to ameliorate declining functions in this population. An essential basis to develop such strategies is a better understanding of neuroplastic changes during healthy aging. In this context, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current or transcranial magnetic stimulation, provide an attractive option to modulate cortical neuronal assemblies, even with subsequent changes in neuroplasticity. Thus, in the present review we discuss the use of these techniques as a tool to study underlying cortical mechanisms during healthy aging and as an interventional strategy to enhance declining functions and learning abilities in aged subjects.

  8. Performance Enhancement of PID Controllers by Modern Optimization Techniques for Speed Control of PMBL DC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antony Freeda Rani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Permanent Magnet Brushless DC motor (PMBL DC is used in a large number of industrial and automotive applications because of their high efficiency, compactness and excellent reliability. However to design an efficient PMBL DC motor, it is necessary to provide an effective controller that has to reduce the overshoot, settling and rise time. In this study, an improved PID controller has been designed by optimizing the parameters of PID controller based on two advanced optimization techniques ANFIS and Cuckoo Search optimization for speed control of a PMBL DC motor. The proposed approach has superior features, including easy implementation, stable convergence characteristic and good computational efficiency. The PMBL DC motor is modeled in SIMULINK implementing the algorithms in MATLAB and the performance evaluation has been studied.

  9. Speed Sensorless Vector Control of Induction Motor Drive with PI and Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gunabalan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper directed the speed-sensorless vector control of induction motor drive with PI and fuzzy controllers.  Natural observer with fourth order state space model is employed to estimate the speed and rotor fluxes of the induction motor. The formation of the natural observer is similar to and as well as its attribute is identical to the induction motor. Load torque adaptation is provided to estimate the torque and rotor speed is estimated from the load torque, rotor fluxes and stator currents. There is no direct feedback in natural observer and also observer gain matrix is absent. Both the induction motor and the observer are characterized by state space model. Simple fuzzy logic controller and conventional PI controllers are used to control the speed of the induction motor in closed loop. MATLAB simulations are made with PI and fuzzy controllers and the performance of fuzzy controller is better than PI controller in view of torque ripples. The simulation results are obtained for various running conditions to exhibit the suitability of this method for sensorless vector control. Experimental results are provided for natual observer based sensorless vector control with conventional PI controller.

  10. Evaluation of a modified Fitts law brain-computer interface target acquisition task in able and motor disabled individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, E. A.; Radwin, R. G.; Wilson, J. A.; Williams, J. C.

    2009-10-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a communication system that takes recorded brain signals and translates them into real-time actions, in this case movement of a cursor on a computer screen. This work applied Fitts' law to the evaluation of performance on a target acquisition task during sensorimotor rhythm-based BCI training. Fitts' law, which has been used as a predictor of movement time in studies of human movement, was used here to determine the information transfer rate, which was based on target acquisition time and target difficulty. The information transfer rate was used to make comparisons between control modalities and subject groups on the same task. Data were analyzed from eight able-bodied and five motor disabled participants who wore an electrode cap that recorded and translated their electroencephalogram (EEG) signals into computer cursor movements. Direct comparisons were made between able-bodied and disabled subjects, and between EEG and joystick cursor control in able-bodied subjects. Fitts' law aptly described the relationship between movement time and index of difficulty for each task movement direction when evaluated separately and averaged together. This study showed that Fitts' law can be successfully applied to computer cursor movement controlled by neural signals.

  11. Development and Implementation of Brush less DC Motor Controllers Based on Intelligent Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Hyun [Pusan Junior College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Kiu [Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent controller for brush less DC motor and load with unknown nonlinear dynamics. The proposed intelligent control system consists of a plant identifier and PID controller with varying gains. The identifier is constructed using an Auto Regressive Moving Average(ARMA) model. In order to tune the parameters of the identifier and the gains of the PID controller efficiently, we also propose a modified Evolution Strategy. Experimental results show that the proposed intelligent controller for brush less DC motor has good control performance under unknown disturbance. (author). 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Universal adaptive torque control for PM motors for field-weakening region operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royak, Semyon (Beachwood, OH); Harbaugh, Mark M. (Richfield, OH); Breitzmann, Robert J. (South Russel, OH); Nondahl, Thomas A. (Wauwatosa, WI); Schmidt, Peter B. (Franklin, WI); Liu, Jingbo (Milwaukee, WI)

    2011-03-29

    The invention includes a motor controller and method for controlling a permanent magnet motor. In accordance with one aspect of the present technique, a permanent magnet motor is controlled by, among other things, receiving a torque command, determining a normalized torque command by normalizing the torque command to a characteristic current of the motor, determining a normalized maximum available voltage, determining an inductance ratio of the motor, and determining a direct-axis current based upon the normalized torque command, the normalized maximum available voltage, and the inductance ratio of the motor.

  13. Contouring Control for a CNC Milling Machine Driven by Direct thrust Controlled Linear Induction Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled N. Faris; Hala S. Khalil,; Khaled S. Sakkoury

    2015-01-01

    According to various advantages of linear induction motor (LIM), such as high starting thrust force, high speed operation and reduction of mechanical losses, more applications have utilized this type of motors. Direct Thrust Control (DTC) technique is considered as one of the most efficient techniques that can be used for LIM. DTC is preferable to give a fast and good dynamic thrust response. So, to improve the accuracy and robustness of contouring control for CNC mach...

  14. Research of Control Method for Improving Mechanical Performance of Winding Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhao-zhang; YANG Zheng-lin

    2002-01-01

    A reformed PHD (Proportional-Integral- Differential)motor controller is developed for the ideal winding performance. It is verified that the PHD motor controller can largely improve the mechanical performance and raise the production efficiency by means of the test of a winding production system driven by a motor with high internal resistance rotator. It indicates that improving the control method is one of the most effective ways to improve the winding performance of the motor in winding production.

  15. Microcontroller based PWM Inverter for Speed Control of a Three Phase Induction Motor

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Latif; M.J. Alam; Rashid, M. A.; Karim, A.; N. H. Ramly; I. Daut

    2013-01-01

    Three phase induction motor has proven to be an extremely reliable electromechanical energy conversion device for over 100 years. The speed control of induction motor is a crying need for the real world industrial applications. However, there are so many options available for the precise speed control of induction motor except by changingthe frequency. Therefore to achieve the goal of speed control of induction motor, there is no alternative of inverters. With the availability of high speed p...

  16. Vector Control of Three-Phase Induction Motor with Two Stator Phases Open-Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hesam Asgari; Mohammad Jannati; Tole Sutikno; Nik Rumzi Nik Idris

    2015-01-01

    Variable frequency drives are used to provide reliable dynamic systems and significant reduction in usage of energy and costs of the induction motors. Modeling and control of faulty or an unbalanced three-phase induction motor is obviously different from healthy three-phase induction motor. Using conventional vector control techniques such as Field-Oriented Control (FOC) for faulty three-phase induction motor, results in a significant torque and speed oscillation. This research presented a no...

  17. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, D. T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The motor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor be regulated by applying a separate control signal and each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  18. LINKING MOTOR-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIALS AND VELOCITY PROFILES IN MULTI-JOINT ARM REACHING MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julià L Amengual

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of the movement related brain potentials (MRPBs needs accurate technical approaches to disentangle the specific patterns of bran activity during the preparation and execution of movements. During the last forty years, synchronizing the electromiographic activation (EMG of the muscle with the electrophysiological recordings (EEG has been commonly ussed for these purposes. However, new clinical approaches in the study of motor diseases and rehabilitation suggest the demand of new paradigms that might go further into the study of the brain activity associated with the kinematics of movement. As a response to this call, we have used a 3-D hand tracking system with the aim to record continuously the position of an ultrasonic sender located on the hand during the performance of multi-joint self-pace movements. We synchronized the time-series of position of velocity of the sender with the EEG recordings, obtaining specific patterns of brain activity as a function of the fluctuations of the kinematics during the natural movement performance. Additionally, the distribution of the brain activity during the preparation and execution phases of movement was similar that reported previously using the EMG, suggesting the validity of our technique. We claim that this paradigm could be usable in patients because of its simplicity and the potential knowledge that can be extracted from clinical protocols.

  19. Motor and cognitive outcome after specific early lesions of the brain - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielkema, Tjitske; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to study motor and cognitive outcome in infants with severe early brain lesions and to evaluate effects of side of the lesion, sex, and social economic status on outcome. A literature search was performed using the databases Pubmed and Embase. Included studies involved infants with either cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL), preterm, or term stroke (i.e. parenchymal lesion of the brain). Outcome was expressed as cerebral palsy (CP) and intellectual disability (mental retardation). Median prevalence rates of CP after cPVL, preterm, and term stroke were 86%, 71%, and 29% respectively; of intellectual disability 50%, 27%, and 33%. Most infants with cPVL developed bilateral CP, those with term stroke unilateral CP, whereas after preterm stroke bilateral and unilateral CP occurred equally often. Information on the effects of sex and social economic status on outcome after specific brain lesions was very limited. Our findings show that the risk for CP is high after cPVL, moderate after preterm stroke, and lowest after term stroke. The risk for intellectual disability after an early brain lesion is lower than that for CP. Predicting outcome at individual level remains difficult; new imaging techniques may improve predicting developmental trajectories. PMID:27027607

  20. Cascade Control Solution for Traction Motor for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsa Preitl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid electric vehicle is considered, which contains both aninternal combustion engine and an electric motor (EM. Without focusing on the othercomponents of the vehicle, the EM is treated in detail, both regarding modelling aspectsand control solutions.After a brief modelling of the plant, two cascade speed control solutions are presented: firsta classical PI+PI cascade control solution is presented. The control systems related totraction electric motors (used in vehicle traction must be able to cope with differentrequests, such as variation of the reference signal, load disturbances which depend on thetransport conditions and parametric disturbances regarding changes in the total mass ofthe vehicle. For this purpose, in the design of the speed controller (external loop a specificmethodology based on extension of the symmetrical optimum method is presented. Thecontrollers are developed using the Modulus–Optimum method for the inner loop, and theExtended Symmetrical Optimum Method, corrected based on the 2p-SO-method, for theouter loop (for a more efficient disturbance rejection.In order to force the behaviour of the system regarding the reference input, a correctionterm is introduced as a non-homogenous structured PI controller solution.Simulations were performed using numerical values taken from a real applicationconsisting in a hybrid vehicle prototype, showing satisfactory behaviour.

  1. Neural Network Controllers in DTC of Synchronous Motor Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar Ambarapu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM have gained numerous industrial applications, because of simple structure, high efficiency and ease of maintenance. But these motors have a nonlinear mathematical model. To resolve this problem several studies have suggested the application of vector control (VC and direct torque control (DTC with soft-computing (SC techniques. This paper presents neuro direct torque control (NDTC of PMSM. Hence this paper aims to present a technique to control speed and torque with reduced ripple compared to previous techniques. The outputs of Artificial Neural Network(ANN controller mechanism is compared with that of classical DTC and the results demonstrate the influence of ANN is improved compared to classical DTC topology. The system is also verified and proved to be operated stably with reduced torque ripple, very low speed, sudden speed reversals, at low torque and at high torque. The proposed method validity and effectiveness has been verified by computer simulations using Matlab/Simulink®. These results are compared with the ones obtained with a classical DTC using PI speed controller.

  2. Neural and Fuzzy Adaptive Control of Induction Motor Drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes an adaptive neural network speed control scheme for an induction motor (IM) drive. The proposed scheme consists of an adaptive neural network identifier (ANNI) and an adaptive neural network controller (ANNC). For learning the quoted neural networks, a back propagation algorithm was used to automatically adjust the weights of the ANNI and ANNC in order to minimize the performance functions. Here, the ANNI can quickly estimate the plant parameters and the ANNC is used to provide on-line identification of the command and to produce a control force, such that the motor speed can accurately track the reference command. By combining artificial neural network techniques with fuzzy logic concept, a neural and fuzzy adaptive control scheme is developed. Fuzzy logic was used for the adaptation of the neural controller to improve the robustness of the generated command. The developed method is robust to load torque disturbance and the speed target variations when it ensures precise trajectory tracking with the prescribed dynamics. The algorithm was verified by simulation and the results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the IM designed controller

  3. Voltage Controller Saves Energy, Prolongs Life of Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In 1985, Power Efficiency Corporation of Las Vegas licensed NASA voltage controller technology from Marshall Space Flight Center. In the following years, Power Efficiency made patented improvements to the technology and marketed the resulting products throughout the world as the Performance Controller and the Power Efficiency energy-saving soft start. Soft start gradually introduces power to an electric motor, thus eliminating the harsh, violent mechanical stresses of having the device go from a dormant state to one of full activity; prevents it from running too hot; and increases the motor's lifetime. The product can pay for itself through the reduction in electricity consumed (according to Power Efficiency, within 3 years), depending on the duty cycle of the motor and the prevailing power rates. In many instances, the purchaser is eligible for special utility rebates for the environmental protection it provides. Common applications of Power Efficiency's soft start include mixers, grinders, granulators, conveyors, crushers, stamping presses, injection molders, elevators with MG sets, and escalators. The device has been retrofitted onto equipment at major department store chains, hotels, airports, universities, and for various manufacturers

  4. 基于fNIRS的运动执行与运动想象脑激活模式比较%Comparison of motor execution and motor imagery brain activation patterns:A fNIRS Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白学军; 张琪涵; 章鹏; 周菘; 刘颖; 宋星; 彭国慧

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that activity in the primary motor cortex relates only to motor execution. However, the extent to which similar activity occurs when imagining motor movements remains to be determined and, while some researchers report activity in the primary motor cortex during both motor execution and motor imagery tasks (e.g.Solodkin et al., 2004; Sharma et al., 2008), others report no effects of motor imagery (e.g., Binkofski et al., 2000; Hanakawa et al., 2003; Hétu et al., 2013). It is still unknown whether brain activation patterns of motor execution and motor imagery are similar, and whether both tasks activate the primary motor cortex. In addition, it is also unclear about the effect of imagination intensity on the primary motor cortex (this effect has been well established in motor execution tasks). Accordingly, the present research investigated the relationship between the intensity of real and imagined exercise on cortical activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), especially in the primary motor cortex. A preliminary assessment used 10 participants (5 male, 5 female), who did not take part in the main experiment, to establish an appropriate level of exercise intensity. For the main experiment, 30 participants (15 male, 15 female) with high imagination ability were selected using the Motor Imagery Questionnaire (Revised). These participants performed a motor execution task in which they actually lifted dumbbells under two levels of exercise intensity (males, 4 pounds and 8 pounds; females, 2 pounds and 4 pounds) and an imagery version of this task in which they imagined lifting dumbbells of these weights. The fNIRS was used to measure cortical changes in oxygen level during the performance of the two tasks. Finally, on completion of the imagery task, the “motor imagery self-assessment questionnaire” was administered to assess the quality of the participants’ imagination. All participants reported that they could imagine

  5. Speed Control of Multi Level Inverter Designed DC Series Motor with Neuro-Fuzzy Controllers

    CERN Document Server

    MadhusudhanaRao, G

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the speed control of a DC series motor for an accurate and high-speed performance. A neural network based controlling operation with fuzzy modeling is suggested in this paper. The driver units of these machines are designed with a Multi-level inverter operation and are controlled by a common current control mechanism for an accurate and efficient driving technique for DC series motor. The neuro-fuzzy logic control technique is introduced to eliminate uncertainties in the plant parameters of the DC Series motors, and also considered as potential candidate for different applications to prove adequacy of the proposed control algorithm through simulations. The simulation result with such an approach is made and observed efficient over other controlling technique.

  6. Improved direct torque control of induction motor with dither injection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Behera; S P Das

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, a three-level inverter-fed induction motor drive operating under Direct Torque Control (DTC) is presented. A triangular wave is used as dither signal of minute amplitude (for torque hysteresis band and flux hysteresis band respectively) in the error block. This method minimizes flux and torque ripple in a three-level inverter fed induction motor drive while the dynamic performance is not affected. The optimal value of dither frequency and magnitude is found out under free running condition. The proposed technique reduces torque ripple by 60% (peak to peak) compared to the case without dither injection, results in low acoustic noise and increases the switching frequency of the inverter. A laboratory prototype of the drive system has been developed and the simulation and experimental results are reported.

  7. Remapping residual coordination for controlling assistive devices and recovering motor functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierella, Camilla; Abdollahi, Farnaz; Farshchiansadegh, Ali; Pedersen, Jessica; Thorp, Elias B; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A; Casadio, Maura

    2015-12-01

    The concept of human motor redundancy attracted much attention since the early studies of motor control, as it highlights the ability of the motor system to generate a great variety of movements to achieve any well-defined goal. The abundance of degrees of freedom in the human body may be a fundamental resource in the learning and remapping problems that are encountered in human-machine interfaces (HMIs) developments. The HMI can act at different levels decoding brain signals or body signals to control an external device. The transformation from neural signals to device commands is the core of research on brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). However, while BMIs bypass completely the final path of the motor system, body-machine interfaces (BoMIs) take advantage of motor skills that are still available to the user and have the potential to enhance these skills through their consistent use. BoMIs empower people with severe motor disabilities with the possibility to control external devices, and they concurrently offer the opportunity to focus on achieving rehabilitative goals. In this study we describe a theoretical paradigm for the use of a BoMI in rehabilitation. The proposed BoMI remaps the user's residual upper body mobility to the two coordinates of a cursor on a computer screen. This mapping is obtained by principal component analysis (PCA). We hypothesize that the BoMI can be specifically programmed to engage the users in functional exercises aimed at partial recovery of motor skills, while simultaneously controlling the cursor and carrying out functional tasks, e.g. playing games. Specifically, PCA allows us to select not only the subspace that is most comfortable for the user to act upon, but also the degrees of freedom and coordination patterns that the user has more difficulty engaging. In this article, we describe a family of map modifications that can be made to change the motor behavior of the user. Depending on the characteristics of the impairment of each

  8. Prefrontal Control over Motor Cortex Cycles at Beta Frequency during Movement Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Picazio, Silvia; Veniero, Domenica; Ponzo, Viviana; Caltagirone, Carlo; Gross, Joachim; Thut, Gregor; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    A fully adapted behavior requires maximum efficiency to inhibit processes in the motor domain [ 1 ]. Although a number of cortical and subcortical brain regions have been implicated, converging evidence suggests that activation of right inferior frontal gyrus (r-IFG) and right presupplementary motor area (r-preSMA) is crucial for successful response inhibition [ 2, 3 ]. However, it is still unknown how these prefrontal areas convey the necessary signal to the primary motor cortex (M1), the co...

  9. Flexible brain network reconfiguration supporting inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy; Banich, Marie T

    2015-08-11

    The ability to inhibit distracting stimuli from interfering with goal-directed behavior is crucial for success in most spheres of life. Despite an abundance of studies examining regional brain activation, knowledge of the brain networks involved in inhibitory control remains quite limited. To address this critical gap, we applied graph theory tools to functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected while a large sample of adults (n = 101) performed a color-word Stroop task. Higher demand for inhibitory control was associated with restructuring of the global network into a configuration that was more optimized for specialized processing (functional segregation), more efficient at communicating the output of such processing across the network (functional integration), and more resilient to potential interruption (resilience). In addition, there were regional changes with right inferior frontal sulcus and right anterior insula occupying more central positions as network hubs, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex becoming more tightly coupled with its regional subnetwork. Given the crucial role of inhibitory control in goal-directed behavior, present findings identifying functional network organization supporting inhibitory control have the potential to provide additional insights into how inhibitory control may break down in a wide variety of individuals with neurological or psychiatric difficulties. PMID:26216985

  10. Robot-assisted motor activation monitored by time-domain optical brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkellner, O.; Wabnitz, H.; Schmid, S.; Steingräber, R.; Schmidt, H.; Krüger, J.; Macdonald, R.

    2011-07-01

    Robot-assisted motor rehabilitation proved to be an effective supplement to conventional hand-to-hand therapy in stroke patients. In order to analyze and understand motor learning and performance during rehabilitation it is desirable to develop a monitor to provide objective measures of the corresponding brain activity at the rehabilitation progress. We used a portable time-domain near-infrared reflectometer to monitor the hemodynamic brain response to distal upper extremity activities. Four healthy volunteers performed two different robot-assisted wrist/forearm movements, flexion-extension and pronation-supination in comparison with an unassisted squeeze ball exercise. A special headgear with four optical measurement positions to include parts of the pre- and postcentral gyrus provided a good overlap with the expected activation areas. Data analysis based on variance of time-of-flight distributions of photons through tissue was chosen to provide a suitable representation of intracerebral signals. In all subjects several of the four detection channels showed a response. In some cases indications were found of differences in localization of the activated areas for the various tasks.

  11. Whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral arteriovenous malformations involving the motor pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate cortical, basal ganglia and cerebellar activation in patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) involving the motor pathways, we studied ten patients (six male, four female, mean age 30.3 years, range 7.4-44.1) by whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a 1.5-T scanner with the EPI-BOLD-technique. In seven cases multiple fMRI studies were available, acquired in the course of the multi-session endovascular interventional treatment. Self-paced right- and left-handed finger-tapping tasks were used to invoke activation. In six patients a super-selective amytal test (Wada test) was performed during diagnostic pre-interventional angiography studies. Abnormal cortical activation patterns, with activation of the primary sensorimotor area, the supplementary motor area and/or the cerebellum shifted to unphysiological locations, were found in four patients. In all cases, localization of the AVM could account for the changes from the normal. After endovascular procedures, fMRI demonstrated shifts in the activation pattern in three patients. In the six patients that had undergone fMRI studies and the Wada test, both methods yielded comparable results. The fact that AVMs are structural anomalies for which the brain can partly compensate ('plasticity') was underlined by these results. fMRI is a valuable tool in the pre-therapeutic evaluation and post-interventional follow-up of patients with cerebral AVMs in whom an operation or an endovascular procedure is planned. (orig.)

  12. Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease dissociates mood and motor circuits: a functional MRI case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefurak, Taresa; Mikulis, David; Mayberg, Helen; Lang, Anthony E; Hevenor, Stephanie; Pahapill, Peter; Saint-Cyr, Jean; Lozano, Andres

    2003-12-01

    Behavioral disturbances have been reported with subthalamic (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). We report correlative functional imaging (fMRI) of mood and motor responses induced by successive right and left DBS. A 36-year-old woman with medically refractory PD and a history of clinically remitted depression underwent uncomplicated implantation of bilateral STN DBS. High-frequency stimulation of the left electrode improved motor symptoms. Unexpectedly, right DBS alone elicited several reproducible episodes of acute depressive dysphoria. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) imaging was carried out with sequential individual electrode stimulation. The electrode on the left was within the inferior STN, whereas the right electrode was marginally superior and lateral to the intended STN target within the Fields of Forel/zona incerta. fMRI image analysis (Analysis of Functional NeuroImages, AFNI) contrasting OFF versus ON stimulation identified significant lateralized blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes with DBS (P disturbance resolved spontaneously in 4 weeks despite identical stimulation parameters. Transient depressive mood induced by subcortical DBS stimulation was correlated with changes in mesolimbic cortical structures. This case provides new evidence supporting cortical segregation of motor and nonmotor cortico-basal ganglionic systems that may converge in close proximity at the level of the STN and the adjacent white matter tracts (Fields of Forel/zona incerta). PMID:14673888

  13. Identification and robust control of an experimental servo motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, E J; Guestrin, E D

    2002-04-01

    In this work, the design of a robust controller for an experimental laboratory-scale position control system based on a dc motor drive as well as the corresponding identification and robust stability analysis are presented. In order to carry out the robust design procedure, first, a classic closed-loop identification technique is applied and then, the parametrization by internal model control is used. The model uncertainty is evaluated under both parametric and global representation. For the latter case, an interesting discussion about the conservativeness of this description is presented by means of a comparison between the uncertainty disk and the critical perturbation radius approaches. Finally, conclusions about the performance of the experimental system with the robust controller are discussed using comparative graphics of the controlled variable and the Nyquist stability margin as a robustness measurement. PMID:12071255

  14. Model-Based Torque Control of Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Motors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors (PUMs) are ideal actuators for a variety of spaced-based robotics applications. These motors replace conventional drive systems...

  15. Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor with Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaf Salloum Gaeid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The matrix converter (MC with direct torque control (DTC combination is efficient way to get better performance specifications in the industry. The MC and the DTC advantages are combined together. The reduction of complexity and cost of DC link in the DTC since it has no capacitors in the circuit. However, the controlling torque is a big problem it in DTC because of high ripple torque production which results in vibrations response in the operation of the iductuction motor as it has no PID to control the torque directly. To overcome this, a combination of MC with DTC is applied to reduce the fluctuation in the output torque and minimize the steady state error. This paper presents the simulation analysis of induction machine drives using Maltlab/Simulink toolbox R2012a. Design of DTC induction motor drive, MC with constant switching frequency, speed controller and stability investigation as well as controllability and observabilty with minimum final prediction (FPE steady state error and loss functionality has been carried out precisely.

  16. Energy efficiency in speed control system for induction motors; Eficiencia energetica em sistema de controle de velocidade em motores de inducao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Arlete Vieira da; Ribeiro, Elisangela do Nascimento; Tenorio, Iana Cavalcanti; Horta, Mario Marcos Brito [Centro Universitario de Belo Horizonte (UnBH), MG (Brazil)], e-mails: arlete.silva@prof.unibh.br, nr.elisangela@gmail.com, ianactenorio@gmail.com, mario_bhorta@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    This work has as objective the study of energy efficiency of induction motors fed by frequency inverters, since this is a practical resource that has progressively allowed the replacement of mechanical speed reducers. In this work the speed control of induction motors of the squirrel cage has steeped through the frequency inverters using scalar control. Induction motors are frequently used in industrial applications due to its simple construction, its low maintenance and reduced in size. It was possible through tests made at UNI-BH Electrical Engineering laboratory to obtain satisfactory results regarding the performance of the inverter CFW08 (WEG), speed control of induction motor. (author)

  17. Hand grips strength effect on motor function in human brain using fMRI: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several methods of motor tasks for fMRI scanning have been evolving from simple to more complex tasks. Motor tasks on upper extremity were applied in order to excite the increscent of motor activation on contralesional and ipsilateral hemispheres in brain. The main objective of this study is to study the different conditions for motor tasks on upper extremity that affected the brain activation. Ten healthy right handed with normal vision (3 male and 7 female, age range=20-30 years, mean=24.6 years, SD=2.21) participated in this study. Prior to the scanning, participants were trained on hand grip tasks using rubber ball and pressure gauge tool outside the scanner. During fMRI session, a block design with 30-s task blocks and alternating 30-s rest periods was employed while participants viewed a computer screen via a back projection-mirror system and instructed to follow the instruction by gripping their hand with normal and strong grips using a rubber ball. Statistical Parametric mapping (SPM8) software was used to determine the brain activation. Both tasks activated the primary motor (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal and ventral of premotor cortex area (PMA) in left hemisphere while in right hemisphere the area of primary motor (M1) somatosensory was activated. However, the comparison between both tasks revealed that the strong hand grip showed the higher activation at M1, PMA and SMA on left hemisphere and also the area of SMA on right hemisphere. Both conditions of motor tasks could provide insights the functional organization on human brain

  18. Hand grips strength effect on motor function in human brain using fMRI: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, S. S.; Mohamad, M.; Syazarina, S. O.; Nafisah, W. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Several methods of motor tasks for fMRI scanning have been evolving from simple to more complex tasks. Motor tasks on upper extremity were applied in order to excite the increscent of motor activation on contralesional and ipsilateral hemispheres in brain. The main objective of this study is to study the different conditions for motor tasks on upper extremity that affected the brain activation. Ten healthy right handed with normal vision (3 male and 7 female, age range=20-30 years, mean=24.6 years, SD=2.21) participated in this study. Prior to the scanning, participants were trained on hand grip tasks using rubber ball and pressure gauge tool outside the scanner. During fMRI session, a block design with 30-s task blocks and alternating 30-s rest periods was employed while participants viewed a computer screen via a back projection-mirror system and instructed to follow the instruction by gripping their hand with normal and strong grips using a rubber ball. Statistical Parametric mapping (SPM8) software was used to determine the brain activation. Both tasks activated the primary motor (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal and ventral of premotor cortex area (PMA) in left hemisphere while in right hemisphere the area of primary motor (M1) somatosensory was activated. However, the comparison between both tasks revealed that the strong hand grip showed the higher activation at M1, PMA and SMA on left hemisphere and also the area of SMA on right hemisphere. Both conditions of motor tasks could provide insights the functional organization on human brain.

  19. Minimizing motor mimicry by myself: self-focus enhances online action-control mechanisms during motor contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Stephanie; Brass, Marcel; Kühn, Simone; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

    2010-03-01

    Ideomotor theory of human action control proposes that activation of a motor representation can occur either through internally-intended or externally-perceived actions. Critically, sometimes these alternatives of eliciting a motor response may be conflicting, for example, when intending one action and perceiving another, necessitating the recruitment of enhanced action-control to avoid motor mimicry. Based on previous neuroimaging evidence, suggesting that reduced mimicry is associated with self-related processing, we aimed to experimentally enhance these action-control mechanisms during motor contagion by inducing self-focus. In two within-subjects experiments, participants had to enforce their action intention against an external motor contagion tendency under heightened and normal self-focus. During high self-focus participants showed reduced motor mimicry, induced either by mirror self-observation or self-referential judgments. This indicates that a self-focus provoking situation can enhance online action-control mechanisms, needed to resist unintentional motor contagion tendencies and thereby enables a modulation of automatic mirroring responses. PMID:20116291

  20. The challenge of durable brain control in patients with brain-only metastases from breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nieder, Carsten; Oehlke, Oliver; Hintz, Mandy; Grosu, Anca L.

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of patients with brain metastases from breast cancer have extracranial metastases, e.g., in the liver, lungs or bones, with serious impact on prognosis. Limited research has been performed on patients with brain-only disease. We analyzed patterns of treatment, brain control and survival in uni- and multivariate analyses. All 25 patients with brain-only disease were treated with radiotherapy (whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with or without stereotactic radiotherap...

  1. The Changes in the Hemodynamic Activity of the Brain during Motor Imagery Training with the Use of Brain-Computer Interface1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Silchenko, A.V.; Tintěra, J.; Rydlo, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-12. ISSN 0362-1197 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0070 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) EE.2.3.20.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : brain-computer interface * motor imagery * hemodynamic activity * brain plasticity * functional MRI Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  2. Assessing the feasibility of time-resolved fNIRS to detect brain activity during motor imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalmalak, Androu; Milej, Daniel; Diop, Mamadou; Naci, Lorina; Owen, Adrian M.; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2016-03-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive optical technique for detecting brain activity, which has been previously used during motor and motor executive tasks. There is an increasing interest in using fNIRS as a brain computer interface (BCI) for patients who lack the physical, but not the mental, ability to respond to commands. The goal of this study is to assess the feasibility of time-resolved fNIRS to detect brain activity during motor imagery. Stability tests were conducted to ensure the temporal stability of the signal, and motor imagery data were acquired on healthy subjects. The NIRS probes were placed on the scalp over the premotor cortex (PMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA), as these areas are responsible for motion planning. To confirm the fNIRS results, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the same task. Seven subjects have participated to date, and significant activation in the SMA and/or the PMC during motor imagery was detected by both fMRI and fNIRS in 4 of the 7 subjects. No activation was detected by either technique in the remaining three participants, which was not unexpected due to the nature of the task. The agreement between the two imaging modalities highlights the potential of fNIRS as a BCI, which could be adapted for bedside studies of patients with disorders of consciousness.

  3. Power Efficient Higher Order Sliding Mode Control of SR Motor for Speed Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rafiq

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel scheme for speed regulation/tracking of Switched Reluctance (SR motors based on Higher-Order Sliding-Mode technique. In particular, a Second-Order Sliding-Mode Controller (SOSMC based on Super Twisting algorithm is devel-oped. Owing to the peculiar structural properties of SRM, torque produced by each motor phase is a function of phase current as well as rotor position. More importantly, unlike many other motors the polarity of the phase torque in SR motors is solely determined by the rotor position and is independent of the polarity of the applied voltage or phase current. The proposed controller takes advantage of this property and incorporates a commutation scheme which, at any time instant, selects only those motor phases for the computation of control law, which can contribute torque of the desired polarity at that instant. This feature helps in achieving the desired speed regulation/tracking objective in a power efficient manner as control efforts are applied through selective phases and counterproductive phases are left un-energized. This approach also minimizes the power loss in the motor windings thus reducing the heat generation within the motor. In order to highlight the advantages of Higher-Order Sliding-Mode controllers, a classical First-Order Sliding-Mode controller (FOSMC is also developed and applied to the same system. The comparison of the two schemes shows much reduced chattering in case of SOSMC. The performance of the proposed SOSMC controller for speed regulation is also compared with that of another sliding mode speed controller published in the literature.

  4. Stabilizing sliding mode control design and application for a dc motor: Speed control

    OpenAIRE

    Rhif, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The regulation by sliding mode control (SMC) is recognized for its qualities of robustness and dynamic response. This article will briefly talk about the regulation principles by sliding mode as well as the application of this approach to the adjustment of a speed control DC motor bench using the TY36A/EV unit. This unit, from Electronica Veneta products, uses a PID controller to control the speed and position of the DC motor. Our purpose is to improve the set time answer and the robustness o...

  5. An improved Direct Adaptive Fuzzy controller for an uncertain DC Motor Speed Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Chunjie Zhou; Shuang Huang; Quan Yin; Duc Cuong Quach

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an improved Direct Adaptive Fuzzy (IDAF) controller applied to general control DC motor speed system. In particular, an IDAF algorithm is designed to control an uncertain DC motor speed to track a given reference signal. In fact, the quality of the control system depends significantly on the amount of fuzzy rules-fuzzy sets and the updating coefficient of the adaptive rule. This can be observed clearly by the system error when the reference input is constant and out ...

  6. SIMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CURRENT CONTROL OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR BASED ON A COMMON DC SIGNAL

    OpenAIRE

    J.Karthikeyan; Dr.R.Dhanasekaran

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project is to build a simple current controlled modulation technique for brushless dc motors. In electric traction and most other applications, a wide range of speed and torque control of the electric motor is required. The dc machine fulfills these requirements, but the dc machine requires constant maintenance. But the brushless permanent magnet motors do not have brushes and so they require less maintenance only. Brushless dc motors are widely used in applications whic...

  7. A Novel Control Algorithm Expressions Set for not Negligible Resistive Parameters PM Brushless AC Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, Renato; Andrea DEL PIZZO; Ivan SPINA

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with Permanent Magnet Brushless Motors. In particular is proposed a new set of control algorithm expressions that is realized taking into account resistive parameters of the motor, differently from simplified models of this type of motors where these parameters are usually neglected. The control is set up and an analysis of the performance is reported in the paper, where the validation of the new expressions is done with reference to a motor prototype particularly compact bec...

  8. Using ipsilateral motor signals in the unaffected cerebral hemisphere as a signal platform for brain-computer interfaces in hemiplegic stroke survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, David T.; Wronkiewicz, Mark; Sharma, Mohit; Moran, Daniel W.; Corbetta, Maurizio; Leuthardt, Eric C.

    2012-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems have emerged as a method to restore function and enhance communication in motor impaired patients. To date, this has been applied primarily to patients who have a compromised motor outflow due to spinal cord dysfunction, but an intact and functioning cerebral cortex. The cortical physiology associated with movement of the contralateral limb has typically been the signal substrate that has been used as a control signal. While this is an ideal control platform in patients with an intact motor cortex, these signals are lost after a hemispheric stroke. Thus, a different control signal is needed that could provide control capability for a patient with a hemiparetic limb. Previous studies have shown that there is a distinct cortical physiology associated with ipsilateral, or same-sided, limb movements. Thus far, it was unknown whether stroke survivors could intentionally and effectively modulate this ipsilateral motor activity from their unaffected hemisphere. Therefore, this study seeks to evaluate whether stroke survivors could effectively utilize ipsilateral motor activity from their unaffected hemisphere to achieve this BCI control. To investigate this possibility, electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were recorded from four chronic hemispheric stroke patients as they performed (or attempted to perform) real and imagined hand tasks using either their affected or unaffected hand. Following performance of the screening task, the ability of patients to utilize a BCI system was investigated during on-line control of a one-dimensional control task. Significant ipsilateral motor signals (associated with movement intentions of the affected hand) in the unaffected hemisphere, which were found to be distinct from rest and contralateral signals, were identified and subsequently used for a simple online BCI control task. We demonstrate here for the first time that EEG signals from the unaffected hemisphere, associated with overt and

  9. Ravens, New Caledonian crows and jackdaws parallel great apes in motor self-regulation despite smaller brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabadayi, Can; Taylor, Lucy A; von Bayern, Auguste M P; Osvath, Mathias

    2016-04-01

    Overriding motor impulses instigated by salient perceptual stimuli represent a fundamental inhibitory skill. Such motor self-regulation facilitates more rational behaviour, as it brings economy into the bodily interaction with the physical and social world. It also underlies certain complex cognitive processes including decision making. Recently, MacLean et al. (MacLean et al. 2014 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, 2140-2148. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1323533111)) conducted a large-scale study involving 36 species, comparing motor self-regulation across taxa. They concluded that absolute brain size predicts level of performance. The great apes were most successful. Only a few of the species tested were birds. Given birds' small brain size-in absolute terms-yet flexible behaviour, their motor self-regulation calls for closer study. Corvids exhibit some of the largest relative avian brain sizes-although small in absolute measure-as well as the most flexible cognition in the animal kingdom. We therefore tested ravens, New Caledonian crows and jackdaws in the so-called cylinder task. We found performance indistinguishable from that of great apes despite the much smaller brains. We found both absolute and relative brain volume to be a reliable predictor of performance within Aves. The complex cognition of corvids is often likened to that of great apes; our results show further that they share similar fundamental cognitive mechanisms. PMID:27152224

  10. Ravens, New Caledonian crows and jackdaws parallel great apes in motor self-regulation despite smaller brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabadayi, Can; Taylor, Lucy A.; von Bayern, Auguste M. P.; Osvath, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Overriding motor impulses instigated by salient perceptual stimuli represent a fundamental inhibitory skill. Such motor self-regulation facilitates more rational behaviour, as it brings economy into the bodily interaction with the physical and social world. It also underlies certain complex cognitive processes including decision making. Recently, MacLean et al. (MacLean et al. 2014 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, 2140–2148. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1323533111)) conducted a large-scale study involving 36 species, comparing motor self-regulation across taxa. They concluded that absolute brain size predicts level of performance. The great apes were most successful. Only a few of the species tested were birds. Given birds' small brain size—in absolute terms—yet flexible behaviour, their motor self-regulation calls for closer study. Corvids exhibit some of the largest relative avian brain sizes—although small in absolute measure—as well as the most flexible cognition in the animal kingdom. We therefore tested ravens, New Caledonian crows and jackdaws in the so-called cylinder task. We found performance indistinguishable from that of great apes despite the much smaller brains. We found both absolute and relative brain volume to be a reliable predictor of performance within Aves. The complex cognition of corvids is often likened to that of great apes; our results show further that they share similar fundamental cognitive mechanisms.

  11. What is the evidence of impaired motor skills and motor control among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, Marie-Laure; Schoemaker, M M; Albaret, J-M; Geuze, R H

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a review of the studies that have analysed the motor skills of ADHD children without medication and the influence of medication on their motor skills. The following two questions guided the study: What is the evidence of impairment of motor skills and aspects of motor control a

  12. Design of Fuzzy PID controller to control DC motor with zero overshoot

    OpenAIRE

    Meenakshi Chourasiya; Prof. Shweta karnik

    2014-01-01

    Most of the real time operation based physical system, digital PID is used in field such as servo-motor/dc motor/temperature control system, robotics, power electronics etc. need to interface with high speed constraints, higher density PLD’s such as FPGA used to integrate several logics on single IC. There are some limitations in it to overcome these limitations Fuzzy logic is introduced with PID and Fuzzy PID is formed. This paper explains experimental design of Fuzzy PID con...

  13. Remote controlled motor drive for hanging mercury drop electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction and working of a motor drive and control unit for making reproducible mercury drops of desired size and breaking them off a Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode (HMDE) are described. The device is useful in voltammetric experiments particularly in connection with pulse radiolysis-polarography where, for safety reasons, the HMDE located close to the radiation beam from the accelerator has to be operated from a distance outside the shielded accelerator cave. The units described here, apart from the HMDE which is a standard accessory in all commercial voltammetric instruments, make use of locally available components and can be easily fabricated on the basis of the details given here. 4 figures. (author)

  14. Study on maximum efficiency control strategy for induction motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two new techniques for effficiency-optimization control (EOC) of induction motor drives were proposed. The first method combined Loss Model and "golden section technique", which was faster than the available methods. Secondly, the low-frequency ripple torque due to decrease of rotor flux was compensated in a feedforward manner. If load torque or speed command changed, the efficiency search algorithm would be abandoned and the rated flux would be established to get the best transient response. The close agreement between the simulation and the experimental results confirmed the validity and usefulness of the proposed techniques.

  15. Challenges in Identifying the Foot Motor Region in Patients with Brain Tumor on Routine MRI: Advantages of fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisicaro, R.A.; Jiao, R.X.; Stathopoulos, C.; Brennan, N.M. Petrovich; Peck, K.K.; Holodny, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Accurate localization of the foot/leg motor homunculus is essential because iatrogenic damage can render a patient wheelchair- or bed-bound. We hypothesized the following: 1) Readers would identify the foot motor homunculus <100% of the time on routine MR imaging, 2) neuroradiologists would perform better than nonradiologists, and 3) those with fMRI experience would perform better than those without it. MATERIALSANDMETHODS Thirty-five attending-level raters (24 neuroradiologists, 11 nonradiologists) evaluated 14 brain tumors involving the frontoparietal convexity. Raters were asked to identify the location of the foot motor homunculus and determine whether the tumor involved the foot motor area and/or motor cortex by using anatomic MR imaging. Results were compared on the basis of prior fMRI experience and medical specialty by using Mann-Whitney U test statistics. RESULTS No rater was 100% correct. Raters correctly identified whether the tumor was in the foot motor cortex 77% of the time. Raters with fMRI experience were significantly better than raters without experience at foot motor fMRI centroid predictions (13 ± 6 mm versus 20 ± 13 mm from the foot motor cortex center, P = 2 × 10−6) and arrow placement in the motor gyrus (67% versus 47%, P = 7 × 10−5). Neuroradiologists were significantly better than nonradiologists at foot motor fMRI centroid predictions (15 ± 8 mm versus 20 ± 14 mm, P = .005) and arrow placement in the motor gyrus (61% versus 46%, P = .008). CONCLUSIONS The inability of experienced readers to consistently identify the location of the foot motor homunculus on routine MR imaging argues for using fMRI in the preoperative setting. Experience with fMRI leads to improved accuracy in identifying anatomic structures, even on routine MR imaging. PMID:25882288

  16. Improved Rotor Speed Brushless DC Motor Using Fuzzy Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar Mostafapour; Jafar Reshadat; Murtaza Farsadi

    2015-01-01

    A brushless DC (BLDC) Motors have advantages over brushed, Direct current (DC) Motors and , Induction motor (IM). They have better speed verses torque characteristics, high dynamic response, high efficiency, long operating life, noiseless operation, higher speed ranges, and rugged construction. Also, torque delivered to motor size is higher, making it useful in application where space and weight are critical factors. With these advantages BLDC motors find wide spread application in automotive...

  17. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Douglas T. (Inventor); Schmitt, Donald E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The rotor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor may be regulated by applying a separate control signal to each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  18. Structural Brain Alterations in Motor Subtypes of Parkinson’s Disease: Evidence from Probabilistic Tractography and Shape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, Griet; Leunissen, Inge; Firbank, Michael; Heremans, Elke; Nackaerts, Evelien; Vandenberghe, Wim; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD) and tremor dominant (TD) subtypes of Parkinson’s disease (PD) show different patterns of alterations in functional connectivity (FC) between specific brain regions. This study aimed to investigate the relation between symptomatic heterogeneity in PD and structural alterations underlying these FC changes. Methods 68 PD patients classified as PIGD (n = 41) or TD (n = 19) and 19 age-matched controls underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Diffusion-weighted images were used to assess fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) at the whole-brain level using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). In addition, structural connectivity was assessed between regions that previously showed altered FC using probabilistic tractography. Anatomical images were used to determine shape and volume of the putamen, caudate and pallidum. Results TBSS revealed widespread FA reductions in PIGD compared to controls involving the superior longitudinal fasciculi and corpus callosum. No such differences were found in TD. Both PD subgroups had increased MD compared to controls in tracts connecting the left caudate with the bilateral ventral putamen. TD patients additionally showed increased MD compared to PIGD and controls in tracts connecting the right inferior parietal lobule with the right premotor and primary motor cortex, which previously showed altered FC. We also found grey matter atrophy in the rostrodorsal head of the caudate in PIGD compared to controls. Conclusion Microstructural changes in white matter tracts, particularly in those connecting striatal sub-areas, partly underlie FC alterations in PD subtypes. Caudate shape alterations further implicate the striatum in PIGD pathophysiology. PMID:27314952

  19. Position Control of Linear Synchronous Motor Drives with Exploitation of Forced Dynamics Control Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Vittek; Peter Buchner; Stephen J. Dodds

    2004-01-01

    Closed-loop position control of mechanisms directly driven by linear synchronous motors with permanent magnets is presented. The control strategy is based on forced dynamic control, which is a form of feedback linearisation, yielding a non-liner multivariable control law to obtain a prescribed linear speed dynamics together with the vector control condition of mutal orthogonality between the stator current and magnetic flux vectors (assuming perfect estimates of the plant parameters). Outer p...

  20. Promoting Neuroplasticity for Motor Rehabilitation After Stroke: Considering the Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Genetic Variation on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Mang, Cameron S.; Campbell, Kristin L.; Ross, Colin J.D.; Boyd, Lara A

    2013-01-01

    Recovery of motor function after stroke involves relearning motor skills and is mediated by neuroplasticity. Recent research has focused on developing rehabilitation strategies that facilitate such neuroplasticity to maximize functional outcome poststroke. Although many molecular signaling pathways are involved, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has emerged as a key facilitator of neuroplasticity involved in motor learning and rehabilitation after stroke. Thus, rehabilitation strategie...

  1. Comparative Study of Controller Design for Four Quadrant Operation of Three Phase BLDC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms.K.Suganya*1

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Brushless DC motor drives are becoming more popular in industrial and traction applications. The control of BLDC motor in four quadrants is very vital. The three-phase permanent magnet brushless dc motor inherently needs an electronic commutation circuit to drive it, because it is not a self-commutating motor. It is contrary to the conventional brush motor which commutates itself. This paper presents a comparison study of three type of control such as PI, PID & fuzzy. The characteristics of the three control methods are investigated intensely and the advantages, disadvantages of each are compared to the others with the help of MATLAB simulink software.

  2. PID Neural Network Based Speed Control of Asynchronous Motor Using Programmable Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARABA, V. A.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the structure and characteristics of PID Neural Network controller for single input and single output systems. PID Neural Network is a new kind of controller that includes the advantages of artificial neural networks and classic PID controller. Functioning of this controller is based on the update of controller parameters according to the value extracted from system output pursuant to the rules of back propagation algorithm used in artificial neural networks. Parameters obtained from the application of PID Neural Network training algorithm on the speed model of the asynchronous motor exhibiting second order linear behavior were used in the real time speed control of the motor. Programmable logic controller (PLC was used as real time controller. The real time control results show that reference speed successfully maintained under various load conditions.

  3. Study on Current Sensorless Vector Control Method for Electric Vehicle Drive Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Shen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the aggravation of environment pollution and the reduction of petroleum resources, the development of electric vehicle (EV draws more and more people’s attention. In the EV research field, that seeking for a high efficient and reliable motor control method that suits the operating conditions and characteristics of the vehicle drive motor has become one of the key techniques that need to be broken through urgently. Owing to the problems that the efficient work area is narrow and it leads to over-current phenomenon when traditional motor vector control method is applied to vehicle drive motor, this paper presents a current sensorless vector control technique for electric vehicle drive motor. According to motor speed and command torque which is gained from the speed loop control, this method directly controls the magnitude and phase angle of voltage vector to realize the orientation control of the magnetic field and then achieve the purpose of controlling the motor torque and speed. The feasibility and effectiveness of this method are verified by simulation results and bench test. Moreover, this method can not only improve the efficient work area, but also increase the reliability of motor control system. At the same time, it overcomes the dependence on the current sensor, circumvents the over-current defect caused by traditional motor vector control approach and reduces its cost. So it is a suitable and efficient control method for electric vehicle drive motor.  

  4. Neuromolecular Imaging Shows Temporal Synchrony Patterns between Serotonin and Movement within Neuronal Motor Circuits in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Broderick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present discourse links the electrical and chemical properties of the brain with neurotransmitters and movement behaviors to further elucidate strategies to diagnose and treat brain disease. Neuromolecular imaging (NMI, based on electrochemical principles, is used to detect serotonin in nerve terminals (dorsal and ventral striata and somatodendrites (ventral tegmentum of reward/motor mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal brain circuits. Neuronal release of serotonin is detected at the same time and in the same animal, freely moving and unrestrained, while open-field behaviors are monitored via infrared photobeams. The purpose is to emphasize the unique ability of NMI and the BRODERICK PROBE® biosensors to empirically image a pattern of temporal synchrony, previously reported, for example, in Aplysia using central pattern generators (CPGs, serotonin and cerebral peptide-2. Temporal synchrony is reviewed within the context of the literature on central pattern generators, neurotransmitters and movement disorders. Specifically, temporal synchrony data are derived from studies on psychostimulant behavior with and without cocaine while at the same time and continuously, serotonin release in motor neurons within basal ganglia, is detected. The results show that temporal synchrony between the neurotransmitter, serotonin and natural movement occurs when the brain is NOT injured via, e.g., trauma, addictive drugs or psychiatric illness. In striking contrast, in the case of serotonin and cocaine-induced psychostimulant behavior, a different form of synchrony and also asynchrony can occur. Thus, the known dysfunctional movement behavior produced by cocaine may well be related to the loss of temporal synchrony, the loss of the ability to match serotonin in brain with motor activity. The empirical study of temporal synchrony patterns in humans and animals may be more relevant to the dynamics of motor circuits and movement behaviors than are studies of

  5. Association between the fMRI manifestations of activated brain areas and muscle strength in patients with space-occupying lesions in motor cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbin Zheng; Xiaoke Chen; Guorui Liu; Renhua Wu

    2006-01-01

    simple active finger-tapping movements, and for the 3 cases whose clinical symptoms were severe in the patient group, the simple passive finger-tapping movements were used. The manifestations in the activated brain areas were analyzed in the patients with brain tumor of different muscle strength and the controls. The motor deficit and activation of contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) in simple finger-tapping movements were observed in the patient group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Brain areas activated by finger-tapping movements in each group; ② Activated volumes in hemisphere by finger-tapping movements between groups.RESULTS: The contralateral M1 area could not be activated in 1 case in the patient group,, all the other 22 patients and 9 healthy subjects were involved in the analysis of results. ① In the control group, unilateral finger tapping movement activated the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1), bilateral SMA and bilateral PMC. The activation volume was the largest in contralateral primary motor cortex (M1), smaller in the SMA,and the smallest in PMC. The finger tapping movement in healthy subjects could activate contralateral primary motor cortex (M1), bilateral SMA and bilateral PMC, which had no obvious differences from the manifestations of brain functional area activated by active finger tapping. There was no significant difference in the volume of activated functional areas between right and left hands. In the patient group, the central sulcus around the tumor in the activated M1 area displaced towards dorsal or ventral side, also extended. The distance of displacement in the functional area was determined as compared with the contralateral central sulcus, and the results suggested the M1 displacement, including that there were 10 cases with the M1 displacement larger than 10 mm in the patients with motor deficit, which were obviously more than in those without motor deficit (n =1, P < 0.01), and the activated volume in contralateral M1 area

  6. Implementation of Brushed DC Motor Control in LabVIEW FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    K. Lamár; A. G. Kocsis

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the fundamentals of motor control. It explains the basic equations and introduces the control diagram of the brushed DC motor. It introduces the four quadrant DC chopper circuit and the basic methods to operate it. After that, it explains the fundamentals of the current control of DC motors and its two basic methods: the pulse width modulation and the hysteresis current control. Finally it gives a short example of the practical implementation of the hysteresis current con...

  7. Controlling DC Motor using Microcontroller (PIC16F72) with PWM

    OpenAIRE

    Shruti Shrivastava1 , Jageshwar Rawat2 , Amit Agrawal3

    2012-01-01

    Motion control plays a vital role in industrial atomization. Different types of motors AC, DC, SERVO or stepper are used depending upon the application; of these DC motors are widely used because of easier controlling. Among the different control methods for DC motor armature voltage control method using pulse width modulation (PWM) is best one. We can realize the PWM using H-bridge built with IGBT switches or transistors. To generate PWM signals we use PIC16F7...

  8. Controlling DC Motor using Microcontroller (PIC16F72 with PWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Shrivastava, Jageshwar Rawat, Amit Agrawal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Motion control plays a vital role in industrial atomization. Different types of motors AC, DC, SERVO or stepper are used depending upon the application; of these DC motors are widely used because of easier controlling. Among the different control methods for DC motor armature voltage control method using pulse width modulation (PWM is best one. We can realize the PWM using H-bridge built with IGBT switches or transistors. Togenerate PWM signals we use PIC16F72 microcontroller.

  9. Realization of Fuzzy Logic Controlled Brushless DC Motor Drives Using Matlab/Simulink

    OpenAIRE

    Çunkas, Mehmet; Aydoğdu, Omer

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient simulation model for fuzzy logic controlled brushless direct current motor drives using Matlab/Simulink is presented. The brushless direct current (BLDC) motor is efficiently controlled by Fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The control algorithms, fuzzy logic and PID are compared. Also, the dynamic characteristics of the BLDC motor (i.e. speed and torque) and as well as currents and voltages of the inverter components are easily observed and analyzed by using the develo...

  10. Implementation of Slip-Controller for Induction Motor Drive Employing Indirect Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ganesan, S. Subamalini, A. Dhinesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A new scheme to design the proportional integral (PI type controller for speed control of a constant Volts/Hz (V/F three phase induction motor drive employing a matrix converter has been presented. An approximate linear model of induction motor operating in constant Volts/Hz scheme is derived and a design example of a slip controller for a three phase motor is presented. Performance of the designed controller is verified with results from simulation using Mat lab

  11. Implementation of Slip-Controller for Induction Motor Drive Employing Indirect Matrix Converter

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ganesan, S. Subamalini, A. Dhinesh

    2014-01-01

    A new scheme to design the proportional integral (PI) type controller for speed control of a constant Volts/Hz (V/F) three phase induction motor drive employing a matrix converter has been presented. An approximate linear model of induction motor operating in constant Volts/Hz scheme is derived and a design example of a slip controller for a three phase motor is presented. Performance of the designed controller is verified with results from simulation using Mat ...

  12. Fuzzy Logic Closed Loop Control of 5 level MLI Driven Three phase Induction motor

    OpenAIRE

    Mulukutla Venkata Subramanyam; P.V.N. Prasad; G.Poornachandra Rao

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals about fuzzy logic control of closed loop controlled five level Multi Level Inverter (MLI) driven three phase induction motor. Three phase Induction motor is most widely used drive in Industries, so needs proper control of speed. Induction motor is fed from five level multilevel inverter which is controlled by fuzzy logic. The closed loop consists of two loops. First inner loop is current loop and second outer loop is speed loop. The torque is varied at different times and cor...

  13. Brain state-dependent closed-loop modulation of paired associative stimulation controlled by sensorimotor desynchronization

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    Vladislav eRoyter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pairing peripheral electrical stimulation (ES and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS increases corticospinal excitability when applied with a specific temporal pattern. When the two stimulation techniques are applied separately, motor imagery (MI-related oscillatory modulation amplifies both ES-related cortical effects -sensorimotor event-related desynchronization (ERD - and TMS-induced peripheral responses - motor-evoked potentials (MEP. However, the influence of brain self-regulation on the associative pairing of these stimulation techniques is still unclear.Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of MI-related ERD during associative ES and TMS on subsequent corticospinal excitability. Method: The paired application of functional electrical stimulation (FES of the extensor digitorum communis (EDC muscle and subsequent single-pulse TMS (110% resting motor threshold of the contralateral primary motor cortex was controlled by beta-band (16-22Hz ERD during motor-imagery of finger extension and applied within a brain-machine interface environment in six healthy subjects. Neural correlates were probed by acquiring the stimulus-response curve (SRC of both MEP peak-to-peak amplitude and area under the curve (AUC before and after the intervention. Result: The application of approximately 150 pairs of associative FES and TMS resulted in a significant increase of MEP amplitudes and AUC, indicating that the induced increase of corticospinal excitability was mediated by the recruitment of additional neuronal pools. MEP increases were brain-state dependent and correlated with beta-band ERD, but not with the background EDC muscle activity; this finding was independent of the FES intensity applied.Conclusion: These results could be relevant for developing closed-loop therapeutic approaches such as the application of brain state-dependent, paired associative stimulation in the context of neurorehabilitation.

  14. A Neuro-Inspired Spike-Based PID Motor Controller for Multi-Motor Robots with Low Cost FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Civit-Balcells

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a neuro-inspired spike-based close-loop controller written in VHDL and implemented for FPGAs. This controller has been focused on controlling a DC motor speed, but only using spikes for information representation, processing and DC motor driving. It could be applied to other motors with proper driver adaptation. This controller architecture represents one of the latest layers in a Spiking Neural Network (SNN, which implements a bridge between robotics actuators and spike-based processing layers and sensors. The presented control system fuses actuation and sensors information as spikes streams, processing these spikes in hard real-time, implementing a massively parallel information processing system, through specialized spike-based circuits. This spike-based close-loop controller has been implemented into an AER platform, designed in our labs, that allows direct control of DC motors: the AER-Robot. Experimental results evidence the viability of the implementation of spike-based controllers, and hardware synthesis denotes low hardware requirements that allow replicating this controller in a high number of parallel controllers working together to allow a real-time robot control.

  15. Modeling and Simulation of Sensorless Speed Control of a Buck Converter Controlled Dc Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagreed M. Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigate a sensorless speed control of a separately excited dc motor fed from a buck type dc-dc converter. The control system is designed in digital technique by using a two dimension look-up table. The performance of the drive system was evaluated by digital simulation using Simulink toolbox of Matlab.

  16. Low-Cost Undergraduate Control Systems Experiments Using Microcontroller-Based Control of a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, M.; Potluri, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents low-cost experiments for a control systems laboratory module that is worth one and a third credits. The experiments are organized around the microcontroller-based control of a permanent magnet dc motor. The experimental setups were built in-house. Except for the operating system, the software used is primarily freeware or free…

  17. Modeling and Simulation of Sensorless Speed Control of a Buck Converter Controlled Dc Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Tagreed M. Ali; Bassim M. H. Jassim

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigate a sensorless speed control of a separately excited dc motor fed from a buck type dc-dc converter. The control system is designed in digital technique by using a two dimension look-up table. The performance of the drive system was evaluated by digital simulation using Simulink toolbox of Matlab.

  18. Development of EPICS based beam-line experimental control employing motor controller for precision positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a Synchrotron Radiation Source the beamline experiments are carried out in radiation prone environment, inside the hutch, which demands to conduct experiments remotely. These experiments involves instrument control and data acquisition from various devices. Another factor which attributes to system complexity is precise positioning of sample and placement of detectors. A large number of stepper motors are engaged for achieving the required precision positioning. This work is a result of development of Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) based control system to interface a stepper motor controller developed indigenously by Laser Electronics Support Division of RRCAT. EPICS is an internationally accepted open source software environment which follows toolkit approach and standard model paradigm. The operator interface for the control system software was implemented using CSS BOY. The system was successfully tested for Ethernet based remote access. The developed control software comprises of an OPI and alarm handler (EPICS ALH). Both OPI and ALH are linked with PV's defined in database files. The development process resulted into a set of EPICS based commands for controlling stepper motor. These commands are independent of operator interface, i.e. stepper motor can be controlled by using these set of commands directly on EPICS prompt. This command set is illustrated in the above table. EPICS Alarm Handler was also tested independently by running these commands on EPIC prompt. If not using ALH, operator can read the alarm status of a PV using 'SEVR' and 'STAT' attributes. (author)

  19. Simultaneous Brain-Cervical Cord fMRI Reveals Intrinsic Spinal Cord Plasticity during Motor Sequence Learning.

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    Shahabeddin Vahdat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The spinal cord participates in the execution of skilled movements by translating high-level cerebral motor representations into musculotopic commands. Yet, the extent to which motor skill acquisition relies on intrinsic spinal cord processes remains unknown. To date, attempts to address this question were limited by difficulties in separating spinal local effects from supraspinal influences through traditional electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Here, for the first time, we provide evidence for local learning-induced plasticity in intact human spinal cord through simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord during motor sequence learning. Specifically, we show learning-related modulation of activity in the C6-C8 spinal region, which is independent from that of related supraspinal sensorimotor structures. Moreover, a brain-spinal cord functional connectivity analysis demonstrates that the initial linear relationship between the spinal cord and sensorimotor cortex gradually fades away over the course of motor sequence learning, while the connectivity between spinal activity and cerebellum gains strength. These data suggest that the spinal cord not only constitutes an active functional component of the human motor learning network but also contributes distinctively from the brain to the learning process. The present findings open new avenues for rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries, as they demonstrate that this part of the central nervous system is much more plastic than assumed before. Yet, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this intrinsic functional plasticity in the spinal cord warrant further investigations.

  20. Direct Vector Control of Induction Motor Based on Sinusoidal PWM Inverter with Fuzzy Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirban Chakraborty

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the speed control scheme of direct vector control of Induction Motor drive (IM drive. The Fuzzy logic controller is (FLC used as the controller part here for the direct vector control of Induction Motor using Sinusoidal PWM Inverter (SPWM. Fuzzy logic controller has become a very popular controlling scheme in the field of Industrial application. The entire module of this IM is divided into several parts such as IM body module, Inverter module, coordinate transformation module and Sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM production module and so on. With the help of this module we can analyze a variety of different simulation waveforms, which provide an effective means for the analysis and design of the IM control system using FLC technique.