WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain mapping

  1. Mapping the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With powerful new technologies such as positron tomography and superconducting quantum interference device that peer through the skull and see the brain at work, neuroscientists seek the wellsprings of thoughts and emotions, the genesis of intelligence and language. A functional map of the brain is thus obtained and its challenge is to move beyond brain structure to create a detailed diagram of which part do what. For that the brain's cartographers rely on a variety of technologies such as positron tomography and superconducting quantum interference devices. Their performances and uses are briefly reviewed. ills

  2. Mapping brain function to brain anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Imaging the human brain, MRI is commonly used to reveal anatomical structure, while PET is used to reveal tissue function. This paper presents a protocol for correlating data between these two imaging modalities; this correlation can provide in vivo regional measurements of brain function which are essential to our understanding of the human brain. The authors propose a general protocol to standardize the acquisition and analysis of functional image data. First, MR and PET images are collected to form three-dimensional volumes of structural and functional image data. Second, these volumes of image data are corrected for distortions inherent in each imaging modality. Third, the image volumes are correlated to provide correctly aligned structural and functional images. The functional images are then mapped onto the structural images in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional representations. Finally, morphometric techniques can be used to provide statistical measures of the structure and function of the human brain

  3. More 'mapping' in brain mapping: statistical comparison of effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Anthony C.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine;

    2003-01-01

    The term 'mapping' in the context of brain imaging conveys to most the concept of localization; that is, a brain map is meant to reveal a relationship between some condition or parameter and specific sites within the brain. However, in reality, conventional voxel-based maps of brain function, or ...

  4. Brain Friendly Techniques: Mind Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Cristine

    2004-01-01

    Mind Mapping can be called the Swiss Army Knife for the brain, a total visual thinking tool or a multi-handed thought catcher. Invented by Tony Buzan in the early 1970s and used by millions around the world, it is a method that can be a part of a techniques repertoire when teaching information literacy, planning, presenting, thinking, and so…

  5. Dynamic brain mapping methodology and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Mucci, A; Eralp, E

    1991-01-01

    Brain mapping has opened important perspectives for the neurophysiological evaluation of patients, for the discrimination of drug effects on the brain and for the study of the relationship between the brain and behavior. Our Dynamic Brain Mapping System is the result of many years of EEG quantification. It was designed as a software-oriented system to favor the largest clinical application and simultaneously stimulate new research objectives. Data collection and analysis procedures are critically important in brain mapping for a good understanding of the results. For clinical use, the maps should answer relevant EEG questions and be interpretable with the consolidated knowledge. Therefore, we have developed a new type of brain mapping technology which is called "Field blending interpolation" mapping offered together with the conventional technology with user-selectable interpolation algorithms. In addition to diagnosis, the use of computer-analyzed EEG and brain mapping can be instrumental in drug monitoring, drug selection and drug discriminations. Prospective studies are, however, required to validate the use of brain mapping in each of these new areas. Spatial analysis is the original goal of brain mapping. The development of a new data collection procedure and analysis will be instrumental in the determination of an adequate time and space resolution. PMID:2010323

  6. Dynamic brain mapping methodology and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Mucci, A; Eralp, E

    1991-01-01

    Brain mapping has opened important perspectives for the neurophysiological evaluation of patients, for the discrimination of drug effects on the brain and for the study of the relationship between the brain and behavior. Our Dynamic Brain Mapping System is the result of many years of EEG quantification. It was designed as a software-oriented system to favor the largest clinical application and simultaneously stimulate new research objectives. Data collection and analysis procedures are critically important in brain mapping for a good understanding of the results. For clinical use, the maps should answer relevant EEG questions and be interpretable with the consolidated knowledge. Therefore, we have developed a new type of brain mapping technology which is called "Field blending interpolation" mapping offered together with the conventional technology with user-selectable interpolation algorithms. In addition to diagnosis, the use of computer-analyzed EEG and brain mapping can be instrumental in drug monitoring, drug selection and drug discriminations. Prospective studies are, however, required to validate the use of brain mapping in each of these new areas. Spatial analysis is the original goal of brain mapping. The development of a new data collection procedure and analysis will be instrumental in the determination of an adequate time and space resolution.

  7. More 'mapping' in brain mapping: statistical comparison of effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Anthony C.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine;

    2003-01-01

    The term 'mapping' in the context of brain imaging conveys to most the concept of localization; that is, a brain map is meant to reveal a relationship between some condition or parameter and specific sites within the brain. However, in reality, conventional voxel-based maps of brain function......, or for that matter of brain structure, are generally constructed using analyses that yield no basis for inferences regarding the spatial nonuniformity of the effects. In the normal analysis path for functional images, for example, there is nowhere a statistical comparison of the observed effect in any voxel relative...... to that in any other voxel. Under these circumstances, strictly speaking, the presence of significant activation serves as a legitimate basis only for inferences about the brain as a unit. In their discussion of results, investigators rarely are content to confirm the brain's role, and instead generally prefer...

  8. Eloquent Brain, Ethical Challenges: Functional Brain Mapping in Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eran

    2015-06-01

    Functional brain mapping is an increasingly relied upon tool in presurgical planning and intraoperative decision making. Mapping allows personalization of structure-function relationships when surgical or other treatment of pathology puts eloquent functioning like language or vision at risk. As an innovative technology, functional brain mapping holds great promise but also raises important ethical questions. In this article, recent work in neuroethics on functional imaging and functional neurosurgery is explored and applied to functional brain mapping. Specific topics discussed in this article are incidental findings, responsible innovation, and informed consent.

  9. Analysis of a human brain transcriptome map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Jonathan R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide transcriptome maps can provide tools to identify candidate genes that are over-expressed or silenced in certain disease tissue and increase our understanding of the structure and organization of the genome. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from the public dbEST and proprietary Incyte LifeSeq databases were used to derive a transcript map in conjunction with the working draft assembly of the human genome sequence. Results Examination of ESTs derived from brain tissues (excluding brain tumor tissues suggests that these genes are distributed on chromosomes in a non-random fashion. Some regions on the genome are dense with brain-enriched genes while some regions lack brain-enriched genes, suggesting a significant correlation between distribution of genes along the chromosome and tissue type. ESTs from brain tumor tissues have also been mapped to the human genome working draft. We reveal that some regions enriched in brain genes show a significant decrease in gene expression in brain tumors, and, conversely that some regions lacking in brain genes show an increased level of gene expression in brain tumors. Conclusions This report demonstrates a novel approach for tissue specific transcriptome mapping using EST-based quantitative assessment.

  10. Resting state brain activity and functional brain mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xiaohu; Wang Peijun; Tang Xiaowei

    2007-01-01

    Functional brain imaging studies commonly use either resting or passive task states as their control conditions, and typically identify the activation brain region associated with a specific task by subtracting the resting from the active task conditions. Numerous studies now suggest, however, that the resting state may not reflect true mental "rest" conditions. The mental activity that occurs during"rest" might therefore greatly influence the functional neuroimaging observations that are collected through the usual subtracting analysis strategies. Exploring the ongoing mental processes that occur during resting conditions is thus of particular importance for deciphering functional brain mapping results and obtaining a more comprehensive understanding of human brain functions. In this review article, we will mainly focus on the discussion of the current research background of functional brain mapping at resting state and the physiological significance of the available neuroimaging data.

  11. BrainMap '95 workshop. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fourth annual BrainMap workshop was held at La Mansion del Rio Hotel in San Antonio December 3--4, 1995. The conference title was ''Human Brain Mapping and Modeling.'' The meeting was attended by 137 registered participants and 30 observers from 82 institutions representing 12 countries. The meeting focused on the technical issues associated with brain mapping and modeling. A total of 23 papers were presented covering the following topics: spatial normalization and registration; functional image analysis; metanalysis and modeling; and new horizons in biological databases. The full program with abstracts was available on the Research Imaging Center's web site. A book will be published by John Wiley and Sons prior to the end of 1998

  12. Mapping human brain activity in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazziotta, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    A wide range of structural and functional techniques now exists to map the human brain in health and disease. These approaches span the gamut from external tomographic imaging devices (positron-emission tomography, single photon-emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography), to surface detectors (electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, transcranial magnetic stimulation), to measurements made directly on the brain's surface or beneath it (intrinsic sign...

  13. Functional brain mapping of psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Honey, G.; Fletcher, P.; BULLMORE, E.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the impact that the novel functional neuroimaging techniques may have upon psychiatric illness. Functional neuroimaging has rapidly developed as a powerful tool in cognitive neuroscience and, in recent years, has seen widespread application in psychiatry. Although such studies have produced evidence for abnormal patterns of brain response in association with some pathological conditions, the core pathophysiologies remain unresolved. Although imaging techniques provi...

  14. Mutated Genes in Schizophrenia Map to Brain Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Mutated Genes in Schizophrenia Map to Brain Networks Schizophrenia networks in the prefrontal cortex area of the brain. ... of spontaneous mutations in genes that form a network in the front region of the brain. The ...

  15. Mind maps in service of the mental brain activity

    OpenAIRE

    JOSIPOVIĆ JELIĆ, ŽELJKA; Demarin, Vida; Šoljan, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Tony Buzan is the creator of the mind maps who based his mnemonic techniques of brain mapping on the terms of awareness and wide brain functionality as well as on the ability of memorizing, reading and creativity. He conceived the idea that regular practice improves brain functions but he also introduced radiant thinking and mental literacy. One of the last enormous neuroscience ventures is to clarify the brain complexity and mind and to get a complete insight into the mental brain acti...

  16. Mapping of language brain areas in patients with brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Rasha; Kamel, Nidal; Boon, Tang Tong; Reza, Faruque

    2015-08-01

    Language cortex in the human brain shows high variability among normal individuals and may exhibit a considerable shift from its original position due to tumor growth. Mapping the precise location of language areas is important before surgery to avoid postoperative language deficits. In this paper, the Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recording and the MRI scanning of six brain tumorous subjects are used to localize the language specific areas. MEG recordings were performed during two silent reading tasks; silent word reading and silent picture naming. MEG source imaging is performed using distributed source modeling technique called CLARA ("Classical LORETA Analysis Recursively Applied"). Estimated MEG sources are overlaid on individual MRI of each patient to improve interpretation of MEG source imaging results. The results show successful identification of the essential language areas and clear definition of the time course of neural activation connecting them. PMID:26736340

  17. Mapping fetal brain development in utero using magnetic resonance imaging: the Big Bang of brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studholme, Colin

    2011-08-15

    The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence and childhood, and even to neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Even earlier in development, parallel advances in clinical fetal MRI have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments encompassing optimal fast MRI scans and techniques derived from computer vision, the combination of which allows full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article reviews the developments that have led us to this point, examines the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging and motion correction, and describes the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatiotemporal atlases are examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns.

  18. Applications of fMRI for Brain Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Daimiwal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain-mapping techniques have proven to be vital in understanding the molecular, cellular, and functional mechanisms of the brain. Normal anatomical imaging can provide structural information on certain abnormalities in the brain. However there are many neurological disorders for which only structure studies are not sufficient. In such cases it is required to investigate the functional organization of the brain. Further it is necessary to study the brain functions under normal as well as diseased conditions. Brain mapping techniques can help in deriving useful and important information on these issues. Brain functions and brain area responsible for the particular activities like motor, sensory speech and memory process could be investigated. The authors provide an overview of various Brain Mapping techniques and fMRI signal processing methods.

  19. Control-display mapping in brain-computer interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurlings, M.E.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Brouwer, A.-M.; Blankertz, B.; Werkhoven, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) employ differences in brain responses to attended and ignored stimuli. When using a tactile ERP-BCI for navigation, mapping is required between navigation directions on a visual display and unambiguously corresponding tactile stimu

  20. Mapping Human Brain Function with MRI at 7 Tesla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ In the past decade, the most significant development in MRI is the introduction of fMRI, which permits the mapping of human brain function with exquisite details noninvasively. Functional mapping can be achieved by measuring changes in the blood oxygenation level (I.e. The BOLD contrast) or cerebral blood flow.

  1. Human brain mapping: Experimental and computational approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.C.; George, J.S.; Schmidt, D.M.; Aine, C.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Sanders, J. [Albuquerque VA Medical Center, NM (US); Belliveau, J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (US)

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This program developed project combined Los Alamos' and collaborators' strengths in noninvasive brain imaging and high performance computing to develop potential contributions to the multi-agency Human Brain Project led by the National Institute of Mental Health. The experimental component of the project emphasized the optimization of spatial and temporal resolution of functional brain imaging by combining: (a) structural MRI measurements of brain anatomy; (b) functional MRI measurements of blood flow and oxygenation; and (c) MEG measurements of time-resolved neuronal population currents. The computational component of the project emphasized development of a high-resolution 3-D volumetric model of the brain based on anatomical MRI, in which structural and functional information from multiple imaging modalities can be integrated into a single computational framework for modeling, visualization, and database representation.

  2. IMAGING THE BRAIN AS SCHIZOPHRENIA DEVELOPS: DYNAMIC & GENETIC BRAIN MAPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul; Rapoport, Judith L; Cannon, Tyrone D; Toga, Arthur W

    2002-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic, debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects 0.2-2% of the population worldwide. Often striking without warning in the late teens or early twenties, its symptoms include auditory and visual hallucinations, psychotic outbreaks, bizarre or disordered thinking, depression and social withdrawal. To combat the disease, new antipsychotic drugs are emerging; these atypical neuroleptics target dopamine and serotonin pathways in the brain, offering increased therapeutic efficacy with fewer side effects. Despite their moderate success in controlling some patients' symptoms, little is known about the causes of schizophrenia, and what triggers the disease. Its peculiar age of onset raises key questions: What physical changes occur in the brain as a patient develops schizophrenia? Do these deficits spread in the brain, and can they be opposed? How do they relate to psychotic symptoms? As risk for the disease is genetically transmitted, do a patient's relatives exhibit similar brain changes? Recent advances in brain imaging and genetics provide exciting insight on these questions. Neuroimaging can now chart the emergence and progression of deficits in the brain, providing an exceptionally sharp scalpel to dissect the effects of genetic risk, environmental triggers, and susceptibility genes. Visualizing the dynamics of the disease, these techniques also offer new strategies to evaluate drugs that combat the unrelenting symptoms of schizophrenia.

  3. Mapping human whole-brain structural networks with diffusion MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Hagmann

    Full Text Available Understanding the large-scale structural network formed by neurons is a major challenge in system neuroscience. A detailed connectivity map covering the entire brain would therefore be of great value. Based on diffusion MRI, we propose an efficient methodology to generate large, comprehensive and individual white matter connectional datasets of the living or dead, human or animal brain. This non-invasive tool enables us to study the basic and potentially complex network properties of the entire brain. For two human subjects we find that their individual brain networks have an exponential node degree distribution and that their global organization is in the form of a small world.

  4. Mapping the chemistry of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of chemical neuroanatomy is reviewed. It is shown how the detailed anatomy of the brain's chemical transmitters, of enzymes responsible for their formation, and of the receptor molecules on recipient nerve cells which allows them to recognize and repond to particular transmiters was made possible through major advances in immunohistochemistry, radioligand binding, and computerized tomography techniques. 15 refs., 2 figs

  5. Automated in situ brain imaging for mapping the Drosophila connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Wen; Lin, Hsuan-Wen; Chiu, Mei-Tzu; Shih, Yung-Hsin; Wang, Ting-Yuan; Chang, Hsiu-Ming; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the connectome, a wiring diagram of the entire brain, requires large-scale imaging of numerous single neurons with diverse morphology. It is a formidable challenge to reassemble these neurons into a virtual brain and correlate their structural networks with neuronal activities, which are measured in different experiments to analyze the informational flow in the brain. Here, we report an in situ brain imaging technique called Fly Head Array Slice Tomography (FHAST), which permits the reconstruction of structural and functional data to generate an integrative connectome in Drosophila. Using FHAST, the head capsules of an array of flies can be opened with a single vibratome sectioning to expose the brains, replacing the painstaking and inconsistent brain dissection process. FHAST can reveal in situ brain neuroanatomy with minimal distortion to neuronal morphology and maintain intact neuronal connections to peripheral sensory organs. Most importantly, it enables the automated 3D imaging of 100 intact fly brains in each experiment. The established head model with in situ brain neuroanatomy allows functional data to be accurately registered and associated with 3D images of single neurons. These integrative data can then be shared, searched, visualized, and analyzed for understanding how brain-wide activities in different neurons within the same circuit function together to control complex behaviors.

  6. A quantitative transcriptome reference map of the normal human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracausi, Maria; Vitale, Lorenza; Pelleri, Maria Chiara; Piovesan, Allison; Bruno, Samantha; Strippoli, Pierluigi

    2014-10-01

    We performed an innovative systematic meta-analysis of 60 gene expression profiles of whole normal human brain, to provide a quantitative transcriptome reference map of it, i.e. a reference typical value of expression for each of the 39,250 known, mapped and 26,026 uncharacterized (unmapped) transcripts. To this aim, we used the software named Transcriptome Mapper (TRAM), which is able to generate transcriptome maps based on gene expression data from multiple sources. We also analyzed differential expression by comparing the brain transcriptome with those derived from human foetal brain gene expression, from a pool of human tissues (except the brain) and from the two normal human brain regions cerebellum and cerebral cortex, which are two of the main regions severely affected when cognitive impairment occurs, as happens in the case of trisomy 21. Data were downloaded from microarray databases, processed and analyzed using TRAM software and validated in vitro by assaying gene expression through several magnitude orders by 'real-time' reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The excellent agreement between in silico and experimental data suggested that our transcriptome maps may be a useful quantitative reference benchmark for gene expression studies related to the human brain. Furthermore, our analysis yielded biological insights about those genes which have an intrinsic over-/under-expression in the brain, in addition offering a basis for the regional analysis of gene expression. This could be useful for the study of chromosomal alterations associated to cognitive impairment, such as trisomy 21, the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. PMID:25185649

  7. Dynamic Quantitative T1 Mapping in Orthotopic Brain Tumor Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Herrmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human brain tumors such as glioblastomas are typically detected using conventional, nonquantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques, such as T2-weighted and contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRI. In this manuscript, we tested whether dynamic quantitative T1 mapping by MRI can localize orthotopic glioma tumors in an objective manner. Quantitative T1 mapping was performed by MRI over multiple time points using the conventional contrast agent Optimark. We compared signal differences to determine the gadolinium concentration in tissues over time. The T1 parametric maps made it easy to identify the regions of contrast enhancement and thus tumor location. Doubling the typical human dose of contrast agent resulted in a clearer demarcation of these tumors. Therefore, T1 mapping of brain tumors is gadolinium dose dependent and improves detection of tumors by MRI. The use of T1 maps provides a quantitative means to evaluate tumor detection by gadolinium-based contrast agents over time. This dynamic quantitative T1 mapping technique will also enable future quantitative evaluation of various targeted MRI contrast agents.

  8. Brain surface maps from 3-D medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuhuai; Hansen, Eric W.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    1991-06-01

    The anatomic and functional localization of brain lesions for neurologic diagnosis and brain surgery is facilitated by labeling the cortical surface in 3D images. This paper presents a method which extracts cortical contours from magnetic resonance (MR) image series and then produces a planar surface map which preserves important anatomic features. The resultant map may be used for manual anatomic localization as well as for further automatic labeling. Outer contours are determined on MR cross-sectional images by following the clear boundaries between gray matter and cerebral-spinal fluid, skipping over sulci. Carrying this contour below the surface by shrinking it along its normal produces an inner contour that alternately intercepts gray matter (sulci) and white matter along its length. This procedure is applied to every section in the set, and the image (grayscale) values along the inner contours are radially projected and interpolated onto a semi-cylindrical surface with axis normal to the slices and large enough to cover the whole brain. A planar map of the cortical surface results by flattening this cylindrical surface. The projection from inner contour to cylindrical surface is unique in the sense that different points on the inner contour correspond to different points on the cylindrical surface. As the outer contours are readily obtained by automatic segmentation, cortical maps can be made directly from an MR series.

  9. Paramagnetic artifact and safety criteria for human brain mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Seiyama, Akitoshi; Seki, Junji; Iwamoto, Mari; Yanagida, Toshio

    2005-01-01

    Biological effects of magnetic field and their safety criteria, especially effects of gradient magnetic field on the cerebral and pulmonary circulation during functional brain mapping are still unclear. Here we estimated that magnetically induced artifacts for the blood oxygenation level- and flow- based functional magnetic resonance imaging are less than 0.1%, and disturbance in the pulmonary circulation is less than 1.3% even if the field strength of magnetic resonance system is risen up to...

  10. ALE meta-analysis workflows via the BrainMap database: progress towards a probabilistic functional brain atlas

    OpenAIRE

    Eickhoff, Simon B.; Florian Kurth; Fox, Peter M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Robinson, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    With the ever-increasing number of studies in human functional brain mapping, an abundance of data has been generated that is ready to be synthesized and modeled on a large scale. The BrainMap database archives peak coordinates from published neuroimaging studies, along with the corresponding metadata that summarize the experimental design. BrainMap was designed to facilitate quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging results reported in the literature and supports the use of the activation...

  11. Visualization and modelling of STLmax topographic brain activity maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammone, Nadia; Principe, José C; Morabito, Francesco C; Shiau, Deng S; Sackellares, J Chris

    2010-06-15

    This paper evaluates the descriptive power of brain topography based on a dynamical parameter, the Short-Term Maximum Lyapunov Exponent (STLmax), estimated from EEG, for finding out a relationship of STLmax spatial distribution with the onset zone and with the mechanisms leading to epileptic seizures. Our preliminary work showed that visual assessment of STLmax topography exhibited a link with the location of seizure onset zone. The objective of the present work is to model the spatial distribution of STLmax in order to automatically extract these features from the maps. One-hour preictal segments from four long-term continuous EEG recordings (two scalp and two intracranial) were processed and the corresponding STLmax profiles were estimated. The spatial STLmax maps were modelled by a combination of two Gaussians functions. The parameters of the fitted model allow automatic extraction of quantitative information about the spatial distribution of STLmax: the EEG signal recorded from the brain region where seizures originate exhibited low-STLmax levels, long before the seizure onset, in 3 out of 4 patients (1 out of 2 of scalp patients and 2 out of 2 in intracranial patients). Topographic maps extracted directly from the EEG power did not provide useful information about the location, therefore we conclude that the analysis so far carried out suggests the possibility of using a model of STLmax topography as a tool for monitoring the evolution of epileptic brain dynamics. In the future, a more elaborate approach will be investigated in order to improve the specificity of the method.

  12. Mapping blood flow directionality in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hong; Do, Won-Joon; Choi, Seung Hong; Zhao, Tiejun; Bae, Kyongtae Ty

    2016-07-01

    Diffusion properties of tissue are often expressed on the basis of directional variance, i.e., diffusion tensor imaging. In comparison, common perfusion-weighted imaging such as arterial spin labeling yields perfusion in a scalar quantity. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of mapping cerebral blood flow directionality using alternate ascending/descending directional navigation (ALADDIN), a recently-developed arterial spin labeling technique with sensitivity to blood flow directions. ALADDIN was applied along 3 orthogonal directions to assess directional blood flow in a vector form and also along 6 equally-spaced directions to extract blood flow tensor matrix (P) based on a blood flow ellipsoid model. Tensor elements (eigenvalues, eigenvectors, etc) were calculated to investigate characteristics of the blood flow tensor, in comparison with time-of-flight MR angiogram. While the directions of the main eigenvectors were heterogeneous throughout the brain, regional clusters of blood flow directionality were reproducible across subjects. The technique could show heterogeneous blood flow directionality within and around brain tumor, which was different from that of the contralateral normal side. The proposed method is deemed to provide information of blood flow directionality, which has not been demonstrated before. The results warrant further studies to assess changes in the directionality map as a function of scan parameters, to understand the signal sources, to investigate the possibility of mapping local blood perfusion directionality, and to evaluate its usefulness for clinical diagnosis.

  13. Mapping Multiplex Hubs in Human Functional Brain Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Domenico, Manlio; Sasai, Shuntaro; Arenas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Typical brain networks consist of many peripheral regions and a few highly central ones, i.e., hubs, playing key functional roles in cerebral inter-regional interactions. Studies have shown that networks, obtained from the analysis of specific frequency components of brain activity, present peculiar architectures with unique profiles of region centrality. However, the identification of hubs in networks built from different frequency bands simultaneously is still a challenging problem, remaining largely unexplored. Here we identify each frequency component with one layer of a multiplex network and face this challenge by exploiting the recent advances in the analysis of multiplex topologies. First, we show that each frequency band carries unique topological information, fundamental to accurately model brain functional networks. We then demonstrate that hubs in the multiplex network, in general different from those ones obtained after discarding or aggregating the measured signals as usual, provide a more accurate map of brain's most important functional regions, allowing to distinguish between healthy and schizophrenic populations better than conventional network approaches. PMID:27471443

  14. Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao

    2009-02-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.

  15. Brain microstructure mapping using quantitative and diffusion MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is focused on the human brain microstructure mapping using quantitative and diffusion MRI. The T1/T2 quantitative imaging relies on sequences dedicated to the mapping of T1 and T2 relaxation times. Their variations within the tissue are linked to the presence of different water compartments defined by a specific organization of the tissue at the cell scale. Measuring these parameters can help, therefore, to better characterize the brain microstructure. The dMRI, on the other hand, explores the brownian motion of water molecules in the brain tissue, where the water molecules' movement is constrained by natural barriers, such as cell membranes. Thus, the information on their displacement carried by the dMRI signal gives access to the underlying cyto-architecture. Combination of these two modalities is, therefore, a promising way to probe the brain tissue microstructure. The main goal of the present thesis is to set up the methodology to study the microstructure of the white matter of the human brain in vivo. The first part includes the acquisition of a unique MRI database of 79 healthy subjects (the Archi/CONNECT), which includes anatomical high resolution data, relaxometry data, diffusion-weighted data at high spatio-angular resolution and functional data. This database has allowed us to build the first atlas of the anatomical connectivity of the healthy brain through the automatic segmentation of the major white matter bundles, providing an appropriate anatomical reference for the white matter to study individually the quantitative parameters along each fascicle, characterizing its microstructure organization. Emphasis was placed on the construction of the first atlas of the T1/T2 profiles along the major white matter pathways. The profiles of the T1 and T2 relaxation times were then correlated to the quantitative profiles computed from the diffusion MRI data (fractional anisotropy, radial and longitudinal diffusivities, apparent diffusion coefficient

  16. Mapping neuroplastic potential in brain-damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbet, Guillaume; Maheu, Maxime; Costi, Emanuele; Lafargue, Gilles; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-03-01

    It is increasingly acknowledged that the brain is highly plastic. However, the anatomic factors governing the potential for neuroplasticity have hardly been investigated. To bridge this knowledge gap, we generated a probabilistic atlas of functional plasticity derived from both anatomic magnetic resonance imaging results and intraoperative mapping data on 231 patients having undergone surgery for diffuse, low-grade glioma. The atlas includes detailed level of confidence information and is supplemented with a series of comprehensive, connectivity-based cluster analyses. Our results show that cortical plasticity is generally high in the cortex (except in primary unimodal areas and in a small set of neural hubs) and rather low in connective tracts (especially associative and projection tracts). The atlas sheds new light on the topological organization of critical neural systems and may also be useful in predicting the likelihood of recovery (as a function of lesion topology) in various neuropathological conditions-a crucial factor in improving the care of brain-damaged patients. PMID:26912646

  17. Abnormal brain processing of pain in migraine without aura: a high-density EEG brain mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, L L; Jensen, R; Buchgreitz, L;

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we used high-density EEG brain mapping to investigate spatio-temporal aspects of brain activity in response to experimentally induced muscle pain in 17 patients with migraine without aura and 15 healthy controls. Painful electrical stimuli were applied to the trapezius muscle...... to the tonic muscle pain condition (z = 29 mm vs. z =¿-13 mm, P aura....

  18. Pre Operative Brain Mapping with Functional MRI in Patient with Brain Tumors: Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Hooshmand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI plays a significant role in pre-neurosurgical planning at present. FMRI is a possible candidate to replace invasive methods for determination of the language dominant hemisphere and cortical areas associated with language and memory. We used this method to explore language and motor functions in healthy volunteers before creating standard paradigms for Persian language. In this study, we used the standard protocol of language and motor brain mapping in patients harboring brain tumors."nPatients and Methods: Ten patients with brain tumor were included in this study. Each subject performed three to five language related tasks during fMRI scan and also one motor related task. These tasks included; "Word Generation" (WG, "Object Naming" (ON, and "Word Reading" (WR, "Word Production" (WP and "Reverse Word Reading" (RWR. They also performed the thumb apposition task for activating primary sensory-motor areas. Fifteen continuous slices were acquired, and data analysis was carried out using FSL 4.1. After evaluating the individual results, the lateralization index (LI for each subject-task was calculated and the dominant hemisphere for language production was reported. Also localization of critical language areas in the cerebral cortex was performed and the coordinates of epicenter for language production in Broca's area was calculated."nResults: We found that WP, RWR, and WG activate language related areas in the dominant hemisphere robustly in patients with brain tumors and can predict the dominant hemisphere along with eloquent language cortices. However, ON and WR fail to delineate these activation areas optimally. In addition, the results reveal that higher activation intensities are obtained by WP in the frontal lobe including Broca's area, whereas RWR leads to the highest LI among all examined tasks. In patients harboring brain tumors, precise lateralization and

  19. Brain Mapping Center Opens at Institute of Biophysics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Agroup of world-class scie, ntists in brain imaging came to China's capital to .witness the inauguration of the Beijing MRI Center for Brain Research, which was officially opened on May 25 at the CAS Institute of Biophysics.

  20. Mapping how local perturbations influence systems-level brain dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Gollo, Leonardo L.; James A. Roberts; Cocchi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The human brain exhibits a relatively stable spatiotemporal organization that supports brain function and can be manipulated via local brain stimulation. Such perturbations to local cortical dynamics are globally integrated by distinct neural systems. However, it remains unclear how and why local changes in neural activity affect large-scale system dynamics. Here, we briefly review empirical and computational studies addressing how localized perturbations affect brain activity. We then system...

  1. Mapping plasticity: sex/gender and the changing brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kleinherenbrink

    2014-01-01

    There is a consensus in the neuroscientific literature that brains are either male or female, and that ‘brain sex’ is a fixed, immutable trait. Feminist critics have challenged this idea, raising questions, for example, about brain plasticity (the role of sociocultural factors in the emergence and e

  2. Using data-driven model-brain mappings to constrain formal models of cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelmer P Borst

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a method to create data-driven mappings from components of cognitive models to brain regions. Cognitive models are notoriously hard to evaluate, especially based on behavioral measures alone. Neuroimaging data can provide additional constraints, but this requires a mapping from model components to brain regions. Although such mappings can be based on the experience of the modeler or on a reading of the literature, a formal method is preferred to prevent researcher-based biases. In this paper we used model-based fMRI analysis to create a data-driven model-brain mapping for five modules of the ACT-R cognitive architecture. We then validated this mapping by applying it to two new datasets with associated models. The new mapping was at least as powerful as an existing mapping that was based on the literature, and indicated where the models were supported by the data and where they have to be improved. We conclude that data-driven model-brain mappings can provide strong constraints on cognitive models, and that model-based fMRI is a suitable way to create such mappings.

  3. Zebrafish brain mapping--standardized spaces, length scales, and the power of N and n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Paul R; Hendry, Aenea C; Lowe, Andrew S

    2015-06-01

    Mapping anatomical and functional parameters of the zebrafish brain is moving apace. Research communities undertaking such studies are becoming ever larger and more diverse. The unique features, tools, and technologies associated with zebrafish are propelling them as the 21st century model organism for brain mapping. Uniquely positioned as a vertebrate model system, the zebrafish enables imaging of anatomy and function at different length scales from intraneuronal compartments to sparsely distributed whole brain patterns. With a variety of diverse and established statistical modeling and analytic methods available from the wider brain mapping communities, the richness of zebrafish neuroimaging data is being realized. The statistical power of population observations (N) within and across many samples (n) projected onto a standardized space will provide vast databases for data-driven biological approaches. This article reviews key brain mapping initiatives at different levels of scale that highlight the potential of zebrafish brain mapping. By way of introduction to the next wave of brain mappers, an accessible introduction to the key concepts and caveats associated with neuroimaging are outlined and discussed.

  4. Discovering Relations Between Mind, Brain, and Mental Disorders Using Topic Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Poldrack, Russell A.; Mumford, Jeanette A.; Tom Schonberg; Donald Kalar; Bishal Barman; Tal Yarkoni

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging research has largely focused on the identification of associations between brain activation and specific mental functions. Here we show that data mining techniques applied to a large database of neuroimaging results can be used to identify the conceptual structure of mental functions and their mapping to brain systems. This analysis confirms many current ideas regarding the neural organization of cognition, but also provides some new insights into the roles of particular brain sy...

  5. Using data-driven model-brain mappings to constrain formal models of cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Jelmer P; Nijboer, Menno; Taatgen, Niels A; van Rijn, Hedderik; Anderson, John R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method to create data-driven mappings from components of cognitive models to brain regions. Cognitive models are notoriously hard to evaluate, especially based on behavioral measures alone. Neuroimaging data can provide additional constraints, but this requires a mapping f

  6. Homocysteine effects on brain volumes mapped in 732 elderly individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopalan, Priya; Hua, Xue; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine levels are a known risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease and vascular disorders. Here we applied tensor-based morphometry to brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of 732 elderly individuals from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study, to determine associations between homocysteine and brain atrophy. Those with higher homocysteine levels showed greater frontal, parietal, and occipital white matter atrophy in the entire cohort, irrespective of diagnosis, age,...

  7. Molecular mapping of brain areas involved in parrot vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, E D; Mello, C V

    2000-03-27

    Auditory and vocal regulation of gene expression occurs in separate discrete regions of the songbird brain. Here we demonstrate that regulated gene expression also occurs during vocal communication in a parrot, belonging to an order whose ability to learn vocalizations is thought to have evolved independently of songbirds. Adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were stimulated to vocalize with playbacks of conspecific vocalizations (warbles), and their brains were analyzed for expression of the transcriptional regulator ZENK. The results showed that there was distinct separation of brain areas that had hearing- or vocalizing-induced ZENK expression. Hearing warbles resulted in ZENK induction in large parts of the caudal medial forebrain and in 1 midbrain region, with a pattern highly reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Vocalizing resulted in ZENK induction in nine brain structures, seven restricted to the lateral and anterior telencephalon, one in the thalamus, and one in the midbrain, with a pattern partially reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Five of the telencephalic structures had been previously described as part of the budgerigar vocal control pathway. However, functional boundaries defined by the gene expression patterns for some of these structures were much larger and different in shape than previously reported anatomical boundaries. Our results provide the first functional demonstration of brain areas involved in vocalizing and auditory processing of conspecific sounds in budgerigars. They also indicate that, whether or not vocal learning evolved independently, some of the gene regulatory mechanisms that accompany learned vocal communication are similar in songbirds and parrots.

  8. Elemental mapping inventory of the fish Liza aurata brain: a biomarker of metal pollution vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Rita M; Pereira, Patricia; Raimundo, Joana; Pacheco, Mário; Pinheiro, Teresa

    2015-02-01

    The elemental distributions in optic tectum of brains of wild Liza aurata a teleost fish captured in polluted and reference coastal areas were assessed quantitatively by nuclear microscopy providing insights into brain vulnerability to metal pollution. Elemental maps enabled us to visualize optic tectum layers and identify cellular arrangements. Whereas Cl, K and Ca contents identify meninges, the Ca, Fe and Zn concentrations distinguish the underneath grey matter, white matter and inner cellular layers. Exposed animals showed significantly decreased P concentrations and increased contents of Cu, Zn and Ni in all brain structures. These changes highlight homeostasis modification, altered permeability of the blood-brain barrier and suggest risk for neurological toxicity. Our study initiated for the first time an inventory of physiological measures containing images and elemental compositions of brain regions of fish exposed to different environmental conditions. This will help defining total and local brain vulnerability to metals and pollution levels.

  9. Brain-wide map of projections from mice ventral subiculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, He; Wu, Gui-Sheng; Xie, Jing; He, Xiaobin; Deng, Ke; Wang, Huadong; Xu, Fuqiang; Luo, Huai-Rong

    2016-08-26

    The hippocampal formation plays a critical role in episodic memory formation and spatial navigation. Within the hippocampus, the subiculum is considered to be a hub connecting the hippocampal formation to the remainder of the brain. There are functional differences between the dorsal and ventral part of subiculum, while the ventral subiculum (vSub) plays a role in anxiety, stress and emotion. In the present study, we examined the projection of the ventral subiculum to the whole brain in mice by using a modified herpes simplex virus 1 strain H129 with an inserted fluorescent protein gene. In our experiments, the modified H129 transits the primary-order, second-order, and third-order neuronal projections at 36-44, 52-60 and 68-76h after inoculation in mice, respectively. Our data revealed that vSub directly projects to the medial entorhinal cortex, amygdalohippocampal area, anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, medial hypothalamus, supramammillary nucleus, medial septal nucleus and adjacent diagonal band, the connections between median raphe nucleus and interpeduncular nucleus in brain stem, while ventral prefrontal cortex, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus and locus coeruleus receives second-order projections from vSub. Our data would help further understanding the functional connections of vSub with other brain regions. PMID:27422730

  10. Mapping the brain's metaphor circuitry: metaphorical thought in everyday reason

    OpenAIRE

    Lakoff, George

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the basics of metaphorical thought and language from the perspective of Neurocognition, the integrated interdisciplinary study of how conceptual thought and language work in the brain. The paper outlines a theory of metaphor circuitry and discusses how everyday reason makes use of embodied metaphor circuitry.

  11. The BrainMap strategy for standardization, sharing, and meta-analysis of neuroimaging data

    OpenAIRE

    Bzdok Danilo; McKay D Reese; Saenz Juan J; Ray Kimberly L; Uecker Angela M; Fox P Mickle; Eickhoff Simon B; Laird Angela R; Laird Robert W; Robinson Jennifer L; Turner Jessica A; Turkeltaub Peter E; Lancaster Jack L; Fox Peter T

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Neuroimaging researchers have developed rigorous community data and metadata standards that encourage meta-analysis as a method for establishing robust and meaningful convergence of knowledge of human brain structure and function. Capitalizing on these standards, the BrainMap project offers databases, software applications, and other associated tools for supporting and promoting quantitative coordinate-based meta-analysis of the structural and functional neuroimaging liter...

  12. Non-invasive optical mapping of the piglet brain in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Sergio; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Gratton, Enrico; Hueber, Dennis; Rosenfeld, Warren; Maulik, Dev; Stubblefield, Phillip; Stankovic, Mikjan

    1999-04-01

    We have performed non-invasive, real-time optical mapping of the piglet brain during a subcortical injection of autologous blood. The time resolution of the optical maps is 192 ms, thus allowing us to generate a real-time video of the growing subcortical hematoma. The increased absorption at the site of blood injection is accompanied by a decreased absorption at the contralateral brain side. This contralateral decrease in the optical absorption and the corresponding time traces of the cerebral hemoglobin parameters are consistent with a reduced cerebral blood flow caused by the increased intracranial pressure.

  13. Parcellation of parietal cortex: convergence between lesion-symptom mapping and mapping of the intact functioning brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Rik; Gillebert, Céline R

    2009-05-16

    Spatial-attentional deficits are highly prevalent following stroke. They can be clinically detected by means of conventional bedside tests such as target cancellation, line bisection and the visual extinction test. Until recently, lesion mapping studies and functional imaging of the intact brain did not agree very well on exactly which parietal areas play a key role in selective attention: the inferior parietal lobule or the intraparietal sulcus. Recently, the use of a contrastive approach in patients akin to that commonly used in functional imaging studies in healthy volunteers together with voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping have allowed to bring the patient lesion mapping much closer to the functional imaging results obtained in healthy controls. In this review we focus on converging evidence obtained from patient lesion studies and from fMRI studies in the intact brain in humans. This has yielded novel insights into the functional segregation between the middle third of the intraparietal sulcus, the superior parietal lobule and the temporoparietal junction in the intact brain and also enhanced our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying deficits arising in patients. PMID:19118580

  14. Multicenter R2* mapping in the healthy brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropele, Stefan; Wattjes, Mike P; Langkammer, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    structures. METHODS: R2* mapping was performed in 81 healthy subjects in seven centers using different 3 T systems. R2* was calculated from a dual-echo gradient echo sequence and was assessed in several deep gray matter structures. The inter-scanner and inter-subject variability of R2* was calculated...

  15. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of t...

  16. Macroscopic networks in the human brain: mapping connectivity in healthy and damaged brains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, E.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The human brain contains a network of interconnected neurons. Recent advances in functional and structural in-vivo magnetic resonance neuroimaging (MRI) techniques have provided opportunities to model the networks of the human brain on a macroscopic scale. This dissertation investigates the possibil

  17. A Gustotopic Map of Taste Qualities in the Mammalian Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaoke; Gabito, Mariano; Peng, Yueqing; Ryba, Nicholas J. P.; Zuker, Charles S.

    2011-01-01

    The taste system is one of our fundamental senses, responsible for detecting and responding to sweet, bitter, umami, salty and sour stimuli. In the tongue, the five basic tastes are mediated by separate classes of taste receptor cells each finely tuned to a single taste quality. Here, we explored the logic of taste coding in the brain by examining how sweet, bitter, umami and saltiness are represented in the primary taste cortex. Using in vivo two-photon calcium-imaging we demonstrated striki...

  18. Functional MR mapping of higher cognitive brain functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen normal subjects were examined on a conventional 1.5-T MR system to visualize cortical activation during the performance of high-level cognitive tasks. A computer-controlled videoprojector was employed to present psychometrically optimized activation paradigms. Reaction times and error rates of the volunteers were acquired online during stimulus presentation. The time course of cortical activation was measured in a series of strongly T2*-weighted gradient-echo images from three or four adjacent slices. For anatomical correlation, picture elements showing a stimulus-related significant signal increase were color-coded and superimposed on T1-weighted spin-echo images. Analysis of the fMRI data revealed a subtle (range 2-5%), but statistically significant increase in signal intensity during the periods of induced cortical activation. Judgment of semantic relatedness of word pairs, for example, activated selectively cortical areas in left frontal and left temporal brain regions. The strength of cortex activation in the semantic task decreased significantly in the course of stimulus presentation and was paralleled by a decrease in the corresponding reaction times. With its move into the area of cognitive neuroscience, fMRI calls both for the careful design of activation schemes and for the acquisition of behavioral data. For example, brain regions involved in language processing could only be identified clearly when psychometrically matched activation paradigms were employed. The reaction time data correlated well with selective learning and thus helped to facilitate interpretation of the fMRI data sets. (orig.)

  19. A comprehensive transcriptional map of primate brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Trygve E; Miller, Jeremy A; Ding, Song-Lin; Sunkin, Susan M; Smith, Kimberly A; Ng, Lydia; Szafer, Aaron; Dalley, Rachel A; Royall, Joshua J; Lemon, Tracy; Shapouri, Sheila; Aiona, Kaylynn; Arnold, James; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Bertagnolli, Darren; Bickley, Kristopher; Boe, Andrew; Brouner, Krissy; Butler, Stephanie; Byrnes, Emi; Caldejon, Shiella; Carey, Anita; Cate, Shelby; Chapin, Mike; Chen, Jefferey; Dee, Nick; Desta, Tsega; Dolbeare, Tim A; Dotson, Nadia; Ebbert, Amanda; Fulfs, Erich; Gee, Garrett; Gilbert, Terri L; Goldy, Jeff; Gourley, Lindsey; Gregor, Ben; Gu, Guangyu; Hall, Jon; Haradon, Zeb; Haynor, David R; Hejazinia, Nika; Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Howard, Robert; Jochim, Jay; Kinnunen, Marty; Kriedberg, Ali; Kuan, Chihchau L; Lau, Christopher; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Felix; Luong, Lon; Mastan, Naveed; May, Ryan; Melchor, Jose; Mosqueda, Nerick; Mott, Erika; Ngo, Kiet; Nyhus, Julie; Oldre, Aaron; Olson, Eric; Parente, Jody; Parker, Patrick D; Parry, Sheana; Pendergraft, Julie; Potekhina, Lydia; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L; Roberts, Tyson; Rogers, Brandon; Roll, Kate; Rosen, David; Sandman, David; Sarreal, Melaine; Shapovalova, Nadiya; Shi, Shu; Sjoquist, Nathan; Sodt, Andy J; Townsend, Robbie; Velasquez, Lissette; Wagley, Udi; Wakeman, Wayne B; White, Cassandra; Bennett, Crissa; Wu, Jennifer; Young, Rob; Youngstrom, Brian L; Wohnoutka, Paul; Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Hohmann, John G; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hevner, Robert F; Molnár, Zoltán; Phillips, John W; Dang, Chinh; Jones, Allan R; Amaral, David G; Bernard, Amy; Lein, Ed S

    2016-07-21

    The transcriptional underpinnings of brain development remain poorly understood, particularly in humans and closely related non-human primates. We describe a high-resolution transcriptional atlas of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) brain development that combines dense temporal sampling of prenatal and postnatal periods with fine anatomical division of cortical and subcortical regions associated with human neuropsychiatric disease. Gene expression changes more rapidly before birth, both in progenitor cells and maturing neurons. Cortical layers and areas acquire adult-like molecular profiles surprisingly late in postnatal development. Disparate cell populations exhibit distinct developmental timing of gene expression, but also unexpected synchrony of processes underlying neural circuit construction including cell projection and adhesion. Candidate risk genes for neurodevelopmental disorders including primary microcephaly, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia show disease-specific spatiotemporal enrichment within developing neocortex. Human developmental expression trajectories are more similar to monkey than rodent, although approximately 9% of genes show human-specific regulation with evidence for prolonged maturation or neoteny compared to monkey. PMID:27409810

  20. Proficient brain for optimal performance: the MAP model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertollo, Maurizio; di Fronso, Selenia; Filho, Edson; Conforto, Silvia; Schmid, Maurizio; Bortoli, Laura; Comani, Silvia; Robazza, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Background. The main goal of the present study was to explore theta and alpha event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) activity during shooting performance. We adopted the idiosyncratic framework of the multi-action plan (MAP) model to investigate different processing modes underpinning four types of performance. In particular, we were interested in examining the neural activity associated with optimal-automated (Type 1) and optimal-controlled (Type 2) performances. Methods. Ten elite shooters (6 male and 4 female) with extensive international experience participated in the study. ERD/ERS analysis was used to investigate cortical dynamics during performance. A 4 × 3 (performance types × time) repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to test the differences among the four types of performance during the three seconds preceding the shots for theta, low alpha, and high alpha frequency bands. The dependent variables were the ERD/ERS percentages in each frequency band (i.e., theta, low alpha, high alpha) for each electrode site across the scalp. This analysis was conducted on 120 shots for each participant in three different frequency bands and the individual data were then averaged. Results. We found ERS to be mainly associated with optimal-automatic performance, in agreement with the "neural efficiency hypothesis." We also observed more ERD as related to optimal-controlled performance in conditions of "neural adaptability" and proficient use of cortical resources. Discussion. These findings are congruent with the MAP conceptualization of four performance states, in which unique psychophysiological states underlie distinct performance-related experiences. From an applied point of view, our findings suggest that the MAP model can be used as a framework to develop performance enhancement strategies based on cognitive and neurofeedback techniques. PMID:27257557

  1. High-throughput mapping of brain-wide activity in awake and drug-responsive vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xudong; Wang, Shiqi; Yu, Xudong; Liu, Zhuguo; Wang, Fei; Li, Wai Tsun; Cheng, Shuk Han; Dai, Qiuyun; Shi, Peng

    2015-02-01

    The reconstruction of neural activity across complete neural circuits, or brain activity mapping, has great potential in both fundamental and translational neuroscience research. Larval zebrafish, a vertebrate model, has recently been demonstrated to be amenable to whole brain activity mapping in behaving animals. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic array system ("Fish-Trap") that enables high-throughput mapping of brain-wide activity in awake larval zebrafish. Unlike the commonly practiced larva-processing methods using a rigid gel or a capillary tube, which are laborious and time-consuming, the hydrodynamic design of our microfluidic chip allows automatic, gel-free, and anesthetic-free processing of tens of larvae for microscopic imaging with single-cell resolution. Notably, this system provides the capability to directly couple pharmaceutical stimuli with real-time recording of neural activity in a large number of animals, and the local and global effects of pharmacoactive drugs on the nervous system can be directly visualized and evaluated by analyzing drug-induced functional perturbation within or across different brain regions. Using this technology, we tested a set of neurotoxin peptides and obtained new insights into how to exploit neurotoxin derivatives as therapeutic agents. The novel and versatile "Fish-Trap" technology can be readily unitized to study other stimulus (optical, acoustic, or physical) associated functional brain circuits using similar experimental strategies.

  2. Mapping of Brain Activity by Automated Volume Analysis of Immediate Early Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renier, Nicolas; Adams, Eliza L; Kirst, Christoph; Wu, Zhuhao; Azevedo, Ricardo; Kohl, Johannes; Autry, Anita E; Kadiri, Lolahon; Umadevi Venkataraju, Kannan; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Victoria X; Tang, Cheuk Y; Olsen, Olav; Dulac, Catherine; Osten, Pavel; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

    2016-06-16

    Understanding how neural information is processed in physiological and pathological states would benefit from precise detection, localization, and quantification of the activity of all neurons across the entire brain, which has not, to date, been achieved in the mammalian brain. We introduce a pipeline for high-speed acquisition of brain activity at cellular resolution through profiling immediate early gene expression using immunostaining and light-sheet fluorescence imaging, followed by automated mapping and analysis of activity by an open-source software program we term ClearMap. We validate the pipeline first by analysis of brain regions activated in response to haloperidol. Next, we report new cortical regions downstream of whisker-evoked sensory processing during active exploration. Last, we combine activity mapping with axon tracing to uncover new brain regions differentially activated during parenting behavior. This pipeline is widely applicable to different experimental paradigms, including animal species for which transgenic activity reporters are not readily available. PMID:27238021

  3. Stable long-term chronic brain mapping at the single-neuron level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tian-Ming; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Schuhmann, Thomas G; Viveros, Robert D; Lieber, Charles M

    2016-10-01

    Stable in vivo mapping and modulation of the same neurons and brain circuits over extended periods is critical to both neuroscience and medicine. Current electrical implants offer single-neuron spatiotemporal resolution but are limited by such factors as relative shear motion and chronic immune responses during long-term recording. To overcome these limitations, we developed a chronic in vivo recording and stimulation platform based on flexible mesh electronics, and we demonstrated stable multiplexed local field potentials and single-unit recordings in mouse brains for at least 8 months without probe repositioning. Properties of acquired signals suggest robust tracking of the same neurons over this period. This recording and stimulation platform allowed us to evoke stable single-neuron responses to chronic electrical stimulation and to carry out longitudinal studies of brain aging in freely behaving mice. Such advantages could open up future studies in mapping and modulating changes associated with learning, aging and neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Molecular cloning, chromosomal mapping, and functional expression of human brain glutamate receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, W.; Ferrer-Montiel, A.V.; Schinder, A.F.; Montal, M. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States)); McPherson, J.P. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States)); Evans, G.A. (Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States))

    1992-02-15

    A full-length cDNA clone encoding a glutamate receptor was isolated from a human brain cDNA library, and the gene product was characterized after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Degenerate PCR primers to conserved regions of published rat brain glutamate receptor sequences amplified a 1-kilobase fragment from a human brain cDNA library. This fragment was used as a probe for subsequent hybridization screening. Two clones were isolated that, based on sequence information, code for different receptors: a 3-kilobase clone, HBGR1, contains a full-length glutamate receptor cDNA highly homologous to the rat brain clone GluR1, and a second clone, HBGR2, contains approximately two-thirds of the coding region of a receptor homologous to rat brain clone GluR2. Southern and PCr analysis of a somatic cell-hybrid panel mapped HBGR1 to human chromosome 5q31.3-33.3 and mapped HBGR2 to chromosome 4q25-34.3. Xenopus oocytes injected with in vitro-synthesized HBGR1 cRNA expressed currents activated by glutamate receptor agonists. These results indicate that clone HBGR1 codes for a glutamate receptor of the kainate subtype cognate to members of the glutamate receptor family from rodent brain.

  5. Discovering relations between mind, brain, and mental disorders using topic mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell A Poldrack

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging research has largely focused on the identification of associations between brain activation and specific mental functions. Here we show that data mining techniques applied to a large database of neuroimaging results can be used to identify the conceptual structure of mental functions and their mapping to brain systems. This analysis confirms many current ideas regarding the neural organization of cognition, but also provides some new insights into the roles of particular brain systems in mental function. We further show that the same methods can be used to identify the relations between mental disorders. Finally, we show that these two approaches can be combined to empirically identify novel relations between mental disorders and mental functions via their common involvement of particular brain networks. This approach has the potential to discover novel endophenotypes for neuropsychiatric disorders and to better characterize the structure of these disorders and the relations between them.

  6. Glasgow Coma Scale, brain electric activity mapping and Glasgow Outcome Scale after hyperbaric oxygen treatment of severe brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment of severe brain injury.Methods: Fifty-five patients were divided into a treatment group (n = 35 receiving HBO therapy ) and a control group (n = 20 receiving dehydrating, cortical steroid and antibiotic therapy) to observe the alteration of clinic GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale), brain electric activity mapping (BEAM), prognosis and GOS (Glasgow Outcome Scale) before and after hyperbaric oxygen treatment.Results: In the treatment group GCS, BEAM and GOS were improved obviously after 3 courses of treatment,GCS increased from 5.1 to 14.6 ( P < 0.01-0.001 ), the BEAM abnormal rate reduced from 94.3% to 38% (P <0.01-0.001 ), the GOS good-mild disability rate was 83.7%, and the middle-severe disability rate was 26.3%compared with the control group. There was a statistic significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.01-0.001).Conclusions: Hyperbaric oxygen treatment could improve obviously GCS, BEAM and GOS of severe brain injury patients, and effectively reduce the mortality and morbidity. It is an effective method to treat severe brain injury. two g

  7. The average baboon brain: MRI templates and tissue probability maps from 89 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Scott A; Marie, Damien; Roth, Muriel; Lacoste, Romain; Nazarian, Bruno; Bertello, Alice; Coulon, Olivier; Anton, Jean-Luc; Meguerditchian, Adrien

    2016-05-15

    The baboon (Papio) brain is a remarkable model for investigating the brain. The current work aimed at creating a population-average baboon (Papio anubis) brain template and its left/right hemisphere symmetric version from a large sample of T1-weighted magnetic resonance images collected from 89 individuals. Averaging the prior probability maps output during the segmentation of each individual also produced the first baboon brain tissue probability maps for gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid. The templates and the tissue probability maps were created using state-of-the-art, freely available software tools and are being made freely and publicly available: http://www.nitrc.org/projects/haiko89/ or http://lpc.univ-amu.fr/spip.php?article589. It is hoped that these images will aid neuroimaging research of the baboon by, for example, providing a modern, high quality normalization target and accompanying standardized coordinate system as well as probabilistic priors that can be used during tissue segmentation. PMID:26975558

  8. Evaluation of three-dimensional anisotropic head model for mapping realistic electromagnetic fields of brain tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Chul Jeong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields provide fundamental data for the imaging of electrical tissue properties, such as conductivity and permittivity, in recent magnetic resonance (MR-based tissue property mapping. The induced voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density caused by externally injected current are critical factors for determining the image quality of electrical tissue conductivity. As a useful tool to identify bio-electromagnetic phenomena, precise approaches are required to understand the exact responses inside the human body subject to an injected currents. In this study, we provide the numerical simulation results of electromagnetic field mapping of brain tissues using a MR-based conductivity imaging method. First, we implemented a realistic three-dimensional human anisotropic head model using high-resolution anatomical and diffusion tensor MR images. The voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density of brain tissues were imaged by injecting 1 mA of current through pairs of electrodes on the surface of our head model. The current density map of anisotropic brain tissues was calculated from the measured magnetic flux density based on the linear relationship between the water diffusion tensor and the electrical conductivity tensor. Comparing the current density to the previous isotropic model, the anisotropic model clearly showed the differences between the brain tissues. This originates from the enhanced signals by the inherent conductivity contrast as well as the actual tissue condition resulting from the injected currents.

  9. Whole-Brain Mapping of Neuronal Activity in the Learned Helplessness Model of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongsoo; Perova, Zinaida; Mirrione, Martine M; Pradhan, Kith; Henn, Fritz A; Shea, Stephen; Osten, Pavel; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Some individuals are resilient, whereas others succumb to despair in repeated stressful situations. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying such divergent behavioral responses remain unclear. Here, we employed an automated method for mapping neuronal activity in search of signatures of stress responses in the entire mouse brain. We used serial two-photon tomography to detect expression of c-FosGFP - a marker of neuronal activation - in c-fosGFP transgenic mice subjected to the learned helplessness (LH) procedure, a widely used model of stress-induced depression-like phenotype in laboratory animals. We found that mice showing "helpless" behavior had an overall brain-wide reduction in the level of neuronal activation compared with mice showing "resilient" behavior, with the exception of a few brain areas, including the locus coeruleus, that were more activated in the helpless mice. In addition, the helpless mice showed a strong trend of having higher similarity in whole-brain activity profile among individuals, suggesting that helplessness is represented by a more stereotypic brain-wide activation pattern. This latter effect was confirmed in rats subjected to the LH procedure, using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography to assess neural activity. Our findings reveal distinct brain activity markings that correlate with adaptive and maladaptive behavioral responses to stress, and provide a framework for further studies investigating the contribution of specific brain regions to maladaptive stress responses. PMID:26869888

  10. Whole-brain mapping of neuronal activity in the learned helplessness model of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsoo eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some individuals are resilient, whereas others succumb to despair in repeated stressful situations. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying such divergent behavioral responses remain unclear. Here, we employed an automated method for mapping neuronal activity in search of signatures of stress responses in the entire mouse brain. We used serial two-photon tomography to detect expression of c-FosGFP – a marker of neuronal activation – in c-fosGFP transgenic mice subjected to the learned helplessness (LH procedure, a widely used model of stress-induced depression-like phenotype in laboratory animals. We found that mice showing helpless behavior had an overall brain-wide reduction in the level of neuronal activation compared with mice showing resilient behavior, with the exception of a few brain areas, including the locus coeruleus, that were more activated in the helpless mice. In addition, the helpless mice showed a strong trend of having higher similarity in whole brain activity profile among individuals, suggesting that helplessness is represented by a more stereotypic brain-wide activation pattern. This latter effect was confirmed in rats subjected to the LH procedure, using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography to assess neural activity. Our findings reveal distinct brain activity markings that correlate with adaptive and maladaptive behavioral responses to stress, and provide a framework for further studies investigating the contribution of specific brain regions to maladaptive stress responses.

  11. Mapping brain response to pain in fibromyalgia patients using temporal analysis of FMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Pujol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nociceptive stimuli may evoke brain responses longer than the stimulus duration often partially detected by conventional neuroimaging. Fibromyalgia patients typically complain of severe pain from gentle stimuli. We aimed to characterize brain response to painful pressure in fibromyalgia patients by generating activation maps adjusted for the duration of brain responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty-seven women (mean age: 47.8 years were assessed with fMRI. The sample included nine fibromyalgia patients and nine healthy subjects who received 4 kg/cm(2 of pressure on the thumb. Nine additional control subjects received 6.8 kg/cm(2 to match the patients for the severity of perceived pain. Independent Component Analysis characterized the temporal dynamics of the actual brain response to pressure. Statistical parametric maps were estimated using the obtained time courses. Brain response to pressure (18 seconds consistently exceeded the stimulus application (9 seconds in somatosensory regions in all groups. fMRI maps following such temporal dynamics showed a complete pain network response (sensory-motor cortices, operculo-insula, cingulate cortex, and basal ganglia to 4 kg/cm(2 of pressure in fibromyalgia patients. In healthy subjects, response to this low intensity pressure involved mainly somatosensory cortices. When matched for perceived pain (6.8 kg/cm(2, control subjects showed also comprehensive activation of pain-related regions, but fibromyalgia patients showed significantly larger activation in the anterior insula-basal ganglia complex and the cingulate cortex. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that data-driven fMRI assessments may complement conventional neuroimaging for characterizing pain responses and that enhancement of brain activation in fibromyalgia patients may be particularly relevant in emotion-related regions.

  12. Local signal time-series during rest used for areal boundary mapping in individual human brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Hirose

    Full Text Available It is widely thought that resting state functional connectivity likely reflects functional interaction among brain areas and that different functional areas interact with different sets of brain areas. A method for mapping areal boundaries has been formulated based on the large-scale spatial characteristics of regional interaction revealed by resting state functional connectivity. In the present study, we present a novel analysis for areal boundary mapping that requires only the signal timecourses within a region of interest, without reference to the information from outside the region. The areal boundaries were generated by the novel analysis and were compared with those generated by the previously-established standard analysis. The boundaries were robust and reproducible across the two analyses, in two regions of interest tested. These results suggest that the information for areal boundaries is readily available inside the region of interest.

  13. Whole-Brain Mapping of Neuronal Activity in the Learned Helplessness Model of Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yongsoo; Perova, Zinaida; Mirrione, Martine M.; Pradhan, Kith; Henn, Fritz A.; Shea, Stephen; Osten, Pavel; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Some individuals are resilient, whereas others succumb to despair in repeated stressful situations. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying such divergent behavioral responses remain unclear. Here, we employed an automated method for mapping neuronal activity in search of signatures of stress responses in the entire mouse brain. We used serial two-photon tomography to detect expression of c-FosGFP – a marker of neuronal activation – in c-fosGFP transgenic mice subjected to the learned helpl...

  14. Gender differences in working memory networks: A BrainMap meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    HILL, ASHLEY C.; Laird, Angela R.; Robinson, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Gender differences in psychological processes have been of great interest in a variety of fields. While the majority of research in this area has focused on specific differences in relation to test performance, this study sought to determine the underlying neurofunctional differences observed during working memory, a pivotal cognitive process shown to be predictive of academic achievement and intelligence. Using the BrainMap database, we performed a meta-analysis and applied activation likeli...

  15. Mapping Thalamocortical Networks in Rat Brain using Resting-State Functional Connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Zhifeng; Li, Tao; King, Jean; Zhang, Nanyin

    2013-01-01

    Thalamocortical connectivity plays a vital role in brain function. The anatomy and function of thalamocortical networks have been extensively studied in animals by numerous invasive techniques. Non-invasively mapping thalamocortical networks in humans has also been demonstrated by utilizing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). However, success in simultaneously imaging multiple thalamocortical networks in animals is rather limited. This is largely due to the profound ...

  16. Denoising and Frequency Analysis of Noninvasive Magnetoencephalography Sensor Signals for Functional Brain Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Ukil, A

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is an important noninvasive, nonhazardous technology for functional brain mapping, measuring the magnetic fields due to the intracellular neuronal current flow in the brain. However, most often, the inherent level of noise in the MEG sensor data collection process is large enough to obscure the signal(s) of interest. In this paper, a denoising technique based on the wavelet transform and the multiresolution signal decomposition technique along with thresholding is presented, substantiated by application results. Thereafter, different frequency analysis are performed on the denoised MEG signals to identify the major frequencies of the brain oscillations present in the denoised signals. Time-frequency plots (spectrograms) of the denoised signals are also provided.

  17. 3D Data Mapping and Real-Time Experiment Control and Visualization in Brain Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marco A; Hibbard, Jaime V K; Miller, Michael E; Nivin, Tyler W; Milescu, Lorin S

    2015-10-20

    Here, we propose two basic concepts that can streamline electrophysiology and imaging experiments in brain slices and enhance data collection and analysis. The first idea is to interface the experiment with a software environment that provides a 3D scene viewer in which the experimental rig, the brain slice, and the recorded data are represented to scale. Within the 3D scene viewer, the user can visualize a live image of the sample and 3D renderings of the recording electrodes with real-time position feedback. Furthermore, the user can control the instruments and visualize their status in real time. The second idea is to integrate multiple types of experimental data into a spatial and temporal map of the brain slice. These data may include low-magnification maps of the entire brain slice, for spatial context, or any other type of high-resolution structural and functional image, together with time-resolved electrical and optical signals. The entire data collection can be visualized within the 3D scene viewer. These concepts can be applied to any other type of experiment in which high-resolution data are recorded within a larger sample at different spatial and temporal coordinates. PMID:26488641

  18. 3D Data Mapping and Real-Time Experiment Control and Visualization in Brain Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marco A; Hibbard, Jaime V K; Miller, Michael E; Nivin, Tyler W; Milescu, Lorin S

    2015-10-20

    Here, we propose two basic concepts that can streamline electrophysiology and imaging experiments in brain slices and enhance data collection and analysis. The first idea is to interface the experiment with a software environment that provides a 3D scene viewer in which the experimental rig, the brain slice, and the recorded data are represented to scale. Within the 3D scene viewer, the user can visualize a live image of the sample and 3D renderings of the recording electrodes with real-time position feedback. Furthermore, the user can control the instruments and visualize their status in real time. The second idea is to integrate multiple types of experimental data into a spatial and temporal map of the brain slice. These data may include low-magnification maps of the entire brain slice, for spatial context, or any other type of high-resolution structural and functional image, together with time-resolved electrical and optical signals. The entire data collection can be visualized within the 3D scene viewer. These concepts can be applied to any other type of experiment in which high-resolution data are recorded within a larger sample at different spatial and temporal coordinates.

  19. Neural Imaginaries and Clinical Epistemology: Rhetorically Mapping the Adolescent Brain in the Clinical Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Mara

    2014-01-01

    The social work of brain images has taken center stage in recent theorizing of the intersections between neuroscience and society. However, neuroimaging is only one of the discursive modes through which public representations of neurobiology travel. This article adopts an expanded view toward the social implications of neuroscientific thinking to examine how neural imaginaries are constructed in the absence of visual evidence. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted over 18 months (2008–2009) in a United States multidisciplinary pediatric pain clinic, I examine the pragmatic clinical work undertaken to represent ambiguous symptoms in neurobiological form. Focusing on one physician, I illustrate how, by rhetorically mapping the brain as a therapeutic tool, she engaged in a distinctive form of representation that I call neural imagining. In shifting my focus away from the purely material dimensions of brain images, I juxtapose the cultural work of brain scanning technologies with clinical neural imaginaries in which the teenage brain becomes a space of possibility, not to map things as they are, but rather, things as we hope they might be. These neural imaginaries rely upon a distinctive clinical epistemology that privileges the creative work of the imagination over visualization technologies in revealing the truths of the body. By creating a therapeutic space for adolescents to exercise their imaginative faculties and a discursive template for doing so, neural imagining relocates adolescents’ agency with respect to epistemologies of bodily knowledge and the role of visualization practices therein. In doing so, it provides a more hopeful alternative to the dominant popular and scientific representations of the teenage brain that view it primarily through the lens of pathology. PMID:24780561

  20. Neural imaginaries and clinical epistemology: Rhetorically mapping the adolescent brain in the clinical encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Mara

    2015-10-01

    The social work of brain images has taken center stage in recent theorizing of the intersections between neuroscience and society. However, neuroimaging is only one of the discursive modes through which public representations of neurobiology travel. This article adopts an expanded view toward the social implications of neuroscientific thinking to examine how neural imaginaries are constructed in the absence of visual evidence. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted over 18 months (2008-2009) in a United States multidisciplinary pediatric pain clinic, I examine the pragmatic clinical work undertaken to represent ambiguous symptoms in neurobiological form. Focusing on one physician, I illustrate how, by rhetorically mapping the brain as a therapeutic tool, she engaged in a distinctive form of representation that I call neural imagining. In shifting my focus away from the purely material dimensions of brain images, I juxtapose the cultural work of brain scanning technologies with clinical neural imaginaries in which the teenage brain becomes a space of possibility, not to map things as they are, but rather, things as we hope they might be. These neural imaginaries rely upon a distinctive clinical epistemology that privileges the creative work of the imagination over visualization technologies in revealing the truths of the body. By creating a therapeutic space for adolescents to exercise their imaginative faculties and a discursive template for doing so, neural imagining relocates adolescents' agency with respect to epistemologies of bodily knowledge and the role of visualization practices therein. In doing so, it provides a more hopeful alternative to the dominant popular and scientific representations of the teenage brain that view it primarily through the lens of pathology.

  1. Different brain networks underlying the acquisition and expression of contextual fear conditioning: a metabolic mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pardo, H; Conejo, N M; Lana, G; Arias, J L

    2012-01-27

    The specific brain regions and circuits involved in the acquisition and expression of contextual fear conditioning are still a matter of debate. To address this issue, regional changes in brain metabolic capacity were mapped during the acquisition and expression of contextual fear conditioning using cytochrome oxidase (CO) quantitative histochemistry. In comparison with a group briefly exposed to a conditioning chamber, rats that received a series of randomly presented footshocks in the same conditioning chamber (fear acquisition group) showed increased CO activity in anxiety-related brain regions like the ventral periaqueductal gray, the ventral hippocampus, the lateral habenula, the mammillary bodies, and the laterodorsal thalamic nucleus. Another group received randomly presented footshocks, and it was re-exposed to the same conditioning chamber one week later (fear expression group). The conditioned group had significantly higher CO activity as compared with the matched control group in the following brain regions: the ventral periaqueductal gray, the central and lateral nuclei of the amygdala, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. In addition, analysis of functional brain networks using interregional CO activity correlations revealed different patterns of functional connectivity between fear acquisition and fear expression groups. In particular, a network comprising the ventral hippocampus and amygdala nuclei was found in the fear acquisition group, whereas a closed reciprocal dorsal hippocampal network was detected in the fear expression group. These results suggest that contextual fear acquisition and expression differ as regards to the brain networks involved, although they share common brain regions involved in fear, anxiety, and defensive behavior. PMID:22173014

  2. Brain mapping in a patient with congenital blindness – a case for multimodal approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarod L Roland

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in basic neuroscience research across a wide range of methodologies have contributed significantly to our understanding of human cortical electrophysiology and functional brain imaging. Translation of this research into clinical neurosurgery has opened doors for advanced mapping of functionality that previously was prohibitively difficult, if not impossible. Here we present the case of a unique individual with congenital blindness and medically refractory epilepsy who underwent neurosurgical treatment of her seizures. Pre-operative evaluation presented the challenge of accurately and robustly mapping the cerebral cortex for an individual with a high probability of significant cortical re-organization. Additionally, a blind individual has unique priorities in one’s ability to read Braille by touch and sense the environment primarily by sound than the non-vision impaired person. For these reasons we employed additional measures to map sensory, motor, speech, language, and auditory perception by employing a number of cortical electrophysiologic mapping and functional magnetic resonance imaging methods. Our data show promising results in the application of these adjunctive methods in the pre-operative mapping of otherwise difficult to localize, and highly variable, functional cortical areas.

  3. Maladaptive Plasticity in Aphasia: Brain Activation Maps Underlying Verb Retrieval Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, Kerstin; Durand, Edith; Marcotte, Karine; Ansaldo, Ana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Anomia, or impaired word retrieval, is the most widespread symptom of aphasia, an acquired language impairment secondary to brain damage. In the last decades, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled studying the neural basis underlying anomia and its recovery. The present study aimed to explore maladaptive plasticity in persistent verb anomia, in three male participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia. Brain activation maps associated with semantic verb paraphasia occurring within an oral picture-naming task were identified with an event-related fMRI paradigm. These maps were compared with those obtained in our previous study examining adaptive plasticity (i.e., successful verb naming) in the same participants. The results show that activation patterns related to semantic verb paraphasia and successful verb naming comprise a number of common areas, contributing to both maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms. This finding suggests that the segregation of brain areas provides only a partial view of the neural basis of verb anomia and successful verb naming. Therefore, it indicates the importance of network approaches which may better capture the complexity of maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms in anomia recovery. PMID:27429808

  4. Anisotropy mapping in rat brains using Intermolecular Multiple Quantum Coherence Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This document reports an unconventional and rapidly developing approach to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using intermolecular multiple-quantum coherences (iMQCs). Rat brain images are acquired using iMQCs. We detect iMQCs between spins that are 10 {\\mu}m to 500 {\\mu}m apart. The interaction between spins is dependent on different directions. We can choose the directions on physical Z, Y and X axis by choosing correlation gradients along those directions. As an important application, iMQCs can be used for anisotropy mapping. In the rat brains, we investigate tissue microstructure. We simulated images expected from rat brains without microstructure. We compare those with experimental results to prove that the dipolar field from the overall shape only has small contributions to the experimental iMQC signal. Because of the underlying low signal to noise ratio (SNR) in iMQCs, this anisotropy mapping method still has comparatively large potentials to grow. The ultimate goal of my project is to develop creative a...

  5. Maladaptive Plasticity in Aphasia: Brain Activation Maps Underlying Verb Retrieval Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Spielmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomia, or impaired word retrieval, is the most widespread symptom of aphasia, an acquired language impairment secondary to brain damage. In the last decades, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled studying the neural basis underlying anomia and its recovery. The present study aimed to explore maladaptive plasticity in persistent verb anomia, in three male participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia. Brain activation maps associated with semantic verb paraphasia occurring within an oral picture-naming task were identified with an event-related fMRI paradigm. These maps were compared with those obtained in our previous study examining adaptive plasticity (i.e., successful verb naming in the same participants. The results show that activation patterns related to semantic verb paraphasia and successful verb naming comprise a number of common areas, contributing to both maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms. This finding suggests that the segregation of brain areas provides only a partial view of the neural basis of verb anomia and successful verb naming. Therefore, it indicates the importance of network approaches which may better capture the complexity of maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms in anomia recovery.

  6. Maladaptive Plasticity in Aphasia: Brain Activation Maps Underlying Verb Retrieval Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Edith; Marcotte, Karine; Ansaldo, Ana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Anomia, or impaired word retrieval, is the most widespread symptom of aphasia, an acquired language impairment secondary to brain damage. In the last decades, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled studying the neural basis underlying anomia and its recovery. The present study aimed to explore maladaptive plasticity in persistent verb anomia, in three male participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia. Brain activation maps associated with semantic verb paraphasia occurring within an oral picture-naming task were identified with an event-related fMRI paradigm. These maps were compared with those obtained in our previous study examining adaptive plasticity (i.e., successful verb naming) in the same participants. The results show that activation patterns related to semantic verb paraphasia and successful verb naming comprise a number of common areas, contributing to both maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms. This finding suggests that the segregation of brain areas provides only a partial view of the neural basis of verb anomia and successful verb naming. Therefore, it indicates the importance of network approaches which may better capture the complexity of maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms in anomia recovery. PMID:27429808

  7. Pig brain stereotaxic standard space: mapping of cerebral blood flow normative values and effect of MPTP-lesioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Watanabe, Hideaki; Bjarkam, Carsten;

    2005-01-01

    of minipig brain, we calculated cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps from normal minipigs and from minipigs with a syndrome of parkisonism induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-poisoning. These maps were transformed from the native space into the common stereotaxic space. After global...

  8. Statistical parametric mapping in brain single photon computed emission tomography after carbon monoxide intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N; Nohara, S; Matsuda, H; Sumiya, H; Noguchi, K; Shimizu, M; Tsuji, S; Kinuya, S; Shuke, N; Yokoyama, K; Seto, H

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess regional cerebral blood flow in patients after carbon monoxide intoxication by using brain single photon emission computed tomography and statistical parametric mapping. Eight patients with delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae and ten patients with no neuropsychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide intoxication were studied with brain single photon emission tomography imaging with 99mTc-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime. Forty-four control subjects were also studied. We used the adjusted regional cerebral blood flow images in relative flow distribution (normalization of global cerebral blood flow for each subject to 50 ml x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) with proportional scaling) to compare these groups with statistical parametric mapping. Using this technique, significantly decreased regional cerebral blood flow was noted extensively in the bilateral frontal lobes as well as the bilateral insula and a part of the right temporal lobe in the patients with delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae as compared with normal volunteers (Pparametric mapping is a useful technique for highlighting differences in regional cerebral blood flow in patients following carbon monoxide intoxication as compared with normal volunteers. The selectively reduced blood flow noted in this investigation supports the contention that the decrease following carbon monoxide intoxication may be prolonged and further worsen in the frontal lobe. In addition, the present study may help to clarify the characteristics of the pathophysiological alteration underlying delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae.

  9. New perspectives in EEG/MEG brain mapping and PET/fMRI neuroimaging of human pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A C

    2001-10-01

    With the maturation of EEG/MEG brain mapping and PET/fMRI neuroimaging in the 1990s, greater understanding of pain processing in the brain now elucidates and may even challenge the classical theory of pain mechanisms. This review scans across the cultural diversity of pain expression and modulation in man. It outlines the difficulties in defining and studying human pain. It then focuses on methods of studying the brain in experimental and clinical pain, the cohesive results of brain mapping and neuroimaging of noxious perception, the implication of pain research in understanding human consciousness and the relevance to clinical care as well as to the basic science of human psychophysiology. Non-invasive brain studies in man start to unveil the age-old puzzles of pain-illusion, hypnosis and placebo in pain modulation. The neurophysiological and neurohemodynamic brain measures of experimental pain can now largely satisfy the psychophysiologist's dream, unimaginable only a few years ago, of modelling the body-brain, brain-mind, mind-matter duality in an inter-linking 3-P triad: physics (stimulus energy); physiology (brain activities); and psyche (perception). For neuropsychophysiology greater challenges lie ahead: (a) how to integrate a cohesive theory of human pain in the brain; (b) what levels of analyses are necessary and sufficient; (c) what constitutes the structural organisation of the pain matrix; (d) what are the modes of processing among and across the sites of these structures; and (e) how can neural computation of these processes in the brain be carried out? We may envision that modular identification and delineation of the arousal-attention, emotion-motivation and perception-cognition neural networks of pain processing in the brain will also lead to deeper understanding of the human mind. Two foreseeable impacts on clinical sciences and basic theories from brain mapping/neuroimaging are the plausible central origin in persistent pain and integration of

  10. From Brain Maps to Cognitive Ontologies: Informatics and the Search for Mental Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poldrack, Russell A; Yarkoni, Tal

    2016-01-01

    A major goal of cognitive neuroscience is to delineate how brain systems give rise to mental function. Here we review the increasingly large role informatics-driven approaches are playing in such efforts. We begin by reviewing a number of challenges conventional neuroimaging approaches face in trying to delineate brain-cognition mappings--for example, the difficulty in establishing the specificity of postulated associations. Next, we demonstrate how these limitations can potentially be overcome using complementary approaches that emphasize large-scale analysis--including meta-analytic methods that synthesize hundreds or thousands of studies at a time; latent-variable approaches that seek to extract structure from data in a bottom-up manner; and predictive modeling approaches capable of quantitatively inferring mental states from patterns of brain activity. We highlight the underappreciated but critical role for formal cognitive ontologies in helping to clarify, refine, and test theories of brain and cognitive function. Finally, we conclude with a speculative discussion of what future informatics developments may hold for cognitive neuroscience.

  11. INHERITED NEURODEVELOPMENTAL BRAIN DISEASES: APPLICATIONS OF HOMOZYGOSITY MAPPING TO IDENTIFY NEW GENETIC CAUSES OF DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G. Gleeson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe last two decades have seen major advancements in our understanding of some of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders in the field of child neurology. However, in the majority of individual patients, it is still not possible to arrive at a molecular diagnosis, due in part to lack of knowledge ofmolecular causes of these tremendously complex conditions. Common genetic disorders of brain development include septo-optic dysplasia, schizencephaly, holoprosencephaly, lissencephaly and hindbrain malformations. For each of these disorders, a critical step in brain development is disrupted. Specific genetic diagnosis is now possible in some patients with most of these conditions. For the remaining patients, it is possible to apply gene-mapping strategies using newly developed high-density genomic arrays to clone novel genes. This is especially important in countries like Iran where large family size and marriage between relatives makes these strategies tremendously powerful.

  12. Mapping metals in Parkinson's and normal brain using rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Bogdan F Gh; George, Martin J; McCrea, Richard P E; Devon, Richard M; George, Graham N; Hanson, Akela D; Chapman, L Dean; Nichol, Helen [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan SK (Canada); Bergmann, Uwe; Garachtchenko, Alex V; Luening, Katharina [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kelly, Michael E [Division of Neurosurgery, University of Saskatchewan, SK (Canada); Harder, Sheri M [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Saskatchewan, SK (Canada); Pickering, Ingrid J [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, SK (Canada)], E-mail: h.nichol@usask.ca

    2009-02-07

    Rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence (RS-XRF) is a synchrotron technology that maps multiple metals in tissues by employing unique hardware and software to increase scanning speed. RS-XRF was validated by mapping and quantifying iron, zinc and copper in brain slices from Parkinson's disease (PD) and unaffected subjects. Regions and structures in the brain were readily identified by their metal complement and each metal had a unique distribution. Many zinc-rich brain regions were low in iron and vice versa. The location and amount of iron in brain regions known to be affected in PD agreed with analyses using other methods. Sample preparation is simple and standard formalin-fixed autopsy slices are suitable. RS-XRF can simultaneously and non-destructively map and quantify multiple metals and holds great promise to reveal metal pathologies associated with PD and other neurodegenerative diseases as well as diseases of metal metabolism.

  13. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Indicates a Disturbed Brain Iron Homeostasis in Neuromyelitis Optica – A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado, Vanessa; Rueda, Fernanda; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Juergen R.; Tukamoto, Gustavo; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Schweser, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and can be associated with oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate brain iron in patients with Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), a quantitative iron-sensitive MRI technique. 12 clinically confirmed NMO patients (6 female and 6 male; age 35.4y±14.2y) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (7 female and 5 male; age 33.9±11.3y) underwent MRI of the brain at 3 Tesla. Quantitative maps of the effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*) and magnetic susceptibility were calculated and a blinded ROI-based group comparison analysis was performed. Normality of the data and differences between patients and controls were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t-test, respectively. Correlation with age was studied using Spearman’s rank correlation and an ANCOVA-like analysis. Magnetic susceptibility values were decreased in the red nucleus (p0.95; between -15 and -22 ppb depending on reference region) with a trend toward increasing differences with age. R2* revealed significantly decreased relaxation in the optic radiations of five of the 12 patients (p<0.0001; -3.136±0.567 s-1). Decreased relaxation in the optic radiation is indicative for demyelination, which is in line with previous findings. Decreased magnetic susceptibility in the red nucleus is indicative for a lower brain iron concentration, a chemical redistribution of iron into less magnetic forms, or both. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the pathological cause or consequence of this finding. PMID:27171423

  14. Mapping drug distribution in brain tissue using liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swales, John G; Tucker, James W; Spreadborough, Michael J; Iverson, Suzanne L; Clench, Malcolm R; Webborn, Peter J H; Goodwin, Richard J A

    2015-10-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA-MS) is a surface sampling technique that incorporates liquid extraction from the surface of tissue sections with nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry. Traditional tissue analysis techniques usually require homogenization of the sample prior to analysis via high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), but an intrinsic weakness of this is a loss of all spatial information and the inability of the technique to distinguish between actual tissue penetration and response caused by residual blood contamination. LESA-MS, in contrast, has the ability to spatially resolve drug distributions and has historically been used to profile discrete spots on the surface of tissue sections. Here, we use the technique as a mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) tool, extracting points at 1 mm spatial resolution across tissue sections to build an image of xenobiotic and endogenous compound distribution to assess drug blood-brain barrier penetration into brain tissue. A selection of penetrant and "nonpenetrant" drugs were dosed to rats via oral and intravenous administration. Whole brains were snap-frozen at necropsy and were subsequently sectioned prior to analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) and LESA-MSI. MALDI-MSI, as expected, was shown to effectively map the distribution of brain penetrative compounds but lacked sufficient sensitivity when compounds were marginally penetrative. LESA-MSI was used to effectively map the distribution of these poorly penetrative compounds, highlighting its value as a complementary technique to MALDI-MSI. The technique also showed benefits when compared to traditional homogenization, particularly for drugs that were considered nonpenetrant by homogenization but were shown to have a measurable penetration using LESA-MSI. PMID:26350423

  15. Involvement of the right inferior longitudinal fascicle in visual hemiagnosia: a brain stimulation mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Coello, Alejandro; Duvaux, Sophie; De Benedictis, Alessandro; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Duffau, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    Neural foundations underlying visual agnosia are poorly understood. The authors present the case of a patient who underwent awake surgery for a right basal temporooccipital low-grade glioma in which direct electrostimulation was used both at the cortical and subcortical level. Brain mapping over the inferior longitudinal fascicle generated contralateral visual hemiagnosia. These original findings are in agreement with recent tractography data that have confirmed the existence of an occipitotemporal pathway connecting occipital visual input to higher-level processing in temporal lobe structures. This is the first report of a true transient visual hemiagnosia elicited through electrostimulation, supporting the crucial role of inferior longitudinal fascicle in visual recognition.

  16. Significance probability mapping: an aid in the topographic analysis of brain electrical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, F H; Bartels, P H; Burchfiel, J L

    1981-05-01

    We illustrate the application of significance probability mapping (SPM) to the analysis of topographic maps of spectral analyzed EEG and visual evoked potential (VEP) activity from patients with brain tumors, boys with dyslexia, and control subjects. When the VEP topographic plots of tumor patients were displayed as number of standard deviations from a reference mean, more subjects were correctly identified than by inspection of the underlying raw data. When topographic plots of EEG alpha activity obtained while listening to speech or music were compared by t statistic to plots of resting alpha activity, regions of cortex presumably activated by speech or music were delineated. DIfferent regions were defined in dyslexic boys and controls. We propose that SPM will prove valuable in the regional localization of normal and abnormal functions in other clinical situations. PMID:6165544

  17. Brain-Map Based Carangiform Swimming Behaviour Modeling and Control in a Robotic Fish Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhra Roy Chowdhury

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fish swimming demonstrates impressive speeds and exceptional characteristics in the fluid environment. The objective of this paper is to mimic undulatory swimming behaviour and its control of a body caudal fin (BCF carangiform fish in a robotic counterpart. Based on fish biology kinematics study, a 2-level behavior based distributed control scheme is proposed. The high-level control is modeled by robotic fish swimming behavior. It uses a Lighthill (LH body wave to generate desired joint trajectory patterns. Generated LH body wave is influenced by intrinsic kinematic parameters Tail-beat frequency (TBF and Caudal amplitude (CA which can be modulated to change the trajectory pattern. Parameter information is retrieved from a fish memory (cerebellum inspired brain map. This map stores operating region information on TBF and CA parameters obtained from yellow fin tuna kinematics study. Based on an environment based error feedback signal, robotic fish map selects the right parameter/s value showing adaptive behaviour. A finite state machine methodology has been used to model this brain-kinematic-map control. The low-level control is implemented using inverse dynamics based computed torque method (CTM with dynamic PD compensation. It tracks high-level generated and encoded patterns (trajectory for fish-tail undulation. Three types of parameter adaptation for the two chosen parameters have been shown to successfully emulate robotic fish swimming behavior. Based on the proposed control strategy joint-position and velocity tracking results are discussed. They are found to be satisfactory with error magnitudes within permissible bounds.

  18. Mapping between Language-object and Brain%语言-事物与大脑之间的映射

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫以聪

    2016-01-01

    Applying the ideas of topology,assuming that language space L set the mapping between ob-ject space A and the brain space B:L:A→B and its inverse mapping L:B→A.Then separately research map-ping L and inverse mapping L to conduce space constructed by brain nerve information unit.%应用拓扑学思想,假设由事物或事件单位构成的空间A与大脑神经信息单位构成的空间B之间,通过语言空间L建立了映射L:A→B和它的逆映射L-1:B→A。将映射空间L和它的逆L-1单独取出进行研究,借以推导大脑神经信息单位构成的空间。

  19. High resolution mapping of modafinil induced changes in glutamate level in rat brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Haris

    Full Text Available Modafinil is marketed in the United States for the treatment of narcolepsy and daytime somnolence due to shift-work or sleep apnea. Investigations of this drug in the treatment of cocaine and nicotine dependence in addition to disorders of executive function are also underway. Modafinil has been known to increase glutamate levels in rat brain models. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS has been commonly used to detect the glutamate (Glu changes in vivo. In this study, we used a recently described glutamate chemical exchange saturation transfer (GluCEST imaging technique to measure Modafinil induced regional Glu changes in rat brain and compared the results with Glu concentration measured by single voxel 1HMRS. No increases in either GluCEST maps or 1HMRS were observed after Modafinil injection over a period of 5 hours. However, a significant increase in GluCEST (19 ± 4.4% was observed 24 hours post Modafinil administration, which is consistent with results from previous biochemical studies. This change was not consistently seen with 1HMRS. GluCEST mapping allows regional cerebral Glu changes to be measured and may provide a useful clinical biomarker of Modafinil effects for the management of patients with sleep disorders and addiction.

  20. Mapping the connectivity underlying multimodal (verbal and non-verbal) semantic processing: a brain electrostimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2013-08-01

    Accessing the meaning of words, objects, people and facts is a human ability, made possible thanks to semantic processing. Although studies concerning its cortical organization are proficient, the subcortical connectivity underlying this semantic network received less attention. We used intraoperative direct electrostimulation, which mimics a transient virtual lesion during brain surgery for glioma in eight awaken patients, to map the anatomical white matter substrate subserving the semantic system. Patients performed a picture naming task and a non-verbal semantic association test during the electrical mapping. Direct electrostimulation of the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, a poorly known ventral association pathway which runs throughout the brain, induced in all cases semantic disturbances. These transient disorders were highly reproducible, and concerned verbal as well as non-verbal output. Our results highlight for the first time the essential role of the left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle in multimodal (and not only in verbal) semantic processing. On the basis of these original findings, and in the lights of phylogenetic considerations regarding this fascicle, we suggest its possible implication in the monitoring of the human level of consciousness related to semantic memory, namely noetic consciousness.

  1. Brain SPECT analysis using statistical parametric mapping in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Euy Neyng; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo; Yang, Dong Won [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    This study investigated alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). Noninvasive rCBF measurements using {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed on 23 patients with PTSD and 21 age matched normal controls without re-exposure to accident-related stimuli. The relative rCBF maps in patients with PTSD and controls were compared. In patients with PTSD, significant increased rCBF was found along the limbic system in the brain. There were a few foci of decreased rCBF in the superior frontal gyrus, parietal and temporal region. PTSD is associated with increased rCBF in limbic areas compared with age-matched normal controls. These findings implicate regions of the limbic brain, which may mediate the response to aversive stimuli in healthy individuals, play on important role in patients suffering from PTSD and suggest that ongoing hyperfunction of 'overlearned survival response' or flashbacks response in these regions after painful, life threatening, or horrifying events without re-exposure to same traumatic stimulus.

  2. Optimization of Brain T2 Mapping Using Standard CPMG Sequence In A Clinical Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnilicová, P.; Bittšanský, M.; Dobrota, D.

    2014-04-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging, transverse relaxation time (T2) mapping is a useful quantitative tool enabling enhanced diagnostics of many brain pathologies. The aim of our study was to test the influence of different sequence parameters on calculated T2 values, including multi-slice measurements, slice position, interslice gap, echo spacing, and pulse duration. Measurements were performed using standard multi-slice multi-echo CPMG imaging sequence on a 1.5 Tesla routine whole body MR scanner. We used multiple phantoms with different agarose concentrations (0 % to 4 %) and verified the results on a healthy volunteer. It appeared that neither the pulse duration, the size of interslice gap nor the slice shift had any impact on the T2. The measurement accuracy was increased with shorter echo spacing. Standard multi-slice multi-echo CPMG protocol with the shortest echo spacing, also the smallest available interslice gap (100 % of slice thickness) and shorter pulse duration was found to be optimal and reliable for calculating T2 maps in the human brain.

  3. Mapping the brain in type II diabetes: Voxel-based morphometry using DARTEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the pattern of brain volume changes of the brain in patients with type II diabetes mellitus using voxel-based morphometry. Material and methods: Institutional ethics approval and informed consent were obtained. VBM based on the high resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo MRI images was obtained from 16 type II diabetes patients (mean age 61.2 years) and 16 normal controls (mean age 59.6 years). All images were spatially preprocessed using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm, and the DARTEL templates were made from 100 normal subjects. Statistical parametric mapping was generated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: An atrophy pattern of gray matter was seen in type II diabetes patients compared with controls that involved the right superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, right precentral gyrus, and left rolandic operculum region. The loss of white matter volume in type II diabetes mellitus was observed in right temporal lobe and left inferior frontal triangle region. ROI analysis revealed that the gray and white matter volume of right temporal lobe were significant lower in type II diabetes mellitus than that in controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This work demonstrated that type II diabetes mellitus patients mainly exhibited gray and white matter atrophy in right temporal lobe, and this finding supported that type II diabetes mellitus could lead to subtle diabetic brain structural changes in patients without dementia or macrovascular complications.

  4. Spatial learning of the water maze: progression of brain circuits mapped with cytochrome oxidase histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo, N M; González-Pardo, H; Gonzalez-Lima, F; Arias, J L

    2010-03-01

    The progression of brain circuits involved in spatial learning tasks is still a matter of debate. In addition, the participation of individual regions at different stages of spatial learning remains a controversial issue. In order to address these questions, we used quantitative cytochrome oxidase histochemistry as a metabolic brain mapping method applied to rats (Rattus norvegicus) trained in a water maze for 1, 3 or 5 days of training. Sustained changes throughout training were found in the lateral septal nucleus and anteroventral thalamic nucleus. As compared to naïve or habituation groups, rats with 1 day of training in the spatial learning task showed involvement of the lateral mammillary nucleus, basolateral amygdala and anterodorsal thalamic nucleus. By 5 days of training, there were mean changes in the hippocampal CA3 field and the prefrontal cortex. The regions involved and their pattern of network interactions changed progressively over days of training. At 1-day there was an open serial network of pairwise correlations. At 3-days there was a more closed reciprocal network of intercorrelations. At 5-days there were three separate parallel networks. In addition, brain-behavior correlations showed that CA1 and CA3 hippocampal fields together with the parietal cortex are related to the mastery of the spatial learning task. The present study extends previous findings on the progressive contribution of neural networks to spatial learning. PMID:19969098

  5. Spatial mapping of drug delivery to brain tissue using hyperspectral spatial frequency-domain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Moon, Rajinder P.; Roblyer, Darren M.; Bigio, Irving J.; Joshi, Shailendra

    2014-09-01

    We present an application of spatial frequency-domain imaging (SFDI) to the wide-field imaging of drug delivery to brain tissue. Measurements were compared with values obtained by a previously validated variation of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the method of optical pharmacokinetics (OP). We demonstrate a cross-correlation between the two methods for absorption extraction and drug concentration determination in both experimental tissue phantoms and freshly extracted rodent brain tissue. These methods were first used to assess intra-arterial (IA) delivery of cationic liposomes to brain tissue in Sprague Dawley rats under transient cerebral hypoperfusion. Results were found to be in agreement with previously published experimental data and pharmacokinetic models of IA drug delivery. We then applied the same scheme to evaluate IA mitoxantrone delivery to glioma-bearing rats. Good correlation was seen between OP and SFDI determined concentrations taken from normal and tumor averaged sites. This study shows the feasibility of mapping drug/tracer distributions and encourages the use of SFDI for spatial imaging of tissues for drug/tracer-tagged carrier deposition and pharmacokinetic studies.

  6. Mapping the brain in type II diabetes: Voxel-based morphometry using DARTEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiye [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Li, Lin [Department of Geriatric Endocrinology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Sun, Jie [Department of Endocrinology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Ma, Lin, E-mail: cjr.malin@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the pattern of brain volume changes of the brain in patients with type II diabetes mellitus using voxel-based morphometry. Material and methods: Institutional ethics approval and informed consent were obtained. VBM based on the high resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo MRI images was obtained from 16 type II diabetes patients (mean age 61.2 years) and 16 normal controls (mean age 59.6 years). All images were spatially preprocessed using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm, and the DARTEL templates were made from 100 normal subjects. Statistical parametric mapping was generated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: An atrophy pattern of gray matter was seen in type II diabetes patients compared with controls that involved the right superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, right precentral gyrus, and left rolandic operculum region. The loss of white matter volume in type II diabetes mellitus was observed in right temporal lobe and left inferior frontal triangle region. ROI analysis revealed that the gray and white matter volume of right temporal lobe were significant lower in type II diabetes mellitus than that in controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This work demonstrated that type II diabetes mellitus patients mainly exhibited gray and white matter atrophy in right temporal lobe, and this finding supported that type II diabetes mellitus could lead to subtle diabetic brain structural changes in patients without dementia or macrovascular complications.

  7. Neural correlates of apathy revealed by lesion mapping in participants with traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Kristine M; Monte, Olga Dal; Raymont, Vanessa; Wassermann, Eric M; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-03-01

    Apathy, common in neurological disorders, is defined as disinterest and loss of motivation, with a reduction in self-initiated activity. Research in diseased populations has shown that apathy is associated with variations in the volume of brain regions such as the anterior cingulate and the frontal lobes. The goal of this study was to determine the neural signatures of apathy in people with penetrating traumatic brain injuries (pTBIs), as to our knowledge, these have not been studied in this sample. We studied 176 male Vietnam War veterans with pTBIs using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and apathy scores from the UCLA Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), a structured inventory of symptoms completed by a caregiver. Our results revealed that increased apathy symptoms were associated with brain damage in limbic and cortical areas of the left hemisphere including the anterior cingulate, inferior, middle, and superior frontal regions, insula, and supplementary motor area. Our results are consistent with the literature, and extend them to people with focal pTBI. Apathy is a significant symptom since it can reduce participation of the patient in family and other social interactions, and diminish affective decision-making.

  8. Susceptibility-weighted imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Tong, Karen A; Yeom, Kristen W; Kuzminski, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that enhances image contrast by using the susceptibility differences between tissues. It is created by combining both magnitude and phase in the gradient echo data. SWI is sensitive to both paramagnetic and diamagnetic substances which generate different phase shift in MRI data. SWI images can be displayed as a minimum intensity projection that provides high resolution delineation of the cerebral venous architecture, a feature that is not available in other MRI techniques. As such, SWI has been widely applied to diagnose various venous abnormalities. SWI is especially sensitive to deoxygenated blood and intracranial mineral deposition and, for that reason, has been applied to image various pathologies including intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, stroke, neoplasm, and multiple sclerosis. SWI, however, does not provide quantitative measures of magnetic susceptibility. This limitation is currently being addressed with the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). While QSM treats susceptibility as isotropic, STI treats susceptibility as generally anisotropic characterized by a tensor quantity. This article reviews the basic principles of SWI, its clinical and research applications, the mechanisms governing brain susceptibility properties, and its practical implementation, with a focus on brain imaging.

  9. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5{+-}3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis.

  10. Robust biological parametric mapping: an improved technique for multimodal brain image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Beason-Held, Lori; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2011-03-01

    Mapping the quantitative relationship between structure and function in the human brain is an important and challenging problem. Numerous volumetric, surface, region of interest and voxelwise image processing techniques have been developed to statistically assess potential correlations between imaging and non-imaging metrics. Recently, biological parametric mapping has extended the widely popular statistical parametric approach to enable application of the general linear model to multiple image modalities (both for regressors and regressands) along with scalar valued observations. This approach offers great promise for direct, voxelwise assessment of structural and functional relationships with multiple imaging modalities. However, as presented, the biological parametric mapping approach is not robust to outliers and may lead to invalid inferences (e.g., artifactual low p-values) due to slight mis-registration or variation in anatomy between subjects. To enable widespread application of this approach, we introduce robust regression and robust inference in the neuroimaging context of application of the general linear model. Through simulation and empirical studies, we demonstrate that our robust approach reduces sensitivity to outliers without substantial degradation in power. The robust approach and associated software package provides a reliable way to quantitatively assess voxelwise correlations between structural and functional neuroimaging modalities.

  11. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-01-01

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns. PMID:26836414

  12. Metaphoric identity mapping: facilitating goal setting and engagement in rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylvisaker, Mark; McPherson, Kathryn; Kayes, Nicola; Pellett, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Difficulty re-establishing an organised and compelling sense of personal identity has increasingly been identified as a critical theme in outcome studies of individuals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a serious obstacle to active engagement in rehabilitation. There exists little empirical support for approaches to identity reconstruction that address common impairments associated with TBI. Similarly, there is as yet little empirical support for theoretically sound approaches to promoting engagement in goal setting for this population. This article has two purposes. First, theory and procedures associated with metaphoric identity mapping are discussed in relation to goal setting in TBI rehabilitation. Second, the results of a qualitative pilot study are presented. The study explored metaphoric identity mapping as a facilitator of personally meaningful goal setting with five individuals with significant disability many years after their injury. Drawing on principles of grounded theory, the investigators extracted data from semi-structured interviews with clients and clinicians, from focus groups with the clinicians, and from observation of client-clinician interaction. Analysis of the data yielded five general themes concerning the use of this approach: All clients and clinicians found identity mapping to be an acceptable process and also useful for deriving meaningful rehabilitation goals. Both clients and clinicians saw client-centred goals as important. Cognitive impairments posed obstacles to this goal-setting intervention and mandated creative compensations. And finally, identity-related goal setting appeared to require a "mind shift" for some clinicians and demanded clinical skills not uniformly distributed among rehabilitation professionals.

  13. Quantitative EEG Brain Mapping In Psychotropic Drug Development, Drug Treatment Selection, and Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, Turan M.; Itil, Kurt Z.

    1995-05-01

    Quantification of standard electroencephalogram (EEG) by digital computers [computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG)] has transformed the subjective analog EEG into an objective scientific method. Until a few years ago, CEEG was only used to assist in the development of psychotropic drugs by means of the quantitative pharmaco EEG. Thanks to the computer revolution and the accompanying reductions in cost of quantification, CEEG can now also be applied in psychiatric practice. CEEG can assist the physician in confirming clinical diagnoses, selecting psychotropic drugs for treatment, and drug treatment monitoring. Advancements in communications technology allow physicians and researchers to reduce the costs of acquiring a high-technology CEEG brain mapping system by utilizing the more economical telephonic services. PMID:11850678

  14. Quantitative EEG Brain Mapping In Psychotropic Drug Development, Drug Treatment Selection, and Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, Turan M.; Itil, Kurt Z.

    1995-05-01

    Quantification of standard electroencephalogram (EEG) by digital computers [computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG)] has transformed the subjective analog EEG into an objective scientific method. Until a few years ago, CEEG was only used to assist in the development of psychotropic drugs by means of the quantitative pharmaco EEG. Thanks to the computer revolution and the accompanying reductions in cost of quantification, CEEG can now also be applied in psychiatric practice. CEEG can assist the physician in confirming clinical diagnoses, selecting psychotropic drugs for treatment, and drug treatment monitoring. Advancements in communications technology allow physicians and researchers to reduce the costs of acquiring a high-technology CEEG brain mapping system by utilizing the more economical telephonic services.

  15. Mapping small-world properties through development in the human brain: disruption in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardo Tomasi

    Full Text Available Evidence from imaging studies suggests that the human brain has a small-world network topology that might be disrupted in certain brain disorders. However, current methodology is based on global graph theory measures, such as clustering, C, characteristic path length, L, and small-worldness, S, that lack spatial specificity and are insufficient to identify regional brain abnormalities. Here we propose novel ultra-fast methodology for mapping local properties of brain network topology such as local C, L and S (lC, lL and lS in the human brain at 3-mm isotropic resolution from 'resting-state' magnetic resonance imaging data. Test-retest datasets from 40 healthy children/adolescents were used to demonstrate the overall good reliability of the measures across sessions and computational parameters (intraclass correlation > 0.5 for lC and lL and their low variability across subjects (< 29%. Whereas regions with high local functional connectivity density (lFCD; local degree in posterior parietal and occipital cortices demonstrated high lC and short lL, subcortical regions (globus pallidus, thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala, cerebellum (lobes and vermis, cingulum and temporal cortex also had high, lS, demonstrating stronger small-world topology than other hubs. Children/adolescents had stronger lFCD, higher lC and longer lL in most cortical regions and thalamus than 74 healthy adults, consistent with pruning of functional connectivity during maturation. In contrast, lFCD, lC and lL were weaker in thalamus and midbrain, and lL was shorter in frontal cortical regions and cerebellum for 69 schizophrenia patients than for 74 healthy controls, suggesting exaggerated pruning of connectivity in schizophrenia. Follow up correlation analyses for seeds in thalamus and midbrain uncovered lower positive connectivity of these regions in thalamus, putamen, cerebellum and frontal cortex (cingulum, orbitofrontal, inferior frontal and lower negative connectivity in

  16. Probabilistic anatomical labeling of brain structures using statistical probabilistic anatomical maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Byung Il; Lee, Jae Sung; Shin, Hee Won; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    The use of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) program has increased for the analysis of brain PET and SPECT images. Montreal neurological institute (MNI) coordinate is used in SPM program as a standard anatomical framework. While the most researchers look up Talairach atlas to report the localization of the activations detected in SPM program, there is significant disparity between MNI templates and Talairach atlas. That disparity between Talairach and MNI coordinates makes the interpretation of SPM result time consuming, subjective and inaccurate. The purpose of this study was to develop a program to provide objective anatomical information of each x-y-z position in ICBM coordinate. Program was designed to provide the anatomical information for the given x-y-z position in MNI coordinate based on the statistical probabilistic anatomical map (SPAM) images of ICBM. When x-y-z position was given to the program, names of the anatomical structures with non-zero probability and the probabilities that the given position belongs to the structures were tabulated. The program was coded using IDL and JAVA language for the easy transplantation to any operating system or platform. Utility of this program was shown by comparing the results of this program to those of SPM program. Preliminary validation study was performed by applying this program to the analysis of PET brain activation study of human memory in which the anatomical information on the activated areas are previously known. Real time retrieval of probabilistic information with 1 mm spatial resolution was archived using the programs. Validation study showed the relevance of this program: probability that the activated area for memory belonged to hippocampal formation was more than 80%. These programs will be useful for the result interpretation of the image analysis performed on MNI coordinate, as done in SPM program.

  17. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  18. Spectral and brain mapping analysis of EEG based on Pwelch in schizophrenic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Y.; Khotimah, S. N.; Haryanto, F.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the differences of power spectral distribution in various frequency bands between healthy subjects and schizophrenic patients. Subjects in this study were 8 people consisting of 4 schizophrenic patients and 4 healthy subjects. Subjects were recorded from 12 electrodes with Electroencephalography (EEG). EEG signals were recorded during a resting eye-closed state for 4-6 minutes. Data were extracted and analyzed by centering and filtering, then performed using Welch Periodogram technique for the spectral estimation with a Hamming window. The results of this study showed that delta power spectral in schizophrenic patients increased ten times from healthy subjects; theta power spectral in schizophrenic patients increased three times from healthy subjects; alpha power spectral in schizophrenic patients decreased with an increase of one third of healthy subjects. These results were confirmed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showing there were significant differences between schizophrenic and healthy subjects on delta, theta and alpha brain wave. Based on the results of Brain Mapping analysis showed that there was significant increasing in the activity of delta waves and theta waves in frontal lobe of schizophrenics, whereas the alpha waves indicated a decrease in the occipital lobe in all schizophrenic patients.

  19. Cortical mapping by functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majos, Agata; Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Goraj, Bozena [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Radiology, Lodz (Poland); Tybor, Krzysztof [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Neurosurgery, Lodz (Poland)

    2005-06-01

    The aim of our study was to establish the effectiveness of the functional MRI (fMRI) technique in comparison with intraoperative cortical stimulation (ICS) in planning cortex-saving neurosurgical interventions. The combination of sensory and motor stimulation during fMRI experiments was used to improve the exactness of central sulcus localization. The study subjects were 30 volunteers and 33 patients with brain tumors in the rolandic area. Detailed topographical relations of activated areas in fMRI and intraoperative techniques were compared. The agreement in the location defined by the two methods for motor centers was found to be 84%; for sensory centers it was 83%. When both kinds of activation are taken into account this agreement increases to 98%. A significant relation was found between fMRI and ICS for the agreement of the distance both for motor and sensory centers (p=0.0021-0.0024). Also a strong dependence was found between the agreement of the location and the agreement of the distance for both kinds of stimulation. The spatial correlation between fMRI and ICS methods for the sensorimotor cortex is very high. fMRI combining functional and structural information is very helpful for preoperative neurosurgical planning. The sensitivity of the fMRI technique in brain mapping increases when using both motor and sensory paradigms in the same patient. (orig.)

  20. Cortical mapping by functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study was to establish the effectiveness of the functional MRI (fMRI) technique in comparison with intraoperative cortical stimulation (ICS) in planning cortex-saving neurosurgical interventions. The combination of sensory and motor stimulation during fMRI experiments was used to improve the exactness of central sulcus localization. The study subjects were 30 volunteers and 33 patients with brain tumors in the rolandic area. Detailed topographical relations of activated areas in fMRI and intraoperative techniques were compared. The agreement in the location defined by the two methods for motor centers was found to be 84%; for sensory centers it was 83%. When both kinds of activation are taken into account this agreement increases to 98%. A significant relation was found between fMRI and ICS for the agreement of the distance both for motor and sensory centers (p=0.0021-0.0024). Also a strong dependence was found between the agreement of the location and the agreement of the distance for both kinds of stimulation. The spatial correlation between fMRI and ICS methods for the sensorimotor cortex is very high. fMRI combining functional and structural information is very helpful for preoperative neurosurgical planning. The sensitivity of the fMRI technique in brain mapping increases when using both motor and sensory paradigms in the same patient. (orig.)

  1. Wide-field optical mapping of neural activity and brain haemodynamics: considerations and novel approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Shaik, Mohammed A.; Kozberg, Mariel G.; Thibodeaux, David N.; Zhao, Hanzhi T.; Yu, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Although modern techniques such as two-photon microscopy can now provide cellular-level three-dimensional imaging of the intact living brain, the speed and fields of view of these techniques remain limited. Conversely, two-dimensional wide-field optical mapping (WFOM), a simpler technique that uses a camera to observe large areas of the exposed cortex under visible light, can detect changes in both neural activity and haemodynamics at very high speeds. Although WFOM may not provide single-neuron or capillary-level resolution, it is an attractive and accessible approach to imaging large areas of the brain in awake, behaving mammals at speeds fast enough to observe widespread neural firing events, as well as their dynamic coupling to haemodynamics. Although such wide-field optical imaging techniques have a long history, the advent of genetically encoded fluorophores that can report neural activity with high sensitivity, as well as modern technologies such as light emitting diodes and sensitive and high-speed digital cameras have driven renewed interest in WFOM. To facilitate the wider adoption and standardization of WFOM approaches for neuroscience and neurovascular coupling research, we provide here an overview of the basic principles of WFOM, considerations for implementation of wide-field fluorescence imaging of neural activity, spectroscopic analysis and interpretation of results. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574312

  2. Exploring the brain's structural connectome: A quantitative stroke lesion-dysfunction mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuceyeski, Amy; Navi, Babak B; Kamel, Hooman; Relkin, Norman; Villanueva, Mark; Raj, Ashish; Toglia, Joan; O'Dell, Michael; Iadecola, Costantino

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to quantitatively model cross-sectional relationships between structural connectome disruptions caused by cerebral infarction and measures of clinical performance. Imaging biomarkers of 41 ischemic stroke patients (72.0 ± 12.0 years, 20 female) were related to their baseline performance in 18 cognitive, physical and daily life activity assessments. Individual estimates of structural connectivity disruption in gray matter regions were computed using the Change in Connectivity (ChaCo) score. ChaCo scores were utilized because they can be calculated using routinely collected clinical magnetic resonance imagings. Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) was used to predict various acute impairment and activity measures from ChaCo scores and patient demographics. Statistical methods of cross-validation, bootstrapping and multiple comparisons correction were implemented to minimize over-fitting and Type I errors. Multiple linear regression models based on lesion volume and lateralization information were constructed for comparison. All models based on connectivity disruption had lower Akaike Information Criterion and almost all had better goodness-of-fit values (R(2) : 0.26-0.92) than models based on lesion characteristics (R(2) : 0.06-0.50). Confidence intervals of PLSR coefficients identified brain regions important in predicting each clinical assessment. Appropriate mapping of eloquent functions, that is, language and motor, and replication of results across pathologies provided validation of this method. Models of complex functions provided new insights into brain-behavior relationships. In addition to the potential applications in prognostication and rehabilitation development, this quantitative approach provides insight into the structural networks underlying complex functions like activities of daily living and cognition. Quantitative analysis of big data will be invaluable in understanding complex brain-behavior relationships. PMID

  3. Brain SPECT analysis using statistical parametric mapping in patients with transient global amnesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E. N.; Sohn, H. S.; Kim, S. H; Chung, S. K.; Yang, D. W. [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    This study investigated alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA) using statistical parametric mapping 99 (SPM99). Noninvasive rCBF measurements using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed on 8 patients with TGA and 17 age matched controls. The relative rCBF maps in patients with TGA and controls were compared. In patients with TGA, significantly decreased rCBF was found along the left superior temporal extending to left parietal region of the brain and left thalamus. There were areas of increased rCBF in the right temporal, right frontal region and right thalamus. We could demonstrate decreased perfusion in left cerebral hemisphere and increased perfusion in right cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA using SPM99. The reciprocal change of rCBF between right and left cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA might suggest that imbalanced neuronal activity between the bilateral hemispheres may be important role in the pathogenesis of the TGA. For quantitative SPECT analysis in TGA patients, we recommend SPM99 rather than the ROI method because of its definitive advantages.

  4. The brain decade in debate: VI. Sensory and motor maps: dynamics and plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Das

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an edited transcription of a virtual symposium promoted by the Brazilian Society of Neuroscience and Behavior (SBNeC. Although the dynamics of sensory and motor representations have been one of the most studied features of the central nervous system, the actual mechanisms of brain plasticity that underlie the dynamic nature of sensory and motor maps are not entirely unraveled. Our discussion began with the notion that the processing of sensory information depends on many different cortical areas. Some of them are arranged topographically and others have non-topographic (analytical properties. Besides a sensory component, every cortical area has an efferent output that can be mapped and can influence motor behavior. Although new behaviors might be related to modifications of the sensory or motor representations in a given cortical area, they can also be the result of the acquired ability to make new associations between specific sensory cues and certain movements, a type of learning known as conditioning motor learning. Many types of learning are directly related to the emotional or cognitive context in which a new behavior is acquired. This has been demonstrated by paradigms in which the receptive field properties of cortical neurons are modified when an animal is engaged in a given discrimination task or when a triggering feature is paired with an aversive stimulus. The role of the cholinergic input from the nucleus basalis to the neocortex was also highlighted as one important component of the circuits responsible for the context-dependent changes that can be induced in cortical maps.

  5. Functional mapping of language networks in the normal brain using a word-association task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Language functions are known to be affected in diverse neurological conditions, including ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and brain tumors. Because language networks are extensive, interpretation of functional data depends on the task completed during evaluation. The aim was to map the hemodynamic consequences of word association using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in normal human subjects. Ten healthy subjects underwent fMRI scanning with a postlexical access semantic association task vs lexical processing task. The fMRI protocol involved a T2*-weighted gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI) sequence (TR 4523 ms, TE 64 ms, flip angle 90°) with alternate baseline and activation blocks. A total of 78 scans were taken (interscan interval = 3 s) with a total imaging time of 587 s. Functional data were processed in Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM2) with 8-mm Gaussian kernel by convolving the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal with an hemodynamic response function estimated by general linear method to generate SPM{t} and SPM{F} maps. Single subject analysis of the functional data (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001) revealed extensive activation in the frontal lobes, with overlaps among middle frontal gyrus (MFG), superior, and inferior frontal gyri. BOLD activity was also found in the medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus (MOG), anterior fusiform gyrus, superior and inferior parietal lobules, and to a smaller extent, the thalamus and right anterior cerebellum. Group analysis (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001) revealed neural recruitment of bilateral lingual gyri, left MFG, bilateral MOG, left superior occipital gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, bilateral thalami, and right cerebellar areas. Group data analysis revealed a cerebellar–occipital–fusiform–thalamic network centered around bilateral lingual gyri for word association, thereby indicating how these areas facilitate language comprehension by activating a semantic

  6. MR-based automatic delineation of volumes of interest in human brain PET images using probability maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Claus; Madsen, Karina; Hasselbalch, Steen G.;

    2005-01-01

    delineation of the VOI set. The approach was also shown to work equally well in individuals with pronounced cerebral atrophy. Probability-map-based automatic delineation of VOIs is a fast, objective, reproducible, and safe way to assess regional brain values from PET or SPECT scans. In addition, the method......The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observer-independent approach for automatic generation of volume-of-interest (VOI) brain templates to be used in emission tomography studies of the brain. The method utilizes a VOI probability map created on the basis of a database of several...... subjects' MR-images, where VOI sets have been defined manually. High-resolution structural MR-images and 5-HT(2A) receptor binding PET-images (in terms of (18)F-altanserin binding) from 10 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with mild cognitive impairment were included for the analysis. A template including...

  7. Brain metabolism in patients with vegetative state after post-resuscitated hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: statistical parametric mapping analysis of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wook Kim; Hyoung Seop Kim; Young-Sil An

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI) after cardiopulmonary resuscitation is one of the most devastating neurological conditions that causing the impaired consciousness.However,there were few studies investigated the changes of brain metabolism in patients with vegetative state (VS) after post-resuscitated HIBI.This study aimed to analyze the change of overall brain metabolism and elucidated the brain area correlated with the level of consciousness (LOC) in patients with VS after post-resuscitated HIBI.Methods We consecutively enrolled 17 patients with VS after HIBI,who experienced cardiopulmonary resuscitation.Overall brain metabolism was measured by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) and we compared regional brain metabolic patterns from t7 patients with those from 15 normal controls using voxel-by-voxel based statistical parametric mapping analysis.Additionally,we correlated the LOC measured by the JFK-coma recovery scale-revised of each patient with brain metabolism by covariance analysis.Results Compared with normal controls,the patients with VS after post-resuscitated HIBI revealed significantly decreased brain metabolism in bilateral precuneus,bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus,bilateral middle frontal gyri,bilateral superior parietal gyri,bilateral middle occipital gyri,bilateral precentral gyri (PFEw correctecd <0.0001),and increased brain metabolism in bilateral insula,bilateral cerebella,and the brainstem (PFEw correctecd <0.0001).In covariance analysis,the LOC was significantly correlated with brain metabolism in bilateral fusiform and superior temporal gyri (P uncorrected <0.005).Conclusions Our study demonstrated that the precuneus,the posterior cingulate area and the frontoparietal cortex,which is a component of neural correlate for consciousness,may be relevant structure for impaired consciousness in patient with VS after post-resuscitated HIBI.In post-resuscitated HIBI,measurement of brain

  8. Evaluation of ictal brain SPET using statistical parametric mapping in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated voxel-based analysis of brain images using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is accepted as a standard approach in the analysis of activation studies in positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. This study aimed to investigate whether or not SPM would increase the diagnostic yield of ictal brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Twenty-one patients (age 27.14±5.79 years) with temporal lobe epilepsy (right in 8, left in 13) who had a successful seizure outcome after surgery and nine normal subjects were included in the study. The data of ictal and interictal brain SPET of the patients and baseline SPET of the normal control group were analysed using SPM96 software. The t statistic SPM(t) was transformed to SPM(Z) with various thresholds of P<0.05, 0.005 and 0.001, and corrected extent threshold P value of 0.05. The SPM data were compared with the conventional ictal and interictal subtraction method. On group comparison, ictal SPET showed increased uptake within the epileptogenic mesial temporal lobe. On single case analysis, ictal SPET images correctly lateralized the epileptogenic temporal lobe in 18 cases, falsely lateralized it in one and failed to lateralize it in two as compared with the mean image of the normal group at a significance level of P<0.05. Comparing the individual ictal images with the corresponding interictal group, 15 patients were correctly lateralized, one was falsely lateralized and four were not lateralized. At significance levels of P<0.005 and P<0.001, correct lateralization of the epileptogenic temporal lobe was achieved in 15 and 13 patients, respectively, as compared with the normal group. On the other hand, when comparison was made with the corresponding interictal group, only 7 out of 21 patients were correctly lateralized at the threshold of P<0.005 and five at P<0.001. The result of the subtraction method was close to the single case analysis on

  9. Computational neuroanatomy: mapping cell-type densities in the mouse brain, simulations from the Allen Brain Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    The Allen Brain Atlas of the adult mouse (ABA) consists of digitized expression profiles of thousands of genes in the mouse brain, co-registered to a common three-dimensional template (the Allen Reference Atlas).This brain-wide, genome-wide data set has triggered a renaissance in neuroanatomy. Its voxelized version (with cubic voxels of side 200 microns) is available for desktop computation in MATLAB. On the other hand, brain cells exhibit a great phenotypic diversity (in terms of size, shape and electrophysiological activity), which has inspired the names of some well-studied cell types, such as granule cells and medium spiny neurons. However, no exhaustive taxonomy of brain cell is available. A genetic classification of brain cells is being undertaken, and some cell types have been chraracterized by their transcriptome profiles. However, given a cell type characterized by its transcriptome, it is not clear where else in the brain similar cells can be found. The ABA can been used to solve this region-specificity problem in a data-driven way: rewriting the brain-wide expression profiles of all genes in the atlas as a sum of cell-type-specific transcriptome profiles is equivalent to solving a quadratic optimization problem at each voxel in the brain. However, the estimated brain-wide densities of 64 cell types published recently were based on one series of co-registered coronal in situ hybridization (ISH) images per gene, whereas the online ABA contains several image series per gene, including sagittal ones. In the presented work, we simulate the variability of cell-type densities in a Monte Carlo way by repeatedly drawing a random image series for each gene and solving the optimization problem. This yields error bars on the region-specificity of cell types.

  10. Mapping the stability of human brain asymmetry across five sex-chromosome aneuploidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Amy; Clasen, Liv; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wallace, Gregory L; Lalonde, Francois; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Giedd, Jay N; Raznahan, Armin

    2015-01-01

    The human brain displays stereotyped and early emerging patterns of cortical asymmetry in health. It is unclear if these asymmetries are highly sensitive to genetic and environmental variation or fundamental features of the brain that can survive severe developmental perturbations. To address this question, we mapped cortical thickness (CT) asymmetry in a group of genetically defined disorders known to impact CT development. Participants included 137 youth with one of five sex-chromosome aneuploidies [SCAs; XXX (n = 28), XXY (n = 58), XYY (n = 26), XXYY (n = 20), and XXXXY (n = 5)], and 169 age-matched typically developing controls (80 female). In controls, we replicated previously reported rightward inferior frontal and leftward lateral parietal CT asymmetry. These opposing frontoparietal CT asymmetries were broadly preserved in all five SCA groups. However, we also detected foci of shifting CT asymmetry with aneuploidy, which fell almost exclusively within regions of significant CT asymmetry in controls. Specifically, X-chromosome aneuploidy accentuated normative rightward inferior frontal asymmetries, while Y-chromosome aneuploidy reversed normative rightward medial prefrontal and lateral temporal asymmetries. These findings indicate that (1) the stereotyped normative pattern of opposing frontoparietal CT asymmetry arises from developmental mechanisms that can withstand gross chromosomal aneuploidy and (2) X and Y chromosomes can exert focal, nonoverlapping and directionally opposed influences on CT asymmetry within cortical regions of significant asymmetry in health. Our study attests to the resilience of developmental mechanisms that support the global patterning of CT asymmetry in humans, and motivates future research into the molecular bases and functional consequences of sex chromosome dosage effects on CT asymmetry.

  11. Improved fidelity of brain microstructure mapping from single-shell diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquet, Maxime; Scherrer, Benoit; Boumal, Nicolas; Peters, Jurriaan M; Macq, Benoit; Warfield, Simon K

    2015-12-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is sensitive to alterations in the diffusion of water molecules caused by microstructural barriers. Different microstructural compartments are characterized by differences in DWI signal. Diffusion tensor imaging conflates the signal from these compartments into a single tensor, which poorly represents multiple white matter fascicles and extra-axonal space. Diffusion compartment imaging (DCI) models overcome this limitation by providing parametric representations for the signal contribution of each compartment, thereby improving the fidelity of brain microstructure mapping. However, current approaches fail to identify DCI model parameters from conventional single-shell DWI with the desired accuracy. It has been demonstrated that part of this inaccuracy is due to the ill-posedness of the estimation of DCI model parameters from conventional single-shell acquisitions. In this paper, we propose to regularize the estimation problem for single-shell DWI by learning a prior distribution of DCI model parameters from DWI acquired at multiple b-values in an external population of subjects. We demonstrate that this population-informed prior enables, for the first time, accurate estimation of DCI models from single-shell DWI typically acquired in clinical practice. We validated our approach on synthetic and in vivo data of healthy subjects and patients with autism spectrum disorder. We applied the approach to population studies of brain microstructure in autism and found that introducing a population-informed prior leads to reliable detection of group differences. Our algorithm enables novel investigation from large existing DWI datasets in normal development and in disease and injury. PMID:26529580

  12. A hybrid CPU-GPU accelerated framework for fast mapping of high-resolution human brain connectome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Recently, a combination of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and graph theoretical approaches has provided a unique opportunity for understanding the patterns of the structural and functional connectivity of the human brain (referred to as the human brain connectome. Currently, there is a very large amount of brain imaging data that have been collected, and there are very high requirements for the computational capabilities that are used in high-resolution connectome research. In this paper, we propose a hybrid CPU-GPU framework to accelerate the computation of the human brain connectome. We applied this framework to a publicly available resting-state functional MRI dataset from 197 participants. For each subject, we first computed Pearson's Correlation coefficient between any pairs of the time series of gray-matter voxels, and then we constructed unweighted undirected brain networks with 58 k nodes and a sparsity range from 0.02% to 0.17%. Next, graphic properties of the functional brain networks were quantified, analyzed and compared with those of 15 corresponding random networks. With our proposed accelerating framework, the above process for each network cost 80∼150 minutes, depending on the network sparsity. Further analyses revealed that high-resolution functional brain networks have efficient small-world properties, significant modular structure, a power law degree distribution and highly connected nodes in the medial frontal and parietal cortical regions. These results are largely compatible with previous human brain network studies. Taken together, our proposed framework can substantially enhance the applicability and efficacy of high-resolution (voxel-based brain network analysis, and have the potential to accelerate the mapping of the human brain connectome in normal and disease states.

  13. A study on evaluation of frontal lobe epilepsy using statistical parametric mapping of brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates alteration of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and identification of epileptic foci in interictal frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Noninvasive rCBF measurements using 99mTc-ECD SPECT were performed on 23 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy and 49 age-matched normal subjects. The FLE patients were divided into three groups, 3 patients with dorsolateral and frontocentral seizures, 2 patients with supplementary motor seizures, and 18 patients with frontobasal-cingulate seizures by Mihara's classification determined by clinical and EEG findings. The SPM analysis revealed rCBF abnormality in frontal lobes in 12 patients when compared rCBF data for each patient with those for normal subjects in accordance with Mihara's classification in 8. On the contrary, rCBF abnormality in frontal lobes was detected in 4 patients by visual inspection in accordance with the classification in only one. The rCBF significantly decreased in orbito-frontal regions, frontopolar regions, and anterior cingulate gyrus in the group with frontobasal-cingulate seizures as compared with age-matched normal subjects with confounding covariates of plasma concentrations of antiepileptic drugs. These results suggest that SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT gives us useful information about frontal lobe epilepsy even in the interictal phase. (author)

  14. CLINICAL STUDY OF ISCHEMIC PENUMBRA REGION IN BRAIN ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY MAPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qingrui; Liu Mingshun; Gu Lanjie; Mei Fengjun

    2000-01-01

    Department of Neurology, Fourth Affiliated Hospital. Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang ABSTRACT OBJETIVE To study features and clinical usage of ischemic penumbra region(IPR) in brain electrical activity mapping(BEAM).BACKGROUND To explore the functional improvement index of IPR untraumaticly. METH0DS 69 patients with acute cerebral infarction were divided into two groups according to different therapeutic time window--early treatment group( 32 cases, treatment in 12 hours)and contral group (37 cases, treatment in 12-72 hours).They were analysed in BEAM pre-and post-treatment Results: BEAM showed that the power of infarcted core was decreased and IPR became smaller in slow waves significantly after treatment in early treatment group and this change was in good agreement with improvement of clinical functions and SPECT DISCUSSION The key to treat acute cerebral infarction was to improve functions of IPR as 8oos as possible, BEAM could show the location and size of IPR. CONCLUSION BEAM was one of important index in evaluating the function of IPR.

  15. Whole-brain mapping of afferent projections to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Rong-Jun; Luo, Peng-Hao; Shu, Yu-Mian; Chen, Ju-Tao; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2016-10-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) plays an important role in integrating and relaying input information to other brain regions in response to stress. The cytoarchitecture of the BST in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has been comprehensively described in our previous publications. However, the inputs to the BST have not been described in previous reports. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sources of afferent projections to the BST throughout the brain of tree shrews using the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG). The present results provide the first detailed whole-brain mapping of BST-projecting neurons in the tree shrew brain. The BST was densely innervated by the prefrontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, ventral subiculum, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, and parabrachial nucleus. Moreover, moderate projections to the BST originated from the medial preoptic area, supramammillary nucleus, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, and nucleus of the solitary tract. Afferent projections to the BST are identified in the ventral pallidum, nucleus of the diagonal band, ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus, posterior complex of the thalamus, interfascicular nucleus, retrorubral field, rhabdoid nucleus, intermediate reticular nucleus, and parvicellular reticular nucleus. In addition, the different densities of BST-projecting neurons in various regions were analyzed in the tree shrew brains. In summary, whole-brain mapping of direct inputs to the BST is delineated in tree shrews. These brain circuits are implicated in the regulation of numerous physiological and behavioral processes including stress, reward, food intake, and arousal. PMID:27436534

  16. NeuroVault.org: A web-based repository for collecting and sharing unthresholded statistical maps of the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Jacek Gorgolewski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we present NeuroVault — a web based repository that allows researchers to store, share, visualize, and decode statistical maps of the human brain. NeuroVault is easy to use and employs modern web technologies to provide informative visualization of data without the need to install additional software. In addition, it leverages the power of the Neurosynth database to provide cognitive decoding of deposited maps. The data are exposed through a public REST API enabling other services and tools to take advantage of it. NeuroVault is a new resource for researchers interested in conducting meta- and coactivation analyses.

  17. Preoperative functional MRI localization of language areas in Chinese patients with brain tumors Validation with intraoperative electrocortical mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hechun Xia; Wei Huang; Liang Wu; Hui Ma; Xiaodong Wang; Xuexin Chen; Shengyu Sun; Xiaoxiong Jia

    2012-01-01

    Ten Chinese patients with brain tumors involving language regions were selected. Preoperative functional MRI was performed to locate Broca's or Wernicke's area, and the cortex that was essential for language function was determined by electrocortical mapping. A site-by-site comparison between functional MRI and electrocortical mapping was performed with the aid of a neuronavigation device. Results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of preoperative functional MRI were 80.0% and 85.0% in Broca's area and 66.6% and 85.2% in Wernicke's area, respectively. These experimental findings indicate that functional MRI is an accurate, reliable technique with which to identify the location of Wernicke's area or Broca's area in patients with brain tumors.

  18. Spatial mapping of structural and connectional imaging data for the developing human brain with diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Austin; Jeon, Tina; Sunkin, Susan M; Pletikos, Mihovil; Sedmak, Goran; Sestan, Nenad; Lein, Ed S; Huang, Hao

    2015-02-01

    During human brain development from fetal stage to adulthood, the white matter (WM) tracts undergo dramatic changes. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a widely used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality, offers insight into the dynamic changes of WM fibers as these fibers can be noninvasively traced and three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed with DTI tractography. The DTI and conventional T1 weighted MRI images also provide sufficient cortical anatomical details for mapping the cortical regions of interests (ROIs). In this paper, we described basic concepts and methods of DTI techniques that can be used to trace major WM tracts noninvasively from fetal brain of 14 postconceptional weeks (pcw) to adult brain. We applied these techniques to acquire DTI data and trace, reconstruct and visualize major WM tracts during development. After categorizing major WM fiber bundles into five unique functional tract groups, namely limbic, brain stem, projection, commissural and association tracts, we revealed formation and maturation of these 3D reconstructed WM tracts of the developing human brain. The structural and connectional imaging data offered by DTI provides the anatomical backbone of transcriptional atlas of the developing human brain.

  19. Creating probabilistic maps of the face network in the adolescent brain: A multi-centre functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-scale magnetic resonance (MR) studies of the human brain offer unique opportunities for identifying genetic and environmental factors shaping the human brain. Here, we describe a dataset collected in the context of a multi-centre study of the adolescent brain, namely the IMAGEN Study. We focus on one of the functional paradigms included in the project to probe the brain network underlying processing of ambiguous and angry faces. Using functional MR (fMRI) data collected in 1,110 adolescents, we constructed probabilistic maps of the neural network engaged consistently while viewing the ambiguous or angry faces; 21 brain regions responding to faces with high probability were identified. We were also able to address several methodological issues, including the minimal sample size yielding a stable location of a test region, namely the fusiform face area (FFA), as well as the effect of acquisition site (eight sites) and scanner (four manufacturers) on the location and magnitude of the fMRI response to faces in the FFA. Finally, we provided a comparison between male and female adolescents in terms of the effect sizes of sex differences in brain response to the ambiguous and angry faces in the 21 regions of interest. Overall, we found a stronger neural response to the ambiguous faces in several cortical regions, including the fusiform face area, in female (vs. male) adolescents, and a slightly stronger response to the angry faces in the amygdala of male (vs. female) adolescents. (authors)

  20. Combined lineage mapping and gene expression profiling of embryonic brain patterning using ultrashort pulse microscopy and image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Holly C.; Dodson, Colin R.; Bai, Yuqiang; Lekven, Arne C.; Yeh, Alvin T.

    2014-12-01

    During embryogenesis, presumptive brain compartments are patterned by dynamic networks of gene expression. The spatiotemporal dynamics of these networks, however, have not been characterized with sufficient resolution for us to understand the regulatory logic resulting in morphogenetic cellular behaviors that give the brain its shape. We have developed a new, integrated approach using ultrashort pulse microscopy [a high-resolution, two-photon fluorescence (2PF)-optical coherence microscopy (OCM) platform using 10-fs pulses] and image registration to study brain patterning and morphogenesis in zebrafish embryos. As a demonstration, we used time-lapse 2PF to capture midbrain-hindbrain boundary morphogenesis and a wnt1 lineage map from embryos during brain segmentation. We then performed in situ hybridization to deposit NBT/BCIP, where wnt1 remained actively expressed, and reimaged the embryos with combined 2PF-OCM. When we merged these datasets using morphological landmark registration, we found that the mechanism of boundary formation differs along the dorsoventral axis. Dorsally, boundary sharpening is dominated by changes in gene expression, while ventrally, sharpening may be accomplished by lineage sorting. We conclude that the integrated visualization of lineage reporter and gene expression domains simultaneously with brain morphology will be useful for understanding how changes in gene expression give rise to proper brain compartmentalization and structure.

  1. Molecular mapping of movement-associated areas in the avian brain: a motor theory for vocal learning origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Feenders

    Full Text Available Vocal learning is a critical behavioral substrate for spoken human language. It is a rare trait found in three distantly related groups of birds-songbirds, hummingbirds, and parrots. These avian groups have remarkably similar systems of cerebral vocal nuclei for the control of learned vocalizations that are not found in their more closely related vocal non-learning relatives. These findings led to the hypothesis that brain pathways for vocal learning in different groups evolved independently from a common ancestor but under pre-existing constraints. Here, we suggest one constraint, a pre-existing system for movement control. Using behavioral molecular mapping, we discovered that in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds, all cerebral vocal learning nuclei are adjacent to discrete brain areas active during limb and body movements. Similar to the relationships between vocal nuclei activation and singing, activation in the adjacent areas correlated with the amount of movement performed and was independent of auditory and visual input. These same movement-associated brain areas were also present in female songbirds that do not learn vocalizations and have atrophied cerebral vocal nuclei, and in ring doves that are vocal non-learners and do not have cerebral vocal nuclei. A compilation of previous neural tracing experiments in songbirds suggests that the movement-associated areas are connected in a network that is in parallel with the adjacent vocal learning system. This study is the first global mapping that we are aware for movement-associated areas of the avian cerebrum and it indicates that brain systems that control vocal learning in distantly related birds are directly adjacent to brain systems involved in movement control. Based upon these findings, we propose a motor theory for the origin of vocal learning, this being that the brain areas specialized for vocal learning in vocal learners evolved as a specialization of a pre-existing motor

  2. Molecular mapping of movement-associated areas in the avian brain: a motor theory for vocal learning origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenders, Gesa; Liedvogel, Miriam; Rivas, Miriam; Zapka, Manuela; Horita, Haruhito; Hara, Erina; Wada, Kazuhiro; Mouritsen, Henrik; Jarvis, Erich D

    2008-03-12

    Vocal learning is a critical behavioral substrate for spoken human language. It is a rare trait found in three distantly related groups of birds-songbirds, hummingbirds, and parrots. These avian groups have remarkably similar systems of cerebral vocal nuclei for the control of learned vocalizations that are not found in their more closely related vocal non-learning relatives. These findings led to the hypothesis that brain pathways for vocal learning in different groups evolved independently from a common ancestor but under pre-existing constraints. Here, we suggest one constraint, a pre-existing system for movement control. Using behavioral molecular mapping, we discovered that in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds, all cerebral vocal learning nuclei are adjacent to discrete brain areas active during limb and body movements. Similar to the relationships between vocal nuclei activation and singing, activation in the adjacent areas correlated with the amount of movement performed and was independent of auditory and visual input. These same movement-associated brain areas were also present in female songbirds that do not learn vocalizations and have atrophied cerebral vocal nuclei, and in ring doves that are vocal non-learners and do not have cerebral vocal nuclei. A compilation of previous neural tracing experiments in songbirds suggests that the movement-associated areas are connected in a network that is in parallel with the adjacent vocal learning system. This study is the first global mapping that we are aware for movement-associated areas of the avian cerebrum and it indicates that brain systems that control vocal learning in distantly related birds are directly adjacent to brain systems involved in movement control. Based upon these findings, we propose a motor theory for the origin of vocal learning, this being that the brain areas specialized for vocal learning in vocal learners evolved as a specialization of a pre-existing motor pathway that controls

  3. A face-selective ventral occipito-temporal map of the human brain with intracerebral potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jacques; Jacques, Corentin; Liu-Shuang, Joan; Brissart, Hélène; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Maillard, Louis; Rossion, Bruno

    2016-07-12

    Human neuroimaging studies have identified a network of distinct face-selective regions in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex (VOTC), with a right hemispheric dominance. To date, there is no evidence for this hemispheric and regional specialization with direct measures of brain activity. To address this gap in knowledge, we recorded local neurophysiological activity from 1,678 contact electrodes implanted in the VOTC of a large group of epileptic patients (n = 28). They were presented with natural images of objects at a rapid fixed rate (six images per second: 6 Hz), with faces interleaved as every fifth stimulus (i.e., 1.2 Hz). High signal-to-noise ratio face-selective responses were objectively (i.e., exactly at the face stimulation frequency) identified and quantified throughout the whole VOTC. Face-selective responses were widely distributed across the whole VOTC, but also spatially clustered in specific regions. Among these regions, the lateral section of the right middle fusiform gyrus showed the largest face-selective response by far, offering, to our knowledge, the first supporting evidence of two decades of neuroimaging observations with direct neural measures. In addition, three distinct regions with a high proportion of face-selective responses were disclosed in the right ventral anterior temporal lobe, a region that is undersampled in neuroimaging because of magnetic susceptibility artifacts. A high proportion of contacts responding only to faces (i.e., "face-exclusive" responses) were found in these regions, suggesting that they contain populations of neurons involved in dedicated face-processing functions. Overall, these observations provide a comprehensive mapping of visual category selectivity in the whole human VOTC with direct neural measures. PMID:27354526

  4. Brain-Wide Mapping of Axonal Connections: Workflow for Automated Detection and Spatial Analysis of Labeling in Microscopic Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Eszter A; Leergaard, Trygve B; Csucs, Gergely; Bjaalie, Jan G

    2016-01-01

    Axonal tracing techniques are powerful tools for exploring the structural organization of neuronal connections. Tracers such as biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) and Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (Pha-L) allow brain-wide mapping of connections through analysis of large series of histological section images. We present a workflow for efficient collection and analysis of tract-tracing datasets with a focus on newly developed modules for image processing and assignment of anatomical location to tracing data. New functionality includes automatic detection of neuronal labeling in large image series, alignment of images to a volumetric brain atlas, and analytical tools for measuring the position and extent of labeling. To evaluate the workflow, we used high-resolution microscopic images from axonal tracing experiments in which different parts of the rat primary somatosensory cortex had been injected with BDA or Pha-L. Parameters from a set of representative images were used to automate detection of labeling in image series covering the entire brain, resulting in binary maps of the distribution of labeling. For high to medium labeling densities, automatic detection was found to provide reliable results when compared to manual analysis, whereas weak labeling required manual curation for optimal detection. To identify brain regions corresponding to labeled areas, section images were aligned to the Waxholm Space (WHS) atlas of the Sprague Dawley rat brain (v2) by custom-angle slicing of the MRI template to match individual sections. Based on the alignment, WHS coordinates were obtained for labeled elements and transformed to stereotaxic coordinates. The new workflow modules increase the efficiency and reliability of labeling detection in large series of images from histological sections, and enable anchoring to anatomical atlases for further spatial analysis and comparison with other data. PMID:27148038

  5. Mapping pathological changes in brain structure by combining T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganzetti, Marco; Mantini, Dante [ETH Zurich, Neural Control of Movement Laboratory, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Oxford, Department of Experimental Psychology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Wenderoth, Nicole [ETH Zurich, Neural Control of Movement Laboratory, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); KU Leuven, Laboratory of Movement Control and Neuroplasticity, Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    A workflow based on the ratio between standardized T1-weighted (T1-w) and T2-weighted (T2-w) MR images has been proposed as a new tool to study brain structure. This approach was previously used to map structural properties in the healthy brain. Here, we evaluate whether the T1-w/T2-w approach can support the assessment of structural impairments in the diseased brain. We use schizophrenia data to demonstrate the potential clinical utility of the technique. We analyzed T1-w and T2-w images of 36 schizophrenic patients and 35 age-matched controls. These were collected for the Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network (fBIRN) collaborative project, which had an IRB approval and followed the HIPAA guidelines. We computed T1-w/T2-w images for each individual and compared intensities in schizophrenic and control groups on a voxel-wise basis, as well as in regions of interest (ROIs). Our results revealed that the T1-w/T2-w image permits to discriminate brain regions showing group-level differences between patients and controls with greater accuracy than conventional T1-w and T2-w images. Both the ROIs and the voxel-wise analysis showed globally reduced gray and white matter values in patients compared to controls. Significantly reduced values were found in regions such as insula, primary auditory cortex, hippocampus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Our findings were consistent with previous meta-analyses in schizophrenia corroborating the hypothesis of a potential ''disconnection'' syndrome in conjunction with structural alterations in local gray matter regions. Overall, our study suggested that the T1-w/T2-w technique permits to reliably map structural differences between the brains of patients and healthy individuals. (orig.)

  6. The subtle body: an interoceptive map of central nervous system function and meditative mind-brain-body integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Joseph J

    2016-06-01

    Meditation research has begun to clarify the brain effects and mechanisms of contemplative practices while generating a range of typologies and explanatory models to guide further study. This comparative review explores a neglected area relevant to current research: the validity of a traditional central nervous system (CNS) model that coevolved with the practices most studied today and that provides the first comprehensive neural-based typology and mechanistic framework of contemplative practices. The subtle body model, popularly known as the chakra system from Indian yoga, was and is used as a map of CNS function in traditional Indian and Tibetan medicine, neuropsychiatry, and neuropsychology. The study presented here, based on the Nalanda tradition, shows that the subtle body model can be cross-referenced with modern CNS maps and challenges modern brain maps with its embodied network model of CNS function. It also challenges meditation research by: (1) presenting a more rigorous, neural-based typology of contemplative practices; (2) offering a more refined and complete network model of the mechanisms of contemplative practices; and (3) serving as an embodied, interoceptive neurofeedback aid that is more user friendly and complete than current teaching aids for clinical and practical applications of contemplative practice. PMID:27164469

  7. The analysis of several factors relevant to brain 18F-FDG metabolism by using the statistical parameter mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the relationship of the regional brain 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) metabolism and aging process, the dosage of the imaging agent, the level of blood sugar to cerebral PET (cPET) image data by using statistical parameter mapping (SPM) software. Methods: 18F-FDG cPET imaging data acquired from 30 healthy volunteers were collected and analyzed with SPM by the multiple linear regression model designed with dosage of tracer, and blood sugar level as explaining variables and the 18F-FDG accumulation as responding variables. Results: It's showed that the age, dosage and sugar level were all related with the 18F-FDG accumulation in the brain. The accumulation of the radiotracer in the brain areas like cingulate gyri, inferior temporal gyri of both sides and the cerebellum increased with the tracer dosage, and the blood sugar escalating and the 18F-FDG uptake in the brain areas like frontal lobes, parietal lobes, precentral gyri of both sides and cerebellum decreased at the same time, and the aging process led to a pancephalic 18F-FDG decrease. Conclusions: The injection dosage, sugar level and the age are all related with accumulation of the 18F-FDG, and the SPM software can be used to analyze the multiple factors relevant to cPET imaging data based on voxel level and so can explain the experimental results more correctly

  8. The Wellcome Prize Lecture. A map of auditory space in the mammalian brain: neural computation and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A J

    1993-09-01

    The experiments described in this review have demonstrated that the SC contains a two-dimensional map of auditory space, which is synthesized within the brain using a combination of monaural and binaural localization cues. There is also an adaptive fusion of auditory and visual space in this midbrain nucleus, providing for a common access to the motor pathways that control orientation behaviour. This necessitates a highly plastic relationship between the visual and auditory systems, both during postnatal development and in adult life. Because of the independent mobility of difference sense organs, gating mechanisms are incorporated into the auditory representation to provide up-to-date information about the spatial orientation of the eyes and ears. The SC therefore provides a valuable model system for studying a number of important issues in brain function, including the neural coding of sound location, the co-ordination of spatial information between different sensory systems, and the integration of sensory signals with motor outputs. PMID:8240794

  9. Brain Mapping of Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase in Goldfish (Carassius Auratus): Novel Roles for the Ghrelinergic System in Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén M; Sánchez-Bretaño, Aída; Delgado, María J; Valenciano, Ana I

    2016-06-01

    Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is the enzyme responsible for acylation of ghrelin, a gut-brain hormone with important roles in many physiological functions in vertebrates. Many aspects of GOAT remain to be elucidated, especially in fish, and particularly its anatomical distribution within the different brain areas has never been reported to date. The present study aimed to characterize the brain mapping of GOAT using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry in a teleost, the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Results show that goat transcripts are expressed in different brain areas of the goldfish, with the highest levels in the vagal lobe. Using immunohistochemistry, we also report the presence of GOAT immunoreactive cells in different encephalic areas, including the telencephalon, some hypothalamic nuclei, pineal gland, optic tectum and cerebellum, although they are especially abundant in the hindbrain. Particularly, an important signal is observed in the vagal lobe and some fiber tracts of the brainstem, such as the medial longitudinal fasciculus, Mauthneri fasciculus, secondary gustatory tract and spinothalamic tract. Most of the forebrain areas where GOAT is detected, particularly the hypothalamic nuclei, also express the ghs-r1a ghrelin receptor and other appetite-regulating hormones (e.g., orexin and NPY), supporting the role of ghrelin as a modulator of food intake and energy balance in fish. Present results are the first report on the presence of GOAT in the brain using imaging techniques. The high presence of GOAT in the hindbrain is a novelty, and point to possible new functions for the ghrelinergic system in fish. Anat Rec, 299:748-758, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27064922

  10. A map of brain neuropils and fiber systems in the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Joris M A; Benz, Martin; Oettler, Jan; Heinze, Jürgen; Hartenstein, Volker; Sprecher, Simon G

    2014-01-01

    A wide spectrum of occupied ecological niches and spectacular morphological adaptations make social insects a prime object for comparative neuroanatomical studies. Eusocial insects have evolved complex societies based on caste polyphenism. A diverse behavioral repertoire of morphologically distinct castes of the same species requires a high degree of plasticity in the central nervous system. We have analyzed the central brain neuropils and fiber tract systems of the worker of the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, a model for the study of social traits. Our analysis is based on whole mount preparations of adult brains labeled with an antibody against Drosophila-Synapsin, which cross-reacts strongly with synapses in Cardiocondyla. Neuropil compartments stand out as domains with a certain texture and intensity of the anti-Synapsin signal. By contrast, fiber tracts, which are composed of bundles of axons accompanied by glia and are devoid of synapses, appear as channels or sheaths with low anti-Synapsin signal. We have generated a digital 3D atlas of the Cardiocondyla brain neuropil. The atlas provides a reference for future studies of brain polymorphisms in distinct castes, brain development or localization of neurotransmitter systems. PMID:25698935

  11. Mapping brain response to social stress in rodents with c-fos expression: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M; Calvo-Torrent, A; Herbert, J

    2002-02-01

    Social defeat is an important event in the life of many animals, and forms part of the process of social control. Adapting to social defeat is thus an intrinsic part of social "homeostasis", and mal-adaptation may have pathological sequelae. Experimental models of social defeat (e.g. inter-male aggression) have existed for many years. However, very few studies have investigated the changes in brain activity in male animals exposed to the social stress of being defeated by another conspecific male, and in all these studies the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos has been used as the marker of neuronal activity. In general, the results obtained inform that many areas of the brain, especially those involved in the general stress response, increase their activity when animals are exposed to an acute defeat. However, when animals are defeated repeatedly over many consecutive days, the level of activation of the brain shows different patterns of adaptation depending on the brain areas (varying from complete habituation to persistent activation). Discrepancies between studies may be due to differences in the experimental procedure. On the other hand, further research has to be conducted in order to understand what these changes in the brain activity mean in relation to the other stress responses to social defeat. Furthermore, knowing that the corresponding protein products of many immediate-early genes are transcription factors that can promote or inhibit the expression of target genes, research following this approach is also necessary.

  12. Towards the "baby connectome": mapping the structural connectivity of the newborn brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Tymofiyeva

    Full Text Available Defining the structural and functional connectivity of the human brain (the human "connectome" is a basic challenge in neuroscience. Recently, techniques for noninvasively characterizing structural connectivity networks in the adult brain have been developed using diffusion and high-resolution anatomic MRI. The purpose of this study was to establish a framework for assessing structural connectivity in the newborn brain at any stage of development and to show how network properties can be derived in a clinical cohort of six-month old infants sustaining perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Two different anatomically unconstrained parcellation schemes were proposed and the resulting network metrics were correlated with neurological outcome at 6 months. Elimination and correction of unreliable data, automated parcellation of the cortical surface, and assembling the large-scale baby connectome allowed an unbiased study of the network properties of the newborn brain using graph theoretic analysis. In the application to infants with HIE, a trend to declining brain network integration and segregation was observed with increasing neuromotor deficit scores.

  13. Divergent whole-genome methylation maps of human and chimpanzee brains reveal epigenetic basis of human regulatory evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Konopka, Genevieve; Hunt, Brendan G; Preuss, Todd M; Geschwind, Dan; Yi, Soojin V

    2012-09-01

    DNA methylation is a pervasive epigenetic DNA modification that strongly affects chromatin regulation and gene expression. To date, it remains largely unknown how patterns of DNA methylation differ between closely related species and whether such differences contribute to species-specific phenotypes. To investigate these questions, we generated nucleotide-resolution whole-genome methylation maps of the prefrontal cortex of multiple humans and chimpanzees. Levels and patterns of DNA methylation vary across individuals within species according to the age and the sex of the individuals. We also found extensive species-level divergence in patterns of DNA methylation and that hundreds of genes exhibit significantly lower levels of promoter methylation in the human brain than in the chimpanzee brain. Furthermore, we investigated the functional consequences of methylation differences in humans and chimpanzees by integrating data on gene expression generated with next-generation sequencing methods, and we found a strong relationship between differential methylation and gene expression. Finally, we found that differentially methylated genes are strikingly enriched with loci associated with neurological disorders, psychological disorders, and cancers. Our results demonstrate that differential DNA methylation might be an important molecular mechanism driving gene-expression divergence between human and chimpanzee brains and might potentially contribute to the evolution of disease vulnerabilities. Thus, comparative studies of humans and chimpanzees stand to identify key epigenomic modifications underlying the evolution of human-specific traits. PMID:22922032

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T2 of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T1-weighted and CSF MRI were performed. The first echo data of the CSF MRI sequence was used to obtain intracranial volume, CSF partial volume was measured voxel-wise to obtain CSF volume (VCSF) and the T2 of CSF (T2,CSF) was calculated. The correlation between VCSF / T2,CSF and brain atrophy scores [global cortical atrophy (GCA) and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA)] was evaluated. Relative total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular VCSF increased significantly with increased scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.83, 0.78 and 0.78 and R = 0.72, 0.62 and 0.86). Total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular T2 of the CSF increased significantly with higher scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.72, 0.70 and 0.49 and R = 0.60, 0.57 and 0.41). A fast, fully automated CSF MRI volumetric sequence is an alternative for qualitative atrophy scales. The T2 of the CSF is related to brain atrophy and could thus be a marker of neurodegenerative disease. (orig.)

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vis, J.B. de; Zwanenburg, J.J.; Kleij, L.A. van der; Spijkerman, J.M.; Hendrikse, J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Biessels, G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Petersen, E.T. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hvidovre Hospital, Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre (Denmark)

    2016-05-15

    To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T{sub 2} of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T{sub 1}-weighted and CSF MRI were performed. The first echo data of the CSF MRI sequence was used to obtain intracranial volume, CSF partial volume was measured voxel-wise to obtain CSF volume (V{sub CSF}) and the T{sub 2} of CSF (T{sub 2,CSF}) was calculated. The correlation between V{sub CSF} / T{sub 2,CSF} and brain atrophy scores [global cortical atrophy (GCA) and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA)] was evaluated. Relative total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular V{sub CSF} increased significantly with increased scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.83, 0.78 and 0.78 and R = 0.72, 0.62 and 0.86). Total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular T{sub 2} of the CSF increased significantly with higher scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.72, 0.70 and 0.49 and R = 0.60, 0.57 and 0.41). A fast, fully automated CSF MRI volumetric sequence is an alternative for qualitative atrophy scales. The T{sub 2} of the CSF is related to brain atrophy and could thus be a marker of neurodegenerative disease. (orig.)

  16. Integrated modeling of PET and DTI information based on conformal brain mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guangyu; Xi, Yongjian; Heckenburg, Greg; Duan, Ye; Hua, Jing; Gu, Xiangfeng

    2006-03-01

    Recent advances in imaging technologies, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) have accelerated brain research in many aspects. In order to better understand the synergy of the many processes involved in normal brain function, integrated modeling and analysis of MRI, PET, and DTI is highly desirable. Unfortunately, the current state-of-art computational tools fall short in offering a comprehensive computational framework that is accurate and mathematically rigorous. In this paper we present a framework which is based on conformal parameterization of a brain from high-resolution structural MRI data to a canonical spherical domain. This model allows natural integration of information from co-registered PET as well as DTI data and lays the foundation for a quantitative analysis of the relationship between diverse data sets. Consequently, the system can be designed to provide a software environment able to facilitate statistical detection of abnormal functional brain patterns in patients with a large number of neurological disorders.

  17. The Morphogenic Mapping of the Brain and the Design of the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sheesley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the discovery of a geometrical algorithm that provides a coherent step by step mechanical account of the structure of the nervous system, including the vertebrate brain, the spinal cord, the vertebral column, and the spinal nerves. The morphology of these organs and the observed steps of neural development are well described, consequent of centuries of study. But morphogenesis, the origin and cause of these forms, has not been studied since the last half of the nineteenth century. Neurology does not teach how the brain gained its shape, nor have any causative theories of brain formation been published in recent times. This paper proposes a hypothetical construction based on the discovery of a simple algorithm which generates topologically the form of the brain, the spinal cord, and the vertebral column by the deformation of a gridded segmented sphere by the inversion of its surface. The hypothetical model is in close analogy with nature: the blastula is a segmented gridded sphere which results from the subdivision of the egg. The first step of embryogenesis is gastrulation, where blastula is pressed to enter its own interior, pulling the surface inside out, forming the embryo.

  18. Connectivity concordance mapping: a new tool for model-free analysis of fMRI data of the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eLohmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance data acquired in a task-absent condition ("resting state'' require new data analysis techniques that do not depend on an activation model. Here, we propose a new analysis method called "Connectivity Concordance Mapping (CCM".The main idea is to assign a label to each voxel based on the reproducibility of its whole-brain pattern of connectivity. Specifically, we compute the correlations across measurements of each voxel's correlation-based functional connectivity map, resulting in a voxelwise map of concordance values. Regions of high interscan concordance can be assumed to be functionally consistent, and may thus be of specific interest for further analysis. Here we present two fMRI studies to test the algorithm. The first is a eyes open/eyes closed paradigm designed to highlight the potential of the method in a relatively simple state-dependent domain. The second study is a longitudinal repeated measurement of a patient following stroke. Longitudinal clinical studies such as this may represent the most interesting domain of applications for this algorithm, as it provides an exploratory means to identify changes in connectivity, such as those during post-stroke recovery.

  19. Mapping of kisspeptin fibres in the brain of the pro-oestrus rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desroziers, E; Mikkelsen, Jens Damsgaard; Simonneaux, V;

    2010-01-01

    rat brain by comparing precisely the immunoreactive pattern obtained with two antibodies: one specifically directed against kisspeptin-52 (Kp-52), the longest isoform, and the other directed against kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10) whose sequence is common to all putative mature isoforms. With both antibodies......, immunoreactive cell bodies were exclusively observed in the arcuate nucleus, and immunoreactive fibres were confined to the septo-preoptico-hypothalamic continuum of the brain. Fibres were observed in the preoptic area, the diagonal band of Broca, the septohypothalamic area, the anteroventral periventricular...... throughout the external layer including around the deeper part of the infundibular recess. Most regions of immunoreactive cells and fibres matched perfectly for the two antibodies. However, fibres in the dorso-lateral septum, anterior fornix, accumbens nucleus and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria...

  20. Mapping pharmaceuticals in rat brain sections using MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yunsheng; Li, Fangbiao; Korfmacher, Walter A

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem mass spectrometric method (MALDI-MS/MS) has proven to be a reliable tool for direct measurement of the disposition of small molecules in animal tissue sections. As example, MALDI-MS/MS imaging system was employed for visualizing the spatial distribution of astemizole and its primary metabolite in rat brain tissues. Astemizole is a second-generation antihistamine, a block peripheral H1 receptor, which was introduced to provide comparable therapeutic benefit but was withdrawn in most countries due to toxicity risks. Astemizole was observed to be heterogeneously distributed to most parts of brain tissue slices including cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamic, thalamus, and ventricle regions while its major metabolite, desmethylastemizole, was only found around ventricle sites. We have shown that astemizole alone is likely to be responsible for the central nervous system (CNS) side effects when its exposures became elevated. PMID:20680589

  1. High Resolution Mapping of Modafinil Induced Changes in Glutamate Level in Rat Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Haris, Mohammad; Singh, Anup; Cai, Kejia; Nath, Kavindra; Verma, Gaurav; Nanga, Ravi Prakash Reddy; Hariharan, Hari; Detre, John A.; Epperson, Neill; Reddy, Ravinder

    2014-01-01

    Modafinil is marketed in the United States for the treatment of narcolepsy and daytime somnolence due to shift-work or sleep apnea. Investigations of this drug in the treatment of cocaine and nicotine dependence in addition to disorders of executive function are also underway. Modafinil has been known to increase glutamate levels in rat brain models. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS) has been commonly used to detect the glutamate (Glu) changes in vivo. In this study, we used a re...

  2. The Role of MAP Kinase Cascade in Neonatal Brain Response to Hypoxia-Ischemic Insult

    OpenAIRE

    Thei, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    Babies that are born more than 8 weeks premature or those deprived of Oxygen during the perinatal period are susceptible to brain injury, particularly in conjunction with maternal or fetal infection, leading to neurological deficits later in life. Multiple studies have shown that even brief exposure to hypoxic conditions will cause rapid and selective increase in specific mitogen-activated protein kinases including extracellular signal - related kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and C-Jun N-te...

  3. A map of brain neuropils and fiber systems in the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Oettler; Volker Hartenstein; Sprecher, Simon G.

    2015-01-01

    A wide spectrum of occupied ecological niches and spectacular morphological adaptations make social insects a prime object for comparative neuroanatomical studies. Eusocial insects have evolved complex societies based on caste polyphenism. A diverse behavioral repertoire of morphologically distinct castes of the same species requires a high degree of plasticity in the central nervous system. We have analyzed the central brain neuropils and fiber tract systems of the worker of the ant Cardioco...

  4. Automatic segmentation of brain MRIs and mapping neuroanatomy across the human lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keihaninejad, Shiva; Heckemann, Rolf A.; Gousias, Ioannis S.; Rueckert, Daniel; Aljabar, Paul; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Hammers, Alexander

    2009-02-01

    A robust model for the automatic segmentation of human brain images into anatomically defined regions across the human lifespan would be highly desirable, but such structural segmentations of brain MRI are challenging due to age-related changes. We have developed a new method, based on established algorithms for automatic segmentation of young adults' brains. We used prior information from 30 anatomical atlases, which had been manually segmented into 83 anatomical structures. Target MRIs came from 80 subjects (~12 individuals/decade) from 20 to 90 years, with equal numbers of men, women; data from two different scanners (1.5T, 3T), using the IXI database. Each of the adult atlases was registered to each target MR image. By using additional information from segmentation into tissue classes (GM, WM and CSF) to initialise the warping based on label consistency similarity before feeding this into the previous normalised mutual information non-rigid registration, the registration became robust enough to accommodate atrophy and ventricular enlargement with age. The final segmentation was obtained by combination of the 30 propagated atlases using decision fusion. Kernel smoothing was used for modelling the structural volume changes with aging. Example linear correlation coefficients with age were, for lateral ventricular volume, rmale=0.76, rfemale=0.58 and, for hippocampal volume, rmale=-0.6, rfemale=-0.4 (allρ<0.01).

  5. Dynamic brain mapping of behavior change: tracking response initiation and inhibition to changes in reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlund, Michael W; Magee, Sandy; Hudgins, Caleb D

    2012-10-01

    Adaptive behavior change is supported by executive control processes distributed throughout a prefrontal-striatal-parietal network. Yet, the temporal dynamics of regions in the network have not been characterized. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tracked changes brain activation while subjects initiated and inhibited responding in accordance with changes in reinforcement rate. During imaging, subjects completed a free-operant task that involved repeated transitions between fixed-ratio reinforcement and extinction (RF:EXT), where reinforcement rate decreased and responding was inhibited, and between extinction and fixed-ratio reinforcement (EXT:RF), where reinforcement rate increased and responding was initiated. Our whole-brain temporal assessment revealed that transitions which required initiating and inhibiting responding prompted positive phasic responses in a prefrontal-parietal network, the insula and thalamus. However, response initiation prompted by an increase in reinforcement rate during the EXT:RF transition elicited positive phasic responses in reward-sensitive striatal regions. Furthermore, response inhibition prompted by a decrease in reinforcement rate during the RF:EXT transition elicited negative phasic responses in ventral frontal regions sensitive to value and contingency. Our findings highlight the temporal dynamics of a brain network that supports behavioral changes (initiation and inhibition) resulting from changes in local reinforcement rates.

  6. Direct mapping of 19F in 19FDG-6P in brain tissue at subcellular resolution using soft X-ray fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Poitry-yamate, Carole; Gianoncelli, A; Kourousias, G.; Kaulich, B; Lepore, Mario; Gruetter, Rolf; M. Kiskinova

    2013-01-01

    Low energy x-ray fluorescence (LEXRF) detection was optimized for imaging cerebral glucose metabolism by mapping the fluorine LEXRF signal of 19 F in 19 FDG, trapped as intracellular 19 F-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate ( 19 FDG-6P) at 1μm spatial resolution from 3μm thick brain slices. 19 FDG metabolism was evaluated in brain structures closely resembling the general cerebral cytoarchitecture following formalin fixation of brain slices and their inclusion in an epon matrix. 2-dimensional distribu...

  7. Computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG) and dynamic brain mapping in AIDS and HIV related syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Ferracuti, S; Freedman, A M; Sherer, C; Mehta, P; Itil, K Z

    1990-07-01

    In a group of HIV positive young male patients without any significant neuropsychiatric signs, computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG) and Dynamic Brain Mapping evaluations were conducted. These patients, who only had micro-neuropsychiatric symptoms, demonstrated CEEG profiles that more closely resemble those of patients diagnosed as suffering from mild dementia than age-related normals from our CEEG data base. The CEEGs of patients diagnosed as having Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), compared to patients with HIV positive, showed greater similarity in CEEG patterns to severely demented patients than to normal control groups. The findings of this pilot study suggest that CEEG may be useful for early determination of the Central Nervous System's (CNS) involvement with the AIDS virus and monitoring the progress of the illness. PMID:2364555

  8. Computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG) and dynamic brain mapping in AIDS and HIV related syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Ferracuti, S; Freedman, A M; Sherer, C; Mehta, P; Itil, K Z

    1990-07-01

    In a group of HIV positive young male patients without any significant neuropsychiatric signs, computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG) and Dynamic Brain Mapping evaluations were conducted. These patients, who only had micro-neuropsychiatric symptoms, demonstrated CEEG profiles that more closely resemble those of patients diagnosed as suffering from mild dementia than age-related normals from our CEEG data base. The CEEGs of patients diagnosed as having Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), compared to patients with HIV positive, showed greater similarity in CEEG patterns to severely demented patients than to normal control groups. The findings of this pilot study suggest that CEEG may be useful for early determination of the Central Nervous System's (CNS) involvement with the AIDS virus and monitoring the progress of the illness.

  9. MR-based automatic delineation of volumes of interest in human brain PET images using probability maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Claus; Madsen, Karina; Hasselbalch, Steen G.;

    2005-01-01

    delineation of the VOI set. The approach was also shown to work equally well in individuals with pronounced cerebral atrophy. Probability-map-based automatic delineation of VOIs is a fast, objective, reproducible, and safe way to assess regional brain values from PET or SPECT scans. In addition, the method...... applies well in elderly subjects, even in the presence of pronounced cerebral atrophy...... subjects' MR-images, where VOI sets have been defined manually. High-resolution structural MR-images and 5-HT(2A) receptor binding PET-images (in terms of (18)F-altanserin binding) from 10 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with mild cognitive impairment were included for the analysis. A template including...

  10. Mapping and correcting respiration-induced field changes in the brain using fluorine field probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads; Madsen, Kristoffer; Hanson, Lars G.;

    2014-01-01

    with real-time shim-updating based on the field probe measurements, using only 0th and 1st order fitting. Each experiment was repeated twice. Imaging: Field mapping was done using 2 interleaved 3D gradient echo acquisitions with TR/TE/ TE = 5.9ms/3.2ms/1ms, flip angle 10 , voxels of 4x4x4mm3. Scan duration...

  11. A Method for Automated Classification of Parkinson's Disease Diagnosis Using an Ensemble Average Propagator Template Brain Map Estimated from Diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Monami; Okun, Michael S; Vaillancourt, David E; Vemuri, Baba C

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common and debilitating neurodegenerative disorder that affects patients in all countries and of all nationalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently one of the most widely used diagnostic imaging techniques utilized for detection of neurologic diseases. Changes in structural biomarkers will likely play an important future role in assessing progression of many neurological diseases inclusive of PD. In this paper, we derived structural biomarkers from diffusion MRI (dMRI), a structural modality that allows for non-invasive inference of neuronal fiber connectivity patterns. The structural biomarker we use is the ensemble average propagator (EAP), a probability density function fully characterizing the diffusion locally at a voxel level. To assess changes with respect to a normal anatomy, we construct an unbiased template brain map from the EAP fields of a control population. Use of an EAP captures both orientation and shape information of the diffusion process at each voxel in the dMRI data, and this feature can be a powerful representation to achieve enhanced PD brain mapping. This template brain map construction method is applicable to small animal models as well as to human brains. The differences between the control template brain map and novel patient data can then be assessed via a nonrigid warping algorithm that transforms the novel data into correspondence with the template brain map, thereby capturing the amount of elastic deformation needed to achieve this correspondence. We present the use of a manifold-valued feature called the Cauchy deformation tensor (CDT), which facilitates morphometric analysis and automated classification of a PD versus a control population. Finally, we present preliminary results of automated discrimination between a group of 22 controls and 46 PD patients using CDT. This method may be possibly applied to larger population sizes and other parkinsonian syndromes in the near future. PMID

  12. A Method for Automated Classification of Parkinson’s Disease Diagnosis Using an Ensemble Average Propagator Template Brain Map Estimated from Diffusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Monami; Okun, Michael S.; Vaillancourt, David E.; Vemuri, Baba C.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common and debilitating neurodegenerative disorder that affects patients in all countries and of all nationalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently one of the most widely used diagnostic imaging techniques utilized for detection of neurologic diseases. Changes in structural biomarkers will likely play an important future role in assessing progression of many neurological diseases inclusive of PD. In this paper, we derived structural biomarkers from diffusion MRI (dMRI), a structural modality that allows for non-invasive inference of neuronal fiber connectivity patterns. The structural biomarker we use is the ensemble average propagator (EAP), a probability density function fully characterizing the diffusion locally at a voxel level. To assess changes with respect to a normal anatomy, we construct an unbiased template brain map from the EAP fields of a control population. Use of an EAP captures both orientation and shape information of the diffusion process at each voxel in the dMRI data, and this feature can be a powerful representation to achieve enhanced PD brain mapping. This template brain map construction method is applicable to small animal models as well as to human brains. The differences between the control template brain map and novel patient data can then be assessed via a nonrigid warping algorithm that transforms the novel data into correspondence with the template brain map, thereby capturing the amount of elastic deformation needed to achieve this correspondence. We present the use of a manifold-valued feature called the Cauchy deformation tensor (CDT), which facilitates morphometric analysis and automated classification of a PD versus a control population. Finally, we present preliminary results of automated discrimination between a group of 22 controls and 46 PD patients using CDT. This method may be possibly applied to larger population sizes and other parkinsonian syndromes in the near future. PMID

  13. A Method for Automated Classification of Parkinson's Disease Diagnosis Using an Ensemble Average Propagator Template Brain Map Estimated from Diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Monami; Okun, Michael S; Vaillancourt, David E; Vemuri, Baba C

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common and debilitating neurodegenerative disorder that affects patients in all countries and of all nationalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently one of the most widely used diagnostic imaging techniques utilized for detection of neurologic diseases. Changes in structural biomarkers will likely play an important future role in assessing progression of many neurological diseases inclusive of PD. In this paper, we derived structural biomarkers from diffusion MRI (dMRI), a structural modality that allows for non-invasive inference of neuronal fiber connectivity patterns. The structural biomarker we use is the ensemble average propagator (EAP), a probability density function fully characterizing the diffusion locally at a voxel level. To assess changes with respect to a normal anatomy, we construct an unbiased template brain map from the EAP fields of a control population. Use of an EAP captures both orientation and shape information of the diffusion process at each voxel in the dMRI data, and this feature can be a powerful representation to achieve enhanced PD brain mapping. This template brain map construction method is applicable to small animal models as well as to human brains. The differences between the control template brain map and novel patient data can then be assessed via a nonrigid warping algorithm that transforms the novel data into correspondence with the template brain map, thereby capturing the amount of elastic deformation needed to achieve this correspondence. We present the use of a manifold-valued feature called the Cauchy deformation tensor (CDT), which facilitates morphometric analysis and automated classification of a PD versus a control population. Finally, we present preliminary results of automated discrimination between a group of 22 controls and 46 PD patients using CDT. This method may be possibly applied to larger population sizes and other parkinsonian syndromes in the near future.

  14. The characteristic and changes of the event-related potentials (ERP and brain topographic maps before and after treatment with rTMS in subjective tinnitus patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidi Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the event-related potentials (ERPs and brain topographic maps characteristic and change in normal controls and subjective tinnitus patients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS treatment. METHODS AND PARTICIPANTS: The ERPs and brain topographic maps elicited by target stimulus were compared before and after 1-week treatment with rTMS in 20 subjective tinnitus patients and 16 healthy controls. RESULTS: Before rTMS, target stimulus elicited a larger N1 component than the standard stimuli (repeating soundsin control group but not in tinnitus patients. Instead, the tinnitus group pre-treatment exhibited larger amplitude of N1 in response to standard stimuli than to deviant stimuli. Furthermore tinnitus patients had smaller mismatch negativity (MMN and late discriminative negativity (LDNcomponent at Fz compared with the control group. After rTMS treatment, tinnitus patients showed increased N1 response to deviant stimuli and larger MMN and LDN compared with pre-treatment. The topographic maps for the tinnitus group before rTMS -treatment demonstrated global asymmetry between the left and right cerebral hemispheres with more negative activities in left side and more positive activities in right side. In contrast, the brain topographic maps for patients after rTMS-treatment and controls seem roughly symmetrical. The ERP amplitudes and brain topographic maps in post-treatment patient group showed no significant difference with those in controls. CONCLUSIONS: The characterical changes in ERP and brain topographic maps in tinnitus patients maybe related with the electrophysiological mechanism of tinnitus induction and development. It can be used as an objective biomarker for the evaluation of auditory central in subjective tinnitus patients. These findings support the notion that rTMS treatment in tinnitus patients may exert a beneficial effect.

  15. Acute functional reactivation of the language network during awake intraoperative brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spena, Giannantonio; Costi, Emanuele; Panciani, Pier Paolo; Roca, Elena; Migliorati, Karol; Fontanella, Marco Maria

    2015-01-01

    Acute brain plasticity during resection of central lesions has been recently described. In the cases reported, perilesional latent networks, useful to preserve the neurological functions, were detected in asymptomatic patients. In this paper, we presented a case of acute functional reactivation (AFR) of the language network in a symptomatic patient. Tumor resection allowed to acutely restore the neurological deficit. Intraoperative direct cortical stimulation (DCS) and functional neuroimaging showed new epicentres of activation of the language network after tumor excision. DCS in awake surgery is mandatory to reveal AFR needful to improve the extent of resection preserving the quality of life.

  16. Mapping of kisspeptin fibres in the brain of the pro-oestrus rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desroziers, E; Mikkelsen, J; Simonneaux, V;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Kisspeptins are a family of small peptides that play a key role in the neuroendocrine regulation of the reproductive function through neural pathways which have not yet been completely identified. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of kisspeptin neurone fibres in the female......, immunoreactive cell bodies were exclusively observed in the arcuate nucleus, and immunoreactive fibres were confined to the septo-preoptico-hypothalamic continuum of the brain. Fibres were observed in the preoptic area, the diagonal band of Broca, the septohypothalamic area, the anteroventral periventricular...

  17. Connectivity Concordance Mapping: A New Tool for Model-Free Analysis of fMRI Data of the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Gabriele; Ovadia-Caro, Smadar; Jungehülsing, Gerhard Jan; Margulies, Daniel S.; Villringer, Arno; Turner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance data acquired in a task-absent condition (“resting state”) require new data analysis techniques that do not depend on an activation model. Here, we propose a new analysis method called Connectivity Concordance Mapping (CCM). The main idea is to assign a label to each voxel based on the reproducibility of its whole-brain pattern of connectivity. Specifically, we compute the correlations of time courses of each voxel with every other voxel for each measurement. Voxels whose correlation pattern is consistent across measurements receive high values. The result of a CCM analysis is thus a voxel-wise map of concordance values. Regions of high inter-subject concordance can be assumed to be functionally consistent, and may thus be of specific interest for further analysis. Here we present two fMRI studies to demonstrate the possible applications of the algorithm. The first is a eyes-open/eyes-closed paradigm designed to highlight the potential of the method in a relatively simple domain. The second study is a longitudinal repeated measurement of a patient following stroke. Longitudinal clinical studies such as this may represent the most interesting domain of applications for this algorithm. PMID:22470320

  18. Usefulness of Permeability Map by Perfusion MRI of Brain Tumor the Grade Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to assess how effective the permeability ratio and relative cerebral blood volume ratio are to tumor through perfusion MRI by measuring and reflecting the grade assessment and differential diagnosis and the permeability and relative cerebral blood volume of contrast media plunged from blood vessel into organ due to breakdown of blood-brain barrier in cerebral. Subject and Method : Subject of study was 29 patients whose diagnosis were confirmed by biopsy after surgery and 550 (11 slice x 50 image) perfusion MRI were used to make image of relative cerebral blood volume with the program furnished on instrument. The other method was to transmit to private computer and the image analysis was made additionally by making image of relative cerebral blood volume-reformulated singular value decomposition, rCBV-rSVD and permeability using IDL.6.2. In addition, Kruskal-wallis test tonggyein non numerical average by a comparative analysis of brain tumors Results : The rCBV ratio (Functool PF; GE Medical Systems and IDL 6.2 program by analysis) and permeability ratio of tumors were as follows; high grade glioma(n=4), (14.75, 19.25) 13.13. low grade astrocytoma(n=5) (14.80, 15.90) 11.60, glioblastoma(n=5) (10.90, 18.60), 22.00, metastasis(n=6) (11.00, 15.08). 22.33. meningioma(n=6) (18.58, 7.67), 5.58. oliogodendroglioma(n=3) (23.33, 16.33, 15.67. Conclusion : It was not easy to classify the grade with the relative cerebral blood volume ratio measured by using the relative cerebral blood image by type of tumors, however, permeability ratio measured by permeability image revealed that the higher the grade of tumor, the higher the measured permeability ratio, showing the assessment of tumor grade is more effective to differential diagnosis.

  19. Usefulness of Permeability Map by Perfusion MRI of Brain Tumor the Grade Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Dongsan Hospital, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo Young [GE Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyuk Won [Dept. of Radiology, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    This study was conducted to assess how effective the permeability ratio and relative cerebral blood volume ratio are to tumor through perfusion MRI by measuring and reflecting the grade assessment and differential diagnosis and the permeability and relative cerebral blood volume of contrast media plunged from blood vessel into organ due to breakdown of blood-brain barrier in cerebral. Subject and Method : Subject of study was 29 patients whose diagnosis were confirmed by biopsy after surgery and 550 (11 slice x 50 image) perfusion MRI were used to make image of relative cerebral blood volume with the program furnished on instrument. The other method was to transmit to private computer and the image analysis was made additionally by making image of relative cerebral blood volume-reformulated singular value decomposition, rCBV-rSVD and permeability using IDL.6.2. In addition, Kruskal-wallis test tonggyein non numerical average by a comparative analysis of brain tumors Results : The rCBV ratio (Functool PF; GE Medical Systems and IDL 6.2 program by analysis) and permeability ratio of tumors were as follows; high grade glioma(n=4), (14.75, 19.25) 13.13. low grade astrocytoma(n=5) (14.80, 15.90) 11.60, glioblastoma(n=5) (10.90, 18.60), 22.00, metastasis(n=6) (11.00, 15.08). 22.33. meningioma(n=6) (18.58, 7.67), 5.58. oliogodendroglioma(n=3) (23.33, 16.33, 15.67. Conclusion : It was not easy to classify the grade with the relative cerebral blood volume ratio measured by using the relative cerebral blood image by type of tumors, however, permeability ratio measured by permeability image revealed that the higher the grade of tumor, the higher the measured permeability ratio, showing the assessment of tumor grade is more effective to differential diagnosis.

  20. NEREC, an effective brain mapping protocol for combined language and long-term memory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Girard, Cléa; Cousin, Emilie; Vidal, Juan Ricardo; Pichat, Cédric; Kahane, Philippe; Baciu, Monica

    2015-12-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy can induce functional plasticity in temporoparietal networks involved in language and long-term memory processing. Previous studies in healthy subjects have revealed the relative difficulty for this network to respond effectively across different experimental designs, as compared to more reactive regions such as frontal lobes. For a protocol to be optimal for clinical use, it has to first show robust effects in a healthy cohort. In this study, we developed a novel experimental paradigm entitled NEREC, which is able to reveal the robust participation of temporoparietal networks in a uniquely combined language and memory task, validated in an fMRI study with healthy subjects. Concretely, NEREC is composed of two runs: (a) an intermixed language-memory task (confrontation naming associated with encoding in nonverbal items, NE) to map language (i.e., word retrieval and lexico-semantic processes) combined with simultaneous long-term verbal memory encoding (NE items named but also explicitly memorized) and (b) a memory retrieval task of items encoded during NE (word recognition, REC) intermixed with new items. Word recognition is based on both perceptual-semantic familiarity (feeling of 'know') and accessing stored memory representations (remembering). In order to maximize the remembering and recruitment of medial temporal lobe structures, we increased REC difficulty by changing the modality of stimulus presentation (from nonverbal during NE to verbal during REC). We report that (a) temporoparietal activation during NE was attributable to both lexico-semantic (language) and memory (episodic encoding and semantic retrieval) processes; that (b) encoding activated the left hippocampus, bilateral fusiform, and bilateral inferior temporal gyri; and that (c) task recognition (recollection) activated the right hippocampus and bilateral but predominant left fusiform gyrus. The novelty of this protocol consists of (a) combining two tasks in one (language

  1. Virtual brain mapping: Meta-analysis and visualization in functional neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    automatically model and visualize several studies at once. We model a set of 3-dimensional coordinates by a voxelization step where flexible probability density models such as kernel density estimators produce a voxel-volume representation of a study, allowing us to represent all coordinate data in one single......Map database we found errors, e.g., stemming from confusion of centimeters and millimeters during entering and errors in the original article. Conditional probability density modeling also enables generation of probabilistic atlases and automatic probabilistic anatomical labeling of new coordinates...... lists. Image-based indices can be created by singular value decomposition and by matching individual volumes against eigenimages. Individual experiments, sets of experiments as well as results from meta-analyses can be rendered as glyphs, cut-planes or isosurfaces in 3-dimensional Corner Cube...

  2. Nonlinear analyses of interictal EEG map the brain interdependences in human focal epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quyen, Michel Le Van; Martinerie, Jacques; Adam, Claude; Varela, Francisco J.

    1999-03-01

    The degree of interdependence between intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG) channels was investigated in epileptic patients with temporal lobe seizures during interictal (between seizures) periods. With a novel method to characterize nonlinear cross-predictability, that is, the predictability of one channel using another channel as data base, we demonstrated here a possibility to extract information on the spatio-temporal organization of interactions between multichannel recording sites. This method determines whether two channels contain common activity, and often, whether one channel contains activity induced by the activity of the other channel. In particular, the technique and the comparison with surrogate data demonstrated that transient large-scale nonlinear entrainments by the epileptogenic region can be identified, this with or without epileptic activity. Furthermore, these recurrent activities related with the epileptic foci occurred in well-defined spatio-temporal patterns. This suggests that the epileptogenic region can exhibit very subtle influences on other brain regions during an interictal period and raises the possibility that the cross-predictability analysis of interictal data may be used as a significant aid in locating epileptogenic foci.

  3. High-Resolution Mapping of Myeloarchitecture In Vivo: Localization of Auditory Areas in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Federico; Moerel, Michelle; Xu, Junqian; van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Ugurbil, Kamil; Goebel, Rainer; Yacoub, Essa; Formisano, Elia

    2015-10-01

    The precise delineation of auditory areas in vivo remains problematic. Histological analysis of postmortem tissue indicates that the relation of areal borders to macroanatomical landmarks is variable across subjects. Furthermore, functional parcellation schemes based on measures of, for example, frequency preference (tonotopy) remain controversial. Here, we propose a 7 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging method that enables the anatomical delineation of auditory cortical areas in vivo and in individual brains, through the high-resolution visualization (0.6 × 0.6 × 0.6 mm(3)) of intracortical anatomical contrast related to myelin. The approach combines the acquisition and analysis of images with multiple MR contrasts (T1, T2*, and proton density). Compared with previous methods, the proposed solution is feasible at high fields and time efficient, which allows collecting myelin-related and functional images within the same measurement session. Our results show that a data-driven analysis of cortical depth-dependent profiles of anatomical contrast allows identifying a most densely myelinated cortical region on the medial Heschl's gyrus. Analyses of functional responses show that this region includes neuronal populations with typical primary functional properties (single tonotopic gradient and narrow frequency tuning), thus indicating that it may correspond to the human homolog of monkey A1. PMID:24994817

  4. Brain SPECT in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: comparison between visual analysis and SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Barbara Juarez; Ramos, Celso Dario; Santos, Allan Oliveira dos; Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes de; Camargo, Edwaldo Eduardo; Etchebehere, Elba Cristina Sa de Camargo, E-mail: juarezbarbara@hotmail.co [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Radiology; Min, Li Li; Cendes, Fernando [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Neurology

    2010-04-15

    Objective: to compare the accuracy of SPM and visual analysis of brain SPECT in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Method: interictal and ictal SPECTs of 22 patients with MTLE were performed. Visual analysis were performed in interictal (VISUAL(inter)) and ictal (VISUAL(ictal/inter)) studies. SPM analysis consisted of comparing interictal (SPM(inter)) and ictal SPECTs (SPM(ictal)) of each patient to control group and by comparing perfusion of temporal lobes in ictal and interictal studies among themselves (SPM(ictal/inter)). Results: for detection of the epileptogenic focus, the sensitivities were as follows: VISUAL(inter)=68%; VISUAL(ictal/inter)=100%; SPM(inter)=45%; SPM(ictal)=64% and SPM(ictal/inter)=77%. SPM was able to detect more areas of hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion. Conclusion: SPM did not improve the sensitivity to detect epileptogenic focus. However, SPM detected different regions of hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion and is therefore a helpful tool for better understand pathophysiology of seizures in MTLE. (author)

  5. Naturalistic fMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Marko Lahnakoski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-tesla functional magnetic imaging (fMRI, a set of 137 short (~16 s each, total 27 min audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action and non-human sounds lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: 1 a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, 2 a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion and pain, 3 a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction and speech, and 4 a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the posterior STS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life.

  6. Mapping primary gyrogenesis during fetal development in primate brains: high-resolution in utero structural MRI study of fetal brain development in pregnant baboons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kochunov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The global and regional changes in the fetal cerebral cortex in primates were mapped during primary gyrification (PG; weeks 17-25 of 26 weeks total gestation. Studying pregnant baboons using high-resolution MRI in utero, measurements included cerebral volume, cortical surface area, gyrification index and length and depth of ten primary cortical sulci. Seven normally developing fetuses were imaged in two animals longitudinally and sequentially. We compared these results to those on PG that from the ferret studies and analyzed them in the context of our recent studies of phylogenetics of cerebral gyrification. We observed that in both primates and non-primates, the cerebrum undergoes a very rapid transformation into the gyrencephalic state, subsequently accompanied by an accelerated growth in brain volume and cortical surface area. However, PG trends in baboons exhibited some critical differences from those observed in ferrets. For example, in baboons, the growth along the long (length axis of cortical sulci was unrelated to the growth along the short (depth axis and far outpaced it. Additionally, the correlation between the rate of growth along the short sulcal axis and heritability of sulcal depth was negative and approached significance (r=-0.60;p<.10, while the same trend for long axis was positive and not significant (p=0.3;p=0.40. These findings, in an animal that shares a highly orchestrated pattern of PG with humans, suggest that ontogenic processes that influence changes in sulcal length and depth are diverse and possibly driven by different factors in primates than in non-primates.

  7. Mapping number to space in the two hemispheres of the avian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

    2016-09-01

    Pre-verbal infants and non-human animals associate small numbers with the left space and large numbers with the right space. Birds and primates, trained to identify a given position in a sagittal series of identical positions, whenever required to respond on a left/right oriented series, referred the given position starting from the left end. Here, we extended this evidence by selectively investigating the role of either cerebral hemisphere, using the temporary monocular occlusion technique. In birds, lacking the corpus callosum, visual input is fed mainly to the contralateral hemisphere. We trained 4-day-old chicks to identify the 4th element in a sagittal series of 10 identical elements. At test, the series was identical but left/right oriented. Test was conducted in right monocular, left monocular or binocular condition of vision. Right monocular chicks pecked at the 4th right element; left monocular and binocular chicks pecked at the 4th left element. Data on monocular chicks demonstrate that both hemispheres deal with an ordinal (sequential) task. Data on binocular chicks indicate that the left bias is linked to a right hemisphere dominance, that allocates the attention toward the left hemispace. This constitutes a first step towards understanding the neural basis of number space mapping. PMID:27246250

  8. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in predementia late-onset bvFTD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbelli, Silvia; Fiz, Francesco; Bossert, Irene; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Picori, Lorena; Sambuceti, Gianmario [University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Health Science (DISSAL), Genoa (Italy); Ferrara, Michela; Dessi, Barbara; Arnaldi, Dario; Picco, Agnese; Accardo, Jennifer; Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Clinical Neurology, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Girtler, Nicola [University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Clinical Neurology, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Clinical Psychology, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Mandich, Paola [University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Medical Genetics, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-07-15

    The diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is challenging during the predementia stage when symptoms are subtle and confounding. Morphological and functional neuroimaging can be particularly helpful during this stage but few data are available. We retrospectively selected 25 patients with late-onset probable bvFTD. Brain structural MRI and FDG PET were performed during the predementia stage (mean MMSE score 27.1 ± 2.5) on average 2 years before. The findings with the two imaging modalities were compared (SPM8) with those in a group of 20 healthy subjects. The bvFTD patients were divided into two subgroups: those with predominant disinhibition (bvFTD+) and those with apathy (bvFTD-). Hypometabolism exceeded grey matter (GM) density reduction in terms of both extension and statistical significance in all comparisons. In the whole bvFTD group, hypometabolism involved the bilateral medial, inferior and superior lateral frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, left temporal and right parietal cortices and the caudate nuclei. GM density reduction was limited to the right frontal cortex and the left medial temporal lobe. In bvFTD+ patients hypometabolism was found in the bilateral medial and basal frontal cortex, while GM reduction involved the left anterior cingulate and left inferior frontal cortices, and the right insula. In bvFTD- patients, atrophy and mainly hypometabolism involved the lateral frontal cortex and the inferior parietal lobule. These findings suggest that hypometabolism is more extensive than, and thus probably precedes, atrophy in predementia late-onset bvFTD, underscoring different topographic involvement in disinhibited and apathetic presentations. If confirmed in a larger series, these results should prompt biomarker operationalization in bvFTD, especially for patient selection in therapeutic clinical trials. (orig.)

  9. Adaptive algorithms to map how brain trauma affects anatomical connectivity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily L.; Prasad, Gautam; Babikian, Talin; Kernan, Claudia; Mink, Richard; Babbitt, Christopher; Johnson, Jeffrey; Giza, Christopher C.; Asarnow, Robert F.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-12-01

    Deficits in white matter (WM) integrity occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and often persist long after the visible scars have healed. Heterogeneity in injury types and locations can complicate analyses, making it harder to discover common biomarkers for tracking recovery. Here we apply a newly developed adaptive connectivity method, EPIC (evolving partitions to improve connectomics) to identify differences in structural connectivity that persist longitudinally. This data comes from a longitudinal study, in which we scanned participants (aged 8-19 years) with anatomical and diffusion MRI in both the post-acute and chronic phases (1-6 months and 13-19 months post-injury). To identify patterns of abnormal connectivity, we trained a model on data from 32 TBI patients in the post-acute phase and 45 well-matched healthy controls, reducing an initial 68x68 connectivity matrix to a 14x14 matrix. We then applied this reduced parcellation to the chronic data in participants who had returned for their chronic assessment (21 TBI and 26 healthy controls) and tested for group differences. We found significant differences in two connections, comprising callosal fibers and long anterior-posterior fibers, with the TBI group showing increased fiber density relative to controls. Longitudinal analysis revealed that these were connections that were decreasing over time in the healthy controls, as is a common developmental phenomenon, but they were increasing in the TBI group. While we cannot definitively tell why this may occur with our current data, this study provides targets for longitudinal tracking, and poses questions for future investigation.

  10. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in predementia late-onset bvFTD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is challenging during the predementia stage when symptoms are subtle and confounding. Morphological and functional neuroimaging can be particularly helpful during this stage but few data are available. We retrospectively selected 25 patients with late-onset probable bvFTD. Brain structural MRI and FDG PET were performed during the predementia stage (mean MMSE score 27.1 ± 2.5) on average 2 years before. The findings with the two imaging modalities were compared (SPM8) with those in a group of 20 healthy subjects. The bvFTD patients were divided into two subgroups: those with predominant disinhibition (bvFTD+) and those with apathy (bvFTD-). Hypometabolism exceeded grey matter (GM) density reduction in terms of both extension and statistical significance in all comparisons. In the whole bvFTD group, hypometabolism involved the bilateral medial, inferior and superior lateral frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, left temporal and right parietal cortices and the caudate nuclei. GM density reduction was limited to the right frontal cortex and the left medial temporal lobe. In bvFTD+ patients hypometabolism was found in the bilateral medial and basal frontal cortex, while GM reduction involved the left anterior cingulate and left inferior frontal cortices, and the right insula. In bvFTD- patients, atrophy and mainly hypometabolism involved the lateral frontal cortex and the inferior parietal lobule. These findings suggest that hypometabolism is more extensive than, and thus probably precedes, atrophy in predementia late-onset bvFTD, underscoring different topographic involvement in disinhibited and apathetic presentations. If confirmed in a larger series, these results should prompt biomarker operationalization in bvFTD, especially for patient selection in therapeutic clinical trials. (orig.)

  11. The issue of multiple univariate comparisons in the context of neuroelectric brain mapping: an application in a neuromarketing experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, G; De Vico Fallani, F; Astolfi, L; Toppi, J; Cincotti, F; Mattia, D; Salinari, S; Babiloni, F

    2010-08-30

    This paper presents some considerations about the use of adequate statistical techniques in the framework of the neuroelectromagnetic brain mapping. With the use of advanced EEG/MEG recording setup involving hundred of sensors, the issue of the protection against the type I errors that could occur during the execution of hundred of univariate statistical tests, has gained interest. In the present experiment, we investigated the EEG signals from a mannequin acting as an experimental subject. Data have been collected while performing a neuromarketing experiment and analyzed with state of the art computational tools adopted in specialized literature. Results showed that electric data from the mannequin's head presents statistical significant differences in power spectra during the visualization of a commercial advertising when compared to the power spectra gathered during a documentary, when no adjustments were made on the alpha level of the multiple univariate tests performed. The use of the Bonferroni or Bonferroni-Holm adjustments returned correctly no differences between the signals gathered from the mannequin in the two experimental conditions. An partial sample of recently published literature on different neuroscience journals suggested that at least the 30% of the papers do not use statistical protection for the type I errors. While the occurrence of type I errors could be easily managed with appropriate statistical techniques, the use of such techniques is still not so largely adopted in the literature.

  12. The issue of multiple univariate comparisons in the context of neuroelectric brain mapping: an application in a neuromarketing experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, G; De Vico Fallani, F; Astolfi, L; Toppi, J; Cincotti, F; Mattia, D; Salinari, S; Babiloni, F

    2010-08-30

    This paper presents some considerations about the use of adequate statistical techniques in the framework of the neuroelectromagnetic brain mapping. With the use of advanced EEG/MEG recording setup involving hundred of sensors, the issue of the protection against the type I errors that could occur during the execution of hundred of univariate statistical tests, has gained interest. In the present experiment, we investigated the EEG signals from a mannequin acting as an experimental subject. Data have been collected while performing a neuromarketing experiment and analyzed with state of the art computational tools adopted in specialized literature. Results showed that electric data from the mannequin's head presents statistical significant differences in power spectra during the visualization of a commercial advertising when compared to the power spectra gathered during a documentary, when no adjustments were made on the alpha level of the multiple univariate tests performed. The use of the Bonferroni or Bonferroni-Holm adjustments returned correctly no differences between the signals gathered from the mannequin in the two experimental conditions. An partial sample of recently published literature on different neuroscience journals suggested that at least the 30% of the papers do not use statistical protection for the type I errors. While the occurrence of type I errors could be easily managed with appropriate statistical techniques, the use of such techniques is still not so largely adopted in the literature. PMID:20637802

  13. Evaluation of Different N-Glycopeptide Enrichment Methods for N-Glycosylation Sites Mapping in Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengqian; Ye, Zilu; Xue, Peng; Shu, Qingbo; Zhou, Yue; Ji, Yanlong; Fu, Ying; Wang, Jifeng; Yang, Fuquan

    2016-09-01

    N-Glycosylation of proteins plays a critical role in many biological pathways. Because highly heterogeneous N-glycopeptides are present in biological sources, the enrichment procedure is a crucial step for mass spectrometry analysis. Five enrichment methods, including IP-ZIC-HILIC, hydrazide chemistry, lectin affinity, ZIC-HILIC-FA, and TiO2 affinity were evaluated and compared in the study of mapping N-glycosylation sites in mouse brain. On the basis of our results, the identified N-glycosylation sites were 1891, 1241, 891, 869, and 710 and the FDR values were 3.29, 5.62, 9.54, 9.54, and 20.02%, respectively. Therefore, IP-ZIC-HILIC enrichment method displayed the highest sensitivity and specificity. In this work, we identified a total of 3446 unique glycosylation sites conforming to the N-glycosylation consensus motif (N-X-T/S/C; X ≠ P) with (18)O labeling in 1597 N-glycoproteins. N-glycosylation site information was used to confirm or correct the transmembrane topology of the 57 novel transmembrane N-glycoproteins.

  14. Towards ultra-high resolution fibre tract mapping of the human brain - registration of polarised light images and reorientation of fibre vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Palm

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Polarised Light Imaging (PLI utilises the birefringence of the myelin sheaths in order to visualise the orientation of nerve fibres in microtome sections of adult human post-mortem brains at ultra-high spatial resolution. The preparation of post-mortem brains for PLI involves fixation, freezing and cutting into 100-micrometer thick sections. Hence, geometrical distortions of histological sections are inevitable and have to be removed for 3D reconstruction and subsequent fibre tracking. We here present a processing pipeline for 3D reconstruction of these sections using PLI derived multimodal images of post-mortem brains. Blockface images of the brains were obtained during cutting; they serve as reference data for alignment and elimination of distortion artefacts. In addition to the spatial image transformation, fibre orientation vectors were reoriented using the transformation fields, which consider both affine and subsequent non-linear registration. The application of this registration and reorientation approach results in a smooth fibre vector field, which reflects brain morphology. PLI combined with 3D reconstruction and fibre tracking is a powerful tool for human brain mapping. It can also serve as an independent method for evaluating in vivo fibre tractography.

  15. Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Mapping of Whole Brain Activity Patterns Associated with the Intake of Snack Food in Ad Libitum Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Non-homeostatic hyperphagia, which is a major contributor to obesity-related hyperalimentation, is associated with the diet’s molecular composition influencing, for example, the energy content. Thus, specific food items such as snack food may induce food intake independent from the state of satiety. To elucidate mechanisms how snack food may induce non-homeostatic food intake, it was tested if manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) was suitable for mapping the whole brain activ...

  16. [Hemispheric functional specialization in motor aphasia. Neurophysiologic findings with computerized electroencephalographic brain mapping during musical and oral sound stimulation. Study of 2 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszkat, M; Correia, C M; Noffs, M H; de Vincenzo, N S; de Campos, C J

    1995-03-01

    This study concerns about brain electrical activity during auditory stimulation in 2 aphasic patients, one with classical (left hemisphere lesion) and another with cross aphasia (right hemisphere lesion). Both cases were submitted to dichotic listening test (consonant-vowel-consonant task) and music audition (gregorian chant), during brain mapping examination. We found, in both cases, a great proportion in delta frequency and power in non-lesional hemisphere during dichotic and musical stimulation. Besides, increasing in frequency of alpha activity was observed only in the non-lesional hemisphere restricted to temporal lobe region. Such findings suggest an interesting field of research about measurements of neurophysiological correlates of auditory stimulation and brain electrical activity in aphasia. PMID:7575214

  17. Direct mapping of 19F in 19FDG-6P in brain tissue at subcellular resolution using soft X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitry-Yamate, C.; Gianoncelli, A.; Kourousias, G.; Kaulich, B.; Lepore, M.; Gruetter, R.; Kiskinova, M.

    2013-10-01

    Low energy x-ray fluorescence (LEXRF) detection was optimized for imaging cerebral glucose metabolism by mapping the fluorine LEXRF signal of 19F in 19FDG, trapped as intracellular 19F-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate (19FDG-6P) at 1μm spatial resolution from 3μm thick brain slices. 19FDG metabolism was evaluated in brain structures closely resembling the general cerebral cytoarchitecture following formalin fixation of brain slices and their inclusion in an epon matrix. 2-dimensional distribution maps of 19FDG-6P were placed in a cytoarchitectural and morphological context by simultaneous LEXRF mapping of N and O, and scanning transmission x-ray (STXM) imaging. A disproportionately high uptake and metabolism of glucose was found in neuropil relative to intracellular domains of the cell body of hypothalamic neurons, showing directly that neurons, like glial cells, also metabolize glucose. As 19F-deoxyglucose-6P is structurally identical to 18F-deoxyglucose-6P, LEXRF of subcellular 19F provides a link to in vivo 18FDG PET, forming a novel basis for understanding the physiological mechanisms underlying the 18FDG PET image, and the contribution of neurons and glia to the PET signal.

  18. Neuroanatomical substrates of action perception and understanding: an anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis of lesion-symptom mapping studies in brain injured patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo eUrgesi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Several neurophysiologic and neuroimaging studies suggested that motor and perceptual systems are tightly linked along a continuum rather than providing segregated mechanisms supporting different functions. Using correlational approaches, these studies demonstrated that action observation activates not only visual but also motor brain regions. On the other hand, brain stimulation and brain lesion evidence allows tackling the critical question of whether our action representations are necessary to perceive and understand others’ actions. In particular, recent neuropsychological studies have shown that patients with temporal, parietal and frontal lesions exhibit a number of possible deficits in the visual perception and the understanding of others’ actions. The specific anatomical substrates of such neuropsychological deficits however are still a matter of debate. Here we review the existing literature on this issue and perform an anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis of studies using lesion-symptom mapping methods on the causal relation between brain lesions and non-linguistic action perception and understanding deficits. The meta-analysis encompassed data from 361 patients tested in 11 studies and identified regions in the inferior frontal cortex, the inferior parietal cortex and the middle/superior temporal cortex, whose damage is consistently associated with poor performance in action perception and understanding tasks across studies. Interestingly, these areas correspond to the three nodes of the action observation network that are strongly activated in response to visual action perception in neuroimaging research and that have been targeted in previous brain stimulation studies. Thus, brain lesion mapping research provides converging causal evidence that premotor, parietal and temporal regions play a crucial role in action recognition and understanding.

  19. Mapping whole-brain activity with cellular resolution by light-sheet microscopy and high-throughput image analysis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Ludovico; Rudinskiy, Nikita; Paciscopi, Marco; Müllenbroich, Marie Caroline; Costantini, Irene; Sacconi, Leonardo; Frasconi, Paolo; Hyman, Bradley T.; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2016-03-01

    Mapping neuronal activity patterns across the whole brain with cellular resolution is a challenging task for state-of-the-art imaging methods. Indeed, despite a number of technological efforts, quantitative cellular-resolution activation maps of the whole brain have not yet been obtained. Many techniques are limited by coarse resolution or by a narrow field of view. High-throughput imaging methods, such as light sheet microscopy, can be used to image large specimens with high resolution and in reasonable times. However, the bottleneck is then moved from image acquisition to image analysis, since many TeraBytes of data have to be processed to extract meaningful information. Here, we present a full experimental pipeline to quantify neuronal activity in the entire mouse brain with cellular resolution, based on a combination of genetics, optics and computer science. We used a transgenic mouse strain (Arc-dVenus mouse) in which neurons which have been active in the last hours before brain fixation are fluorescently labelled. Samples were cleared with CLARITY and imaged with a custom-made confocal light sheet microscope. To perform an automatic localization of fluorescent cells on the large images produced, we used a novel computational approach called semantic deconvolution. The combined approach presented here allows quantifying the amount of Arc-expressing neurons throughout the whole mouse brain. When applied to cohorts of mice subject to different stimuli and/or environmental conditions, this method helps finding correlations in activity between different neuronal populations, opening the possibility to infer a sort of brain-wide 'functional connectivity' with cellular resolution.

  20. Balanced Steady State Free Precession for Arterial Spin Labeling MRI: Initial Experience for Blood Flow Mapping in Human Brain, Retina, and Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hong; Wang, Danny J.J.; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2013-01-01

    We implemented pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) with 2D and 3D balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) readout for mapping blood flow in the human brain, retina, and kidney, free of distortion and signal dropout, which are typically observed in the most commonly used echo-planar imaging acquisition. High resolution functional brain imaging in the human visual cortex was feasible with 3D bSSFP pCASL. Blood flow of the human retina could be imaged with pCASL and bSSFP in conjunction with a phase cycling approach to suppress the banding artifacts associated with bSSFP. Furthermore, bSSFP based pCASL enabled us to map renal blood flow within a single breath hold. Control and test-retest experiments suggested that the measured blood flow values in retina and kidney were reliable. Because there is no specific imaging tool for mapping human retina blood flow and the standard contrast agent technique for mapping renal blood flow can cause problems for patients with kidney dysfunction, bSSFP based pCASL may provide a useful tool for the diagnosis of retinal and renal diseases and can complement existing imaging techniques. PMID:23664680

  1. Hindered diffusion of MRI contrast agents in rat brain extracellular micro-environment assessed by acquisition of dynamic T1 and T2 maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of brain tissues characteristics (such as extracellular space and tortuosity) represents valuable information for the design of optimal MR probes for specific bio-markers targeting. This work proposes a methodology based on dynamic acquisition of relaxation time maps to quantify in vivo MRI contrast agent concentration after intracerebral injection in rat brain. It was applied to estimate the hindered diffusion in brain tissues of five contrast agents with different hydrodynamic diameters (DotaremW1 nm, P8464 nm, P7927 nm, P90422 nm and Gd-based emulsion 170 nm). In vivo apparent diffusion coefficients were compared with those estimated in an obstacle-free medium to determine brain extracellular space and tortuosity. At a 2 h imaging timescale, all contrast agents except the Gd-based emulsion exhibited significant diffusion through brain tissues, with characteristic times compatible with MR molecular imaging (≤70 min to diffuse between two capillaries). In conclusion, our experiments indicate that MRI contrast agents with sizes up to 22 nm can be used to perform molecular imaging on intra-cerebral bio-markers. Our quantification methodology allows a precise estimation of apparent diffusion coefficients, which is helpful to calibrate optimal timing between contrast agent injection and MRI observation for molecular imaging studies. (authors)

  2. Baby Brain Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Partnering With Your Child’s Caregiver Supports Healthy Development Infographic Beyond the Word Gap Infographic Training Cradling Literacy: Building Teachers' Skills to Nurture Early Language and Literacy From Birth ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ... to another. Share Science News Connectome Re-Maps Human Cortex ECT Lifts Depression, Sustains Remission in Older ...

  4. Discrimination of mode of action of anxiolytics using an integrated computer data bank and Dynamic Brain Mapping (CNS effects of diazepam and lorazepam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T; Shapiro, D; Itil, K Z; Eralp, E; Bergamo, M; Mucci, A

    1989-10-01

    In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, the CNS effects of intravenously administered diazepam and lorazepam were investigated in anxious subjects through the quantitative pharmaco-EEG (QPEEG) method. For up to 4 1/2 hours following administration the effects of each substance on brain function were measured using computer analyzed EEG recordings (CEEG) and a new technique called Dynamic Brain Mapping. The following observations were made: 1. Both active drugs produce statistically significant CNS effects as measured by CEEG changes. These changes were observed earlier with diazepam than with lorazepam. 2. Although both compounds are classified as anxiolytic by the routine computer EEG data base, the detailed brain mapping technology indicated that the CNS effects of diazepam and lorazepam were quantitatively and qualitatively different. 3. Clinical CNS side-effects (sedation) were seen more frequently with lorazepam than with diazepam. This was consistent with the EEG slowing producing properties of lorazepam. The EEG fast activity which is characteristic for all anxiolytics was established more with diazepam than lorazepam. PMID:2607126

  5. Delineation and segmentation of cerebral tumors by mapping blood-brain barrier disruption with dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and tracer kinetics modeling-a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisdas, S.; Vogl, T.J. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Yang, X.; Koh, T.S. [Nanyang Technological University, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang (Singapore); Lim, C.C.T. [National Neuroscience Institute, Department of Neuroradiology, Singapore (Singapore); National University of Singapore, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-01-15

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging is a promising approach for in vivo assessment of tissue microcirculation. Twenty patients with clinical and routine computed tomography (CT) evidence of intracerebral neoplasm were examined with DCE-CT imaging. Using a distributed-parameter model for tracer kinetics modeling of DCE-CT data, voxel-level maps of cerebral blood flow (F), intravascular blood volume (v{sub i}) and intravascular mean transit time (t{sub 1}) were generated. Permeability-surface area product (PS), extravascular extracellular blood volume (v{sub e}) and extraction ratio (E) maps were also calculated to reveal pathologic locations of tracer extravasation, which are indicative of disruptions in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). All maps were visually assessed for quality of tumor delineation and measurement of tumor extent by two radiologists. Kappa ({kappa}) coefficients and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to determine the interobserver agreement for each DCE-CT map. There was a substantial agreement for the tumor delineation quality in the F, v{sub e} and t{sub 1} maps. The agreement for the quality of the tumor delineation was excellent for the v{sub i}, PS and E maps. Concerning the measurement of tumor extent, excellent and nearly excellent agreement was achieved only for E and PS maps, respectively. According to these results, we performed a segmentation of the cerebral tumors on the base of the E maps. The interobserver agreement for the tumor extent quantification based on manual segmentation of tumor in the E maps vs. the computer-assisted segmentation was excellent ({kappa} = 0.96, CI: 0.93-0.99). The interobserver agreement for the tumor extent quantification based on computer segmentation in the mean images and the E maps was substantial ({kappa} = 0.52, CI: 0.42-0.59). This study illustrates the diagnostic usefulness of parametric maps associated with BBB disruption on a physiology-based approach and highlights the

  6. Human brain mapping under increasing cognitive complexity using regional cerebral blood flow measurements and positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ian

    2007-11-01

    activation of classical cortical oculomotor regions and underscore the involvement of these areas in other behaviours such as visual attention and saccade inhibition. During eye movements in the dark an increased activation response in the parieto-occipital cortex can be found. This can be interpreted as effects of the gaze-sensitive neurons that are used to objectively localize objects relative to the body, and efferent copies of motor commands, used to predict the visual consequences of eye movements to maintain visual continuity. Defect efferent copies are in some neurobiological models of schizophrenia thought to contribute to passivity phenomena. The clinical perspective of brain mapping techniques is to preoperatively locate eloquent areas, e.g. motor function, language, and memory, allowing the achievement of optimal neurosurgical resection with the preservation of neurological function. PMID:18208679

  7. Genomics of a metamorphic timing QTL: met1 maps to a unique genomic position and regulates morph and species-specific patterns of brain transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robert B; Boley, Meredith A; Kump, David K; Voss, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about genetic factors that regulate life history transitions during ontogeny. Closely related tiger salamanders (Ambystoma species complex) show extreme variation in metamorphic timing, with some species foregoing metamorphosis altogether, an adaptive trait called paedomorphosis. Previous studies identified a major effect quantitative trait locus (met1) for metamorphic timing and expression of paedomorphosis in hybrid crosses between the biphasic Eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) and the paedomorphic Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). We used existing hybrid mapping panels and a newly created hybrid cross to map the met1 genomic region and determine the effect of met1 on larval growth, metamorphic timing, and gene expression in the brain. We show that met1 maps to the position of a urodele-specific chromosome rearrangement on linkage group 2 that uniquely brought functionally associated genes into linkage. Furthermore, we found that more than 200 genes were differentially expressed during larval development as a function of met1 genotype. This list of differentially expressed genes is enriched for proteins that function in the mitochondria, providing evidence of a link between met1, thyroid hormone signaling, and mitochondrial energetics associated with metamorphosis. Finally, we found that met1 significantly affected metamorphic timing in hybrids, but not early larval growth rate. Collectively, our results show that met1 regulates species and morph-specific patterns of brain transcription and life history variation. PMID:23946331

  8. Genomics of a metamorphic timing QTL: met1 maps to a unique genomic position and regulates morph and species-specific patterns of brain transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robert B; Boley, Meredith A; Kump, David K; Voss, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about genetic factors that regulate life history transitions during ontogeny. Closely related tiger salamanders (Ambystoma species complex) show extreme variation in metamorphic timing, with some species foregoing metamorphosis altogether, an adaptive trait called paedomorphosis. Previous studies identified a major effect quantitative trait locus (met1) for metamorphic timing and expression of paedomorphosis in hybrid crosses between the biphasic Eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) and the paedomorphic Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). We used existing hybrid mapping panels and a newly created hybrid cross to map the met1 genomic region and determine the effect of met1 on larval growth, metamorphic timing, and gene expression in the brain. We show that met1 maps to the position of a urodele-specific chromosome rearrangement on linkage group 2 that uniquely brought functionally associated genes into linkage. Furthermore, we found that more than 200 genes were differentially expressed during larval development as a function of met1 genotype. This list of differentially expressed genes is enriched for proteins that function in the mitochondria, providing evidence of a link between met1, thyroid hormone signaling, and mitochondrial energetics associated with metamorphosis. Finally, we found that met1 significantly affected metamorphic timing in hybrids, but not early larval growth rate. Collectively, our results show that met1 regulates species and morph-specific patterns of brain transcription and life history variation.

  9. NeuroVault.org: A repository for sharing unthresholded statistical maps, parcellations, and atlases of the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Varoquaux, Gael; Rivera, Gabriel; Schwartz, Yannick; Sochat, Vanessa V.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Maumet, Camille; Nichols, Thomas E.; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Yarkoni, Tal; Margulies, Daniel S.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    NeuroVault.org is dedicated to storing outputs of analyses in the form of statistical maps, parcellations and atlases, a unique strategy that contrasts with most neuroimaging repositories that store raw acquisition data or stereotaxic coordinates. Such maps are indispensable for performing meta-analyses, validating novel methodology, and deciding on precise outlines for regions of interest (ROIs). NeuroVault is open to maps derived from both healthy and clinical populations,...

  10. Brain in situ hybridization maps as a source for reverse-engineering transcriptional regulatory networks: Alzheimer's disease insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaah-Mensah, George K; Taylor, Ronald C

    2016-07-15

    Microarray data have been a valuable resource for identifying transcriptional regulatory relationships among genes. As an example, brain region-specific transcriptional regulatory events have the potential of providing etiological insights into Alzheimer Disease (AD). However, there is often a paucity of suitable brain-region specific expression data obtained via microarrays or other high throughput means. The Allen Brain Atlas in situ hybridization (ISH) data sets (Jones et al., 2009) represent a potentially valuable alternative source of high-throughput brain region-specific gene expression data for such purposes. In this study, Allen Brain Atlas mouse ISH data in the hippocampal fields were extracted, focusing on 508 genes relevant to neurodegeneration. Transcriptional regulatory networks were learned using three high-performing network inference algorithms. Only 17% of regulatory edges from a network reverse-engineered based on brain region-specific ISH data were also found in a network constructed upon gene expression correlations in mouse whole brain microarrays, thus showing the specificity of gene expression within brain sub-regions. Furthermore, the ISH data-based networks were used to identify instructive transcriptional regulatory relationships. Ncor2, Sp3 and Usf2 form a unique three-party regulatory motif, potentially affecting memory formation pathways. Nfe2l1, Egr1 and Usf2 emerge among regulators of genes involved in AD (e.g. Dhcr24, Aplp2, Tia1, Pdrx1, Vdac1, and Syn2). Further, Nfe2l1, Egr1 and Usf2 are sensitive to dietary factors and could be among links between dietary influences and genes in the AD etiology. Thus, this approach of harnessing brain region-specific ISH data represents a rare opportunity for gleaning unique etiological insights for diseases such as AD. PMID:27050105

  11. Brain in situ hybridization maps as a source for reverse-engineering transcriptional regulatory networks: Alzheimer's disease insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaah-Mensah, George K; Taylor, Ronald C

    2016-07-15

    Microarray data have been a valuable resource for identifying transcriptional regulatory relationships among genes. As an example, brain region-specific transcriptional regulatory events have the potential of providing etiological insights into Alzheimer Disease (AD). However, there is often a paucity of suitable brain-region specific expression data obtained via microarrays or other high throughput means. The Allen Brain Atlas in situ hybridization (ISH) data sets (Jones et al., 2009) represent a potentially valuable alternative source of high-throughput brain region-specific gene expression data for such purposes. In this study, Allen Brain Atlas mouse ISH data in the hippocampal fields were extracted, focusing on 508 genes relevant to neurodegeneration. Transcriptional regulatory networks were learned using three high-performing network inference algorithms. Only 17% of regulatory edges from a network reverse-engineered based on brain region-specific ISH data were also found in a network constructed upon gene expression correlations in mouse whole brain microarrays, thus showing the specificity of gene expression within brain sub-regions. Furthermore, the ISH data-based networks were used to identify instructive transcriptional regulatory relationships. Ncor2, Sp3 and Usf2 form a unique three-party regulatory motif, potentially affecting memory formation pathways. Nfe2l1, Egr1 and Usf2 emerge among regulators of genes involved in AD (e.g. Dhcr24, Aplp2, Tia1, Pdrx1, Vdac1, and Syn2). Further, Nfe2l1, Egr1 and Usf2 are sensitive to dietary factors and could be among links between dietary influences and genes in the AD etiology. Thus, this approach of harnessing brain region-specific ISH data represents a rare opportunity for gleaning unique etiological insights for diseases such as AD.

  12. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated with the intake of snack food in ad libitum fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hoch

    Full Text Available Non-homeostatic hyperphagia, which is a major contributor to obesity-related hyperalimentation, is associated with the diet's molecular composition influencing, for example, the energy content. Thus, specific food items such as snack food may induce food intake independent from the state of satiety. To elucidate mechanisms how snack food may induce non-homeostatic food intake, it was tested if manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI was suitable for mapping the whole brain activity related to standard and snack food intake under normal behavioral situation. Application of the MnCl2 solution by osmotic pumps ensured that food intake was not significantly affected by the treatment. After z-score normalization and a non-affine three-dimensional registration to a rat brain atlas, significantly different grey values of 80 predefined brain structures were recorded in ad libitum fed rats after the intake of potato chips compared to standard chow at the group level. Ten of these areas had previously been connected to food intake, in particular to hyperphagia (e.g., dorsomedial hypothalamus or the anterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus or to the satiety system (e.g., arcuate hypothalamic nucleus or solitary tract; 27 areas were related to reward/addiction including the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens, the ventral pallidum and the ventral striatum (caudate and putamen. Eleven areas associated to sleep displayed significantly reduced Mn2+ -accumulation and six areas related to locomotor activity showed significantly increased Mn2+ -accumulation after the intake of potato chips. The latter changes were associated with an observed significantly higher locomotor activity. Osmotic pump-assisted MEMRI proved to be a promising technique for functional mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated to nutritional intake under normal behavior.

  13. Awake surgery: skills of neurosurgeon matter but those of patient too. How to optimize functional brain mapping by improving per-operatory testing?

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnetblanc; Guiraud; Duffau; Azevedo; Argon; Charras; Niang

    2011-01-01

    It is now possible to perform resections of slowgrowing tumors in awake patients. Using direct electrical stimulation (DES), real-time functional mapping of the brain can be used to prevent the resection of essential areas near the tumor. For now, simple clinical tests are performed on conscious patients and combined with DES in order to discriminate functional and non-functional areas invaded by the tumors. In this work we try to develop a simple device based on a simple technology to better...

  14. Naturalistic fMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception

    OpenAIRE

    Juha Marko Lahnakoski; Enrico eGlerean; Juha eSalmi; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Mikko eSams; Riitta eHari; Lauri eNummenmaa

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a set of 137 short (approximately 16 s each, total 27 min) audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selecte...

  15. Different uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO in the same brains: analysis by statistical parametric mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, I.Y. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea); Lee, J.S.; Lee, D.S. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Rha, J.H.; Lee, I.K.; Ha, C.K. [Dept. of Neurology, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea)

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) uptake in the same brains by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. We examined 20 patients (9 male, 11 female, mean age 62{+-}12 years) using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain less than 7 days after onset of stroke. MRI showed no cortical infarctions. Infarctions in the pons (6 patients) and medulla (1), ischaemic periventricular white matter lesions (13) and lacunar infarction (7) were found on MRI. Split-dose and sequential SPET techniques were used for {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPET, without repositioning of the patient. All of the SPET images were spatially transformed to standard space, smoothed and globally normalized. The differences between the {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET images were statistically analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 96 software. The difference between two groups was considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected P values less than 0.01. Visual analysis showed no hypoperfused areas on either {sup 99m}Tc-ECD or {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET images. SPM analysis revealed significantly different uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO in the same brains. On the {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, in the left superior temporal lobe and in the superior region of the cerebellum. On the {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the medial temporal lobes, thalami, periventricular white matter and brain stem. These differences in uptake of the two tracers in the same brains on SPM analysis suggest that interpretation of cerebral perfusion is possible using SPET with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and

  16. Different uptake of 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO in the same brains: analysis by statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) uptake in the same brains by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. We examined 20 patients (9 male, 11 female, mean age 62±12 years) using 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain less than 7 days after onset of stroke. MRI showed no cortical infarctions. Infarctions in the pons (6 patients) and medulla (1), ischaemic periventricular white matter lesions (13) and lacunar infarction (7) were found on MRI. Split-dose and sequential SPET techniques were used for 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPET, without repositioning of the patient. All of the SPET images were spatially transformed to standard space, smoothed and globally normalized. The differences between the 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images were statistically analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 96 software. The difference between two groups was considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected P values less than 0.01. Visual analysis showed no hypoperfused areas on either 99mTc-ECD or 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images. SPM analysis revealed significantly different uptake of 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO in the same brains. On the 99mTc-ECD SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, in the left superior temporal lobe and in the superior region of the cerebellum. On the 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the medial temporal lobes, thalami, periventricular white matter and brain stem. These differences in uptake of the two tracers in the same brains on SPM analysis suggest that interpretation of cerebral perfusion is possible using SPET with 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO. (orig.)

  17. Behavioral evidence of heterospecific bonding between the lamb and the human caregiver and mapping of associated brain network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesdon, Vanessa; Nowak, Raymond; Meurisse, Maryse; Boivin, Xavier; Cornilleau, Fabien; Chaillou, Elodie; Lévy, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    While behavioral mechanisms of bonding between young mammals and humans have been explored, brain structures involved in the establishment of such processes are still unknown. The aim of the study was to identify brain regions activated by the presence of the caregiver. Since human positive interaction plays an important role in the bonding process, activation of specific brain structures by stroking was also examined. Twenty-four female lambs reared in groups of three were fed and stroked daily by a female caregiver between birth and 5-7 weeks of age. At 4 weeks, an isolation-reunion-separation test and a choice test revealed that lambs developed a strong bond with their caregiver. At 5-7 weeks of age, lambs were socially isolated for 90min. They either remained isolated or met their caregiver who stroked them, or not, at regular intervals over a 90-min period. Neuronal activation was investigated at the end of the period for maximum c-Fos expression. Reunion with the caregiver appeased similarly the lambs whether stroking was provided or not. Stroking did not activate a specific brain network compared to no stroking. In both cases, brain regions associated with olfactory, visual and tactile cue processing were activated in the presence of the caregiver, suggesting a multisensory process involved. In addition, activation of the oxytocinergic system in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus induced by the presence of the caregiver suggests similar neuroendocrine mechanisms involved in inter-conspecific and animal-human bonding. PMID:27286409

  18. Automatic Mapping Extraction from Multiecho T2-Star Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images for Improving Morphological Evaluations in Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaode Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapping extraction is useful in medical image analysis. Similarity coefficient mapping (SCM replaced signal response to time course in tissue similarity mapping with signal response to TE changes in multiecho T2-star weighted magnetic resonance imaging without contrast agent. Since different tissues are with different sensitivities to reference signals, a new algorithm is proposed by adding a sensitivity index to SCM. It generates two mappings. One measures relative signal strength (SSM and the other depicts fluctuation magnitude (FMM. Meanwhile, the new method is adaptive to generate a proper reference signal by maximizing the sum of contrast index (CI from SSM and FMM without manual delineation. Based on four groups of images from multiecho T2-star weighted magnetic resonance imaging, the capacity of SSM and FMM in enhancing image contrast and morphological evaluation is validated. Average contrast improvement index (CII of SSM is 1.57, 1.38, 1.34, and 1.41. Average CII of FMM is 2.42, 2.30, 2.24, and 2.35. Visual analysis of regions of interest demonstrates that SSM and FMM show better morphological structures than original images, T2-star mapping and SCM. These extracted mappings can be further applied in information fusion, signal investigation, and tissue segmentation.

  19. Combining Self-Organizing Mapping and Supervised Affinity Propagation Clustering Approach to Investigate Functional Brain Networks Involved in Motor Imagery and Execution with fMRI Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang eZhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractClustering analysis methods have been widely applied to identifying the functional brain networks of a multitask paradigm. However, the previously used clustering analysis techniques are computationally expensive and thus impractical for clinical applications. In this study a novel method, called SOM-SAPC that combines self-organizing mapping (SOM and supervised affinity propagation clustering (SAPC, is proposed and implemented to identify the motor execution (ME and motor imagery (MI networks. In SOM-SAPC, SOM was first performed to process fMRI data and SAPC is further utilized for clustering the patterns of functional networks. As a result, SOM-SAPC is able to significantly reduce the computational cost for brain network analysis. Simulation and clinical tests involving ME and MI were conducted based on SOM-SAPC, and the analysis results indicated that functional brain networks were clearly identified with different response patterns and reduced computational cost. In particular, three activation clusters were clearly revealed, which include parts of the visual, ME and MI functional networks. These findings validated that SOM-SAPC is an effective and robust method to analyze the fMRI data with multitasks.

  20. 海洛因依赖者的脑电地形图%MAPS OF BRAIN ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF HEROIN ADDICTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宝元; 张国印; 徐本树; 铁恩贵

    2001-01-01

    目的:了解海洛因依赖者存在戒断症状时的脑电地形图的特征。方法:用脑电图机记录32例有戒断症状的海洛因依赖者及34例正常人的脑电地形图并用计算机进行定量分析。结果:与对照组比较,海洛因依赖者(1)慢波频段(δ、θ)功率值增高;(2)α1、α2功率值减低;(3)快波频段(β1、β2)的枕区(O1、O2)功率值增高。结论:从脑电生理角度观察海洛因对大脑功能的损害是有意义的。%Objective: To study the character of the brain electricalactivity maps(BEAM) of heroin addicts with withdrawal syndromes. Method: The brain electrical activity maps ( BEAM ) of 32 heroin addicts with withdrawal syndromes and 34 normal controls were recorded with electroencephalograph and quantitatively analysed with computer. Result: In the BEAM of heroin addicts with withdrawal syndromes, the power values of slow wave(δ,θ) increased; α1 , α2 decreased; rapid wave frequency sect (β1, β2) in occipital area (O1,O2)increased. Conclusion: Observation of brain electrical physiology has some value in the assessment of the damage of cerebral function caused by heroin.

  1. In vivo isotropic 3D diffusion tensor mapping of the rat brain using diffusion-weighted 3D MP-RAGE MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numano, Tomokazu; Homma, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Nobuaki; Hyodo, Koji; Nitta, Naotaka; Hirose, Takeshi

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of diffusion-weighted (DW) three-dimensional (3D) MP-RAGE MRI for diffusion-tensor mapping of the rat brain in vivo. A DW-3D-MP-RAGE (3D-DWI) sequence was implemented at 2.0 T using six gradient orientations and a b value of 1000 s/mm2. In this sequence, the preparation sequence with a "90 degrees RF-motion proving gradient (MPG): MPG-180 degrees RF-MPG-90 degrees RF" pulse train (DW driven equilibrium Fourier transform) was used to sensitize the magnetization to diffusion. A centric k-space acquisition order was necessary to minimize saturation effects (T1 contamination) from tissues with short relaxation time. The image matrix was 128x128x128 (interpolated from 64x64x64 acquisitions), which resulted in small isotropic DW image data (voxel size: 0.273x0.273x0.273 mm3). Moreover, 3D-DWI-derived maps of the fractional anisotropy (FA), relative anisotropy (RA) and main-diffusion direction were completely free of susceptibility-induced signal losses and geometric distortions. Two well-known commissural fibers, the corpus callosum and anterior commissure, were indicated and shown to be in agreement with the locations of these known stereotaxic atlases. The experiment took 45 min, and shorter times should be possible in clinical application. The 3D-DWI sequence allows for in vivo 3D diffusion-tensor mapping of the rat brain without motion artifacts and susceptibility to distortion. PMID:16563958

  2. Distribution and densitometry mapping of L1-CAM Immunoreactivity in the adult mouse brain – light microscopic observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamasaki Hironobu

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of L1 expression in the matured brain is suggested by physiological and behavioral studies showing that L1 is related to hippocampal plasticity and fear conditioning. The distribution of L1 in mouse brain might provide a basis for understanding its role in the brain. Results We examined the overall distribution of L1 in the adult mouse brain by immunohistochemistry using two polyclonal antibodies against different epitopes for L1. Immunoreactive L1 was widely but unevenly distributed from the olfactory bulb to the upper cervical cord. The accumulation of immunoreactive L1 was greatest in a non-neuronal element of the major fibre bundles, i.e. the lateral olfactory tract, olfactory and temporal limb of the anterior commissure, corpus callosum, stria terminalis, globus pallidus, fornix, mammillothalamic tract, solitary tract, and spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. High to highest levels of non-neuronal and neuronal L1 were found in the grey matter; i.e. the piriform and entorhinal cortices, hypothalamus, reticular part of the substantia nigra, periaqueductal grey, trigeminal spinal nucleus etc. High to moderate density of neuronal L1 was found in the olfactory bulb, layer V of the cerebral cortex, amygdala, pontine grey, superior colliculi, cerebellar cortex, solitary tract nucleus etc. Only low to lowest levels of neuronal L1 were found in the hippocampus, grey matter in the caudate-putamen, thalamus, cerebellar nuclei etc. Conclusion L1 is widely and unevenly distributed in the matured mouse brain, where immunoreactivity was present not only in neuronal elements; axons, synapses and cell soma, but also in non-neuronal elements.

  3. Age- and Sex-Associated Changes in Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Normal Healthy Subjects: Statistical Parametric Mapping Analysis of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Brain Positron Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong-Ki (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea); Medical Research Institute, Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea)). e-mail: growthkim@daum.net/growthkim@pusan.ac.kr)

    2009-12-15

    Background: The age- and sex-associated changes of brain development are unclear and controversial. Several previous studies showed conflicting results of a specific pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism or no differences of cerebral glucose metabolism in association with normal aging process and sex. Purpose: To investigate the effects of age and sex on changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in healthy subjects using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) brain positron emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight healthy subjects (32 males, mean age 46.6+-18.2 years; 46 females, mean age 40.6+-19.8 years) underwent F-18 FDG brain PET. Using SPM, age- and sex-associated changes in cerebral glucose metabolism were investigated. Results: In males, a negative correlation existed in several gray matter areas, including the right temporopolar (Brodmann area [BA] 38), right orbitofrontal (BA 47), left orbitofrontal gyrus (BA 10), left dorsolateral frontal gyrus (BA 8), and left insula (BA 13) areas. A positive relationship existed in the left claustrum and left thalamus. In females, negative changes existed in the left caudate body, left temporopolar area (BA 38), right orbitofrontal gyri (BA 47 and BA 10), and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46). A positive association was demonstrated in the left subthalamic nucleus and the left superior frontal gyrus. In white matter, an age-associated decrease in FDG uptake in males was shown in the left insula, and increased FDG uptake was found in the left corpus callosum. The female group had an age-associated negative correlation of FDG uptake only in the right corpus callosum. Conclusion: Using SPM, we found not only similar areas of brain, but also sex-specific cerebral areas of age-associated changes of FDG uptake

  4. Age- and Sex-Associated Changes in Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Normal Healthy Subjects: Statistical Parametric Mapping Analysis of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Brain Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The age- and sex-associated changes of brain development are unclear and controversial. Several previous studies showed conflicting results of a specific pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism or no differences of cerebral glucose metabolism in association with normal aging process and sex. Purpose: To investigate the effects of age and sex on changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in healthy subjects using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) brain positron emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight healthy subjects (32 males, mean age 46.6±18.2 years; 46 females, mean age 40.6±19.8 years) underwent F-18 FDG brain PET. Using SPM, age- and sex-associated changes in cerebral glucose metabolism were investigated. Results: In males, a negative correlation existed in several gray matter areas, including the right temporopolar (Brodmann area [BA] 38), right orbitofrontal (BA 47), left orbitofrontal gyrus (BA 10), left dorsolateral frontal gyrus (BA 8), and left insula (BA 13) areas. A positive relationship existed in the left claustrum and left thalamus. In females, negative changes existed in the left caudate body, left temporopolar area (BA 38), right orbitofrontal gyri (BA 47 and BA 10), and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46). A positive association was demonstrated in the left subthalamic nucleus and the left superior frontal gyrus. In white matter, an age-associated decrease in FDG uptake in males was shown in the left insula, and increased FDG uptake was found in the left corpus callosum. The female group had an age-associated negative correlation of FDG uptake only in the right corpus callosum. Conclusion: Using SPM, we found not only similar areas of brain, but also sex-specific cerebral areas of age-associated changes of FDG uptake

  5. The Study of Fast T1 Mapping of Human Brain%大脑快速T1图谱成像研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江克; 钟耀祖; 吴垠; 朱燕杰

    2016-01-01

    大脑快速 T1图谱成像是一种量化磁共振成像技术,可以为帕金森、癫痫、肝脑病等脑部疾病的诊断提供重要参考依据。现有的大脑快速 T1图谱成像技术可以将成像速度提高到几秒/层,然而主磁场、发射场的不均性(尤其在高场下)以及大脑内部结构的磁化率差异,降低了成像精确性,限制了其在临床上的推广应用。针对上述缺点,文章提出一种基于 TurboFLASH技术的大脑快速 T1图谱成像方法,并先后在计算机仿真实验、仿体以及人体试验中进行验证。实验结果表明,文章提出的方法测得的大脑组织 T1值与金标准及文献中报导的值非常接近(误差<3%),同时扫描速度提高到3秒/层,空间分辨率为1.1 mm×1.1 mm×4 mm,2分钟内即可完成全脑采集。%Fast brain T1 mapping is a quantitative technique of magnetic resonance imaging, and can provide important reference for the diagnosis of several brain diseases, such as Parkinson, epilepsy and hepatic encephalopathy. Fast T1 mapping techniques proposed previously had sped up acquisition to several seconds per slice. However, most of these techniques suffered seriously from the ifeld inhomogeneity of main ifeld, transmit ifeld and susceptibility artifacts, which decreased the imaging accuracy and limited the clinic applications. To overcome the above mentioned shortcomings, we proposed a fast brain T1 mapping technique based on TurboFLASH and evaluated it on computer simulation, phantom experiment, and human brain T1 mapping. Results showed that T1 values from the proposed method were very close to the gold standard and literature (differences being less than 3%). Besides, the proposed technique can increase the acquisition speed to 3s per slice (with a slice resolution of 1.1 mm×1.1 mm) and 2 min for the whole brain (with a 4 mm slice distance).

  6. Current trends in intraoperative optical imaging for functional brain mapping and delineation of lesions of language cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Neal; Uhlemann, Falk; Sheth, Sameer A; Bookheimer, Susan; Martin, Neil; Toga, Arthur W

    2009-08-01

    Resection of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM), epileptic focus, or glioma, ideally has a prerequisite of microscopic delineation of the lesion borders in relation to the normal gray and white matter that mediate critical functions. Currently, Wada testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are used for preoperative mapping of critical function, whereas electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) is used for intraoperative mapping. For lesion delineation, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) are used preoperatively, whereas microscopy and histological sectioning are used intraoperatively. However, for lesions near eloquent cortex, these imaging techniques may lack sufficient resolution to define the relationship between the lesion and language function, and thus not accurately determine which patients will benefit from neurosurgical resection of the lesion without iatrogenic aphasia. Optical techniques such as intraoperative optical imaging of intrinsic signals (iOIS) show great promise for the precise functional mapping of cortices, as well as delineation of the borders of AVMs, epileptic foci, and gliomas. Here we first review the physiology of neuroimaging, and then progress towards the validation and justification of using intraoperative optical techniques, especially in relation to neurosurgical planning of resection AVMs, epileptic foci, and gliomas near or in eloquent cortex. We conclude with a short description of potential novel intraoperative optical techniques.

  7. Brain dysfunction in psychiatric patients during music perception measured by EEG mapping: relation to motor dysfunction and influence of neuroleptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, W; Steinberg, R; Streck, P; Banquet, J P; Bscheid, I; Raith, L; Riedel, R; Klages, U; Stiltz, I

    1991-05-01

    We report here our findings on music perception obtained as a companion study to the investigation with 16-channel EEG mapping in psychiatric patients during motor activation, published recently elsewhere. We decided to add on a study of this functional circuit, since there is evidence that it is disturbed in various psychiatric patient groups (another "functio laesa"). Involved in the study were 23 male and 25 female schizophrenics, 11 male and 18 female non-endogenously depressed patients (not presently under medication, i.e. drug-naive or wash-out period from 1 week to 17 years), 26 male and 37 female endogenously depressed patients (medicated with tri- or tetracyclic antidepressants and/or benzodiazepines; no lithium), and 22 male and 17 female control subjects (i.e. n = 179). We compared resting conditions after a special relaxation procedure with three music perception tasks: (1) a standardised rumba rhythm generated by a keyboard and delivered binaurally by earphones, (2) the same as an arpeggio in D major, and (3) the same as an arpeggio with a tonic-subdominant-dominant cadence. Major results were obtained in the delta and alpha frequency bands, yielding signs of "diffuse hyperactivation", most prominent in schizophrenic males, and not observed to a similar extent in any other patient group or in normal controls. Interestingly, there were major sex differences, yielding a more diffuse EEG activation pattern in normal females than in males and thus possibly obscuring signs of brain function diffusion in female patients. Viewing our broader evidence of similar brain dysfunction when examining motor functional circuits, especially in schizophrenics, these findings provide further evidence of a brain disorganization with lack of laterality/diffusion which may be found in subgroups of these patients and not in other psychiatric disorders. In schizophrenic patients, these EEG signs of "diffuse hyperactivation" on simple motor and/or music stimulation were

  8. Training your brain: Do mental and physical (MAP) training enhance cognition through the process of neurogenesis in the hippocampus?

    OpenAIRE

    Curlik, D.M.; Shors, T. J.

    2012-01-01

    New neurons are produced each day in the hippocampus through the process of neurogenesis. Both mental and physical training can modify this process by increasing the number of new cells that mature into functional neurons in the adult brain. However, the mechanisms whereby these increases occur are not necessarily the same. Physical activity, especially aerobic exercise greatly increases the number of new neurons that are produced in the hippocamal formation. In contrast, mental training via ...

  9. Fast and accurate water content and T2⁎ mapping in brain tumours localised with FET-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of combined MR-PET scanners opens new opportunities for the characterisation of tumour environment. In this study, water content and relaxation properties of glioblastoma were investigated in five patients using advanced MRI. The region containing metabolically active tumour tissue was defined by simultaneously measured FET-PET uptake. The mean value of water content in tumour tissue – obtained noninvasively with high precision and accuracy for the first time – amounted to 84.5%, similar to the value for normal grey matter. Constancy of water content contrasted with a large variability of T2⁎ values in tumour tissue, qualitatively related to the magnetic inhomogeneity of tissue created by blood vessels and/or microbleeds. The quantitative MRI protocol takes 71/2 min of measurement time and is proposed for extended clinical use. -- Highlights: • Quantitative MRI and simultaneous FET-PET used for the study of brain tumours. • Quantitative water content and T2⁎ of the brain are reported in five glioblastoma patients. • The qMRI method achieves whole brain coverage in 71/2 min. • Water content in normal appearing tissue as well as tumour is constant within 1% for each class. • T2⁎ is highly variable within tumour volume and from patient to patient

  10. Mapping the brain's orchestration during speech comprehension: task-specific facilitation of regional synchrony in neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keil Andreas

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How does the brain convert sounds and phonemes into comprehensible speech? In the present magnetoencephalographic study we examined the hypothesis that the coherence of electromagnetic oscillatory activity within and across brain areas indicates neurophysiological processes linked to speech comprehension. Results Amplitude-modulated (sinusoidal 41.5 Hz auditory verbal and nonverbal stimuli served to drive steady-state oscillations in neural networks involved in speech comprehension. Stimuli were presented to 12 subjects in the following conditions (a an incomprehensible string of words, (b the same string of words after being introduced as a comprehensible sentence by proper articulation, and (c nonverbal stimulations that included a 600-Hz tone, a scale, and a melody. Coherence, defined as correlated activation of magnetic steady state fields across brain areas and measured as simultaneous activation of current dipoles in source space (Minimum-Norm-Estimates, increased within left- temporal-posterior areas when the sound string was perceived as a comprehensible sentence. Intra-hemispheric coherence was larger within the left than the right hemisphere for the sentence (condition (b relative to all other conditions, and tended to be larger within the right than the left hemisphere for nonverbal stimuli (condition (c, tone and melody relative to the other conditions, leading to a more pronounced hemispheric asymmetry for nonverbal than verbal material. Conclusions We conclude that coherent neuronal network activity may index encoding of verbal information on the sentence level and can be used as a tool to investigate auditory speech comprehension.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of EADAM: a selective radioligand for mapping the brain serotonin transporters by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarkas, Nachwa [Department of Radiology, Division of Radiological Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); McConathy, Jonathan [Department of Radiology, Division of Radiological Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Psychiatry and Behavior Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Votaw, John R. [Department of Radiology, Division of Radiological Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Voll, Ronald J. [Department of Radiology, Division of Radiological Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Malveaux, Eugene [Department of Radiology, Division of Radiological Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Camp, Vernon M. [Department of Radiology, Division of Radiological Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Williams, Larry [Department of Radiology, Division of Radiological Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Goodman, Robin R. [Department of Radiology, Division of Radiological Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Kilts, Clinton D. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavior Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Goodman, Mark M. [Department of Radiology, Division of Radiological Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States) and Department of Psychiatry and Behavior Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)]. E-mail: mgoodma@emory.edu

    2005-01-01

    [{sup 11}C]N,N-Dimethyl-2-(2'-amino-4'-ethylphenylthio)benzylamine ([{sup 11}C]EADAM) was synthesized in the development of a serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging ligand for positron emission tomography (PET). The methods of ligand synthesis, results of in vitro characterization, {sup 11}C labeling and in vivo micro-PET imaging studies of [{sup 11}C]EADAM in cynomolgus monkey brain are described. {sup 11}C was introduced into N,N-dimethyl-2-(2'-amino-4'-ethylphenylthio)benzylamine () by alkylation of N-methyl-2-(2'-amino-4'-ethylphenylthio)benzylamine () in 32% radiochemical yield (end of bombardment [EOB], decay-corrected from [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide). Competition binding assays in cells stably expressing the transfected human dopamine transporter (DAT), SERT and norepinephrine transporter (NET) labeled with [{sup 3}H]WIN 35428 or [{sup 125}I]RTI-55, [{sup 3}H]citalopram and [{sup 3}H]nisoxetine, respectively, indicated the following order of SERT affinity: ADAM>EADAM>>fluvoxamine. The affinity of EADAM for DAT and NET was 500- and >1000-fold lower, respectively, than for SERT. Micro-PET brain imaging studies in a cynomolgus monkey demonstrated high [{sup 11}C]EADAM uptake in the striatum, thalamus and brainstem. [{sup 11}C]EADAM uptake in these brain regions peaked in less than 60 min following administration of [{sup 11}C]EADAM. The tissue-to-cerebellum ratios of the striatum, thalamus and brainstem were 1.67, 1.71 and 1.63, respectively, at 120 min postinjection of [{sup 11}C]EADAM. Analysis of monkey arterial plasma samples using high-pressure liquid chromatography determined there was no detectable formation of lipophilic radiolabeled metabolites capable of entering the brain. In a displacement experiment with citalopram in a cynomolgus monkey, radioactivity in the striatum, thalamus and brainstem was displaced 20-60 min after administration of citalopram. In a blocking experiment with citalopram in a cynomolgus monkey

  12. Application of laser microdissection ICP-MS for high resolution elemental mapping in mouse brain tissue: a comparative study with laser ablation ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussulini, Alessandra; Becker, J Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Mapping of elements in biological tissue by laser induced mass spectrometry is a fast growing analytical methodology in life sciences. This method provides a multitude of useful information of metal, nonmetal, metalloid and isotopic distribution at major, minor and trace concentration ranges, usually with a lateral resolution of 12-160 µm. Selected applications in medical research require an improved lateral resolution of laser induced mass spectrometric technique at the low micrometre scale and below. The present work demonstrates the applicability of a recently developed analytical methodology - laser microdissection associated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LMD ICP-MS) - to obtain elemental images of different solid biological samples at high lateral resolution. LMD ICP-MS images of mouse brain tissue samples stained with uranium and native are shown, and a direct comparison of LMD and laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS imaging methodologies, in terms of elemental quantification, is performed. PMID:25476347

  13. Divergent Whole-Genome Methylation Maps of Human and Chimpanzee Brains Reveal Epigenetic Basis of Human Regulatory Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Jia; Konopka, Genevieve; Hunt, Brendan G.; Preuss, Todd M.; Geschwind, Dan; Yi, Soojin V.

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a pervasive epigenetic DNA modification that strongly affects chromatin regulation and gene expression. To date, it remains largely unknown how patterns of DNA methylation differ between closely related species and whether such differences contribute to species-specific phenotypes. To investigate these questions, we generated nucleotide-resolution whole-genome methylation maps of the prefrontal cortex of multiple humans and chimpanzees. Levels and patterns of DNA methylatio...

  14. The Secretome of Endothelial Progenitor Cells Promotes Brain Endothelial Cell Activity through PI3-Kinase and MAP-Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Stefano; Seiler, Stefanie; Fuchs, Anna-Lena; Staudigl, Jennifer; Widmer, Hans Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis and vascular remodelling are crucial events in tissue repair mechanisms promoted by cell transplantation. Current evidence underscores the importance of the soluble factors secreted by stem cells in tissue regeneration. In the present study we investigated the effects of paracrine factors derived from cultured endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) on rat brain endothelial cell properties and addressed the signaling pathways involved. Methods Endothelial cells derived from rat brain (rBCEC4) were incubated with EPC-derived conditioned medium (EPC-CM). The angiogenic response of rBCEC4 to EPC-CM was assessed as effect on cell number, migration and tubular network formation. In addition, we have compared the outcome of the in vitro experiments with the effects on capillary sprouting from rat aortic rings. The specific PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 and the MEK/ERK inhibitor PD98059 were used to study the involvement of these two signaling pathways in the transduction of the angiogenic effects of EPC-CM. Results Viable cell number, migration and tubule network formation were significantly augmented upon incubation with EPC-CM. Similar findings were observed for aortic ring outgrowth with significantly longer sprouts. The EPC-CM-induced activities were significantly reduced by the blockage of the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. Similarly to the outcome of the rBCEC4 experiments, inhibition of the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK pathways significantly interfered with capillary sprouting induced by EPC-CM. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that EPC-derived paracrine factors substantially promote the angiogenic response of brain microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, our findings identified the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK pathways to play a central role in mediating these effects. PMID:24755675

  15. Construction and evaluation of F-18 FDG PET probabilistic MAP for voxel based analysis of the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, K. C.; Kim, J. S.; Na, Y. S.; Moon, D. H.; Ryu, J. S. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop F-18 FDG PET and MRI template for normal rat brain. Also, feasibility of SPM in detailed regional analysis of molecular changes in the rat brain was explored for F-18 FDG PET imaging of a model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten normal rats were scanned with PET and MRI. The PET images were acquired with 3D mode using microPET focus 120 scanner after injection of 37 MBq F-18 FDG. T2-weighted MR images were acquired using 4.7T MRI system. A MRI-based spatial normalization was used. The PET images were coregistered to T2-weighted MR images. Maximum mutual information (MMI) registrations and affine spatial normalizations were performed using SPM2. The spatial normalization of the MRI to the standard MRI was applied to the integral images. The normalized PET images were averaged voxel wise to create PET template. Eight TBI model rats were subjected to a moderate lateral fluid percussion injury. At 2 days, 1 week, 3 weeks and 5 weeks post FPI, PET images of 8 TBI rats were acquired 4 times. TBI PET images were realigned, spatially normalized to a created PET-template and smoothed (8 mm FWHM). To assess the extent and severity of significant hypo metabolic lesions in TBI compared to normal controls were obtained by a two-sided t-test of SPM (uncorrected p < 0.001, 50 voxels). Visually acceptable PET and MRI templates were created. Registration errors were negligible when MMI procedure was used to register a translated or rotated image volume. Thirty-two PET studies of 8 TBI model subjects were obtained. SPM analysis showed injured distribution of decrease F-18 FDG uptake in TBI rats compared with normal rats. In SPM analysis, the extent and severity of significant hypo metabolic lesions were decreased according to a significant effect of time. At 5 weeks injured animals showed F-18 FDG uptake recovery using SPM analysis. These results indicate that voxel-based method will be useful for future longitudinal studies of rat brain.

  16. Mapping α2 Adrenoceptors of the Human Brain with 11C-Yohimbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nahimi, Adjmal; Jakobsen, Steen; Munk, Ole L.;

    2015-01-01

    brain clearances, volumes of distribution, and receptor availability by means of PET with 11C-yohimbine in healthy male adults. Methods: We recorded the distribution of 11C-yohimbine with 90-min dynamic PET and sampled arterial blood to measure intact 11C-yohimbine in plasma. For analysis, we coregistered PET...... images to individual MR images and automatically identified 27 volumes of interest. We used 1-tissue-compartment graphical analysis with 6 linearized solutions of the fundamental binding equation, with the metabolite-corrected arterial plasma curves as input function, to estimate the kinetic parameters...

  17. Statistical parametric maps of {sup 18}F-FDG PET and 3-D autoradiography in the rat brain: a cross-validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, Elena; Marti-Climent, Josep M. [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Pamplona (Spain); Collantes, Maria; Molinet, Francisco [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA) and Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Small Animal Imaging Research Unit, Pamplona (Spain); Delgado, Mercedes; Garcia-Garcia, Luis; Pozo, Miguel A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Brain Mapping Unit, Madrid (Spain); Juri, Carlos [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Movement Disorders Group, Neurosciences Division, Pamplona (Spain); Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Pamplona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Pamplona (Spain); Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Department of Neurology, Santiago (Chile); Fernandez-Valle, Maria E. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, MRI Research Center, Madrid (Spain); Gago, Belen [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Movement Disorders Group, Neurosciences Division, Pamplona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Pamplona (Spain); Obeso, Jose A. [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Movement Disorders Group, Neurosciences Division, Pamplona (Spain); Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Pamplona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Pamplona (Spain); Penuelas, Ivan [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Pamplona (Spain); Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA) and Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Small Animal Imaging Research Unit, Pamplona (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Although specific positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have been developed for small animals, spatial resolution remains one of the most critical technical limitations, particularly in the evaluation of the rodent brain. The purpose of the present study was to examine the reliability of voxel-based statistical analysis (Statistical Parametric Mapping, SPM) applied to {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images of the rat brain, acquired on a small animal PET not specifically designed for rodents. The gold standard for the validation of the PET results was the autoradiography of the same animals acquired under the same physiological conditions, reconstructed as a 3-D volume and analysed using SPM. Eleven rats were studied under two different conditions: conscious or under inhalatory anaesthesia during {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. All animals were studied in vivo under both conditions in a dedicated small animal Philips MOSAIC PET scanner and magnetic resonance images were obtained for subsequent spatial processing. Then, rats were randomly assigned to a conscious or anaesthetized group for postmortem autoradiography, and slices from each animal were aligned and stacked to create a 3-D autoradiographic volume. Finally, differences in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake between conscious and anaesthetized states were assessed from PET and autoradiography data by SPM analysis and results were compared. SPM results of PET and 3-D autoradiography are in good agreement and led to the detection of consistent cortical differences between the conscious and anaesthetized groups, particularly in the bilateral somatosensory cortices. However, SPM analysis of 3-D autoradiography also highlighted differences in the thalamus that were not detected with PET. This study demonstrates that any difference detected with SPM analysis of MOSAIC PET images of rat brain is detected also by the gold standard autoradiographic technique, confirming that this methodology provides reliable results, although

  18. High-resolution characterisation of the aging brain using simultaneous quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and R2* measurements at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Matthew J; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Cardenas-Blanco, Arturo; Nestor, Peter J; Düzel, Emrah

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has recently emerged as a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to detect non-haem iron deposition, calcifications, demyelination and vascular lesions in the brain. It has been suggested that QSM is more sensitive than the more conventional quantifiable MRI measure, namely the transverse relaxation rate, R2*. Here, we conducted the first high-resolution, whole-brain, simultaneously acquired, comparative study of the two techniques using 7Tesla MRI. We asked which of the two techniques would be more sensitive to explore global differences in tissue composition in elderly adults relative to young subjects. Both QSM and R2* revealed strong age-related differences in subcortical regions, hippocampus and cortical grey matter, particularly in superior frontal regions, motor/premotor cortices, insula and cerebellar regions. Within the basal ganglia system-but also hippocampus and cerebellar dentate nucleus-, QSM was largely in agreement with R2* with the exception of the globus pallidus. QSM, however, provided superior anatomical contrast and revealed age-related differences in the thalamus and in white matter, which were otherwise largely undetected by R2* measurements. In contrast, in occipital cortex, age-related differences were much greater with R2* compared to QSM. The present study, therefore, demonstrated that in vivo QSM using ultra-high field MRI provides a novel means to characterise age-related differences in the human brain, but also combining QSM and R2* using multi-gradient recalled echo imaging can potentially provide a more complete picture of mineralisation, demyelination and/or vascular alterations in aging and disease. PMID:27181761

  19. Statistical parametric maps of 18F-FDG PET and 3-D autoradiography in the rat brain: a cross-validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although specific positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have been developed for small animals, spatial resolution remains one of the most critical technical limitations, particularly in the evaluation of the rodent brain. The purpose of the present study was to examine the reliability of voxel-based statistical analysis (Statistical Parametric Mapping, SPM) applied to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images of the rat brain, acquired on a small animal PET not specifically designed for rodents. The gold standard for the validation of the PET results was the autoradiography of the same animals acquired under the same physiological conditions, reconstructed as a 3-D volume and analysed using SPM. Eleven rats were studied under two different conditions: conscious or under inhalatory anaesthesia during 18F-FDG uptake. All animals were studied in vivo under both conditions in a dedicated small animal Philips MOSAIC PET scanner and magnetic resonance images were obtained for subsequent spatial processing. Then, rats were randomly assigned to a conscious or anaesthetized group for postmortem autoradiography, and slices from each animal were aligned and stacked to create a 3-D autoradiographic volume. Finally, differences in 18F-FDG uptake between conscious and anaesthetized states were assessed from PET and autoradiography data by SPM analysis and results were compared. SPM results of PET and 3-D autoradiography are in good agreement and led to the detection of consistent cortical differences between the conscious and anaesthetized groups, particularly in the bilateral somatosensory cortices. However, SPM analysis of 3-D autoradiography also highlighted differences in the thalamus that were not detected with PET. This study demonstrates that any difference detected with SPM analysis of MOSAIC PET images of rat brain is detected also by the gold standard autoradiographic technique, confirming that this methodology provides reliable results, although partial volume

  20. Relationship between brain perfusion SPECT and MMSE score in dementia of Alzheimer's type: a statistical parametric mapping analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to identify the brain areas in which reductions of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were correlated with decline of general mental function, measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT was performed in 9 probable AD patients at the initial and follow-up periods of 1.8 years (average) after the first study. MMSE scores were also measured in both occasions. The mean MMSE score of the initial study 16.4 (range: 5-24) and the mean MMSE score of the follow-up was 8.1 (range: 0-17). Each SPECT image was normalized to the cerebellar activity and a correlation analysis was performed between the level of rCBF in AD patients and the MMSE scores by voxel-based analysis using SPM99 software. Significant correlation was found between the blood-flow decrease in left inferior prefrontal region(BA 47) and left middle temporal region (BA 21) and the MMSE score changes. Additional areas such as anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, precuneus, and bilateral superior and middle prefrontal regions showed and similar trends. A relationship was found between reduction of regional cerebral blood flow in left prefrontal and temporal areas and decline of cognitive function in Alzheimer's diseases (AD) patients. This voxel-based analysis is useful in evaluating the progress of cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease

  1. Brain regions involved in voluntary movements as revealed by radioisotopic mapping of CBF or CMR-glucose changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Ingvar, D H

    1990-01-01

    Mapping of cortical and subcortical grey matter active during voluntary movements by means of measurements of local increases of CBF or CMR-Glucose is reviewed. Most of the studies concern observations in man during hand movements using the intracarotid Xenon-133 injection technique, an approach...... area SMA on both sides increase in CBF/CMR-glucose and even internally ("mentally") going through the trained movements, causes such changes; complex purposeful movements also activate the premotor cortex, a response that is bilateral with greatest response contralaterally. Studies in patients...

  2. Translational control of myelin basic protein expression by ERK2 MAP kinase regulates timely remyelination in the adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Kelly; Zhao, Tianna; Karl, Molly; Lewis, Katherine; Fyffe-Maricich, Sharyl L

    2015-05-20

    Successful myelin repair in the adult CNS requires the robust and timely production of myelin proteins to generate new myelin sheaths. The underlying regulatory mechanisms and complex molecular basis of myelin regeneration, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role of ERK MAP kinase signaling in this process. Conditional deletion of Erk2 from cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage resulted in delayed remyelination following demyelinating injury to the adult mouse corpus callosum. The delayed repair occurred as a result of a specific deficit in the translation of the major myelin protein, MBP. In the absence of ERK2, activation of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and its downstream target, ribosomal protein S6 (S6RP), was impaired at a critical time when premyelinating oligodendrocytes were transitioning to mature cells capable of generating new myelin sheaths. Thus, we have described an important link between the ERK MAP kinase signaling cascade and the translational machinery specifically in remyelinating oligodendrocytes in vivo. These results suggest an important role for ERK2 in the translational control of MBP, a myelin protein that appears critical for ensuring the timely generation of new myelin sheaths following demyelinating injury in the adult CNS.

  3. Translational control of myelin basic protein expression by ERK2 MAP kinase regulates timely remyelination in the adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Kelly; Zhao, Tianna; Karl, Molly; Lewis, Katherine; Fyffe-Maricich, Sharyl L

    2015-05-20

    Successful myelin repair in the adult CNS requires the robust and timely production of myelin proteins to generate new myelin sheaths. The underlying regulatory mechanisms and complex molecular basis of myelin regeneration, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role of ERK MAP kinase signaling in this process. Conditional deletion of Erk2 from cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage resulted in delayed remyelination following demyelinating injury to the adult mouse corpus callosum. The delayed repair occurred as a result of a specific deficit in the translation of the major myelin protein, MBP. In the absence of ERK2, activation of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and its downstream target, ribosomal protein S6 (S6RP), was impaired at a critical time when premyelinating oligodendrocytes were transitioning to mature cells capable of generating new myelin sheaths. Thus, we have described an important link between the ERK MAP kinase signaling cascade and the translational machinery specifically in remyelinating oligodendrocytes in vivo. These results suggest an important role for ERK2 in the translational control of MBP, a myelin protein that appears critical for ensuring the timely generation of new myelin sheaths following demyelinating injury in the adult CNS. PMID:25995471

  4. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in amnestic MCI: a voxel-based MRI and FDG-PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbelli, Silvia [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Piccardo, Arnoldo; Villavecchia, Giampiero [Galliera Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Dessi, Barbara; Brugnolo, Andrea; Rodriguez, Guido; Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); Piccini, Alessandra [Cell Biology Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Genoa (Italy); Caroli, Anna [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy); Mario Negri Institute, Medical Imaging Unit, Biomedical Engineering Department, Bergamo (Italy); Frisoni, Giovanni [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    To reveal the morphological and functional substrates of memory impairment and conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) from the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Brain MRI and FDG-PET were performed in 20 patients with aMCI and 12 controls at baseline. During a mean follow-up of about 2 years, 9 patients developed AD (converters), and 11 did not (nonconverters). All images were processed with SPM2. FDG-PET and segmented grey matter (GM) images were compared in: (1) converters versus controls, (2) nonconverters versus controls, and (3) converters versus nonconverters. As compared to controls, converters showed lower GM density in the left parahippocampal gyrus and both thalami, and hypometabolism in the precuneus, posterior cingulate and superior parietal lobule in the left hemisphere. Hypometabolism was found in nonconverters as compared to controls in the left precuneus and posterior cingulated gyrus. As compared to nonconverters, converters showed significant hypometabolism in the left middle and superior temporal gyri. The discordant topography between atrophy and hypometabolism reported in AD is already present at the aMCI stage. Posterior cingulate-precuneus hypometabolism seemed to be an early sign of memory deficit, whereas hypometabolism in the left temporal cortex marked the conversion to AD. (orig.)

  5. Multimodal Brain Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-01-01

    Current connectivity diagrams of human brain image data are either overly complex or overly simplistic. In this work we introduce simple yet accurate interactive visual representations of multiple brain image structures and the connectivity among them. We map cortical surfaces extracted from human brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data onto 2D surfaces that preserve shape (angle), extent (area), and spatial (neighborhood) information for 2D (circular disk) and 3D (spherical) mapping, spl...

  6. Anatomo-functional study of the temporo-parieto-occipital region: dissection, tractographic and brain mapping evidence from a neurosurgical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Alessandro; Duffau, Hugues; Paradiso, Beatrice; Grandi, Enrico; Balbi, Sergio; Granieri, Enrico; Colarusso, Enzo; Chioffi, Franco; Marras, Carlo Efisio; Sarubbo, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    The temporo-parieto-occipital (TPO) junction is a complex brain territory heavily involved in several high-level neurological functions, such as language, visuo-spatial recognition, writing, reading, symbol processing, calculation, self-processing, working memory, musical memory, and face and object recognition. Recent studies indicate that this area is covered by a thick network of white matter (WM) connections, which provide efficient and multimodal integration of information between both local and distant cortical nodes. It is important for neurosurgeons to have good knowledge of the three-dimensional subcortical organisation of this highly connected region to minimise post-operative permanent deficits. The aim of this dissection study was to highlight the subcortical functional anatomy from a topographical surgical perspective. Eight human hemispheres (four left, four right) obtained from four human cadavers were dissected according to Klingler's technique. Proceeding latero-medially, the authors describe the anatomical courses of and the relationships between the main pathways crossing the TPO. The results obtained from dissection were first integrated with diffusion tensor imaging reconstructions and subsequently with functional data obtained from three surgical cases, all resection of infiltrating glial tumours using direct electrical mapping in awake patients. The subcortical limits for performing safe lesionectomies within the TPO region are as follows: within the parietal region, the anterior horizontal part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and, more deeply, the arcuate fasciculus; dorsally, the vertical projective thalamo-cortical fibres. For lesions located within the temporal and occipital lobes, the resection should be tailored according to the orientation of the horizontal associative pathways (the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, inferior longitudinal fascicle and optic radiation). The relationships between the WM tracts and the ventricle

  7. The role of left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle in verbal perseveration: a brain electrostimulation mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Osaama H; Herbet, Guillaume; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2014-05-01

    The subcortical connectivity underlying verbal perseveration (VP) remains poorly understood. We have previously reported that intraoperative electrical stimulation of the caudate nucleus during awake surgery resulted in VP. Here, our purpose is to study the white matter pathway underlying VP using subcortical stimulation mapping in a series of patients who underwent glioma resection. Eleven patients with a left hemispheric low grade glioma were operated on while awake. Intraoperative direct electrical stimulation was used both at cortical and subcortical levels while the patients carried out motor and naming tasks during the resection. All patients experienced VP during electrical stimulation performed at the level of different subcortical locations, which corresponded in the 11 cases to different parts of the left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle. Perseveration persisted into the postoperative days, but resolved completely by three months.Our original findings provide further insight into the neuroanatomical basis of VP, by supporting the role of left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle. Such data may have both fundamental and clinical implications.

  8. Rapid geodesic mapping of brain functional connectivity: implementation of a dedicated co-processor in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and application to resting state functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico; Cercignani, Mara; Chan, Dennis

    2013-10-01

    Graph theory-based analyses of brain network topology can be used to model the spatiotemporal correlations in neural activity detected through fMRI, and such approaches have wide-ranging potential, from detection of alterations in preclinical Alzheimer's disease through to command identification in brain-machine interfaces. However, due to prohibitive computational costs, graph-based analyses to date have principally focused on measuring connection density rather than mapping the topological architecture in full by exhaustive shortest-path determination. This paper outlines a solution to this problem through parallel implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm in programmable logic. The processor design is optimized for large, sparse graphs and provided in full as synthesizable VHDL code. An acceleration factor between 15 and 18 is obtained on a representative resting-state fMRI dataset, and maps of Euclidean path length reveal the anticipated heterogeneous cortical involvement in long-range integrative processing. These results enable high-resolution geodesic connectivity mapping for resting-state fMRI in patient populations and real-time geodesic mapping to support identification of imagined actions for fMRI-based brain-machine interfaces.

  9. Rapid geodesic mapping of brain functional connectivity: implementation of a dedicated co-processor in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and application to resting state functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico; Cercignani, Mara; Chan, Dennis

    2013-10-01

    Graph theory-based analyses of brain network topology can be used to model the spatiotemporal correlations in neural activity detected through fMRI, and such approaches have wide-ranging potential, from detection of alterations in preclinical Alzheimer's disease through to command identification in brain-machine interfaces. However, due to prohibitive computational costs, graph-based analyses to date have principally focused on measuring connection density rather than mapping the topological architecture in full by exhaustive shortest-path determination. This paper outlines a solution to this problem through parallel implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm in programmable logic. The processor design is optimized for large, sparse graphs and provided in full as synthesizable VHDL code. An acceleration factor between 15 and 18 is obtained on a representative resting-state fMRI dataset, and maps of Euclidean path length reveal the anticipated heterogeneous cortical involvement in long-range integrative processing. These results enable high-resolution geodesic connectivity mapping for resting-state fMRI in patient populations and real-time geodesic mapping to support identification of imagined actions for fMRI-based brain-machine interfaces. PMID:23746911

  10. A re-examination of neural basis of language processing: proposal of a dynamic hodotopical model from data provided by brain stimulation mapping during picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffau, Hugues; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Mandonnet, Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    From recent findings provided by brain stimulation mapping during picture naming, we re-examine the neural basis of language. We studied structural-functional relationships by correlating the types of language disturbances generated by stimulation in awake patients, mimicking a transient virtual lesion both at cortical and subcortical levels (white matter and deep grey nuclei), with the anatomical location of the stimulation probe. We propose a hodotopical (delocalized) and dynamic model of language processing, which challenges the traditional modular and serial view. According to this model, following the visual input, the language network is organized in parallel, segregated (even if interconnected) large-scale cortico-subcortical sub-networks underlying semantic, phonological and syntactic processing. Our model offers several advantages (i) it explains double dissociations during stimulation (comprehension versus naming disorders, semantic versus phonemic paraphasias, syntactic versus naming disturbances, plurimodal judgment versus naming disorders); (ii) it takes into account the cortical and subcortical anatomic constraints; (iii) it explains the possible recovery of aphasia following a lesion within the "classical" language areas; (iv) it establishes links with a model executive functions.

  11. High-resolution brain SPECT imaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children without comorbidity: quantitative analysis using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Oh, Eun Young [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Ki; Hwang, Isaac; Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    We examined the abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) without comorbidity using statistical parametric mapping(SPM) method. We used the patients with not compatible to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis as normal control children. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed on 75 patients (M:F=64:11, 10.0{+-}2.5y) with the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and 13 normal control children (M:F=9:4, 10.3{+-}4.1y). Using SPM method, we compared patient group's SPECT images with those of 13 control subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion(p<0.01) in predefined 34 cerebral regions. Only on area of left temporal lobe showed significant hypoperfusion in ADHD patients without comorbidity (n=75) compared with control subjects(n=13). (n=75, p<0.01, extent threshold=16). rCBF of left temporal area was decreased in ADHD group without comorbidity, such as tic, compared with control group.

  12. 类别特异性命名区脑定位的临床研究%Clinical study on brain mapping of category-specific naming cortices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白红民; 江涛; 王伟民; 李天栋; 王丽敏

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究人脑内是否存在类别特异性命名区.方法 13例功能区病变患者,术中唤醒状态下,皮层直接电刺激(DES)确定是否存在类别特异性命名区.结果 DES发现命名障碍区28个,错语4个:1个为名人面孔特异性错语,其余为三种类型命名均错语.命名不能24个:(1)名人面孔特异性脑区6个;(2)名人面孔和动物命名共同脑区4个;(3)动物和工具命名共同脑区10个;(4)三种类型命名共同脑区4个;(5)没有单独工具、单独动物或名人面孔和工具共同命名的脑区.结论 人脑内存在名人面孔特异性命名区,提示术中需增加名人面孔命名任务,以减少阴性刺激的发生率.%Objective To study the category specific cortices for naming famous faces,animals and tools in patients with lesions near eloquent areas.Methods Using awake procedures,the category specific naming cortices were detected by intraoperative direct electrical stimulation using a category specific naming task in 13 patients with brain lesions in cerebral hemisphere.Results 28 dysphasia cortical sites were found.Among four sites displayed paraphasia,one was face-specific,the other three sites were common for three categories.Among 24 sites displayed anoima,6 sites were face-specific,4 sites were common for both faces and animals,and 10 sites for both animals and tools.There was no site specific for naming animals only,naming tools only or common site for naming both famous faces and tools.Conclusion There are some cortices specific for naming of famous faces.This finding suggests pictures of famous faces should be adopted during intra-operative language mapping to get a broader map of language function,in order to minimize the incidence of "false-negative" stimulations and permanent post-operative deficits.

  13. MR vascular fingerprinting: A new approach to compute cerebral blood volume, mean vessel radius, and oxygenation maps in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, T; Pannetier, N A; Ni, W W; Qiu, D; Moseley, M E; Schuff, N; Zaharchuk, G

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, we describe a fingerprinting approach to analyze the time evolution of the MR signal and retrieve quantitative information about the microvascular network. We used a Gradient Echo Sampling of the Free Induction Decay and Spin Echo (GESFIDE) sequence and defined a fingerprint as the ratio of signals acquired pre- and post-injection of an iron-based contrast agent. We then simulated the same experiment with an advanced numerical tool that takes a virtual voxel containing blood vessels as input, then computes microscopic magnetic fields and water diffusion effects, and eventually derives the expected MR signal evolution. The parameter inputs of the simulations (cerebral blood volume [CBV], mean vessel radius [R], and blood oxygen saturation [SO2]) were varied to obtain a dictionary of all possible signal evolutions. The best fit between the observed fingerprint and the dictionary was then determined by using least square minimization. This approach was evaluated in 5 normal subjects and the results were compared to those obtained by using more conventional MR methods, steady-state contrast imaging for CBV and R and a global measure of oxygenation obtained from the superior sagittal sinus for SO2. The fingerprinting method enabled the creation of high-resolution parametric maps of the microvascular network showing expected contrast and fine details. Numerical values in gray matter (CBV=3.1±0.7%, R=12.6±2.4μm, SO2=59.5±4.7%) are consistent with literature reports and correlated with conventional MR approaches. SO2 values in white matter (53.0±4.0%) were slightly lower than expected. Numerous improvements can easily be made and the method should be useful to study brain pathologies. PMID:24321559

  14. Assessment of Cerebral Hemodynamic Changes in Pediatric Patients with Moyamoya Disease Using Probabilistic Maps on Analysis of Basal/Acetazolamide Stress Brain Perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Seung Ki; Wang, Kyu Chang; Cho, Byung Kyu; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To evaluate the hemodynamic changes and the predictive factors of the clinical outcome in pediatric patients with moyamoya disease, we analyzed pre/post basal/acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT with automated volume of interest (VOIs) method. Total fifty six (M:F=33:24, age 6.7{+-}3.2 years) pediatric patients with moyamoya disease, who underwent basal/acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT within 6 before and after revascularization surgery (encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS) with frontal encephalo-galeo-synangiosis (EGS) and EDAS only followed on contralateral hemisphere), and followed-up more than 6 months after post-operative SPECT, were included. A mean follow-up period after post-operative SPECT was 33{+-}21 months. Each patient's SPECT image was spatially normalized to Korean template with the SPM2. For the regional count normalization, the count of pons was used as a reference region. The basal/acetazolamide-stressed cerebral blood flow (CBF), the cerebral vascular reserve index (CVRI), and the extent of area with significantly decreased basal/acetazolamide- stressed rCBF than age-matched normal control were evaluated on both medial frontal, frontal, parietal, occipital lobes, and whole brain in each patient's images. The post-operative clinical outcome was assigned as good, poor according to the presence of transient ischemic attacks and/or fixed neurological deficits by pediatric neurosurgeon. In a paired t-test, basal/acetazolamide-stressed rCBF and the CVRI were significantly improved after revascularization (p<0.05). The significant difference in the pre-operative basal/acetazolamide-stressed rCBF and the CVRI between the hemispheres where EDAS with frontal EGS was performed and their contralateral counterparts where EDAS only was done disappeared after operation (p<0.05). In an independent student t-test, the pre-operative basal rCBF in the medial frontal gyrus, the post-operative CVRI in the frontal lobe and the parietal

  15. Understanding brain networks and brain organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Luiz

    2014-09-01

    What is the relationship between brain and behavior? The answer to this question necessitates characterizing the mapping between structure and function. The aim of this paper is to discuss broad issues surrounding the link between structure and function in the brain that will motivate a network perspective to understanding this question. However, as others in the past, I argue that a network perspective should supplant the common strategy of understanding the brain in terms of individual regions. Whereas this perspective is needed for a fuller characterization of the mind-brain, it should not be viewed as panacea. For one, the challenges posed by the many-to-many mapping between regions and functions is not dissolved by the network perspective. Although the problem is ameliorated, one should not anticipate a one-to-one mapping when the network approach is adopted. Furthermore, decomposition of the brain network in terms of meaningful clusters of regions, such as the ones generated by community-finding algorithms, does not by itself reveal "true" subnetworks. Given the hierarchical and multi-relational relationship between regions, multiple decompositions will offer different "slices" of a broader landscape of networks within the brain. Finally, I described how the function of brain regions can be characterized in a multidimensional manner via the idea of diversity profiles. The concept can also be used to describe the way different brain regions participate in networks.

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow in children with autism spectrum disorders: a quantitative 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT study with statistical parametric mapping evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-han; JING Jin; XIU Li-juan; CHENG Mu-hua; WANG Xin; BAO Peng; WANG Qing-xiong

    2011-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which include autism, asperger syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), are devastating neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood resulting in deficits in social interaction, repetitive patterns of behaviors, and restricted interests and activities. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a common technique used to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Several studies have measured rCBF in children with ASD using SPECT, however, findings are discordant. In addition, the majority of subjects used in these studies were autistic. In this study, we aimed to investigate changes in rCBF in children with ASD using SPECT.Methods A Technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimmer (99mTc-ECD) brain SPECT study was performed on an ASD group consisting of 23 children (3 girls and 20 boys; mean age (7.2±3.0) years) who were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-Ⅳ) criteria and an age-matched control group with 8children (1 girl and 7 boys, mean age (5.5±2.4) years). Image data were evaluated with Statistical Parametric Mapping,5th version (SPM5). A Student's t test for unpaired data was used to compare rCBF and asymmetry in the autism and corresponding control group. The covariance analysis, taking age as covariance, was performed between the ASD and control group.Results There was a significant reduction in rCBF in the bilateral frontal lobe (frontal poles, arcula frontal gyrus) and the bilateral basal ganglia in the autism group, and a reduction in the bilateral frontal, temporal, parietal, legumina nucleus and cerebellum in the AS group compared to the control. In addition, asymmetry of hemispheric hypoperfusion in the ASD group was observed. Inner-group comparison analysis revealed that rCBF decreased significantly in the bilateral frontal lobe (42.7%), basal nucleus (24.9%) and temporal lobe (22.8%) in the autism

  17. Quantitative proteomic profiling of membrane proteins from the mouse brain cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum using the HysTag reagent: mapping of neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper V; Nielsen, Peter Aa; Andersen, Jens R;

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of the brain proteome and studying brain diseases through clinical biopsies and animal disease models require methods of quantitative proteomics that are sensitive and allow identification and quantification of low abundant membrane proteins from minute amount of tissue. Taking advantage...

  18. Feasibility of mapping the tissue mass corrected bioscale of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption using 17-oxygen and 23-sodium MR imaging in a human brain at 9.4 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ian C; Thulborn, Keith R

    2010-06-01

    The reduction of molecular oxygen to water is the final step of oxidative phosphorylation that couples adenosine triphosphate production to the reoxidation of reducing equivalents formed during the oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide. This coupling makes the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) an excellent reflection of the metabolic health of the brain. A multi-nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) imaging based method for CMRO(2) mapping is proposed. Oxygen consumption is determined by applying a new three-phase metabolic model for water generation and clearance to the changing 17-oxygen ((17)O) labeled water MR signal measured using quantitative (17)O MR imaging during inhalation of (17)O-enriched oxygen gas. These CMRO(2) data are corrected for the regional brain tissue mass computed from quantitative 23-sodium MR imaging of endogenous tissue sodium ions to derive quantitative results of oxygen consumption in micromoles O(2)/g tissue/minute that agree with literature results reported from positron emission tomography. The proposed technique is demonstrated in the human brain using a 9.4 T MR scanner optimized for human brain imaging.

  19. Comparison of detection results of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at different degrees in infant patients between brain electrical activity mapping, transcranial Doppler sonography and computer tomography examinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongruo He; Xiaoying Xu; Yinghui Zhang; Guochao Han

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND; It has been proved that brain electrical activity mapping (BEAM) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) detection can reflect the function of brain cell and its diseased degree of infant patients with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).OBJECTIVE: To observe the abnormal results of HIE at different degrees detected with BEAM and TCD in infant patients, and compare the detection results at the same time point between BEAM, TCD and computer tomography (CT) examinations.DESTGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Departments of Neuro-electrophysiology and Pediatrics, Second Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical College.PARTICTPANTS: Totally 416 infant patients with HIE who received treatment in the Department of Newborn Infants, Second Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical College during January 2001 and December 2005. The infant patients, 278 male and 138 female, were at embryonic 37 to 42 weeks and weighing 2.0 to 4.1 kg, and they were diagnosed with CT and met the diagnostic criteria of HIE of newborn infants compiled by Department of Neonatology, Pediatric Academy, Chinese Medical Association. According to diagnostic criteria, 130patients were mild abnormal, 196 moderate abnormal and 90 severe abnormal. The relatives of all the infant patients were informed of the experiment.METHODS: BEAM and TCD examinations were performed in the involved 416 infant patients with HIE at different degrees with DYD2000 16-channel BEAM instrument and EME-2000 ultrasonograph before preliminary diagnosis treatment (within 1 month after birth) and 1,3,6,12 and 24 months after birth, and detected results were compared between BEAM, TCD and CT examinations.MATN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of detection results of HIE at different time points in infant patients between BEAM, TCD and CT examinations. RESULTS: All the 416 infant patients with HIE participated in the result analysis. ① Comparison of the detected results in infant patients with mild HIE at different

  20. Sex Differences of Brain Serotonin Synthesis in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Using α-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan, Positron Emission Tomography and Statistical Parametric Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAI, Akio; Kumakura, Yoshikata; Boivin, Michel; Rosa, Pedro; Diksic, Mirko; D’Souza, Doreen; Kersey, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional bowel disorder and has a strong predominance in women. Recent data suggest that the brain may play an important role in the pathophysiology of IBS in the brain-gut axis. It is strongly suspected that serotonin (5-HT), a neurotransmitter found in the brain and gut, may be related to the pathophysiology of IBS. It is reported that a 5-HT3 antagonist is effective only in female patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS.OBJECTI...

  1. In vivo brain dopaminergic receptor site mapping using /sup 75/Se-labeled pergolide analogs: the effects of various dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, A.

    1986-01-01

    Perogolide mesylate is a new synthetic ergoline derivative which is reported to possess agonistic activity at central dopamine receptor sites in the brain. The authors have synthesized a (/sup 75/Se)-radiolabeled pergolide mesylate derivative, (/sup 75/Se)-pergolide tartrate, which, after i.v. administration to mature male rats, showed a time course differentiation in the uptake of this radiolabeled compound in isolated peripheral and central (brain) tissues that are known to be rich in dopamine receptor sites. Further studies were conducted in which the animals were preexposed to the dopamine receptor agonist SKF-38393, as well as the dopamine receptor antagonists (+)-butaclamol, (-)-butaclamol, (+/-)-butaclamol and (-)-chloroethylnorapomorphine, to substantiate the specific peripheral and central localization patterns of (/sup 75/Se)-pergolide tartrate. Further investigations were also conducted in which the animals received an i.v. administration of N-isopropyl-l-123-p-iodoamphetamine ((/sup 123/I)-iodoamphetamine). However, (/sup 123/I)-iodoamphetamine did not demonstrate a specific affinity for any type of receptor site in the brain. These investigations further substantiated the fact that (/sup 75/Se)-pergolide tartrate does cross the blood-brain barrier is quickly localized at specific dopamine receptor sites in the intact rat brain and that this localization pattern can be affected by preexposure to different dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists. Therefore, these investigations provided further evidence that (/sup 75/Se)-pergolide tartrate and other radiolabeled ergoline analogs might be useful as brain dopamine receptor localization radiopharmaceuticals.

  2. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjan Ormeling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  6. Parametric mapping of 5HT1A receptor sites in the human brain with the Hypotime method: theory and normal values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Rodell, Anders; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    and brain tissue. Although reference tissue methods are useful as analyses of uptake of some radioligands with indeterminate arterial input functions, their use to analyze (11)C-WAY uptake and binding is challenged by the rapid plasma metabolism, which violates the assumption that regions of interest...

  7. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  8. Sounds, signals and space maps

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    The auditory system transforms information from one frame of reference into another to create a map of space in the brain. The source of a visual signal that guides this transformation in barn owls has now been found.

  9. Multimodal brain visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Current connectivity diagrams of human brain image data are either overly complex or overly simplistic. In this work we introduce simple yet accurate interactive visual representations of multiple brain image structures and the connectivity among them. We map cortical surfaces extracted from human brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data onto 2D surfaces that preserve shape (angle), extent (area), and spatial (neighborhood) information for 2D (circular disk) and 3D (spherical) mapping, split these surfaces into separate patches, and cluster functional and diffusion tractography MRI connections between pairs of these patches. The resulting visualizations are easier to compute on and more visually intuitive to interact with than the original data, and facilitate simultaneous exploration of multiple data sets, modalities, and statistical maps.

  10. Construction and evaluation of quantitative small-animal PET probabilistic atlases for [¹⁸F]FDG and [¹⁸F]FECT functional mapping of the mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Casteels

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Automated voxel-based or pre-defined volume-of-interest (VOI analysis of small-animal PET data in mice is necessary for optimal information usage as the number of available resolution elements is limited. We have mapped metabolic ([(18F]FDG and dopamine transporter ([(18F]FECT small-animal PET data onto a 3D Magnetic Resonance Microscopy (MRM mouse brain template and aligned them in space to the Paxinos co-ordinate system. In this way, ligand-specific templates for sensitive analysis and accurate anatomical localization were created. Next, using a pre-defined VOI approach, test-retest and intersubject variability of various quantification methods were evaluated. Also, the feasibility of mouse brain statistical parametric mapping (SPM was explored for [(18F]FDG and [(18F]FECT imaging of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned (6-OHDA mice. METHODS: Twenty-three adult C57BL6 mice were scanned with [(18F]FDG and [(18F]FECT. Registrations and affine spatial normalizations were performed using SPM8. [(18F]FDG data were quantified using (1 an image-derived-input function obtained from the liver (cMRglc, using (2 standardized uptake values (SUVglc corrected for blood glucose levels and by (3 normalizing counts to the whole-brain uptake. Parametric [(18F]FECT binding images were constructed by reference to the cerebellum. Registration accuracy was determined using random simulated misalignments and vectorial mismatch determination. RESULTS: Registration accuracy was between 0.21-1.11 mm. Regional intersubject variabilities of cMRglc ranged from 15.4% to 19.2%, while test-retest values were between 5.0% and 13.0%. For [(18F]FECT uptake in the caudate-putamen, these values were 13.0% and 10.3%, respectively. Regional values of cMRglc positively correlated to SUVglc measured within the 45-60 min time frame (spearman r = 0.71. Next, SPM analysis of 6-OHDA-lesioned mice showed hypometabolism in the bilateral caudate-putamen and cerebellum, and an

  11. Curved reformat of the paediatric brain MRI into a 'flat-earth map' - standardised method for demonstrating cortical surface atrophy resulting from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ewan; Andronikou, Savvas; Vedajallam, Schadie; Chacko, Anith; Thai, Ngoc Jade

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is optimally imaged with brain MRI in the neonatal period. However neuroimaging is often also performed later in childhood (e.g., when parents seek compensation in cases of alleged birth asphyxia). We describe a standardised technique for creating two curved reconstructions of the cortical surface to show the characteristic surface changes of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in children imaged after the neonatal period. The technique was applied for 10 cases of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and also for age-matched healthy children to assess the visibility of characteristic features of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. In the abnormal brains, fissural or sulcal widening was seen in all cases and ulegyria was identifiable in 7/10. These images could be used as a visual aid for communicating MRI findings to clinicians and other interested parties. PMID:27337989

  12. Curved reformat of the paediatric brain MRI into a 'flat-earth map' - standardised method for demonstrating cortical surface atrophy resulting from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ewan; Andronikou, Savvas; Vedajallam, Schadie; Chacko, Anith; Thai, Ngoc Jade

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is optimally imaged with brain MRI in the neonatal period. However neuroimaging is often also performed later in childhood (e.g., when parents seek compensation in cases of alleged birth asphyxia). We describe a standardised technique for creating two curved reconstructions of the cortical surface to show the characteristic surface changes of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in children imaged after the neonatal period. The technique was applied for 10 cases of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and also for age-matched healthy children to assess the visibility of characteristic features of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. In the abnormal brains, fissural or sulcal widening was seen in all cases and ulegyria was identifiable in 7/10. These images could be used as a visual aid for communicating MRI findings to clinicians and other interested parties.

  13. Changes in Alcohol-Related Brain Networks Across the First Year of College: A Prospective Pilot Study Using fMRI Effective Connectivity Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Adriene M. Beltz; Gates, Kathleen M.; Engels, Anna S.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Pulido, Carmen; Turrisi, Robert; Sheri A. Berenbaum; Gilmore, Rick O.; Wilson, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The upsurge in alcohol use that often occurs during the first year of college has been convincingly linked to a number of negative psychosocial consequences and may negatively affect brain development. In this longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) pilot study, we examined changes in neural responses to alcohol cues across the first year of college in a normative sample of late adolescents. Participants (N=11) were scanned three times across their first year of college (sum...

  14. Brain oxidative stress: detection and mapping of anti-oxidant marker 'Glutathione' in different brain regions of healthy male/female, MCI and Alzheimer patients using non-invasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Pravat K; Tripathi, Manjari; Sugunan, Sreedevi

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) serves as an important anti-oxidant in the brain by scavenging harmful reactive oxygen species that are generated during different molecular processes. The GSH level in the brain provides indirect information on oxidative stress of the brain. We report in vivo detection of GSH non-invasively from various brain regions (frontal cortex, parietal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) in bilateral hemispheres of healthy male and female subjects and from bi-lateral frontal cortices in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). All AD patients who participated in this study were on medication with cholinesterase inhibitors. Healthy young male (age 26.4±3.0) and healthy young female (age 23.6±2.1) subjects have higher amount of GSH in the parietal cortical region and a specific GSH distribution pattern (parietal cortex>frontal cortex>hippocampus ~ cerebellum) has been found. Overall mean GSH content is higher in healthy young female compared to healthy young male subjects and GSH is distributed differently in two hemispheres among male and female subjects. In both young female and male subjects, statistically significant (p=0.02 for young female and p=0.001 for young male) difference in mean GSH content is found when compared between left frontal cortex (LFC) and right frontal cortex (RFC). In healthy young female subjects, we report statistically significant positive correlation of GSH content between RFC and LFC (r=0.641, p=0.004) as well as right parietal cortex (RPC) and left parietal cortex (LPC) (r=0.797, p=0.000) regions. In healthy young male subjects, statistically significant positive correlation of GSH content was observed between LFC and LPC (r=0.481, p=0.032) regions. This statistical analysis implicates that in case of a high GSH content in LPC of a young male, his LFC region would also contain high GSH and vice versa. The difference in mean of GSH content between healthy young female control and female AD

  15. Quality evaluation of image segmentation of brain magnetic resonance for mapping and functional analysis; Avaliacao da qualidade de segmentacao de imagens de ressonancia magnetica cerebral para mapeamento e analise funcional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, F.K.; Canova, C.V.; Marques da Silva, A.M. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica. Nucleo de Pesquisas em Imagens Medicas (NIMed)

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the quality of the brain structure segmentation in magnetic resonance images (MRI) through a comparison between automatic and semiautomatic volumetric segmentation techniques. T1-weighed volumetric acquired stacks of MRI head images from Centro de Diagnostico por Imagens at the Hospital Sao Lucas da PUCRS were used in this study. In the semi-automatic segmentation technique were applied procedures like pre-processing and region-growing using Image J software. The automatic method of volume segmentation was carried through by Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), a statistical analysis tool written for software MATLAB. The automatic method of volumetric segmentation had better performance in time. However the quality of image that the half-automatic segmentation presents a better detailing, but it required longer image processing time. The best method to be used, whether automatic or semi-automatic, depends on the region of interest. (author)

  16. Quantitative study the DTI T2-weighted trace parameter map in right-handed young human brain%右利手年轻人脑结构DTI的T2-weighted trace图定量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠宁; 刘怀军; 耿左军; 池琛; 崔彩霞; 宋鹏; 刘瑞春

    2012-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively study the manifestation of DTI T, -weighted trace parameter map in healthy righted-handed young human brain, analysis the relationship of T,-weighted trace( T,-WT ) to FA and MD. Methods 30 health)' right-handed young volunteers ( sixteen men, fourteen women; mean age 28.2 years ) underwent diffusion tensor imaging and conventional MRI with a GE 3.0T magnetic resonance system. Three DTI parameters maps T,-WT, FA and MD were determined. Observe the manifestations of T,-WT maps at thirteen brain structures and measured the value of them. The gender, lateral differences were analyzed. The relationship between T2 -WT and FA, T2-WT and MD were assessed. Results In health)' right-handed young human brain,the value of T2-WT had a left-right asymmetries in pons, cerebral peduncle, anterior internal capsual, centrum seimioval and lenticular nucleus, left > right, P = 0. 000 ~ 0. 024. There were no sex-difference in all thirteen brain structures, P = 0. 081 ~ 0.967. T2-WT had a positive con-elation with MD ( P =0. 000 ) and had no corrrelation with FA. Conclusion In right-handed young human brain , the values of T2 -WT are left-superior in pons, cerebral peduncle, anterior internal capsual, centrum seimioval and lenticular nucleus. T,-WT has a positive correlation with MD ( P = 0. 000 ) but no corrrelation with FA.%目的 定量研究右利手年轻人人脑结构扩散张量成像(DTI)的T2-weighted trace(T2-WT)参数值的特点,分析其与分数各向异性(FA)、平均扩散系数(MD)的关系.方法 健康右利手年轻志愿者30例,男16名,女14名,平均年龄28.2岁,采集脑常规MRI及DTI图像,获取DTI的T2-WT、FA及MD三种后处理参数图:测量人脑13个部位的三种参数值,研究T2-WT参数图左右侧之间的差异,各部位参数值的性别差异,分析其与FA、MD的关系.结果 T2-WT值在桥脑、大脑脚、内囊前肢、半卵圆中心和豆状核双侧不对称,左侧>右侧,P=0.000~0.024,差异有

  17. Squids, brains and gravity waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting quantum interference devices are so sensitive to magnetic flux that they can map the tiny magnetic fields emanating from the human brain and detect the submicroscopic motions of gravity-wave detectors

  18. Towards a comprehensive atlas of cortical connections in a primate brain: Mapping tracer injection studies of the common marmoset into a reference digital template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, Piotr; Chaplin, Tristan A; Yu, Hsin-Hao; Tolpygo, Alexander; Mitra, Partha P; Wójcik, Daniel K; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2016-08-01

    The marmoset is an emerging animal model for large-scale attempts to understand primate brain connectivity, but achieving this aim requires the development and validation of procedures for normalization and integration of results from many neuroanatomical experiments. Here we describe a computational pipeline for coregistration of retrograde tracing data on connections of cortical areas into a 3D marmoset brain template, generated from Nissl-stained sections. The procedure results in a series of spatial transformations that are applied to the coordinates of labeled neurons in the different cases, bringing them into common stereotaxic space. We applied this procedure to 17 injections, placed in the frontal lobe of nine marmosets as part of earlier studies. Visualizations of cortical patterns of connections revealed by these injections are supplied as Supplementary Materials. Comparison between the results of the automated and human-based processing of these cases reveals that the centers of injection sites can be reconstructed, on average, to within 0.6 mm of coordinates estimated by an experienced neuroanatomist. Moreover, cell counts obtained in different areas by the automated approach are highly correlated (r = 0.83) with those obtained by an expert, who examined in detail histological sections for each individual. The present procedure enables comparison and visualization of large datasets, which in turn opens the way for integration and analysis of results from many animals. Its versatility, including applicability to archival materials, may reduce the number of additional experiments required to produce the first detailed cortical connectome of a primate brain. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2161-2181, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27099164

  19. Unique Microstructural Changes in the Brain Associated with Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (UCPPS) Revealed by Diffusion Tensor MRI, Super-Resolution Track Density Imaging, and Statistical Parameter Mapping: A MAPP Network Neuroimaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Davis; Mayer, Emeran; Leu, Kevin; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Naliboff, Bruce D; Labus, Jennifer S; Tillisch, Kirsten; Kutch, Jason J; Farmer, Melissa A; Apkarian, A Vania; Johnson, Kevin A; Mackey, Sean C; Ness, Timothy J; Landis, J Richard; Deutsch, Georg; Harris, Richard E; Clauw, Daniel J; Mullins, Chris; Ellingson, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    Studies have suggested chronic pain syndromes are associated with neural reorganization in specific regions associated with perception, processing, and integration of pain. Urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) represents a collection of pain syndromes characterized by pelvic pain, namely Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) and Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/PBS), that are both poorly understood in their pathophysiology, and treated ineffectively. We hypothesized patients with UCPPS may have microstructural differences in the brain compared with healthy control subjects (HCs), as well as patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common gastrointestinal pain disorder. In the current study we performed population-based voxel-wise DTI and super-resolution track density imaging (TDI) in a large, two-center sample of phenotyped patients from the multicenter cohort with UCPPS (N = 45), IBS (N = 39), and HCs (N = 56) as part of the MAPP Research Network. Compared with HCs, UCPPS patients had lower fractional anisotropy (FA), lower generalized anisotropy (GA), lower track density, and higher mean diffusivity (MD) in brain regions commonly associated with perception and integration of pain information. Results also showed significant differences in specific anatomical regions in UCPPS patients when compared with IBS patients, consistent with microstructural alterations specific to UCPPS. While IBS patients showed clear sex related differences in FA, MD, GA, and track density consistent with previous reports, few such differences were observed in UCPPS patients. Heat maps illustrating the correlation between specific regions of interest and various pain and urinary symptom scores showed clustering of significant associations along the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic-cortical loop associated with pain integration, modulation, and perception. Together, results suggest patients with UCPPS have extensive microstructural

  20. Low-Pressure Burst-Mode Focused Ultrasound Wave Reconstruction and Mapping for Blood-Brain Barrier Opening: A Preclinical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jingjing; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Liu, Hao-Li

    2016-06-01

    Burst-mode focused ultrasound (FUS) exposure has been shown to induce transient blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening for potential CNS drug delivery. FUS-BBB opening requires imaging guidance during the intervention, yet current imaging technology only enables postoperative outcome confirmation. In this study, we propose an approach to visualize short-burst low-pressure focal beam distribution that allows to be applied in FUS-BBB opening intervention on small animals. A backscattered acoustic-wave reconstruction method based on synchronization among focused ultrasound emission, diagnostic ultrasound receiving and passively beamformed processing were developed. We observed that focal beam could be successfully visualized for in vitro FUS exposure with 0.5–2 MHz without involvement of microbubbles. The detectable level of FUS exposure was 0.467 MPa in pressure and 0.05 ms in burst length. The signal intensity (SI) of the reconstructions was linearly correlated with the FUS exposure level both in-vitro (r2 = 0.9878) and in-vivo (r2 = 0.9943), and SI level of the reconstructed focal beam also correlated with the success and level of BBB-opening. The proposed approach provides a feasible way to perform real-time and closed-loop control of FUS-based brain drug delivery.

  1. The ERP brain topographic map study on mental rotation in schizophrenicPatients%精神分裂症患者心理旋转的ERP脑地形图研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玖; 杨来启; 吴兴曲; 马文涛; 张彦; 邓自和; 刘光雄; 贾婷

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨精神分裂症患者心理旋转的事件相关电位脑地形图的变化.方法 对33例精神分裂症患者(精神分裂症组)和30例正常健康人(对照组)进行心理旋转任务的ERP测定.对其脑地形图分布的变化进行对照观察.结果 (1)精神分裂症组较对照组错误率显著性增高,反应时显著性减少(P<0.05);(2)精神分裂症组较对照组正镜像波幅显著性降低(P<0.05);精神分裂症组只有右顶-枕叶区域被激活,兴奋性降低,面积变小,而镜像更低、更小;在0 ~200 ms精神分裂症组顶叶出现一个兴奋性更高、面积更大的负成分;两组正镜像顶-枕叶右边兴奋性都高于左边.结论 (1)精神分裂症患者心理旋转能力受损,镜像严重受损,且心理旋转的正镜像加工机制可能不同,提示正镜像加工能力可以相互转化.(2)心理旋转存在一个反应准备负电位和右脑优势半球,精神分裂症患者反应准备时需要消耗更多心理资源.揭示心理旋转能力受损的脑地形图可作为诊断精神分裂症的辅助指标.%Objective To explore the change of the event related potential (ERP) brain topographic map on schizophrenics' mental rotation. Methods 33 schizophrenics and 30 healthy controls were tested in the brain ERP system when making mental rotation tasks. The change of distribution of brain topographic map were compared. Results (1) Compared with control group, the error rate was significantly higher and the response time was significantly shorter in schizophrenics (P<0. 05). (2) Compared with control group, the volatility of schizophrenics was significantly lower (P <0. 05). The activated region located only in the right parietal-occipital lobe, in which the excitability was lower, the area was smaller and the mirror is even worse. At 0 ~ 200 ms, the parietal lobe in schizophrenics showed a negative potential with higher excitability and larger area. The normal mirror excitability in

  2. The significance of pharmacodynamic measurements in the assessment of bioavailability and bioequivalence of psychotropic drugs using CEEG and dynamic brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Itil, K Z

    1986-09-01

    There are a variety of problems in evaluating the bioavailability of psychotropic drugs. Psychotropics have many metabolites; there are discrepancies between peripheral plasma levels and therapeutic effects, and psychotropics must penetrate the blood-brain barrier to have an effect on their target organ. Therefore, "classical" pharmacokinetic evaluation may not be sufficient to determine the bioavailability and bioequivalence of these drugs. Additional and more precise information may be obtained by adding pharmacodynamic procedures to these evaluations. Quantitative pharmaco-EEG (QPEEG), which uses the computer-analyzed electroencephalogram (CEEG), may be the method of choice for determining the pharmacodynamic profiles of psychotropic drugs at the central nervous system (CNS) level. The difficulties in evaluating the bioavailability of psychotropics, as well as the results of several studies that confirm the significance of CEEG as a pharmacodynamic measure, are discussed. PMID:3528132

  3. [Longer waiting time and higher mortality in older people with traumatic brain injuries. Mapping of emergency prehospital management and hospital management in Västerbotten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Martin; Bylund, Per O; Degerfält, Lisa; Carlsson, Axel C; Wändell, Per; Ruge, Toralph

    2015-10-06

    The main purpose was to study the prehospital and early intrahospital treatment of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the county of Västerbotten 2011-2012. In total, 162 patients were included. The main finding was that a large proportion of TBI patients were older men who fell in the same or from a different level. Older patients had higher mortality and had to wait longer for diagnostic imaging compared to younger patients. Furthermore, most patients were initially relatively unaffected by the injury and around 1/5 of the patients were transported to hospital by private transport. Finally, we observed that most patients were admitted to hospital and computer tomography scan of the head was performed within 4 hours.

  4. The significance of pharmacodynamic measurements in the assessment of bioavailability and bioequivalence of psychotropic drugs using CEEG and dynamic brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Itil, K Z

    1986-09-01

    There are a variety of problems in evaluating the bioavailability of psychotropic drugs. Psychotropics have many metabolites; there are discrepancies between peripheral plasma levels and therapeutic effects, and psychotropics must penetrate the blood-brain barrier to have an effect on their target organ. Therefore, "classical" pharmacokinetic evaluation may not be sufficient to determine the bioavailability and bioequivalence of these drugs. Additional and more precise information may be obtained by adding pharmacodynamic procedures to these evaluations. Quantitative pharmaco-EEG (QPEEG), which uses the computer-analyzed electroencephalogram (CEEG), may be the method of choice for determining the pharmacodynamic profiles of psychotropic drugs at the central nervous system (CNS) level. The difficulties in evaluating the bioavailability of psychotropics, as well as the results of several studies that confirm the significance of CEEG as a pharmacodynamic measure, are discussed.

  5. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalography (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain.

  6. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ravi kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalograph y (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain

  7. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  8. The domesticated brain: genetics of brain mass and brain structure in an avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, R.; Johnsson, M.; Andersson, L.; Jensen, P.; Wright, D.

    2016-01-01

    As brain size usually increases with body size it has been assumed that the two are tightly constrained and evolutionary studies have therefore often been based on relative brain size (i.e. brain size proportional to body size) rather than absolute brain size. The process of domestication offers an excellent opportunity to disentangle the linkage between body and brain mass due to the extreme selection for increased body mass that has occurred. By breeding an intercross between domestic chicken and their wild progenitor, we address this relationship by simultaneously mapping the genes that control inter-population variation in brain mass and body mass. Loci controlling variation in brain mass and body mass have separate genetic architectures and are therefore not directly constrained. Genetic mapping of brain regions indicates that domestication has led to a larger body mass and to a lesser extent a larger absolute brain mass in chickens, mainly due to enlargement of the cerebellum. Domestication has traditionally been linked to brain mass regression, based on measurements of relative brain mass, which confounds the large body mass augmentation due to domestication. Our results refute this concept in the chicken. PMID:27687864

  9. Planetary maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1992-01-01

    An important goal of the USGS planetary mapping program is to systematically map the geology of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and Mercury, and the satellites of the outer planets. These geologic maps are published in the USGS Miscellaneous Investigations (I) Series. Planetary maps on sale at the USGS include shaded-relief maps, topographic maps, geologic maps, and controlled photomosaics. Controlled photomosaics are assembled from two or more photographs or images using a network of points of known latitude and longitude. The images used for most of these planetary maps are electronic images, obtained from orbiting television cameras, various optical-mechanical systems. Photographic film was only used to map Earth's Moon.

  10. Impact of brain tumour location on emotion and personality: a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping study on mentalization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Fabio; Shallice, Tim; Ius, Tamara; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2014-09-01

    Patients affected by brain tumours may show behavioural and emotional regulation deficits, sometimes showing flattened affect and sometimes experiencing a true 'change' in personality. However, little evidence is available to the surgeon as to what changes are likely to occur with damage at specific sites, as previous studies have either relied on single cases or provided only limited anatomical specificity, mostly reporting associations rather than dissociations of symptoms. We investigated these aspects in patients undergoing surgery for the removal of cerebral tumours. We argued that many of the problems described can be ascribed to the onset of difficulties in one or more of the different levels of the process of mentalizing (i.e. abstracting and reflecting upon) emotion and intentions, which impacts on everyday behaviour. These were investigated in terms of (i) emotion recognition; (ii) Theory of Mind; (iii) alexithymia; and (iv) self-maturity (personality disorder). We hypothesized that temporo/limbic areas would be critical for processing emotion and intentions at a more perceptual level, while frontal lobe structures would be more critical when higher levels of mentalization/abstraction are required. We administered four different tasks, Task 1: emotion recognition of Ekman faces; Task 2: the Eyes Test (Theory of Mind); Task 3: Toronto Alexithymia Scale; and Task 4: Temperament and Character Inventory (a personality inventory), both immediately before and few days after the operation for the removal of brain tumours in a series of 71 patients (age range: 18-75 years; 33 female) with lesions located in the left or right frontal, temporal and parietal lobes. Lobe-based and voxel-based analysis confirmed that tasks requiring interpretation of emotions and intentions at more basic (less mentalized) levels (Tasks 1 and 2) were more affected by temporo/insular lesions, with emotion recognition (Task 1) being maximally impaired by anterior temporal and amygdala

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  12. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  13. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... others live with symptoms of mental illness every day. They can be moderate, or serious and cause ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the ... distant nerve cells (via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  18. Brain F-18 FDG PET for localization of epileptogenic zones in frontal lobe epilepsy: visual assessment and statistical parametric mapping analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the F-18 FDG PET by visual assessment and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis for the localization of the epileptogenic zones in frontal lobe epilepsy. Twenty-four patients with frontal lobe epilepsy were examined. All patients exhibited improvements after surgical resection (Engel class I or II). Upon pathological examination, 18 patients revealed cortical dysplasia, 4 patients revealed tumor, and 2 patients revealed cortical scar. The hypometabolic lesions were found in F-18 FDG PET by visual assessment and SPM analysis. On SPM analysis, cutoff threshold was changed. MRI showed structural lesions in 12 patients and normal results in the remaining 12. F-18 FDG PET correctly localized epileptogenic zones in 13 patients (54%) by visual assessment. Sensitivity of F-18 FDG PET in MR-negative patients (50%) was similar to that in MR-positive patients (67%). On SPM analysis, sensitivity deceased according to the decrease of p value. Using uncorrected p value of 0.05 as threshold, sensitivity of SPM analysis was 63%, which was not statistically different from that of visual assessment. F-18 FDG PET was sensitive in finding epileptogenic zones by revealing hypometabolic areas even in MR-negative patients with frontal lobe epilepsy as well as in MR-positive patients. SPM analysis showed comparable sensitivity to visual assessment and could be used as an aid in the diagnosis of epileptogenic zones in frontal lobe epilepsy

  19. Analysis of the human brain in primary progressive multiple sclerosis with mapping of the spatial distributions using {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijens, Paul E.; Irwan, Roy; Potze, Jan Hendrik; Oudkerk, Matthijs [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen (Netherlands); Mostert, Jop P.; Keyser, Jacques de [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Neurology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2005-08-01

    Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (ppMS; n=4) patients and controls (n=4) were examined by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in order to map choline (Cho), creatine and N-acetylaspartate (NAA), the fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion constant (ADC). After chemical shift imaging (point-resolved spectroscopy, repetition time/echo time 1,500 ms/135 ms) of a supraventricular volume of interest of 8 x 8 x 2 cm{sup 3} (64 voxels) MRS peak areas were matched to the results of DTI for the corresponding volume elements. Mean FA and NAA values were reduced in the ppMS patients (P<0.01, both) and the ADC increased (P<0.02). The spatial distribution of NAA showed strong correlation to ADC in both ppMS patients and controls (r =-0.74 and r= -0.70; P<0.00001, both), and weaker correlations to FA (r=0.49 and r=0.41; P<0.00001, all). FA and ADC also correlated significantly with Cho in patients and controls (P<0.00001, all). The relationship of Cho and NAA to the ADC and the FA and thus to the content of neuronal structures suggests that these metabolite signals essentially originate from axons (NAA) and the myelin sheath (Cho). This is of interest in view of previous reports in which Cho increases were associated with demyelination and the subsequent breakdown of neurons. (orig.)

  20. Analysis of the human brain in primary progressive multiple sclerosis with mapping of the spatial distributions using 1H MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijens, Paul E; Irwan, Roy; Potze, Jan Hendrik; Mostert, Jop P; De Keyser, Jacques; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2005-08-01

    Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (ppMS; n=4) patients and controls (n=4) were examined by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in order to map choline (Cho), creatine and N-acetylaspartate (NAA), the fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion constant (ADC). After chemical shift imaging (point-resolved spectroscopy, repetition time/echo time 1,500 ms/135 ms) of a supraventricular volume of interest of 8x8x2 cm3 (64 voxels) MRS peak areas were matched to the results of DTI for the corresponding volume elements. Mean FA and NAA values were reduced in the ppMS patients (P<0.01, both) and the ADC increased (P<0.02). The spatial distribution of NAA showed strong correlation to ADC in both ppMS patients and controls (r =-0.74 and r= -0.70; P<0.00001, both), and weaker correlations to FA (r=0.49 and r=0.41; P<0.00001, all). FA and ADC also correlated significantly with Cho in patients and controls (P<0.00001, all). The relationship of Cho and NAA to the ADC and the FA and thus to the content of neuronal structures suggests that these metabolite signals essentially originate from axons (NAA) and the myelin sheath (Cho). This is of interest in view of previous reports in which Cho increases were associated with demyelination and the subsequent breakdown of neurons.

  1. Type 1 cannabinoid receptor mapping with [18F]MK-9470 PET in the rat brain after quinolinic acid lesion: a comparison to dopamine receptors and glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several lines of evidence imply early alterations in metabolic, dopaminergic and endocannabinoid neurotransmission in Huntington's disease (HD). Using [18F]MK-9470 and small animal PET, we investigated cerebral changes in type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor binding in the quinolinic acid (QA) rat model of HD in relation to glucose metabolism, dopamine D2 receptor availability and amphetamine-induced turning behaviour. Twenty-one Wistar rats (11 QA and 10 shams) were investigated. Small animal PET acquisitions were conducted on a Focus 220 with approximately 18 MBq of [18F]MK-9470, [18F]FDG and [11C]raclopride. Relative glucose metabolism and parametric CB1 receptor and D2 binding images were anatomically standardized to Paxinos space and analysed voxel-wise using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2). In the QA model, [18F]MK-9470 uptake, glucose metabolism and D2 receptor binding were reduced in the ipsilateral caudate-putamen by 7, 35 and 77%, respectively (all p -5), while an increase for these markers was observed on the contralateral side (>5%, all p -4). [18F]MK-9470 binding was also increased in the cerebellum (p = 2.10-5), where it was inversely correlated to the number of ipsiversive turnings (p = 7.10-6), suggesting that CB1 receptor upregulation in the cerebellum is related to a better functional outcome. Additionally, glucose metabolism was relatively increased in the contralateral hippocampus, thalamus and sensorimotor cortex (p = 1.10-6). These data point to in vivo changes in endocannabinoid transmission, specifically for CB1 receptors in the QA model, with involvement of the caudate-putamen, but also distant regions of the motor circuitry, including the cerebellum. These data also indicate the occurrence of functional plasticity on metabolism, D2 and CB1 neurotransmission in the contralateral hemisphere. (orig.)

  2. Functional Brain Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vessal

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: The historical evolution of concepts of the mind has had a tremendous impact on human civilization. Aside from Smith’s surgical papyrus, there exists practically no documentation down to the era of Hippocrates. While in Corpus, the seat of all sensations is put in the brain, there is an amazing regression, for many centuries thereafter notably influenced by Aristotle, to displace it to the heart. This erroneous diversion promulgated in De Anima with minor corrections by Galen, has per-petuated to our time when we say, for example, that we love something with our very hearts or “knowing by heart” when we mean to memorize something. Avicenna challenged many of Aristotle’s ideas in El-monnafs (psychology section of Al Shafa, paving the road for the later European Renaissance. Cartesian choice of pineal body as the seat of soul in the first half of the 7th century was a fundamental departure from brain-soul dichotomy. It was followed by Gall’s pseudo-science, phrenology, as the first attempt of brain mapping in ascribing “mental faculties” to the speculative “organs” of the brain. Brain mapping through Functional Brain Imaging has flourished ex-tensively in the past decades -starting from PET with later substitution by fMRI- as robust tools for interro-gating mysteries of the brain. With a surprising pace of development, Functional Brain Imaging heralds a welcome adjunct to the science of radiology in ex-ploring mind and human behavior. Given the multi-tude of appropriate MRI machines operating across the country, attention to this aspect of imaging can invigorate research in radiology and boost generation of knowledge in this rapidly growing field. Recent advances in MRI fast imaging, fMRI, as well as clini-cal and spectroscopic imaging with present clinical application and future trends are discussed.

  3. 抑郁症患者心理旋转的事件相关电位脑地形图研究%The ERP brain topographic map study on mental rotation of depressions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玖; 杨来启; 刘光雄; 吴兴曲; 张彦; 马文涛; 邓自和

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the change of the event related potential brain topographic map on depression' mental rotation,and to perfect the brain function relation map for depression in space ability.Methods 32 depression and 29 normal healthy people were tested to make mental rotation tasks in the brain ERP system.The distribution of the changing brain topographic map were observed.Results ( 1 ) Compared with the control group ( error rate ( 29±9 ) %,response time ( 604.74 ± 54.39 ) ms,the error rate was significantly higher and response time was significantly longer in depression (error rate( 33 ± 15 )%,response time(755.22 ± 70.18 )ms,P<0.05).(2) Compared with the control group (N100:PZ( -3.78 ± 1.05)μV,CZ( -5.67 ±2.21)μV,P3( -2.34 ±0.59) μV,P4( -2.92 ±0.80) μV ;P500:PZ(7.35 ±2.61 ) μV,CZ(7.65 ± 2.42) μV,P3 (6.53 ±2.11 ) μV,P4 ( 7.29 ± 2.57 ) μV ),the total volatility was significantly lower in depression ( N 100:PZ ( - 0.31 ±0.09)μV,CZ( -2.27 ±0.57)μV,P3( -0.30 ±0.07) μV,P4( -0.33 ±0.08) μV;P500:PZ(6.04 ±2.16)μV,CZ ( 5.92 ± 2.01 ) μV,P3 ( 6.02 ± 2.11 ) μV,P4 (6.01 ± 2.34 ) μV,P < 0.05 ) and the excitability difference of the left and right parietal-occipital lobe was disappeared (P>0.05) ; Compared with the control group,in N100 the normal and mirror excitability was significantly lower,and in P500 the normal excitability was significantly lower,but mirror was significantly higher in depression (P < 0.05 ).Compared with the left and right brain,the normal excitability in the right parietal-occipital lobe was significant higher (P < 0.05 ),but the mirror excitement difference was disappeared in depression (P> 0.05 ),and the normal and mirror excitement in the right parietal-occipital lobe was both significantly higher in normal healthy people (P < 0.05 ).Conclusion Depressed patients; mental rotation ability is impaired.And the negative potential for looking forward to reaction is lower and exist the right

  4. 联合BOLD和DECS技术脑功能区定位辅助语言相关区脑肿瘤手术的应用%Functional brain mapping with BOLD and DECS in surgical treatment of brain tumors in language areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马辉; 黄伟; 孙胜玉; 夏鹤春; 孙晓川

    2012-01-01

    目的 利用BOLD和DECS技术进行语言功能区定位,实现语言功能区保护下肿瘤的最大程度切除.方法 对15例语言相关功能区脑肿瘤患者,利用血氧依赖功能磁共振(BOLD-fMRI)技术和(或)术中唤醒麻醉下皮层直接电刺激(DECS)定位技术进行脑语言功能区定位;对所获定位资料进行个体化评估,术中辅助保护语言功能区,在神经导航指引下切除肿瘤.结果 15例患者成功获取了术前BOLD语言区图像,评估后其中6例患者实现了术前BOLD和术中DECS技术联合定位语言功能区.全组病例在保护语言区条件下病变全切除10例,次全切除3例,大部分切除2例.术后语言功能明显改善6例,无变化5例,短暂性感觉性失语2例,语言功能障碍明显加重2例.结论 术前BOLD-fMRI结合术中唤醒麻醉下皮层电刺激的方法可客观定位脑语言功能区,导航辅助保护语言功能区条件下切除肿瘤,在保护语言功能的同时最大化切除肿瘤组织,提高患者术后生活质量.%Objective To study the application of cortical mapping methods of blood oxygen level-dependent-magnetic resonance imaging ( BOLD-MRI) for preoperative localization of language areas and intrao-perative direct electrical cortical stimulation ( DECS) of language areas in awake anesthesia in assisting to remove brain tumors in language areas. Methods Cortical mapping data of language areas was collected from 15 patients with brain tumors in language areas by BOLD-MRI and/or intraoperative DECS in awake anesthesia, and the data combined with neuronavigation assisted-microscopy were applied for the removal of brain tumors in language areas. Results The images of language areas were successfully obtained from the 15 patients by preoperative BOLD-MRI, and after evaluation the language areas were localized by both preoperative BOLD and intraoperative DECS in 6 patients. There were total resection in 10 patients, subtotal resection in 3 patients and

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists a more detailed understanding of the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies ...

  7. Functional Brain Imaging: A Comprehensive Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Sarraf, Saman

    2016-01-01

    Functional brain imaging allows measuring dynamic functionality in all brain regions. It is broadly used in clinical cognitive neuroscience as, well as in research. It will allow the observation of neural activities in the brain simultaneously. From the beginning when functional brain imaging was initiated by the mapping of brain functions proposed by phrenologists, many scientists were asking why we need to image brain functionality since we have already structural information. Simply, their important question was including a great answer. Functional information of the human brain would definitely complement structural information, helping to have a better understanding of what is happening in the brain. This paper, which could be useful to those who have an interest in functional brain imaging, such as engineers, will present a quick review of modalities used in functional brain imaging. We will concentrate on the most used techniques in functional imaging which are functional magnetic resonance imaging (fM...

  8. Brain iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Torben

    2002-11-01

    transferrin were, however, restricted to areas situated in close proximity to the ventricular and pial surfaces. In particular, transferrin injected into the ventricles was never observed in regions distant from the CSF. It was concluded that choroid plexus-derived transferrin is not likely to play a significant role for binding and transporting iron in the brain interstitium. Transferrin secretion from oligodendrocytes probably plays the key role in this process. In the third part of the thesis, the uptake of iron by neurons devoid of projections beyond the blood-brain barrier and glia is addressed. Given the fact that the demonstration of plasma proteins in brain sections can be hampered by several methodological factors, a mapping of the cellular distribution of transferrin in the brain was performed employing extensive use of tissue-processing and staining protocols. In order to aid in the understanding of cellular iron uptake in the intact brain, attempts were made to identify iron, transferrin, and transferrin receptors at the light microscopic level. Consistent with the widespread distribution of transferrin receptors in neurons, the ligand transferrin was also found in neurons throughout the CNS. When examined at high resolution, transferrin was found to be distributed to the cytoplasm of neurons, exhibiting a dotted appearance, which is probably consistent with a distribution in the endosomallysosomal system. In contrast to the consistent presence of transferrin receptors on neurons, it was not possible to detect transferrin receptors on glial cells. Related to these observations, the presence of non-transferrin-bound iron in the brain suggests that glial cells may take it up by a mechanism that does not involve the transferrin receptor. The widespread distribution of ferritin in glial cells clearly indicates that the glial cells acquire iron. Dietary iron-overload did not change the distribution of transferrin receptors or ferritin in the brain. By contrast, iron

  9. Brain templates and atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alan C; Janke, Andrew L; Collins, D Louis; Baillet, Sylvain

    2012-08-15

    The core concept within the field of brain mapping is the use of a standardized, or "stereotaxic", 3D coordinate frame for data analysis and reporting of findings from neuroimaging experiments. This simple construct allows brain researchers to combine data from many subjects such that group-averaged signals, be they structural or functional, can be detected above the background noise that would swamp subtle signals from any single subject. Where the signal is robust enough to be detected in individuals, it allows for the exploration of inter-individual variance in the location of that signal. From a larger perspective, it provides a powerful medium for comparison and/or combination of brain mapping findings from different imaging modalities and laboratories around the world. Finally, it provides a framework for the creation of large-scale neuroimaging databases or "atlases" that capture the population mean and variance in anatomical or physiological metrics as a function of age or disease. However, while the above benefits are not in question at first order, there are a number of conceptual and practical challenges that introduce second-order incompatibilities among experimental data. Stereotaxic mapping requires two basic components: (i) the specification of the 3D stereotaxic coordinate space, and (ii) a mapping function that transforms a 3D brain image from "native" space, i.e. the coordinate frame of the scanner at data acquisition, to that stereotaxic space. The first component is usually expressed by the choice of a representative 3D MR image that serves as target "template" or atlas. The native image is re-sampled from native to stereotaxic space under the mapping function that may have few or many degrees of freedom, depending upon the experimental design. The optimal choice of atlas template and mapping function depend upon considerations of age, gender, hemispheric asymmetry, anatomical correspondence, spatial normalization methodology and disease

  10. Application of cortical mapping in the surgical treatment of brain tumors in language areas%皮层功能制图在语言功能区脑肿瘤手术治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马辉; 黄伟; 孙胜玉; 夏鹤春; 孙晓川

    2012-01-01

    目的 利用皮层功能制图进行语言功能区定位,实现语言功能区保护下肿瘤的最大程度切除.方法 对16例语言功能区脑肿瘤患者,利用血氧依赖功能磁共振(BOLD-fMRI)技术和(或)术中唤醒麻醉下皮层直接电刺激( ECS)定位技术进行脑功能制图;对所获皮层功能制图资料进行个体化评估,术中辅助保护语言功能区,在神经导航指引下切除肿瘤.结果 本组肿瘤病变全切除10例,次全切除3例,大部分切除3例.术后语言功能明显改善6例,无变化6例,短暂性感觉性失语2例,语言功能明显障碍2例.结论 BOLD-f MRI结合术中唤醒麻醉下ECS皮层功能制图定位语言功能区,可在保护语言功能的同时最大程度地切除肿瘤组织,提高患者术后生活质量.%Objective To study ihe methods of cortical mapping, preoperative localization of language areas with Bold-fMRI and(or) inlraoperative electrical cortical stimulation of language areas with awaken surgery, assist to remove brain tumors in functional areas of language. Methods Cortical mapping data from such as oxygen dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) technology, using the block design and reciting task to activate broca area and paragraph comprehension task to activate wemicke area, calculated cerebral laterality index (LI) to determine the dominant hemisphere; using of the electrical cortical stimulation (ECS) to localizale language areas under awake anesthesia in patients with surgery. The data combined with neuronavigation assist microscopic remove braim tomors in the language areas. Results Functional cortical mapping was used for localizate broca or wemicke area of 16 cases, image acquisition satisfied in 16 cases. Intraoperative awake and electrical stimulation of language areas in 4 cases. Lesion total resection in 10 cases, subtotal resection in 3 cases, partial resection in 3 cases. Language function improved significantly after surgery in 6

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many ... unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The ...

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the ... mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How ... cell, and responds to signals from the environment; this all helps the cell maintain its balance with ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... inside contents of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain ... studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... may help improve treatments for anxiety disorders like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex ( ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... medications could reduce the amount of trial and error and frustration that many people with depression experience ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain ...

  4. Brain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ... depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies Advanced technologies are also making it faster, easier, and more ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the flow of information to the front of the brain, ... the neuron will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain cells required for normal function and ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental ... and are working to compare that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... neurons, the most highly specialized cells of all, conduct messages. Every cell in our bodies contains a ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... can be related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the ... healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  12. Map Projection

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaderpour, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce some known map projections from a model of the Earth to a flat sheet of paper or map and derive the plotting equations for these projections. The first fundamental form and the Gaussian fundamental quantities are defined and applied to obtain the plotting equations and distortions in length, shape and size for some of these map projections.

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman ... new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A brain-body ... stress. impulse —An electrical communication signal sent between neurons ...

  15. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  16. Degenerative brain disorders and brain iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-field-strength [e.g., 1.5 tesla (T)] magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a sensitive, in vivo method for mapping the normal and pathologic distribution of iron in the brain with excellent anatomic specificity. In all adults individuals studied using a multislice, spin-echo (SE) pulse sequence for T2-weighted (e.g., TR = 2,500 msec and TE = 80 msec) imaging, a prominent decreased signal intensity (decreased T2) was noted in the globus pallidum, red nucleus, reticular substantia nigra, and dentate nucleus of the cerebellum. The normal decreased signal intensity on SE 2,500/80 images correlates directly with previous autopsy studies on 98 normal brains of age 13 to 100 years that describe a preferential accumulation of brain iron in the globus pallidum (21 mg Fe/100 g), red nucleus (19 mg Fe/100 g), reticular substantia nigra (18 mg Fe/100 g), putamen (13 mg Fe/100g), caudate nucleus (9 mg Fe/100g), and thalamus (5 mg Fe/100 g). Our own studies using both high-field MRI in vivo and Peris staining for ferric iron on autopsy brains confirm this iron accumulation

  17. Harmonic Maps and Biharmonic Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Hajime Urakawa

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey on harmonic maps and biharmonic maps into (1) Riemannian manifolds of non-positive curvature, (2) compact Lie groups or (3) compact symmetric spaces, based mainly on my recent works on these topics.

  18. Mapping Language Problems in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might also lead to better diagnosis and treatment strategies for language impairments. Reference: Neural organization of spoken language ... Featured Website: NIH’s National Cancer Institute Links Voice, Speech, and Language Aphasia CONTACT US NIH Office of ...

  19. Mapping the visual brain: how and why

    OpenAIRE

    Bridge, H

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, techniques for identifying visual areas using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in human subjects have been applied widely to multiple populations. This review will cover the basic techniques of using functional MRI and very high-resolution structural MRI to determine boundaries between different areas of the visual cortex. Recent applications of these methods to ophthalmological patient populations are discussed, and the future potential applications of very high field...

  20. Brain metastases of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Diane; Smith, Quentin R; Lockman, Paul R; Bronder, Julie; Gril, Brunilde; Chambers, Ann F; Weil, Robert J; Steeg, Patricia S

    Central nervous system or brain metastases traditionally occur in 10-16% of metastatic breast cancer patients and are associated with a dismal prognosis. The development of brain metastases has been associated with young age, and tumors that are estrogen receptor negative, Her-2+ or of the basal phenotype. Treatment typically includes whole brain irradiation, or either stereotactic radiosurgery or surgery with whole brain radiation, resulting in an approximately 20% one year survival. The blood-brain barrier is a formidable obstacle to the delivery of chemotherapeutics to the brain. Mouse experimental metastasis model systems have been developed for brain metastasis using selected sublines of human MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. Using micron sized iron particles and MRI imaging, the fate of MDA-MB-231BR cells has been mapped: Approximately 2% of injected cells form larger macroscopic metastases, while 5% of cells remain as dormant cells in the brain. New therapies with permeability for the blood-brain barrier are needed to counteract both types of tumor cells. PMID:17473372

  1. Brain glycogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Linea Lykke Frimodt; Müller, Margit S; Walls, Anne B;

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g., liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia....... In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been an emerging understanding in brain energy metabolism: that glycogen is more than just a convenient way to store energy for use in emergencies-it is a highly dynamic molecule with versatile implications in brain function, i.e., synaptic...... activity and memory formation. In line with the great spatiotemporal complexity of the brain and thereof derived focus on the basis for ensuring the availability of the right amount of energy at the right time and place, we here encourage a closer look into the molecular and subcellular mechanisms...

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF BRAIN STRUCTURE AND CONNECTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Wierenga, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    The human brain undergoes profound structural changes with development. It does not mature by simply growing, rather the transition to adulthood is a dynamic process with regionally specific patterns. However, there is no consensus on the timing and shape of growth trajectories of brain structures. In this thesis we capitalize on advances in multimodal MRI and use longitudinal study designs to map structural brain maturation and connectivity in typical and atypical children and adolescents. O...

  3. 定量研究人脑结构DTI T2-weighted trace图与年龄的关系%Quantitative study of DTI T2-weighted trace parameter map in healthy human brain and its relation to aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠宁; 刘怀军; 耿左军; 贾林燚; 池琛; 崔彩霞; 宋鹏; 刘瑞春

    2012-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively analysis the DTI T2-weighted trace (T2-WT) parameter map in different age of healthy human brain and its relation to age. Methods Data were acquired in fifty-eight healthy right-handed volunteers (22-76 years) . 28 subjects in middle-old age group ( > 40years) and 30 subjects in young group (≤40years) . All subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging ( DTI) and conventional MRI with a GE 3.0T magnetic resonance system. Three DTI parameters T2-WT, fractional anisotropy ( FA ) and mean diffusivity ( MD ) were acquired from the MR work station. ROIs were determined at FA and MD maps. The ten structures T2-WT values were measured in the two groups. Quantitative analyzed the the T2-WT maps and its relation to age. Results In the young group, the value of T2-WT had a left-right asymmetries in pons, cerebral peduncle, anterior internal capsual, centrum seimioval and lenticular nucleus, left > right, P = 0.000 ~ 0. 024. Whereas in the middle-old age group, T2-WT values were lower than the young group except the lateral cerebral ventricle, and had a left superior only in centrum semioval ( P= 0.042 ). Significant negative correlation with age were found in pons, cerebral peduncle, three parts of the internal capsule and lenticular nucleus (P =0. 000 ~0. 038) . Conclusion T2-WT parameter map is more symmetry in middle-old age group. In pons, cerebral peduncle, three parts of internal capsule and lenticular nucleus,T2-WT values have significant negative correlations with age.%目的 定量研究不同年龄健康人脑结构扩散张量成像(DTI)的T2-WT参数图的特点及其与年龄的关系.方法 健康右利手志愿者58人,年龄22~76岁,按年龄分为青年(≤40岁)组30人,中老年(>40岁)组28人,采集人脑常规MRI及DTI图像,经后处理得到DTI的三种参数图:T2-WT、分数各向异性(FA)及平均扩散系数(MD)图,使用FA图及MD图设置兴趣区,测量人脑10个部位的参数值,定量分析不同年龄组T2

  4. Causal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2006-01-01

    The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method......The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method...

  5. Strengthening connections: functional connectivity and brain plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Clare; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The ascendancy of functional neuroimaging has facilitated the addition of network-based approaches to the neuropsychologist’s toolbox for evaluating the sequelae of brain insult. In particular, intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) mapping of resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) data constitutes an ideal approach to measuring macro-scale networks in the human brain. Beyond the value of iFC mapping for charting how the functional topography of the brain is altered by insult and injury, iFC analyses c...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such children to those with normal brain development may help scientists to pinpoint when and where ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex (PFC) —Seat of the brain's executive functions, such as judgment, decision making, and problem solving. ... brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... axis —A brain-body circuit which plays a critical role in the body's response to stress. impulse — ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she lost interest ...

  12. High-speed optogenetic circuit mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, George J.; Chen, Susu; Gill, Harin; Katarya, Malvika; Kim, Jinsook; Kudolo, John; Lee, Li M.; Lee, Hyunjeong; Lo, Shun Qiang; Nakajima, Ryuichi; Park, Min-Yoon; Tan, Gregory; Tang, Yanxia; Teo, Peggy; Tsuda, Sachiko; Wen, Lei; Yoon, Su-In

    2013-03-01

    Scanning small spots of laser light allows mapping of synaptic circuits in brain slices from transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). These light spots photostimulate presynaptic neurons expressing ChR2, while postsynaptic responses can be monitored in neurons that do not express ChR2. Correlating the location of the light spot with the amplitude of the postsynaptic response elicited at that location yields maps of the spatial organization of the synaptic circuits. This approach yields maps within minutes, which is several orders of magnitude faster than can be achieved with conventional paired electrophysiological methods. We have applied this high-speed technique to map local circuits in many brain regions. In cerebral cortex, we observed that maps of excitatory inputs to pyramidal cells were qualitatively different from those measured for interneurons within the same layers of the cortex. In cerebellum, we have used this approach to quantify the convergence of molecular layer interneurons on to Purkinje cells. The number of converging interneurons is reduced by treatment with gap junction blockers, indicating that electrical synapses between interneurons contribute substantially to the spatial convergence. Remarkably, gap junction blockers affect convergence in sagittal cerebellar slices but not in coronal slices, indicating sagittal polarization of electrical coupling between interneurons. By measuring limb movement or other forms of behavioral output, this approach also can be used in vivo to map brain circuits non-invasively. In summary, ChR2-mediated high-speed mapping promises to revolutionize our understanding of brain circuitry.

  13. Covariance mapping techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasinski, Leszek J.

    2016-08-01

    Recent technological advances in the generation of intense femtosecond pulses have made covariance mapping an attractive analytical technique. The laser pulses available are so intense that often thousands of ionisation and Coulomb explosion events will occur within each pulse. To understand the physics of these processes the photoelectrons and photoions need to be correlated, and covariance mapping is well suited for operating at the high counting rates of these laser sources. Partial covariance is particularly useful in experiments with x-ray free electron lasers, because it is capable of suppressing pulse fluctuation effects. A variety of covariance mapping methods is described: simple, partial (single- and multi-parameter), sliced, contingent and multi-dimensional. The relationship to coincidence techniques is discussed. Covariance mapping has been used in many areas of science and technology: inner-shell excitation and Auger decay, multiphoton and multielectron ionisation, time-of-flight and angle-resolved spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, stimulated Raman scattering, directional gamma ray sensing, welding diagnostics and brain connectivity studies (connectomics). This review gives practical advice for implementing the technique and interpreting the results, including its limitations and instrumental constraints. It also summarises recent theoretical studies, highlights unsolved problems and outlines a personal view on the most promising research directions.

  14. Brain peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompier, D; Vejux, A; Zarrouk, A; Gondcaille, C; Geillon, F; Nury, T; Savary, S; Lizard, G

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisomes are essential organelles in higher eukaryotes as they play a major role in numerous metabolic pathways and redox homeostasis. Some peroxisomal abnormalities, which are often not compatible with life or normal development, were identified in severe demyelinating and neurodegenerative brain diseases. The metabolic roles of peroxisomes, especially in the brain, are described and human brain peroxisomal disorders resulting from a peroxisome biogenesis or a single peroxisomal enzyme defect are listed. The brain abnormalities encountered in these disorders (demyelination, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death, neuronal migration, differentiation) are described and their pathogenesis are discussed. Finally, the contribution of peroxisomal dysfunctions to the alterations of brain functions during aging and to the development of Alzheimer's disease is considered.

  15. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  16. Mapping Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC.

    This document features a lesson plan that examines how maps help scientists protect biodiversity and how plants and animals are adapted to specific ecoregions by comparing biome, ecoregion, and habitat. Samples of instruction and assessment are included. (KHR)

  17. Rethinking maps

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchin, Rob; Dodge, Martin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we argue that cartography is profitably conceived as a processual, rather than representational, science. Building on recent analysis concerning the philosophical underpinnings of cartography we question the ontological security of maps, contending that it is productive to rethink cartography as ontogenetic in nature; that is maps emerge through practices and have no secure ontological status. Drawing on the concepts of transduction and technicity we contend that ...

  18. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  19. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  20. Brain and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens / Drug Facts / Brain and Addiction Brain and Addiction Print Your Brain Your brain is who you ... is taken over and over. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... who can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists or clinical social workers. The psychiatrist asked Sarah and her ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... begun to chart how the brain develops over time in healthy people and are working to compare ... listless, and had no appetite most of the time. Weeks later, Sarah realized she was having trouble ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... as in areas of the brain that control movement. When electrical signals are abnormal, they can cause ... normal mood functioning. Dopamine —mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the flow of information to the ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Outreach Home Public Involvement Outreach Partners Alliance for Research Progress Coalition ... also linked to reward systems in the brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... husband questions about Sarah's symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early-life experiences ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on neurons ... depression, can occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... in controlling movement, managing the release of various hormones, and aiding the flow of information to the ... at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on mental health. This knowledge is allowing scientists to make important discoveries that ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... may help improve treatments for anxiety disorders like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex ( ... doctor, who ran some tests. After deciding her symptoms were not caused by a stroke, brain tumor, ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... NIMH Strategic Plan in 2016 August 31, 2016, 2:00-3:00 PM ET General Health Information ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... sends impulses and extends from cell bodies to meet and deliver impulses to another nerve cell. Axons ... in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Director’s Blog Budget Strategic Plan Offices and Divisions Careers@NIMH Advisory Boards and Groups Staff Directories Getting ... works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... but can still remember past events and learned skills, and carry on a conversation, all which rely ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and plays an important role during early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. ... but can still remember past events and learned skills, and carry on a conversation, all which rely ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... These factors may act alone or together in complex ways, to change the way a gene is ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in ... or-flight response and is also involved in emotions and memory. anterior cingulate cortex —Is involved in ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or serious and cause severe disability. Through research, we know that mental disorders are brain disorders. Evidence ... many different types of cells in the body. We say that cells differentiate as the embryo develops, ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... These circuits control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into ... factors that can affect our bodies, such as sleep, diet, or stress. These factors may act alone ...

  19. Brain Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Love Your Brain Stay Physically Active Adopt a Healthy Diet Stay Mentally and Socially Active We Can Help ... of any wellness plan. Learn More Adopt a Healthy Diet > Eat a heart-healthy diet that benefits both ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the ... disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the most common neurotransmitter, glutamate has many roles throughout the brain and nervous system. ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in ... stay focused on a task, and managing proper emotional reactions. Reduced ACC activity or damage to this ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... genes and epigenetics may one day lead to genetic testing for people at risk for mental disorders. ... brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," containing inherited genetic information that helps to define physical and some ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... they can cause tremors or symptoms found in Parkinson's disease. Serotonin —helps control many functions, such as ... brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, a disorder that affects a person's ability ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's early 20s. Knowing how the ... as judgment, decision making and problem solving, as well as emotional control and memory. serotonin —A neurotransmitter ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mental disorder, or perhaps you have experienced one yourself at some point. Such disorders include depression , anxiety ... control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some point. Such disorders include depression , anxiety disorders , bipolar disorder , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) , and many others. ... differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists or clinical social workers. The psychiatrist asked Sarah and her husband ... the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on ...

  9. Fast brain decoding with random sampling and random projections

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyos-Idrobo, Andrés; Varoquaux, Gaël; Thirion, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Machine learning from brain images is a central tool for image-based diagnosis and diseases characterization. Predicting behavior from functional imaging, brain decoding, analyzes brain activity in terms of the behavior that it implies. While these multivariate techniques are becoming standard brain mapping tools, like mass-univariate analysis, they entail much larger computational costs. In an time of growing data sizes, with larger cohorts and higher-resolutions imaging, this cost is increa...

  10. Mapping Deeply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Wood

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a description of an avant la lettre deep mapping project carried out by a geographer and a number of landscape architecture students in the early 1980s. Although humanists seem to take the “mapping” in deep mapping more metaphorically than cartographically, in this neighborhood mapping project, the mapmaking was taken literally, with the goal of producing an atlas of the neighborhood. In this, the neighborhood was construed as a transformer, turning the stuff of the world (gas, water, electricity into the stuff of individual lives (sidewalk graffiti, wind chimes, barking dogs, and vice versa. Maps in the central transformer section of the atlas were to have charted this process in action, as in one showing the route of an individual newspaper into the neighborhood, then through the neighborhood to a home, and finally, as trash, out of the neighborhood in a garbage truck; though few of these had been completed when the project concluded in 1986. Resurrected in 1998 in an episode on Ira Glass’ This American Life, the atlas was finally published, as Everything Sings: Maps for a Narrative Atlas, in 2010 (and an expanded edition in 2013.

  11. Parametric mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Allan C.

    1998-01-01

    Parametric mapping (PM) lies midway between older and proven artificial landmark based guidance systems and yet to be realized vision based guidance systems. It is a simple yet effective natural landmark recognition system offering freedom from the need for enhancements to the environment. Development of PM systems can be inexpensive and rapid and they are starting to appear in commercial and industrial applications. Together with a description of the structural framework developed to generically describe robot mobility, this paper illustrates clearly the parts of any mobile robot navigation and guidance system and their interrelationships. Among other things, the importance of the richness of the reference map, and not necessarily the sensor map, is introduced, the benefits of dynamic path planners to alleviate the need for separate object avoidance, and the independence of the PM system to the type of sensor input is shown.

  12. CALS Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Ib; Nielsen, Povl Holm; Larsen, Michael Holm

    1998-01-01

    To enhance the industrial applications of CALS, CALS Center Danmark has developed a cost efficient and transparent assessment, CALS Mapping, to uncover the potential of CALS - primarily dedicated to small and medium sized enterprises. The idea behind CALS Mapping is that the CALS State...... of the enterprise is compared with a Reference Enterprise Model (REM). The REM is a CALS idealised enterprise providing full product support throughout the extended enterprise and containing different manufacturing aspects, e.g. component industry, process industry, and one-piece production. This CALS idealised...... enterprise is, when applied in a given organisation modified with respect to the industry regarded, hence irrelevant measure parameters are eliminated to avoid redundancy. This assessment of CALS Mapping, quantify the CALS potential of an organisation with the purpose of providing decision support to the top...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are sent from one neuron to another. Share Science News Connectome Re-Maps Human Cortex ECT Lifts ... NIMH Conference on Mental Health Services Research: Harnessing Science to Strengthen the Public Health Impact Bethesda, MD, ...

  14. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed by...

  15. Mole Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, Kent J.; Curtright, Robert D.; Brooks, David W.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract nature of the mole and its applications to problem solving make learning the concept difficult for students, and teaching the concept challenging for teachers. Presents activities that use concept maps and graphing calculators as tools for solving mole problems. (ASK)

  16. Mapping filmmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilje, Øystein; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Lindstrand, Fredrik;

    2010-01-01

    This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus ...

  17. Participatory maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    looks at computer-assisted cartography as part of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia...

  18. Energetic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report explains the energetic map of Uruguay as well as the different systems that delimits political frontiers in the region. The electrical system importance is due to the electricity, oil and derived , natural gas, potential study, biofuels, wind and solar energy

  19. Imaging neuroscience: Principles or maps?

    OpenAIRE

    Friston, Karl J.

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews some recent trends in imaging neuroscience. A distinction is made between making maps of functional responses in the brain and discerning the rules or principles that underlie their organization. After considering developments in the characterization of brain imaging data, several examples are presented that highlight the context-sensitive nature of neuronal responses that we measure. These contexts can be endogenous and physiological, reflecting ...

  20. Meeting the brain on its own terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eHaueis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary human brain mapping, it is commonly assumed that the mind is what the brain does. Based on that assumption, task-based imaging studies of the last three decades measured differences in brain activity that are thought to reflect the exercise of human mental capacities (e.g., perception, attention, memory. With the advancement of resting state studies, tractography and graph theory in the last decade, however, it became possible to study human brain connectivity without relying on cognitive tasks or constructs. It therefore is currently an open question whether the assumption that the mind is what the brain does is an indispensable working hypothesis in human brain mapping. This paper argues that the hypothesis is, in fact, dispensable. If it is dropped, researchers can meet the brain on its own terms by searching for new, more adequate concepts to describe human brain organization. Neuroscientists can establish such concepts by conducting exploratory experiments that do not test particular cognitive hypotheses. The paper provides a systematic account of exploratory neuroscientific research that would allow researchers to form new concepts and formulate general principles of brain connectivity, and to combine connectivity studies with manipulation methods to identify neural entities in the brain. These research strategies would be most fruitful if applied to the mesoscopic scale of neuronal assemblies, since the organizational principles at this scale are currently largely unknown. This could help researchers to link microscopic and macroscopic evidence to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the human brain. The paper concludes by comparing this account of exploratory neuroscientific experiments to recent proposals for large-scale, discovery-based studies of human brain connectivity.

  1. Robot brains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babuska, R.

    2011-01-01

    The brain hosts complex networks of neurons that are responsible for behavior in humans and animals that we generally call intelligent. I is not easy to give an exact definition of intelligence – for the purpose of this talk it will suffice to say that we refer to intelligence as a collection of cap

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate have been linked ... we see, and help us to solve a problem. Some of the regions most commonly ... also appears to be involved in learning to fear an event, such as touching a ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex (PFC) —Seat of the brain's executive functions, such as ... making, and problem solving. Different parts of the PFC are involved in using short-term or "working" ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ... ClinicalTrials.gov : Federally and privately supported research using human volunteers PubMed Central: An archive of life sciences ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ADHD , schizophrenia , and depression . Hippocampus —Helps create and file new memories. When the hippocampus is damaged, a ... portion of the brain involved in creating and filing new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A ...

  6. MAPPING INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    By adopting a theoretical framework from strategic niche management research (SNM) this paper presents an analysis of the innovation system of the Danish Construction industry. The analysis shows a multifaceted landscape of innovation around an existing regime, built around existing ways of working...... and developed over generations. The regime is challenged from various niches and the socio-technical landscape through trends as globalization. Three niches (Lean Construction, BIM and System Deliveries) are subject to a detailed analysis showing partly incompatible rationales and various degrees of innovation...... potential. The paper further discusses how existing policymaking operates in a number of tensions one being between government and governance. Based on the concepts from SNM the paper introduces an innovation map in order to support the development of meta-governance policymaking. By mapping some...

  7. Cognitive maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minder, Bettina; Laursen, Linda Nhu; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies three different perspectives on the relationship between design and innovation and explains implication of these different world-views of the interrelations between innovation and design. The study is based on empirical data from a series of semi-structured expert interviews...... of the interrelation becomes increasingly important. This paper seeks to clarify this interrelation and discuss how design is used in innovation.......This paper identifies three different perspectives on the relationship between design and innovation and explains implication of these different world-views of the interrelations between innovation and design. The study is based on empirical data from a series of semi-structured expert interviews....... Conceptual clustering is used to analyse and order information according to concepts or variables from within the data. The cognitive maps identified are validated through the comments of some of the same experts. The study presents three cognitive maps and respective world-views explaining how the design...

  8. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  9. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  10. Quantum Brain?

    CERN Document Server

    Mershin, A; Skoulakis, E M C

    2000-01-01

    In order to create a novel model of memory and brain function, we focus our approach on the sub-molecular (electron), molecular (tubulin) and macromolecular (microtubule) components of the neural cytoskeleton. Due to their size and geometry, these systems may be approached using the principles of quantum physics. We identify quantum-physics derived mechanisms conceivably underlying the integrated yet differentiated aspects of memory encoding/recall as well as the molecular basis of the engram. We treat the tubulin molecule as the fundamental computation unit (qubit) in a quantum-computational network that consists of microtubules (MTs), networks of MTs and ultimately entire neurons and neural networks. We derive experimentally testable predictions of our quantum brain hypothesis and perform experiments on these.

  11. Reorganization and Preservation of Motor Control of the Brain in Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kokotilo, K J; Eng, J; Curt, A.

    2009-01-01

    Reorganization of brain function in people with CNS damage has been identified as one of the fundamental mechanisms involved in the recovery of sensori-motor function. Spinal cord injury (SCI) brain mapping studies during motor tasks aim for assessing the reorganization and preservation of brain networks involved in motor control. Revealing the activation of cortical and sub-cortical brain areas in people with SCI can indicate principal patterns of brain reorganization when the neurotrauma is...

  12. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  13. Positron emission tomography (PET) study of the alterations in brain pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine in methamphetamine sensitized animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hitoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Hospital

    2001-08-01

    I investigated the differences in brain pharmacokinetics of [{sup 11}C]methamphetamine ([{sup 11}C]MAP) in normal and MAP sensitized animals using positron emission tomography (PET). [{sup 11}C]MAP was synthesized by an automated on-line [{sup 11}C]methylation system. I newly produced MAP sensitized dog and monkey by repeated MAP treatment. The maximal level of accumulation of [{sup 11}C]MAP in the sensitized dog brain was 1.4 times higher than that in the control. This result suggests the changes in the pharmacokinetic profile of MAP in the brain affect the development or expression of MAP-induced behavioral sensitization. However, the overaccumulation of [{sup 11}C]MAP in the sensitized monkey brain was not observed due to the influence of anesthesia. (author)

  14. An Integrated Map of Soybean Physical Map and Genetic Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Zhaoming; LI Hui; WU Qiong; SUN Yanan; LIU Chunyan; HU Guohua; CHEN Qingshan

    2009-01-01

    Soybean is a major crop in the world, and it is a main source of plant proteins and oil. A lot of soybean genetic maps and physical maps have been constructed, but there are no integrated map between soybean physical map and genetic map. In this study, soybean genome sequence data, released by JGI (US Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute), had been downloaded. With the software Blast 2.2.16, a total of 161 super sequences were mapped on the soybean public genetic map to construct an integrated map. The length of these super sequences accounted for 73.08% of all the genome sequence. This integrated map could be used for gene cloning, gene mining, and comparative genome of legume.

  15. Quantitative Architectural Analysis: A New Approach to Cortical Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Axel; Morosan, Patricia; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Results from functional imaging studies are often still interpreted using the classical architectonic brain maps of Brodmann and his successors. One obvious weakness in traditional, architectural mapping is the subjective nature of localizing borders between cortical areas by means of a purely visual, microscopical examination of histological…

  16. An anatomically comprehensive atlas of the adult human brain transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawrylycz, M.J.; Beckmann, C.F.; et al., et al.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising

  17. Hierarchical Functional Modularity in the Resting-State Human Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrarini, Luca; Veer, Ilya M.; Baerends, Evelinda; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Renken, Remco J.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dirk. J.; Aleman, Andre; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Milles, Julien

    2009-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that anatomically distinct brain regions are functionally connected during the resting state. Basic topological properties in the brain functional connectivity (BFC) map have highlighted the BFC's small-world topology. Modularity, a mor

  18. [Mind mapping: a new tool for enhancing student learning strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Ling; Chang, Mei-Ying; Hsieh, Suh-Ing

    2008-04-01

    With the rapid pace of development and reform in education learners face many challenges. Learning how to acquire skills and how to think are very important issues. The application of mind mapping can help students to enhance the creative thinking and problem-solving abilities of the whole brain. In other words, mind-mapping is a visual or pictorial thinking method. This paper introduces the basic concept of mind-mapping, radiant thinking, the methods of mind-mapping, its rules of application, and examples of such application, to improve understanding and knowledge about mind-mapping. PMID:18393212

  19. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    the applied framework, semantic restrictions, the choice of type of assessors and the validation of product separations. The applied framework concerns the response surface as presented to the assessor in different shapes, e.g. rectangular, square or round. Semantic restrictions are a part of the assessor...... instructions and influence heavily the product placements and the descriptive vocabulary (Dehlholm et.al., 2012b). The type of assessors performing the method influences results with an extra aspect in Projective Mapping compared to more analytical tests, as the given spontaneous perceptions are much dependent...... on the assessor’s way of thinking. Furthermore, a suggestion for validating product separations is proposed for the case where Multiple Factor Analysis is chosen for data analysis (Dehlholm, Brockhoff & Bredie, 2012a)....

  20. Effect of Intrauterine Infection on Expression Levels of GAP-43 and MAP-2 in Brain of Neonatal Rats%宫内感染对新生仔鼠脑内蛋白GAP-43和MAP-2影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓捷; 吴绪波; 吕智海

    2010-01-01

    目的:通过观察神经生长相关蛋白(GAP-43)和微管相关蛋白-2(MAP-2)的变化,以研究宫内感染对新生儿脑发育的影响.方法:取孕17 d的大鼠36只,随机取30只腹腔注射脂多糖(LPS)450μg/kg,连续注射2 d,造成宫内感染模型,22 d后出生的仔鼠22只作为I组;另6只注射等剂量生理盐水,将其所生仔鼠作为对照组(N组).2组均于生后即刻(0日龄)、14和28日龄3个时间点观察仔鼠脑内GAP-43和MAP-2的表达情况.结果:0日龄I组仔鼠脑皮层、海马及内囊GAP-43、MAP-2免疫阳性面积比(AF)较对照组明显减少(P<0.05).结论:GAP-43和MAP-2是神经生长发育和损伤修复的重要标记物之一,宫内感染可干扰仔鼠脑组织GAP-43和MAP-2的表达.

  1. Phospholipase C I and II brain isozymes: immunohistochemical localization in neuronal systems in rat brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerfen, C R; Choi, W C; Suh, P G; Rhee, S G

    1988-01-01

    Two distinct inositol phospholipid-specific phospholipase C (PLC; phosphatidylcholine phosphatidohydrolase, EC 3.1.4.3) isozymes, PLC-I and PLC-II, have been purified and characterized from bovine brain. Monoclonal antibodies that distinguish between these isozymes are used in the present study to map isozyme distribution in the rat brain with immunohistochemical techniques. Both isozymes are localized in neurons, and, whereas PLC-II is rather ubiquitous--being expressed in most neurons, PLC-...

  2. The functional brain connectome of the child and autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevel, Katell; Fransson, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Brain connectomics is a relatively new field of research that maps the brain's large-scale structural and functional networks at rest. The connectome of the human brain develops progressively from early infancy to late adolescence, and this review describes the theory behind the concept and its applicability to studying the development and dynamics of brain networks through graph theoretical metrics. We also describe how the brain connectome concept could further our understanding of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) CONCLUSION: Further research into the functional child brain connectome concept could enhance our understanding of atypical brain connectivity patterns presumed to be linked to ASD. PMID:27228241

  3. Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy to Understand Brain "Activation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baslow, Morris H.; Guilfoyle, David N.

    2007-01-01

    Upon stimulation, areas of the brain associated with specific cognitive processing tasks may undergo observable physiological changes, and measures of such changes have been used to create brain maps for visualization of stimulated areas in task-related brain "activation" studies. These perturbations usually continue throughout the period of the…

  4. Cortical activity in the left and right hemispheres during language-related brain functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Larsen, B

    1980-01-01

    The blood flow to a given brain region increases as the level of neural activity is augmented. Hence mapping of variations in regional cerebral blood flow affords a means of imaging the activity of various brain regions during various types of brain work. The paper summarizes the patterns of cort...

  5. Exploration and visualization of gene expression with neuroanatomy in the adult mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak Sayan; Thompson Carol; Ng Lydia; Lau Christopher; Kuan Leonard; Jones Allan; Hawrylycz Mike

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Spatially mapped large scale gene expression databases enable quantitative comparison of data measurements across genes, anatomy, and phenotype. In most ongoing efforts to study gene expression in the mammalian brain, significant resources are applied to the mapping and visualization of data. This paper describes the implementation and utility of Brain Explorer, a 3D visualization tool for studying in situ hybridization-based (ISH) expression patterns in the Allen Brain At...

  6. Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain and Nervous System KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain and Nervous System Print ... is quite the juggler. Anatomy of the Nervous System If you think of the brain as a ...

  7. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  8. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  9. Brain evolution by brain pathway duplication

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of evolution of brain pathways for complex behaviours is still in its infancy. Making further advances requires a deeper understanding of brain homologies, novelties and analogies. It also requires an understanding of how adaptive genetic modifications lead to restructuring of the brain. Recent advances in genomic and molecular biology techniques applied to brain research have provided exciting insights into how complex behaviours are shaped by selection of novel ...

  10. FROM BRAIN DRAIN TO BRAIN NETWORKING

    OpenAIRE

    Irina BONCEA

    2015-01-01

    Scientific networking is the most accessible way a country can turn the brain drain into brain gain. Diaspora’s members offer valuable information, advice or financial support from the destination country, without being necessary to return. This article aims to investigate Romania’s potential of turning brain drain into brain networking, using evidence from the medical sector. The main factors influencing the collaboration with the country of origin are investigated. The co...

  11. Maps & minds : mapping through the ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1984-01-01

    Throughout time, maps have expressed our understanding of our world. Human affairs have been influenced strongly by the quality of maps available to us at the major turning points in our history. "Maps & Minds" traces the ebb and flow of a few central ideas in the mainstream of mapping. Our expanding knowledge of our cosmic neighborhood stems largely from a small number of simple but grand ideas, vigorously pursued.

  12. Surface-based mapping of gene expression and probabilistic expression maps in the mouse cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lydia; Lau, Chris; Sunkin, Susan M; Bernard, Amy; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Lein, Ed S; Jones, Allan R; Hawrylycz, Michael

    2010-02-01

    The Allen Brain Atlas (ABA, www.brain-map.org) is a genome wide, spatially registered collection of cellular resolution in situ hybridization gene expression image data of the C57Bl/6J mouse brain. Derived from the ABA, the Anatomic Gene Expression Atlas (AGEA, http://mouse.brain-map.org/agea) has demonstrated both laminar and areal spatial gene expression correlations in the mouse cortex. While the mouse cortex is lissencephalic, its curvature and substantial bending in boundary areas renders it difficult to visualize and analyze laminar versus areal effects in a rectilinear coordinate framework. In context of human and non-human primate cortex, surface-based representation has proven useful for understanding relative locations of laminar, columnar, and areal features. In this paper, we describe a methodology for constructing surface-based flatmaps of the mouse cortex that enables mapping of gene expression data from individual genes in the ABA, or probabilistic expression maps from the AGEA, to identify and visualize genetic relationships between layers and areas. PMID:19818854

  13. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps;...

  14. Mapping with the Masses: Google Map Maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfund, J.

    2008-12-01

    After some 15,000 years of map making, which saw the innovations of cardinal directions, map projections for a spherical earth, and GIS analysis, many parts of the world still appear as the "Dark Continent" on modern maps. Google Map Maker intends to shine a light on these areas by tapping into the power of the GeoWeb. Google Map Maker is a website which allows you to collaborate with others on one unified map to add, edit, locate, describe, and moderate map features, such as roads, cities, businesses, parks, schools and more, for certain regions of the world using Google Maps imagery. In this session, we will show some examples of how people are mapping with this powerful tool as well as what they are doing with the data. With Google Map Maker, you can become a citizen cartographer and join the global network of users helping to improve the quality of maps and local information in your region of interest. You are invited to map the world with us!

  15. Concept mapping in lectures.

    OpenAIRE

    Lavery, Janet; Low, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Concept maps are an aid to a deep learning strategy. Developing concept maps would help students understand the relationships between concepts both within a domain and across related domains. To encourage students to explore the use of concept maps, we have integrated concept maps into a module’s lectures. We have trialled: a concept map developed by experts and given to students; another concept map developed collaboratively by the students in an interactive lecture supported by a free-tex...

  16. Visual Space Constructed by Saccade Motor Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Eckart; Lappe, Markus

    2016-01-01

    How visual space is represented in the brain is an open question in neuroscience. Embodiment theories propose that spatial perception is structured by neural motor maps. Especially, maps which code the targets for saccadic eye movements contain a precise representation of external space. In this review article, we examine how modifications in saccade maps are accompanied by changes in visual space perception. Saccade adaptation, a method which systematically modifies saccade amplitudes, alters the localization of visual objects in space. We illustrate how information about saccade amplitudes is transferred from the cerebellum (CB) to the frontal eye field (FEF). We argue that changes in visual localization after adaptation of saccade maps provide evidence for a shared representation of visual and motor space. PMID:27242488

  17. Rapid myelin water content mapping on clinical MR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an algorithm for the fast mapping of myelin water content using standard multiecho gradient echo acquisitions of the human brain. The method extents a previously published approach for the simultaneous measurement of brain T1, T*2 and total water content. Employing the multiexponential T*2 decay signal of myelinated tissue, myelin water content was measured based on the quantification of two water pools ('myelin water' and 'rest') with different relaxation times. As the existing protocol was focussed on the fast mapping of quantitative MR parameters with whole brain coverage in clinically relevant measurement times, the sampling density of the T*2 curve was compromised to 10 echo times with a T Emax of approx. 40 ms. Therefore, pool amplitudes were determined using a quadratic optimisation approach. The optimisation was constrained by including a priori knowledge about brain water pools. All constraints were optimised in a simulation study to minimise systematic error sources given the incomplete knowledge about the real pool-specific relaxation properties. Based on the simulation results, whole brain in vivo myelin water content maps were acquired in 10 healthy controls and one subject with multiple sclerosis. The in vivo results obtained were consistent with previous reports which demonstrates that a simultaneous whole brain mapping of T1, T*2, total and myelin water content is feasible on almost any modern MR scanner in less than 10 minutes. (orig.)

  18. The vasculome of the mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Guo

    affect CNS homeostasis. Mapping and dissecting the vasculome of the brain in health and disease may provide a novel database for investigating disease mechanisms, assessing therapeutic targets and exploring new biomarkers for the CNS.

  19. Structural connectivity asymmetry in the neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Fortier, Marielle V; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Meaney, Michael J; Qiu, Anqi

    2013-07-15

    Asymmetry of the neonatal brain is not yet understood at the level of structural connectivity. We utilized DTI deterministic tractography and structural network analysis based on graph theory to determine the pattern of structural connectivity asymmetry in 124 normal neonates. We tracted white matter axonal pathways characterizing interregional connections among brain regions and inferred asymmetry in left and right anatomical network properties. Our findings revealed that in neonates, small-world characteristics were exhibited, but did not differ between the two hemispheres, suggesting that neighboring brain regions connect tightly with each other, and that one region is only a few paths away from any other region within each hemisphere. Moreover, the neonatal brain showed greater structural efficiency in the left hemisphere than that in the right. In neonates, brain regions involved in motor, language, and memory functions play crucial roles in efficient communication in the left hemisphere, while brain regions involved in emotional processes play crucial roles in efficient communication in the right hemisphere. These findings suggest that even at birth, the topology of each cerebral hemisphere is organized in an efficient and compact manner that maps onto asymmetric functional specializations seen in adults, implying lateralized brain functions in infancy. PMID:23501049

  20. Quantitative imaging of brain chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We can now measure how chemicals affect different regions of the human brain. One area involves the study of drugs - in-vivo neuro-pharmacology; another involves the study of toxic chemical effects - in vivo neurotoxicology. The authors approach is to label drugs with positron-emitting radioactive tracers - chiefly carbon-11 with a half-life of 20 minutes and fluorine-18 with a half-life of 110 minutes. The labeled drugs are injected intravenously and a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner is used to map out the distribution of the radioactivity within the brain from the moment of injection until about 90 minutes later. Mathematical models are used to calculate receptor concentrations and the affinity of the receptors for the injected radioactive tracer. By means of PET scanning, they look at cross sections or visual slices throughout the human brain, obtaining computer-generated images in any plane. The authors are investigating the functions of specific drugs or specific receptors, as well as looking at the metabolic activity in different parts of the brain as revealed in glucose metabolism. For example, the authors are studying opiate receptors in patients with a variety of conditions: those who suffer from chronic pain, those who are congenitally insensitive to pain and drug addicts. They are studying patients with schizophrenia, tardive dyskinesia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, depressed patients and sex-offenders. They are relating the state of the neurotransmitter/neuroreceptor systems to behavior. In essence, they believe that they can now examine in living human beings what relates the structure of the brain to the function of the mind that is chemistry

  1. Finer discrimination of brain activation with local multivariate distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The organization of human brain function is diverse on different spatial scales.Various cognitive states are alwavs represented as distinct activity patterns across the specific brain region on fine scales.Conventional univariate analysis of functional MRI data seeks to determine how a particular cognitive state is encoded in brain activity by analyzing each voxel separately without considering the fine-scale patterns information contained in the local brain regions.In this paper,a local multivariate distance mapping(LMDM)technique is proposed to detect the brain activation and to map the fine-scale brain activity patterns.LMDM directly represents the local brain activity with the patterns across multiple voxels rather than individual voxels,and it employs the multivariate distance between different patterns to discriminate the brain state on fine scales.Experiments with simulated and real fMRI data demonstrate that LMDM technique can dramatically increase the sensitivity of the detection for the fine-scale brain activity pettems which contain the subtle information of the experimental conditions.

  2. SECONDARY BRAIN INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Ayu Basmatika

    2013-01-01

    Secondary brain injury is a condision that occurs at some times after the primary impact and can be largely prevented and treated. Most brain injury ends with deadly consequences which is caused by secondary damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injured still represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals under the age of 45 years in the world. The classification of secondary brain injured is divided into extracranial and intracranial causes. The cause of extracranial s...

  3. Brain Drain Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Borta, Oxana

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the widely acknowledged so-called brain drain controversy. More concretely on developments in the traditional brain drain literature towards a new shift, claiming the brain gain effect, as an alternative to the brain drain effect, that emigration may bring to a source country. The research investigates not only the obvious direct loss effects – the so called brain drain – but also the possibility of more subtle indirect beneficial effects.

  4. Mapping the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  5. USGS Map Indices Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Map Indices service from The National Map (TNM) consists of 1x1 Degree, 30x60 Minute (100K), 15 Minute (63K), 7.5 Minute (24K), and 3.75 Minute grid...

  6. Functional brain imaging to investigate the higher brain dysfunction induced by diffuse brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higher brain dysfunction is the major problem of patients who recover from neurotrauma the prevents them from returning to their previous social life. Many such patients do not have focal brain damage detected with morphological imaging. We focused on studying the focal brain dysfunction that can be detected only with functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) in relation to the score of various cognition batteries. Patients who complain of higher brain dysfunction without apparent morphological cortical damage were recruited for this study. Thirteen patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) or cerebral concussion was included. They underwent a PET study to image glucose metabolism by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and central benodiazepine receptor (cBZD-R) (marker of neuronal body) by 11C-flumazenil, together with cognition measurement by WAIS-R, WMS-R, and WCST etc. PET data were compared with age matched normal controls using statistical parametric mapping (SPM)2. DAI patients had a significant decrease in glucose matabolism and cBZD-R distribution in the cingulated cortex than normal controls. Patients diagnosed with concussion because of shorter consciousness disturbance also had abnormal FDG uptake and cBZD-R distribution. Cognition test scores were variable among patients. Degree of decreased glucose metabolism and cBZD-R distribution in the dominant hemishphere corresponded well to the severity of cognitive disturbance. PET molecular imaging was useful to depict focal cortical dysfunction of neurotrauma patients even when morphological change was not apparent. This method may be promising to clarify the pathophysiology of higher brain dysfunction of patients with diffuse axonal injury or chronic traumatic encephalopathy. (author)

  7. -Deformed nonlinear maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramaswamy Jaganathan; Sudeshna Sinha

    2005-03-01

    Motivated by studies on -deformed physical systems related to quantum group structures, and by the elements of Tsallis statistical mechanics, the concept of -deformed nonlinear maps is introduced. As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared to the canonical logistic map, the resulting family of -logistic maps is shown to have a wider spectrum of interesting behaviours, including the co-existence of attractors – a phenomenon rare in one-dimensional maps.

  8. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  9. Map Projection Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Nedjeljko Frančula; Miljenko Lapaine

    2013-01-01

    Map Projection Transitions is a very successful web application about map projections. The web page (http://www.jasondavies.com/maps/transition) pre­sents a world map with graticule and country borders in the oblique Aitoff projection, with the South Pole. The map is not static, but animated. The South Pole moves toward the bottom and Earth rotates around its poles. The animation lasts five seconds, after which the projection changes and movement continues for five seconds, after which the pr...

  10. Google Maps: You Are Here

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Librarians use online mapping services such as Google Maps, MapQuest, Yahoo Maps, and others to check traffic conditions, find local businesses, and provide directions. However, few libraries are using one of Google Maps most outstanding applications, My Maps, for the creation of enhanced and interactive multimedia maps. My Maps is a simple and…

  11. Web Mapping Using Logo on Map

    OpenAIRE

    Ximing Hou; Hao Shi

    2013-01-01

    The newly proposed Logo on Map (LoM) system consists of three modules: picture extraction module (PEM), logo matching module (LMM) and web mapping module (WMM). Since the first two modules were covered in our previous paper, the third module WMM is described here to present a complete LoM system. Current research is focused on geo-location distribution of brands on Google Maps. Pictures taken by ordinary people are extracted using Picture Extraction Module (PEM). The pictures cont...

  12. Web Mapping Using Logo on Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximing Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The newly proposed Logo on Map (LoM system consists of three modules: picture extraction module(PEM, logo matching module (LMM and web mapping module (WMM. Since the first two modules werecovered in our previous paper, the third module WMM is described here to present a complete LoM system.Current research is focused on geo-location distribution of brands on Google Maps. Pictures taken byordinary people are extracted using Picture Extraction Module (PEM. The pictures containing relevantlogos are obtained via Logo Matching Module (LMM. Brand distributions are overlaid on Google Maps.In this paper, GPS and brands are briefly described, and the implementation of Web Mapping Module(WMM based on Google Maps API is detailed. Then several experiments are carried out on the selectedtop brands. Finally the LMM-pictures are mapped on the Google Maps and the geographical distributionsof the brands are visualised. Brand uniqueness is discussed and conclusion is drawn that with uniquebrand names web mapping can visually reflect the real economic activities of a company in the world.

  13. Web Mapping Using Logo on Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximing Hou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The newly proposed Logo on Map (LoM system consists of three modules: picture extraction module (PEM, logo matching module (LMM and web mapping module (WMM. Since the first two modules were covered in our previous paper, the third module WMM is described here to present a complete LoM system. Current research is focused on geo-location distribution of brands on Google Maps. Pictures taken by ordinary people are extracted using Picture Extraction Module (PEM. The pictures containing relevant logos are obtained via Logo Matching Module (LMM. Brand distributions are overlaid on Google Maps. In this paper, GPS and brands are briefly described, and the implementation of Web Mapping Module (WMM based on Google Maps API is detailed. Then several experiments are carried out on the selected top brands. Finally the LMM-pictures are mapped on the Google Maps and the geographical distributions of the brands are visualised. Brand uniqueness is discussed and conclusion is drawn that with unique brand names web mapping can visually reflect the real economic activities of a company in the world.

  14. FROM BRAIN DRAIN TO BRAIN NETWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BONCEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific networking is the most accessible way a country can turn the brain drain into brain gain. Diaspora’s members offer valuable information, advice or financial support from the destination country, without being necessary to return. This article aims to investigate Romania’s potential of turning brain drain into brain networking, using evidence from the medical sector. The main factors influencing the collaboration with the country of origin are investigated. The conclusions suggest that Romania could benefit from the diaspora option, through an active implication at institutional level and the implementation of a strategy in this area.

  15. Multivalued Mappings and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingling Zhang

    2012-01-01

    nonexpansive multi-valued mapping and to prove the strong convergence theorems of fixed point for weak relatively nonexpansive multivalued mappings in Banach spaces. The weak relatively nonexpansive multivalued mappings are more generalized than relatively nonexpansive multivalued mappings. In this paper, an example will be given which is a weak relatively nonexpansive multivalued mapping but not a relatively nonexpansive multivalued mapping. In order to get the strong convergence theorems for weak relatively nonexpansive multivalued mappings, a new monotone hybrid iteration algorithm with generalized (metric projection is presented and is used to approximate the fixed point of weak relatively nonexpansive multivalued mappings. In this paper, the notion of multivalued resolvent of maximal monotone operator has been also presented which is a weak relatively nonexpansive multivalued mapping and can be used to find the zero point of maximal monotone operator.

  16. The Brain Never Stops

    OpenAIRE

    Sadaghiani, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    Your brain is doing a lot of work when you are engaged in activities such as sports, playing a game, or watching a movie. Your brain is also a master of associating one thought with another and making your mind wander. But what does your brain do when you are not engaged in particular thoughts or actions? Interestingly, similar to the heart that always keeps beating, the brain never stops its activity. For example, your brain is highly active even when you are fast asleep. In fact, brain cell...

  17. Mapping Mutations on Phylogenies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides a short review of recent methodologies developed for mapping mutations on phylogenies. Mapping of mutations, or character changes in general, using the maximum parsimony principle has been one of the most powerful tools in phylogenetics, and it has been used in a variety of ...... uncertainty in the mapping. Recently developed probabilistic methods can incorporate statistical uncertainty in the character mappings. In these methods, focus is on a probability distribution of mutational mappings instead of a single estimate of the mutational mapping....

  18. Mapping with Drupal

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzolo, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Build beautiful interactive maps on your Drupal website, and tell engaging visual stories with your data. This concise guide shows you how to create custom geographical maps from top to bottom, using Drupal 7 tools and out-of-the-box modules. You'll learn how mapping works in Drupal, with examples on how to use intuitive interfaces to map local events, businesses, groups, and other custom data. Although building maps with Drupal can be tricky, this book helps you navigate the system's complexities for creating sophisticated maps that match your site design. Get the knowledge and tools you ne

  19. Some Semi - Equivelar Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, Ashish K; Maity, Dipendu

    2011-01-01

    Semi-Equivelar maps are generalizations of Archimedean Solids (as are equivelar maps of the Platonic solids) to the surfaces other than $2-$Sphere. We classify some semi equivelar maps on surface of Euler characteristic -1 and show that none of these are vertex transitive. We establish existence of 12-covered triangulations for this surface. We further construct double cover of these maps to show existence of semi-equivelar maps on the surface of double torus. We also construct several semi-equivelar maps on the surfaces of Euler characteristics -8 and -10 and on non-orientable surface of Euler characteristics -2.

  20. Mapping in the cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    This engaging text provides a solid introduction to mapmaking in the era of cloud computing. It takes students through both the concepts and technology of modern cartography, geographic information systems (GIS), and Web-based mapping. Conceptual chapters delve into the meaning of maps and how they are developed, covering such topics as map layers, GIS tools, mobile mapping, and map animation. Methods chapters take a learn-by-doing approach to help students master application programming interfaces and build other technical skills for creating maps and making them available on the Internet. Th

  1. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets

  2. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-11-10

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets.

  3. Whole brain reirradiation for brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective analysis was done for 31 patients with brain metastases who had undergone reirradiation. Initial whole brain irradiation was performed with 30 Gy/10 fractions for 87% of these patients. Whole brain reirradiation was performed with 30 Gy/10 fractions for 42% of these patients (3-40 Gy/1-20 fractions). The median interval between the initial irradiation and reirradiation was 10 months (range: 2-69 months). The median survival time after reirradiation was 4 months (range: 1-21 months). The symptomatic improvement rate after reirradiation was 68%, and the partial and complete tumor response rate was 55%. Fifty-two percent of the patients developed grade 1 acute reactions. Whole brain reirradiation for brain metastases placed only a slight burden on patients and was effective for symptomatic improvement. (author)

  4. Biomechanics of the brain

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Karol

    2011-01-01

    With contributions from scientists at major institutions, this book presents an introduction to brain anatomy for engineers and scientists. It provides, for the first time, a comprehensive resource in the field of brain biomechanics.

  5. Brain Tumor Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Press Releases Headlines Newsletter ABTA ... About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain ...

  6. Biophysics: Unfolding the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Ellen

    2016-06-01

    The folded surface of the human brain, although striking, continues to evade understanding. Experiments with swelling gels now fuel the notion that brain folding is modulated by physical forces, and not by genetic, biological or chemical events alone.

  7. Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free mailed brochure Cómo Prevenir un Accidente Cerebrovascular Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke Request free mailed brochure Table ... Americans are protecting their most important asset—their brain. Are you? Stroke ranks as the fourth leading ...

  8. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... to make progress in “immunogenomics” Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  9. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  10. Genetic Brain Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...

  11. Brain aneurysm repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  12. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  13. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Masato; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Honjo, Iwao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  14. NASA Robot Brain Surgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer Michael Guerrero works on the Robot Brain Surgeon testbed in the NeuroEngineering Group at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Principal investigator Dr. Robert W. Mah states that potentially the simple robot will be able to feel brain structures better than any human surgeon, making slow, very precise movements during an operation. The brain surgery robot that may give surgeons finer control of surgical instruments during delicate brain operations is still under development.

  15. Brain cancer spreads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine Terra

    2014-01-01

    The discovery that ~20% of patients with brain cancer have circulating tumor cells breaks the dogma that these cells are confined to the brain and has important clinical implications (Müller et al., this issue).......The discovery that ~20% of patients with brain cancer have circulating tumor cells breaks the dogma that these cells are confined to the brain and has important clinical implications (Müller et al., this issue)....

  16. Brain-actuated interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Millán, José del R.; Renkens, F.; Mourino, J.; Gerstner, W.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last years evidence has accumulated that shows the possibility to analyze human brain activity on-line and translate brain states into actions such as selecting a letter from a virtual keyboard or moving a robotics device. These initial results have been obtained with either invasive approaches (requiring surgical implantation of electrodes) or synchronous protocols (where brain signals are time-locked to external cues). In this paper we describe a portable noninvasive brain-computer...

  17. Optical tomography of the neonatal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebden, Jeremy C. [University College London, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, London (United Kingdom); Austin, Topun [University College London, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    A new method of assessing neurological function and pathology in the newborn infant is being developed based on the transmission of near-infrared light across the brain. Absorption by blood over a range of wavelengths reveals a strong dependency on oxygenation status, and measurements of transmitted light enable the spatial variation in the concentrations of the oxygenated and de-oxygenated forms of hemoglobin to be derived. Optical tomography has so far provided static three-dimensional maps of blood volume and oxygenation as well as dynamic images revealing the brain's response to sensory stimulation and global hemodynamic changes. The imaging modality is being developed as a safe and non-invasive tool that can be utilized at the cotside in intensive care. Optical tomography of the healthy infant brain is also providing a means of studying neurophysiological processes during early development and the potential consequences of prematurity. (orig.)

  18. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  19. NAIP Status Maps Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — NAIP Status Maps Gallery. These maps illustrate what aerial imagery collection is planned, whats been collected, when it is available and how it is available. These...

  20. MapBook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Beginning with the systematic mapping of the lunar surface more than three decades ago, this database contains over 1600 maps of the planets and satellites of the...

  1. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  2. Invariants for Parallel Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yajun; WU Jiye; FAN Qinshan; HUANG Kezhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the geometric quantities that remain unchanged during parallel mapping (i.e., mapping from a reference curved surface to a parallel surface with identical normal direction). The second gradient operator, the second class of integral theorems, the Gauss-curvature-based integral theorems, and the core property of parallel mapping are used to derive a series of parallel mapping invadants or geometri-cally conserved quantities. These include not only local mapping invadants but also global mapping invari-ants found to exist both in a curved surface and along curves on the curved surface. The parallel mapping invadants are used to identify important transformations between the reference surface and parallel surfaces. These mapping invadants and transformations have potential applications in geometry, physics, biome-chanics, and mechanics in which various dynamic processes occur along or between parallel surfaces.

  3. Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Minority Health has designed an interactive map, the Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool, to identify areas of disparities between subgroups of...

  4. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  5. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  6. Brain-Mind Operational Architectonics Imaging: Technical and Methodological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    This review paper deals with methodological and technical foundations of the Operational Architectonics framework of brain and mind functioning. This theory provides a framework for mapping and understanding important aspects of the brain mechanisms that constitute perception, cognition, and eventually consciousness. The methods utilized within Operational Architectonics framework allow analyzing with an incredible detail the operational behavior of local neuronal assemblies and their joint a...

  7. Social-sparsity brain decoders: faster spatial sparsity

    OpenAIRE

    Varoquaux, Gaël; Kowalski, Matthieu; Thirion, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Spatially-sparse predictors are good models for brain decoding: they give accurate predictions and their weight maps are interpretable as they focus on a small number of regions. However, the state of the art, based on total variation or graph-net, is computationally costly. Here we introduce sparsity in the local neighborhood of each voxel with social-sparsity, a structured shrinkage operator. We find that, on brain imaging classification problems, social-sparsity performs almost as well as ...

  8. The connected brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    The connected brain Martijn van den Heuvel, 2009 Our brain is a network. It is a network of different brain regions that are all functionally and structurally linked to each other. In the past decades, neuroimaging studies have provided a lot of information about the specific functions of each separ

  9. Brain and Spinal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Tumors of the brain and ...

  10. Primary lymphoma of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain lymphoma; Cerebral lymphoma; Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system; Lymphoma - brain ... The cause of primary brain lymphoma is not known. People with a weakened immune system are at high risk for primary lymphoma of the brain. ...

  11. Generating text from functional brain images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco ePereira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that it is possible to take brain images acquired during viewing of a scene and reconstruct an approximation of the scene from those images. Here we show that it is also possible to generate text about the mental content reflected in brain images. We began with images collected as participants read names of concrete items (e.g., "Apartment" while also seeing line drawings of the item named. We built a model of the mental semantic representation of concrete concepts from text data and learned to map aspects of such representation to patterns of activation in the corresponding brain image. In order to validate this mapping, without accessing information about the items viewed for left-out individual brain images, we were able to generate from each one a collection of semantically pertinent words (e.g., "door," "window" for "Apartment". Furthermore, we show that the ability to generate such words allows us to perform a classification task and thus validate our method quantitatively.

  12. Strengthening connections: functional connectivity and brain plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Clare; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2014-03-01

    The ascendancy of functional neuroimaging has facilitated the addition of network-based approaches to the neuropsychologist's toolbox for evaluating the sequelae of brain insult. In particular, intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) mapping of resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) data constitutes an ideal approach to measuring macro-scale networks in the human brain. Beyond the value of iFC mapping for charting how the functional topography of the brain is altered by insult and injury, iFC analyses can provide insights into experience-dependent plasticity at the macro level of large-scale functional networks. Such insights are foundational to the design of training and remediation interventions that will best facilitate recovery of function. In this review, we consider what is currently known about the origin and function of iFC in the brain, and how this knowledge is informative in neuropsychological settings. We then summarize studies that have examined experience-driven plasticity of iFC in healthy control participants, and frame these findings in terms of a schema that may aid in the interpretation of results and the generation of hypotheses for rehabilitative studies. Finally, we outline some caveats to the R-fMRI approach, as well as some current developments that are likely to bolster the utility of the iFC paradigm for neuropsychology.

  13. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

    2007-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  15. Reading Angles in Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  16. Brain emotional learning based Brain Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Asadi Ghanbari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A brain computer interface (BCI enables direct communication between a brain and a computer translating brain activity into computer commands using preprocessing, feature extraction and classification operations. Classification is crucial as it has a substantial effect on the BCI speed and bit rate. Recent developments of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs bring forward some challenging problems to the machine learning community, of which classification of time-varying electrophysiological signals is a crucial one. Constructing adaptive classifiers is a promising approach to deal with this problem. In this paper, we introduce adaptive classifiers for classify electroencephalogram (EEG signals. The adaptive classifier is brain emotional learning based adaptive classifier (BELBAC, which is based on emotional learning process. The main purpose of this research is to use a structural model based on the limbic system of mammalian brain, for decision making and control engineering applications. We have adopted a network model developed by Moren and Balkenius, as a computational model that mimics amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, thalamus, sensory input cortex and generally, those parts of the brain thought responsible for processing emotions. The developed method was compared with other methods used for EEG signals classification (support vector machine (SVM and two different neural network types (MLP, PNN. The result analysis demonstrated an efficiency of the proposed approach.

  17. Instant BrainShark

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. ""Instant BrainShark"" is a step-by-step guide to creating online presentations using BrainShark. The book covers digital marketing best practices alongside tips for sales conversions. The book is written in an easy-to-read style for anybody to easily pick up and get started with BrainShark.Instant BrainShark is for anyone who wants to use BrainShark to create presentations online and share them around the community. The book is also useful for developers who are looking to explore

  18. The Blue Collar Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eVan Orden

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue collar role compared to the white collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

  19. Neuropathophysiology of Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillinan, Nidia; Herson, Paco S; Traystman, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of individuals incur ischemic brain injury from stroke, cardiac arrest, or traumatic brain injury. These acquired brain injuries can lead to death or long-term neurologic and neuropsychological impairments. The mechanisms of ischemic and traumatic brain injury that lead to these deficiencies result from a complex interplay of interdependent molecular pathways, including excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. This article reviews several mechanisms of brain injury and discusses recent developments. Although much is known from animal models of injury, it has been difficult to translate these effects to humans. PMID:27521191

  20. MRI Brain Activation During Instruction of Dyslexic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten children with dyslexia and 11 normal readers performed tasks of phoneme mapping (assigning sounds to letters and morpheme mapping (relating suffixed words to their roots during fMRI scanning, before and after 28 hours of comprehensive reading instruction, in a study of the effects of reading instruction on brain activation in children with dyslexia at University of Washington, Seattle, WA.