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Sample records for brain mapping study

  1. Abnormal brain processing of pain in migraine without aura: a high-density EEG brain mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, L L; Jensen, R; Buchgreitz, L

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we used high-density EEG brain mapping to investigate spatio-temporal aspects of brain activity in response to experimentally induced muscle pain in 17 patients with migraine without aura and 15 healthy controls. Painful electrical stimuli were applied to the trapezius muscle...... to the tonic muscle pain condition (z = 29 mm vs. z =¿-13 mm, P aura....

  2. Optogenetic mapping of brain circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, George J.; Berglund, Ken; Gill, Harin; Hoffmann, Carolin; Katarya, Malvika; Kim, Jinsook; Kudolo, John; Lee, Li M.; Lee, Molly; Lo, Daniel; Nakajima, Ryuichi; Park, Min Yoon; Tan, Gregory; Tang, Yanxia; Teo, Peggy; Tsuda, Sachiko; Wen, Lei; Yoon, Su-In

    2012-10-01

    Studies of the brain promise to be revolutionized by new experimental strategies that harness the combined power of optical techniques and genetics. We have mapped the circuitry of the mouse brain by using both optogenetic actuators that control neuronal activity and optogenetic sensors that detect neuronal activity. Using the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, to locally photostimulate neurons allows high-speed mapping of local and long-range circuitry. For example, with this approach we have mapped local circuits in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and many other brain regions. Using the fluorescent sensor for chloride ions, Clomeleon, allows imaging of the spatial and temporal dimensions of inhibitory circuits in the brain. This approach allows imaging of both conventional "phasic" synaptic inhibition as well as unconventional "tonic" inhibition. The combined use of light to both control and monitor neural activity creates unprecedented opportunities to explore brain function, screen pharmaceutical agents, and potentially to use light to ameliorate psychiatric and neurological disorders.

  3. Increased brain iron deposition is a risk factor for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis: a combined study of quantitative susceptibility mapping and whole brain volume analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Zhang, Mengjie; Long, Miaomiao; Chu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Tong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Yu; Yan, Shuo; Haacke, E Mark; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang

    2015-08-01

    To explore the correlation between increased brain iron deposition and brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis and their correlation with clinical biomarkers and neuropsychological test. Forty two patients with haemodialysis and forty one age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in this prospective study. 3D whole brain high resolution T1WI and susceptibility weighted imaging were scanned on a 3 T MRI system. The brain volume was analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in patients and to compare with that of healthy controls. Quantitative susceptibility mapping was used to measure and compare the susceptibility of different structures between patients and healthy controls. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the brain volume, iron deposition and neuropsychological scores. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to explore the effect of clinical biomarkers on the brain volumes in patients. Compared with healthy controls, patients with haemodialysis showed decreased volume of bilateral putamen and left insular lobe (All P putamen, substantia nigra, red nucleus and dentate nucleus were significantly higher (All P putamen (P putamen (P < 0.05). Our study indicated increased brain iron deposition and dialysis duration was risk factors for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis. The decreased gray matter volume of the left insular lobe was correlated with neurocognitive impairment.

  4. Dynamic brain mapping methodology and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Mucci, A; Eralp, E

    1991-01-01

    Brain mapping has opened important perspectives for the neurophysiological evaluation of patients, for the discrimination of drug effects on the brain and for the study of the relationship between the brain and behavior. Our Dynamic Brain Mapping System is the result of many years of EEG quantification. It was designed as a software-oriented system to favor the largest clinical application and simultaneously stimulate new research objectives. Data collection and analysis procedures are critically important in brain mapping for a good understanding of the results. For clinical use, the maps should answer relevant EEG questions and be interpretable with the consolidated knowledge. Therefore, we have developed a new type of brain mapping technology which is called "Field blending interpolation" mapping offered together with the conventional technology with user-selectable interpolation algorithms. In addition to diagnosis, the use of computer-analyzed EEG and brain mapping can be instrumental in drug monitoring, drug selection and drug discriminations. Prospective studies are, however, required to validate the use of brain mapping in each of these new areas. Spatial analysis is the original goal of brain mapping. The development of a new data collection procedure and analysis will be instrumental in the determination of an adequate time and space resolution.

  5. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Indicates a Disturbed Brain Iron Homeostasis in Neuromyelitis Optica – A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado, Vanessa; Rueda, Fernanda; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Juergen R.; Tukamoto, Gustavo; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Schweser, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and can be associated with oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate brain iron in patients with Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), a quantitative iron-sensitive MRI technique. 12 clinically confirmed NMO patients (6 female and 6 male; age 35.4y±14.2y) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (7 female and 5 male; age 33.9±11.3y) underwent MRI of the brain at 3 Tesla. Quantitative maps of the effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*) and magnetic susceptibility were calculated and a blinded ROI-based group comparison analysis was performed. Normality of the data and differences between patients and controls were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t-test, respectively. Correlation with age was studied using Spearman’s rank correlation and an ANCOVA-like analysis. Magnetic susceptibility values were decreased in the red nucleus (p0.95; between -15 and -22 ppb depending on reference region) with a trend toward increasing differences with age. R2* revealed significantly decreased relaxation in the optic radiations of five of the 12 patients (p<0.0001; -3.136±0.567 s-1). Decreased relaxation in the optic radiation is indicative for demyelination, which is in line with previous findings. Decreased magnetic susceptibility in the red nucleus is indicative for a lower brain iron concentration, a chemical redistribution of iron into less magnetic forms, or both. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the pathological cause or consequence of this finding. PMID:27171423

  6. Mapping the connectivity underlying multimodal (verbal and non-verbal) semantic processing: a brain electrostimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2013-08-01

    Accessing the meaning of words, objects, people and facts is a human ability, made possible thanks to semantic processing. Although studies concerning its cortical organization are proficient, the subcortical connectivity underlying this semantic network received less attention. We used intraoperative direct electrostimulation, which mimics a transient virtual lesion during brain surgery for glioma in eight awaken patients, to map the anatomical white matter substrate subserving the semantic system. Patients performed a picture naming task and a non-verbal semantic association test during the electrical mapping. Direct electrostimulation of the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, a poorly known ventral association pathway which runs throughout the brain, induced in all cases semantic disturbances. These transient disorders were highly reproducible, and concerned verbal as well as non-verbal output. Our results highlight for the first time the essential role of the left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle in multimodal (and not only in verbal) semantic processing. On the basis of these original findings, and in the lights of phylogenetic considerations regarding this fascicle, we suggest its possible implication in the monitoring of the human level of consciousness related to semantic memory, namely noetic consciousness.

  7. BrainMap `95 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The fourth annual BrainMap workshop was held at La Mansion del Rio Hotel in San Antonio December 3--4, 1995. The conference title was ``Human Brain Mapping and Modeling.`` The meeting was attended by 137 registered participants and 30 observers from 82 institutions representing 12 countries. The meeting focused on the technical issues associated with brain mapping and modeling. A total of 23 papers were presented covering the following topics: spatial normalization and registration; functional image analysis; metanalysis and modeling; and new horizons in biological databases. The full program with abstracts was available on the Research Imaging Center`s web site. A book will be published by John Wiley and Sons prior to the end of 1998.

  8. Resting state brain activity and functional brain mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xiaohu; Wang Peijun; Tang Xiaowei

    2007-01-01

    Functional brain imaging studies commonly use either resting or passive task states as their control conditions, and typically identify the activation brain region associated with a specific task by subtracting the resting from the active task conditions. Numerous studies now suggest, however, that the resting state may not reflect true mental "rest" conditions. The mental activity that occurs during"rest" might therefore greatly influence the functional neuroimaging observations that are collected through the usual subtracting analysis strategies. Exploring the ongoing mental processes that occur during resting conditions is thus of particular importance for deciphering functional brain mapping results and obtaining a more comprehensive understanding of human brain functions. In this review article, we will mainly focus on the discussion of the current research background of functional brain mapping at resting state and the physiological significance of the available neuroimaging data.

  9. CLINICAL STUDY OF ISCHEMIC PENUMBRA REGION IN BRAIN ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY MAPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qingrui; Liu Mingshun; Gu Lanjie; Mei Fengjun

    2000-01-01

    Department of Neurology, Fourth Affiliated Hospital. Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang ABSTRACT OBJETIVE To study features and clinical usage of ischemic penumbra region(IPR) in brain electrical activity mapping(BEAM).BACKGROUND To explore the functional improvement index of IPR untraumaticly. METH0DS 69 patients with acute cerebral infarction were divided into two groups according to different therapeutic time window--early treatment group( 32 cases, treatment in 12 hours)and contral group (37 cases, treatment in 12-72 hours).They were analysed in BEAM pre-and post-treatment Results: BEAM showed that the power of infarcted core was decreased and IPR became smaller in slow waves significantly after treatment in early treatment group and this change was in good agreement with improvement of clinical functions and SPECT DISCUSSION The key to treat acute cerebral infarction was to improve functions of IPR as 8oos as possible, BEAM could show the location and size of IPR. CONCLUSION BEAM was one of important index in evaluating the function of IPR.

  10. Involvement of the right inferior longitudinal fascicle in visual hemiagnosia: a brain stimulation mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Coello, Alejandro; Duvaux, Sophie; De Benedictis, Alessandro; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Duffau, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    Neural foundations underlying visual agnosia are poorly understood. The authors present the case of a patient who underwent awake surgery for a right basal temporooccipital low-grade glioma in which direct electrostimulation was used both at the cortical and subcortical level. Brain mapping over the inferior longitudinal fascicle generated contralateral visual hemiagnosia. These original findings are in agreement with recent tractography data that have confirmed the existence of an occipitotemporal pathway connecting occipital visual input to higher-level processing in temporal lobe structures. This is the first report of a true transient visual hemiagnosia elicited through electrostimulation, supporting the crucial role of inferior longitudinal fascicle in visual recognition.

  11. Whole-brain activity mapping onto a zebrafish brain atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randlett, Owen; Wee, Caroline L; Naumann, Eva A; Nnaemeka, Onyeka; Schoppik, David; Fitzgerald, James E; Portugues, Ruben; Lacoste, Alix M B; Riegler, Clemens; Engert, Florian; Schier, Alexander F

    2015-11-01

    In order to localize the neural circuits involved in generating behaviors, it is necessary to assign activity onto anatomical maps of the nervous system. Using brain registration across hundreds of larval zebrafish, we have built an expandable open-source atlas containing molecular labels and definitions of anatomical regions, the Z-Brain. Using this platform and immunohistochemical detection of phosphorylated extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) as a readout of neural activity, we have developed a system to create and contextualize whole-brain maps of stimulus- and behavior-dependent neural activity. This mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP)-mapping assay is technically simple, and data analysis is completely automated. Because MAP-mapping is performed on freely swimming fish, it is applicable to studies of nearly any stimulus or behavior. Here we demonstrate our high-throughput approach using pharmacological, visual and noxious stimuli, as well as hunting and feeding. The resultant maps outline hundreds of areas associated with behaviors.

  12. Applications of fMRI for Brain Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Daimiwal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain-mapping techniques have proven to be vital in understanding the molecular, cellular, and functional mechanisms of the brain. Normal anatomical imaging can provide structural information on certain abnormalities in the brain. However there are many neurological disorders for which only structure studies are not sufficient. In such cases it is required to investigate the functional organization of the brain. Further it is necessary to study the brain functions under normal as well as diseased conditions. Brain mapping techniques can help in deriving useful and important information on these issues. Brain functions and brain area responsible for the particular activities like motor, sensory speech and memory process could be investigated. The authors provide an overview of various Brain Mapping techniques and fMRI signal processing methods.

  13. Abnormal pain processing in chronic tension-type headache: a high-density EEG brain mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchgreitz, L.; Egsgaard, L.L.; Jensen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Central sensitization caused by prolonged nociceptive input from muscles is considered to play an important role for chronification of tension-type headache. In the present study we used a new high-density EEG brain mapping technique to investigate spatiotemporal aspects of brain activity...... in response to muscle pain in 19 patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) and 19 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Intramuscular electrical stimuli (single and train of five pulses delivered at 2 Hz) were applied to the trapezius muscle and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded...... versus tonic muscle pain: P = 0.001; baseline versus post-tonic muscle pain: P = 0.002) and fifth (baseline versus tonic muscle pain: P = 0.04; baseline versus post-tonic muscle pain: P = 0.04) stimulus in the train. In contrast, there were no differences between the conditions in patients. No consistent...

  14. More 'mapping' in brain mapping: statistical comparison of effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Anthony C.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine

    2003-01-01

    The term 'mapping' in the context of brain imaging conveys to most the concept of localization; that is, a brain map is meant to reveal a relationship between some condition or parameter and specific sites within the brain. However, in reality, conventional voxel-based maps of brain function......, or for that matter of brain structure, are generally constructed using analyses that yield no basis for inferences regarding the spatial nonuniformity of the effects. In the normal analysis path for functional images, for example, there is nowhere a statistical comparison of the observed effect in any voxel relative...... to that in any other voxel. Under these circumstances, strictly speaking, the presence of significant activation serves as a legitimate basis only for inferences about the brain as a unit. In their discussion of results, investigators rarely are content to confirm the brain's role, and instead generally prefer...

  15. Eloquent Brain, Ethical Challenges: Functional Brain Mapping in Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eran

    2015-06-01

    Functional brain mapping is an increasingly relied upon tool in presurgical planning and intraoperative decision making. Mapping allows personalization of structure-function relationships when surgical or other treatment of pathology puts eloquent functioning like language or vision at risk. As an innovative technology, functional brain mapping holds great promise but also raises important ethical questions. In this article, recent work in neuroethics on functional imaging and functional neurosurgery is explored and applied to functional brain mapping. Specific topics discussed in this article are incidental findings, responsible innovation, and informed consent.

  16. Computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG) and dynamic brain mapping in AIDS and HIV related syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Ferracuti, S; Freedman, A M; Sherer, C; Mehta, P; Itil, K Z

    1990-07-01

    In a group of HIV positive young male patients without any significant neuropsychiatric signs, computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG) and Dynamic Brain Mapping evaluations were conducted. These patients, who only had micro-neuropsychiatric symptoms, demonstrated CEEG profiles that more closely resemble those of patients diagnosed as suffering from mild dementia than age-related normals from our CEEG data base. The CEEGs of patients diagnosed as having Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), compared to patients with HIV positive, showed greater similarity in CEEG patterns to severely demented patients than to normal control groups. The findings of this pilot study suggest that CEEG may be useful for early determination of the Central Nervous System's (CNS) involvement with the AIDS virus and monitoring the progress of the illness.

  17. Analysis of a human brain transcriptome map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Jonathan R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide transcriptome maps can provide tools to identify candidate genes that are over-expressed or silenced in certain disease tissue and increase our understanding of the structure and organization of the genome. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from the public dbEST and proprietary Incyte LifeSeq databases were used to derive a transcript map in conjunction with the working draft assembly of the human genome sequence. Results Examination of ESTs derived from brain tissues (excluding brain tumor tissues suggests that these genes are distributed on chromosomes in a non-random fashion. Some regions on the genome are dense with brain-enriched genes while some regions lack brain-enriched genes, suggesting a significant correlation between distribution of genes along the chromosome and tissue type. ESTs from brain tumor tissues have also been mapped to the human genome working draft. We reveal that some regions enriched in brain genes show a significant decrease in gene expression in brain tumors, and, conversely that some regions lacking in brain genes show an increased level of gene expression in brain tumors. Conclusions This report demonstrates a novel approach for tissue specific transcriptome mapping using EST-based quantitative assessment.

  18. Mapping primary gyrogenesis during fetal development in primate brains: high-resolution in utero structural MRI study of fetal brain development in pregnant baboons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kochunov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The global and regional changes in the fetal cerebral cortex in primates were mapped during primary gyrification (PG; weeks 17-25 of 26 weeks total gestation. Studying pregnant baboons using high-resolution MRI in utero, measurements included cerebral volume, cortical surface area, gyrification index and length and depth of ten primary cortical sulci. Seven normally developing fetuses were imaged in two animals longitudinally and sequentially. We compared these results to those on PG that from the ferret studies and analyzed them in the context of our recent studies of phylogenetics of cerebral gyrification. We observed that in both primates and non-primates, the cerebrum undergoes a very rapid transformation into the gyrencephalic state, subsequently accompanied by an accelerated growth in brain volume and cortical surface area. However, PG trends in baboons exhibited some critical differences from those observed in ferrets. For example, in baboons, the growth along the long (length axis of cortical sulci was unrelated to the growth along the short (depth axis and far outpaced it. Additionally, the correlation between the rate of growth along the short sulcal axis and heritability of sulcal depth was negative and approached significance (r=-0.60;p<.10, while the same trend for long axis was positive and not significant (p=0.3;p=0.40. These findings, in an animal that shares a highly orchestrated pattern of PG with humans, suggest that ontogenic processes that influence changes in sulcal length and depth are diverse and possibly driven by different factors in primates than in non-primates.

  19. Mapping human whole-brain structural networks with diffusion MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Hagmann

    Full Text Available Understanding the large-scale structural network formed by neurons is a major challenge in system neuroscience. A detailed connectivity map covering the entire brain would therefore be of great value. Based on diffusion MRI, we propose an efficient methodology to generate large, comprehensive and individual white matter connectional datasets of the living or dead, human or animal brain. This non-invasive tool enables us to study the basic and potentially complex network properties of the entire brain. For two human subjects we find that their individual brain networks have an exponential node degree distribution and that their global organization is in the form of a small world.

  20. Neuroanatomical substrates of action perception and understanding: an anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis of lesion-symptom mapping studies in brain injured patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo eUrgesi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Several neurophysiologic and neuroimaging studies suggested that motor and perceptual systems are tightly linked along a continuum rather than providing segregated mechanisms supporting different functions. Using correlational approaches, these studies demonstrated that action observation activates not only visual but also motor brain regions. On the other hand, brain stimulation and brain lesion evidence allows tackling the critical question of whether our action representations are necessary to perceive and understand others’ actions. In particular, recent neuropsychological studies have shown that patients with temporal, parietal and frontal lesions exhibit a number of possible deficits in the visual perception and the understanding of others’ actions. The specific anatomical substrates of such neuropsychological deficits however are still a matter of debate. Here we review the existing literature on this issue and perform an anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis of studies using lesion-symptom mapping methods on the causal relation between brain lesions and non-linguistic action perception and understanding deficits. The meta-analysis encompassed data from 361 patients tested in 11 studies and identified regions in the inferior frontal cortex, the inferior parietal cortex and the middle/superior temporal cortex, whose damage is consistently associated with poor performance in action perception and understanding tasks across studies. Interestingly, these areas correspond to the three nodes of the action observation network that are strongly activated in response to visual action perception in neuroimaging research and that have been targeted in previous brain stimulation studies. Thus, brain lesion mapping research provides converging causal evidence that premotor, parietal and temporal regions play a crucial role in action recognition and understanding.

  1. Multicenter R2* mapping in the healthy brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropele, Stefan; Wattjes, Mike P; Langkammer, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The R2* relaxation rate constant has been suggested as a sensitive measure for iron accumulation. The aim of this multi-center study was to assess the inter-scanner and inter-subject variability of R2* mapping and to investigate the relationship between brain volume and R2* in specific...

  2. A quantitative transcriptome reference map of the normal human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracausi, Maria; Vitale, Lorenza; Pelleri, Maria Chiara; Piovesan, Allison; Bruno, Samantha; Strippoli, Pierluigi

    2014-10-01

    We performed an innovative systematic meta-analysis of 60 gene expression profiles of whole normal human brain, to provide a quantitative transcriptome reference map of it, i.e. a reference typical value of expression for each of the 39,250 known, mapped and 26,026 uncharacterized (unmapped) transcripts. To this aim, we used the software named Transcriptome Mapper (TRAM), which is able to generate transcriptome maps based on gene expression data from multiple sources. We also analyzed differential expression by comparing the brain transcriptome with those derived from human foetal brain gene expression, from a pool of human tissues (except the brain) and from the two normal human brain regions cerebellum and cerebral cortex, which are two of the main regions severely affected when cognitive impairment occurs, as happens in the case of trisomy 21. Data were downloaded from microarray databases, processed and analyzed using TRAM software and validated in vitro by assaying gene expression through several magnitude orders by 'real-time' reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The excellent agreement between in silico and experimental data suggested that our transcriptome maps may be a useful quantitative reference benchmark for gene expression studies related to the human brain. Furthermore, our analysis yielded biological insights about those genes which have an intrinsic over-/under-expression in the brain, in addition offering a basis for the regional analysis of gene expression. This could be useful for the study of chromosomal alterations associated to cognitive impairment, such as trisomy 21, the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability.

  3. Mapping fetal brain development in utero using magnetic resonance imaging: the Big Bang of brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studholme, Colin

    2011-08-15

    The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence and childhood, and even to neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Even earlier in development, parallel advances in clinical fetal MRI have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments encompassing optimal fast MRI scans and techniques derived from computer vision, the combination of which allows full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article reviews the developments that have led us to this point, examines the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging and motion correction, and describes the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatiotemporal atlases are examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns.

  4. Tamoxifen in the mouse brain: Implications for fate-mapping studies using the tamoxifen-inducible Cre-loxP system

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    Martin Valny

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The tamoxifen-inducible Cre-loxP system is widely used to overcome gene targeting pre-adult lethality, to modify a specific cell population at desired time-points, and to visualize and trace cells in fate-mapping studies. In this study we focused on tamoxifen degradation kinetics, because for all genetic fate-mapping studies, the period during which tamoxifen or its metabolites remain active in the CNS, is essential. Additionally, we aimed to define the tamoxifen administration scheme, enabling the maximal recombination rate together with minimal animal mortality. The time window between tamoxifen injection and the beginning of experiments should be large enough to allow complete degradation of tamoxifen and its metabolites. Otherwise, these substances could promote an undesired recombination, leading to data misinterpretation. We defined the optimal time window, allowing the complete degradation of tamoxifen and its metabolites, such as 4-hydroxytamoxifen, N-desmethyltamoxifen, endoxifen and norendoxifen, in the mouse brain after intraperitoneal tamoxifen injection. We determined the biological activity of these substances in vitro, as well as a minimal effective concentration of the most potent metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen causing recombination in vivo. For this purpose, we analyzed the recombination rate in double transgenic Cspg4-cre/Esr1/ROSA26Sortm14(CAG-tdTomato mice, in which tamoxifen administration triggers the expression of red fluorescent protein in NG2-expressing cells, and employed a liquid chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry, to determine the concentration of studied substances in the brain. We determined the degradation kinetics of these substances, and revealed that this process is influenced by mouse strains, age of animals, dosage, and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Our results revealed that tamoxifen and its metabolites were completely degraded within 8 days in young adult C57BL/6J mice, while the age

  5. Three-dimensional brain mapping using fMRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukunaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Chuzo; Umeda, Masahiro; Ebisu, Toshihiko; Aoki, Ichio [Meiji Univ. of Oriental Medicine, Hiyoshi, Kyoto (Japan); Higuchi, Toshihiro; Naruse, Shoji

    1997-10-01

    Functional mapping of the activated brain, the location and extent of the activated area were determined, during motor tasks and sensory stimulation using fMRI superimposed on 3D anatomical MRI. Twelve volunteers were studied. The fMR images were acquired using a 2D gradient echo echo planar imaging sequence. The 3D anatomical MR images of the whole brain were acquired using a conventional 3D gradient echo sequence. Motor tasks were sequential opposition of fingers, clenching a hand and elbow flexion. Somatosensory stimulation were administered by scrubbing the palm and sole with a washing sponge. Visual stimulation consisted of full visual field stimulation. Data were analyzed by the cross-correlation method. Transversal fMR images and anatomical images were reconstructed using both volume-, surface-rendering methods, and reconstructed for coronal and sagittal sections. Activated areas were expressed using the three primary colors. Motor tasks activated the contralateral primary motor area (M1), the primary somatosensory area (S1) and the supplementary motor area (SMA). Somatosensory tasks activated the contralateral S1, M1 and secondary sensory area (S2). Activated areas during full visual field stimulation was observed in the bilateral occipital lobe, including both the primary cortex. Three-dimensional brain mapping allowed visualization of the anatomical location and extent of the activated brain during both motor task and sensory stimulation. Using this method we could obtain a functional map similar to the Penfield`s schema. (author)

  6. Light microscopy mapping of connections in the intact brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Yon; Chung, Kwanghun; Deisseroth, Karl

    2013-12-01

    Mapping of neural connectivity across the mammalian brain is a daunting and exciting prospect. Current approaches can be divided into three classes: macroscale, focusing on coarse inter-regional connectivity; mesoscale, involving a finer focus on neurons and projections; and microscale, reconstructing full details of all synaptic contacts. It remains to be determined how to bridge the datasets or insights from the different levels of study. Here we review recent light-microscopy-based approaches that may help in integration across scales.

  7. Tamoxifen in the Mouse Brain: Implications for Fate-Mapping Studies Using the Tamoxifen-Inducible Cre-loxP System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valny, Martin; Honsa, Pavel; Kirdajova, Denisa; Kamenik, Zdenek; Anderova, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    The tamoxifen-inducible Cre-loxP system is widely used to overcome gene targeting pre-adult lethality, to modify a specific cell population at desired time-points, and to visualize and trace cells in fate-mapping studies. In this study we focused on tamoxifen degradation kinetics, because for all genetic fate-mapping studies, the period during which tamoxifen or its metabolites remain active in the CNS, is essential. Additionally, we aimed to define the tamoxifen administration scheme, enabling the maximal recombination rate together with minimal animal mortality. The time window between tamoxifen injection and the beginning of experiments should be large enough to allow complete degradation of tamoxifen and its metabolites. Otherwise, these substances could promote an undesired recombination, leading to data misinterpretation. We defined the optimal time window, allowing the complete degradation of tamoxifen and its metabolites, such as 4-hydroxytamoxifen, N-desmethyltamoxifen, endoxifen and norendoxifen, in the mouse brain after intraperitoneal tamoxifen injection. We determined the biological activity of these substances in vitro, as well as a minimal effective concentration of the most potent metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen causing recombination in vivo. For this purpose, we analyzed the recombination rate in double transgenic Cspg4-cre/Esr1/ROSA26Sortm14(CAG-tdTomato) mice, in which tamoxifen administration triggers the expression of red fluorescent protein in NG2-expressing cells, and employed a liquid chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry, to determine the concentration of studied substances in the brain. We determined the degradation kinetics of these substances, and revealed that this process is influenced by mouse strains, age of animals, and dosage. Our results revealed that tamoxifen and its metabolites were completely degraded within 8 days in young adult C57BL/6J mice, while the age-matched FVB/NJ male mice displayed more effective degradation

  8. Computational Analysis of LDDMM for Brain Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can eCeritoglu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One goal of computational anatomy is to develop tools to accurately segment brain structures in healthy and diseased subjects. In this paper, we examine the performance and complexity of such segmentation in the framework of the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM registration method with reference to atlases and parameters. First we report the application of a multi-atlas segmentation approach to define basal ganglia structures in healthy and diseased kids’ brains. The segmentation accuracy of the multi-atlas approach is compared with the single atlas LDDMM implementation and two state-of-the-art segmentation algorithms – Freesurfer and FSL – by computing the overlap errors between automatic and manual segmentations of the six basal ganglia nuclei in healthy subjects as well as subjects with diseases including ADHD and Autism. The high accuracy of multi-atlas segmentation is obtained at the cost of increasing the computational complexity because of the calculations necessary between the atlases and a subject. Second, we examine the effect of parameters on total LDDMM computation time and segmentation accuracy for basal ganglia structures. Single atlas LDDMM method is used to automatically segment the structures in a population of 16 subjects using different sets of parameters. The results show that a cascade approach and using fewer time steps can reduce computational complexity as much as five times while maintaining reliable segmentations.

  9. Statistical parametric maps of {sup 18}F-FDG PET and 3-D autoradiography in the rat brain: a cross-validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, Elena; Marti-Climent, Josep M. [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Pamplona (Spain); Collantes, Maria; Molinet, Francisco [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA) and Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Small Animal Imaging Research Unit, Pamplona (Spain); Delgado, Mercedes; Garcia-Garcia, Luis; Pozo, Miguel A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Brain Mapping Unit, Madrid (Spain); Juri, Carlos [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Movement Disorders Group, Neurosciences Division, Pamplona (Spain); Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Pamplona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Pamplona (Spain); Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Department of Neurology, Santiago (Chile); Fernandez-Valle, Maria E. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, MRI Research Center, Madrid (Spain); Gago, Belen [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Movement Disorders Group, Neurosciences Division, Pamplona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Pamplona (Spain); Obeso, Jose A. [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Movement Disorders Group, Neurosciences Division, Pamplona (Spain); Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Pamplona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Pamplona (Spain); Penuelas, Ivan [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Pamplona (Spain); Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA) and Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Small Animal Imaging Research Unit, Pamplona (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Although specific positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have been developed for small animals, spatial resolution remains one of the most critical technical limitations, particularly in the evaluation of the rodent brain. The purpose of the present study was to examine the reliability of voxel-based statistical analysis (Statistical Parametric Mapping, SPM) applied to {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images of the rat brain, acquired on a small animal PET not specifically designed for rodents. The gold standard for the validation of the PET results was the autoradiography of the same animals acquired under the same physiological conditions, reconstructed as a 3-D volume and analysed using SPM. Eleven rats were studied under two different conditions: conscious or under inhalatory anaesthesia during {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. All animals were studied in vivo under both conditions in a dedicated small animal Philips MOSAIC PET scanner and magnetic resonance images were obtained for subsequent spatial processing. Then, rats were randomly assigned to a conscious or anaesthetized group for postmortem autoradiography, and slices from each animal were aligned and stacked to create a 3-D autoradiographic volume. Finally, differences in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake between conscious and anaesthetized states were assessed from PET and autoradiography data by SPM analysis and results were compared. SPM results of PET and 3-D autoradiography are in good agreement and led to the detection of consistent cortical differences between the conscious and anaesthetized groups, particularly in the bilateral somatosensory cortices. However, SPM analysis of 3-D autoradiography also highlighted differences in the thalamus that were not detected with PET. This study demonstrates that any difference detected with SPM analysis of MOSAIC PET images of rat brain is detected also by the gold standard autoradiographic technique, confirming that this methodology provides reliable results, although

  10. The role of left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle in verbal perseveration: a brain electrostimulation mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Osaama H; Herbet, Guillaume; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2014-05-01

    The subcortical connectivity underlying verbal perseveration (VP) remains poorly understood. We have previously reported that intraoperative electrical stimulation of the caudate nucleus during awake surgery resulted in VP. Here, our purpose is to study the white matter pathway underlying VP using subcortical stimulation mapping in a series of patients who underwent glioma resection. Eleven patients with a left hemispheric low grade glioma were operated on while awake. Intraoperative direct electrical stimulation was used both at cortical and subcortical levels while the patients carried out motor and naming tasks during the resection. All patients experienced VP during electrical stimulation performed at the level of different subcortical locations, which corresponded in the 11 cases to different parts of the left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle. Perseveration persisted into the postoperative days, but resolved completely by three months.Our original findings provide further insight into the neuroanatomical basis of VP, by supporting the role of left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle. Such data may have both fundamental and clinical implications.

  11. Mapping blood flow directionality in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hong; Do, Won-Joon; Choi, Seung Hong; Zhao, Tiejun; Bae, Kyongtae Ty

    2016-07-01

    Diffusion properties of tissue are often expressed on the basis of directional variance, i.e., diffusion tensor imaging. In comparison, common perfusion-weighted imaging such as arterial spin labeling yields perfusion in a scalar quantity. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of mapping cerebral blood flow directionality using alternate ascending/descending directional navigation (ALADDIN), a recently-developed arterial spin labeling technique with sensitivity to blood flow directions. ALADDIN was applied along 3 orthogonal directions to assess directional blood flow in a vector form and also along 6 equally-spaced directions to extract blood flow tensor matrix (P) based on a blood flow ellipsoid model. Tensor elements (eigenvalues, eigenvectors, etc) were calculated to investigate characteristics of the blood flow tensor, in comparison with time-of-flight MR angiogram. While the directions of the main eigenvectors were heterogeneous throughout the brain, regional clusters of blood flow directionality were reproducible across subjects. The technique could show heterogeneous blood flow directionality within and around brain tumor, which was different from that of the contralateral normal side. The proposed method is deemed to provide information of blood flow directionality, which has not been demonstrated before. The results warrant further studies to assess changes in the directionality map as a function of scan parameters, to understand the signal sources, to investigate the possibility of mapping local blood perfusion directionality, and to evaluate its usefulness for clinical diagnosis.

  12. Mutated Genes in Schizophrenia Map to Brain Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Matters NIH Research Matters August 12, 2013 Mutated Genes in Schizophrenia Map to Brain Networks Schizophrenia networks in the ... in People with Serious Mental Illness Clues for Schizophrenia in Rare Gene Glitch Recognizing Schizophrenia: Seeking Clues to a Difficult ...

  13. Mapping distributed brain function and networks with diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggebrecht, Adam T.; Ferradal, Silvina L.; Robichaux-Viehoever, Amy; Hassanpour, Mahlega S.; Dehghani, Hamid; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Hershey, Tamara; Culver, Joseph P.

    2014-06-01

    Mapping of human brain function has revolutionized systems neuroscience. However, traditional functional neuroimaging by positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging cannot be used when applications require portability, or are contraindicated because of ionizing radiation (positron emission tomography) or implanted metal (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Optical neuroimaging offers a non-invasive alternative that is radiation free and compatible with implanted metal and electronic devices (for example, pacemakers). However, optical imaging technology has heretofore lacked the combination of spatial resolution and wide field of view sufficient to map distributed brain functions. Here, we present a high-density diffuse optical tomography imaging array that can map higher-order, distributed brain function. The system was tested by imaging four hierarchical language tasks and multiple resting-state networks including the dorsal attention and default mode networks. Finally, we imaged brain function in patients with Parkinson's disease and implanted deep brain stimulators that preclude functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. Anatomo-functional study of the temporo-parieto-occipital region: dissection, tractographic and brain mapping evidence from a neurosurgical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Alessandro; Duffau, Hugues; Paradiso, Beatrice; Grandi, Enrico; Balbi, Sergio; Granieri, Enrico; Colarusso, Enzo; Chioffi, Franco; Marras, Carlo Efisio; Sarubbo, Silvio

    2014-08-01

    The temporo-parieto-occipital (TPO) junction is a complex brain territory heavily involved in several high-level neurological functions, such as language, visuo-spatial recognition, writing, reading, symbol processing, calculation, self-processing, working memory, musical memory, and face and object recognition. Recent studies indicate that this area is covered by a thick network of white matter (WM) connections, which provide efficient and multimodal integration of information between both local and distant cortical nodes. It is important for neurosurgeons to have good knowledge of the three-dimensional subcortical organisation of this highly connected region to minimise post-operative permanent deficits. The aim of this dissection study was to highlight the subcortical functional anatomy from a topographical surgical perspective. Eight human hemispheres (four left, four right) obtained from four human cadavers were dissected according to Klingler's technique. Proceeding latero-medially, the authors describe the anatomical courses of and the relationships between the main pathways crossing the TPO. The results obtained from dissection were first integrated with diffusion tensor imaging reconstructions and subsequently with functional data obtained from three surgical cases, all resection of infiltrating glial tumours using direct electrical mapping in awake patients. The subcortical limits for performing safe lesionectomies within the TPO region are as follows: within the parietal region, the anterior horizontal part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and, more deeply, the arcuate fasciculus; dorsally, the vertical projective thalamo-cortical fibres. For lesions located within the temporal and occipital lobes, the resection should be tailored according to the orientation of the horizontal associative pathways (the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, inferior longitudinal fascicle and optic radiation). The relationships between the WM tracts and the ventricle

  15. Control-display mapping in brain-computer interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurlings, M.E.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Brouwer, A.-M.; Blankertz, B.; Werkhoven, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) employ differences in brain responses to attended and ignored stimuli. When using a tactile ERP-BCI for navigation, mapping is required between navigation directions on a visual display and unambiguously corresponding tactile stimu

  16. Mapping Multiplex Hubs in Human Functional Brain Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Domenico, Manlio; Sasai, Shuntaro; Arenas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Typical brain networks consist of many peripheral regions and a few highly central ones, i.e., hubs, playing key functional roles in cerebral inter-regional interactions. Studies have shown that networks, obtained from the analysis of specific frequency components of brain activity, present peculiar architectures with unique profiles of region centrality. However, the identification of hubs in networks built from different frequency bands simultaneously is still a challenging problem, remaining largely unexplored. Here we identify each frequency component with one layer of a multiplex network and face this challenge by exploiting the recent advances in the analysis of multiplex topologies. First, we show that each frequency band carries unique topological information, fundamental to accurately model brain functional networks. We then demonstrate that hubs in the multiplex network, in general different from those ones obtained after discarding or aggregating the measured signals as usual, provide a more accurate map of brain's most important functional regions, allowing to distinguish between healthy and schizophrenic populations better than conventional network approaches. PMID:27471443

  17. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in amnestic MCI: a voxel-based MRI and FDG-PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbelli, Silvia [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Piccardo, Arnoldo; Villavecchia, Giampiero [Galliera Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Dessi, Barbara; Brugnolo, Andrea; Rodriguez, Guido; Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); Piccini, Alessandra [Cell Biology Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Genoa (Italy); Caroli, Anna [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy); Mario Negri Institute, Medical Imaging Unit, Biomedical Engineering Department, Bergamo (Italy); Frisoni, Giovanni [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    To reveal the morphological and functional substrates of memory impairment and conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) from the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Brain MRI and FDG-PET were performed in 20 patients with aMCI and 12 controls at baseline. During a mean follow-up of about 2 years, 9 patients developed AD (converters), and 11 did not (nonconverters). All images were processed with SPM2. FDG-PET and segmented grey matter (GM) images were compared in: (1) converters versus controls, (2) nonconverters versus controls, and (3) converters versus nonconverters. As compared to controls, converters showed lower GM density in the left parahippocampal gyrus and both thalami, and hypometabolism in the precuneus, posterior cingulate and superior parietal lobule in the left hemisphere. Hypometabolism was found in nonconverters as compared to controls in the left precuneus and posterior cingulated gyrus. As compared to nonconverters, converters showed significant hypometabolism in the left middle and superior temporal gyri. The discordant topography between atrophy and hypometabolism reported in AD is already present at the aMCI stage. Posterior cingulate-precuneus hypometabolism seemed to be an early sign of memory deficit, whereas hypometabolism in the left temporal cortex marked the conversion to AD. (orig.)

  18. Whole brain susceptibility mapping using compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Li, Wei; Guidon, Arnaud; Liu, Chunlei

    2012-01-01

    The derivation of susceptibility from image phase is hampered by the ill-conditioned filter inversion in certain k-space regions. In this article, compressed sensing is used to compensate for the k-space regions where direct filter inversion is unstable. A significantly lower level of streaking artifacts is produced in the resulting susceptibility maps for both simulated and in vivo data sets compared to outcomes obtained using the direct threshold method. It is also demonstrated that the compressed sensing based method outperforms regularization based methods. The key difference between the regularized inversions and compressed sensing compensated inversions is that, in the former case, the entire k-space spectrum estimation is affected by the ill-conditioned filter inversion in certain k-space regions, whereas in the compressed sensing based method only the ill-conditioned k-space regions are estimated. In the susceptibility map calculated from the phase measurement obtained using a 3T scanner, not only are the iron-rich regions well depicted, but good contrast between white and gray matter interfaces that feature a low level of susceptibility variations are also obtained. The correlation between the iron content and the susceptibility levels in iron-rich deep nucleus regions is studied, and strong linear relationships are observed which agree with previous findings.

  19. Mapping Human Brain Function with MRI at 7 Tesla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ In the past decade, the most significant development in MRI is the introduction of fMRI, which permits the mapping of human brain function with exquisite details noninvasively. Functional mapping can be achieved by measuring changes in the blood oxygenation level (I.e. The BOLD contrast) or cerebral blood flow.

  20. Human brain mapping: Experimental and computational approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.C.; George, J.S.; Schmidt, D.M.; Aine, C.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Sanders, J. [Albuquerque VA Medical Center, NM (US); Belliveau, J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (US)

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This program developed project combined Los Alamos' and collaborators' strengths in noninvasive brain imaging and high performance computing to develop potential contributions to the multi-agency Human Brain Project led by the National Institute of Mental Health. The experimental component of the project emphasized the optimization of spatial and temporal resolution of functional brain imaging by combining: (a) structural MRI measurements of brain anatomy; (b) functional MRI measurements of blood flow and oxygenation; and (c) MEG measurements of time-resolved neuronal population currents. The computational component of the project emphasized development of a high-resolution 3-D volumetric model of the brain based on anatomical MRI, in which structural and functional information from multiple imaging modalities can be integrated into a single computational framework for modeling, visualization, and database representation.

  1. Inter- and intrahemispheric dissociations in ideomotor apraxia: a large-scale lesion-symptom mapping study in subacute brain-damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Aurelie L; Radman, Narges; Mesot, Delphine; Chouiter, Leila; Clarke, Stephanie; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Spierer, Lucas

    2013-12-01

    Pantomimes of object use require accurate representations of movements and a selection of the most task-relevant gestures. Prominent models of praxis, corroborated by functional neuroimaging studies, predict a critical role for left parietal cortices in pantomime and advance that these areas store representations of tool use. In contrast, lesion data points to the involvement of left inferior frontal areas, suggesting that defective selection of movement features is the cause of pantomime errors. We conducted a large-scale voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analyses with configural/spatial (CS) and body-part-as-object (BPO) pantomime errors of 150 left and right brain-damaged patients. Our results confirm the left hemisphere dominance in pantomime. Both types of error were associated with damage to left inferior frontal regions in tumor and stroke patients. While CS pantomime errors were associated with left temporoparietal lesions in both stroke and tumor patients, these errors appeared less associated with parietal areas in stroke than in tumor patients and less associated with temporal in tumor than stroke patients. BPO errors were associated with left inferior frontal lesions in both tumor and stroke patients. Collectively, our results reveal a left intrahemispheric dissociation for various aspects of pantomime, but with an unspecific role for inferior frontal regions.

  2. Brain maps of Iowa gambling task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Yao-Chu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic Marker Hypothesis (SMH, based on clinical observations, delineates neuronal networks for interpreting consciousness generation and decision-making. The Iowa gambling task (IGT was designed to verify the SMH. However, more and more behavioral and brain imaging studies had reported incongruent results that pinpointed a need to re-evaluate the central representations of SMH. The current study used event-related fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to examine neural correlates of anticipation vs. outcome, wins vs. losses, and differential decks' contingencies of IGT. Results Behavioral results showed a prominent effect of frequency in driving choices. The insula and basal ganglia were activated during the anticipation phase while the inferior parietal lobule was activated during the outcome phase. The activation of medial prefrontal cortex was especially targeted during the high punishment contingencies. The data suggest that under uncertainty the normal decision makers can become myopic. Conclusion The insula and basal ganglia might play a vital role in long-term guidance of decision-making. Inferior parietal lobule might participate in evaluating the consequence and medial prefrontal cortex may service the function of error monitoring.

  3. IMAGING THE BRAIN AS SCHIZOPHRENIA DEVELOPS: DYNAMIC & GENETIC BRAIN MAPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul; Rapoport, Judith L; Cannon, Tyrone D; Toga, Arthur W

    2002-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic, debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects 0.2-2% of the population worldwide. Often striking without warning in the late teens or early twenties, its symptoms include auditory and visual hallucinations, psychotic outbreaks, bizarre or disordered thinking, depression and social withdrawal. To combat the disease, new antipsychotic drugs are emerging; these atypical neuroleptics target dopamine and serotonin pathways in the brain, offering increased therapeutic efficacy with fewer side effects. Despite their moderate success in controlling some patients' symptoms, little is known about the causes of schizophrenia, and what triggers the disease. Its peculiar age of onset raises key questions: What physical changes occur in the brain as a patient develops schizophrenia? Do these deficits spread in the brain, and can they be opposed? How do they relate to psychotic symptoms? As risk for the disease is genetically transmitted, do a patient's relatives exhibit similar brain changes? Recent advances in brain imaging and genetics provide exciting insight on these questions. Neuroimaging can now chart the emergence and progression of deficits in the brain, providing an exceptionally sharp scalpel to dissect the effects of genetic risk, environmental triggers, and susceptibility genes. Visualizing the dynamics of the disease, these techniques also offer new strategies to evaluate drugs that combat the unrelenting symptoms of schizophrenia.

  4. Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao

    2009-02-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.

  5. More 'mapping' in brain mapping: statistical comparison of effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Anthony C.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine

    2003-01-01

    , or for that matter of brain structure, are generally constructed using analyses that yield no basis for inferences regarding the spatial nonuniformity of the effects. In the normal analysis path for functional images, for example, there is nowhere a statistical comparison of the observed effect in any voxel relative...

  6. Stability of R2* and quantitative susceptibility mapping of the brain tissue in a large scale multi-center study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongpin; Xie, Guangyou; Zhai, Maoxiong; Zhang, Zhongping; Wu, Bing; Zheng, Dandan; Hong, Nan; Jiang, Tao; Wen, Baohong; Cheng, Jingliang

    2017-01-01

    Multi-center studies are advantageous for enrolling participants of varying pathological and demographical conditions, and especially in neurological studies. Hence stability of the obtained quantitative R2* and susceptibility in multicenter studies is a key issue for their widespread applications. In this work, the stabilities of simultaneously obtained R2* and susceptibility are investigated and compared across 10 sites that are equipped with the same scanner and receiver coil, the same post-processing process was used to achieve consistent experiment setup. Two healthy adult volunteers (one male and female) participated in this study. High intraclass correlation coefficient was obtained for both susceptibility (0.94) and R2* (0.96). The coefficients of variance for all measurements obtained were smaller than 0.1, the largest variations of measurements in all the chosen ROIs fall within ±20% from the median value. Higher level of stability was obtained in R2* as compared to susceptibility at 1 mm resolution (P < 0.05) and at 1.5 mm (P < 0.01). PMID:28349957

  7. Word and Number Reading in the Brain: Evidence from a Voxel-Based Lesion-Symptom Mapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Fabrizio; Marangolo, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The high incidence of number transcoding deficits in aphasic subjects suggests there is a strong similarity between language and number domains. However, recent single case studies of subjects who showed a dissociation between word and number word transcoding led us to hypothesize that the two types of stimuli are represented independently in the…

  8. 耳鸣患者PET显像的相关脑区探讨%Mapping tinnitus-related brain of a PET study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞玉; 林美福; 林碧玉; 王恩成; 陈洪; 陈文新; 郑昊

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨耳鸣患者脑PET18 F-FDG代谢的相关脑区。方法通过对41例耳鸣患者及40例健康对照组进行PET-CT检查,行踪剂为18 F-FDG,结果用统计参数图(SPM)软件进行统计分析,确定与耳鸣相关脑区的解剖部位(BA)。结果耳鸣患者相关脑区主要位于左侧颞下回(BA20)、左侧颞中回(BA21)、左侧颞上回(BA22)、左侧腹侧后扣带皮层(BA24)、左侧颞极区(BA38)及右侧后外侧前额叶皮层(BA9)、右侧额极区(BA10)、右侧眶额回(BA11)、右侧颞下回(BA20)、右侧背侧前扣带皮层(BA32)、右侧海马旁皮层(BA36)、右侧梭状回(BA37)。结论耳鸣患者在中枢神经系统可能存在特定的投射区,主要位于边缘系统及额叶联合区,与主次级听觉皮层有一定关系。PET 为耳鸣提供了客观证据,有望成为耳鸣的客观检测方法。%Objective To investigate central correlates of tinnitus perception in brain imaging.Methods Brain position emission tomography (PET)tests were performed on the tinnitus patients and controls.The effects of laterality were evaluated with statistical parametric mapping (SPM)in whole brain analyses.Results The study showed that the most consistently acti-vated regions in tinnitus subjects,compared with controls,were left inferior temporal cortex (BA20),left middle temporal gyrus (BA21),left superior temporal (BA22),left Ventral Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24),left Temporopolar area (BA38),right dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (BA9),right Anterior prefrontal cortex (BA10),right Orbitofrontal area (BA11),right inferior temporal cortex (BA20),right Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA32),right parahippocampal Cortex (BA36)and right Fusiform gyrus (BA37).Conclusion This study proves that PET is a useful modality for tinnitus research and solidifies human tinnitus research itself by confirming previously described brain areas involved in the generation and mainte-nance of tinnitus.

  9. Mapping inter-regional connectivity of the entire cortex to characterize major depressive disorder: a whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging tractography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Cooper, Nicholas J; Williams, Leanne M; Grieve, Stuart M

    2012-06-20

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can be used to study the organization of brain white matter noninvasively. The aim of this study was to present a proof of concept for integrating DTI with high-resolution anatomical (T1) images to map and assess inter-regional connectivity across the entire cortex in a cohort of healthy participants and compared with patients with major depressive disorder. We used MRI data of 23 patients and 23 matched controls, assessed as part of baseline testing in the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D). Freesurfer was used to analyze the T1 images to automatically label 35 gyral-based areas for each hemisphere. DTI tractography was performed to parcellate intercortical tracts using each of these areas in seed-target combinations. We quantified fractional anisotropy, number-of-fiber connections, and fiber path length for each DTI connection, with the goal of identifying the best measure or combination of measures to characterize major depression. The best classification accuracy for the individual measures was achieved using the number-of-fibers data, whereas the combination model provided a slight improvement. The most discriminant features between the two groups were for white matter associated with the limbic, frontal, and thalamic projection fibers and as part of cortical connections between the left inferior temporal and the postcentral cortex; the left parstriangularis and the left superior frontal; the left cuneus and the corpus callosum; the left lingual and the right lateral occipital, the right superior parietal and the right superior temporal cortices; and the right inferior parietal and the right insula and postcentral cortices.

  10. Zebrafish brain mapping--standardized spaces, length scales, and the power of N and n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Paul R; Hendry, Aenea C; Lowe, Andrew S

    2015-06-01

    Mapping anatomical and functional parameters of the zebrafish brain is moving apace. Research communities undertaking such studies are becoming ever larger and more diverse. The unique features, tools, and technologies associated with zebrafish are propelling them as the 21st century model organism for brain mapping. Uniquely positioned as a vertebrate model system, the zebrafish enables imaging of anatomy and function at different length scales from intraneuronal compartments to sparsely distributed whole brain patterns. With a variety of diverse and established statistical modeling and analytic methods available from the wider brain mapping communities, the richness of zebrafish neuroimaging data is being realized. The statistical power of population observations (N) within and across many samples (n) projected onto a standardized space will provide vast databases for data-driven biological approaches. This article reviews key brain mapping initiatives at different levels of scale that highlight the potential of zebrafish brain mapping. By way of introduction to the next wave of brain mappers, an accessible introduction to the key concepts and caveats associated with neuroimaging are outlined and discussed.

  11. Automated in situ brain imaging for mapping the Drosophila connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Wen; Lin, Hsuan-Wen; Chiu, Mei-Tzu; Shih, Yung-Hsin; Wang, Ting-Yuan; Chang, Hsiu-Ming; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the connectome, a wiring diagram of the entire brain, requires large-scale imaging of numerous single neurons with diverse morphology. It is a formidable challenge to reassemble these neurons into a virtual brain and correlate their structural networks with neuronal activities, which are measured in different experiments to analyze the informational flow in the brain. Here, we report an in situ brain imaging technique called Fly Head Array Slice Tomography (FHAST), which permits the reconstruction of structural and functional data to generate an integrative connectome in Drosophila. Using FHAST, the head capsules of an array of flies can be opened with a single vibratome sectioning to expose the brains, replacing the painstaking and inconsistent brain dissection process. FHAST can reveal in situ brain neuroanatomy with minimal distortion to neuronal morphology and maintain intact neuronal connections to peripheral sensory organs. Most importantly, it enables the automated 3D imaging of 100 intact fly brains in each experiment. The established head model with in situ brain neuroanatomy allows functional data to be accurately registered and associated with 3D images of single neurons. These integrative data can then be shared, searched, visualized, and analyzed for understanding how brain-wide activities in different neurons within the same circuit function together to control complex behaviors.

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow in children with autism spectrum disorders: a quantitative 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT study with statistical parametric mapping evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-han; JING Jin; XIU Li-juan; CHENG Mu-hua; WANG Xin; BAO Peng; WANG Qing-xiong

    2011-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which include autism, asperger syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), are devastating neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood resulting in deficits in social interaction, repetitive patterns of behaviors, and restricted interests and activities. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a common technique used to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Several studies have measured rCBF in children with ASD using SPECT, however, findings are discordant. In addition, the majority of subjects used in these studies were autistic. In this study, we aimed to investigate changes in rCBF in children with ASD using SPECT.Methods A Technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimmer (99mTc-ECD) brain SPECT study was performed on an ASD group consisting of 23 children (3 girls and 20 boys; mean age (7.2±3.0) years) who were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-Ⅳ) criteria and an age-matched control group with 8children (1 girl and 7 boys, mean age (5.5±2.4) years). Image data were evaluated with Statistical Parametric Mapping,5th version (SPM5). A Student's t test for unpaired data was used to compare rCBF and asymmetry in the autism and corresponding control group. The covariance analysis, taking age as covariance, was performed between the ASD and control group.Results There was a significant reduction in rCBF in the bilateral frontal lobe (frontal poles, arcula frontal gyrus) and the bilateral basal ganglia in the autism group, and a reduction in the bilateral frontal, temporal, parietal, legumina nucleus and cerebellum in the AS group compared to the control. In addition, asymmetry of hemispheric hypoperfusion in the ASD group was observed. Inner-group comparison analysis revealed that rCBF decreased significantly in the bilateral frontal lobe (42.7%), basal nucleus (24.9%) and temporal lobe (22.8%) in the autism

  13. The Study of Fast T1 Mapping of Human Brain%大脑快速T1图谱成像研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江克; 钟耀祖; 吴垠; 朱燕杰

    2016-01-01

    大脑快速 T1图谱成像是一种量化磁共振成像技术,可以为帕金森、癫痫、肝脑病等脑部疾病的诊断提供重要参考依据。现有的大脑快速 T1图谱成像技术可以将成像速度提高到几秒/层,然而主磁场、发射场的不均性(尤其在高场下)以及大脑内部结构的磁化率差异,降低了成像精确性,限制了其在临床上的推广应用。针对上述缺点,文章提出一种基于 TurboFLASH技术的大脑快速 T1图谱成像方法,并先后在计算机仿真实验、仿体以及人体试验中进行验证。实验结果表明,文章提出的方法测得的大脑组织 T1值与金标准及文献中报导的值非常接近(误差<3%),同时扫描速度提高到3秒/层,空间分辨率为1.1 mm×1.1 mm×4 mm,2分钟内即可完成全脑采集。%Fast brain T1 mapping is a quantitative technique of magnetic resonance imaging, and can provide important reference for the diagnosis of several brain diseases, such as Parkinson, epilepsy and hepatic encephalopathy. Fast T1 mapping techniques proposed previously had sped up acquisition to several seconds per slice. However, most of these techniques suffered seriously from the ifeld inhomogeneity of main ifeld, transmit ifeld and susceptibility artifacts, which decreased the imaging accuracy and limited the clinic applications. To overcome the above mentioned shortcomings, we proposed a fast brain T1 mapping technique based on TurboFLASH and evaluated it on computer simulation, phantom experiment, and human brain T1 mapping. Results showed that T1 values from the proposed method were very close to the gold standard and literature (differences being less than 3%). Besides, the proposed technique can increase the acquisition speed to 3s per slice (with a slice resolution of 1.1 mm×1.1 mm) and 2 min for the whole brain (with a 4 mm slice distance).

  14. Mapping the calcitonin receptor in human brain stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bower, Rebekah L; Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Waldvogel, Henry J

    2016-01-01

    understanding of these hormone systems by mapping CTR expression in the human brain stem, specifically the medulla oblongata. Widespread CTR-like immunoreactivity was observed throughout the medulla. Dense CTR staining was noted in several discrete nuclei, including the nucleus of the solitary tract...

  15. Mapping how local perturbations influence systems-level brain dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Gollo, Leonardo L.; James A. Roberts; Cocchi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The human brain exhibits a relatively stable spatiotemporal organization that supports brain function and can be manipulated via local brain stimulation. Such perturbations to local cortical dynamics are globally integrated by distinct neural systems. However, it remains unclear how and why local changes in neural activity affect large-scale system dynamics. Here, we briefly review empirical and computational studies addressing how localized perturbations affect brain activity. We then system...

  16. Dynamic Quantitative T1 Mapping in Orthotopic Brain Tumor Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Herrmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human brain tumors such as glioblastomas are typically detected using conventional, nonquantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques, such as T2-weighted and contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRI. In this manuscript, we tested whether dynamic quantitative T1 mapping by MRI can localize orthotopic glioma tumors in an objective manner. Quantitative T1 mapping was performed by MRI over multiple time points using the conventional contrast agent Optimark. We compared signal differences to determine the gadolinium concentration in tissues over time. The T1 parametric maps made it easy to identify the regions of contrast enhancement and thus tumor location. Doubling the typical human dose of contrast agent resulted in a clearer demarcation of these tumors. Therefore, T1 mapping of brain tumors is gadolinium dose dependent and improves detection of tumors by MRI. The use of T1 maps provides a quantitative means to evaluate tumor detection by gadolinium-based contrast agents over time. This dynamic quantitative T1 mapping technique will also enable future quantitative evaluation of various targeted MRI contrast agents.

  17. BrainMaps.org - Interactive High-Resolution Digital Brain Atlases and Virtual Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, Shawn; Stone, James M; Jones, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    BrainMaps.org is an interactive high-resolution digital brain atlas and virtual microscope that is based on over 20 million megapixels of scanned images of serial sections of both primate and non-primate brains and that is integrated with a high-speed database for querying and retrieving data about brain structure and function over the internet. Complete brain datasets for various species, including Homo sapiens, Macaca mulatta, Chlorocebus aethiops, Felis catus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, and Tyto alba, are accessible online. The methods and tools we describe are useful for both research and teaching, and can be replicated by labs seeking to increase accessibility and sharing of neuroanatomical data. These tools offer the possibility of visualizing and exploring completely digitized sections of brains at a sub-neuronal level, and can facilitate large-scale connectional tracing, histochemical and stereological analyses.

  18. Elemental mapping inventory of the fish Liza aurata brain: a biomarker of metal pollution vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Rita M; Pereira, Patricia; Raimundo, Joana; Pacheco, Mário; Pinheiro, Teresa

    2015-02-01

    The elemental distributions in optic tectum of brains of wild Liza aurata a teleost fish captured in polluted and reference coastal areas were assessed quantitatively by nuclear microscopy providing insights into brain vulnerability to metal pollution. Elemental maps enabled us to visualize optic tectum layers and identify cellular arrangements. Whereas Cl, K and Ca contents identify meninges, the Ca, Fe and Zn concentrations distinguish the underneath grey matter, white matter and inner cellular layers. Exposed animals showed significantly decreased P concentrations and increased contents of Cu, Zn and Ni in all brain structures. These changes highlight homeostasis modification, altered permeability of the blood-brain barrier and suggest risk for neurological toxicity. Our study initiated for the first time an inventory of physiological measures containing images and elemental compositions of brain regions of fish exposed to different environmental conditions. This will help defining total and local brain vulnerability to metals and pollution levels.

  19. Visualization and modelling of STLmax topographic brain activity maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammone, Nadia; Principe, José C; Morabito, Francesco C; Shiau, Deng S; Sackellares, J Chris

    2010-06-15

    This paper evaluates the descriptive power of brain topography based on a dynamical parameter, the Short-Term Maximum Lyapunov Exponent (STLmax), estimated from EEG, for finding out a relationship of STLmax spatial distribution with the onset zone and with the mechanisms leading to epileptic seizures. Our preliminary work showed that visual assessment of STLmax topography exhibited a link with the location of seizure onset zone. The objective of the present work is to model the spatial distribution of STLmax in order to automatically extract these features from the maps. One-hour preictal segments from four long-term continuous EEG recordings (two scalp and two intracranial) were processed and the corresponding STLmax profiles were estimated. The spatial STLmax maps were modelled by a combination of two Gaussians functions. The parameters of the fitted model allow automatic extraction of quantitative information about the spatial distribution of STLmax: the EEG signal recorded from the brain region where seizures originate exhibited low-STLmax levels, long before the seizure onset, in 3 out of 4 patients (1 out of 2 of scalp patients and 2 out of 2 in intracranial patients). Topographic maps extracted directly from the EEG power did not provide useful information about the location, therefore we conclude that the analysis so far carried out suggests the possibility of using a model of STLmax topography as a tool for monitoring the evolution of epileptic brain dynamics. In the future, a more elaborate approach will be investigated in order to improve the specificity of the method.

  20. Interpretability of Multivariate Brain Maps in Linear Brain Decoding: Definition, and Heuristic Quantification in Multivariate Analysis of MEG Time-Locked Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Seyed Mostafa; Vega Pons, Sandro; Weisz, Nathan; Passerini, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Brain decoding is a popular multivariate approach for hypothesis testing in neuroimaging. Linear classifiers are widely employed in the brain decoding paradigm to discriminate among experimental conditions. Then, the derived linear weights are visualized in the form of multivariate brain maps to further study spatio-temporal patterns of underlying neural activities. It is well known that the brain maps derived from weights of linear classifiers are hard to interpret because of high correlations between predictors, low signal to noise ratios, and the high dimensionality of neuroimaging data. Therefore, improving the interpretability of brain decoding approaches is of primary interest in many neuroimaging studies. Despite extensive studies of this type, at present, there is no formal definition for interpretability of multivariate brain maps. As a consequence, there is no quantitative measure for evaluating the interpretability of different brain decoding methods. In this paper, first, we present a theoretical definition of interpretability in brain decoding; we show that the interpretability of multivariate brain maps can be decomposed into their reproducibility and representativeness. Second, as an application of the proposed definition, we exemplify a heuristic for approximating the interpretability in multivariate analysis of evoked magnetoencephalography (MEG) responses. Third, we propose to combine the approximated interpretability and the generalization performance of the brain decoding into a new multi-objective criterion for model selection. Our results, for the simulated and real MEG data, show that optimizing the hyper-parameters of the regularized linear classifier based on the proposed criterion results in more informative multivariate brain maps. More importantly, the presented definition provides the theoretical background for quantitative evaluation of interpretability, and hence, facilitates the development of more effective brain decoding algorithms

  1. R2* mapping for brain iron: associations with cognition in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadery, Christine; Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Langkammer, Christian; Petrovic, Katja; Loitfelder, Marisa; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Seiler, Stephan; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Schmidt, Helena; Fazekas, Franz; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Chabriat, Hugues; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2015-02-01

    Brain iron accumulates during aging and has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Magnetic resonance (MR)-based R2* mapping enables the in vivo detection of iron content in brain tissue. We investigated if during normal brain aging iron load relates to cognitive impairment in region-specific patterns in a community-dwelling cohort of 336 healthy, middle aged, and older adults from the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study. MR imaging and R2* mapping in the basal ganglia and neocortex were done at 3T. Comprehensive neuropsychological testing assessed memory, executive function, and psychomotor speed. We found the highest iron concentration in the globus pallidus, and pallidal and putaminal iron was significantly and inversely associated with cognitive performance in all cognitive domains, except memory. These associations were iron load dependent. Vascular brain lesions and brain volume did not mediate the relationship between iron and cognitive performance. We conclude that higher R2*-determined iron in the basal ganglia correlates with cognitive impairment during brain aging independent of concomitant brain abnormalities. The prognostic significance of this finding needs to be determined.

  2. Stable long-term chronic brain mapping at the single-neuron level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tian-Ming; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Schuhmann, Thomas G; Viveros, Robert D; Lieber, Charles M

    2016-10-01

    Stable in vivo mapping and modulation of the same neurons and brain circuits over extended periods is critical to both neuroscience and medicine. Current electrical implants offer single-neuron spatiotemporal resolution but are limited by such factors as relative shear motion and chronic immune responses during long-term recording. To overcome these limitations, we developed a chronic in vivo recording and stimulation platform based on flexible mesh electronics, and we demonstrated stable multiplexed local field potentials and single-unit recordings in mouse brains for at least 8 months without probe repositioning. Properties of acquired signals suggest robust tracking of the same neurons over this period. This recording and stimulation platform allowed us to evoke stable single-neuron responses to chronic electrical stimulation and to carry out longitudinal studies of brain aging in freely behaving mice. Such advantages could open up future studies in mapping and modulating changes associated with learning, aging and neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Mapping social behavior-induced brain activation at cellular resolution in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongsoo; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Pradhan, Kith; Mende, Carolin; Taranda, Julian; Turaga, Srinivas C; Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Ng, Lydia; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Rockland, Kathleen S; Seung, H Sebastian; Osten, Pavel

    2015-01-13

    Understanding how brain activation mediates behaviors is a central goal of systems neuroscience. Here, we apply an automated method for mapping brain activation in the mouse in order to probe how sex-specific social behaviors are represented in the male brain. Our method uses the immediate-early-gene c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, visualized by serial two-photon tomography: the c-fos-GFP+ neurons are computationally detected, their distribution is registered to a reference brain and a brain atlas, and their numbers are analyzed by statistical tests. Our results reveal distinct and shared female and male interaction-evoked patterns of male brain activation representing sex discrimination and social recognition. We also identify brain regions whose degree of activity correlates to specific features of social behaviors and estimate the total numbers and the densities of activated neurons per brain areas. Our study opens the door to automated screening of behavior-evoked brain activation in the mouse.

  4. Mapping Social Behavior-Induced Brain Activation at Cellular Resolution in the Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsoo Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how brain activation mediates behaviors is a central goal of systems neuroscience. Here, we apply an automated method for mapping brain activation in the mouse in order to probe how sex-specific social behaviors are represented in the male brain. Our method uses the immediate-early-gene c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, visualized by serial two-photon tomography: the c-fos-GFP+ neurons are computationally detected, their distribution is registered to a reference brain and a brain atlas, and their numbers are analyzed by statistical tests. Our results reveal distinct and shared female and male interaction-evoked patterns of male brain activation representing sex discrimination and social recognition. We also identify brain regions whose degree of activity correlates to specific features of social behaviors and estimate the total numbers and the densities of activated neurons per brain areas. Our study opens the door to automated screening of behavior-evoked brain activation in the mouse.

  5. Using a concept map as a tool for strategic planning: The Healthy Brain Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lynda A; Day, Kristine L; Vandenberg, Anna E

    2011-09-01

    Concept mapping is a tool to assist in strategic planning that allows planners to work through a sequence of phases to produce a conceptual framework. Although several studies describe how concept mapping is applied to various public health problems, the flexibility of the methods used in each phase of the process is often overlooked. If practitioners were more aware of the flexibility, more public health endeavors could benefit from using concept mapping as a tool for strategic planning. The objective of this article is to describe how the 6 concept-mapping phases originally outlined by William Trochim guided our strategic planning process and how we adjusted the specific methods in the first 2 phases to meet the specialized needs and requirements to create The Healthy Brain Initiative: A National Public Health Road Map to Maintaining Cognitive Health. In the first stage (phases 1 and 2 of concept mapping), we formed a steering committee, convened 4 work groups over a period of 3 months, and generated an initial set of 42 action items grounded in science. In the second stage (phases 3 and 4), we engaged stakeholders in sorting and rating the action items and constructed a series of concept maps. In the third and final stage (phases 5 and 6), we examined and refined the action items and generated a final concept map consisting of 44 action items. We then selected the top 10 action items, and in 2007, we published The Healthy Brain Initiative: A National Public Health Road Map to Maintaining Cognitive Health, which represents the strategic plan for The Healthy Brain Initiative.

  6. Mapping brain activity with flexible graphene micro-transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Blaschke, Benno M; Guimerà-Brunet, Anton; Weinert, Julia; Rousseau, Lionel; Heimann, Axel; Drieschner, Simon; Kempski, Oliver; Villa, Rosa; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V; Garrido, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Establishing a reliable communication interface between the brain and electronic devices is of paramount importance for exploiting the full potential of neural prostheses. Current microelectrode technologies for recording electrical activity, however, evidence important shortcomings, e.g. challenging high density integration. Solution-gated field-effect transistors (SGFETs), on the other hand, could overcome these shortcomings if a suitable transistor material were available. Graphene is particularly attractive due to its biocompatibility, chemical stability, flexibility, low intrinsic electronic noise and high charge carrier mobilities. Here, we report on the use of an array of flexible graphene SGFETs for recording spontaneous slow waves, as well as visually evoked and also pre-epileptic activity in vivo in rats. The flexible array of graphene SGFETs allows mapping brain electrical activity with excellent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), suggesting that this technology could lay the foundation for a future gene...

  7. High-throughput mapping of brain-wide activity in awake and drug-responsive vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xudong; Wang, Shiqi; Yu, Xudong; Liu, Zhuguo; Wang, Fei; Li, Wai Tsun; Cheng, Shuk Han; Dai, Qiuyun; Shi, Peng

    2015-02-01

    The reconstruction of neural activity across complete neural circuits, or brain activity mapping, has great potential in both fundamental and translational neuroscience research. Larval zebrafish, a vertebrate model, has recently been demonstrated to be amenable to whole brain activity mapping in behaving animals. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic array system ("Fish-Trap") that enables high-throughput mapping of brain-wide activity in awake larval zebrafish. Unlike the commonly practiced larva-processing methods using a rigid gel or a capillary tube, which are laborious and time-consuming, the hydrodynamic design of our microfluidic chip allows automatic, gel-free, and anesthetic-free processing of tens of larvae for microscopic imaging with single-cell resolution. Notably, this system provides the capability to directly couple pharmaceutical stimuli with real-time recording of neural activity in a large number of animals, and the local and global effects of pharmacoactive drugs on the nervous system can be directly visualized and evaluated by analyzing drug-induced functional perturbation within or across different brain regions. Using this technology, we tested a set of neurotoxin peptides and obtained new insights into how to exploit neurotoxin derivatives as therapeutic agents. The novel and versatile "Fish-Trap" technology can be readily unitized to study other stimulus (optical, acoustic, or physical) associated functional brain circuits using similar experimental strategies.

  8. Volumetric T1 and T2 magnetic resonance brain toolkit for relaxometry mapping simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos da Silva Senra Filho

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Relaxometry images are an important magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique in the clinical routine. Many diagnoses are based on the relaxometry maps to infer abnormal state in the tissue characteristic relaxation constant. In order to study the performance of these image processing approaches, a controlled simulated environment is necessary. However, a simulated relaxometry image tool is still lacking. This study proposes a computational anatomical brain phantom for MRI relaxometry images, which aims to offer an easy and flexible toolkit to test different image processing techniques, applied to MRI relaxometry maps in a controlled simulated environment. Methods A pipeline of image processing techniques such as brain extraction, image segmentation, normalization to a common space and signal relaxation decay simulation, were applied to a brain structural ICBM brain template, on both T1 and T2 weighted images, in order to simulate a volumetric brain relaxometry phantom. The FMRIB Software Library (FSL toolkits were used here as the base image processing needed to all the relaxometry reconstruction. Results All the image processing procedures are performed using automatic algorithms. In addition, different artefact levels can be set from different sources such as Rician noise and radio-frequency inhomogeneity noises. Conclusion The main goal of this project is to help researchers in their future image processing analysis involving MRI relaxometry images, offering reliable and robust brain relaxometry simulation modelling. Furthermore, the entire pipeline is open-source, which provides a wide collaboration between researchers who may want to improve the software and its functionality.

  9. Mapping brain activity at scale with cluster computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jeremy; Vladimirov, Nikita; Kawashima, Takashi; Mu, Yu; Sofroniew, Nicholas J; Bennett, Davis V; Rosen, Joshua; Yang, Chao-Tsung; Looger, Loren L; Ahrens, Misha B

    2014-09-01

    Understanding brain function requires monitoring and interpreting the activity of large networks of neurons during behavior. Advances in recording technology are greatly increasing the size and complexity of neural data. Analyzing such data will pose a fundamental bottleneck for neuroscience. We present a library of analytical tools called Thunder built on the open-source Apache Spark platform for large-scale distributed computing. The library implements a variety of univariate and multivariate analyses with a modular, extendable structure well-suited to interactive exploration and analysis development. We demonstrate how these analyses find structure in large-scale neural data, including whole-brain light-sheet imaging data from fictively behaving larval zebrafish, and two-photon imaging data from behaving mouse. The analyses relate neuronal responses to sensory input and behavior, run in minutes or less and can be used on a private cluster or in the cloud. Our open-source framework thus holds promise for turning brain activity mapping efforts into biological insights.

  10. Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Hoogveld, Bert; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Stoyanov, S., Hoogveld, A. W. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands; EU Forlic project.

  11. Evaluation of three-dimensional anisotropic head model for mapping realistic electromagnetic fields of brain tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Chul Jeong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields provide fundamental data for the imaging of electrical tissue properties, such as conductivity and permittivity, in recent magnetic resonance (MR-based tissue property mapping. The induced voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density caused by externally injected current are critical factors for determining the image quality of electrical tissue conductivity. As a useful tool to identify bio-electromagnetic phenomena, precise approaches are required to understand the exact responses inside the human body subject to an injected currents. In this study, we provide the numerical simulation results of electromagnetic field mapping of brain tissues using a MR-based conductivity imaging method. First, we implemented a realistic three-dimensional human anisotropic head model using high-resolution anatomical and diffusion tensor MR images. The voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density of brain tissues were imaged by injecting 1 mA of current through pairs of electrodes on the surface of our head model. The current density map of anisotropic brain tissues was calculated from the measured magnetic flux density based on the linear relationship between the water diffusion tensor and the electrical conductivity tensor. Comparing the current density to the previous isotropic model, the anisotropic model clearly showed the differences between the brain tissues. This originates from the enhanced signals by the inherent conductivity contrast as well as the actual tissue condition resulting from the injected currents.

  12. Evaluation of three-dimensional anisotropic head model for mapping realistic electromagnetic fields of brain tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo Chul; Wi, Hun; Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Oh, Tong In; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2015-08-01

    Electromagnetic fields provide fundamental data for the imaging of electrical tissue properties, such as conductivity and permittivity, in recent magnetic resonance (MR)-based tissue property mapping. The induced voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density caused by externally injected current are critical factors for determining the image quality of electrical tissue conductivity. As a useful tool to identify bio-electromagnetic phenomena, precise approaches are required to understand the exact responses inside the human body subject to an injected currents. In this study, we provide the numerical simulation results of electromagnetic field mapping of brain tissues using a MR-based conductivity imaging method. First, we implemented a realistic three-dimensional human anisotropic head model using high-resolution anatomical and diffusion tensor MR images. The voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density of brain tissues were imaged by injecting 1 mA of current through pairs of electrodes on the surface of our head model. The current density map of anisotropic brain tissues was calculated from the measured magnetic flux density based on the linear relationship between the water diffusion tensor and the electrical conductivity tensor. Comparing the current density to the previous isotropic model, the anisotropic model clearly showed the differences between the brain tissues. This originates from the enhanced signals by the inherent conductivity contrast as well as the actual tissue condition resulting from the injected currents.

  13. Whole-brain mapping of neuronal activity in the learned helplessness model of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsoo eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some individuals are resilient, whereas others succumb to despair in repeated stressful situations. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying such divergent behavioral responses remain unclear. Here, we employed an automated method for mapping neuronal activity in search of signatures of stress responses in the entire mouse brain. We used serial two-photon tomography to detect expression of c-FosGFP – a marker of neuronal activation – in c-fosGFP transgenic mice subjected to the learned helplessness (LH procedure, a widely used model of stress-induced depression-like phenotype in laboratory animals. We found that mice showing helpless behavior had an overall brain-wide reduction in the level of neuronal activation compared with mice showing resilient behavior, with the exception of a few brain areas, including the locus coeruleus, that were more activated in the helpless mice. In addition, the helpless mice showed a strong trend of having higher similarity in whole brain activity profile among individuals, suggesting that helplessness is represented by a more stereotypic brain-wide activation pattern. This latter effect was confirmed in rats subjected to the LH procedure, using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography to assess neural activity. Our findings reveal distinct brain activity markings that correlate with adaptive and maladaptive behavioral responses to stress, and provide a framework for further studies investigating the contribution of specific brain regions to maladaptive stress responses.

  14. Whole brain myelin mapping using T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eGanzetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advancements in MR imaging, non-invasive mapping of myelin in the brain still remains an open issue. Here we attempted to provide a potential solution. Specifically, we developed a processing workflow based on T1-w and T2-w MR data to generate an optimized myelin enhanced contrast image. The workflow allows whole brain mapping using the T1-w/T2-w technique, which was originally introduced as a non-invasive method for assessing cortical myelin content. The hallmark of our approach is a retrospective calibration algorithm, applied to bias-corrected T1-w and T2-w images, that relies on image intensities outside the brain. This permits standardizing the intensity histogram of the ratio image, thereby allowing for across-subject statistical analyses. Quantitative comparisons of image histograms within and across different datasets confirmed the effectiveness of our normalization procedure. Not only did the calibrated T1-w/T2-w images exhibit a comparable intensity range, but also the shape of the intensity histograms was largely corresponding. We also assessed the reliability and specificity of the ratio image compared to other MR-based techniques, such as magnetization transfer ratio, fractional anisotropy and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery. With respect to these other techniques, T1-w/T2-w had consistently high values, as well as low inter-subject variability, in brain structures where myelin is most abundant. Overall, our results suggested that the T1-w/T2-w technique may be a valid tool supporting the non-invasive mapping of myelin in the brain. Therefore, it might find important applications in the study of brain development, aging and disease.

  15. Mapping multiplex hubs in human functional brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Arenas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Typical brain networks consist of many peripheral regions and a few highly centralones, i.e. hubs, playing key functional roles in cerebral inter-regional interactions. Studieshave shown that networks, obtained from the analysis of specific frequency components ofbrain activity, present peculiar architectures with unique profiles of region centrality. However,the identification of hubs in networks built from different frequency bands simultaneouslyis still a challenging problem, remaining largely unexplored. Here we identify eachfrequency component with one layer of a multiplex network and face this challenge by exploitingthe recent advances in the analysis of multiplex topologies. First, we show that eachfrequency band carries unique topological information, fundamental to accurately modelbrain functional networks. We then demonstrate that hubs in the multiplex network, in generaldifferent from those ones obtained after discarding or aggregating the measured signalsas usual, provide a more accurate map of brain’s most important functional regions, allowingto distinguish between healthy and schizophrenic populations better than conventionalnetwork approaches.

  16. Local signal time-series during rest used for areal boundary mapping in individual human brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Hirose

    Full Text Available It is widely thought that resting state functional connectivity likely reflects functional interaction among brain areas and that different functional areas interact with different sets of brain areas. A method for mapping areal boundaries has been formulated based on the large-scale spatial characteristics of regional interaction revealed by resting state functional connectivity. In the present study, we present a novel analysis for areal boundary mapping that requires only the signal timecourses within a region of interest, without reference to the information from outside the region. The areal boundaries were generated by the novel analysis and were compared with those generated by the previously-established standard analysis. The boundaries were robust and reproducible across the two analyses, in two regions of interest tested. These results suggest that the information for areal boundaries is readily available inside the region of interest.

  17. Mapping Numerical Processing, Reading, and Executive Functions in the Developing Brain: An fMRI Meta-Analysis of 52 Studies Including 842 Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Olivier; Rossi, Sandrine; Lubin, Amelie; Joliot, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Tracing the connections from brain functions to children's cognitive development and education is a major goal of modern neuroscience. We performed the first meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained over the past decade (1999-2008) on more than 800 children and adolescents in three core systems of cognitive…

  18. Unique Microstructural Changes in the Brain Associated with Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (UCPPS) Revealed by Diffusion Tensor MRI, Super-Resolution Track Density Imaging, and Statistical Parameter Mapping: A MAPP Network Neuroimaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Davis; Mayer, Emeran; Leu, Kevin; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Naliboff, Bruce D; Labus, Jennifer S; Tillisch, Kirsten; Kutch, Jason J; Farmer, Melissa A; Apkarian, A Vania; Johnson, Kevin A; Mackey, Sean C; Ness, Timothy J; Landis, J Richard; Deutsch, Georg; Harris, Richard E; Clauw, Daniel J; Mullins, Chris; Ellingson, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    Studies have suggested chronic pain syndromes are associated with neural reorganization in specific regions associated with perception, processing, and integration of pain. Urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) represents a collection of pain syndromes characterized by pelvic pain, namely Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) and Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/PBS), that are both poorly understood in their pathophysiology, and treated ineffectively. We hypothesized patients with UCPPS may have microstructural differences in the brain compared with healthy control subjects (HCs), as well as patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common gastrointestinal pain disorder. In the current study we performed population-based voxel-wise DTI and super-resolution track density imaging (TDI) in a large, two-center sample of phenotyped patients from the multicenter cohort with UCPPS (N = 45), IBS (N = 39), and HCs (N = 56) as part of the MAPP Research Network. Compared with HCs, UCPPS patients had lower fractional anisotropy (FA), lower generalized anisotropy (GA), lower track density, and higher mean diffusivity (MD) in brain regions commonly associated with perception and integration of pain information. Results also showed significant differences in specific anatomical regions in UCPPS patients when compared with IBS patients, consistent with microstructural alterations specific to UCPPS. While IBS patients showed clear sex related differences in FA, MD, GA, and track density consistent with previous reports, few such differences were observed in UCPPS patients. Heat maps illustrating the correlation between specific regions of interest and various pain and urinary symptom scores showed clustering of significant associations along the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic-cortical loop associated with pain integration, modulation, and perception. Together, results suggest patients with UCPPS have extensive microstructural

  19. Quantitative study the DTI T2-weighted trace parameter map in right-handed young human brain%右利手年轻人脑结构DTI的T2-weighted trace图定量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠宁; 刘怀军; 耿左军; 池琛; 崔彩霞; 宋鹏; 刘瑞春

    2012-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively study the manifestation of DTI T, -weighted trace parameter map in healthy righted-handed young human brain, analysis the relationship of T,-weighted trace( T,-WT ) to FA and MD. Methods 30 health)' right-handed young volunteers ( sixteen men, fourteen women; mean age 28.2 years ) underwent diffusion tensor imaging and conventional MRI with a GE 3.0T magnetic resonance system. Three DTI parameters maps T,-WT, FA and MD were determined. Observe the manifestations of T,-WT maps at thirteen brain structures and measured the value of them. The gender, lateral differences were analyzed. The relationship between T2 -WT and FA, T2-WT and MD were assessed. Results In health)' right-handed young human brain,the value of T2-WT had a left-right asymmetries in pons, cerebral peduncle, anterior internal capsual, centrum seimioval and lenticular nucleus, left > right, P = 0. 000 ~ 0. 024. There were no sex-difference in all thirteen brain structures, P = 0. 081 ~ 0.967. T2-WT had a positive con-elation with MD ( P =0. 000 ) and had no corrrelation with FA. Conclusion In right-handed young human brain , the values of T2 -WT are left-superior in pons, cerebral peduncle, anterior internal capsual, centrum seimioval and lenticular nucleus. T,-WT has a positive correlation with MD ( P = 0. 000 ) but no corrrelation with FA.%目的 定量研究右利手年轻人人脑结构扩散张量成像(DTI)的T2-weighted trace(T2-WT)参数值的特点,分析其与分数各向异性(FA)、平均扩散系数(MD)的关系.方法 健康右利手年轻志愿者30例,男16名,女14名,平均年龄28.2岁,采集脑常规MRI及DTI图像,获取DTI的T2-WT、FA及MD三种后处理参数图:测量人脑13个部位的三种参数值,研究T2-WT参数图左右侧之间的差异,各部位参数值的性别差异,分析其与FA、MD的关系.结果 T2-WT值在桥脑、大脑脚、内囊前肢、半卵圆中心和豆状核双侧不对称,左侧>右侧,P=0.000~0.024,差异有

  20. Glasgow Coma Scale, brain electric activity mapping and Glasgow Outcome Scale after hyperbaric oxygen treatment of severe brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment of severe brain injury.Methods: Fifty-five patients were divided into a treatment group (n = 35 receiving HBO therapy ) and a control group (n = 20 receiving dehydrating, cortical steroid and antibiotic therapy) to observe the alteration of clinic GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale), brain electric activity mapping (BEAM), prognosis and GOS (Glasgow Outcome Scale) before and after hyperbaric oxygen treatment.Results: In the treatment group GCS, BEAM and GOS were improved obviously after 3 courses of treatment,GCS increased from 5.1 to 14.6 ( P < 0.01-0.001 ), the BEAM abnormal rate reduced from 94.3% to 38% (P <0.01-0.001 ), the GOS good-mild disability rate was 83.7%, and the middle-severe disability rate was 26.3%compared with the control group. There was a statistic significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.01-0.001).Conclusions: Hyperbaric oxygen treatment could improve obviously GCS, BEAM and GOS of severe brain injury patients, and effectively reduce the mortality and morbidity. It is an effective method to treat severe brain injury. two g

  1. Three-Dimensional Computer Graphics Brain-Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-24

    commisuralis - commisstri.ob 129 Commisural Nucleus of Stria Terminalis N. septi medialis pars ventralis -medseptal.ob 130 Medial Septal Nucleus N. taenia ...tecta -taentecta.ob 131 Taenia Tecta N. olfactorius anteriorus -olftrigone.ob 132 Olfactory Trigone Cortex insularis -insularcor.ob 135 Insular Cortex...septalvein.ob 143 great emmissary vein gremmisvn.ob 144 124 Brain 118 3 Yakolev Study stria terminals striaterm.ob 145 taenia tecta taentecta.ob 146 131

  2. The ERP brain topographic map study on mental rotation in schizophrenicPatients%精神分裂症患者心理旋转的ERP脑地形图研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玖; 杨来启; 吴兴曲; 马文涛; 张彦; 邓自和; 刘光雄; 贾婷

    2012-01-01

    the right side was significantly higher than that in the left side in top - occipital lobe in both groups. Conclusion (1) Schizophrenia'mental rotating ability is impaired. And the mirror processing is impaired seriously, hinting the normal mirror processing mechanism of mental rotating may be different individually and can be converted reciprocally. (2) There is negative potential of response preparation and right dominant hemisphere in mental rotation. Patients with schizophrenia consumes more psychological resources in the process of response preparation. The study suggests that the brain topographic map of mental rotating disability may be used as assistant diagnostic index of schizophrenia.

  3. Statistical parametric mapping in brain single photon computed emission tomography after carbon monoxide intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N; Nohara, S; Matsuda, H; Sumiya, H; Noguchi, K; Shimizu, M; Tsuji, S; Kinuya, S; Shuke, N; Yokoyama, K; Seto, H

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess regional cerebral blood flow in patients after carbon monoxide intoxication by using brain single photon emission computed tomography and statistical parametric mapping. Eight patients with delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae and ten patients with no neuropsychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide intoxication were studied with brain single photon emission tomography imaging with 99mTc-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime. Forty-four control subjects were also studied. We used the adjusted regional cerebral blood flow images in relative flow distribution (normalization of global cerebral blood flow for each subject to 50 ml x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) with proportional scaling) to compare these groups with statistical parametric mapping. Using this technique, significantly decreased regional cerebral blood flow was noted extensively in the bilateral frontal lobes as well as the bilateral insula and a part of the right temporal lobe in the patients with delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae as compared with normal volunteers (Pparametric mapping is a useful technique for highlighting differences in regional cerebral blood flow in patients following carbon monoxide intoxication as compared with normal volunteers. The selectively reduced blood flow noted in this investigation supports the contention that the decrease following carbon monoxide intoxication may be prolonged and further worsen in the frontal lobe. In addition, the present study may help to clarify the characteristics of the pathophysiological alteration underlying delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae.

  4. Mapping abnormal subcortical brain morphometry in an elderly HIV+ cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin S.C. Wade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of HIV+ individuals exhibit neurocognitive impairment and subcortical atrophy, but the profile of brain abnormalities associated with HIV is still poorly understood. Using surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV+ participants and 31 uninfected controls. The thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, brainstem, accumbens, callosum and ventricles were segmented from high-resolution MRIs. To investigate shape-based morphometry, we analyzed the Jacobian determinant (JD and radial distances (RD defined on each region's surfaces. We also investigated effects of nadir CD4+ T-cell counts, viral load, time since diagnosis (TSD and cognition on subcortical morphology. Lastly, we explored whether HIV+ participants were distinguishable from unaffected controls in a machine learning context. All shape and volume features were included in a random forest (RF model. The model was validated with 2-fold cross-validation. Volumes of HIV+ participants' bilateral thalamus, left pallidum, left putamen and callosum were significantly reduced while ventricular spaces were enlarged. Significant shape variation was associated with HIV status, TSD and the Wechsler adult intelligence scale. HIV+ people had diffuse atrophy, particularly in the caudate, putamen, hippocampus and thalamus. Unexpectedly, extended TSD was associated with increased thickness of the anterior right pallidum. In the classification of HIV+ participants vs. controls, our RF model attained an area under the curve of 72%.

  5. Maladaptive Plasticity in Aphasia: Brain Activation Maps Underlying Verb Retrieval Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Spielmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomia, or impaired word retrieval, is the most widespread symptom of aphasia, an acquired language impairment secondary to brain damage. In the last decades, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled studying the neural basis underlying anomia and its recovery. The present study aimed to explore maladaptive plasticity in persistent verb anomia, in three male participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia. Brain activation maps associated with semantic verb paraphasia occurring within an oral picture-naming task were identified with an event-related fMRI paradigm. These maps were compared with those obtained in our previous study examining adaptive plasticity (i.e., successful verb naming in the same participants. The results show that activation patterns related to semantic verb paraphasia and successful verb naming comprise a number of common areas, contributing to both maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms. This finding suggests that the segregation of brain areas provides only a partial view of the neural basis of verb anomia and successful verb naming. Therefore, it indicates the importance of network approaches which may better capture the complexity of maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms in anomia recovery.

  6. Maladaptive Plasticity in Aphasia: Brain Activation Maps Underlying Verb Retrieval Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Edith; Marcotte, Karine; Ansaldo, Ana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Anomia, or impaired word retrieval, is the most widespread symptom of aphasia, an acquired language impairment secondary to brain damage. In the last decades, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled studying the neural basis underlying anomia and its recovery. The present study aimed to explore maladaptive plasticity in persistent verb anomia, in three male participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia. Brain activation maps associated with semantic verb paraphasia occurring within an oral picture-naming task were identified with an event-related fMRI paradigm. These maps were compared with those obtained in our previous study examining adaptive plasticity (i.e., successful verb naming) in the same participants. The results show that activation patterns related to semantic verb paraphasia and successful verb naming comprise a number of common areas, contributing to both maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms. This finding suggests that the segregation of brain areas provides only a partial view of the neural basis of verb anomia and successful verb naming. Therefore, it indicates the importance of network approaches which may better capture the complexity of maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms in anomia recovery. PMID:27429808

  7. Brain abnormalities in bipolar disorder detected by quantitative T1ρ mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C P; Follmer, R L; Oguz, I; Warren, L A; Christensen, G E; Fiedorowicz, J G; Magnotta, V A; Wemmie, J A

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal metabolism has been reported in bipolar disorder, however, these studies have been limited to specific regions of the brain. To investigate whole-brain changes potentially associated with these processes, we applied a magnetic resonance imaging technique novel to psychiatric research, quantitative mapping of T1 relaxation in the rotating frame (T1ρ). This method is sensitive to proton chemical exchange, which is affected by pH, metabolite concentrations and cellular density with high spatial resolution relative to alternative techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography. Study participants included 15 patients with bipolar I disorder in the euthymic state and 25 normal controls balanced for age and gender. T1ρ maps were generated and compared between the bipolar and control groups using voxel-wise and regional analyses. T1ρ values were found to be elevated in the cerebral white matter and cerebellum in the bipolar group. However, volumes of these areas were normal as measured by high-resolution T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Interestingly, the cerebellar T1ρ abnormalities were normalized in participants receiving lithium treatment. These findings are consistent with metabolic or microstructural abnormalities in bipolar disorder and draw attention to roles of the cerebral white matter and cerebellum. This study highlights the potential utility of high-resolution T1ρ mapping in psychiatric research.

  8. A comparative study of map use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Bødker, Susanne;

    2006-01-01

    We present a study comparing the handling of three kinds of maps, each on a physical device: a paper map, a tablet-PC based map, and a cellular phone based one. Six groups of users were asked to locate eight landmarks, looking out a window, and using a particular map. We have begun analyzing video...

  9. Foreign Language Study and the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeLoup, Jean W.; Ponterio, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Provides information on foreign language study and the brain and highlights a Web site called Foreign Language Study and the Brain. The Web site is in Spanish and English and provides information on brain-sensitive activities that foster memory storage and language retrieval. Recent research on the brain and general recommendations for classroom…

  10. Mapping tinnitus-related brain activation:a preliminary study by metabolic and perfusion PET/CT%耳鸣相关脑区改变PET/CT脑代谢及灌注显像的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林美福; 李瑞玉; 陈文新; 陈洪; 戴红峰; 林碧玉; 郑昊; 周硕; 陈彩龙

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to investigate regional cerebral glucose metabolism and regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) of tinnitus patients and to map specific foci sites of tinnitus perception in brain imaging. Methods 18F-FDG and 13N-NH3·H2O PET/CT brain imaging were performed on 43 tinnitus patients and 40 controls. Results were evaluated with visual analysis and ROI analysis by whole brain analyses. Results PET data demonstrated the asymmetric activation of the central system of tinnitus patients compared with controls. Twenty-four patients revealed increased metabolism of the unilateral hemisphere, including 32 brain areas prior to the left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, left supramarginal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and right middle temporal gyrus. In addition, 75% of the 32 areas revealed increased rCBF. Ten patients showed increased metabolism in bilateral hemispheres, including 20 brain areas(10 on each side);90%of which revealed increased rCBF. Five patients showed reduced metabolism and rCBF of the unilateral hemisphere, including the right superior temporal gyrus and right middle temporal gyrus. Cortical activation was independent from tinnitus laterality. Conclusions Tinnitus perception may involve more brain areas than the auditory cortex, prior to increased glucose metabolism activity and rCBF. Cortical activation was independent from tinnitus laterality. Cerebral glucose metabolism was consistent with rCBF.%目的:研究耳鸣相关脑区的代谢及血流灌注变化,确定主观性耳鸣与神经中枢的对应关系。方法应用18F-FDG/13N-NH3·H2O PET/CT脑显像,采用ROI技术对43例耳鸣患者及40名健康对照者的显像结果进行分析。结果18F-FDG PET/CT显像单侧葡萄糖代谢增高者共24例、32个脑区;左侧特定的脑区位于颞上回、颞中回、缘上回等;右侧特定的脑区位于颞上回、颞中回等。其中有24个(75%)区域伴血流灌注增高。18F

  11. Graph theory analysis of complex brain networks: new concepts in brain mapping applied to neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Michael G; Ypma, Rolf J F; Romero-Garcia, Rafael; Price, Stephen J; Suckling, John

    2016-06-01

    Neuroanatomy has entered a new era, culminating in the search for the connectome, otherwise known as the brain's wiring diagram. While this approach has led to landmark discoveries in neuroscience, potential neurosurgical applications and collaborations have been lagging. In this article, the authors describe the ideas and concepts behind the connectome and its analysis with graph theory. Following this they then describe how to form a connectome using resting state functional MRI data as an example. Next they highlight selected insights into healthy brain function that have been derived from connectome analysis and illustrate how studies into normal development, cognitive function, and the effects of synthetic lesioning can be relevant to neurosurgery. Finally, they provide a précis of early applications of the connectome and related techniques to traumatic brain injury, functional neurosurgery, and neurooncology.

  12. Brain Mapping Center Opens at Institute of Biophysics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Agroup of world-class scie, ntists in brain imaging came to China's capital to .witness the inauguration of the Beijing MRI Center for Brain Research, which was officially opened on May 25 at the CAS Institute of Biophysics.

  13. Mapping plasticity: sex/gender and the changing brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinherenbrink, A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a consensus in the neuroscientific literature that brains are either male or female, and that ‘brain sex’ is a fixed, immutable trait. Feminist critics have challenged this idea, raising questions, for example, about brain plasticity (the role of sociocultural factors in the emergence and e

  14. Whole-brain mapping of inputs to projection neurons and cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingchun; Wang, Daqing; He, Xiaobin; Feng, Qiru; Lin, Rui; Xu, Fuqiang; Fu, Ling; Luo, Minmin

    2015-01-01

    The dorsal striatum integrates inputs from multiple brain areas to coordinate voluntary movements, associative plasticity, and reinforcement learning. Its projection neurons consist of the GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) that express dopamine receptor type 1 (D1) or dopamine receptor type 2 (D2). Cholinergic interneurons account for a small portion of striatal neuron populations, but they play important roles in striatal functions by synapsing onto the MSNs and other local interneurons. By combining the modified rabies virus with specific Cre- mouse lines, a recent study mapped the monosynaptic input patterns to MSNs. Because only a small number of extrastriatal neurons were labeled in the prior study, it is important to reexamine the input patterns of MSNs with higher labeling efficiency. Additionally, the whole-brain innervation pattern of cholinergic interneurons remains unknown. Using the rabies virus-based transsynaptic tracing method in this study, we comprehensively charted the brain areas that provide direct inputs to D1-MSNs, D2-MSNs, and cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum. We found that both types of projection neurons and the cholinergic interneurons receive extensive inputs from discrete brain areas in the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other subcortical areas, several of which were not reported in the previous study. The MSNs and cholinergic interneurons share largely common inputs from areas outside the striatum. However, innervations within the dorsal striatum represent a significantly larger proportion of total inputs for cholinergic interneurons than for the MSNs. The comprehensive maps of direct inputs to striatal MSNs and cholinergic interneurons shall assist future functional dissection of the striatal circuits.

  15. Building a 5-HT3A Receptor Expression Map in the Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Yoshihisa; Kondo, Makoto; Shimada, Shoichi

    2017-01-01

    Of the many serotonin receptors, the type 3 receptors (5-HT3R) are the only ionotropic ones, playing a key role in fast synaptic transmission and cognitive and emotional brain function through controlled neuronal excitation. To better understand the various functions of 5-HT3Rs, it is very important to know their expression pattern in the central nervous system (CNS). To date, many distributional studies have shown localized 5-HT3R expression in the brain and spinal cord. However, an accurate pattern of 5-HT3R expression in the CNS remains to be elucidated. To investigate the distribution of 5-HT3R in the mouse brain in detail, we performed immunofluorescent staining using 5-HT3AR-GFP transgenic mice. We found strong 5-HT3AR expression in the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala; and partial expression in the pons, medulla, and spinal cord. Meanwhile, the thalamus, hypothalamus, and midbrain exhibited a few 5-HT3AR-expressing cells, and no expression was detected in the cerebellum. Further, double-immunostaining using neural markers confirmed that 5-HT3AR is expressed in GABAergic interneurons containing somatostatin or calretinin. In the present study, we built a 5-HT3AR expression map in the mouse brain. Our findings make significant contributions in elucidating the novel functions of 5-HT3R in the CNS. PMID:28276429

  16. Using data-driven model-brain mappings to constrain formal models of cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelmer P Borst

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a method to create data-driven mappings from components of cognitive models to brain regions. Cognitive models are notoriously hard to evaluate, especially based on behavioral measures alone. Neuroimaging data can provide additional constraints, but this requires a mapping from model components to brain regions. Although such mappings can be based on the experience of the modeler or on a reading of the literature, a formal method is preferred to prevent researcher-based biases. In this paper we used model-based fMRI analysis to create a data-driven model-brain mapping for five modules of the ACT-R cognitive architecture. We then validated this mapping by applying it to two new datasets with associated models. The new mapping was at least as powerful as an existing mapping that was based on the literature, and indicated where the models were supported by the data and where they have to be improved. We conclude that data-driven model-brain mappings can provide strong constraints on cognitive models, and that model-based fMRI is a suitable way to create such mappings.

  17. [QEEG and brain mapping. Historial develoment, clinical practices and epistemological issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusevich, Daniel; Ruiz, Martín; Vairo, María Carolina

    2002-01-01

    Although it has been more than two decades since brain mapping was introduced in medicine, its scientific value and clinical practice have not been proved. This paper makes an overview about the historical development of brain mapping, its usefulness in psychiatry and lays epistemological issues concerning the role of technology in medical settings. Both historical and technological development of qEEG gives us the opportunity to think about complexity between ethics, science, technology and medicine.

  18. Neurotransmitter Specific, Cellular-Resolution Functional Brain Mapping Using Receptor Coated Nanoparticles: Assessment of the Possibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forati, Ebrahim; Sabouni, Abas; Ray, Supriyo; Head, Brian; Schoen, Christian; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Receptor coated resonant nanoparticles and quantum dots are proposed to provide a cellular-level resolution image of neural activities inside the brain. The functionalized nanoparticles and quantum dots in this approach will selectively bind to different neurotransmitters in the extra-synaptic regions of neurons. This allows us to detect neural activities in real time by monitoring the nanoparticles and quantum dots optically. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with two different geometries (sphere and rod) and quantum dots (QDs) with different sizes were studied along with three different neurotransmitters: dopamine, gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glycine. The absorption/emission spectra of GNPs and QDs before and after binding of neurotransmitters and their corresponding receptors are reported. The results using QDs and nanorods with diameter 25nm and aspect rations larger than three were promising for the development of the proposed functional brain mapping approach. PMID:26717196

  19. 抑郁症患者心理旋转的事件相关电位脑地形图研究%The ERP brain topographic map study on mental rotation of depressions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玖; 杨来启; 刘光雄; 吴兴曲; 张彦; 马文涛; 邓自和

    2012-01-01

    advantage hemisphere brain in normal,but mirror advantage hemisphere disappears in depressed patients.This study suggests the brain topographic map of mental rotation ability damaged can be used as the clinical auxiliary diagnosis index.%目的 探讨抑郁症患者心理旋转的事件相关电位(ERP)脑地形图的变化,完善抑郁症患者在空间能力方面的脑地形图功能联系.方法 对32例抑郁症患者和29例健康被试进行心理旋转任务的ERP测定.对其脑分布地形图的变化进行了对照观察.结果 (1)与对照组[错误率(29±9)%,反应时(604.74 ±54.39) ms]相比,抑郁症组合计错误率[(33±15)%]显著性升高,反应时[(755.22±70.18)ms]显著延长(P<0.05).(2)与对照组[ N100:PZ(-3.78 ±1.05)μV、CZ(-5.67±2.21)μV、P3(-2.34±0.59) μV、P4(-2.92±0.80)μV;P500:PZ(7.35±2.61) μV、CZ(7.65 ±2.42) μV、P3(6.53±2.11) μV、P4(7.29±2.57) μV]相比,抑郁症组合计波幅[N100:PZ(-0.31±0.09)μV、CZ(-2.27±0.57)μV、P3(-0.30±0.07)μV、P4(-0.33±0.08)μV;P500:PZ(6.04±2.16) μV、CZ(5.92±2.01) μV、P3(6.02±2.11)μV、P4(6.01±2.34)μV]显著性降低(P<0.05),左右顶枕叶兴奋性差异消失(P>0.05);N100抑郁症组正镜像兴奋性显著性降低(P<0.05);P500则正像兴奋性降低,镜像显著性升高(P<0.05).左右大脑顶枕叶相比,抑郁症组正像右顶枕叶兴奋性显著性偏高(P<0.05),而镜像的兴奋性差异消失(P>0.05),对照组正镜像右顶枕叶兴奋性都显著性偏高(P<0.05).结论 抑郁症患者心理旋转能力受损,即心理旋转反应准备负电位降低,正像存在优势半球,镜像优势半球消失.提示心理旋转能力受损的脑地形图可为临床诊断提供辅助指标.

  20. From Brain Maps to Cognitive Ontologies: Informatics and the Search for Mental Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poldrack, Russell A; Yarkoni, Tal

    2016-01-01

    A major goal of cognitive neuroscience is to delineate how brain systems give rise to mental function. Here we review the increasingly large role informatics-driven approaches are playing in such efforts. We begin by reviewing a number of challenges conventional neuroimaging approaches face in trying to delineate brain-cognition mappings--for example, the difficulty in establishing the specificity of postulated associations. Next, we demonstrate how these limitations can potentially be overcome using complementary approaches that emphasize large-scale analysis--including meta-analytic methods that synthesize hundreds or thousands of studies at a time; latent-variable approaches that seek to extract structure from data in a bottom-up manner; and predictive modeling approaches capable of quantitatively inferring mental states from patterns of brain activity. We highlight the underappreciated but critical role for formal cognitive ontologies in helping to clarify, refine, and test theories of brain and cognitive function. Finally, we conclude with a speculative discussion of what future informatics developments may hold for cognitive neuroscience.

  1. Brain-Map Based Carangiform Swimming Behaviour Modeling and Control in a Robotic Fish Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhra Roy Chowdhury

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fish swimming demonstrates impressive speeds and exceptional characteristics in the fluid environment. The objective of this paper is to mimic undulatory swimming behaviour and its control of a body caudal fin (BCF carangiform fish in a robotic counterpart. Based on fish biology kinematics study, a 2-level behavior based distributed control scheme is proposed. The high-level control is modeled by robotic fish swimming behavior. It uses a Lighthill (LH body wave to generate desired joint trajectory patterns. Generated LH body wave is influenced by intrinsic kinematic parameters Tail-beat frequency (TBF and Caudal amplitude (CA which can be modulated to change the trajectory pattern. Parameter information is retrieved from a fish memory (cerebellum inspired brain map. This map stores operating region information on TBF and CA parameters obtained from yellow fin tuna kinematics study. Based on an environment based error feedback signal, robotic fish map selects the right parameter/s value showing adaptive behaviour. A finite state machine methodology has been used to model this brain-kinematic-map control. The low-level control is implemented using inverse dynamics based computed torque method (CTM with dynamic PD compensation. It tracks high-level generated and encoded patterns (trajectory for fish-tail undulation. Three types of parameter adaptation for the two chosen parameters have been shown to successfully emulate robotic fish swimming behavior. Based on the proposed control strategy joint-position and velocity tracking results are discussed. They are found to be satisfactory with error magnitudes within permissible bounds.

  2. MR-based automatic delineation of volumes of interest in human brain PET images using probability maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Claus; Madsen, Karina; Hasselbalch, Steen G.;

    2005-01-01

    delineation of the VOI set. The approach was also shown to work equally well in individuals with pronounced cerebral atrophy. Probability-map-based automatic delineation of VOIs is a fast, objective, reproducible, and safe way to assess regional brain values from PET or SPECT scans. In addition, the method......The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observer-independent approach for automatic generation of volume-of-interest (VOI) brain templates to be used in emission tomography studies of the brain. The method utilizes a VOI probability map created on the basis of a database of several...... subjects' MR-images, where VOI sets have been defined manually. High-resolution structural MR-images and 5-HT(2A) receptor binding PET-images (in terms of (18)F-altanserin binding) from 10 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with mild cognitive impairment were included for the analysis. A template including...

  3. Using data-driven model-brain mappings to constrain formal models of cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Jelmer P; Nijboer, Menno; Taatgen, Niels A; van Rijn, Hedderik; Anderson, John R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method to create data-driven mappings from components of cognitive models to brain regions. Cognitive models are notoriously hard to evaluate, especially based on behavioral measures alone. Neuroimaging data can provide additional constraints, but this requires a mapping f

  4. Brains studying brains: look before you think in vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaoping, Li

    2016-06-01

    Using our own brains to study our brains is extraordinary. For example, in vision this makes us naturally blind to our own blindness, since our impression of seeing our world clearly is consistent with our ignorance of what we do not see. Our brain employs its ‘conscious’ part to reason and make logical deductions using familiar rules and past experience. However, human vision employs many ‘subconscious’ brain parts that follow rules alien to our intuition. Our blindness to our unknown unknowns and our presumptive intuitions easily lead us astray in asking and formulating theoretical questions, as witnessed in many unexpected and counter-intuitive difficulties and failures encountered by generations of scientists. We should therefore pay a more than usual amount of attention and respect to experimental data when studying our brain. I show that this can be productive by reviewing two vision theories that have provided testable predictions and surprising insights.

  5. Mapping metals in Parkinson's and normal brain using rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Bogdan F. Gh; George, Martin J.; Bergmann, Uwe; Garachtchenko, Alex V.; Kelly, Michael E.; McCrea, Richard P. E.; Lüning, Katharina; Devon, Richard M.; George, Graham N.; Hanson, Akela D.; Harder, Sheri M.; Chapman, L. Dean; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Nichol, Helen

    2009-02-01

    Rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence (RS-XRF) is a synchrotron technology that maps multiple metals in tissues by employing unique hardware and software to increase scanning speed. RS-XRF was validated by mapping and quantifying iron, zinc and copper in brain slices from Parkinson's disease (PD) and unaffected subjects. Regions and structures in the brain were readily identified by their metal complement and each metal had a unique distribution. Many zinc-rich brain regions were low in iron and vice versa. The location and amount of iron in brain regions known to be affected in PD agreed with analyses using other methods. Sample preparation is simple and standard formalin-fixed autopsy slices are suitable. RS-XRF can simultaneously and non-destructively map and quantify multiple metals and holds great promise to reveal metal pathologies associated with PD and other neurodegenerative diseases as well as diseases of metal metabolism.

  6. Neural correlates of apathy revealed by lesion mapping in participants with traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Kristine M; Monte, Olga Dal; Raymont, Vanessa; Wassermann, Eric M; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-03-01

    Apathy, common in neurological disorders, is defined as disinterest and loss of motivation, with a reduction in self-initiated activity. Research in diseased populations has shown that apathy is associated with variations in the volume of brain regions such as the anterior cingulate and the frontal lobes. The goal of this study was to determine the neural signatures of apathy in people with penetrating traumatic brain injuries (pTBIs), as to our knowledge, these have not been studied in this sample. We studied 176 male Vietnam War veterans with pTBIs using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and apathy scores from the UCLA Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), a structured inventory of symptoms completed by a caregiver. Our results revealed that increased apathy symptoms were associated with brain damage in limbic and cortical areas of the left hemisphere including the anterior cingulate, inferior, middle, and superior frontal regions, insula, and supplementary motor area. Our results are consistent with the literature, and extend them to people with focal pTBI. Apathy is a significant symptom since it can reduce participation of the patient in family and other social interactions, and diminish affective decision-making.

  7. Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162514.html Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain Virus can copy itself thousands ... New research paints a chilling portrait of how Zika ravages the infant brain. Scientists from the U.S. ...

  8. Differential recruitment of brain networks following route and cartographic map learning of spatial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Copara, Milagros; Ekstrom, Arne D

    2012-01-01

    An extensive neuroimaging literature has helped characterize the brain regions involved in navigating a spatial environment. Far less is known, however, about the brain networks involved when learning a spatial layout from a cartographic map. To compare the two means of acquiring a spatial representation, participants learned spatial environments either by directly navigating them or learning them from an aerial-view map. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants then performed two different tasks to assess knowledge of the spatial environment: a scene and orientation dependent perceptual (SOP) pointing task and a judgment of relative direction (JRD) of landmarks pointing task. We found three brain regions showing significant effects of route vs. map learning during the two tasks. Parahippocampal and retrosplenial cortex showed greater activation following route compared to map learning during the JRD but not SOP task while inferior frontal gyrus showed greater activation following map compared to route learning during the SOP but not JRD task. We interpret our results to suggest that parahippocampal and retrosplenial cortex were involved in translating scene and orientation dependent coordinate information acquired during route learning to a landmark-referenced representation while inferior frontal gyrus played a role in converting primarily landmark-referenced coordinates acquired during map learning to a scene and orientation dependent coordinate system. Together, our results provide novel insight into the different brain networks underlying spatial representations formed during navigation vs. cartographic map learning and provide additional constraints on theoretical models of the neural basis of human spatial representation.

  9. Metaphoric identity mapping: facilitating goal setting and engagement in rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylvisaker, Mark; McPherson, Kathryn; Kayes, Nicola; Pellett, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Difficulty re-establishing an organised and compelling sense of personal identity has increasingly been identified as a critical theme in outcome studies of individuals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a serious obstacle to active engagement in rehabilitation. There exists little empirical support for approaches to identity reconstruction that address common impairments associated with TBI. Similarly, there is as yet little empirical support for theoretically sound approaches to promoting engagement in goal setting for this population. This article has two purposes. First, theory and procedures associated with metaphoric identity mapping are discussed in relation to goal setting in TBI rehabilitation. Second, the results of a qualitative pilot study are presented. The study explored metaphoric identity mapping as a facilitator of personally meaningful goal setting with five individuals with significant disability many years after their injury. Drawing on principles of grounded theory, the investigators extracted data from semi-structured interviews with clients and clinicians, from focus groups with the clinicians, and from observation of client-clinician interaction. Analysis of the data yielded five general themes concerning the use of this approach: All clients and clinicians found identity mapping to be an acceptable process and also useful for deriving meaningful rehabilitation goals. Both clients and clinicians saw client-centred goals as important. Cognitive impairments posed obstacles to this goal-setting intervention and mandated creative compensations. And finally, identity-related goal setting appeared to require a "mind shift" for some clinicians and demanded clinical skills not uniformly distributed among rehabilitation professionals.

  10. Spatial mapping of drug delivery to brain tissue using hyperspectral spatial frequency-domain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Moon, Rajinder P.; Roblyer, Darren M.; Bigio, Irving J.; Joshi, Shailendra

    2014-09-01

    We present an application of spatial frequency-domain imaging (SFDI) to the wide-field imaging of drug delivery to brain tissue. Measurements were compared with values obtained by a previously validated variation of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the method of optical pharmacokinetics (OP). We demonstrate a cross-correlation between the two methods for absorption extraction and drug concentration determination in both experimental tissue phantoms and freshly extracted rodent brain tissue. These methods were first used to assess intra-arterial (IA) delivery of cationic liposomes to brain tissue in Sprague Dawley rats under transient cerebral hypoperfusion. Results were found to be in agreement with previously published experimental data and pharmacokinetic models of IA drug delivery. We then applied the same scheme to evaluate IA mitoxantrone delivery to glioma-bearing rats. Good correlation was seen between OP and SFDI determined concentrations taken from normal and tumor averaged sites. This study shows the feasibility of mapping drug/tracer distributions and encourages the use of SFDI for spatial imaging of tissues for drug/tracer-tagged carrier deposition and pharmacokinetic studies.

  11. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5{+-}3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis.

  12. Brain SPECT analysis using statistical parametric mapping in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Euy Neyng; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo; Yang, Dong Won [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    This study investigated alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). Noninvasive rCBF measurements using {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed on 23 patients with PTSD and 21 age matched normal controls without re-exposure to accident-related stimuli. The relative rCBF maps in patients with PTSD and controls were compared. In patients with PTSD, significant increased rCBF was found along the limbic system in the brain. There were a few foci of decreased rCBF in the superior frontal gyrus, parietal and temporal region. PTSD is associated with increased rCBF in limbic areas compared with age-matched normal controls. These findings implicate regions of the limbic brain, which may mediate the response to aversive stimuli in healthy individuals, play on important role in patients suffering from PTSD and suggest that ongoing hyperfunction of 'overlearned survival response' or flashbacks response in these regions after painful, life threatening, or horrifying events without re-exposure to same traumatic stimulus.

  13. Mapping cocaine binding sites in human and baboon brain in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, J S; Volkow, N D; Wolf, A P; Dewey, S L; Schlyer, D J; Macgregor, R R; Hitzemann, R; Logan, J; Bendriem, B; Gatley, S J

    1989-01-01

    The first direct measurements of cocaine binding in the brain of normal human volunteers and baboons have been made by using positron emission tomography (PET) and tracer doses of [N-11C-methyl]-(-)-cocaine ([11C]cocaine). Cocaine's binding and release from brain are rapid with the highest regional uptake of carbon-11 occurring in the corpus striatum at 4-10 minutes after intravenous injection of labeled cocaine. This was followed by a clearance to half the peak value at about 25 minutes with the overall time course paralleling the previously documented time course of the euphoria experienced after intravenous cocaine administration. Blockade of the dopamine reuptake sites with nomifensine reduced the striatal but not the cerebellar uptake of [11C]cocaine in baboons indicating that cocaine binding is associated with the dopamine reuptake site in the corpus striatum. A comparison of labeled metabolites of cocaine in human and baboon plasma showed that while cocaine is rapidly metabolized in both species, the profile of labeled metabolites is different, with baboon plasma containing significant amounts of labeled carbon dioxide, and human plasma containing no significant labeled carbon dioxide. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using [11C]cocaine and PET to map binding sites for cocaine in human brain, to monitor its kinetics, and to characterize its binding mechanism by using appropriate pharmacological challenges.

  14. Molecular mapping of brain areas involved in parrot vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, E D; Mello, C V

    2000-03-27

    Auditory and vocal regulation of gene expression occurs in separate discrete regions of the songbird brain. Here we demonstrate that regulated gene expression also occurs during vocal communication in a parrot, belonging to an order whose ability to learn vocalizations is thought to have evolved independently of songbirds. Adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were stimulated to vocalize with playbacks of conspecific vocalizations (warbles), and their brains were analyzed for expression of the transcriptional regulator ZENK. The results showed that there was distinct separation of brain areas that had hearing- or vocalizing-induced ZENK expression. Hearing warbles resulted in ZENK induction in large parts of the caudal medial forebrain and in 1 midbrain region, with a pattern highly reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Vocalizing resulted in ZENK induction in nine brain structures, seven restricted to the lateral and anterior telencephalon, one in the thalamus, and one in the midbrain, with a pattern partially reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Five of the telencephalic structures had been previously described as part of the budgerigar vocal control pathway. However, functional boundaries defined by the gene expression patterns for some of these structures were much larger and different in shape than previously reported anatomical boundaries. Our results provide the first functional demonstration of brain areas involved in vocalizing and auditory processing of conspecific sounds in budgerigars. They also indicate that, whether or not vocal learning evolved independently, some of the gene regulatory mechanisms that accompany learned vocal communication are similar in songbirds and parrots.

  15. Brain metabolic maps in Mild Cognitive Impairment predict heterogeneity of progression to dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cerami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available [18F]FDG-PET imaging has been recognized as a crucial diagnostic marker in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, supporting the presence or the exclusion of Alzheimer's Disease (AD pathology. A clinical heterogeneity, however, underlies MCI definition. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the predictive role of single-subject voxel-based maps of [18F]FDG distribution generated through statistical parametric mapping (SPM in the progression to different dementia subtypes in a sample of 45 MCI. Their scans were compared to a large normal reference dataset developed and validated for comparison at single-subject level. Additionally, Aβ42 and Tau CSF values were available in 34 MCI subjects. Clinical follow-up (mean 28.5 ± 7.8 months assessed subsequent progression to AD or non-AD dementias. The SPM analysis showed: 1 normal brain metabolism in 14 MCI cases, none of them progressing to dementia; 2 the typical temporo-parietal pattern suggestive for prodromal AD in 15 cases, 11 of them progressing to AD; 3 brain hypometabolism suggestive of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD subtypes in 7 and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB in 2 subjects (all fulfilled FTLD or DLB clinical criteria at follow-up; and 4 7 MCI cases showed a selective unilateral or bilateral temporo-medial hypometabolism without the typical AD pattern, and they all remained stable. In our sample, objective voxel-based analysis of [18F]FDG-PET scans showed high predictive prognostic value, by identifying either normal brain metabolism or hypometabolic patterns suggestive of different underlying pathologies, as confirmed by progression at follow-up. These data support the potential usefulness of this SPM [18F]FDG PET analysis in the early dementia diagnosis and for improving subject selection in clinical trials based on MCI definition.

  16. Brain metabolism in patients with vegetative state after post-resuscitated hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: statistical parametric mapping analysis of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wook Kim; Hyoung Seop Kim; Young-Sil An

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI) after cardiopulmonary resuscitation is one of the most devastating neurological conditions that causing the impaired consciousness.However,there were few studies investigated the changes of brain metabolism in patients with vegetative state (VS) after post-resuscitated HIBI.This study aimed to analyze the change of overall brain metabolism and elucidated the brain area correlated with the level of consciousness (LOC) in patients with VS after post-resuscitated HIBI.Methods We consecutively enrolled 17 patients with VS after HIBI,who experienced cardiopulmonary resuscitation.Overall brain metabolism was measured by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) and we compared regional brain metabolic patterns from t7 patients with those from 15 normal controls using voxel-by-voxel based statistical parametric mapping analysis.Additionally,we correlated the LOC measured by the JFK-coma recovery scale-revised of each patient with brain metabolism by covariance analysis.Results Compared with normal controls,the patients with VS after post-resuscitated HIBI revealed significantly decreased brain metabolism in bilateral precuneus,bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus,bilateral middle frontal gyri,bilateral superior parietal gyri,bilateral middle occipital gyri,bilateral precentral gyri (PFEw correctecd <0.0001),and increased brain metabolism in bilateral insula,bilateral cerebella,and the brainstem (PFEw correctecd <0.0001).In covariance analysis,the LOC was significantly correlated with brain metabolism in bilateral fusiform and superior temporal gyri (P uncorrected <0.005).Conclusions Our study demonstrated that the precuneus,the posterior cingulate area and the frontoparietal cortex,which is a component of neural correlate for consciousness,may be relevant structure for impaired consciousness in patient with VS after post-resuscitated HIBI.In post-resuscitated HIBI,measurement of brain

  17. Robust biological parametric mapping: an improved technique for multimodal brain image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Beason-Held, Lori; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2011-03-01

    Mapping the quantitative relationship between structure and function in the human brain is an important and challenging problem. Numerous volumetric, surface, region of interest and voxelwise image processing techniques have been developed to statistically assess potential correlations between imaging and non-imaging metrics. Recently, biological parametric mapping has extended the widely popular statistical parametric approach to enable application of the general linear model to multiple image modalities (both for regressors and regressands) along with scalar valued observations. This approach offers great promise for direct, voxelwise assessment of structural and functional relationships with multiple imaging modalities. However, as presented, the biological parametric mapping approach is not robust to outliers and may lead to invalid inferences (e.g., artifactual low p-values) due to slight mis-registration or variation in anatomy between subjects. To enable widespread application of this approach, we introduce robust regression and robust inference in the neuroimaging context of application of the general linear model. Through simulation and empirical studies, we demonstrate that our robust approach reduces sensitivity to outliers without substantial degradation in power. The robust approach and associated software package provides a reliable way to quantitatively assess voxelwise correlations between structural and functional neuroimaging modalities.

  18. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-02-02

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns.

  19. Non-invasive optical mapping of the piglet brain in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Sergio; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Gratton, Enrico; Hueber, Dennis; Rosenfeld, Warren; Maulik, Dev; Stubblefield, Phillip; Stankovic, Mikjan

    1999-04-01

    We have performed non-invasive, real-time optical mapping of the piglet brain during a subcortical injection of autologous blood. The time resolution of the optical maps is 192 ms, thus allowing us to generate a real-time video of the growing subcortical hematoma. The increased absorption at the site of blood injection is accompanied by a decreased absorption at the contralateral brain side. This contralateral decrease in the optical absorption and the corresponding time traces of the cerebral hemoglobin parameters are consistent with a reduced cerebral blood flow caused by the increased intracranial pressure.

  20. Neuropsin Expression Correlates with Dendritic Marker MAP2c Level in Different Brain Regions of Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Arpita; Thakur, M K

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsin (NP) is a serine protease, implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory acquisition through cleavage of synaptic adhesion molecule, L1CAM. However, NP has not been explored during brain aging that entails drastic deterioration of plasticity and memory with selective regional vulnerability. Therefore, we have analysed the expression of NP and correlated with its function via analysis of endogenous cleavage of L1CAM and level of dendritic marker MAP2c in different regions of the aging mouse brain. While NP expression gradually decreased in the cerebral cortex during aging, it showed a sharp rise in both olfactory bulb and hippocampus in adult and thereafter declined in old age. NP expression was moderate in young medulla, but undetectable in midbrain and cerebellum. It was positively correlated with L1CAM cleavage and MAP2c level in different brain regions during aging. Taken together, our study shows age-dependent regional variation in NP expression and its positive correlation with MAP2c level, suggesting the involvement of NP in MAP2c mediated alterations in dendritic morphology during aging.

  1. Brain mapping in stereotactic surgery: a brief overview from the probabilistic targeting to the patient-based anatomic mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Coste, Jérôme; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Caire, François; Nuti, Christophe; Derost, Philippe; Cristini, Vittorio; Gabrillargues, Jean; Hemm, Simone; Durif, Franck; Chazal, Jean

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we briefly review the concept of brain mapping in stereotactic surgery taking into account recent advances in stereotactic imaging. The gold standard continues to rely on probabilistic and indirect targeting, relative to a stereotactic reference, i.e., mostly the anterior (AC) and the posterior (PC) commissures. The theoretical position of a target defined on an atlas is transposed into the stereotactic space of a patient's brain; final positioning depends on electrophysiological analysis. The method is also used to analyze final electrode or lesion position for a patient or group of patients, by projection on an atlas. Limitations are precision of definition of the AC-PC line, probabilistic location and reliability of the electrophysiological guidance. Advances in MR imaging, as from 1.5-T machines, make stereotactic references no longer mandatory and allow an anatomic mapping based on an individual patient's brain. Direct targeting is enabled by high-quality images, an advanced anatomic knowledge and dedicated surgical software. Labeling associated with manual segmentation can help for the position analysis along non-conventional, interpolated planes. Analysis of final electrode or lesion position, for a patient or group of patients, could benefit from the concept of membership, the attribution of a weighted membership degree to a contact or a structure according to its level of involvement. In the future, more powerful MRI machines, diffusion tensor imaging, tractography and computational modeling will further the understanding of anatomy and deep brain stimulation effects.

  2. A hybrid CPU-GPU accelerated framework for fast mapping of high-resolution human brain connectome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Recently, a combination of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and graph theoretical approaches has provided a unique opportunity for understanding the patterns of the structural and functional connectivity of the human brain (referred to as the human brain connectome. Currently, there is a very large amount of brain imaging data that have been collected, and there are very high requirements for the computational capabilities that are used in high-resolution connectome research. In this paper, we propose a hybrid CPU-GPU framework to accelerate the computation of the human brain connectome. We applied this framework to a publicly available resting-state functional MRI dataset from 197 participants. For each subject, we first computed Pearson's Correlation coefficient between any pairs of the time series of gray-matter voxels, and then we constructed unweighted undirected brain networks with 58 k nodes and a sparsity range from 0.02% to 0.17%. Next, graphic properties of the functional brain networks were quantified, analyzed and compared with those of 15 corresponding random networks. With our proposed accelerating framework, the above process for each network cost 80∼150 minutes, depending on the network sparsity. Further analyses revealed that high-resolution functional brain networks have efficient small-world properties, significant modular structure, a power law degree distribution and highly connected nodes in the medial frontal and parietal cortical regions. These results are largely compatible with previous human brain network studies. Taken together, our proposed framework can substantially enhance the applicability and efficacy of high-resolution (voxel-based brain network analysis, and have the potential to accelerate the mapping of the human brain connectome in normal and disease states.

  3. The INIA19 template and NeuroMaps atlas for primate brain image parcellation and spatial normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten eRohlfing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The INIA19 is a new, high-quality template for imaging-based studies of non-human primate brains created from high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR images of 19 rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta animals. Combined with the comprehensive cortical and subcortical label map of the NeuroMaps atlas, the INIA19 is equally suitable for studies requiring both spatial normalization and atlas label propagation. Population-averaged template images are provided for both the brain and the whole head, to allow alignment of the atlas with both skull-stripped and unstripped data, and thus to facilitate its use for skull stripping of new images. This article describes the construction of the template using freely-available software tools, as well as the template itself, which is being made available to the scientific community (http://nitrc.org/projects/inia19/.

  4. Using geographical information systems mapping to identify areas presenting high risk for traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colantonio Angela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to show how geographical information systems (GIS can be used to track and compare hospitalization rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI over time and across a large geographical area using population based data. Results & Discussion Data on TBI hospitalizations, and geographic and demographic variables, came from the Ontario Trauma Registry Minimum Data Set for the fiscal years 1993-1994 and 2001-2002. Various visualization techniques, exploratory data analysis and spatial analysis were employed to map and analyze these data. Both the raw and standardized rates by age/gender of the geographical unit were studied. Data analyses revealed persistent high rates of hospitalization for TBI resulting from any injury mechanism between two time periods in specific geographic locations. Conclusions This study shows how geographic information systems can be successfully used to investigate hospitalizaton rates for traumatic brain injury using a range of tools and techniques; findings can be used for local planning of both injury prevention and post discharge services, including rehabilitation.

  5. Mapping Functional Brain Development: Building a Social Brain through Interactive Specialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark H.; Grossmann, Tobias; Kadosh, Kathrin Cohen

    2009-01-01

    The authors review a viewpoint on human functional brain development, interactive specialization (IS), and its application to the emerging network of cortical regions referred to as the "social brain." They advance the IS view in 2 new ways. First, they extend IS into a domain to which it has not previously been applied--the emergence of social…

  6. Mapping and Reducing the Brain on the Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Sahai, Esha; Sahai, Tuhin

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of cloud computing has enabled an incredible growth in available hardware resources at very low costs. These resources are being increasingly utilized by corporations for scalable analysis of "big data" problems. In this work, we explore the possibility of using commodity hardware such as Amazon EC2 for performing large scale scientific computation. In particular, we simulate interconnected cortical neurons using MapReduce. We build and model a network of 1000 spiking cortical n...

  7. Unified segmentation based correction of R1 brain maps for RF transmit field inhomogeneities (UNICORT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Lutti, Antoine; Helms, Gunther; Novak, Marianne; Ashburner, John; Hutton, Chloe

    2011-02-01

    Quantitative mapping of the longitudinal relaxation rate (R1=1/T1) in the human brain enables the investigation of tissue microstructure and macroscopic morphology which are becoming increasingly important for clinical and neuroimaging applications. R1 maps are now commonly estimated from two fast high-resolution 3D FLASH acquisitions with variable excitation flip angles, because this approach is fast and does not rely on special acquisition techniques. However, these R1 maps need to be corrected for bias due to RF transmit field (B1(+)) inhomogeneities, requiring additional B1(+) mapping which is usually time consuming and difficult to implement. We propose a technique that simultaneously estimates the B1(+) inhomogeneities and R1 values from the uncorrected R1 maps in the human brain without need for B1(+) mapping. It employs a probabilistic framework for unified segmentation based correction of R1 maps for B1(+) inhomogeneities (UNICORT). The framework incorporates a physically informed generative model of smooth B1(+) inhomogeneities and their multiplicative effect on R1 estimates. Extensive cross-validation with the established standard using measured B1(+) maps shows that UNICORT yields accurate B1(+) and R1 maps with a mean deviation from the standard of less than 4.3% and 5%, respectively. The results of different groups of subjects with a wide age range and different levels of atypical brain anatomy further suggest that the method is robust and generalizes well to wider populations. UNICORT is easy to apply, as it is computationally efficient and its basic framework is implemented as part of the tissue segmentation in SPM8.

  8. Cortical mapping by functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majos, Agata; Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Goraj, Bozena [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Radiology, Lodz (Poland); Tybor, Krzysztof [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Neurosurgery, Lodz (Poland)

    2005-06-01

    The aim of our study was to establish the effectiveness of the functional MRI (fMRI) technique in comparison with intraoperative cortical stimulation (ICS) in planning cortex-saving neurosurgical interventions. The combination of sensory and motor stimulation during fMRI experiments was used to improve the exactness of central sulcus localization. The study subjects were 30 volunteers and 33 patients with brain tumors in the rolandic area. Detailed topographical relations of activated areas in fMRI and intraoperative techniques were compared. The agreement in the location defined by the two methods for motor centers was found to be 84%; for sensory centers it was 83%. When both kinds of activation are taken into account this agreement increases to 98%. A significant relation was found between fMRI and ICS for the agreement of the distance both for motor and sensory centers (p=0.0021-0.0024). Also a strong dependence was found between the agreement of the location and the agreement of the distance for both kinds of stimulation. The spatial correlation between fMRI and ICS methods for the sensorimotor cortex is very high. fMRI combining functional and structural information is very helpful for preoperative neurosurgical planning. The sensitivity of the fMRI technique in brain mapping increases when using both motor and sensory paradigms in the same patient. (orig.)

  9. A statistical parametric mapping toolbox used for voxel-wise analysis of FDG-PET images of rat brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Nie

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: PET (positron emission tomography imaging researches of functional metabolism using fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG of animal brain are important in neuroscience studies. FDG-PET imaging studies are often performed on groups of rats, so it is desirable to establish an objective voxel-based statistical methodology for group data analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study establishes a statistical parametric mapping (SPM toolbox (plug-ins named spmratIHEP for voxel-wise analysis of FDG-PET images of rat brain, in which an FDG-PET template and an intracranial mask image of rat brain in Paxinos & Watson space were constructed, and the default settings were modified according to features of rat brain. Compared to previous studies, our constructed rat brain template comprises not only the cerebrum and cerebellum, but also the whole olfactory bulb which made the later cognitive studies much more exhaustive. And with an intracranial mask image in the template space, the brain tissues of individuals could be extracted automatically. Moreover, an atlas space is used for anatomically labeling the functional findings in the Paxinos & Watson space. In order to standardize the template image with the atlas accurately, a synthetic FDG-PET image with six main anatomy structures is constructed from the atlas, which performs as a target image in the co-registration. RESULTS: The spatial normalization procedure is evaluated, by which the individual rat brain images could be standardized into the Paxinos & Watson space successfully and the intracranial tissues could also be extracted accurately. The practical usability of this toolbox is evaluated using FDG-PET functional images from rats with left side middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in comparison to normal control rats. And the two-sample t-test statistical result is almost related to the left side MCA. CONCLUSION: We established a toolbox of SPM8 named spmratIHEP for voxel-wise analysis of FDG

  10. Magnetoencephalography in the study of brain dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzella, Vittorio; Marzetti, Laura; Della Penna, Stefania; de Pasquale, Francesco; Zappasodi, Filippo; Romani, Gian Luca

    2014-01-01

    To progress toward understanding of the mechanisms underlying the functional organization of the human brain, either a bottom-up or a top-down approach may be adopted. The former starts from the study of the detailed functioning of a small number of neuronal assemblies, while the latter tries to decode brain functioning by considering the brain as a whole. This review discusses the top-down approach and the use of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to describe global brain properties. The main idea behind this approach is that the concurrence of several areas is required for the brain to instantiate a specific behavior/functioning. A central issue is therefore the study of brain functional connectivity and the concept of brain networks as ensembles of distant brain areas that preferentially exchange information. Importantly, the human brain is a dynamic device, and MEG is ideally suited to investigate phenomena on behaviorally relevant timescales, also offering the possibility of capturing behaviorally-related brain connectivity dynamics.

  11. Whole-brain mapping of afferent projections to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Rong-Jun; Luo, Peng-Hao; Shu, Yu-Mian; Chen, Ju-Tao; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2016-10-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) plays an important role in integrating and relaying input information to other brain regions in response to stress. The cytoarchitecture of the BST in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has been comprehensively described in our previous publications. However, the inputs to the BST have not been described in previous reports. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sources of afferent projections to the BST throughout the brain of tree shrews using the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG). The present results provide the first detailed whole-brain mapping of BST-projecting neurons in the tree shrew brain. The BST was densely innervated by the prefrontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, ventral subiculum, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, and parabrachial nucleus. Moreover, moderate projections to the BST originated from the medial preoptic area, supramammillary nucleus, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, and nucleus of the solitary tract. Afferent projections to the BST are identified in the ventral pallidum, nucleus of the diagonal band, ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus, posterior complex of the thalamus, interfascicular nucleus, retrorubral field, rhabdoid nucleus, intermediate reticular nucleus, and parvicellular reticular nucleus. In addition, the different densities of BST-projecting neurons in various regions were analyzed in the tree shrew brains. In summary, whole-brain mapping of direct inputs to the BST is delineated in tree shrews. These brain circuits are implicated in the regulation of numerous physiological and behavioral processes including stress, reward, food intake, and arousal.

  12. Spatiotemporal brain mapping during preparation, perception, and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Russo, Francesco; Lucci, Giuliana; Sulpizio, Valentina; Berchicci, Marika; Spinelli, Donatella; Pitzalis, Sabrina; Galati, Gaspare

    2016-02-01

    Deciding whether to act or not to act is a fundamental cognitive function. To avoid incorrect responses, both reactive and proactive modes of control have been postulated. Little is known, however, regarding the brain implementation of proactive mechanisms, which are deployed prior to an actual need to inhibit a response. Via a combination of electrophysiological and neuroimaging measures (recorded in 21 and 16 participants, respectively), we describe the brain localization and timing of neural activity that underlies the anticipatory proactive mechanism. From these results, we conclude that proactive control originates in the inferior Frontal gyrus, is established well before stimulus perception, and is released concomitantly with stimulus appearance. Stimulus perception triggers early activity in the anterior insula and intraparietal cortex contralateral to the responding hand; these areas likely mediate the transition from perception to action. The neural activities leading to the decision to act or not to act are described in the framework of a three-stage model that includes perception, action, and anticipatory functions taking place well before stimulus onset.

  13. Mapping functional brain development: Building a social brain through interactive specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark H; Grossmann, Tobias; Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin

    2009-01-01

    The authors review a viewpoint on human functional brain development, interactive specialization (IS), and its application to the emerging network of cortical regions referred to as the social brain. They advance the IS view in 2 new ways. First, they extend IS into a domain to which it has not previously been applied--the emergence of social cognition and mentalizing computations in the brain. Second, they extend the implications of the IS view from the emergence of specialized functions within a cortical region to a focus on how different cortical regions with complementary functions become orchestrated into networks during human postnatal development.

  14. [Brain potential mapping by a new method of polynomial interpolation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cobo, J C; Asencor, F J; Sánchez-Suero, S; Pérez-Arroyo, M

    1993-06-01

    The mapping of evoked cerebral activity is largely determined by the choice of the interpolation system used. When the number of electrodes is very large, practically any interpolation system is valid, but the geometrical and anatomical limitations imposed by the animals normally chosen for these experiments impede the use of a large number of electrodes; hence the overriding importance of a workable interpolation system. The polynomic interpolation method on the monomial structure is presented as valid, and compared with the pseudolineal interpolation method, which is more commonly used.

  15. Mapping small-world properties through development in the human brain: disruption in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardo Tomasi

    Full Text Available Evidence from imaging studies suggests that the human brain has a small-world network topology that might be disrupted in certain brain disorders. However, current methodology is based on global graph theory measures, such as clustering, C, characteristic path length, L, and small-worldness, S, that lack spatial specificity and are insufficient to identify regional brain abnormalities. Here we propose novel ultra-fast methodology for mapping local properties of brain network topology such as local C, L and S (lC, lL and lS in the human brain at 3-mm isotropic resolution from 'resting-state' magnetic resonance imaging data. Test-retest datasets from 40 healthy children/adolescents were used to demonstrate the overall good reliability of the measures across sessions and computational parameters (intraclass correlation > 0.5 for lC and lL and their low variability across subjects (< 29%. Whereas regions with high local functional connectivity density (lFCD; local degree in posterior parietal and occipital cortices demonstrated high lC and short lL, subcortical regions (globus pallidus, thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala, cerebellum (lobes and vermis, cingulum and temporal cortex also had high, lS, demonstrating stronger small-world topology than other hubs. Children/adolescents had stronger lFCD, higher lC and longer lL in most cortical regions and thalamus than 74 healthy adults, consistent with pruning of functional connectivity during maturation. In contrast, lFCD, lC and lL were weaker in thalamus and midbrain, and lL was shorter in frontal cortical regions and cerebellum for 69 schizophrenia patients than for 74 healthy controls, suggesting exaggerated pruning of connectivity in schizophrenia. Follow up correlation analyses for seeds in thalamus and midbrain uncovered lower positive connectivity of these regions in thalamus, putamen, cerebellum and frontal cortex (cingulum, orbitofrontal, inferior frontal and lower negative connectivity in

  16. On Initial Brain Activity Mapping of Associative Memory Code in the Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsien, Joe Z.; Li, Meng; Osan, Remus; Chen, Guifen; Lin, Longian; Lei Wang, Phillip; Frey, Sabine; Frey, Julietta; Zhu, Dajiang; Liu, Tianming; Zhao, Fang; Kuang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that the understanding of the brain code would require large-scale recording and decoding of brain activity patterns. In 2007 with support from Georgia Research Alliance, we have launched the Brain Decoding Project Initiative with the basic idea which is now similarly advocated by BRAIN project or Brain Activity Map proposal. As the planning of the BRAIN project is currently underway, we share our insights and lessons from our efforts in mapping real-time episodic memory traces in the hippocampus of freely behaving mice. We show that appropriate large-scale statistical methods are essential to decipher and measure real-time memory traces and neural dynamics. We also provide an example of how the carefully designed, sometime thinking-outside-the-box, behavioral paradigms can be highly instrumental to the unraveling of memory-coding cell assembly organizing principle in the hippocampus. Our observations to date have led us to conclude that the specific-to-general categorical and combinatorial feature-coding cell assembly mechanism represents an emergent property for enabling the neural networks to generate and organize not only episodic memory, but also semantic knowledge and imagination. PMID:23838072

  17. On initial Brain Activity Mapping of episodic and semantic memory code in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsien, Joe Z; Li, Meng; Osan, Remus; Chen, Guifen; Lin, Longian; Wang, Phillip Lei; Frey, Sabine; Frey, Julietta; Zhu, Dajiang; Liu, Tianming; Zhao, Fang; Kuang, Hui

    2013-10-01

    It has been widely recognized that the understanding of the brain code would require large-scale recording and decoding of brain activity patterns. In 2007 with support from Georgia Research Alliance, we have launched the Brain Decoding Project Initiative with the basic idea which is now similarly advocated by BRAIN project or Brain Activity Map proposal. As the planning of the BRAIN project is currently underway, we share our insights and lessons from our efforts in mapping real-time episodic memory traces in the hippocampus of freely behaving mice. We show that appropriate large-scale statistical methods are essential to decipher and measure real-time memory traces and neural dynamics. We also provide an example of how the carefully designed, sometime thinking-outside-the-box, behavioral paradigms can be highly instrumental to the unraveling of memory-coding cell assembly organizing principle in the hippocampus. Our observations to date have led us to conclude that the specific-to-general categorical and combinatorial feature-coding cell assembly mechanism represents an emergent property for enabling the neural networks to generate and organize not only episodic memory, but also semantic knowledge and imagination.

  18. Molecular cloning, chromosomal mapping, and functional expression of human brain glutamate receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, W.; Ferrer-Montiel, A.V.; Schinder, A.F.; Montal, M. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States)); McPherson, J.P. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States)); Evans, G.A. (Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States))

    1992-02-15

    A full-length cDNA clone encoding a glutamate receptor was isolated from a human brain cDNA library, and the gene product was characterized after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Degenerate PCR primers to conserved regions of published rat brain glutamate receptor sequences amplified a 1-kilobase fragment from a human brain cDNA library. This fragment was used as a probe for subsequent hybridization screening. Two clones were isolated that, based on sequence information, code for different receptors: a 3-kilobase clone, HBGR1, contains a full-length glutamate receptor cDNA highly homologous to the rat brain clone GluR1, and a second clone, HBGR2, contains approximately two-thirds of the coding region of a receptor homologous to rat brain clone GluR2. Southern and PCr analysis of a somatic cell-hybrid panel mapped HBGR1 to human chromosome 5q31.3-33.3 and mapped HBGR2 to chromosome 4q25-34.3. Xenopus oocytes injected with in vitro-synthesized HBGR1 cRNA expressed currents activated by glutamate receptor agonists. These results indicate that clone HBGR1 codes for a glutamate receptor of the kainate subtype cognate to members of the glutamate receptor family from rodent brain.

  19. An experimental study on expression of MAP-2 protein and mRNA after traumatic brain injury in rats%MAP-2在大鼠脑损伤后表达变化的时间规律性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴旭; 杨丽; 王保捷; 张国华; 甄博; 孙宏杰; 王明; 何柏林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the expression of MAP-2 and the time course of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods The TBI Model was produced by the impact force of 355. 09kPa. Immunocytochemical staining, doublelabeled staining, in situ hybridization and computer image analysis were employed. Results The MAP-2 mRNA and protein positive staining can be observed both in control and sham group. The MAP-2 mRNA positive staining remarkably increased from 30 minutes and reached the maximal level at 2 days after injury and kept at a high level for 7 days. The MAP-2 protein positive signals were observed in dendritic structure and cytosome. The positive dendritic structure staining decreased from 3h and reached the minimal level at 24h after injury. From 2 days after injury,the dendritic structure staining became to recover . There was no significant difference at 15 days after injury as compared with control group. Conclusion The expressions of MAP-2 mRNA and protein had a possible relationship with the extended periods of time after TBI. It might be used to determine time course of TBI in forensic medicine.%目的 探讨MAP-2在大鼠脑损伤后表达变化的时间规律性.方法 以355.09kPa冲击应力致大鼠局灶性脑损伤后,在不同时间应用原位杂交、免疫组化、免疫组化双染色技术检测MAP-2 mRNA和蛋白表达情况.结果 MAP-2 mRNA在对照组及假手术组均有表达,伤后30 min表达增强,伤后2d,达到峰值,并维持高水平表达至伤后7d.MAP-2蛋白在对照组及假手术组均有表达,伤后3h开始呈下降趋势,伤后1d,达到最低值,伤后2d起,表达逐渐恢复,伤后15d,恢复至对照组水平.结论 脑损伤后MAP-2 mRNA及蛋白表达具有时间规律,可用于法医学推断脑损伤形成时间.

  20. The brain decade in debate: VI. Sensory and motor maps: dynamics and plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Das

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an edited transcription of a virtual symposium promoted by the Brazilian Society of Neuroscience and Behavior (SBNeC. Although the dynamics of sensory and motor representations have been one of the most studied features of the central nervous system, the actual mechanisms of brain plasticity that underlie the dynamic nature of sensory and motor maps are not entirely unraveled. Our discussion began with the notion that the processing of sensory information depends on many different cortical areas. Some of them are arranged topographically and others have non-topographic (analytical properties. Besides a sensory component, every cortical area has an efferent output that can be mapped and can influence motor behavior. Although new behaviors might be related to modifications of the sensory or motor representations in a given cortical area, they can also be the result of the acquired ability to make new associations between specific sensory cues and certain movements, a type of learning known as conditioning motor learning. Many types of learning are directly related to the emotional or cognitive context in which a new behavior is acquired. This has been demonstrated by paradigms in which the receptive field properties of cortical neurons are modified when an animal is engaged in a given discrimination task or when a triggering feature is paired with an aversive stimulus. The role of the cholinergic input from the nucleus basalis to the neocortex was also highlighted as one important component of the circuits responsible for the context-dependent changes that can be induced in cortical maps.

  1. Presurgical mapping with functional MRI. Comparative study with transcranial magnetic stimulation and intraoperative mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminogo, Makio; Morikawa, Minoru; Ishimaru, Hideki; Ochi, Makoto; Onizuka, Masanori; Shirakawa, Yasushi; Takahashi, Haruki; Shibata, Shobu [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-05-01

    The thumb movement was evoked by transcranical magnetic stimulation (TCS) for the mapping of the motor cortex. After the placement of the marker determined by TCS on the scalp, fMRI under motor tasks consisting of repetitive grasping was performed. For motor cortex activation, an axial oblique plane to maximize gray matter sampling in the rolandic cortex was employed in order to compare these different mapping techniques more precisely. Sixteen patients with brain tumors were included in this study. In nine patients, fMRI disclosed activation in one restricted gyrus or in the localized area around one restricted sulcus. Of these nine patients, preoperative TCS mapping corresponded closely with fMRI in six, while in the remaining three, the TCS marker fell between 1 and 2 cm apart from the fMRI-activated area. However, in these three patients, intraoperative electrocortical stimulation corresponded with the preoperative mapping with fMRI. In six patients, contiguous two gyri were activated by motor tasks. The TCS marker was disclosed on one of the two activated gyri. Of these six patients, the position of the TCS marker and fMRI-activated site corresponded with each other in four cases. They were found on the same gyrus but there was 1.0-2.0 cm distance between them in two cases. Intraoperative somatosensory evoked potential was monitored in two of these six cases. They corresponded well with the mapping by fMRI and TCS together. In only one patient, no significant activation area was obtained by fMRI because of excessive head motion during motor tasks. The TCS maker in this patients was identical with intraoperative electro-cortical stimulation mapping. (K.H.)

  2. Molecular mapping of movement-associated areas in the avian brain: a motor theory for vocal learning origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenders, Gesa; Liedvogel, Miriam; Rivas, Miriam; Zapka, Manuela; Horita, Haruhito; Hara, Erina; Wada, Kazuhiro; Mouritsen, Henrik; Jarvis, Erich D

    2008-03-12

    Vocal learning is a critical behavioral substrate for spoken human language. It is a rare trait found in three distantly related groups of birds-songbirds, hummingbirds, and parrots. These avian groups have remarkably similar systems of cerebral vocal nuclei for the control of learned vocalizations that are not found in their more closely related vocal non-learning relatives. These findings led to the hypothesis that brain pathways for vocal learning in different groups evolved independently from a common ancestor but under pre-existing constraints. Here, we suggest one constraint, a pre-existing system for movement control. Using behavioral molecular mapping, we discovered that in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds, all cerebral vocal learning nuclei are adjacent to discrete brain areas active during limb and body movements. Similar to the relationships between vocal nuclei activation and singing, activation in the adjacent areas correlated with the amount of movement performed and was independent of auditory and visual input. These same movement-associated brain areas were also present in female songbirds that do not learn vocalizations and have atrophied cerebral vocal nuclei, and in ring doves that are vocal non-learners and do not have cerebral vocal nuclei. A compilation of previous neural tracing experiments in songbirds suggests that the movement-associated areas are connected in a network that is in parallel with the adjacent vocal learning system. This study is the first global mapping that we are aware for movement-associated areas of the avian cerebrum and it indicates that brain systems that control vocal learning in distantly related birds are directly adjacent to brain systems involved in movement control. Based upon these findings, we propose a motor theory for the origin of vocal learning, this being that the brain areas specialized for vocal learning in vocal learners evolved as a specialization of a pre-existing motor pathway that controls

  3. Molecular mapping of movement-associated areas in the avian brain: a motor theory for vocal learning origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Feenders

    Full Text Available Vocal learning is a critical behavioral substrate for spoken human language. It is a rare trait found in three distantly related groups of birds-songbirds, hummingbirds, and parrots. These avian groups have remarkably similar systems of cerebral vocal nuclei for the control of learned vocalizations that are not found in their more closely related vocal non-learning relatives. These findings led to the hypothesis that brain pathways for vocal learning in different groups evolved independently from a common ancestor but under pre-existing constraints. Here, we suggest one constraint, a pre-existing system for movement control. Using behavioral molecular mapping, we discovered that in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds, all cerebral vocal learning nuclei are adjacent to discrete brain areas active during limb and body movements. Similar to the relationships between vocal nuclei activation and singing, activation in the adjacent areas correlated with the amount of movement performed and was independent of auditory and visual input. These same movement-associated brain areas were also present in female songbirds that do not learn vocalizations and have atrophied cerebral vocal nuclei, and in ring doves that are vocal non-learners and do not have cerebral vocal nuclei. A compilation of previous neural tracing experiments in songbirds suggests that the movement-associated areas are connected in a network that is in parallel with the adjacent vocal learning system. This study is the first global mapping that we are aware for movement-associated areas of the avian cerebrum and it indicates that brain systems that control vocal learning in distantly related birds are directly adjacent to brain systems involved in movement control. Based upon these findings, we propose a motor theory for the origin of vocal learning, this being that the brain areas specialized for vocal learning in vocal learners evolved as a specialization of a pre-existing motor

  4. Computational neuroanatomy: mapping cell-type densities in the mouse brain, simulations from the Allen Brain Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    The Allen Brain Atlas of the adult mouse (ABA) consists of digitized expression profiles of thousands of genes in the mouse brain, co-registered to a common three-dimensional template (the Allen Reference Atlas).This brain-wide, genome-wide data set has triggered a renaissance in neuroanatomy. Its voxelized version (with cubic voxels of side 200 microns) is available for desktop computation in MATLAB. On the other hand, brain cells exhibit a great phenotypic diversity (in terms of size, shape and electrophysiological activity), which has inspired the names of some well-studied cell types, such as granule cells and medium spiny neurons. However, no exhaustive taxonomy of brain cell is available. A genetic classification of brain cells is being undertaken, and some cell types have been chraracterized by their transcriptome profiles. However, given a cell type characterized by its transcriptome, it is not clear where else in the brain similar cells can be found. The ABA can been used to solve this region-specificity problem in a data-driven way: rewriting the brain-wide expression profiles of all genes in the atlas as a sum of cell-type-specific transcriptome profiles is equivalent to solving a quadratic optimization problem at each voxel in the brain. However, the estimated brain-wide densities of 64 cell types published recently were based on one series of co-registered coronal in situ hybridization (ISH) images per gene, whereas the online ABA contains several image series per gene, including sagittal ones. In the presented work, we simulate the variability of cell-type densities in a Monte Carlo way by repeatedly drawing a random image series for each gene and solving the optimization problem. This yields error bars on the region-specificity of cell types.

  5. Mapping brain response to pain in fibromyalgia patients using temporal analysis of FMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Pujol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nociceptive stimuli may evoke brain responses longer than the stimulus duration often partially detected by conventional neuroimaging. Fibromyalgia patients typically complain of severe pain from gentle stimuli. We aimed to characterize brain response to painful pressure in fibromyalgia patients by generating activation maps adjusted for the duration of brain responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty-seven women (mean age: 47.8 years were assessed with fMRI. The sample included nine fibromyalgia patients and nine healthy subjects who received 4 kg/cm(2 of pressure on the thumb. Nine additional control subjects received 6.8 kg/cm(2 to match the patients for the severity of perceived pain. Independent Component Analysis characterized the temporal dynamics of the actual brain response to pressure. Statistical parametric maps were estimated using the obtained time courses. Brain response to pressure (18 seconds consistently exceeded the stimulus application (9 seconds in somatosensory regions in all groups. fMRI maps following such temporal dynamics showed a complete pain network response (sensory-motor cortices, operculo-insula, cingulate cortex, and basal ganglia to 4 kg/cm(2 of pressure in fibromyalgia patients. In healthy subjects, response to this low intensity pressure involved mainly somatosensory cortices. When matched for perceived pain (6.8 kg/cm(2, control subjects showed also comprehensive activation of pain-related regions, but fibromyalgia patients showed significantly larger activation in the anterior insula-basal ganglia complex and the cingulate cortex. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that data-driven fMRI assessments may complement conventional neuroimaging for characterizing pain responses and that enhancement of brain activation in fibromyalgia patients may be particularly relevant in emotion-related regions.

  6. Nonrigid Registration of Brain Tumor Resection MR Images Based on Joint Saliency Map and Keypoint Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binjie Qin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel global-to-local nonrigid brain MR image registration to compensate for the brain shift and the unmatchable outliers caused by the tumor resection. The mutual information between the corresponding salient structures, which are enhanced by the joint saliency map (JSM, is maximized to achieve a global rigid registration of the two images. Being detected and clustered at the paired contiguous matching areas in the globally registered images, the paired pools of DoG keypoints in combination with the JSM provide a useful cluster-to-cluster correspondence to guide the local control-point correspondence detection and the outlier keypoint rejection. Lastly, a quasi-inverse consistent deformation is smoothly approximated to locally register brain images through the mapping the clustered control points by compact support radial basis functions. The 2D implementation of the method can model the brain shift in brain tumor resection MR images, though the theory holds for the 3D case.

  7. The subtle body: an interoceptive map of central nervous system function and meditative mind-brain-body integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Joseph J

    2016-06-01

    Meditation research has begun to clarify the brain effects and mechanisms of contemplative practices while generating a range of typologies and explanatory models to guide further study. This comparative review explores a neglected area relevant to current research: the validity of a traditional central nervous system (CNS) model that coevolved with the practices most studied today and that provides the first comprehensive neural-based typology and mechanistic framework of contemplative practices. The subtle body model, popularly known as the chakra system from Indian yoga, was and is used as a map of CNS function in traditional Indian and Tibetan medicine, neuropsychiatry, and neuropsychology. The study presented here, based on the Nalanda tradition, shows that the subtle body model can be cross-referenced with modern CNS maps and challenges modern brain maps with its embodied network model of CNS function. It also challenges meditation research by: (1) presenting a more rigorous, neural-based typology of contemplative practices; (2) offering a more refined and complete network model of the mechanisms of contemplative practices; and (3) serving as an embodied, interoceptive neurofeedback aid that is more user friendly and complete than current teaching aids for clinical and practical applications of contemplative practice.

  8. Positron emission tomography (PET) study of the alterations in brain distribution of [{sup 11}C]dethamphetamine in methamphetamine sensitized dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizugaki, Michinao; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Hishinuma, Takanori; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Ishiwata, Shunji; Suzuki, Hideaki; Ido, Tatsuo; Iwata, Ren; Funaki, Yoshihito; Itoh, Masatoshi; Fujiwara, Takehiko; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Sato, Mitsumoto; Numachi, Yohtaro; Yoshida, Sumiko

    1995-08-01

    [{sup 11}C]Methamphetamine ([{sup 11}C]MAP) was synthesized by an automated on-line [{sup 11}C]methylation system for positron emission tomography (PET) study. We newly produced a MAP sensitized dog by repeated MAP treatment and studied the brain distribution of [{sup 11}C]MAP in the normal and the MAP sensitized dog. The maximal level of accumulation of [{sup 11}C]MAP in the sensitized dog brain was 1.4 times higher than that in the control. No difference was found in the metabolism of MAP between the two conditions. The significant increase of [{sup 11}C]MAP in the MAP sensitized brain indicates that subchronic MAP administration causes some functional change in uptake site of MAP.

  9. Mapping pathological changes in brain structure by combining T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganzetti, Marco; Mantini, Dante [ETH Zurich, Neural Control of Movement Laboratory, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Oxford, Department of Experimental Psychology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Wenderoth, Nicole [ETH Zurich, Neural Control of Movement Laboratory, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); KU Leuven, Laboratory of Movement Control and Neuroplasticity, Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    A workflow based on the ratio between standardized T1-weighted (T1-w) and T2-weighted (T2-w) MR images has been proposed as a new tool to study brain structure. This approach was previously used to map structural properties in the healthy brain. Here, we evaluate whether the T1-w/T2-w approach can support the assessment of structural impairments in the diseased brain. We use schizophrenia data to demonstrate the potential clinical utility of the technique. We analyzed T1-w and T2-w images of 36 schizophrenic patients and 35 age-matched controls. These were collected for the Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network (fBIRN) collaborative project, which had an IRB approval and followed the HIPAA guidelines. We computed T1-w/T2-w images for each individual and compared intensities in schizophrenic and control groups on a voxel-wise basis, as well as in regions of interest (ROIs). Our results revealed that the T1-w/T2-w image permits to discriminate brain regions showing group-level differences between patients and controls with greater accuracy than conventional T1-w and T2-w images. Both the ROIs and the voxel-wise analysis showed globally reduced gray and white matter values in patients compared to controls. Significantly reduced values were found in regions such as insula, primary auditory cortex, hippocampus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Our findings were consistent with previous meta-analyses in schizophrenia corroborating the hypothesis of a potential ''disconnection'' syndrome in conjunction with structural alterations in local gray matter regions. Overall, our study suggested that the T1-w/T2-w technique permits to reliably map structural differences between the brains of patients and healthy individuals. (orig.)

  10. Virtual brain mapping: Meta-analysis and visualization in functional neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    Results from functional neuroimaging such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance are often reported as sets of 3-dimensional coordinates in Talairach stereotactic space. By utilizing data collected in the BrainMap database and from our own small XML database we can...... data matrix. By conditioning on elements in the databases other than the coordinate data, e.g., anatomical labels associated with many coordinates we can make conditional novelty detection identifying outliers in the database that might be errorneous entries or seldom occuring patterns. In the Brain......Map database we found errors, e.g., stemming from confusion of centimeters and millimeters during entering and errors in the original article. Conditional probability density modeling also enables generation of probabilistic atlases and automatic probabilistic anatomical labeling of new coordinates...

  11. Mapping of brain function with positron emission tomography for pathophysiological analysis of neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nariai, Tadashi [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). Graduate School

    2001-02-01

    The role of PET is discussed mainly through author's clinical experience in patients with brain lesions from the view of mapping of brain function. Procedure for PET concept in clinical practice is summarized. PET using tracers like [{sup 15}O]water and [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose for mapping of the function has been used in combination with MRI, MEG (magnetoencephalography), SPECT and other imaging means for morphological identification. Actual those images before and after surgery are presented in cases of epilepsy, moyamoya disease, stegnosis of cervical artery, arteriovenous malformation and oligodendroglioma. Images of [{sup 11}C]flumazenil in epilepsies are also presented to show the neurological dysfunctions. PET evaluation of neurological functions is concluded to become more important in parallel with the advancement of therapeutics. (K.H.)

  12. Brain mapping with transcranial magnetic stimulation using a refined correlation ratio and Kendall's tau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, L; Trillenberg, P; Fadini, T; Finke, M; Schweikard, A

    2008-11-10

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation provides a mean to stimulate the brain non-invasively and painlessly. The effect of the stimulation hereby depends on the stimulation coil used and on its placement. This paper presents a mapping algorithm based on the assumption of a monotonous functional relationship between the applied electric field strength at the representation point of a muscle and the evoked motor potential. We combine data from coil characteristics, coil placement, and stimulation outcome to calculate a likelihood map for the representation of stimulated muscles in the brain. Hereby, correlation ratio (CR) and Kendall's rank coefficient tau are used to find areas in the brain where there is most likely a functional or monotonous relationship between electric field strength applied to this area and the muscle response. First results show a good accordance of our method with mapping from functional magnetic resonance imaging. In our case, classical evaluation of CR with binning is impossible, because sample data sets are too small and data are continuous. We therefore introduce a refined CR formula based on a Parzen windowing of the X-data to solve the problem. In contrast to usual windowing approaches, which require numeric integration, it can be evaluated directly in O(n2) time. Hence, its advantage lies in fast evaluation while maintaining robust applicability to small sample sets. We suggest that the presented formula can generally be used in CR-related problems where sample size is small and data range is continuous.

  13. Mapping brain structure and personality in late adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaasinen, [No Value; Maguire, RP; Kurki, T; Bruck, A; Rinne, JO

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral gray matter (GM) volume decreases in normal aging with a parallel increase in intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume. There is considerable interindividual variation in these changes, and the consequences of age-related GM shrinkage and CSF expansion are unclear. The present study ex

  14. Denoising and Frequency Analysis of Noninvasive Magnetoencephalography Sensor Signals for Functional Brain Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Ukil, A

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is an important noninvasive, nonhazardous technology for functional brain mapping, measuring the magnetic fields due to the intracellular neuronal current flow in the brain. However, most often, the inherent level of noise in the MEG sensor data collection process is large enough to obscure the signal(s) of interest. In this paper, a denoising technique based on the wavelet transform and the multiresolution signal decomposition technique along with thresholding is presented, substantiated by application results. Thereafter, different frequency analysis are performed on the denoised MEG signals to identify the major frequencies of the brain oscillations present in the denoised signals. Time-frequency plots (spectrograms) of the denoised signals are also provided.

  15. Mapping the Stability of Human Brain Asymmetry across Five Sex-Chromosome Aneuploidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Amy; Clasen, Liv; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wallace, Gregory L.; Lalonde, Francois; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Giedd, Jay N.

    2015-01-01

    The human brain displays stereotyped and early emerging patterns of cortical asymmetry in health. It is unclear if these asymmetries are highly sensitive to genetic and environmental variation or fundamental features of the brain that can survive severe developmental perturbations. To address this question, we mapped cortical thickness (CT) asymmetry in a group of genetically defined disorders known to impact CT development. Participants included 137 youth with one of five sex-chromosome aneuploidies [SCAs; XXX (n = 28), XXY (n = 58), XYY (n = 26), XXYY (n = 20), and XXXXY (n = 5)], and 169 age-matched typically developing controls (80 female). In controls, we replicated previously reported rightward inferior frontal and leftward lateral parietal CT asymmetry. These opposing frontoparietal CT asymmetries were broadly preserved in all five SCA groups. However, we also detected foci of shifting CT asymmetry with aneuploidy, which fell almost exclusively within regions of significant CT asymmetry in controls. Specifically, X-chromosome aneuploidy accentuated normative rightward inferior frontal asymmetries, while Y-chromosome aneuploidy reversed normative rightward medial prefrontal and lateral temporal asymmetries. These findings indicate that (1) the stereotyped normative pattern of opposing frontoparietal CT asymmetry arises from developmental mechanisms that can withstand gross chromosomal aneuploidy and (2) X and Y chromosomes can exert focal, nonoverlapping and directionally opposed influences on CT asymmetry within cortical regions of significant asymmetry in health. Our study attests to the resilience of developmental mechanisms that support the global patterning of CT asymmetry in humans, and motivates future research into the molecular bases and functional consequences of sex chromosome dosage effects on CT asymmetry. PMID:25568109

  16. Mapping the stability of human brain asymmetry across five sex-chromosome aneuploidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Amy; Clasen, Liv; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wallace, Gregory L; Lalonde, Francois; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Giedd, Jay N; Raznahan, Armin

    2015-01-07

    The human brain displays stereotyped and early emerging patterns of cortical asymmetry in health. It is unclear if these asymmetries are highly sensitive to genetic and environmental variation or fundamental features of the brain that can survive severe developmental perturbations. To address this question, we mapped cortical thickness (CT) asymmetry in a group of genetically defined disorders known to impact CT development. Participants included 137 youth with one of five sex-chromosome aneuploidies [SCAs; XXX (n = 28), XXY (n = 58), XYY (n = 26), XXYY (n = 20), and XXXXY (n = 5)], and 169 age-matched typically developing controls (80 female). In controls, we replicated previously reported rightward inferior frontal and leftward lateral parietal CT asymmetry. These opposing frontoparietal CT asymmetries were broadly preserved in all five SCA groups. However, we also detected foci of shifting CT asymmetry with aneuploidy, which fell almost exclusively within regions of significant CT asymmetry in controls. Specifically, X-chromosome aneuploidy accentuated normative rightward inferior frontal asymmetries, while Y-chromosome aneuploidy reversed normative rightward medial prefrontal and lateral temporal asymmetries. These findings indicate that (1) the stereotyped normative pattern of opposing frontoparietal CT asymmetry arises from developmental mechanisms that can withstand gross chromosomal aneuploidy and (2) X and Y chromosomes can exert focal, nonoverlapping and directionally opposed influences on CT asymmetry within cortical regions of significant asymmetry in health. Our study attests to the resilience of developmental mechanisms that support the global patterning of CT asymmetry in humans, and motivates future research into the molecular bases and functional consequences of sex chromosome dosage effects on CT asymmetry.

  17. 3D Data Mapping and Real-Time Experiment Control and Visualization in Brain Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marco A; Hibbard, Jaime V K; Miller, Michael E; Nivin, Tyler W; Milescu, Lorin S

    2015-10-20

    Here, we propose two basic concepts that can streamline electrophysiology and imaging experiments in brain slices and enhance data collection and analysis. The first idea is to interface the experiment with a software environment that provides a 3D scene viewer in which the experimental rig, the brain slice, and the recorded data are represented to scale. Within the 3D scene viewer, the user can visualize a live image of the sample and 3D renderings of the recording electrodes with real-time position feedback. Furthermore, the user can control the instruments and visualize their status in real time. The second idea is to integrate multiple types of experimental data into a spatial and temporal map of the brain slice. These data may include low-magnification maps of the entire brain slice, for spatial context, or any other type of high-resolution structural and functional image, together with time-resolved electrical and optical signals. The entire data collection can be visualized within the 3D scene viewer. These concepts can be applied to any other type of experiment in which high-resolution data are recorded within a larger sample at different spatial and temporal coordinates.

  18. Neural Imaginaries and Clinical Epistemology: Rhetorically Mapping the Adolescent Brain in the Clinical Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Mara

    2014-01-01

    The social work of brain images has taken center stage in recent theorizing of the intersections between neuroscience and society. However, neuroimaging is only one of the discursive modes through which public representations of neurobiology travel. This article adopts an expanded view toward the social implications of neuroscientific thinking to examine how neural imaginaries are constructed in the absence of visual evidence. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted over 18 months (2008–2009) in a United States multidisciplinary pediatric pain clinic, I examine the pragmatic clinical work undertaken to represent ambiguous symptoms in neurobiological form. Focusing on one physician, I illustrate how, by rhetorically mapping the brain as a therapeutic tool, she engaged in a distinctive form of representation that I call neural imagining. In shifting my focus away from the purely material dimensions of brain images, I juxtapose the cultural work of brain scanning technologies with clinical neural imaginaries in which the teenage brain becomes a space of possibility, not to map things as they are, but rather, things as we hope they might be. These neural imaginaries rely upon a distinctive clinical epistemology that privileges the creative work of the imagination over visualization technologies in revealing the truths of the body. By creating a therapeutic space for adolescents to exercise their imaginative faculties and a discursive template for doing so, neural imagining relocates adolescents’ agency with respect to epistemologies of bodily knowledge and the role of visualization practices therein. In doing so, it provides a more hopeful alternative to the dominant popular and scientific representations of the teenage brain that view it primarily through the lens of pathology. PMID:24780561

  19. Neural imaginaries and clinical epistemology: Rhetorically mapping the adolescent brain in the clinical encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Mara

    2015-10-01

    The social work of brain images has taken center stage in recent theorizing of the intersections between neuroscience and society. However, neuroimaging is only one of the discursive modes through which public representations of neurobiology travel. This article adopts an expanded view toward the social implications of neuroscientific thinking to examine how neural imaginaries are constructed in the absence of visual evidence. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted over 18 months (2008-2009) in a United States multidisciplinary pediatric pain clinic, I examine the pragmatic clinical work undertaken to represent ambiguous symptoms in neurobiological form. Focusing on one physician, I illustrate how, by rhetorically mapping the brain as a therapeutic tool, she engaged in a distinctive form of representation that I call neural imagining. In shifting my focus away from the purely material dimensions of brain images, I juxtapose the cultural work of brain scanning technologies with clinical neural imaginaries in which the teenage brain becomes a space of possibility, not to map things as they are, but rather, things as we hope they might be. These neural imaginaries rely upon a distinctive clinical epistemology that privileges the creative work of the imagination over visualization technologies in revealing the truths of the body. By creating a therapeutic space for adolescents to exercise their imaginative faculties and a discursive template for doing so, neural imagining relocates adolescents' agency with respect to epistemologies of bodily knowledge and the role of visualization practices therein. In doing so, it provides a more hopeful alternative to the dominant popular and scientific representations of the teenage brain that view it primarily through the lens of pathology.

  20. Mapping the mouse brain with rs-fMRI: An optimized pipeline for functional network identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbi, Valerio; Grandjean, Joanes; Rudin, Markus; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    The use of resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) in translational research is a powerful tool to assess brain connectivity and investigate neuropathology in mouse models. However, despite encouraging initial results, the characterization of consistent and robust resting state networks in mice remains a methodological challenge. One key reason is that the quality of the measured MR signal is degraded by the presence of structural noise from non-neural sources. Notably, in the current pipeline of the Human Connectome Project, a novel approach has been introduced to clean rs-fMRI data, which involves automatic artifact component classification and data cleaning (FIX). FIX does not require any external recordings of physiology or the segmentation of CSF and white matter. In this study, we evaluated the performance of FIX for analyzing mouse rs-fMRI data. Our results showed that FIX can be easily applied to mouse datasets and detects true signals with 100% accuracy and true noise components with very high accuracy (>98%), thus reducing both within- and between-subject variability of rs-fMRI connectivity measurements. Using this improved pre-processing pipeline, maps of 23 resting state circuits in mice were identified including two networks that displayed default mode network-like topography. Hierarchical clustering grouped these neural networks into meaningful larger functional circuits. These mouse resting state networks, which are publicly available, might serve as a reference for future work using mouse models of neurological disorders.

  1. Mapping entrained brain oscillations during transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Matthias; Garcia-Cossio, Eliana; Chander, Bankim S; Braun, Christoph; Birbaumer, Niels; Robinson, Stephen E; Soekadar, Surjo R

    2016-10-15

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), a non-invasive and well-tolerated form of electric brain stimulation, can influence perception, memory, as well as motor and cognitive function. While the exact underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are unknown, the effects of tACS are mainly attributed to frequency-specific entrainment of endogenous brain oscillations in brain areas close to the stimulation electrodes, and modulation of spike timing dependent plasticity reflected in gamma band oscillatory responses. tACS-related electromagnetic stimulator artifacts, however, impede investigation of these neurophysiological mechanisms. Here we introduce a novel approach combining amplitude-modulated tACS during whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) allowing for artifact-free source reconstruction and precise mapping of entrained brain oscillations underneath the stimulator electrodes. Using this approach, we show that reliable reconstruction of neuromagnetic low- and high-frequency oscillations including high gamma band activity in stimulated cortical areas is feasible opening a new window to unveil the mechanisms underlying the effects of stimulation protocols that entrain brain oscillatory activity.

  2. Brain-Science Based Cohort Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…

  3. A DTI-Based Template-Free Cortical Connectome Study of Brain Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymofiyeva, Olga; Hess, Christopher P.; Ziv, Etay; Lee, Patricia N.; Glass, Hannah C.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Barkovich, A. James; Xu, Duan

    2013-01-01

    Improved understanding of how the human brain is “wired” on a macroscale may now be possible due to the emerging field of MRI connectomics. However, mapping the rapidly developing infant brain networks poses challenges. In this study, we applied an automated template-free “baby connectome” framework using diffusion MRI to non-invasively map the structural brain networks in subjects of different ages, including premature neonates, term-born neonates, six-month-old infants, and adults. We observed increasing brain network integration and decreasing segregation with age in term-born subjects. We also explored how the equal area nodes can be grouped into modules without any prior anatomical information – an important step toward a fully network-driven registration and analysis of brain connectivity. PMID:23675475

  4. Brain-wide map of efferent projections from rat barrel cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela M. Zakiewicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The somatotopically organized whisker barrel field of the rat primary somatosensory (S1 cortex is a commonly used model system for anatomical and physiological investigations of sensory processing. The neural connections of the barrel cortex have been extensively mapped. But most investigations have focused on connections to limited regions of the brain, and overviews in the literature of the connections across the brain thus build on a range of material from different laboratories, presented in numerous publications. Furthermore, given the limitations of the conventional journal article format, analyses and interpretations are hampered by lack of access to the underlying experimental data. New opportunities for analyses have emerged with the recent release of an online resource of experimental data consisting of collections of high-resolution images from 6 experiments in which anterograde tracers were injected in S1 whisker or forelimb representations. Building on this material, we have conducted a detailed analysis of the brain wide distribution of the efferent projections of the rat barrel cortex. We compare our findings with the available literature and reports accumulated in the Brain Architecture Management System (BAMS2 database. We report well-known and less known intracortical and subcortical projections of the barrel cortex, as well as distinct differences between S1 whisker and forelimb related projections. Our results correspond well with recently published overviews, but provide additional information about relative differences among S1 projection targets. Our approach demonstrates how collections of shared experimental image data are suitable for brain-wide analysis and interpretation of connectivity mapping data.

  5. Imaging Study Confirms Brain Differences in People with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Imaging Study Confirms Brain Differences in People With ADHD Attention-deficit/hyperactivity should be considered a brain ... Researchers who pinpointed brain differences in people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) say their findings show the condition should ...

  6. Brain mapping in a patient with congenital blindness – a case for multimodal approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarod L Roland

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in basic neuroscience research across a wide range of methodologies have contributed significantly to our understanding of human cortical electrophysiology and functional brain imaging. Translation of this research into clinical neurosurgery has opened doors for advanced mapping of functionality that previously was prohibitively difficult, if not impossible. Here we present the case of a unique individual with congenital blindness and medically refractory epilepsy who underwent neurosurgical treatment of her seizures. Pre-operative evaluation presented the challenge of accurately and robustly mapping the cerebral cortex for an individual with a high probability of significant cortical re-organization. Additionally, a blind individual has unique priorities in one’s ability to read Braille by touch and sense the environment primarily by sound than the non-vision impaired person. For these reasons we employed additional measures to map sensory, motor, speech, language, and auditory perception by employing a number of cortical electrophysiologic mapping and functional magnetic resonance imaging methods. Our data show promising results in the application of these adjunctive methods in the pre-operative mapping of otherwise difficult to localize, and highly variable, functional cortical areas.

  7. Whole-brain quantitative mapping of metabolites using short echo 3D-proton- MRSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Angèle; Le Fur, Yann; Maudsley, Andrew A; Le Troter, Arnaud; Sheriff, Sulaiman; Sabati, Mohamad; Donnadieu, Maxime; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Guye, Maxime; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To improve the extent over which whole brain quantitative 3D-MRSI maps can be obtained and be used to explore brain metabolism in a population of healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods Two short TE (20 ms) acquisitions of 3D Echo Planar Spectroscopic Imaging at two orientations, one in the anterior commissure – posterior commissure (AC-PC) plane and the second tilted in the AC-PC +15° plane were obtained at 3T in a group of ten healthy volunteers. B1+, B1−, and B0 correction procedures and normalization of metabolite signals with quantitative water proton density measurements were performed. A combination of the two spatially normalized 3D-MRSI, using a weighted mean based on the pixel wise standard deviation metabolic maps of each orientation obtained from the whole group, provided metabolite maps for each subject allowing regional metabolic profiles of all parcels of the automated anatomical labeling (AAL) atlas to be obtained. Results The combined metabolite maps derived from the two acquisitions reduced the regional inter-subject variance. The numbers of AAL regions showing NAA SD/Mean ratios lower than 30% increased from 17 in the AC-PC orientation and 41 in the AC-PC+15° orientation, to a value of 76 regions out of 116 for the combined NAA maps. Quantitatively, regional differences in absolute metabolite concentrations (mM) over the whole brain were depicted such as in the GM of frontal lobes (cNAA=10.03+1.71, cCho=1.78±0.55, cCr=7.29±1.69; cmIns=5.30±2.67) and in cerebellum (cNAA=5.28±1.77, cCho=1.60±0.41, cCr=6.95±2.15; cmIns=3.60±0.74). Conclusion A double-angulation acquisition enables improved metabolic characterization over a wide volume of the brain. PMID:25431032

  8. Anisotropy mapping in rat brains using Intermolecular Multiple Quantum Coherence Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This document reports an unconventional and rapidly developing approach to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using intermolecular multiple-quantum coherences (iMQCs). Rat brain images are acquired using iMQCs. We detect iMQCs between spins that are 10 {\\mu}m to 500 {\\mu}m apart. The interaction between spins is dependent on different directions. We can choose the directions on physical Z, Y and X axis by choosing correlation gradients along those directions. As an important application, iMQCs can be used for anisotropy mapping. In the rat brains, we investigate tissue microstructure. We simulated images expected from rat brains without microstructure. We compare those with experimental results to prove that the dipolar field from the overall shape only has small contributions to the experimental iMQC signal. Because of the underlying low signal to noise ratio (SNR) in iMQCs, this anisotropy mapping method still has comparatively large potentials to grow. The ultimate goal of my project is to develop creative a...

  9. 定量研究人脑结构DTI T2-weighted trace图与年龄的关系%Quantitative study of DTI T2-weighted trace parameter map in healthy human brain and its relation to aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠宁; 刘怀军; 耿左军; 贾林燚; 池琛; 崔彩霞; 宋鹏; 刘瑞春

    2012-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively analysis the DTI T2-weighted trace (T2-WT) parameter map in different age of healthy human brain and its relation to age. Methods Data were acquired in fifty-eight healthy right-handed volunteers (22-76 years) . 28 subjects in middle-old age group ( > 40years) and 30 subjects in young group (≤40years) . All subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging ( DTI) and conventional MRI with a GE 3.0T magnetic resonance system. Three DTI parameters T2-WT, fractional anisotropy ( FA ) and mean diffusivity ( MD ) were acquired from the MR work station. ROIs were determined at FA and MD maps. The ten structures T2-WT values were measured in the two groups. Quantitative analyzed the the T2-WT maps and its relation to age. Results In the young group, the value of T2-WT had a left-right asymmetries in pons, cerebral peduncle, anterior internal capsual, centrum seimioval and lenticular nucleus, left > right, P = 0.000 ~ 0. 024. Whereas in the middle-old age group, T2-WT values were lower than the young group except the lateral cerebral ventricle, and had a left superior only in centrum semioval ( P= 0.042 ). Significant negative correlation with age were found in pons, cerebral peduncle, three parts of the internal capsule and lenticular nucleus (P =0. 000 ~0. 038) . Conclusion T2-WT parameter map is more symmetry in middle-old age group. In pons, cerebral peduncle, three parts of internal capsule and lenticular nucleus,T2-WT values have significant negative correlations with age.%目的 定量研究不同年龄健康人脑结构扩散张量成像(DTI)的T2-WT参数图的特点及其与年龄的关系.方法 健康右利手志愿者58人,年龄22~76岁,按年龄分为青年(≤40岁)组30人,中老年(>40岁)组28人,采集人脑常规MRI及DTI图像,经后处理得到DTI的三种参数图:T2-WT、分数各向异性(FA)及平均扩散系数(MD)图,使用FA图及MD图设置兴趣区,测量人脑10个部位的参数值,定量分析不同年龄组T2

  10. Characterization of normal brain and brain tumor pathology by chisquares parameter maps of diffusion-weighted image data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Stephan E. E-mail: stephan@bwh.harvard.edu; Mamata, Hatsuho; Mulkern, Robert V

    2003-03-01

    Objective: To characterize normal and pathologic brain tissue by quantifying the deviation of diffusion-related signal from a simple monoexponential decay, when measured over a wider than usual range of b-factors. Methods and materials: Line scan diffusion imaging (LSDI), with diffusion weighting at multiple b-factors between 100 and 5000 s/mm{sup 2}, was performed on 1.5 T clinical scanners. Diffusion data of single slice sections were acquired in five healthy subjects and 19 brain tumor patients. In-patients, conventional T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained for reference purposes. The chisquare ({chi}{sup 2}) error parameter associated with the monoexponential fits of the measured tissue water signals was then used to quantify the departure from a simple monoexponential signal decay on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Results: Diffusion-weighted images over a wider b-factor range than typically used were successfully obtained in all healthy subjects and patients. Normal and pathologic tissues demonstrated signal decays, which clearly deviate from a simple monoexponential behavior. The {chi}{sup 2} of cortical and deep grey matter was considerably lower than in white matter. In peritumoral edema, however, {chi}{sup 2} was 68% higher than in normal white matter. In highly malignant brain tumors, such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or anaplastic astrocytoma, {chi}{sup 2} values were on average almost 400% higher than in normal white matter, while for one low grade astrocytoma and two cases of metastasis, {chi}{sup 2} was not profoundly different from the {chi}{sup 2} value of white matter. Maps of the {chi}{sup 2} values provide good visualization of spatial details. However, the tumor tissue contrast generated appeared in many cases to be different from the enhancement produced by paramagnetic contrast agents. For example, in cases where the contrast agent only highlighted the rim of the tumor, {chi}{sup 2} enhancement was present within the

  11. In vivo Dynamic Studies of Brain Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xuechun; JIANG Yufeng; ZHANG Riqing

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can noninvasively monitor intracellular concentrations and kinetic properties of numerous inorganic and organic compounds. A 31P NMR surface coil was used in vivo to dynamically measure phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and intracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels in mouse brain during ischemia-reperfusion to study the damage of cerebral tissues caused by ischemia and effects of herbs on cerebral energy metabolism during ischemia-reperfusion. The study provides dynamic brain energy metabolism data during different periods. The data show that some herbs more rapidly increase the PCr level during the recovery phase than in the control group.

  12. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaglia, Melissa; Forkert, Nils D; Cheng, Bastian; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C

    2015-01-01

    Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a 'map of stroke'.

  13. INHERITED NEURODEVELOPMENTAL BRAIN DISEASES: APPLICATIONS OF HOMOZYGOSITY MAPPING TO IDENTIFY NEW GENETIC CAUSES OF DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G. Gleeson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe last two decades have seen major advancements in our understanding of some of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders in the field of child neurology. However, in the majority of individual patients, it is still not possible to arrive at a molecular diagnosis, due in part to lack of knowledge ofmolecular causes of these tremendously complex conditions. Common genetic disorders of brain development include septo-optic dysplasia, schizencephaly, holoprosencephaly, lissencephaly and hindbrain malformations. For each of these disorders, a critical step in brain development is disrupted. Specific genetic diagnosis is now possible in some patients with most of these conditions. For the remaining patients, it is possible to apply gene-mapping strategies using newly developed high-density genomic arrays to clone novel genes. This is especially important in countries like Iran where large family size and marriage between relatives makes these strategies tremendously powerful.

  14. Brain dynamics during natural viewing conditions--a new guide for mapping connectivity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Andreas; Zeki, Semir

    2005-01-15

    We describe here a new way of obtaining maps of connectivity in the human brain based on interregional correlations of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during natural viewing conditions. We propose that anatomical connections are reflected in BOLD signal correlations during natural brain dynamics. This may provide a powerful approach to chart connectivity, more so than that based on the 'resting state' of the human brain, and it may complement diffusion tensor imaging. Our approach relies on natural brain dynamics and is therefore experimentally unbiased and independent of hypothesis-driven, specialized stimuli. It has the advantage that natural viewing leads to considerably stronger cortical activity than rest, thus facilitating detection of weaker connections. To validate our technique, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to record BOLD signal while volunteers freely viewed a movie that was interrupted by resting periods. We used independent component analysis (ICA) to segregate cortical areas before characterizing the dynamics of their BOLD signal during free viewing and rest. Natural viewing and rest each revealed highly specific correlation maps, which reflected known anatomical connections. Examples are homologous regions in visual and auditory cortices in the two hemispheres and the language network consisting of Wernicke's area, Broca's area, and a premotor region. Correlations between regions known to be directly connected were always substantially higher than between nonconnected regions. Furthermore, compared to rest, natural viewing specifically increased correlations between anatomically connected regions while it decreased correlations between nonconnected regions. Our findings therefore demonstrate that natural viewing conditions lead to particularly specific interregional correlations and thus provide a powerful environment to reveal anatomical connectivity in vivo.

  15. Studying variability in human brain aging in a population-based German cohort – Rationale and design of 1000BRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja eCaspers

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing 1000 brains study (1000BRAINS is an epidemiological and neuroscientific investigation of structural and functional variability in the human brain during aging. The two recruitment sources are the 10-year follow-up cohort of the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study, and the HNR MultiGeneration Study cohort, which comprises spouses and offspring of HNR subjects. The HNR is a longitudinal epidemiological investigation of cardiovascular risk factors, with a comprehensive collection of clinical, laboratory, socioeconomic, and environmental data from population-based subjects aged 45-75 years on inclusion. HNR subjects underwent detailed assessments in 2000, 2006, and 2011, and completed annual postal questionnaires on health status. 1000BRAINS accesses these HNR data and applies a separate protocol comprising: neuropsychological tests of attention, memory, executive functions & language; examination of motor skills; ratings of personality, life quality, mood & daily activities; analysis of laboratory and genetic data; and state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 Tesla of the brain. The latter includes (i 3D-T1- and 3D-T2-weighted scans for structural analyses and myelin mapping; (ii three diffusion imaging sequences optimized for diffusion tensor imaging, high-angular resolution diffusion imaging for detailed fibre tracking and for diffusion kurtosis imaging; (iii resting-state and task-based functional MRI; and (iv fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and MR angiography for the detection of vascular lesions and the mapping of white matter lesions. The unique design of 1000BRAINS allows: (i comprehensive investigation of various influences including genetics, environment and health status on variability in brain structure and function during aging; and (ii identification of the impact of selected influencing factors on specific cognitive subsystems and their anatomical correlates.

  16. Longitudinal MRI studies of brain morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller

    into the accompanying deformation field. Deformation fields from high dimensional warping founds tensor based morphometry (TBM), and provides unique opportunities to study human brain morphology and plasticity. In this thesis, specially adapted image processing streams utilizing several image registration techniques......High resolution MR images acquired at multiple time points of the brain allow quantification of localized changes induced by external factors such as maturation, ageing or disease progression/recovery. High-dimensional warping of such MR images incorporates changes induced by external factors...

  17. Mapping between Language-object and Brain%语言-事物与大脑之间的映射

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫以聪

    2016-01-01

    Applying the ideas of topology,assuming that language space L set the mapping between ob-ject space A and the brain space B:L:A→B and its inverse mapping L:B→A.Then separately research map-ping L and inverse mapping L to conduce space constructed by brain nerve information unit.%应用拓扑学思想,假设由事物或事件单位构成的空间A与大脑神经信息单位构成的空间B之间,通过语言空间L建立了映射L:A→B和它的逆映射L-1:B→A。将映射空间L和它的逆L-1单独取出进行研究,借以推导大脑神经信息单位构成的空间。

  18. Mapping the dynamics of brain perfusion using functional ultrasound in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Clément; Isabel, Clothilde; Martin, Abraham; Dussaux, Clara; Savoye, Anne; Emmrich, Julius; Montaldo, Gabriel; Mas, Jean-Louis; Baron, Jean-Claude; Urban, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Following middle cerebral artery occlusion, tissue outcome ranges from normal to infarcted depending on depth and duration of hypoperfusion as well as occurrence and efficiency of reperfusion. However, the precise time course of these changes in relation to tissue and behavioral outcome remains unsettled. To address these issues, a three-dimensional wide field-of-view and real-time quantitative functional imaging technique able to map perfusion in the rodent brain would be desirable. Here, we applied functional ultrasound imaging, a novel approach to map relative cerebral blood volume without contrast agent, in a rat model of brief proximal transient middle cerebral artery occlusion to assess perfusion in penetrating arterioles and venules acutely and over six days thanks to a thinned-skull preparation. Functional ultrasound imaging efficiently mapped the acute changes in relative cerebral blood volume during occlusion and following reperfusion with high spatial resolution (100 µm), notably documenting marked focal decreases during occlusion, and was able to chart the fine dynamics of tissue reperfusion (rate: one frame/5 s) in the individual rat. No behavioral and only mild post-mortem immunofluorescence changes were observed. Our study suggests functional ultrasound is a particularly well-adapted imaging technique to study cerebral perfusion in acute experimental stroke longitudinally from the hyper-acute up to the chronic stage in the same subject.

  19. eConnectome: A MATLAB toolbox for mapping and imaging of brain functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Dai, Yakang; Astolfi, Laura; Babiloni, Fabio; Yuan, Han; Yang, Lin

    2011-02-15

    We have developed a MATLAB-based toolbox, eConnectome (electrophysiological connectome), for mapping and imaging functional connectivity at both the scalp and cortical levels from the electroencephalogram (EEG), as well as from the electrocorticogram (ECoG). Graphical user interfaces were designed for interactive and intuitive use of the toolbox. Major functions of eConnectome include EEG/ECoG preprocessing, scalp spatial mapping, cortical source estimation, connectivity analysis, and visualization. Granger causality measures such as directed transfer function and adaptive directed transfer function were implemented to estimate the directional interactions of brain functional networks, over the scalp and cortical sensor spaces. Cortical current density inverse imaging was implemented using a generic realistic geometry brain-head model from scalp EEGs. Granger causality could be further estimated over the cortical source domain from the inversely reconstructed cortical source signals as derived from the scalp EEG. Users may implement other connectivity estimators in the framework of eConnectome for various applications. The toolbox package is open-source and freely available at http://econnectome.umn.edu under the GNU general public license for noncommercial and academic uses.

  20. Mapping and correcting respiration-induced field changes in the brain using fluorine field probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads; Madsen, Kristoffer; Hanson, Lars G.;

    2014-01-01

    lacking. In this study a comparison between scanner-acquired field maps of the head, and corresponding field probe measurements is presented both during in- and expiration. In addition, the field probe measurements have been used to perform real-time updating of the linear shim- settings. Methods. Setup...... slice of one of the volunteers. Field probe fits, scanner B0 maps, and corrected B0 maps are shown for the case of fitting up to first and second order. The tables show p-values from statistical tests over entire volumes. Discussion: Using a significance level of 0.05, the p-values in table 1 show...

  1. Susceptibility-weighted imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Tong, Karen A; Yeom, Kristen W; Kuzminski, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that enhances image contrast by using the susceptibility differences between tissues. It is created by combining both magnitude and phase in the gradient echo data. SWI is sensitive to both paramagnetic and diamagnetic substances which generate different phase shift in MRI data. SWI images can be displayed as a minimum intensity projection that provides high resolution delineation of the cerebral venous architecture, a feature that is not available in other MRI techniques. As such, SWI has been widely applied to diagnose various venous abnormalities. SWI is especially sensitive to deoxygenated blood and intracranial mineral deposition and, for that reason, has been applied to image various pathologies including intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, stroke, neoplasm, and multiple sclerosis. SWI, however, does not provide quantitative measures of magnetic susceptibility. This limitation is currently being addressed with the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). While QSM treats susceptibility as isotropic, STI treats susceptibility as generally anisotropic characterized by a tensor quantity. This article reviews the basic principles of SWI, its clinical and research applications, the mechanisms governing brain susceptibility properties, and its practical implementation, with a focus on brain imaging.

  2. Mapping the brain in type II diabetes: Voxel-based morphometry using DARTEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiye [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Li, Lin [Department of Geriatric Endocrinology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Sun, Jie [Department of Endocrinology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Ma, Lin, E-mail: cjr.malin@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the pattern of brain volume changes of the brain in patients with type II diabetes mellitus using voxel-based morphometry. Material and methods: Institutional ethics approval and informed consent were obtained. VBM based on the high resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo MRI images was obtained from 16 type II diabetes patients (mean age 61.2 years) and 16 normal controls (mean age 59.6 years). All images were spatially preprocessed using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm, and the DARTEL templates were made from 100 normal subjects. Statistical parametric mapping was generated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: An atrophy pattern of gray matter was seen in type II diabetes patients compared with controls that involved the right superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, right precentral gyrus, and left rolandic operculum region. The loss of white matter volume in type II diabetes mellitus was observed in right temporal lobe and left inferior frontal triangle region. ROI analysis revealed that the gray and white matter volume of right temporal lobe were significant lower in type II diabetes mellitus than that in controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This work demonstrated that type II diabetes mellitus patients mainly exhibited gray and white matter atrophy in right temporal lobe, and this finding supported that type II diabetes mellitus could lead to subtle diabetic brain structural changes in patients without dementia or macrovascular complications.

  3. Brain SCALE: brain structure and cognition: an adolescent longitudinal twin study into the genetic etiology of individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soelen, Inge L C; Brouwer, Rachel M; Peper, Jiska S; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Koenis, Marinka M G; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2012-06-01

    From childhood into adolescence, the child's brain undergoes considerable changes in both structure and function. Twin studies are of great value to explore to what extent genetic and environmental factors explain individual differences in brain development and cognition. In The Netherlands, we initiated a longitudinal study in which twins, their siblings and their parents are assessed at three year intervals. The participants were recruited from The Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) and at baseline consisted of 112 families, with 9-year-old twins and an older sibling. Three years later, 89 families returned for follow-up assessment. Data collection included psychometric IQ tests, a comprehensive neuropsychological testing protocol, and parental and self-ratings of behavioral and emotional problems. Physical maturation was measured through assessment of Tanner stages. Hormonal levels (cortisol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, and estrogens) were assessed in urine and saliva. Brain scans were acquired using 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), which provided volumetric measures and measures of cortical thickness. Buccal swabs were collected for DNA isolation for future candidate gene and genome-wide analysis studies. This article gives an overview of the study and the main findings. Participants will return for a third assessment when the twins are around 16 years old. Longitudinal twin-sibling studies that map brain development and cognitive function at well-defined ages aid in the understanding of genetic influences on normative brain development.

  4. Correlation mapping method of OCT for visualization blood vessels in brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotova, O. A.; Kalyanov, A. L.; Lychagov, V. V.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.

    2013-11-01

    The burning issue in modern medicine is the diagnosis and treatment of various life-threatening diseases, in particular the diseases of brain. One of them is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). It occurs especially among newborn babies and is hard-diagnosed. In order to understand the nature of the ICH, the microcirculation of blood, which serves key functions within the body, is analyzed. On this basis a series of experiments was done, in the results of which it was showed, that latent stage of ICH is characterized by decrease of venous blood outflow and the loss of sensitivity of sagittal vein to vasoconstrictor effect of adrenaline. So, stress-related changes of the cerebral venous blood flow (CVBF) can be the source of this disease. In this paper registration CVBF was made with the help of commercially available Thorlabs Swept Source OCT System, using the correlation mapping method. In this method values of correlation coefficient of several images are analyzed. In the result of the algorithm the correlation map was obtained. By the resulting map the diameter of vessels was calculated, which is necessary for examination of effects of adrenalin to the vessels and identification symptoms of ICH.

  5. Mapping Regional Drought Vulnerability: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouz, M.; Zeynolabedin, A.; Olyaei, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is among the natural disaster that causes damages and affects many people's life in many part of the world including in Iran. Recently, some factors such as climate variability and the impact of climate change have influenced drought frequency and intensity in many parts of the world. Drought can be divided into four categories of meteorological, hydrological, agricultural and social-economic. In meteorological the important feature is lack of rainfall. In hydrological drought river flows and dam storage are considered. Lack of soil moisture is the key factor in agricultural droughts while in social-economic type of drought the relation between supply and demand and social-economic damages due to water deficiency is studied. While the first three types relates to the lack of some hydrological characteristics, social-economic type of drought is actually the consequence of other types expressed in monetary values. Many indices are used in assessing drought; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. Therefore knowing the types of drought can provide a better understanding of shortages and their characteristics. Drought vulnerability is a concept which shows the likelihood of damages from hazard in a particular place by focusing on the system status prior to the disaster. Drought vulnerability has been viewed as a potential for losses in the region due to water deficiency at the time of drought. In this study the application of vulnerability concept in drought management in East Azarbaijan province in Iran is investigated by providing vulnerability maps which demonstrates spatial characteristics of drought vulnerability. In the first step, certain governing parameters in drought analysis such as precipitation, temperature, land use, topography, solar radiation and ground water elevation have been investigated in the region. They are described in details and calculated in suitable time series. Vulnerabilities

  6. MAPPING REGIONAL DROUGHT VULNERABILITY: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karamouz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought is among the natural disaster that causes damages and affects many people’s life in many part of the world including in Iran. Recently, some factors such as climate variability and the impact of climate change have influenced drought frequency and intensity in many parts of the world. Drought can be divided into four categories of meteorological, hydrological, agricultural and social-economic. In meteorological the important feature is lack of rainfall. In hydrological drought river flows and dam storage are considered. Lack of soil moisture is the key factor in agricultural droughts while in social-economic type of drought the relation between supply and demand and social-economic damages due to water deficiency is studied. While the first three types relates to the lack of some hydrological characteristics, social-economic type of drought is actually the consequence of other types expressed in monetary values. Many indices are used in assessing drought; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. Therefore knowing the types of drought can provide a better understanding of shortages and their characteristics. Drought vulnerability is a concept which shows the likelihood of damages from hazard in a particular place by focusing on the system status prior to the disaster. Drought vulnerability has been viewed as a potential for losses in the region due to water deficiency at the time of drought. In this study the application of vulnerability concept in drought management in East Azarbaijan province in Iran is investigated by providing vulnerability maps which demonstrates spatial characteristics of drought vulnerability. In the first step, certain governing parameters in drought analysis such as precipitation, temperature, land use, topography, solar radiation and ground water elevation have been investigated in the region. They are described in details and calculated in suitable time

  7. A stereotaxic MRI template set for the rat brain with tissue class distribution maps and co-registered anatomical atlas: application to pharmacological MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Adam J; Danckaert, Anne; Reese, Torsten; Gozzi, Alessandro; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles; Merlo-Pich, Emilio V; Bifone, Angelo

    2006-08-15

    We describe a stereotaxic rat brain MRI template set with a co-registered digital anatomical atlas and illustrate its application to the analysis of a pharmacological MRI (phMRI) study of apomorphine. The template set includes anatomical images and tissue class probability maps for brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These facilitate the use of standard fMRI software for spatial normalisation and tissue segmentation of rat brain data. A volumetric reconstruction of the Paxinos and Watson rat brain atlas is also co-localised with the template, enabling the atlas structure and stereotaxic coordinates corresponding to a feature within a statistical map to be interactively reported, facilitating the localisation of functional effects. Moreover, voxels falling within selected brain structures can be combined to define anatomically based 3D volumes of interest (VOIs), free of operator bias. As many atlas structures are small relative to the typical resolution of phMRI studies, a mechanism for defining composite structures as agglomerations of individual atlas structures is also described. This provides a simple and robust means of interrogating structures that are otherwise difficult to delineate and an objective framework for comparing and classifying compounds based on an anatomical profile of their activity. These developments allow a closer alignment of pre-clinical and clinical analysis techniques.

  8. Evolution of technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT and brain mapping in a patient presenting with echolalia and palilalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx, R A; Saerens, J; De Deyn, P P; Verslegers, W; Marien, P; Vandevivere, J

    1991-08-01

    A 78-yr-old woman presented with transient echolalia and palilalia. She had suffered from Parkinson's disease for 2 yr. Routine laboratory examination showed hypotonic hyponatremia, but was otherwise unremarkable. Brain mapping revealed a bifrontal delta focus, more pronounced on the right. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain with technetium-99m labeled d,l hexamethylpropylene-amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO), performed during the acute episode showed relative frontoparietal hypoactivity. Brain mapping performed after disappearance of the echolalia and palilalia, which persisted only for 1 day, was normal. By contrast, SPECT findings persisted for more than 3 wk. Features of particular interest in the presented patient are the extensive defects seen on brain SPECT despite the absence of morphologic lesions, the congruent electrophysiologic changes and their temporal relationship with the clinical evolution.

  9. Mapping brain response to social stress in rodents with c-fos expression: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M; Calvo-Torrent, A; Herbert, J

    2002-02-01

    Social defeat is an important event in the life of many animals, and forms part of the process of social control. Adapting to social defeat is thus an intrinsic part of social "homeostasis", and mal-adaptation may have pathological sequelae. Experimental models of social defeat (e.g. inter-male aggression) have existed for many years. However, very few studies have investigated the changes in brain activity in male animals exposed to the social stress of being defeated by another conspecific male, and in all these studies the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos has been used as the marker of neuronal activity. In general, the results obtained inform that many areas of the brain, especially those involved in the general stress response, increase their activity when animals are exposed to an acute defeat. However, when animals are defeated repeatedly over many consecutive days, the level of activation of the brain shows different patterns of adaptation depending on the brain areas (varying from complete habituation to persistent activation). Discrepancies between studies may be due to differences in the experimental procedure. On the other hand, further research has to be conducted in order to understand what these changes in the brain activity mean in relation to the other stress responses to social defeat. Furthermore, knowing that the corresponding protein products of many immediate-early genes are transcription factors that can promote or inhibit the expression of target genes, research following this approach is also necessary.

  10. A map of brain neuropils and fiber systems in the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris eBressan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A wide spectrum of occupied ecological niches and spectacular morphological adaptations make social insects a prime object for comparative neuroanatomical studies. Eusocial insects have evolved complex societies based on caste polyphenism. A diverse behavioral repertoire of morphologically distinct castes of the same species requires a high degree of plasticity in the central nervous system. We have analyzed the central brain neuropils and fiber tract systems of the worker of the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, a model for the study of social traits. Our analysis is based on whole mount preparations of adult brains labeled with an antibody against Drosophila-Synapsin, which cross-reacts strongly with synapses in Cardiocondyla. Neuropil compartments stand out as domains with a certain texture and intensity of the anti-Synapsin signal. By contrast, fiber tracts, which are composed of bundles of axons accompanied by glia and are devoid of synapses, appear as channels or sheaths with low anti-Synapsin signal. We have generated a digital 3D atlas of the Cardiocondyla brain neuropil. The atlas provides a reference for future studies of brain polymorphisms in distinct castes, brain development or localization of neurotransmitter systems.

  11. Towards the "baby connectome": mapping the structural connectivity of the newborn brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Tymofiyeva

    Full Text Available Defining the structural and functional connectivity of the human brain (the human "connectome" is a basic challenge in neuroscience. Recently, techniques for noninvasively characterizing structural connectivity networks in the adult brain have been developed using diffusion and high-resolution anatomic MRI. The purpose of this study was to establish a framework for assessing structural connectivity in the newborn brain at any stage of development and to show how network properties can be derived in a clinical cohort of six-month old infants sustaining perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Two different anatomically unconstrained parcellation schemes were proposed and the resulting network metrics were correlated with neurological outcome at 6 months. Elimination and correction of unreliable data, automated parcellation of the cortical surface, and assembling the large-scale baby connectome allowed an unbiased study of the network properties of the newborn brain using graph theoretic analysis. In the application to infants with HIE, a trend to declining brain network integration and segregation was observed with increasing neuromotor deficit scores.

  12. Automated Segmentation of Cerebellum Using Brain Mask and Partial Volume Estimation Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyun Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While segmentation of the cerebellum is an indispensable step in many studies, its contrast is not clear because of the adjacent cerebrospinal fluid, meninges, and cerebra peduncle. Thus, various cerebellar segmentation methods, such as a deformable model or a template-based algorithm might exhibit incorrect segmentation of the venous sinuses and the cerebellar peduncle. In this study, we propose a fully automated procedure combining cerebellar tissue classification, a template-based approach, and morphological operations sequentially. The cerebellar region was defined approximately by removing the cerebral region from the brain mask. Then, the noncerebellar region was trimmed using a morphological operator and the brain-stem atlas was aligned to the individual brain to define the brain-stem area. The proposed method was validated with the well-known FreeSurfer and ITK-SNAP packages using the dice similarity index and recall and precision scores. As a result, the proposed method was significantly better than the other methods for the dice similarity index (0.93, FreeSurfer: 0.92, ITK-SNAP: 0.87 and precision (0.95, FreeSurfer: 0.90, ITK-SNAP: 0.93. Therefore, it could be said that the proposed method yielded a robust and accurate segmentation result. Moreover, additional postprocessing with the brain-stem atlas could improve its result.

  13. The brain map of gait variability in aging, cognitive impairment and dementia-A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qu; Chastan, Nathalie; Bair, Woei-Nan; Resnick, Susan M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Studenski, Stephanie A

    2017-03-01

    While gait variability may reflect subtle changes due to aging or cognitive impairment (CI), associated brain characteristics remain unclear. We summarize structural and functional neuroimaging findings associated with gait variability in older adults with and without CI and dementia. We identified 17 eligible studies; all were cross-sectional; few examined multiple brain areas. In older adults, temporal gait variability was associated with structural differences in medial areas important for lower limb coordination and balance. Both temporal and spatial gait variability were associated with structural and functional differences in hippocampus and primary sensorimotor cortex and structural differences in anterior cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, association tracts, and posterior thalamic radiation. In CI or dementia, some associations were found in primary motor cortex, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia. In older adults, gait variability may be associated with areas important for sensorimotor integration and coordination. To comprehend the neural basis of gait variability with aging and CI, longitudinal studies of multiple brain areas are needed.

  14. High-resolution three-dimensional quantitative map of the macromolecular proton fraction distribution in the normal rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Naumova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The presented dataset provides a normative high-resolution three-dimensional (3D macromolecular proton fraction (MPF map of the healthy rat brain in vivo and source images used for its reconstruction. The images were acquired using the protocol described elsewhere (Naumova, et al. High-resolution three-dimensional macromolecular proton fraction mapping for quantitative neuroanatomical imaging of the rodent brain in ultra-high magnetic fields. Neuroimage (2016 doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.09.036. The map was reconstructed from three source images with different contrast weightings (proton density, T1, and magnetization transfer using the single-point algorithm with a synthetic reference image. Source images were acquired from a living animal on an 11.7 T small animal MRI scanner with isotropic spatial resolution of 170 µm3 and total acquisition time about 1.5 h. The 3D dataset can be used for multiple purposes including interactive viewing of rat brain anatomy, measurements of reference MPF values in various brain structures, and development of image processing techniques for the rodent brain segmentation. It also can serve as a gold standard image for implementation and optimization of rodent brain MRI protocols.

  15. Strategy Maps in University Management: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuangmiao; Zhong, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the conceptual use of the strategy map approach and the strategy map which it produces have been adapted from the business sector and introduced as tools for achieving more effective strategic planning and management in higher education institutions (HEIs). This study discusses the development of strategy maps as transformational…

  16. Quantitative EEG Brain Mapping In Psychotropic Drug Development, Drug Treatment Selection, and Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, Turan M.; Itil, Kurt Z.

    1995-05-01

    Quantification of standard electroencephalogram (EEG) by digital computers [computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG)] has transformed the subjective analog EEG into an objective scientific method. Until a few years ago, CEEG was only used to assist in the development of psychotropic drugs by means of the quantitative pharmaco EEG. Thanks to the computer revolution and the accompanying reductions in cost of quantification, CEEG can now also be applied in psychiatric practice. CEEG can assist the physician in confirming clinical diagnoses, selecting psychotropic drugs for treatment, and drug treatment monitoring. Advancements in communications technology allow physicians and researchers to reduce the costs of acquiring a high-technology CEEG brain mapping system by utilizing the more economical telephonic services.

  17. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Connectivity Concordance Mapping: A New Tool for Model-Free Analysis of fMRI Data of the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Gabriele; Ovadia-Caro, Smadar; Jungehülsing, Gerhard Jan; Margulies, Daniel S.; Villringer, Arno; Turner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance data acquired in a task-absent condition (“resting state”) require new data analysis techniques that do not depend on an activation model. Here, we propose a new analysis method called Connectivity Concordance Mapping (CCM). The main idea is to assign a label to each voxel based on the reproducibility of its whole-brain pattern of connectivity. Specifically, we compute the correlations of time courses of each voxel with every other voxel for each measurement. Voxels whose correlation pattern is consistent across measurements receive high values. The result of a CCM analysis is thus a voxel-wise map of concordance values. Regions of high inter-subject concordance can be assumed to be functionally consistent, and may thus be of specific interest for further analysis. Here we present two fMRI studies to demonstrate the possible applications of the algorithm. The first is a eyes-open/eyes-closed paradigm designed to highlight the potential of the method in a relatively simple domain. The second study is a longitudinal repeated measurement of a patient following stroke. Longitudinal clinical studies such as this may represent the most interesting domain of applications for this algorithm. PMID:22470320

  19. Toward noninvasive optical human brain mapping: improvements of the spectral, temporal, and spatial resolution of near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heekeren, Hauke R.; Wenzel, Rudiger; Obrig, Hellmuth; Ruben, Jan; Ndayisaba, J.-P.; Luo, Qingming; Dale, A.; Nioka, Shoko; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Villringer, Arno; Chance, Britton

    1997-08-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can detect changes in cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation in response to motor, visual or cognitive stimulation. This study explored potential improvements for functional human brain mapping with NIRS: (1) So far, only primary cortical areas, like motor cortex or primary visual areas were studied. We tested the feasibility of identifying an extrastriate visual motion area (MT) with single site NIRS. (2) The temporal resolution of commercial systems is on the order of seconds and their spectral resolution is poor. We tested the feasibility of the detection of cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation changes during visual stimulation at high temporal (100 ms) and spectral resolution (5 nm) using a whole spectrum approach (CCD-NIRS). (3) The spatial resolution of commercial systems is poor. In this study we used a 16 channel functional NIRS-imaging device to test the feasibility of mapping changes in cortical blood volume during visual stimulation (over primary and secondary areas). We show that (1) even conventional single site NIRS allows to identify secondary visual areas, (2) a CCD-NIRS system affords a high temporal (100 ms) and spectral (5 nm) resolution for the detection of changes in cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation during visual stimulation, (3) functional NIRS- imaging can localize focal blood volume changes over both primary and secondary cortical areas.

  20. Wide-field optical mapping of neural activity and brain haemodynamics: considerations and novel approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Shaik, Mohammed A.; Kozberg, Mariel G.; Thibodeaux, David N.; Zhao, Hanzhi T.; Yu, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Although modern techniques such as two-photon microscopy can now provide cellular-level three-dimensional imaging of the intact living brain, the speed and fields of view of these techniques remain limited. Conversely, two-dimensional wide-field optical mapping (WFOM), a simpler technique that uses a camera to observe large areas of the exposed cortex under visible light, can detect changes in both neural activity and haemodynamics at very high speeds. Although WFOM may not provide single-neuron or capillary-level resolution, it is an attractive and accessible approach to imaging large areas of the brain in awake, behaving mammals at speeds fast enough to observe widespread neural firing events, as well as their dynamic coupling to haemodynamics. Although such wide-field optical imaging techniques have a long history, the advent of genetically encoded fluorophores that can report neural activity with high sensitivity, as well as modern technologies such as light emitting diodes and sensitive and high-speed digital cameras have driven renewed interest in WFOM. To facilitate the wider adoption and standardization of WFOM approaches for neuroscience and neurovascular coupling research, we provide here an overview of the basic principles of WFOM, considerations for implementation of wide-field fluorescence imaging of neural activity, spectroscopic analysis and interpretation of results. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574312

  1. fMRI mapping of the visual system in the mouse brain with interleaved snapshot GE-EPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan, Arun; Christie, Isabel N; Solomon, Samuel G; Wells, Jack A; Lythgoe, Mark F

    2016-06-10

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in mice is increasingly prevalent, providing a means to non-invasively characterise functional abnormalities associated with genetic models of human diseases. The predominant stimulus used in task-based fMRI in the mouse is electrical stimulation of the paw. Task-based fMRI in mice using visual stimuli remains underexplored, despite visual stimuli being common in human fMRI studies. In this study, we map the mouse brain visual system with BOLD measurements at 9.4T using flashing light stimuli with medetomidine anaesthesia. BOLD responses were observed in the lateral geniculate nucleus, the superior colliculus and the primary visual area of the cortex, and were modulated by the flashing frequency, diffuse vs focussed light and stimulus context. Negative BOLD responses were measured in the visual cortex at 10Hz flashing frequency; but turned positive below 5Hz. In addition, the use of interleaved snapshot GE-EPI improved fMRI image quality without diminishing the temporal contrast-noise-ratio. Taken together, this work demonstrates a novel methodological protocol in which the mouse brain visual system can be non-invasively investigated using BOLD fMRI.

  2. A 'more-than-representational' mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    2017-01-01

    Corner’s essay as its starting point. It couples his considerations with non-representational research to elaborate mapping as a ‘more-than-representational’ tool with which to think and work when we seek to understand and evoke design sites in conjunction with the lived world. This coupling is done......In urban design mapping is a generative tool that can evoke site conditions and animate design potentials. James Corner has stated that a “map is already a project in the making” (1999b, p.216), and thereby points to the evocative ‘agency’ of mapping in composing a design project. This paper takes...

  3. The macular mapping test: a reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Leon N

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD is the leading cause of visual disability in people over 60 years of age in the developed world. The success of treatment deteriorates with increased latency of diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the macular mapping test (MMT, and to investigate its potential as a screening tool. Methods The study population comprised of 31 healthy eyes of 31 participants. To assess reliability, four macular mapping test (MMT measurements were taken in two sessions separated by one hour by two practitioners, with reversal of order in the second session. MMT readings were also taken from 17 age-related maculopathy (ARM, and 12 AMD affected eyes. Results For the normal cohort, average MMT scores ranged from 85.5 to 100.0 MMT points. Scores ranged from 79.0 to 99.0 for the ARM group and from 9.0 to 92.0 for the AMD group. MMT scores were reliable to within ± 7.0 points. The difference between AMD affected eyes and controls (z = 3.761, p = Conclusion The reliability data shows that a change of 14 points or more is required to indicate a clinically significant change. This value is required for use of the MMT as an outcome measure in clinical trials. Although there was no difference between MMT scores from ARM affected eyes and controls, the MMT has the advantage over the Amsler grid in that it uses a letter target, has a peripheral fixation aid, and it provides a numerical score. This score could be beneficial in office and home monitoring of AMD progression, as well as an outcome measure in clinical research.

  4. Zika Virus Can Damage Fetal Brain Late in Pregnancy: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161451.html Zika Virus Can Damage Fetal Brain Late in Pregnancy: Study ... WEDNESDAY, Oct. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus may harm a baby's brain even if the ...

  5. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Studies at Grady Memorial Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    management of adult, blunt-mechanism traumatic brain injury ( TBI ) patients and assess the overall mortality of this cohort at Grady...this study is to determine the current compliance with widely accepted guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury ( TBI ) patients...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-2-0145 Study Title: Traumatic Brain Injury ( TBI

  6. Neurobiological origin of spurious brain morphological changes: A quantitative MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorio, Sara; Kherif, Ferath; Ruef, Anne; Melie-Garcia, Lester; Frackowiak, Richard; Ashburner, John; Helms, Gunther; Lutti, Antoine; Draganski, Bodgan

    2016-05-01

    The high gray-white matter contrast and spatial resolution provided by T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made it a widely used imaging protocol for computational anatomy studies of the brain. While the image intensity in T1-weighted images is predominantly driven by T1, other MRI parameters affect the image contrast, and hence brain morphological measures derived from the data. Because MRI parameters are correlates of different histological properties of brain tissue, this mixed contribution hampers the neurobiological interpretation of morphometry findings, an issue which remains largely ignored in the community. We acquired quantitative maps of the MRI parameters that determine signal intensities in T1-weighted images (R1 (=1/T1), R2 *, and PD) in a large cohort of healthy subjects (n = 120, aged 18-87 years). Synthetic T1-weighted images were calculated from these quantitative maps and used to extract morphometry features-gray matter volume and cortical thickness. We observed significant variations in morphometry measures obtained from synthetic images derived from different subsets of MRI parameters. We also detected a modulation of these variations by age. Our findings highlight the impact of microstructural properties of brain tissue-myelination, iron, and water content-on automated measures of brain morphology and show that microstructural tissue changes might lead to the detection of spurious morphological changes in computational anatomy studies. They motivate a review of previous morphological results obtained from standard anatomical MRI images and highlight the value of quantitative MRI data for the inference of microscopic tissue changes in the healthy and diseased brain. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1801-1815, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Case studies: Soil mapping using multiple methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hauke; Wunderlich, Tina; Hagrey, Said A. Al; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Stümpel, Harald

    2010-05-01

    Soil is a non-renewable resource with fundamental functions like filtering (e.g. water), storing (e.g. carbon), transforming (e.g. nutrients) and buffering (e.g. contamination). Degradation of soils is meanwhile not only to scientists a well known fact, also decision makers in politics have accepted this as a serious problem for several environmental aspects. National and international authorities have already worked out preservation and restoration strategies for soil degradation, though it is still work of active research how to put these strategies into real practice. But common to all strategies the description of soil state and dynamics is required as a base step. This includes collecting information from soils with methods ranging from direct soil sampling to remote applications. In an intermediate scale mobile geophysical methods are applied with the advantage of fast working progress but disadvantage of site specific calibration and interpretation issues. In the framework of the iSOIL project we present here some case studies for soil mapping performed using multiple geophysical methods. We will present examples of combined field measurements with EMI-, GPR-, magnetic and gammaspectrometric techniques carried out with the mobile multi-sensor-system of Kiel University (GER). Depending on soil type and actual environmental conditions, different methods show a different quality of information. With application of diverse methods we want to figure out, which methods or combination of methods will give the most reliable information concerning soil state and properties. To investigate the influence of varying material we performed mapping campaigns on field sites with sandy, loamy and loessy soils. Classification of measured or derived attributes show not only the lateral variability but also gives hints to a variation in the vertical distribution of soil material. For all soils of course soil water content can be a critical factor concerning a succesful

  8. The Morphogenic Mapping of the Brain and the Design of the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sheesley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the discovery of a geometrical algorithm that provides a coherent step by step mechanical account of the structure of the nervous system, including the vertebrate brain, the spinal cord, the vertebral column, and the spinal nerves. The morphology of these organs and the observed steps of neural development are well described, consequent of centuries of study. But morphogenesis, the origin and cause of these forms, has not been studied since the last half of the nineteenth century. Neurology does not teach how the brain gained its shape, nor have any causative theories of brain formation been published in recent times. This paper proposes a hypothetical construction based on the discovery of a simple algorithm which generates topologically the form of the brain, the spinal cord, and the vertebral column by the deformation of a gridded segmented sphere by the inversion of its surface. The hypothetical model is in close analogy with nature: the blastula is a segmented gridded sphere which results from the subdivision of the egg. The first step of embryogenesis is gastrulation, where blastula is pressed to enter its own interior, pulling the surface inside out, forming the embryo.

  9. Functional mapping of language networks in the normal brain using a word-association task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Shantanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Language functions are known to be affected in diverse neurological conditions, including ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and brain tumors. Because language networks are extensive, interpretation of functional data depends on the task completed during evaluation. Aim: The aim was to map the hemodynamic consequences of word association using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in normal human subjects. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy subjects underwent fMRI scanning with a postlexical access semantic association task vs lexical processing task. The fMRI protocol involved a T2FNx01-weighted gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI sequence (TR 4523 ms, TE 64 ms, flip angle 90º with alternate baseline and activation blocks. A total of 78 scans were taken (interscan interval = 3 s with a total imaging time of 587 s. Functional data were processed in Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM2 with 8-mm Gaussian kernel by convolving the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD signal with an hemodynamic response function estimated by general linear method to generate SPM{t} and SPM{F} maps. Results: Single subject analysis of the functional data (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001 revealed extensive activation in the frontal lobes, with overlaps among middle frontal gyrus (MFG, superior, and inferior frontal gyri. BOLD activity was also found in the medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus (MOG, anterior fusiform gyrus, superior and inferior parietal lobules, and to a smaller extent, the thalamus and right anterior cerebellum. Group analysis (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001 revealed neural recruitment of bilateral lingual gyri, left MFG, bilateral MOG, left superior occipital gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, bilateral thalami, and right cerebellar areas. Conclusions: Group data analysis revealed a cerebellar-occipital-fusiform-thalamic network centered around bilateral lingual gyri for word association, thereby indicating how these

  10. Self-Mapping in Treating Suicide Ideation: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lloyd Hawkeye

    2011-01-01

    This case study traces the development and use of a self-mapping exercise in the treatment of a youth who had been at risk for re-attempting suicide. A life skills exercise was modified to identify units of culture called "memes" from which a map of the youth's self was prepared. A successful treatment plan followed the mapping exercise. The…

  11. Learning from Concept Mapping and Hypertext: An Eye Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadieu, Franck; Salmerón, Ladislao; Cegarra, Julien; Paubel, Pierre-Vincent; Lemarié, Julie; Chevalier, Aline

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prior domain knowledge and learning sequences on learning with concept mapping and hypertext. Participants either made a concept map in a first step and then read the hypertext's contents combined with concept mapping (high activating condition), or they read the hypertext's contents first and then made a concept…

  12. Memory networks in tinnitus: a functional brain image study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Regina Laureano

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is characterized by the perception of sound in the absence of an external auditory stimulus. The network connectivity of auditory and non-auditory brain structures associated with emotion, memory and attention are functionally altered in debilitating tinnitus. Current studies suggest that tinnitus results from neuroplastic changes in the frontal and limbic temporal regions. The objective of this study was to use Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT to evaluate changes in the cerebral blood flow in tinnitus patients with normal hearing compared with healthy controls.Twenty tinnitus patients with normal hearing and 17 healthy controls, matched for sex, age and years of education, were subjected to Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography using the radiotracer ethylenedicysteine diethyl ester, labeled with Technetium 99 m (99 mTc-ECD SPECT. The severity of tinnitus was assessed using the "Tinnitus Handicap Inventory" (THI. The images were processed and analyzed using "Statistical Parametric Mapping" (SPM8.A significant increase in cerebral perfusion in the left parahippocampal gyrus (pFWE <0.05 was observed in patients with tinnitus compared with healthy controls. The average total THI score was 50.8+18.24, classified as moderate tinnitus.It was possible to identify significant changes in the limbic system of the brain perfusion in tinnitus patients with normal hearing, suggesting that central mechanisms, not specific to the auditory pathway, are involved in the pathophysiology of symptoms, even in the absence of clinically diagnosed peripheral changes.

  13. How do brain tumors alter functional connectivity? : A magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartolomei, Fabrice; Bosma, Ingeborg; Klein, Martin; Baayen, Johannes C; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Postma, Tjeerd J; Heimans, Jan J; van Dijk, Bob W; de Munck, Jan C; de Jongh, Arent; Cover, Keith S; Stam, Cornelis J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that brain tumors interfere with normal brain function by disrupting functional connectivity of brain networks. METHODS: Functional connectivity was assessed by computing the synchronization likelihood in a broad band (0.5-60Hz) or in the g

  14. Semantic Mapping: A Study Skills Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewel, Rosel

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of semantic mapping, a strategy to enhance comprehension and memory based on schema theory, describes the origins of the technique, research in the past decade, and procedures used to teach it. (MSE)

  15. High-resolution three-dimensional macromolecular proton fraction mapping for quantitative neuroanatomical imaging of the rodent brain in ultra-high magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Anna V; Akulov, Andrey E; Khodanovich, Marina Yu; Yarnykh, Vasily L

    2017-02-15

    A well-known problem in ultra-high-field MRI is generation of high-resolution three-dimensional images for detailed characterization of white and gray matter anatomical structures. T1-weighted imaging traditionally used for this purpose suffers from the loss of contrast between white and gray matter with an increase of magnetic field strength. Macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) mapping is a new method potentially capable to mitigate this problem due to strong myelin-based contrast and independence of this parameter of field strength. MPF is a key parameter determining the magnetization transfer effect in tissues and defined within the two-pool model as a relative amount of macromolecular protons involved into magnetization exchange with water protons. The objectives of this study were to characterize the two-pool model parameters in brain tissues in ultra-high magnetic fields and introduce fast high-field 3D MPF mapping as both anatomical and quantitative neuroimaging modality for small animal applications. In vivo imaging data were obtained from four adult male rats using an 11.7T animal MRI scanner. Comprehensive comparison of brain tissue contrast was performed for standard R1 and T2 maps and reconstructed from Z-spectroscopic images two-pool model parameter maps including MPF, cross-relaxation rate constant, and T2 of pools. Additionally, high-resolution whole-brain 3D MPF maps were obtained with isotropic 170µm voxel size using the single-point synthetic-reference method. MPF maps showed 3-6-fold increase in contrast between white and gray matter compared to other parameters. MPF measurements by the single-point synthetic reference method were in excellent agreement with the Z-spectroscopic method. MPF values in rat brain structures at 11.7T were similar to those at lower field strengths, thus confirming field independence of MPF. 3D MPF mapping provides a useful tool for neuroimaging in ultra-high magnetic fields enabling both quantitative tissue

  16. Can Taichi reshape the brain? A brain morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Xia Wei

    Full Text Available Although research has provided abundant evidence for Taichi-induced improvements in psychological and physiological well-being, little is known about possible links to brain structure of Taichi practice. Using high-resolution MRI of 22 Tai Chi Chuan (TCC practitioners and 18 controls matched for age, sex and education, we set out to examine the underlying anatomical correlates of long-term Taichi practice at two different levels of regional specificity. For this purpose, parcel-wise and vertex-wise analyses were employed to quantify the difference between TCC practitioners and the controls based on cortical surface reconstruction. We also adopted the Attention Network Test (ANT to explore the effect of TCC on executive control. TCC practitioners, compared with controls, showed significantly thicker cortex in precentral gyrus, insula sulcus and middle frontal sulcus in the right hemisphere and superior temporal gyrus and medial occipito-temporal sulcus and lingual sulcus in the left hemisphere. Moreover, we found that thicker cortex in left medial occipito-temporal sulcus and lingual sulcus was associated with greater intensity of TCC practice. These findings indicate that long-term TCC practice could induce regional structural change and also suggest TCC might share similar patterns of neural correlates with meditation and aerobic exercise.

  17. Brodmann's Area Template Based Region of Interest Setting and Probabilistic Pathway Map Generation in Diffusion Tensor Tractography: Application to Arcuate Fasciculus Fiber Tract in the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon eLee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to acquire accurate diffusion tensor tractography (DTT results for arcuate fasciculus (AF fiber tract using Brodmann's area (BA template for region of interest (ROI setting. Thirteen healthy subjects were participated in this study. Fractional anisotropy (FA map of each subject was calculated using diffusion tensor data, and T1w template was co-registered to FA map. The BA template was also co-registered using the transformation matrix. The ROIs were drawn in the co-registered BA template, and AF fiber tract was extracted. To generate the probabilistic pathway map, a binary mask image was generated based on the fiber tract image and co-registered to T1w template image. We also measured relative location of the AF fiber tract. The location of the probability pathway map of each subject’s AF fiber tract was well defined in the brain. By using this probabilistic map, the mediolateral position ratio of AF was measured 18%, and the anteroposterior position ratio of AF was measured 35%, respectively. This study demonstrated that the AF fiber tract can be extracted using BA template for ROI setting and probabilistic pathway of fiber tract. Our results and analytical approaches can helpful for accurate fiber tracking and application of perspective clinical researches.

  18. Effects of haloperidol and cocaine pretreatments on brain distribution and kinetics of [{sup 11}C]methamphetamine in methamphetamine sensitized dog: Application of PET to drug pharmacokinetic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hitoshi; Hishinuma, Takanori; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Ishiwata, Shunji; Ido, Tatsuo; Iwata, Ren; Funaki, Yoshihito; Itoh, Masatoshi; Fujiwara, Takehiko; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Sato, Mitsumoto; Numachi, Yohtaro; Yoshida, Sumiko; Mizugaki, Michinao

    1997-02-01

    Repeated administration of methamphetamine (MAP) causes behavioral sensitization in animals. We previously reported that the maximum accumulation level of [{sup 11}C]MAP in the MAP-sensitized dog brain was 1.4 times higher than that in the control. In behavioral studies, haloperidol (a dopamine D{sub 2} receptor antagonist) prevents MAP-induced behavioral sensitization, and cocaine (a dopamine reuptake blocker) has the cross-behavioral sensitization with MAP. In the present study, to elucidate the relation between the MAP-induced behavioral sensitization and the pharmacokinetics of MAP, we investigated the effects of haloperidol and cocaine pretreatments on brain regional distribution and kinetics of [{sup 11}C]MAP using positron emission tomography (PET). A significant increase of [{sup 11}C]MAP uptake into the sensitized dog brain was prevented by haloperidol and cocaine pretreatments. These pharmacokinetic changes were not due to the changes in the rate of MAP metabolism. These results suggest haloperidol and cocaine can change the cerebral pharmacokinetic profile of MAP in the behavioral-sensitized dog. The variations of MAP-accumulation may affect the development or expression of MAP-induced behavioral sensitization.

  19. Preoperative functional MRI localization of language areas in Chinese patients with brain tumors Validation with intraoperative electrocortical mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hechun Xia; Wei Huang; Liang Wu; Hui Ma; Xiaodong Wang; Xuexin Chen; Shengyu Sun; Xiaoxiong Jia

    2012-01-01

    Ten Chinese patients with brain tumors involving language regions were selected. Preoperative functional MRI was performed to locate Broca's or Wernicke's area, and the cortex that was essential for language function was determined by electrocortical mapping. A site-by-site comparison between functional MRI and electrocortical mapping was performed with the aid of a neuronavigation device. Results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of preoperative functional MRI were 80.0% and 85.0% in Broca's area and 66.6% and 85.2% in Wernicke's area, respectively. These experimental findings indicate that functional MRI is an accurate, reliable technique with which to identify the location of Wernicke's area or Broca's area in patients with brain tumors.

  20. Spatial mapping of structural and connectional imaging data for the developing human brain with diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Austin; Jeon, Tina; Sunkin, Susan M; Pletikos, Mihovil; Sedmak, Goran; Sestan, Nenad; Lein, Ed S; Huang, Hao

    2015-02-01

    During human brain development from fetal stage to adulthood, the white matter (WM) tracts undergo dramatic changes. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a widely used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality, offers insight into the dynamic changes of WM fibers as these fibers can be noninvasively traced and three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed with DTI tractography. The DTI and conventional T1 weighted MRI images also provide sufficient cortical anatomical details for mapping the cortical regions of interests (ROIs). In this paper, we described basic concepts and methods of DTI techniques that can be used to trace major WM tracts noninvasively from fetal brain of 14 postconceptional weeks (pcw) to adult brain. We applied these techniques to acquire DTI data and trace, reconstruct and visualize major WM tracts during development. After categorizing major WM fiber bundles into five unique functional tract groups, namely limbic, brain stem, projection, commissural and association tracts, we revealed formation and maturation of these 3D reconstructed WM tracts of the developing human brain. The structural and connectional imaging data offered by DTI provides the anatomical backbone of transcriptional atlas of the developing human brain.

  1. Creativity Development in Adolescence: Insight from Behavior, Brain, and Training Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is a multifaceted construct that recruits different cognitive processes. Here, we summarize studies that show that creativity develops considerably during adolescence with different developmental trajectories for insight, verbal divergent thinking, and visuospatial divergent thinking. Next, these developmental time courses are mapped to changes in brain activity when individuals perform divergent thinking tasks. The findings point to an important role of the prefrontal cortex for generating novelty and complexity. Finally, the potentials and limitations of training creativity in adolescence are described. The findings are interpreted vis-à-vis the dynamic changes that occur during adolescence in brain development and behavioral control processes.

  2. MR constrained simultaneous reconstruction of activity and attenuation maps in brain TOF-PET/MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Zaidi, Habib [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-29

    The maximum likelihood estimation of attenuation and activity (MLAA) algorithm has been proposed to jointly estimate activity and attenuation from emission data only. Salomon et al employed the MLAA to estimate activity and attenuation from time-of-flight PET data with spatial MR prior information on attenuation. Recently, we proposed a novel algorithm to impose both spatial and statistical constraints on attenuation estimation within the MLAA algorithm using Dixon MR images and a constrained Gaussian mixture model (GMM). In this study, we compare the proposed algorithm with MLAA and MLAA-Salomon in brain TOF-PET/MR imaging.

  3. Mapping of kisspeptin fibres in the brain of the pro-oestrus rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desroziers, E; Mikkelsen, J; Simonneaux, V;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Kisspeptins are a family of small peptides that play a key role in the neuroendocrine regulation of the reproductive function through neural pathways which have not yet been completely identified. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of kisspeptin neurone fibres in the female......, immunoreactive cell bodies were exclusively observed in the arcuate nucleus, and immunoreactive fibres were confined to the septo-preoptico-hypothalamic continuum of the brain. Fibres were observed in the preoptic area, the diagonal band of Broca, the septohypothalamic area, the anteroventral periventricular...

  4. MEG can map short and long-term changes in brain activity following deep brain stimulation for chronic pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Mohseni

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS has been shown to be clinically effective for some forms of treatment-resistant chronic pain, but the precise mechanisms of action are not well understood. Here, we present an analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG data from a patient with whole-body chronic pain, in order to investigate changes in neural activity induced by DBS for pain relief over both short- and long-term. This patient is one of the few cases treated using DBS of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. We demonstrate that a novel method, null-beamforming, can be used to localise accurately brain activity despite the artefacts caused by the presence of DBS electrodes and stimulus pulses. The accuracy of our source localisation was verified by correlating the predicted DBS electrode positions with their actual positions. Using this beamforming method, we examined changes in whole-brain activity comparing pain relief achieved with deep brain stimulation (DBS ON and compared with pain experienced with no stimulation (DBS OFF. We found significant changes in activity in pain-related regions including the pre-supplementary motor area, brainstem (periaqueductal gray and dissociable parts of caudal and rostral ACC. In particular, when the patient reported experiencing pain, there was increased activity in different regions of ACC compared to when he experienced pain relief. We were also able to demonstrate long-term functional brain changes as a result of continuous DBS over one year, leading to specific changes in the activity in dissociable regions of caudal and rostral ACC. These results broaden our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of DBS in the human brain.

  5. Assessment of SPM in perfusion brain SPECT studies. A numerical simulation study using bootstrap resampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareto, Deborah; Aguiar, Pablo; Pavía, Javier; Gispert, Juan Domingo; Cot, Albert; Falcón, Carles; Benabarre, Antoni; Lomeña, Francisco; Vieta, Eduard; Ros, Domènec

    2008-07-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) has become the technique of choice to statistically evaluate positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain studies. Nevertheless, only a few methodological studies have been carried out to assess the performance of SPM in SPECT. The aim of this paper was to study the performance of SPM in detecting changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in hypo- and hyperperfused areas in brain SPECT studies. The paper seeks to determine the relationship between the group size and the rCBF changes, and the influence of the correction for degradations. The assessment was carried out using simulated brain SPECT studies. Projections were obtained with Monte Carlo techniques, and a fan-beam collimator was considered in the simulation process. Reconstruction was performed by using the ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm with and without compensation for attenuation, scattering, and spatial variant collimator response. Significance probability maps were obtained with SPM2 by using a one-tailed two-sample t-test. A bootstrap resampling approach was used to determine the sample size for SPM to detect the between-group differences. Our findings show that the correction for degradations results in a diminution of the sample size, which is more significant for small regions and low-activation factors. Differences in sample size were found between hypo- and hyperperfusion. These differences were larger for small regions and low-activation factors, and when no corrections were included in the reconstruction algorithm.

  6. Preliminary study of Alzheimer's Disease diagnosis based on brain electrical signals using wireless EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, N.; Akbar, Y.; Khotimah, S. N.; Haryanto, F.; Arif, I.; Taruno, W. P.

    2016-03-01

    This research aims to study brain's electrical signals recorded using EEG as a basis for the diagnosis of patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The subjects consisted of patients with AD, and normal subjects are used as the control. Brain signals are recorded for 3 minutes in a relaxed condition and with eyes closed. The data is processed using power spectral analysis, brain mapping and chaos test to observe the level of complexity of EEG's data. The results show a shift in the power spectral in the low frequency band (delta and theta) in AD patients. The increase of delta and theta occurs in lobus frontal area and lobus parietal respectively. However, there is a decrease of alpha activity in AD patients where in the case of normal subjects with relaxed condition, brain alpha wave dominates the posterior area. This is confirmed by the results of brain mapping. While the results of chaos analysis show that the average value of MMLE is lower in AD patients than in normal subjects. The level of chaos associated with neural complexity in AD patients with lower neural complexity is due to neuronal damage caused by the beta amyloid plaques and tau protein in neurons.

  7. Critical brain regions for action recognition: lesion symptom mapping in left hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalénine, Solène; Buxbaum, Laurel J; Coslett, Harry Branch

    2010-11-01

    A number of conflicting claims have been advanced regarding the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobe and posterior middle temporal gyrus in action recognition, driven in part by an ongoing debate about the capacities of putative mirror systems that match observed and planned actions. We report data from 43 left hemisphere stroke patients in two action recognition tasks in which they heard and saw an action word ('hammering') and selected from two videoclips the one corresponding to the word. In the spatial recognition task, foils contained errors of body posture or movement amplitude/timing. In the semantic recognition task, foils were semantically related (sawing). Participants also performed a comprehension control task requiring matching of the same verbs to objects (hammer). Using regression analyses controlling for both the comprehension control task and lesion volume, we demonstrated that performance in the semantic gesture recognition task was predicted by per cent damage to the posterior temporal lobe, whereas the spatial gesture recognition task was predicted by per cent damage to the inferior parietal lobule. A whole-brain voxel-based lesion symptom-mapping analysis suggested that the semantic and spatial gesture recognition tasks were associated with lesioned voxels in the posterior middle temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, respectively. The posterior middle temporal gyrus appears to serve as a central node in the association of actions and meanings. The inferior parietal lobule, held to be a homologue of the monkey parietal mirror neuron system, is critical for encoding object-related postures and movements, a relatively circumscribed aspect of gesture recognition. The inferior frontal gyrus, on the other hand, was not predictive of performance in any task, suggesting that previous claims regarding its role in action recognition may require refinement.

  8. Eletrencefalograma digital com mapeamento em demência de Alzheimer e doença de Parkinson: estudo prospectivo controlado Digital EEG with brain mapping in Alzheimer's dementia and Parkinson's disease: a prospective controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos C. Sandmann

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o intuito de estudar a atividade eletrencefalográfica em vigilia da demência senil de tipo Alzheimer (DA e da doença de Parkinson (DP foi iniciado estudo prospectivo e controlado. Foram comparados 6 pacientes com DA e 11 pacientes com DP, com um grupo controle composto por 12 pacientes com depressão maior crônica leve a moderada (DSM-III-R, 1987. Nos três grupos, através de análise espectral, foi obtida a mediana da frequência da energia da atividade dominante posterior. O grupo controle apresentou atividade posterior com frequência de 8,79 ± 0,52 (m±dp. No grupo com DA este valor foi 6,65 ± 0,80 (m±dp e no grupo com DP 7,69± 1,39 (m±dp. A hipótese experimental de que pacientes com DA e DP diferem dos controles em relação à atividade de fundo (definida como anormal sendo In order to evaluate the EEG activity during wakefulness in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (AD and Parkinson's disease (PD, a prospective controlled study was performed. We compared 6 AD and 11 PD patients with a control group of 12 patients with mild to moderate major chronic depression (DSM-III-R 1987. The median of the frequencies and the power of the posterior dominant activity was obtained in the three groups using spectral analysis. The posterior activity had a frequency of 8.79±0.52 (mean±sd in the contrc group, 6.65+0.80 (mean+sd in the AD group and 7.69+1.39 (mean±sd in the PD group. The experimental hypothesis that patients with AD and PD differ from controls in relation to the background activity (defined a abnormal <8 was confirmed by the chi square test (p=0.0l and the t test showed that the mean of the frequency of the posterior power was significantly lower in AD (p=0.01 and PD (p=0.05 patients, compared with the controls. The results indicate that this abnormality could be correlated with the degree of cortical damage and natural history of these disorders.

  9. Mapping Urban Form: Morphology studies in the contemporary urban landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinzon Cortes, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation discusses the importance to study the form of the contemporary urban landscape. It shows how mapping is the tool by which the formal logic of the contemporary city can be uncovered. Through mapping, the urban landscape can be understood as systems of overlapping layers. This observ

  10. Mapping Climate Change: Six U.S. Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Marjorie O.

    2010-01-01

    This research focuses on the current role of mapping practices in communicating climate change in the United States. This includes maps used in monitoring climate change, projecting its potential impacts, and identifying potential adaptation strategies at particular scales. Since few, if any, studies have been done specifically on mapping…

  11. Data management for genomic mapping applications: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowitz, V.M.; Lewis, S.; McCarthy, J.; Olken, F.; Zorn, M.

    1992-05-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach to the construction of data management systems for genomic mapping applications in molecular biology, genetics, and plant breeding. We discuss the architecture of such systems and propose an incremental approach to the development of such systems. We illustrate the proposed approach and architecture with a case study of a prototype data management system for genomic maps.

  12. Infrared Imaging System for Studying Brain Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick; Mintz, Frederick; Gunapala, Sarath

    2007-01-01

    A proposed special-purpose infrared imaging system would be a compact, portable, less-expensive alternative to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) systems heretofore used to study brain function. Whereas a typical fMRI system fills a large room, and must be magnetically isolated, this system would fit into a bicycle helmet. The system would include an assembly that would be mounted inside the padding in a modified bicycle helmet or other suitable headgear. The assembly would include newly designed infrared photodetectors and data-acquisition circuits on integrated-circuit chips on low-thermal-conductivity supports in evacuated housings (see figure) arranged in multiple rows and columns that would define image coordinates. Each housing would be spring-loaded against the wearer s head. The chips would be cooled by a small Stirling Engine mounted contiguous to, but thermally isolated from, the portions of the assembly in thermal contact with the wearer s head. Flexible wires or cables for transmitting data from the aforementioned chips would be routed to an integrated, multichannel transmitter and thence through the top of the assembly to a patch antenna on the outside of the helmet. The multiple streams of data from the infrared-detector chips would be sent to a remote site, where they would be processed, by software, into a three-dimensional display of evoked potentials that would represent firing neuronal bundles and thereby indicate locations of neuronal activity associated with mental or physical activity. The 3D images will be analogous to current fMRI images. The data would also be made available, in real-time, for comparison with data in local or internationally accessible relational databases that already exist in universities and research centers. Hence, this system could be used in research on, and for the diagnosis of response from the wearer s brain to physiological, psychological, and environmental changes in real time. The images would also be

  13. Genomics of a metamorphic timing QTL: met1 maps to a unique genomic position and regulates morph and species-specific patterns of brain transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robert B; Boley, Meredith A; Kump, David K; Voss, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about genetic factors that regulate life history transitions during ontogeny. Closely related tiger salamanders (Ambystoma species complex) show extreme variation in metamorphic timing, with some species foregoing metamorphosis altogether, an adaptive trait called paedomorphosis. Previous studies identified a major effect quantitative trait locus (met1) for metamorphic timing and expression of paedomorphosis in hybrid crosses between the biphasic Eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) and the paedomorphic Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). We used existing hybrid mapping panels and a newly created hybrid cross to map the met1 genomic region and determine the effect of met1 on larval growth, metamorphic timing, and gene expression in the brain. We show that met1 maps to the position of a urodele-specific chromosome rearrangement on linkage group 2 that uniquely brought functionally associated genes into linkage. Furthermore, we found that more than 200 genes were differentially expressed during larval development as a function of met1 genotype. This list of differentially expressed genes is enriched for proteins that function in the mitochondria, providing evidence of a link between met1, thyroid hormone signaling, and mitochondrial energetics associated with metamorphosis. Finally, we found that met1 significantly affected metamorphic timing in hybrids, but not early larval growth rate. Collectively, our results show that met1 regulates species and morph-specific patterns of brain transcription and life history variation.

  14. Preclinical studies on [{sup 11}C]MPDX for mapping adenosine A{sub 1} receptors by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwata, Kiichi; Kimura, Yuichi; Oda, Keiichi; Kawamura, Kazunori; Ishii, Kenji; Senda, Michio [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Gerontology (Japan). Positron Medical Center; Nariai, Tadashi; Wakabayashi, Shinichi [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Shimada, Junichi [Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Pharmaceutical Research Inst.

    2002-09-01

    In previous in vivo studies with mice, rats and cats, we have demonstrated that [{sup 11}C]MPDX ([1-methyl-{sup 11}C]8-dicyclopropylmethyl-1-methyl-3-propylxanthine) is a potential radioligand for mapping adenosine A{sub 1} receptors of the brain by positron emission tomography (PET). In the present study, we performed a preclinical study. The radiation absorbed-dose by [{sup 11}C]MPDX in humans estimated from the tissue distribution in mice was low enough for clinical use, and the acute toxicity and mutagenicity of MPDX were not found. The monkey brain was clearly visualized by PET with [{sup 11}C]MPDX. We have concluded that [{sup 11}C]MPDX is suitable for mapping adenosine A{sub 1} receptors in the human brain by PET. (author)

  15. Evaluation of Different N-Glycopeptide Enrichment Methods for N-Glycosylation Sites Mapping in Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengqian; Ye, Zilu; Xue, Peng; Shu, Qingbo; Zhou, Yue; Ji, Yanlong; Fu, Ying; Wang, Jifeng; Yang, Fuquan

    2016-09-01

    N-Glycosylation of proteins plays a critical role in many biological pathways. Because highly heterogeneous N-glycopeptides are present in biological sources, the enrichment procedure is a crucial step for mass spectrometry analysis. Five enrichment methods, including IP-ZIC-HILIC, hydrazide chemistry, lectin affinity, ZIC-HILIC-FA, and TiO2 affinity were evaluated and compared in the study of mapping N-glycosylation sites in mouse brain. On the basis of our results, the identified N-glycosylation sites were 1891, 1241, 891, 869, and 710 and the FDR values were 3.29, 5.62, 9.54, 9.54, and 20.02%, respectively. Therefore, IP-ZIC-HILIC enrichment method displayed the highest sensitivity and specificity. In this work, we identified a total of 3446 unique glycosylation sites conforming to the N-glycosylation consensus motif (N-X-T/S/C; X ≠ P) with (18)O labeling in 1597 N-glycoproteins. N-glycosylation site information was used to confirm or correct the transmembrane topology of the 57 novel transmembrane N-glycoproteins.

  16. Re-examine tumor-induced alterations in hemodynamic responses of BOLD fMRI. Implications in presurgical brain mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liya [Dept. of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory Univ., School of Medicine, Atlanta (United States); Dept. of Radiology, Baoan Hospital, Shenzhen (China); Ali, Shazia; Fa, Tianning; Mao, Hui [Dept. of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory Univ., School of Medicine, Atlanta (United States)], e-mail: hmao@emory.edu; Dandan, Chen [Dept. of Physics, Emory Univ., Atlanta, (United States); School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Soochow Univ., Suzhou (China); Olson, Jeffrey [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Emory Univ., School of Medicine, Atlanta (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Background: Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI is used for presurgical functional mapping of brain tumor patients. Abnormal tumor blood supply may affect hemodynamic responses and BOLD fMRI signals. Purpose: To perform a multivariate and quantitative investigation of the effect of brain tumors on the hemodynamic responses and its impact on BOLD MRI signal time course, data analysis in order to better understand tumor-induced alterations in hemodynamic responses, and accurately mapping cortical regions in brain tumor patients. Material and Methods: BOLD fMRI data from 42 glioma patients who underwent presurgical mapping of the primary motor cortex (PMC) with a block designed finger tapping paradigm were analyzed, retrospectively. Cases were divided into high grade (n = 24) and low grade (n = 18) groups based on pathology. The tumor volume and distance to the activated PMCs were measured. BOLD signal time courses from selected regions of interest (ROIs) in the PMCs of tumor affected and contralateral unaffected hemispheres were obtained from each patient. Tumor-induced changes of BOLD signal intensity and time to peak (TTP) of BOLD signal time courses were analyzed statistically. Results: The BOLD signal intensity and TTP in the tumor-affected PMCs are altered when compared to that of the unaffected hemisphere. The average BOLD signal level is statistically significant lower in the affected PMCs. The average TTP in the affected PMCs is shorter in the high grade group, but longer in the low grade tumor group compared to the contralateral unaffected hemisphere. Degrees of alterations in BOLD signal time courses are related to both the distance to activated foci and tumor volume with the stronger effect in tumor distance to activated PMC. Conclusion: Alterations in BOLD signal time courses are strongly related to the tumor grade, the tumor volume, and the distance to the activated foci. Such alterations may impair accurate mapping of tumor-affected functional

  17. Including anatomical and functional information in MC simulation of PET and SPECT brain studies. Brain-VISET: a voxel-based iterative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti-Fuster, Berta; Esteban, Oscar; Thielemans, Kris; Setoain, Xavier; Santos, Andres; Ros, Domenec; Pavia, Javier

    2014-10-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation provides a flexible and robust framework to efficiently evaluate and optimize image processing methods in emission tomography. In this work we present Brain-VISET (Voxel-based Iterative Simulation for Emission Tomography), a method that aims to simulate realistic [ (99m) Tc]-SPECT and [ (18) F]-PET brain databases by including anatomical and functional information. To this end, activity and attenuation maps generated using high-resolution anatomical images from patients were used as input maps in a MC projector to simulate SPECT or PET sinograms. The reconstructed images were compared with the corresponding real SPECT or PET studies in an iterative process where the activity inputs maps were being modified at each iteration. Datasets of 30 refractory epileptic patients were used to assess the new method. Each set consisted of structural images (MRI and CT) and functional studies (SPECT and PET), thereby allowing the inclusion of anatomical and functional variability in the simulation input models. SPECT and PET sinograms were obtained using the SimSET package and were reconstructed with the same protocols as those employed for the clinical studies. The convergence of Brain-VISET was evaluated by studying the behavior throughout iterations of the correlation coefficient, the quotient image histogram and a ROI analysis comparing simulated with real studies. The realism of generated maps was also evaluated. Our findings show that Brain-VISET is able to generate realistic SPECT and PET studies and that four iterations is a suitable number of iterations to guarantee a good agreement between simulated and real studies.

  18. Functional brain imaging studies on specificity of meridian and acupoints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuezhi Li; Xuguang Liu; Fanrong Liang

    2008-01-01

    At present,the specificity of meridians and acupoints has been studied using functional brain imaging techniques from many standpoints.including meridians,acupoints,and sham acupoints,as well as different meridians and acupoints,coordination of acupoints,and factors influencing meridian and acupoint specificity.Preliminary experimental data have demonstrated that acupuncture at meridians and acupoints is specific with regard to brain neural information.However,research findings are contradictory,which may be related to brain functional complexity,resolution of functional brain imaging techniques,and experimental design.Future studies should further improve study method,and should strictly control experimental conditions to better analyze experimental data and acquire more beneficial data.Because of its many advantages.the functional brain imaging technique is a promising method for studying meridian and acupoint specificity.

  19. High-resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of metal compounds in neurodegenerative brain tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collingwood, J.F.; Mikhaylova, A.; Davidson, M.R.; Batich, C.; Streit, W.J.; Eskin, T.; Terry, J.; Barrea, R.; Underhill, R.S.; Dobson, J. (IIT); (Keele); (Florida); (DRDC)

    2008-06-16

    Fluorescence mapping and microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy are used to detect, locate and identify iron biominerals and other inorganic metal accumulations in neurodegenerative brain tissue at sub-cellular resolution (< 5 microns). Recent progress in developing the technique is reviewed. Synchrotron X-rays are used to map tissue sections for metals of interest, and XANES and XAFS are used to characterize anomalous concentrations of the metals in-situ so that they can be correlated with tissue structures and disease pathology. Iron anomalies associated with biogenic magnetite, ferritin and haemoglobin are located and identified in an avian tissue model with a pixel resolution {approx} 5 microns. Subsequent studies include brain tissue sections from transgenic Huntington's mice, and the first high-resolution mapping and identification of iron biominerals in human Alzheimer's and control autopsy brain tissue. Technical developments include use of microfocus diffraction to obtain structural information about biominerals in-situ, and depositing sample location grids by lithography for the location of anomalies by conventional microscopy. The combined techniques provide a breakthrough in the study of both intra- and extra-cellular iron compounds and related metals in tissue. The information to be gained from this approach has implications for future diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration, and for our understanding of the mechanisms involved.

  20. Genomic studies of mood disorders - the brain as a muscle?

    OpenAIRE

    Niculescu, Alexander B.

    2005-01-01

    Recent genomic studies showing abnormalities in the fibroblast growth factor system in the postmortem brains of people with major depressive disorder support previous indications of a role for growth factors in mood disorders. Similar molecular pathways, volumetric changes, and the effects of exercise on mood suggest a superficial analogy, and perhaps a deeper relationship, between muscle and brain functioning.

  1. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia : A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  2. Accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia : A longitudinal pattern recognition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G.; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  3. A Bayesian approach to the creation of a study-customized neonatal brain atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yajing; Chang, Linda; Ceritoglu, Can; Skranes, Jon; Ernst, Thomas; Mori, Susumu; Miller, Michael I; Oishi, Kenichi

    2014-11-01

    Atlas-based image analysis (ABA), in which an anatomical "parcellation map" is used for parcel-by-parcel image quantification, is widely used to analyze anatomical and functional changes related to brain development, aging, and various diseases. The parcellation maps are often created based on common MRI templates, which allow users to transform the template to target images, or vice versa, to perform parcel-by-parcel statistics, and report the scientific findings based on common anatomical parcels. The use of a study-specific template, which represents the anatomical features of the study population better than common templates, is preferable for accurate anatomical labeling; however, the creation of a parcellation map for a study-specific template is extremely labor intensive, and the definitions of anatomical boundaries are not necessarily compatible with those of the common template. In this study, we employed a volume-based template estimation (VTE) method to create a neonatal brain template customized to a study population, while keeping the anatomical parcellation identical to that of a common MRI atlas. The VTE was used to morph the standardized parcellation map of the JHU-neonate-SS atlas to capture the anatomical features of a study population. The resultant "study-customized" T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) template, with three-dimensional anatomical parcellation that defined 122 brain regions, was compared with the JHU-neonate-SS atlas, in terms of the registration accuracy. A pronounced increase in the accuracy of cortical parcellation and superior tensor alignment were observed when the customized template was used. With the customized atlas-based analysis, the fractional anisotropy (FA) detected closely approximated the manual measurements. This tool provides a solution for achieving normalization-based measurements with increased accuracy, while reporting scientific findings in a consistent framework.

  4. Usefulness of Permeability Map by Perfusion MRI of Brain Tumor the Grade Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Dongsan Hospital, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo Young [GE Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyuk Won [Dept. of Radiology, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    This study was conducted to assess how effective the permeability ratio and relative cerebral blood volume ratio are to tumor through perfusion MRI by measuring and reflecting the grade assessment and differential diagnosis and the permeability and relative cerebral blood volume of contrast media plunged from blood vessel into organ due to breakdown of blood-brain barrier in cerebral. Subject and Method : Subject of study was 29 patients whose diagnosis were confirmed by biopsy after surgery and 550 (11 slice x 50 image) perfusion MRI were used to make image of relative cerebral blood volume with the program furnished on instrument. The other method was to transmit to private computer and the image analysis was made additionally by making image of relative cerebral blood volume-reformulated singular value decomposition, rCBV-rSVD and permeability using IDL.6.2. In addition, Kruskal-wallis test tonggyein non numerical average by a comparative analysis of brain tumors Results : The rCBV ratio (Functool PF; GE Medical Systems and IDL 6.2 program by analysis) and permeability ratio of tumors were as follows; high grade glioma(n=4), (14.75, 19.25) 13.13. low grade astrocytoma(n=5) (14.80, 15.90) 11.60, glioblastoma(n=5) (10.90, 18.60), 22.00, metastasis(n=6) (11.00, 15.08). 22.33. meningioma(n=6) (18.58, 7.67), 5.58. oliogodendroglioma(n=3) (23.33, 16.33, 15.67. Conclusion : It was not easy to classify the grade with the relative cerebral blood volume ratio measured by using the relative cerebral blood image by type of tumors, however, permeability ratio measured by permeability image revealed that the higher the grade of tumor, the higher the measured permeability ratio, showing the assessment of tumor grade is more effective to differential diagnosis.

  5. Brain Imaging Studies of Developmental Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Roger J.

    2001-01-01

    A review of research on brain imaging of developmental stuttering concludes that findings increasingly point to a failure of normal temporal lobe activation during speech that may either contribute to (or is the result of) a breakdown in the sequencing of processing among premotor regions implicated in phonologic planning. (Contains references.)…

  6. Using autopsy brain tissue to study alcohol-related brain damage in the genomic age

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland, Greg T.; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J.

    2013-01-01

    The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre (NSW TRC) at the University of Sydney, Australia is one of the few human brain banks dedicated to the study of the effects of chronic alcoholism. The bank was affiliated in 1994 as a member of the National Network of Brain Banks and also focuses on schizophrenia and healthy control tissue. Alcohol abuse is a major problem worldwide, manifesting in such conditions as fetal alcohol syndrome, adolescent binge drinking, alcohol dependency and alcoholic n...

  7. The Gini coefficient: a methodological pilot study to assess fetal brain development employing postmortem diffusion MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehweger, Adrian; Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Wolfgang [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Riffert, Till; Dhital, Bibek; Knoesche, Thomas R.; Anwander, Alfred [Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig (Germany); Stepan, Holger [University Leipzig, Department of Obstetrics, Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is important in the assessment of fetal brain development. However, it is clinically challenging and time-consuming to prepare neuromorphological examinations to assess real brain age and to detect abnormalities. To demonstrate that the Gini coefficient can be a simple, intuitive parameter for modelling fetal brain development. Postmortem fetal specimens(n = 28) were evaluated by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 3-T MRI scanner using 60 directions, 0.7-mm isotropic voxels and b-values of 0, 150, 1,600 s/mm{sup 2}. Constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) was used as the local diffusion model. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and complexity (CX) maps were generated. CX was defined as a novel diffusion metric. On the basis of those three parameters, the Gini coefficient was calculated. Study of fetal brain development in postmortem specimens was feasible using DWI. The Gini coefficient could be calculated for the combination of the three diffusion parameters. This multidimensional Gini coefficient correlated well with age (Adjusted R{sup 2} = 0.59) between the ages of 17 and 26 gestational weeks. We propose a new method that uses an economics concept, the Gini coefficient, to describe the whole brain with one simple and intuitive measure, which can be used to assess the brain's developmental state. (orig.)

  8. Study Links Stuttering to Less Blood Flow in Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162922.html Study Links Stuttering to Less Blood Flow in Brain The more ... to speech may put people at risk for stuttering, a small study suggests. There are also signs ...

  9. NEREC, an effective brain mapping protocol for combined language and long-term memory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Girard, Cléa; Cousin, Emilie; Vidal, Juan Ricardo; Pichat, Cédric; Kahane, Philippe; Baciu, Monica

    2015-12-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy can induce functional plasticity in temporoparietal networks involved in language and long-term memory processing. Previous studies in healthy subjects have revealed the relative difficulty for this network to respond effectively across different experimental designs, as compared to more reactive regions such as frontal lobes. For a protocol to be optimal for clinical use, it has to first show robust effects in a healthy cohort. In this study, we developed a novel experimental paradigm entitled NEREC, which is able to reveal the robust participation of temporoparietal networks in a uniquely combined language and memory task, validated in an fMRI study with healthy subjects. Concretely, NEREC is composed of two runs: (a) an intermixed language-memory task (confrontation naming associated with encoding in nonverbal items, NE) to map language (i.e., word retrieval and lexico-semantic processes) combined with simultaneous long-term verbal memory encoding (NE items named but also explicitly memorized) and (b) a memory retrieval task of items encoded during NE (word recognition, REC) intermixed with new items. Word recognition is based on both perceptual-semantic familiarity (feeling of 'know') and accessing stored memory representations (remembering). In order to maximize the remembering and recruitment of medial temporal lobe structures, we increased REC difficulty by changing the modality of stimulus presentation (from nonverbal during NE to verbal during REC). We report that (a) temporoparietal activation during NE was attributable to both lexico-semantic (language) and memory (episodic encoding and semantic retrieval) processes; that (b) encoding activated the left hippocampus, bilateral fusiform, and bilateral inferior temporal gyri; and that (c) task recognition (recollection) activated the right hippocampus and bilateral but predominant left fusiform gyrus. The novelty of this protocol consists of (a) combining two tasks in one (language

  10. Emergency Management Operations Process Mapping: Public Safety Technical Program Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    DRDC CSS CR 2011-09 i Emergency Management Operations Process Mapping : Public Security Technical Program Study Anet Greenley ...processus/outils). DRDC CSS CR 2011-09 iii Executive summary Emergency Management Operations Process Mapping PSTP Study [ Greenley , A...technique de sécurité publique – Etude DSTP [ Greenley , A.; Poursina, S.]; DRDC CSS CR 2011-09 L’objectif principal du Programme technique de sécurité

  11. Brain connectivity study of joint attention using frequency-domain optical imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Zhu, Banghe; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2010-02-01

    Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic populations. In this study, diffuse optical imaging is being used to study brain connectivity for the first time in response to joint attention experience in normal adults. The prefrontal region of the brain was non-invasively imaged using a frequency-domain based optical imager. The imaging studies were performed on 11 normal right-handed adults and optical measurements were acquired in response to joint-attention based video clips. While the intensity-based optical data provides information about the hemodynamic response of the underlying neural process, the time-dependent phase-based optical data has the potential to explicate the directional information on the activation of the brain. Thus brain connectivity studies are performed by computing covariance/correlations between spatial units using this frequency-domain based optical measurements. The preliminary results indicate that the extent of synchrony and directional variation in the pattern of activation varies in the left and right frontal cortex. The results have significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using diffuse optical imaging tools in the future.

  12. Revealing pathologies in the liquid crystalline structures of the brain by polarimetric studies (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshetyan, Karen; Melkonyan, Gurgen G.; Galstian, Tigran V.; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2015-10-01

    Natural or "self" alignment of molecular complexes in living tissue represents many similarities with liquid crystals (LC), which are anisotropic liquids. The orientational characteristics of those complexes may be related to many important functional parameters and their study may reveal important pathologies. The know-how, accumulated thanks to the study of LC materials, may thus be used to this end. One of the traditionally used methods, to characterize those materials, is the polarized light imaging (PLI) that allows for label-free analysis of anisotropic structures in the brain tissue and can be used, for example, for the analysis of myelinated fiber bundles. In the current work, we first attempted to apply the PLI on the mouse histological brain sections to create a map of anisotropic structures using cross-polarizer transmission light. Then we implemented the PLI for comparative study of histological sections of human postmortem brain samples under normal and pathological conditions, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Imaging the coronal, sagittal and horizontal sections of mouse brain allowed us to create a false color-coded fiber orientation map under polarized light. In human brain datasets for both control and PD groups we measured the pixel intensities in myelin-rich subregions of internal capsule and normalized these to non-myelinated background signal from putamen and caudate nucleus. Quantification of intensities revealed a statistically significant reduction of fiber intensity of PD compared to control subjects (2.801 +/- 0.303 and 3.724 +/- 0.07 respectively; *p < 0.05). Our study confirms the validity of PLI method for visualizing myelinated axonal fibers. This relatively simple technique can become a promising tool for study of neurodegenerative diseases where labeling-free imaging is an important benefit.

  13. Mapping perception to action in piano practice: a longitudinal DC-EEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangert Marc

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Performing music requires fast auditory and motor processing. Regarding professional musicians, recent brain imaging studies have demonstrated that auditory stimulation produces a co-activation of motor areas, whereas silent tapping of musical phrases evokes a co-activation in auditory regions. Whether this is obtained via a specific cerebral relay station is unclear. Furthermore, the time course of plasticity has not yet been addressed. Results Changes in cortical activation patterns (DC-EEG potentials induced by short (20 minute and long term (5 week piano learning were investigated during auditory and motoric tasks. Two beginner groups were trained. The 'map' group was allowed to learn the standard piano key-to-pitch map. For the 'no-map' group, random assignment of keys to tones prevented such a map. Auditory-sensorimotor EEG co-activity occurred within only 20 minutes. The effect was enhanced after 5-week training, contributing elements of both perception and action to the mental representation of the instrument. The 'map' group demonstrated significant additional activity of right anterior regions. Conclusion We conclude that musical training triggers instant plasticity in the cortex, and that right-hemispheric anterior areas provide an audio-motor interface for the mental representation of the keyboard.

  14. Changes in brain iron concentration after exposure to high-altitude hypoxia measured by quantitative susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Cai, Congbo; Yang, Tianhe; Lin, Jianzhong; Cai, Shuhui; Zhang, Jiaxing; Chen, Zhong

    2017-02-15

    Hypoxia can induce physiological changes. This study aims to explore effects of high-altitude (HA) hypoxia on cerebral iron concentration. Twenty-nine healthy sea-level participants were tested shortly before and after approximately 4-week adaptation to the HA environment at fQinghai-Tibet Plateau (4200m), and were re-investigated after re-adaptation to the sea-level environment one year later. Iron concentration was quantified with quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), and the results were compared with transverse relaxation rate (R(*)2) measurements. The variations of magnetic susceptibility indicate that the iron concentration in gray matter regions, especially in basal ganglia, including caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus and substantia nigra, increases significantly after HA exposure. This increase appears consistent with the conclusion from R(*)2 value variations. However, unlike QSM, the R(*)2 value fails to demonstrate the statistical difference of iron content in red nucleus. The re-investigation results show that most variations are recovered after sea-level re-adaptation for one year. Additionally, hemisphere- and gender-related differences in iron concentration changes were analyzed among cerebral regions. The results show greater possibilities in the right hemisphere and females. Further studies based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) suggest that the fractional anisotropy increases and the mean diffusivity decreases after HA exposure in six deep gray matter nuclei, with linear dependence on iron concentration only in putamen. In conclusion, the magnetic susceptibility value can serve as a quantitative marker of brain iron, and variations of regional susceptibility reported herein indicate that HA hypoxia can result in significant iron deposition in most deep gray matter regions. Additionally, the linear dependence of DTI metrics on iron concentration in putamen indicates a potential relationship between ferritin and water diffusion.

  15. Different uptake of 99mTc-ECD adn 99mTc-HMPAO in the same brains: analysis by statistical parametric mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Y; Lee, J S; Rha, J H; Lee, I K; Ha, C K; Lee, D S

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) uptake in the same brains by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. We examined 20 patients (9 male, 11 female, mean age 62+/-12 years) using 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain less than 7 days after onset of stroke. MRI showed no cortical infarctions. Infarctions in the pons (6 patients) and medulla (1), ischaemic periventricular white matter lesions (13) and lacunar infarction (7) were found on MRI. Split-dose and sequential SPET techniques were used for 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPET, without repositioning of the patient. All of the SPET images were spatially transformed to standard space, smoothed and globally normalized. The differences between the 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images were statistically analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 96 software. The difference between two groups was considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected P values less than 0.01. Visual analysis showed no hypoperfused areas on either 99mTc-ECD or 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images. SPM analysis revealed significantly different uptake of 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO in the same brains. On the 99mTc-ECD SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, in the left superior temporal lobe and in the superior region of the cerebellum. On the 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the medial temporal lobes, thalami, periventricular white matter and brain stem. These differences in uptake of the two tracers in the same brains on SPM analysis suggest that interpretation of cerebral perfusion is possible using SPET with 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO.

  16. Different uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO in the same brains: analysis by statistical parametric mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, I.Y. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea); Lee, J.S.; Lee, D.S. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Rha, J.H.; Lee, I.K.; Ha, C.K. [Dept. of Neurology, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea)

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) uptake in the same brains by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. We examined 20 patients (9 male, 11 female, mean age 62{+-}12 years) using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain less than 7 days after onset of stroke. MRI showed no cortical infarctions. Infarctions in the pons (6 patients) and medulla (1), ischaemic periventricular white matter lesions (13) and lacunar infarction (7) were found on MRI. Split-dose and sequential SPET techniques were used for {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPET, without repositioning of the patient. All of the SPET images were spatially transformed to standard space, smoothed and globally normalized. The differences between the {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET images were statistically analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 96 software. The difference between two groups was considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected P values less than 0.01. Visual analysis showed no hypoperfused areas on either {sup 99m}Tc-ECD or {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET images. SPM analysis revealed significantly different uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO in the same brains. On the {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, in the left superior temporal lobe and in the superior region of the cerebellum. On the {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the medial temporal lobes, thalami, periventricular white matter and brain stem. These differences in uptake of the two tracers in the same brains on SPM analysis suggest that interpretation of cerebral perfusion is possible using SPET with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and

  17. Patterns of accentuated grey-white differentiation on diffusion-weighted imaging or the apparent diffusion coefficient maps in comatose survivors after global brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E., E-mail: xmida@hanmail.ne [Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, C.-H.; Chang, K.-H. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, H.-W. [Departement of Radiology, Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D.H. [Department of Radiology, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Aim: To determine what disease entities show accentuated grey-white differentiation of the cerebral hemisphere on diffusion-weighted images (DWI) or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and whether there is a correlation between the different patterns and the cause of the brain injury. Methods and materials: The DWI and ADC maps of 19 patients with global brain injury were reviewed and evaluated to investigate whether there was a correlation between the different patterns seen on the DWI and ADC maps and the cause of global brain injury. The ADC values were measured for quantitative analysis. Results: There were three different patterns of ADC decrease: a predominant ADC decrease in only the cerebral cortex (n = 8; pattern I); an ADC decrease in both the cerebral cortex and white matter (WM) and a predominant decrease in the WM (n = 9; pattern II); and a predominant ADC decrease in only the WM (n = 3; pattern III). Conclusion: Pattern I is cerebral cortical injury, suggesting cortical laminar necrosis in hypoxic brain injury. Pattern II is cerebral cortical and WM injury, frequently seen in brain death, while pattern 3 is mainly WM injury, especially found in hypoglycaemic brain injury. It is likely that pattern I is decorticate injury and pattern II is decerebrate injury in hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy.Patterns I and II are found in severe hypoxic brain injury, and pattern II is frequently shown in brain death, whereas pattern III was found in severe hypoglycaemic injury.

  18. Brain SPECT in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: comparison between visual analysis and SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Barbara Juarez; Ramos, Celso Dario; Santos, Allan Oliveira dos; Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes de; Camargo, Edwaldo Eduardo; Etchebehere, Elba Cristina Sa de Camargo, E-mail: juarezbarbara@hotmail.co [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Radiology; Min, Li Li; Cendes, Fernando [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Neurology

    2010-04-15

    Objective: to compare the accuracy of SPM and visual analysis of brain SPECT in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Method: interictal and ictal SPECTs of 22 patients with MTLE were performed. Visual analysis were performed in interictal (VISUAL(inter)) and ictal (VISUAL(ictal/inter)) studies. SPM analysis consisted of comparing interictal (SPM(inter)) and ictal SPECTs (SPM(ictal)) of each patient to control group and by comparing perfusion of temporal lobes in ictal and interictal studies among themselves (SPM(ictal/inter)). Results: for detection of the epileptogenic focus, the sensitivities were as follows: VISUAL(inter)=68%; VISUAL(ictal/inter)=100%; SPM(inter)=45%; SPM(ictal)=64% and SPM(ictal/inter)=77%. SPM was able to detect more areas of hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion. Conclusion: SPM did not improve the sensitivity to detect epileptogenic focus. However, SPM detected different regions of hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion and is therefore a helpful tool for better understand pathophysiology of seizures in MTLE. (author)

  19. Mapping the Interdisciplinarity in Scientometric Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khosrowjerdi

    2013-03-01

    The data was extracted from Web of Science (WoS. The results showed that scientometric studies were a part of interdisciplinary studies. Furthermore, the library and information science and computer science had major contribution to this field.

  20. A multichannel time-domain brain oximeter for clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, Davide; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Caffini, Matteo; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2009-07-01

    We developed and optimized a multichannel dual-wavelength time-domain brain oximeter for functional studies in the clinical environment. The system, mounted on a 19"-rack, is interfaced with instrumentation for monitoring physiological parameters and for stimuli presentation.

  1. A prospective study to evaluate a new residential community reintegration programme for severe chronic brain injury: the Brain Integration Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurtsen, G.J.; Martina, J.D.; Heugten, C.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of a residential community reintegration programme for participants with chronic sequelae of severe acquired brain injury that hamper community functioning. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: Twenty-four participants with acquired brain injury (traumatic

  2. The brain as a distributed intelligent processing system: an EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Freitas da Rocha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various neuroimaging studies, both structural and functional, have provided support for the proposal that a distributed brain network is likely to be the neural basis of intelligence. The theory of Distributed Intelligent Processing Systems (DIPS, first developed in the field of Artificial Intelligence, was proposed to adequately model distributed neural intelligent processing. In addition, the neural efficiency hypothesis suggests that individuals with higher intelligence display more focused cortical activation during cognitive performance, resulting in lower total brain activation when compared with individuals who have lower intelligence. This may be understood as a property of the DIPS. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In our study, a new EEG brain mapping technique, based on the neural efficiency hypothesis and the notion of the brain as a Distributed Intelligence Processing System, was used to investigate the correlations between IQ evaluated with WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, and the brain activity associated with visual and verbal processing, in order to test the validity of a distributed neural basis for intelligence. CONCLUSION: The present results support these claims and the neural efficiency hypothesis.

  3. Quantitative NumART2* mapping in functional MRI studies at 1.5 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Gisela E; Bianciardi, Marta; Patria, Fabiana; Indovina, Iole

    2003-12-01

    Quantitative mapping of the effective transverse relaxation time, T2* and proton density was performed in a motor activation functional MRI (fMRI) study using multi-echo, echo planar imaging (EPI) and NumART2* (Numerical Algorithm for Real time T2*). Comparisons between NumART2* and conventional single echo EPI with an echo time of 64 ms were performed for five healthy participants examined twice. Simulations were also performed to address specific issues associated with the two techniques, such as echo time-dependent signal variation. While the single echo contrast varied with the baseline T2* value, relative changes in T2* remained unaffected. Statistical analysis of the T2* maps yielded fMRI activation patterns with an improved statistical detection relative to conventional EPI but with less activated voxels, suggesting that NumART2* has superior spatial specificity. Two effects, inflow and dephasing, that may explain this finding were investigated. Particularly, a statistically significant increase in proton density was found in a brain area that was detected as activated by conventional EPI but not by NumART2* while no such changes were observed in brain areas that showed stimulus correlated signal changes on T2* maps.

  4. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A

    2012-06-06

    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards.

  5. Gamification in Education: A Systematic Mapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicheva, Darina; Dichev, Christo; Agre, Gennady; Angelova, Galia

    2015-01-01

    While gamification is gaining ground in business, marketing, corporate management, and wellness initiatives, its application in education is still an emerging trend. This article presents a study of the published empirical research on the application of gamification to education. The study is limited to papers that discuss explicitly the effects…

  6. Vocal Emotion of Humanoid Robots: A Study from Brain Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Driven by rapid ongoing advances in humanoid robot, increasing attention has been shifted into the issue of emotion intelligence of AI robots to facilitate the communication between man-machines and human beings, especially for the vocal emotion in interactive system of future humanoid robots. This paper explored the brain mechanism of vocal emotion by studying previous researches and developed an experiment to observe the brain response by fMRI, to analyze vocal emotion of human beings. Findings in this paper provided a new approach to design and evaluate the vocal emotion of humanoid robots based on brain mechanism of human beings.

  7. Wearable sensor network to study laterality of brain functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolache, Gabriela B; Girao, Pedro S; Postolache, Octavian A

    2015-08-01

    In the last decade researches on laterality of brain functions have been reinvigorated. New models of lateralization of brain functions were proposed and new methods for understanding mechanisms of asymmetry between right and left brain functions were described. We design a system to study laterality of motor and autonomic nervous system based on wearable sensors network. A mobile application was developed for analysis of upper and lower limbs movements, cardiac and respiratory function. The functionalities and experience gained with deployment of the system are described.

  8. Using autopsy brain tissue to study alcohol-related brain damage in the genomic age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre at the University of Sydney, Australia, is one of the few human brain banks dedicated to the study of the effects of chronic alcoholism. The bank was affiliated in 1994 as a member of the National Network of Brain Banks and also focuses on schizophrenia and healthy control tissue. Alcohol abuse is a major problem worldwide, manifesting in such conditions as fetal alcohol syndrome, adolescent binge drinking, alcohol dependency, and alcoholic neurodegeneration. The latter is also referred to as alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD). The study of postmortem brain tissue is ideally suited to determining the effects of long-term alcohol abuse, but it also makes an important contribution to understanding pathogenesis across the spectrum of alcohol misuse disorders and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases. Tissue from the bank has contributed to 330 peer-reviewed journal articles including 120 related to alcohol research. Using the results of these articles, this review chronicles advances in alcohol-related brain research since 2003, the so-called genomic age. In particular, it concentrates on transcriptomic approaches to the pathogenesis of ARBD and builds on earlier reviews of structural changes (Harper et al. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003;27:951) and proteomics (Matsumoto et al. Expert Rev Proteomics 2007;4:539).

  9. Sleep Deprivation Makes the Young Brain Resemble the Elderly Brain: A Large-Scale Brain Networks Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinqi; Wu, Taoyu; Yu, Jing; Lei, Xu

    2017-02-01

    Decreased cognition performance and impaired brain function are similar results of sleep deprivation (SD) and aging, according to mounted supporting evidence. Some investigators even proposed SD as a model of aging. However, few direct comparisons were ever explored between the effects of SD and aging by network module analysis with the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this study, both within-module and between-module (BT) connectivities were calculated in the whole brain to describe a complete picture of brain networks' functional connectivity among three groups (young normal sleep, young SD, and old group). The results showed that the BT connectivities in subcortical and cerebellar networks were significantly declined in both the young SD group and old group. There were six other networks, that is, ventral attention, dorsal attention, default mode, auditory, cingulo-opercular, and memory retrieval networks, significantly influenced by aging. Therefore, we speculated that the effects of SD on the young group can be regarded as a simplified model of aging. Moreover, this provided a possible explanation, that is, the old were more tolerable for SD than the young. However, SD may not be a considerable model for aging when discussing the brain regions related to those SD-uninfluenced networks.

  10. Trace element mapping in Parkinsonian brain by quantitative ion beam microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barapatre, Nirav, E-mail: barapatre@physik.uni-leipzig.d [Nukleare Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Morawski, Markus [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnalle 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany); Butz, Tilman; Reinert, Tilo [Nukleare Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The role of iron in the pathogenesis of the Parkinson's disease (PD) is a current subject of research in Neurochemistry, since an abnormal increase in iron is reported in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinsonian patients. A severe loss of the cells containing dopamine in the SN in the PD has also drawn attention towards the function of a browny-black pigment called neuromelanin, which accumulates predominantly in these dopaminergic neurons. The neuromelanin has an ability to chelate metal ions, which, in free state, may cause considerable damage to cells by reacting with their lipid-rich membranes. However, it could also potentiate free radical production if it releases the bound metal ions. The highly sensitive and non-destructive micro-PIXE method suits best to quantify and map the trace elements in the SN. The accuracy in charge measurement for such microanalysis studies is of utmost importance for quantitative analysis. Since a Faraday cup is usually placed behind the thin biological sample to measure the charge, the primary and the secondary electrons, knocked out from the sample by traversing ion beam, hamper an exact charge determination. Hence, a new non-interceptive technique was developed for precise charge measurement and for continuous monitoring of beam current.

  11. Trace element mapping in Parkinsonian brain by quantitative ion beam microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barapatre, Nirav; Morawski, Markus; Butz, Tilman; Reinert, Tilo

    2010-06-01

    The role of iron in the pathogenesis of the Parkinson's disease (PD) is a current subject of research in Neurochemistry, since an abnormal increase in iron is reported in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinsonian patients. A severe loss of the cells containing dopamine in the SN in the PD has also drawn attention towards the function of a browny-black pigment called neuromelanin, which accumulates predominantly in these dopaminergic neurons. The neuromelanin has an ability to chelate metal ions, which, in free state, may cause considerable damage to cells by reacting with their lipid-rich membranes. However, it could also potentiate free radical production if it releases the bound metal ions. The highly sensitive and non-destructive micro-PIXE method suits best to quantify and map the trace elements in the SN. The accuracy in charge measurement for such microanalysis studies is of utmost importance for quantitative analysis. Since a Faraday cup is usually placed behind the thin biological sample to measure the charge, the primary and the secondary electrons, knocked out from the sample by traversing ion beam, hamper an exact charge determination. Hence, a new non-interceptive technique was developed for precise charge measurement and for continuous monitoring of beam current.

  12. Adaptive algorithms to map how brain trauma affects anatomical connectivity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily L.; Prasad, Gautam; Babikian, Talin; Kernan, Claudia; Mink, Richard; Babbitt, Christopher; Johnson, Jeffrey; Giza, Christopher C.; Asarnow, Robert F.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-12-01

    Deficits in white matter (WM) integrity occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and often persist long after the visible scars have healed. Heterogeneity in injury types and locations can complicate analyses, making it harder to discover common biomarkers for tracking recovery. Here we apply a newly developed adaptive connectivity method, EPIC (evolving partitions to improve connectomics) to identify differences in structural connectivity that persist longitudinally. This data comes from a longitudinal study, in which we scanned participants (aged 8-19 years) with anatomical and diffusion MRI in both the post-acute and chronic phases (1-6 months and 13-19 months post-injury). To identify patterns of abnormal connectivity, we trained a model on data from 32 TBI patients in the post-acute phase and 45 well-matched healthy controls, reducing an initial 68x68 connectivity matrix to a 14x14 matrix. We then applied this reduced parcellation to the chronic data in participants who had returned for their chronic assessment (21 TBI and 26 healthy controls) and tested for group differences. We found significant differences in two connections, comprising callosal fibers and long anterior-posterior fibers, with the TBI group showing increased fiber density relative to controls. Longitudinal analysis revealed that these were connections that were decreasing over time in the healthy controls, as is a common developmental phenomenon, but they were increasing in the TBI group. While we cannot definitively tell why this may occur with our current data, this study provides targets for longitudinal tracking, and poses questions for future investigation.

  13. 海洛因依赖者的脑电地形图%MAPS OF BRAIN ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF HEROIN ADDICTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宝元; 张国印; 徐本树; 铁恩贵

    2001-01-01

    目的:了解海洛因依赖者存在戒断症状时的脑电地形图的特征。方法:用脑电图机记录32例有戒断症状的海洛因依赖者及34例正常人的脑电地形图并用计算机进行定量分析。结果:与对照组比较,海洛因依赖者(1)慢波频段(δ、θ)功率值增高;(2)α1、α2功率值减低;(3)快波频段(β1、β2)的枕区(O1、O2)功率值增高。结论:从脑电生理角度观察海洛因对大脑功能的损害是有意义的。%Objective: To study the character of the brain electricalactivity maps(BEAM) of heroin addicts with withdrawal syndromes. Method: The brain electrical activity maps ( BEAM ) of 32 heroin addicts with withdrawal syndromes and 34 normal controls were recorded with electroencephalograph and quantitatively analysed with computer. Result: In the BEAM of heroin addicts with withdrawal syndromes, the power values of slow wave(δ,θ) increased; α1 , α2 decreased; rapid wave frequency sect (β1, β2) in occipital area (O1,O2)increased. Conclusion: Observation of brain electrical physiology has some value in the assessment of the damage of cerebral function caused by heroin.

  14. Whole-brain activity maps reveal stereotyped, distributed networks for visuomotor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugues, Ruben; Feierstein, Claudia E; Engert, Florian; Orger, Michael B

    2014-03-19

    Most behaviors, even simple innate reflexes, are mediated by circuits of neurons spanning areas throughout the brain. However, in most cases, the distribution and dynamics of firing patterns of these neurons during behavior are not known. We imaged activity, with cellular resolution, throughout the whole brains of zebrafish performing the optokinetic response. We found a sparse, broadly distributed network that has an elaborate but ordered pattern, with a bilaterally symmetrical organization. Activity patterns fell into distinct clusters reflecting sensory and motor processing. By correlating neuronal responses with an array of sensory and motor variables, we find that the network can be clearly divided into distinct functional modules. Comparing aligned data from multiple fish, we find that the spatiotemporal activity dynamics and functional organization are highly stereotyped across individuals. These experiments systematically reveal the functional architecture of neural circuits underlying a sensorimotor behavior in a vertebrate brain.

  15. The Learning of Mind Mapping in Higher Education: A Comparative Study Between Universidad de Córdoba and Università di Roma-La Sapienza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz González

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose Mind Mapping as a technique which enhances holistic learning or whole brain learning in higher education. The dynamics performed in the learning and application of Mind Mapping is part of a participatory approach in the classroom as an element of the learning process. The research approach follows a quantitative methodology. The results reflect the views of students about the learning of Mind Mapping and its effectiveness in the study. The findings indicate that mental maps can be used with any type of material, making it a tool applicable to any university degree course.

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vis, J.B. de; Zwanenburg, J.J.; Kleij, L.A. van der; Spijkerman, J.M.; Hendrikse, J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Biessels, G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Petersen, E.T. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hvidovre Hospital, Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre (Denmark)

    2016-05-15

    To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T{sub 2} of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T{sub 1}-weighted and CSF MRI were performed. The first echo data of the CSF MRI sequence was used to obtain intracranial volume, CSF partial volume was measured voxel-wise to obtain CSF volume (V{sub CSF}) and the T{sub 2} of CSF (T{sub 2,CSF}) was calculated. The correlation between V{sub CSF} / T{sub 2,CSF} and brain atrophy scores [global cortical atrophy (GCA) and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA)] was evaluated. Relative total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular V{sub CSF} increased significantly with increased scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.83, 0.78 and 0.78 and R = 0.72, 0.62 and 0.86). Total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular T{sub 2} of the CSF increased significantly with higher scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.72, 0.70 and 0.49 and R = 0.60, 0.57 and 0.41). A fast, fully automated CSF MRI volumetric sequence is an alternative for qualitative atrophy scales. The T{sub 2} of the CSF is related to brain atrophy and could thus be a marker of neurodegenerative disease. (orig.)

  17. Positron emission tomography (PET) study of the alterations in brain pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine in methamphetamine sensitized animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hitoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Hospital

    2001-08-01

    I investigated the differences in brain pharmacokinetics of [{sup 11}C]methamphetamine ([{sup 11}C]MAP) in normal and MAP sensitized animals using positron emission tomography (PET). [{sup 11}C]MAP was synthesized by an automated on-line [{sup 11}C]methylation system. I newly produced MAP sensitized dog and monkey by repeated MAP treatment. The maximal level of accumulation of [{sup 11}C]MAP in the sensitized dog brain was 1.4 times higher than that in the control. This result suggests the changes in the pharmacokinetic profile of MAP in the brain affect the development or expression of MAP-induced behavioral sensitization. However, the overaccumulation of [{sup 11}C]MAP in the sensitized monkey brain was not observed due to the influence of anesthesia. (author)

  18. Altered topological properties of functional network connectivity in schizophrenia during resting state: a small-world brain network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingbao; Sui, Jing; Rachakonda, Srinivas; He, Hao; Gruner, William; Pearlson, Godfrey; Kiehl, Kent A; Calhoun, Vince D

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant topological properties of small-world human brain networks in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) have been documented in previous neuroimaging studies. Aberrant functional network connectivity (FNC, temporal relationships among independent component time courses) has also been found in SZ by a previous resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. However, no study has yet determined if topological properties of FNC are also altered in SZ. In this study, small-world network metrics of FNC during the resting state were examined in both healthy controls (HCs) and SZ subjects. FMRI data were obtained from 19 HCs and 19 SZ. Brain images were decomposed into independent components (ICs) by group independent component analysis (ICA). FNC maps were constructed via a partial correlation analysis of ICA time courses. A set of undirected graphs were built by thresholding the FNC maps and the small-world network metrics of these maps were evaluated. Our results demonstrated significantly altered topological properties of FNC in SZ relative to controls. In addition, topological measures of many ICs involving frontal, parietal, occipital and cerebellar areas were altered in SZ relative to controls. Specifically, topological measures of whole network and specific components in SZ were correlated with scores on the negative symptom scale of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS). These findings suggest that aberrant architecture of small-world brain topology in SZ consists of ICA temporally coherent brain networks.

  19. A Self-Study Tutorial using the Allen Brain Explorer and Brain Atlas to Teach Concepts of Mammalian Neuroanatomy and Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Bruce G

    2009-01-01

    The Allen Brain Atlas is a repository of neuroanatomical data concerning the mouse brain. The core of the database is a Nissl-stained reference atlas of the brain accompanied by in situ hybridization data for essentially the entire mouse genome. This database is freely available at the Allen Institute for Brain Science website, as is an innovative tool to explore the database, the Brain Explorer. This tool is downloaded and installed on your own computer. I have developed a self-study tutorial, "Explorations with the Allen Brain Explorer", which uses the Brain Explorer and the Brain Atlas to teach fundamentals of mammalian neuroanatomy and brain function. In this tutorial background information and step-by-step exercises on the use of the Brain Explorer are given using PowerPoint as a platform. To do the tutorial both the PowerPoint and the Brain Explorer are opened on the computer and the students switch from one program to the other as they go, in a step-wise fashion, through the various exercises. There are two main groups of exercises, titled "The Basics" and "Explorations", with both groups accessed from a PowerPoint "Start Menu" by clicking on dynamic links to the appropriate exercises. Most exercises have a number of dynamic links to PowerPoint slides where background information for the exercises is given or the neuroanatomical data collected from the Brain Atlas is discussed.

  20. Brain dysfunction in psychiatric patients during music perception measured by EEG mapping: relation to motor dysfunction and influence of neuroleptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, W; Steinberg, R; Streck, P; Banquet, J P; Bscheid, I; Raith, L; Riedel, R; Klages, U; Stiltz, I

    1991-05-01

    We report here our findings on music perception obtained as a companion study to the investigation with 16-channel EEG mapping in psychiatric patients during motor activation, published recently elsewhere. We decided to add on a study of this functional circuit, since there is evidence that it is disturbed in various psychiatric patient groups (another "functio laesa"). Involved in the study were 23 male and 25 female schizophrenics, 11 male and 18 female non-endogenously depressed patients (not presently under medication, i.e. drug-naive or wash-out period from 1 week to 17 years), 26 male and 37 female endogenously depressed patients (medicated with tri- or tetracyclic antidepressants and/or benzodiazepines; no lithium), and 22 male and 17 female control subjects (i.e. n = 179). We compared resting conditions after a special relaxation procedure with three music perception tasks: (1) a standardised rumba rhythm generated by a keyboard and delivered binaurally by earphones, (2) the same as an arpeggio in D major, and (3) the same as an arpeggio with a tonic-subdominant-dominant cadence. Major results were obtained in the delta and alpha frequency bands, yielding signs of "diffuse hyperactivation", most prominent in schizophrenic males, and not observed to a similar extent in any other patient group or in normal controls. Interestingly, there were major sex differences, yielding a more diffuse EEG activation pattern in normal females than in males and thus possibly obscuring signs of brain function diffusion in female patients. Viewing our broader evidence of similar brain dysfunction when examining motor functional circuits, especially in schizophrenics, these findings provide further evidence of a brain disorganization with lack of laterality/diffusion which may be found in subgroups of these patients and not in other psychiatric disorders. In schizophrenic patients, these EEG signs of "diffuse hyperactivation" on simple motor and/or music stimulation were

  1. Age- and Sex-Associated Changes in Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Normal Healthy Subjects: Statistical Parametric Mapping Analysis of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Brain Positron Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong-Ki (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea); Medical Research Institute, Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea)). e-mail: growthkim@daum.net/growthkim@pusan.ac.kr)

    2009-12-15

    Background: The age- and sex-associated changes of brain development are unclear and controversial. Several previous studies showed conflicting results of a specific pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism or no differences of cerebral glucose metabolism in association with normal aging process and sex. Purpose: To investigate the effects of age and sex on changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in healthy subjects using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) brain positron emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight healthy subjects (32 males, mean age 46.6+-18.2 years; 46 females, mean age 40.6+-19.8 years) underwent F-18 FDG brain PET. Using SPM, age- and sex-associated changes in cerebral glucose metabolism were investigated. Results: In males, a negative correlation existed in several gray matter areas, including the right temporopolar (Brodmann area [BA] 38), right orbitofrontal (BA 47), left orbitofrontal gyrus (BA 10), left dorsolateral frontal gyrus (BA 8), and left insula (BA 13) areas. A positive relationship existed in the left claustrum and left thalamus. In females, negative changes existed in the left caudate body, left temporopolar area (BA 38), right orbitofrontal gyri (BA 47 and BA 10), and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46). A positive association was demonstrated in the left subthalamic nucleus and the left superior frontal gyrus. In white matter, an age-associated decrease in FDG uptake in males was shown in the left insula, and increased FDG uptake was found in the left corpus callosum. The female group had an age-associated negative correlation of FDG uptake only in the right corpus callosum. Conclusion: Using SPM, we found not only similar areas of brain, but also sex-specific cerebral areas of age-associated changes of FDG uptake

  2. Autoradiographic Mapping of 5-HT1B/1D Binding Sites in the Rhesus Monkey Brain Using [carbonyl-11C]zolmitriptan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Örjan Lindhe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zolmitriptan is a serotonin 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist that is an effective and well-tolerated drug for migraine treatment. In a human positron emission tomography study, [11C]zolmitriptan crossed the blood-brain barrier but no clear pattern of regional uptake was discernable. The objective of this study was to map the binding of [11C]zolmitriptan in Rhesus monkey brain using whole hemisphere in vitro autoradiography with [11C]zolmitriptan as a radioligand. In saturation studies, [11C]zolmitriptan showed specific (90% binding to a population of high-affinity binding sites (Kd 0.95–5.06 nM. There was regional distribution of binding sites with the highest density in the ventral pallidum, followed by the external globus pallidus, substantia nigra, visual cortex, and nucleus accumbens. In competitive binding studies with 5-HT1 receptor antagonists, [11C]zolmitriptan binding was blocked by selective 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D ligands in all target areas. There was no appreciable change in binding with the addition of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist.

  3. Autoradiographic Mapping of 5-HT(1B/1D) Binding Sites in the Rhesus Monkey Brain Using [carbonyl-C]zolmitriptan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhe, Orjan; Almqvist, Per; Kågedal, Matts; Gustafsson, Sven-Åke; Bergström, Mats; Nilsson, Dag; Antoni, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Zolmitriptan is a serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonist that is an effective and well-tolerated drug for migraine treatment. In a human positron emission tomography study, [(11)C]zolmitriptan crossed the blood-brain barrier but no clear pattern of regional uptake was discernable. The objective of this study was to map the binding of [(11)C]zolmitriptan in Rhesus monkey brain using whole hemisphere in vitro autoradiography with [(11)C]zolmitriptan as a radioligand. In saturation studies, [(11)C]zolmitriptan showed specific (90%) binding to a population of high-affinity binding sites (Kd 0.95-5.06 nM). There was regional distribution of binding sites with the highest density in the ventral pallidum, followed by the external globus pallidus, substantia nigra, visual cortex, and nucleus accumbens. In competitive binding studies with 5-HT(1) receptor antagonists, [(11)C]zolmitriptan binding was blocked by selective 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) ligands in all target areas. There was no appreciable change in binding with the addition of a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist.

  4. Mapping of SOA and RUP: DOA as Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Shahid; Ahmad, Bashir; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2010-01-01

    SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) is a new trend towards increasing the profit margins in an organization due to incorporating business services to business practices. Rational Unified Process (RUP) is a unified method planning form for large business applications that provides a language for describing method content and processes. The well defined mapping of SOA and RUP leads to successful completion of RUP software projects to provide services to their users. DOA (Digital Office Assistant) is a multi user SOA type application that provides appropriate viewer for each user to assist him through services. In this paper authors proposed the mapping strategy of SOA with RUP by considering DOA as case study.

  5. A case study on point process modelling in disease mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge; Benes, Viktor

    2005-01-01

    We consider a data set of locations where people in Central Bohemia have been infected by tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), and where population census data and covariates concerning vegetation and altitude are available. The aims are to estimate the risk map of the disease and to study the dependen...

  6. Brain connectivity study of brain tumor patients using MR-PET data: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Ana Carina [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon (Portugal); Ribeiro, Andre Santos [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon (Portugal); Centre for Neuropsychopharmacology, Division of Brain Sciences, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Oros-Peusquens, Ana Maria; Langen, Karl Josef; Shah, Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine - 4, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Ferreira, Hugo Alexandre [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon (Portugal)

    2015-05-18

    Brain activity results from anatomical and functional connections that can be disrupted or altered due to trauma or lesion. This work presents a first approach on the study of whole-brain connectivity of brain tumor patients using the Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity (MIBCA) toolbox. Two patients with glioblastoma lesions located in the left hemisphere (one in the motor cortex and the other in the temporal lobe) underwent simultaneous MRI and dynamic PET scans using a 3T MRI scanner with a BrainPET insert. The following data was acquired: T1-w MPRAGE (1x1x1mm{sup 3}), DTI (dir=30, b=0,800s/mm2, 2x2x2mm{sup 3}), and dynamic 18F-FET PET. The MIBCA toolbox was used to automatically pre-process MRI-PET data and to derive imaging and connectivity metrics from the multimodal data. Computed metrics included: cortical thickness from T1-w data; mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), node degree, clustering coefficient and pairwise ROI fibre tracking (structural connectivity) from DTI data; and standardized uptake value (SUV) from PET data. For all the metrics, the differences between left and right hemispherical structures were obtained, followed by a 25% threshold (except for SUV thresholded at 15%). Data was visualized in a connectogram, and both structural connectivity and metrics were studied in regions surrounding lesions. Preliminary results showed increased SUV values in regions surrounding the tumor for both patients. Patients also showed changes in structural connectivity involving these regions and also other more spatially distant regions such as the putamen and the pallidum, including decreased number of fibers between the subcortical structures themselves and with frontal regions. These findings suggest that the presence of a tumor may alter both local and more distant structural connections. Presently, a larger patient sample is being studied along with the inclusion of a control group to test the consistency of the findings.

  7. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Quasar Reverberation Mapping Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Catherine; SDSS-RM Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project (SDSS-RM) has completed its first three years of spectroscopic observations of a sample of ~850 quasars with the SDSS-III BOSS spectrograph. From January-July in 2014, 2015, and 2016, more than 55 epochs of spectroscopy were obtained for this quasar sample, and continued monitoring has been approved for 2017. Supporting photometric observations were also carried out at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and the Steward Observatory Bok telescope. In addition, the SDSS-RM field overlaps with the Pan-STARRS 1 Medium Deep Field MD07, so we have photometric data for three years prior to the SDSS-RM observations, which considerably extends the time delay sensitivity of the campaign. Preliminary reverberation mapping results were presented by Shen et al. (2015) and the program has also yielded ancillary science results in regimes such as broad absorption line variability, quasar ensemble variability characteristics, quasar emission line studies, SDSS quasar redshift measurements, and host galaxy properties. I will discuss the current status of the SDSS-RM program, including recent reverberation mapping results from the wider 850-quasar sample using the full set of first-year photometric and spectroscopic data.

  8. Mapping of kisspeptin fibres in the brain of the pro-oestrus rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desroziers, E; Mikkelsen, Jens Damsgaard; Simonneaux, V;

    2010-01-01

    rat brain by comparing precisely the immunoreactive pattern obtained with two antibodies: one specifically directed against kisspeptin-52 (Kp-52), the longest isoform, and the other directed against kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10) whose sequence is common to all putative mature isoforms. With both antibodies......, immunoreactive cell bodies were exclusively observed in the arcuate nucleus, and immunoreactive fibres were confined to the septo-preoptico-hypothalamic continuum of the brain. Fibres were observed in the preoptic area, the diagonal band of Broca, the septohypothalamic area, the anteroventral periventricular...... throughout the external layer including around the deeper part of the infundibular recess. Most regions of immunoreactive cells and fibres matched perfectly for the two antibodies. However, fibres in the dorso-lateral septum, anterior fornix, accumbens nucleus and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria...

  9. The early development of brain white matter: a review of imaging studies in fetuses, newborns and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, J; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Kulikova, S; Poupon, C; Hüppi, P S; Hertz-Pannier, L

    2014-09-12

    Studying how the healthy human brain develops is important to understand early pathological mechanisms and to assess the influence of fetal or perinatal events on later life. Brain development relies on complex and intermingled mechanisms especially during gestation and first post-natal months, with intense interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Although the baby's brain is organized early on, it is not a miniature adult brain: regional brain changes are asynchronous and protracted, i.e. sensory-motor regions develop early and quickly, whereas associative regions develop later and slowly over decades. Concurrently, the infant/child gradually achieves new performances, but how brain maturation relates to changes in behavior is poorly understood, requiring non-invasive in vivo imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two main processes of early white matter development are reviewed: (1) establishment of connections between brain regions within functional networks, leading to adult-like organization during the last trimester of gestation, (2) maturation (myelination) of these connections during infancy to provide efficient transfers of information. Current knowledge from post-mortem descriptions and in vivo MRI studies is summed up, focusing on T1- and T2-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and quantitative mapping of T1/T2 relaxation times, myelin water fraction and magnetization transfer ratio.

  10. Dynamic brain mapping of behavior change: tracking response initiation and inhibition to changes in reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlund, Michael W; Magee, Sandy; Hudgins, Caleb D

    2012-10-01

    Adaptive behavior change is supported by executive control processes distributed throughout a prefrontal-striatal-parietal network. Yet, the temporal dynamics of regions in the network have not been characterized. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tracked changes brain activation while subjects initiated and inhibited responding in accordance with changes in reinforcement rate. During imaging, subjects completed a free-operant task that involved repeated transitions between fixed-ratio reinforcement and extinction (RF:EXT), where reinforcement rate decreased and responding was inhibited, and between extinction and fixed-ratio reinforcement (EXT:RF), where reinforcement rate increased and responding was initiated. Our whole-brain temporal assessment revealed that transitions which required initiating and inhibiting responding prompted positive phasic responses in a prefrontal-parietal network, the insula and thalamus. However, response initiation prompted by an increase in reinforcement rate during the EXT:RF transition elicited positive phasic responses in reward-sensitive striatal regions. Furthermore, response inhibition prompted by a decrease in reinforcement rate during the RF:EXT transition elicited negative phasic responses in ventral frontal regions sensitive to value and contingency. Our findings highlight the temporal dynamics of a brain network that supports behavioral changes (initiation and inhibition) resulting from changes in local reinforcement rates.

  11. Automatic segmentation of brain MRIs and mapping neuroanatomy across the human lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keihaninejad, Shiva; Heckemann, Rolf A.; Gousias, Ioannis S.; Rueckert, Daniel; Aljabar, Paul; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Hammers, Alexander

    2009-02-01

    A robust model for the automatic segmentation of human brain images into anatomically defined regions across the human lifespan would be highly desirable, but such structural segmentations of brain MRI are challenging due to age-related changes. We have developed a new method, based on established algorithms for automatic segmentation of young adults' brains. We used prior information from 30 anatomical atlases, which had been manually segmented into 83 anatomical structures. Target MRIs came from 80 subjects (~12 individuals/decade) from 20 to 90 years, with equal numbers of men, women; data from two different scanners (1.5T, 3T), using the IXI database. Each of the adult atlases was registered to each target MR image. By using additional information from segmentation into tissue classes (GM, WM and CSF) to initialise the warping based on label consistency similarity before feeding this into the previous normalised mutual information non-rigid registration, the registration became robust enough to accommodate atrophy and ventricular enlargement with age. The final segmentation was obtained by combination of the 30 propagated atlases using decision fusion. Kernel smoothing was used for modelling the structural volume changes with aging. Example linear correlation coefficients with age were, for lateral ventricular volume, rmale=0.76, rfemale=0.58 and, for hippocampal volume, rmale=-0.6, rfemale=-0.4 (allρ<0.01).

  12. Mean transit time image - a new method of analyzing brain perfusion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, Z.; Ritzl, F.

    1983-05-01

    Point-by-point calculation of the mean transit time based on gamma fit was used to analyze brain perfusion studies in a vertex view. The algorithm and preliminary results in normal brain and in different stages of cerebral perfusion abnormality (ischemia, stroke, migraine, tumor, abscess) are demonstrated. In contrast to the traditional methods using fixed, a priori defined regions of interest this type of mapping of the relative regions cerebral perfusion shows more clearly the irregular outlines of the disturbance. Right to left activity ratios in the arterial part of the time-activity curves showed significant correlation with the mean transit time ratios (Q/sub 1/=1.185-0.192 Qsub(a), n=38, r=0.716, P<0.001).

  13. Behavioral evidence of heterospecific bonding between the lamb and the human caregiver and mapping of associated brain network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesdon, Vanessa; Nowak, Raymond; Meurisse, Maryse; Boivin, Xavier; Cornilleau, Fabien; Chaillou, Elodie; Lévy, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    While behavioral mechanisms of bonding between young mammals and humans have been explored, brain structures involved in the establishment of such processes are still unknown. The aim of the study was to identify brain regions activated by the presence of the caregiver. Since human positive interaction plays an important role in the bonding process, activation of specific brain structures by stroking was also examined. Twenty-four female lambs reared in groups of three were fed and stroked daily by a female caregiver between birth and 5-7 weeks of age. At 4 weeks, an isolation-reunion-separation test and a choice test revealed that lambs developed a strong bond with their caregiver. At 5-7 weeks of age, lambs were socially isolated for 90min. They either remained isolated or met their caregiver who stroked them, or not, at regular intervals over a 90-min period. Neuronal activation was investigated at the end of the period for maximum c-Fos expression. Reunion with the caregiver appeased similarly the lambs whether stroking was provided or not. Stroking did not activate a specific brain network compared to no stroking. In both cases, brain regions associated with olfactory, visual and tactile cue processing were activated in the presence of the caregiver, suggesting a multisensory process involved. In addition, activation of the oxytocinergic system in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus induced by the presence of the caregiver suggests similar neuroendocrine mechanisms involved in inter-conspecific and animal-human bonding.

  14. MR-based automatic delineation of volumes of interest in human brain PET images using probability maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Claus; Madsen, Karina; Hasselbalch, Steen G.;

    2005-01-01

    delineation of the VOI set. The approach was also shown to work equally well in individuals with pronounced cerebral atrophy. Probability-map-based automatic delineation of VOIs is a fast, objective, reproducible, and safe way to assess regional brain values from PET or SPECT scans. In addition, the method...... applies well in elderly subjects, even in the presence of pronounced cerebral atrophy...... subjects' MR-images, where VOI sets have been defined manually. High-resolution structural MR-images and 5-HT(2A) receptor binding PET-images (in terms of (18)F-altanserin binding) from 10 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with mild cognitive impairment were included for the analysis. A template including...

  15. Brain-computer interfacing under distraction: an evaluation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Stephanie; Frølich, Laura; Höhne, Johannes;

    2016-01-01

    Objective. While motor-imagery based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been studied over many years by now, most of these studies have taken place in controlled lab settings. Bringing BCI technology into everyday life is still one of the main challenges in this field of research. Approach...

  16. Study Reveals Brain Biology behind Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    A new neuroscience twist on a classic psychology study offers some clues to what makes one student able to buckle down for hours of homework before a test while his classmates party. The study published in the September 2011 edition of "Proceedings of the National Academy of Science," suggests environmental cues may "hijack" the brain's mechanisms…

  17. Reciprocal Benefits of Mass-Univariate and Multivariate Modeling in Brain Mapping: Applications to Event-Related Functional MRI, H215O-, and FDG-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Moeller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In brain mapping studies of sensory, cognitive, and motor operations, specific waveforms of dynamic neural activity are predicted based on theoretical models of human information processing. For example in event-related functional MRI (fMRI, the general linear model (GLM is employed in mass-univariate analyses to identify the regions whose dynamic activity closely matches the expected waveforms. By comparison multivariate analyses based on PCA or ICA provide greater flexibility in detecting spatiotemporal properties of experimental data that may strongly support alternative neuroscientific explanations. We investigated conjoint multivariate and mass-univariate analyses that combine the capabilities to (1 verify activation of neural machinery we already understand and (2 discover reliable signatures of new neural machinery. We examined combinations of GLM and PCA that recover latent neural signals (waveforms and footprints with greater accuracy than either method alone. Comparative results are illustrated with analyses of real fMRI data, adding to Monte Carlo simulation support.

  18. Evaluation of three-dimensional anisotropic head model for mapping realistic electromagnetic fields of brain tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Woo Chul Jeong; Hun Wi; Saurav Z. K. Sajib; Tong In Oh; Hyung Joong Kim; Oh In Kwon; Eung Je Woo

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields provide fundamental data for the imaging of electrical tissue properties, such as conductivity and permittivity, in recent magnetic resonance (MR)-based tissue property mapping. The induced voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density caused by externally injected current are critical factors for determining the image quality of electrical tissue conductivity. As a useful tool to identify bio-electromagnetic phenomena, precise approaches are required to understan...

  19. Measurement of blood-brain barrier permeability with t1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in brain tumors: a comparative study with two different algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamino, Maurizio; Saitta, Laura; Barletta, Laura; Bonzano, Laura; Mancardi, Giovanni Luigi; Castellan, Lucio; Ravetti, Jean Louis; Roccatagliata, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of measuring different permeability parameters with T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to investigate the blood brain-barrier permeability associated with different brain tumors. The Patlak algorithm and the extended Tofts-Kety model were used to this aim. Twenty-five adult patients with tumors of different histological grades were enrolled in this study. MRI examinations were performed at 1.5 T. Multiflip angle, fast low-angle shot, and axial 3D T1-weighted images were acquired to calculate T1 maps, followed by a DCE acquisition. A region of interest was placed within the tumor of each patient to calculate the mean value of different permeability parameters. Differences in permeability measurements were found between different tumor grades, with higher histological grades characterized by higher permeability values. A significant difference in transfer constant (K (trans)) values was found between the two methods on high-grade tumors; however, both techniques revealed a significant correlation between the histological grade of tumors and their K (trans) values. Our results suggest that DCE acquisition is feasible in patients with brain tumors and that K (trans) maps can be easily obtained by these two algorithms, even if the theoretical model adopted could affect the final results.

  20. Remarkable reduction of MAP2 in the brains of scrapie-infected rodents and human prion disease possibly correlated with the increase of calpain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    Full Text Available Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2 belongs to the family of heat stable MAPs, which takes part in neuronal morphogenesis, maintenance of cellular architecture and internal organization, cell division and cellular processes. To obtain insight into the possible alteration and the role of MAP2 in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, the MAP2 levels in the brain tissues of agent 263K-infected hamsters and human prion diseases were evaluated. Western blots and IHC revealed that at the terminal stages of the diseases, MAP2 levels in the brain tissues of scrapie infected hamsters, a patient with genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (G114V gCJD and a patient with fatal familial insomnia (FFI were almost undetectable. The decline of MAP2 was closely related with prolonged incubation time. Exposure of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell line to cytotoxic PrP106-126 peptide significantly down-regulated the cellular MAP2 level and remarkably disrupted the microtubule structure, but did not alter the level of tubulin. Moreover, the levels of calpain, which mediated the degradation of a broad of cytoskeletal proteins, were significantly increased in both PrP106-126 treated SK-N-SH cells and brain tissues of 263K prion-infected hamsters. Our data indicate that the decline of MAP2 is a common phenomenon in TSEs, which seems to occur at an early stage of incubation period. Markedly increased calpain level might contribute to the reduction of MAP2.

  1. The characteristic and changes of the event-related potentials (ERP and brain topographic maps before and after treatment with rTMS in subjective tinnitus patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidi Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the event-related potentials (ERPs and brain topographic maps characteristic and change in normal controls and subjective tinnitus patients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS treatment. METHODS AND PARTICIPANTS: The ERPs and brain topographic maps elicited by target stimulus were compared before and after 1-week treatment with rTMS in 20 subjective tinnitus patients and 16 healthy controls. RESULTS: Before rTMS, target stimulus elicited a larger N1 component than the standard stimuli (repeating soundsin control group but not in tinnitus patients. Instead, the tinnitus group pre-treatment exhibited larger amplitude of N1 in response to standard stimuli than to deviant stimuli. Furthermore tinnitus patients had smaller mismatch negativity (MMN and late discriminative negativity (LDNcomponent at Fz compared with the control group. After rTMS treatment, tinnitus patients showed increased N1 response to deviant stimuli and larger MMN and LDN compared with pre-treatment. The topographic maps for the tinnitus group before rTMS -treatment demonstrated global asymmetry between the left and right cerebral hemispheres with more negative activities in left side and more positive activities in right side. In contrast, the brain topographic maps for patients after rTMS-treatment and controls seem roughly symmetrical. The ERP amplitudes and brain topographic maps in post-treatment patient group showed no significant difference with those in controls. CONCLUSIONS: The characterical changes in ERP and brain topographic maps in tinnitus patients maybe related with the electrophysiological mechanism of tinnitus induction and development. It can be used as an objective biomarker for the evaluation of auditory central in subjective tinnitus patients. These findings support the notion that rTMS treatment in tinnitus patients may exert a beneficial effect.

  2. The Characteristic and Changes of the Event-Related Potentials (ERP) and Brain Topographic Maps before and after Treatment with rTMS in Subjective Tinnitus Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changming; Zheng, Yiqing; Zhang, Xueyuan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the event-related potentials (ERPs) and brain topographic maps characteristic and change in normal controls and subjective tinnitus patients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment. Methods and Participants The ERPs and brain topographic maps elicited by target stimulus were compared before and after 1-week treatment with rTMS in 20 subjective tinnitus patients and 16 healthy controls. Results Before rTMS, target stimulus elicited a larger N1 component than the standard stimuli (repeating sounds)in control group but not in tinnitus patients. Instead, the tinnitus group pre-treatment exhibited larger amplitude of N1 in response to standard stimuli than to deviant stimuli. Furthermore tinnitus patients had smaller mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN)component at Fz compared with the control group. After rTMS treatment, tinnitus patients showed increased N1 response to deviant stimuli and larger MMN and LDN compared with pre-treatment. The topographic maps for the tinnitus group before rTMS -treatment demonstrated global asymmetry between the left and right cerebral hemispheres with more negative activities in left side and more positive activities in right side. In contrast, the brain topographic maps for patients after rTMS-treatment and controls seem roughly symmetrical. The ERP amplitudes and brain topographic maps in post-treatment patient group showed no significant difference with those in controls. Conclusions The characterical changes in ERP and brain topographic maps in tinnitus patients maybe related with the electrophysiological mechanism of tinnitus induction and development. It can be used as an objective biomarker for the evaluation of auditory central in subjective tinnitus patients. These findings support the notion that rTMS treatment in tinnitus patients may exert a beneficial effect. PMID:23951019

  3. Investigation on positive correlation of increased brain iron deposition with cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease by using quantitative MR R2' mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Wenzhen; Zhan, Chuanjia; Zhao, Lingyun; Wang, Jianzhi; Tian, Qing; Wang, Wei

    2011-08-01

    Brain iron deposition has been proposed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD). The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of brain iron accumulation with the severity of cognitive impairment in patients with AD by using quantitative MR relaxation rate R2' measurements. Fifteen patients with AD, 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, and 30 healthy volunteers underwent 1.5T MR multi-echo T2 mapping and T2* mapping for the measurement of transverse relaxation rate R2' (R2'=R2*-R2). We statistically analyzed the R2' and iron concentrations of bilateral hippocampus (HP), parietal cortex (PC), frontal white matter (FWM), putamen (PU), caudate nucleus (CN), thalamus (TH), red nucleus (RN), substantia nigra (SN), and dentate nucleus (DN) of the cerebellum for the correlation with the severity of dementia. Two-tailed t-test, Student-Newman-Keuls test (ANOVA) and linear correlation test were used for statistical analysis. In 30 healthy volunteers, the R2' values of bilateral SN, RN, PU, CN, globus pallidus (GP), TH, and FWM were measured. The correlation with the postmortem iron concentration in normal adults was analyzed in order to establish a formula on the relationship between regional R2' and brain iron concentration. The iron concentration of regions of interest (ROI) in AD patients and controls was calculated by this formula and its correlation with the severity of AD was analyzed. Regional R2' was positively correlated with regional brain iron concentration in normal adults (r=0.977, PIron concentrations in bilateral HP, PC, PU, CN, and DN of patients with AD were significantly higher than those of the controls (Piron concentrations, especially in parietal cortex and hippocampus at the early stage of AD, were positively correlated with the severity of patients' cognitive impairment (Piron concentrations were, the more severe the cognitive impairment was. Regional R2' and iron concentration in parietal cortex and

  4. A CASE STUDY OF BRAIN VOLUME REDUCTION IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan N. Dimitrov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of sophisticated magnetic resonance imaging techniques and software for medical imaging processing and analysis has led to a significant progress in multiple sclerosis research and clinical care. The measurement of brain volumes provides a quantitative representation of damage, thus facilitating the objective follow-up process. The parameters obtained, though not being used routinely in clinical practice, are more and more often applied in clinical studies. The amount of whole brain and regional atrophy, estimated from serial scans, is considered important not only for disease progression, but also for cognitive dysfunction which is common in multiple sclerosis. In this paper we describe a volumetric study of two magnetic resonance scans of a patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, performed 16 months one after the other, and analyzed using FSL SIENA software. Analysis demonstrated brain volume reduction of 1.7% between the two scans. We discuss the advantages of the method and its possible clinical applications.

  5. MR Connectomics: A Conceptual Framework for Studying The Developing Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric eHagmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination of advanced neuroimaging techniques and major developments in complex network science, have given birth to a new framework for studying the brain: connectomics. This framework provides the ability to describe and study the brain as a dynamic network and to explore how the coordination and integration of information processing may occur. In recent years this framework has been used to investigate the developing brain and has shed light on many dynamic changes occurring from infancy through adulthood. The aim of this article is to review this work and to discuss what we have learned from it. We will also use this body of work to highlight key technical aspects that are necessary in general for successful connectome analysis using today’s advanced neuroimaging techniques. We look to identify current limitations of such approaches, what can be improved, and how these points generalize to other topics in connectome research.

  6. Acute functional reactivation of the language network during awake intraoperative brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spena, Giannantonio; Costi, Emanuele; Panciani, Pier Paolo; Roca, Elena; Migliorati, Karol; Fontanella, Marco Maria

    2015-01-01

    Acute brain plasticity during resection of central lesions has been recently described. In the cases reported, perilesional latent networks, useful to preserve the neurological functions, were detected in asymptomatic patients. In this paper, we presented a case of acute functional reactivation (AFR) of the language network in a symptomatic patient. Tumor resection allowed to acutely restore the neurological deficit. Intraoperative direct cortical stimulation (DCS) and functional neuroimaging showed new epicentres of activation of the language network after tumor excision. DCS in awake surgery is mandatory to reveal AFR needful to improve the extent of resection preserving the quality of life.

  7. Fourier-wavelet restoration in PET/CT brain studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knesaurek, Karin, E-mail: karin.knesaurek@mssm.edu [Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Mount Sinai Medical Center, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2012-10-11

    Our goal is to improve brain PET imaging through the application of a novel, hybrid Fourier-wavelet (WFT) restoration technique. The major limitation of PET studies is a relatively poor resolution in comparison with MRI and CT imaging and there is a need for improved PET imaging. A GE DLS PET/CT 16 slice system was used to acquire the studies. In order to create restoration filters the point source study was performed. The 6-fillable spheres and 3D Hoffman brain phantom studies were acquired and used to test and optimize the restoration approach. The patient data used in the study were acquired in a 3D PET mode, using the standard clinical protocol. Here, we have implemented Fourier-wavelet regularized restoration. In the Fourier domain, the inverse of modulation transfer function was multiplied by a Butterworth low-pass filter, order n=6 and cut-off frequency f=0.35 cycles/pixel. In addition, wavelet (Daubechies, order 2) noise suppression was applied by 'hard threshold'. Hot spheres and 3D Hoffman brain studies showed that the restoration process not only improves resolution and contrast but also improves quantification in 3D PET/CT imaging. The average contrast increase was 19% and the quantification improved in the range 8-20% depending on sphere size. In the restored images, there was no significant increase in noise when compared with the original images. The clinical studies followed brain phantom findings, i.e., the restored images had better contrast and resolution properties, when compared with the original images. The results of the study demonstrate that the quality and quantification of 3D brain {sup 18}F FDG PET images can be significantly improved by Fourier-wavelet (WFT) restoration filtering.

  8. A brain region-specific predictive gene map for autism derived by profiling a reference gene set.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    Full Text Available Molecular underpinnings of complex psychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD remain largely unresolved. Increasingly, structural variations in discrete chromosomal loci are implicated in ASD, expanding the search space for its disease etiology. We exploited the high genetic heterogeneity of ASD to derive a predictive map of candidate genes by an integrated bioinformatics approach. Using a reference set of 84 Rare and Syndromic candidate ASD genes (AutRef84, we built a composite reference profile based on both functional and expression analyses. First, we created a functional profile of AutRef84 by performing Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analysis which encompassed three main areas: 1 neurogenesis/projection, 2 cell adhesion, and 3 ion channel activity. Second, we constructed an expression profile of AutRef84 by conducting DAVID analysis which found enrichment in brain regions critical for sensory information processing (olfactory bulb, occipital lobe, executive function (prefrontal cortex, and hormone secretion (pituitary. Disease specificity of this dual AutRef84 profile was demonstrated by comparative analysis with control, diabetes, and non-specific gene sets. We then screened the human genome with the dual AutRef84 profile to derive a set of 460 potential ASD candidate genes. Importantly, the power of our predictive gene map was demonstrated by capturing 18 existing ASD-associated genes which were not part of the AutRef84 input dataset. The remaining 442 genes are entirely novel putative ASD risk genes. Together, we used a composite ASD reference profile to generate a predictive map of novel ASD candidate genes which should be prioritized for future research.

  9. Genetic influences on brain asymmetry: a DTI study of 374 twins and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshad, Neda; Lee, Agatha D; Barysheva, Marina; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2010-08-15

    Brain asymmetry, or the structural and functional specialization of each brain hemisphere, has fascinated neuroscientists for over a century. Even so, genetic and environmental factors that influence brain asymmetry are largely unknown. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) now allows asymmetry to be studied at a microscopic scale by examining differences in fiber characteristics across hemispheres rather than differences in structure shapes and volumes. Here we analyzed 4Tesla DTI scans from 374 healthy adults, including 60 monozygotic twin pairs, 45 same-sex dizygotic pairs, and 164 mixed-sex DZ twins and their siblings; mean age: 24.4years+/-1.9 SD). All DTI scans were nonlinearly aligned to a geometrically-symmetric, population-based image template. We computed voxel-wise maps of significant asymmetries (left/right differences) for common diffusion measures that reflect fiber integrity (fractional and geodesic anisotropy; FA, GA and mean diffusivity, MD). In quantitative genetic models computed from all same-sex twin pairs (N=210 subjects), genetic factors accounted for 33% of the variance in asymmetry for the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, 37% for the anterior thalamic radiation, and 20% for the forceps major and uncinate fasciculus (all L>R). Shared environmental factors accounted for around 15% of the variance in asymmetry for the cortico-spinal tract (R>L) and about 10% for the forceps minor (L>R). Sex differences in asymmetry (men>women) were significant, and were greatest in regions with prominent FA asymmetries. These maps identify heritable DTI-derived features, and may empower genome-wide searches for genetic polymorphisms that influence brain asymmetry.

  10. DSC Study on Brain Tubulin and the Effect of Cisplatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The thermal property of the polymerization of brain tubulin was studied by a high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimeter. The phenomenon that heat flows increased and decreased consistently and obviously was observed. This phenomenon was called heat flow oscillation. It was probably correlated to the dynamic instability of microtubules. The effect of cisplatin on it was reported, too.

  11. The effect of chemotherapy on rat brain PET: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Il Han; Yu, A Ram; Park, Ji Ae; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyeong Min [Korea Institute Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Chemotherapy was widely used for the therapy of cancer patients. When chemotherapy was performed, transient cognitive memory problem was occurred. This cognitive problem in brain was called as chemobrain. In this study, we have developed rat model for chemobrain. Cerebral glucose metabolism after chemotherapy was assessed using animal PET and voxel based statistical analysis method

  12. Functional brain imaging studies of youth depression: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kerestes

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Youth MDD is characterized by abnormal activations in ventromedial frontal regions, the anterior cingulate and amygdala, which are broadly consistent with the implicated role of medial network regions in the pathophysiology of depression. Future longitudinal studies examining the effects of neurodevelopmental changes and pubertal maturation on brain systems implicated in youth MDD will provide a more comprehensive neurobiological model of youth depression.

  13. Brain regions involved in voluntary movements as revealed by radioisotopic mapping of CBF or CMR-glucose changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Ingvar, D H

    1990-01-01

    Mapping of cortical and subcortical grey matter active during voluntary movements by means of measurements of local increases of CBF or CMR-Glucose is reviewed. Most of the studies concern observations in man during hand movements using the intracarotid Xenon-133 injection technique, an approach...

  14. Does studying abroad induce a brain drain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Oosterbeek; D. Webbink

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates whether studying abroad increases the propensity to live abroad later on. We use an instrumental variable approach based on cut-offs in the ranking of Dutch higher education graduates who applied for a scholarship programme for outstanding students. Applicants ranked above th

  15. A reliability study on brain activation during active and passive arm movements supported by an MRI-compatible robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Natalia; Yu, Ningbo; Brügger, Mike; Villiger, Michael; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Riener, Robert; Kollias, Spyros

    2014-11-01

    In neurorehabilitation, longitudinal assessment of arm movement related brain function in patients with motor disability is challenging due to variability in task performance. MRI-compatible robots monitor and control task performance, yielding more reliable evaluation of brain function over time. The main goals of the present study were first to define the brain network activated while performing active and passive elbow movements with an MRI-compatible arm robot (MaRIA) in healthy subjects, and second to test the reproducibility of this activation over time. For the fMRI analysis two models were compared. In model 1 movement onset and duration were included, whereas in model 2 force and range of motion were added to the analysis. Reliability of brain activation was tested with several statistical approaches applied on individual and group activation maps and on summary statistics. The activated network included mainly the primary motor cortex, primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, superior and inferior parietal cortex, medial and lateral premotor regions, and subcortical structures. Reliability analyses revealed robust activation for active movements with both fMRI models and all the statistical methods used. Imposed passive movements also elicited mainly robust brain activation for individual and group activation maps, and reliability was improved by including additional force and range of motion using model 2. These findings demonstrate that the use of robotic devices, such as MaRIA, can be useful to reliably assess arm movement related brain activation in longitudinal studies and may contribute in studies evaluating therapies and brain plasticity following injury in the nervous system.

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vis, J B; Zwanenburg, J J; van der Kleij, L A;

    2016-01-01

    ) and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA)] was evaluated. RESULTS: Relative total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular VCSF increased significantly with increased scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.83, 0.78 and 0.78 and R = 0.72, 0.62 and 0.86). Total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular T2...... of the CSF increased significantly with higher scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.72, 0.70 and 0.49 and R = 0.60, 0.57 and 0.41). CONCLUSION: A fast, fully automated CSF MRI volumetric sequence is an alternative for qualitative atrophy scales. The T2 of the CSF is related to brain atrophy and could thus...

  17. Preliminary Study of Brain Glucose Metabolism Changes in Patients with Lung Cancer of Different Histological Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Ling Li; Chang Fu; Ang Xuan; Da-Peng Shi; Yong-Ju Gao; Jie Zhang; Jun-Ling Xu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Cerebral glucose metabolism changes are always observed in patients suffering from malignant tumors.This preliminary study aimed to investigate the brain glucose metabolism changes in patients with lung cancer of different histological types.Methods:One hundred and twenty patients with primary untreated lung cancer,who visited People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University from February 2012 to July 2013,were divided into three groups based on histological types confirmed by biopsy or surgical pathology,which included adenocarcinoma (52 cases),squamous cell carcinoma (43 cases),and small-cell carcinoma (25 cases).The whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (1 8F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) of these cases was retrospectively studied.The brain PET data of three groups were analyzed individually using statistical parametric maps (SPM) software,with 50 age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls for comparison.Results:The brain resting glucose metabolism in all three lung cancer groups showed regional cerebral metabolic reduction.The hypo-metabolic cerebral regions were mainly distributed at the left superior and middle frontal,bilateral superior and middle temporal and inferior and middle temporal gyrus.Besides,the hypo-metabolic regions were also found in the right inferior parietal lobule and hippocampus in the small-cell carcinoma group.The area of the total hypo-metabolic cerebral regions in the small-cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 3255) was larger than those in the adenocarcinoma group (total voxel value 1217) and squamous cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 1292).Conclusions:The brain resting glucose metabolism in patients with lung cancer shows regional cerebral metabolic reduction and the brain hypo-metabolic changes are related to the histological types of lung cancer.

  18. Nonlinear functional connectivity network recovery in the human brain with mutual connectivity analysis (MCA): convergent cross-mapping and non-metric clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismüller, Axel; Abidin, Anas Z.; D'Souza, Adora M.; Wang, Xixi; Hobbs, Susan K.; Leistritz, Lutz; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.

    2015-03-01

    We explore a computational framework for functional connectivity analysis in resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data acquired from the human brain for recovering the underlying network structure and understanding causality between network components. Termed mutual connectivity analysis (MCA), this framework involves two steps, the first of which is to evaluate the pair-wise cross-prediction performance between fMRI pixel time series within the brain. In a second step, the underlying network structure is subsequently recovered from the affinity matrix using non-metric network clustering approaches, such as the so-called Louvain method. Finally, we use convergent cross-mapping (CCM) to study causality between different network components. We demonstrate our MCA framework in the problem of recovering the motor cortex network associated with hand movement from resting state fMRI data. Results are compared with a ground truth of active motor cortex regions as identified by a task-based fMRI sequence involving a finger-tapping stimulation experiment. Our results regarding causation between regions of the motor cortex revealed a significant directional variability and were not readily interpretable in a consistent manner across subjects. However, our results on whole-slice fMRI analysis demonstrate that MCA-based model-free recovery of regions associated with the primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area are in close agreement with localization of similar regions achieved with a task-based fMRI acquisition. Thus, we conclude that our MCA methodology can extract and visualize valuable information concerning the underlying network structure between different regions of the brain in resting state fMRI.

  19. Studies of the brain cannabinoid system using positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatley, S.J.; Volkow, N.D.

    1995-10-01

    Studies using radiolabeled psychoactive drugs in conjunction with positron emission tomography (PET) have permitted the imaging of binding sites in the human brain. Similar studies of marijuana have been hampered by the unsuitability of radiolabeled THC for PET studies, and the current unavailability of other in vivo imaging agents for cannabinoid receptors. Recent developments in medicinal chemistry suggest that a PET radiotracer for cannabinoid receptors will soon become available. This chapter briefly reviews these developments, together with the results of PET studies of the effects of marijuana and other abused drugs on brain metabolism. It also reviews PET studies of cocaine binding sites, to demonstrate the kind of investigations that will be possible when a cannabinoid receptor PET radioligand becomes available.

  20. Permeability dependence study of the focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening at distinct pressures and microbubble diameters using DCE-MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachos, Fotios; TUNG, YAO-SHENG; Konofagou, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening using focused ultrasound (FUS) and microbubbles has been experimentally established as a non-invasive and localized brain drug delivery technique. In this study, the permeability of the opening is assessed in the murine hippocampus after the application of FUS at three different acoustic pressures and microbubble sizes. Using DCE-MRI, the transfer rates were estimated, yielding permeability maps and quantitative Ktrans values for a predefined region of intere...

  1. Mapping the informal science education landscape: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, John H; Randol, Scott; Dierking, Lynn D

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the informal science education (ISE) field to determine whether it currently functions as an effective community of practice. Research questions included: How do professionals describe and self-identify their practice, including what missions, goals and motivating factors influence their professional work? What challenges do they face and how are these resolved? Is participation in ISE activities perceived as core or peripheral to their work? Open-ended interviews were conducted with high-level representatives of 17 different ISE sub-communities; results were analyzed qualitatively. Findings showed this broad assortment of ISE sub-communities as not currently functioning as a cohesive community of practice. Although examples of shared practice and ways of talking were found, evidence of widespread, active relationship-building over time and coalescence around issues of common concern were absent. A current "map" of the ISE community is proposed and thoughts about how this map could alter in the future are suggested.

  2. Noninvasive measurement of brain glycogen by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and its application to the study of brain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Nolawit; Seaquist, Elizabeth R; Oz, Gülin

    2011-12-01

    Glycogen is the reservoir for glucose in the brain. Beyond the general agreement that glycogen serves as an energy source in the central nervous system, its exact role in brain energy metabolism has yet to be elucidated. Experiments performed in cell and tissue culture and animals have shown that glycogen content is affected by several factors, including glucose, insulin, neurotransmitters, and neuronal activation. The study of in vivo glycogen metabolism has been hindered by the inability to measure glycogen noninvasively, but, in the past several years, the development of a noninvasive localized (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy method has allowed the study of glycogen metabolism in the conscious human. With this technique, (13) C-glucose is administered intravenously, and its incorporation into and washout from brain glycogen is tracked. One application of this method has been to the study of brain glycogen metabolism in humans during hypoglycemia: data have shown that mobilization of brain glycogen is augmented during hypoglycemia, and, after a single episode of hypoglycemia, glycogen synthesis rate is increased, suggesting that glycogen stores rebound to levels greater than baseline. Such studies suggest that glycogen may serve as a potential energy reservoir in hypoglycemia and may participate in the brain's adaptation to recurrent hypoglycemia and eventual development of hypoglycemia unawareness. Beyond this focused area of study, (13) C NMR spectroscopy has a broad potential for application in the study of brain glycogen metabolism and carries the promise of a better understanding of the role of brain glycogen in diabetes and other conditions.

  3. Case study of an application of computer mapping in oil-shale resource mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, F.G.F. Jr.; Smith, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Laramie Energy Technology Center, U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for evaluating the resources of potential oil and the deposit characteristics of oil shales of the Green River Formation in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. While the total oil shale resource represents perhaps 2 trillion barrels of oil, only parts of this total are suitable for any particular development process. To evaluate the resource according to deposit characteristics, a computer system for making resource calculations and geological maps has been established. The system generates resource tables where the calculations have been performed over user-defined geological intervals. The system also has the capability of making area calculations and generating resource maps of geological quality. The graphics package that generates the maps uses corehole assay data and digitized map data. The generated maps may include the following features: selected drainages, towns, political boundaries, township and section surveys, and corehole locations. The maps are then generated according to user-defined scales.

  4. Quantitative map of multiple auditory cortical regions with a stereotaxic fine-scale atlas of the mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Tsukano; Masao Horie; Ryuichi Hishida; Kuniyuki Takahashi; Hirohide Takebayashi; Katsuei Shibuki

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging studies have recently revealed the presence of multiple auditory cortical regions in the mouse brain. We have previously demonstrated, using flavoprotein fluorescence imaging, at least six regions in the mouse auditory cortex, including the anterior auditory field (AAF), primary auditory cortex (AI), the secondary auditory field (AII), dorsoanterior field (DA), dorsomedial field (DM), and dorsoposterior field (DP). While multiple regions in the visual cortex and somatosensory ...

  5. Computational Classification Approach to Profile Neuron Subtypes from Brain Activity Mapping Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Zhao, Fang; Lee, Jason; Wang, Dong; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z

    2015-07-27

    The analysis of cell type-specific activity patterns during behaviors is important for better understanding of how neural circuits generate cognition, but has not been well explored from in vivo neurophysiological datasets. Here, we describe a computational approach to uncover distinct cell subpopulations from in vivo neural spike datasets. This method, termed "inter-spike-interval classification-analysis" (ISICA), is comprised of four major steps: spike pattern feature-extraction, pre-clustering analysis, clustering classification, and unbiased classification-dimensionality selection. By using two key features of spike dynamic - namely, gamma distribution shape factors and a coefficient of variation of inter-spike interval - we show that this ISICA method provides invariant classification for dopaminergic neurons or CA1 pyramidal cell subtypes regardless of the brain states from which spike data were collected. Moreover, we show that these ISICA-classified neuron subtypes underlie distinct physiological functions. We demonstrate that the uncovered dopaminergic neuron subtypes encoded distinct aspects of fearful experiences such as valence or value, whereas distinct hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells responded differentially to ketamine-induced anesthesia. This ISICA method should be useful to better data mining of large-scale in vivo neural datasets, leading to novel insights into circuit dynamics associated with cognitions.

  6. Open source projects in software engineering education: a mapping study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Debora M. C.; Almeida Bittencourt, Roberto; Chavez, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Context: It is common practice in academia to have students work with "toy" projects in software engineering (SE) courses. One way to make such courses more realistic and reduce the gap between academic courses and industry needs is getting students involved in open source projects (OSP) with faculty supervision. Objective: This study aims to summarize the literature on how OSP have been used to facilitate students' learning of SE. Method: A systematic mapping study was undertaken by identifying, filtering and classifying primary studies using a predefined strategy. Results: 72 papers were selected and classified. The main results were: (a) most studies focused on comprehensive SE courses, although some dealt with specific areas; (b) the most prevalent approach was the traditional project method; (c) studies' general goals were: learning SE concepts and principles by using OSP, learning open source software or both; (d) most studies tried out ideas in regular courses within the curriculum; (e) in general, students had to work with predefined projects; (f) there was a balance between approaches where instructors had either inside control or no control on the activities performed by students; (g) when learning was assessed, software artefacts, reports and presentations were the main instruments used by teachers, while surveys were widely used for students' self-assessment; (h) most studies were published in the last seven years. Conclusions: The resulting map gives an overview of the existing initiatives in this context and shows gaps where further research can be pursued.

  7. Naturalistic FMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnakoski, Juha M; Glerean, Enrico; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Sams, Mikko; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a set of 137 short (approximately 16 s each, total 27 min) audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech) and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action, and non-human sounds) lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: (1) a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, (2) a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion, and pain, (3) a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction, and speech, and (4) a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the pSTS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life.

  8. Naturalistic fMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Marko Lahnakoski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-tesla functional magnetic imaging (fMRI, a set of 137 short (~16 s each, total 27 min audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action and non-human sounds lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: 1 a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, 2 a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion and pain, 3 a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction and speech, and 4 a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the posterior STS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life.

  9. Review of radiation damage studies on DNW CMOS MAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversi, G.; Gaioni, L.; Manazza, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Zucca, S.; Bettarini, S.; Rizzo, G.; Morsani, F.; Bosisio, L.; Rashevskaya, I.; Cindro, V.

    2013-12-01

    Monolithic active pixel sensors fabricated in a bulk CMOS technology with no epitaxial layer and standard resistivity (10 Ω cm) substrate, featuring a deep N-well as the collecting electrode (DNW MAPS), have been exposed to γ-rays, up to a final dose of 10 Mrad (SiO2), and to neutrons from a nuclear reactor, up to a total 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of about 3.7 ·1013cm-2. The irradiation campaign was aimed at studying the effects of radiation on the most significant parameters of the front-end electronics and on the charge collection properties of the sensors. Device characterization has been carried out before and after irradiations. The DNW MAPS irradiated with 60Co γ-rays were also subjected to high temperature annealing (100 °C for 168 h). Measurements have been performed through a number of different techniques, including electrical characterization of the front-end electronics and of DNW diodes, laser stimulation of the sensors and tests with 55Fe and 90Sr radioactive sources. This paper reviews the measurement results, their relation with the damage mechanisms underlying performance degradation and provides a new comparison between DNW devices and MAPS fabricated in a CMOS process with high resistivity (1 kΩ cm) epitaxial layer.

  10. 3D Regression Heat Map Analysis of Population Study Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Paul; Lawonn, Kai; Glaßer, Sylvia; Niemann, Uli; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Preim, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies comprise heterogeneous data about a subject group to define disease-specific risk factors. These data contain information (features) about a subject's lifestyle, medical status as well as medical image data. Statistical regression analysis is used to evaluate these features and to identify feature combinations indicating a disease (the target feature). We propose an analysis approach of epidemiological data sets by incorporating all features in an exhaustive regression-based analysis. This approach combines all independent features w.r.t. a target feature. It provides a visualization that reveals insights into the data by highlighting relationships. The 3D Regression Heat Map, a novel 3D visual encoding, acts as an overview of the whole data set. It shows all combinations of two to three independent features with a specific target disease. Slicing through the 3D Regression Heat Map allows for the detailed analysis of the underlying relationships. Expert knowledge about disease-specific hypotheses can be included into the analysis by adjusting the regression model formulas. Furthermore, the influences of features can be assessed using a difference view comparing different calculation results. We applied our 3D Regression Heat Map method to a hepatic steatosis data set to reproduce results from a data mining-driven analysis. A qualitative analysis was conducted on a breast density data set. We were able to derive new hypotheses about relations between breast density and breast lesions with breast cancer. With the 3D Regression Heat Map, we present a visual overview of epidemiological data that allows for the first time an interactive regression-based analysis of large feature sets with respect to a disease.

  11. Connecting Brain Research to Classroom Learning: A Mixed-Method Study on How Teachers Apply Brain Research to Their Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAteer, Todd C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine how knowledgeable teachers are in utilizing brain-researched instructional strategies. The research focused on determining which brain-researched strategies are implemented, the accuracy with which they are employed, and the degree to which they are utilized. A literature review revealed the most…

  12. Brain SCALE : Brain Structure and Cognition: an Adolescent Longitudinal Twin Study into the Genetic Etiology of Individual Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soelen, Inge L. C.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Peper, Jiska S.; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Koenis, Marinka M. G.; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Swagerman, Suzanne C.; Kahn, Rene S.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2012-01-01

    From childhood into adolescence, the child's brain undergoes considerable changes in both structure and function. Twin studies are of great value to explore to what extent genetic and environmental factors explain individual differences in brain development and cognition. In The Netherlands, we init

  13. Quantitative analysis of axonal fiber activation evoked by deep brain stimulation via activation density heat maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Hartmann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cortical modulation is likely to be involved in the various therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS. However, it is currently difficult to predict the changes of cortical modulation during clinical adjustment of DBS. Therefore, we present a novel quantitative approach to estimate anatomical regions of DBS-evoked cortical modulation. Methods: Four different models of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS were created to represent variable electrode placements (model I: dorsal border of the posterolateral STN; model II: central posterolateral STN; model III: central anteromedial STN; model IV: dorsal border of the anteromedial STN. Axonal fibers of passage near each electrode location were reconstructed using probabilistic tractography and modeled using multi-compartment cable models. Stimulation-evoked activation of local axon fibers and corresponding cortical projections were modeled and quantified. Results: Stimulation at the border of the STN (models I and IV led to a higher degree of fiber activation and associated cortical modulation than stimulation deeply inside the STN (models II and III. A posterolateral target (models I and II was highly connected to cortical areas representing motor function. Additionally, model I was also associated with strong activation of fibers projecting to the cerebellum. Finally, models III and IV showed a dorsoventral difference of preferentially targeted prefrontal areas (models III: middle frontal gyrus; model IV: inferior frontal gyrus.Discussion: The method described herein allows characterization of cortical modulation across different electrode placements and stimulation parameters. Furthermore, knowledge of anatomical distribution of stimulation-evoked activation targeting cortical regions may help predict efficacy and potential side effects, and therefore can be used to improve the therapeutic effectiveness of individual adjustments in DBS patients.

  14. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in predementia late-onset bvFTD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbelli, Silvia; Fiz, Francesco; Bossert, Irene; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Picori, Lorena; Sambuceti, Gianmario [University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Health Science (DISSAL), Genoa (Italy); Ferrara, Michela; Dessi, Barbara; Arnaldi, Dario; Picco, Agnese; Accardo, Jennifer; Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Clinical Neurology, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Girtler, Nicola [University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Clinical Neurology, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Clinical Psychology, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Mandich, Paola [University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Medical Genetics, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-07-15

    The diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is challenging during the predementia stage when symptoms are subtle and confounding. Morphological and functional neuroimaging can be particularly helpful during this stage but few data are available. We retrospectively selected 25 patients with late-onset probable bvFTD. Brain structural MRI and FDG PET were performed during the predementia stage (mean MMSE score 27.1 ± 2.5) on average 2 years before. The findings with the two imaging modalities were compared (SPM8) with those in a group of 20 healthy subjects. The bvFTD patients were divided into two subgroups: those with predominant disinhibition (bvFTD+) and those with apathy (bvFTD-). Hypometabolism exceeded grey matter (GM) density reduction in terms of both extension and statistical significance in all comparisons. In the whole bvFTD group, hypometabolism involved the bilateral medial, inferior and superior lateral frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, left temporal and right parietal cortices and the caudate nuclei. GM density reduction was limited to the right frontal cortex and the left medial temporal lobe. In bvFTD+ patients hypometabolism was found in the bilateral medial and basal frontal cortex, while GM reduction involved the left anterior cingulate and left inferior frontal cortices, and the right insula. In bvFTD- patients, atrophy and mainly hypometabolism involved the lateral frontal cortex and the inferior parietal lobule. These findings suggest that hypometabolism is more extensive than, and thus probably precedes, atrophy in predementia late-onset bvFTD, underscoring different topographic involvement in disinhibited and apathetic presentations. If confirmed in a larger series, these results should prompt biomarker operationalization in bvFTD, especially for patient selection in therapeutic clinical trials. (orig.)

  15. New perspectives on using brain imaging to study CNS stimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Scott E

    2014-12-01

    While the recent application of brain imaging to study CNS stimulants has offered new insights into the fundamental factors that contribute to their use and abuse, many gaps remain. Brain circuits that mediate pleasure, dependence, craving and relapse are anatomically, neurophysiologically and neurochemically distinct from one another, which has guided the search for correlates of stimulant-seeking and taking behavior. However, unlike other drugs of abuse, metrics for tolerance and physical dependence on stimulants are not obvious. The dopamine theory of stimulant abuse does not sufficiently explain this disorder as serotonergic, GABAergic and glutamagergic circuits are clearly involved in stimulant pharmacology and so tracking the source of the "addictive" processes must adopt a more multimodal, multidisciplinary approach. To this end, both anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MR spectroscopy (MRS) and positron emission tomography (PET) are complementary and have equally contributed to our understanding of how stimulants affect the brain and behavior. New vistas in this area include nanotechnology approaches to deliver small molecules to receptors and use MRI to resolve receptor dynamics. Anatomical and blood flow imaging has yielded data showing that cognitive enhancers might be useful adjuncts in treating CNS stimulant dependence, while MRS has opened opportunities to examine the brain's readiness to accept treatment as GABA tone normalizes after detoxification. A desired outcome of the above approaches is being able to offer evidence-based rationales for treatment approaches that can be implemented in a more broad geographic area, where access to brain imaging facilities may be limited. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'.

  16. Boosting bioluminescence neuroimaging: an optimized protocol for brain studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswendt, Markus; Adamczak, Joanna; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Hoehn, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is widely used for optical cell tracking approaches. However, reliable and quantitative bioluminescence of transplanted cells in the brain is highly challenging. In this study we established a new bioluminescence imaging protocol dedicated for neuroimaging, which increases sensitivity especially for noninvasive tracking of brain cell grafts. Different D-Luciferin concentrations (15, 150, 300 and 750 mg/kg), injection routes (i.v., i.p., s.c.), types of anesthesia (Isoflurane, Ketamine/Xylazine, Pentobarbital) and timing of injection were compared using DCX-Luc transgenic mice for brain specific bioluminescence. Luciferase kinetics was quantitatively evaluated for maximal photon emission, total photon emission and time-to-peak. Photon emission followed a D-Luciferin dose-dependent relation without saturation, but with delay in time-to-peak increasing for increasing concentrations. The comparison of intravenous, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal substrate injection reflects expected pharmacokinetics with fastest and highest photon emission for intravenous administration. Ketamine/Xylazine and Pentobarbital anesthesia showed no significant beneficial effect on maximal photon emission. However, a strong difference in outcome was observed by injecting the substrate pre Isoflurane anesthesia. This protocol optimization for brain specific bioluminescence imaging comprises injection of 300 mg/kg D-Luciferin pre Isoflurane anesthesia as an efficient and stable method with a signal gain of approx. 200% (compared to 150 mg/kg post Isoflurane). Gain in sensitivity by the novel imaging protocol was quantitatively assessed by signal-to-noise calculations of luciferase-expressing neural stem cells grafted into mouse brains (transplantation of 3,000-300,000 cells). The optimized imaging protocol lowered the detection limit from 6,000 to 3,000 cells by a gain in signal-to-noise ratio.

  17. HapMap filter 1.0: A tool to preprocess the HapMap genotypic data for association studies

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The International HapMap Project provides a resource of genotypic data on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which can be used in various association studies to identify the genetic determinants for phenotypic variations. Prior to the association studies, the HapMap dataset should be preprocessed in order to reduce the computation time and control the multiple testing problem. The less informative SNPs including those with very low genotyping rate and SNPs with rare minor allele frequenc...

  18. High-resolution imaging of the large non-human primate brain using microPET: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidoo-Variawa, S [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825, Sydney (Australia); Hey-Cunningham, A J [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825, Sydney (Australia); Lehnert, W [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825, Sydney (Australia); Kench, P L [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825, Sydney (Australia); Kassiou, M [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825, Sydney (Australia); Banati, R [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825, Sydney (Australia); Meikle, S R [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825, Sydney (Australia)

    2007-11-21

    The neuroanatomy and physiology of the baboon brain closely resembles that of the human brain and is well suited for evaluating promising new radioligands in non-human primates by PET and SPECT prior to their use in humans. These studies are commonly performed on clinical scanners with 5 mm spatial resolution at best, resulting in sub-optimal images for quantitative analysis. This study assessed the feasibility of using a microPET animal scanner to image the brains of large non-human primates, i.e. papio hamadryas (baboon) at high resolution. Factors affecting image accuracy, including scatter, attenuation and spatial resolution, were measured under conditions approximating a baboon brain and using different reconstruction strategies. Scatter fraction measured 32% at the centre of a 10 cm diameter phantom. Scatter correction increased image contrast by up to 21% but reduced the signal-to-noise ratio. Volume resolution was superior and more uniform using maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstructed images (3.2-3.6 mm{sup 3} FWHM from centre to 4 cm offset) compared to both 3D ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) (5.6-8.3 mm{sup 3}) and 3D reprojection (3DRP) (5.9-9.1 mm{sup 3}). A pilot {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG) scan was performed on a healthy female adult baboon. The pilot study demonstrated the ability to adequately resolve cortical and sub-cortical grey matter structures in the baboon brain and improved contrast when images were corrected for attenuation and scatter and reconstructed by MAP. We conclude that high resolution imaging of the baboon brain with microPET is feasible with appropriate choices of reconstruction strategy and corrections for degrading physical effects. Further work to develop suitable correction algorithms for high-resolution large primate imaging is warranted.

  19. Numerical study of a simple transcranial focused ultrasound system applied to blood-brain barrier opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffieux, Thomas; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the focalization properties of single-element transducers at low frequencies (300 to 1000 kHz) through primate and human skulls. The study addresses the transcranial targeting involved in ultrasound- induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening with clinically relevant targets such as the hippocampus and the basal ganglia, which are typically affected by early Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, respectively. A finite-difference, timedomain simulation platform is used to solve the 3-D linear acoustic wave equation with CT-based acoustic maps of the skulls. The targeted brain structures were extracted from 3-D brain atlases registered with the skulls and used to virtually position and orient the transducers. The effect of frequency is first investigated and the targeting of the different structures is then tested. The frequency of 500 kHz provided the best tradeoff between phase aberrations and standing wave effects in the human case, whereas the frequency of 800 kHz was most suitable in the case of the primate skull. A fast periodic linear chirp method was developed and found capable of reducing the standing wave effects. Such a simple, affordable, and convenient system is concluded to be feasible for BBB opening in primates and humans and could thus allow for its broader impact and applications.

  20. STUDY OF BRAIN TUMOURS BY NOVE L MAGNETIC RESONANCE TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Shamim; Reyaz; Anju; Dinesh Kumar; Paricharak

    2015-01-01

    In the present study , thirty patients in the age range of 22 to 63 years of age were included after being diagnosed to be having brain tumour on CT scan or conventional MRI. In addition DWI , MRS , and PWI were carried out i n these patients. All the patients with suspicious malignant lesions were then subjected to FDG - PET examination . Histopathological correlation was obtained in all the patients to serve as gold standard against which other m...

  1. Electricity Consumption Risk Map - The use of Urban Climate Mapping for smarter analysis: Case study for Birmingham, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes Azevedo, Juliana; Burghardt, René; Chapman, Lee; Katzchner, Lutz; Muller, Catherine L.

    2015-04-01

    Climate is a key driving factor in energy consumption. However, income, vegetation, building mass structure, topography also impact on the amount of energy consumption. In a changing climate, increased temperatures are likely to lead to increased electricity consumption, affecting demand, distribution and generation. Furthermore, as the world population becomes more urbanized, increasing numbers of people will need to deal with not only increased temperatures from climate change, but also from the unintentional modification of the urban climate in the form of urban heat islands. Hence, climate and climate change needs to be taken into account for future urban planning aspects to increase the climate and energy resilience of the community and decrease the future social and economic costs. Geographical Information Systems provide a means to create urban climate maps as part of the urban planning process. Geostatistical analyses linking these maps with demographic and social data, enables a geo-statistical analysis to identify linkages to high-risk groups of the community and vulnerable areas of town and cities. Presently, the climatope classification is oriented towards thermal aspects and the ventilation quality (roughness) of the urban areas but can also be adapted to take into account other structural "environmental factors". This study aims to use the climatope approach to predict areas of potential high electricity consumption in Birmingham, UK. Several datasets were used to produce an average surface temperature map, vegetation map, land use map, topography map, building height map, built-up area roughness calculations, an average air temperature map and a domestic electricity consumption map. From the correlations obtained between the layers it is possible to average the importance of each factor and create a map for domestic electricity consumption to understand the influence of environmental aspects on spatial energy consumption. Based on these results city

  2. Femtosecond Studies Of Coulomb Explosion Utilizing Covariance Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Card, D A

    2000-01-01

    The studies presented herein elucidate details of the Coulomb explosion event initiated through the interaction of molecular clusters with an intense femtosecond laser beam (≥1 PW/cm2). Clusters studied include ammonia, titanium-hydrocarbon, pyridine, and 7-azaindole. Covariance analysis is presented as a general technique to study the dynamical processes in clusters and to discern whether the fragmentation channels are competitive. Positive covariance determinations identify concerted processes such as the concomitant explosion of protonated cluster ions of asymmetrical size. Anti- covariance mapping is exploited to distinguish competitive reaction channels such as the production of highly charged nitrogen atoms formed at the expense of the protonated members of a cluster ion ensemble. This technique is exemplified in each cluster system studied. Kinetic energy analyses, from experiment and simulation, are presented to fully understand the Coulomb explosion event. A cutoff study strongly suggests that...

  3. The issue of multiple univariate comparisons in the context of neuroelectric brain mapping: an application in a neuromarketing experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, G; De Vico Fallani, F; Astolfi, L; Toppi, J; Cincotti, F; Mattia, D; Salinari, S; Babiloni, F

    2010-08-30

    This paper presents some considerations about the use of adequate statistical techniques in the framework of the neuroelectromagnetic brain mapping. With the use of advanced EEG/MEG recording setup involving hundred of sensors, the issue of the protection against the type I errors that could occur during the execution of hundred of univariate statistical tests, has gained interest. In the present experiment, we investigated the EEG signals from a mannequin acting as an experimental subject. Data have been collected while performing a neuromarketing experiment and analyzed with state of the art computational tools adopted in specialized literature. Results showed that electric data from the mannequin's head presents statistical significant differences in power spectra during the visualization of a commercial advertising when compared to the power spectra gathered during a documentary, when no adjustments were made on the alpha level of the multiple univariate tests performed. The use of the Bonferroni or Bonferroni-Holm adjustments returned correctly no differences between the signals gathered from the mannequin in the two experimental conditions. An partial sample of recently published literature on different neuroscience journals suggested that at least the 30% of the papers do not use statistical protection for the type I errors. While the occurrence of type I errors could be easily managed with appropriate statistical techniques, the use of such techniques is still not so largely adopted in the literature.

  4. Simple and cost-effective hardware and software for functional brain mapping using intrinsic optical signal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Thomas C; Sigler, Albrecht; Murphy, Timothy H

    2009-09-15

    We describe a simple and low-cost system for intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging using stable LED light sources, basic microscopes, and commonly available CCD cameras. IOS imaging measures activity-dependent changes in the light reflectance of brain tissue, and can be performed with a minimum of specialized equipment. Our system uses LED ring lights that can be mounted on standard microscope objectives or video lenses to provide a homogeneous and stable light source, with less than 0.003% fluctuation across images averaged from 40 trials. We describe the equipment and surgical techniques necessary for both acute and chronic mouse preparations, and provide software that can create maps of sensory representations from images captured by inexpensive 8-bit cameras or by 12-bit cameras. The IOS imaging system can be adapted to commercial upright microscopes or custom macroscopes, eliminating the need for dedicated equipment or complex optical paths. This method can be combined with parallel high resolution imaging techniques such as two-photon microscopy.

  5. Mapping the brain's orchestration during speech comprehension: task-specific facilitation of regional synchrony in neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keil Andreas

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How does the brain convert sounds and phonemes into comprehensible speech? In the present magnetoencephalographic study we examined the hypothesis that the coherence of electromagnetic oscillatory activity within and across brain areas indicates neurophysiological processes linked to speech comprehension. Results Amplitude-modulated (sinusoidal 41.5 Hz auditory verbal and nonverbal stimuli served to drive steady-state oscillations in neural networks involved in speech comprehension. Stimuli were presented to 12 subjects in the following conditions (a an incomprehensible string of words, (b the same string of words after being introduced as a comprehensible sentence by proper articulation, and (c nonverbal stimulations that included a 600-Hz tone, a scale, and a melody. Coherence, defined as correlated activation of magnetic steady state fields across brain areas and measured as simultaneous activation of current dipoles in source space (Minimum-Norm-Estimates, increased within left- temporal-posterior areas when the sound string was perceived as a comprehensible sentence. Intra-hemispheric coherence was larger within the left than the right hemisphere for the sentence (condition (b relative to all other conditions, and tended to be larger within the right than the left hemisphere for nonverbal stimuli (condition (c, tone and melody relative to the other conditions, leading to a more pronounced hemispheric asymmetry for nonverbal than verbal material. Conclusions We conclude that coherent neuronal network activity may index encoding of verbal information on the sentence level and can be used as a tool to investigate auditory speech comprehension.

  6. Urban ergonomics: an ongoing study of city signs and maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Patricia; Arezes, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether the existing signals in three European cities were developed according usability principles and ergonomic aspects for the citizen. City maps and signals will be tested using efficiency, effectiveness and user's satisfaction criteria. Among the urban areas are the center of Paris-FR, assumed to be well signalized, the historical center of Guimarães-PT and Chorweiler, Cologne-DE, a residential neighborhood of modern urbanism characterized by the extensive use of vegetation, the landscape homogeneity, and, consequently, by the difficult navigation.

  7. Brain imaging genetics in ADHD and beyond - mapping pathways from gene to disorder at different levels of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marieke; Onnink, Marten; van Donkelaar, Marjolein; Wolfers, Thomas; Harich, Benjamin; Shi, Yan; Dammers, Janneke; Arias-Va Squez, Alejandro; Hoogman, Martine; Franke, Barbara

    2017-01-31

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and often persistent neurodevelopmental disorder. Beyond gene-finding, neurobiological parameters, such as brain structure, connectivity, and function, have been used to link genetic variation to ADHD symptomatology. We performed a systematic review of brain imaging genetics studies involving 62 ADHD candidate genes in childhood and adult ADHD cohorts. Fifty-one eligible research articles described studies of 13 ADHD candidate genes. Almost exclusively, single genetic variants were studied, mostly focussing on dopamine-related genes. While promising results have been reported, imaging genetics studies are thus far hampered by methodological differences in study design and analysis methodology, as well as limited sample sizes. Beyond reviewing imaging genetics studies, we also discuss the need for complementary approaches at multiple levels of biological complexity and emphasize the importance of combining and integrating findings across levels for a better understanding of biological pathways from gene to disease. These may include multi-modal imaging genetics studies, bioinformatic analyses, and functional analyses of cell and animal models.

  8. Adapting Parcellation Schemes to Study Fetal Brain Connectivity in Serial Imaging Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Xi; Wilm, Jakob; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa

    2013-01-01

    of the developing fetal brain such functional and associated structural markers are not consistently present over time. In this study we adapt two non-atlas based parcellation schemes to study the development of connectivity networks of a fetal monkey brain using Diffusion Weighted Imaging techniques. Results......A crucial step in studying brain connectivity is the definition of the Regions Of Interest (ROI's) which are considered as nodes of a network graph. These ROI's identified in structural imaging reflect consistent functional regions in the anatomies being compared. However in serial studies...

  9. Suicide after traumatic brain injury: a population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the rates of suicide among patients who have had a traumatic brain injury. METHODS: From a Danish population register of admissions to hospital covering the years 1979-93 patients were selected who had had either a concussion (n=126 114), a cranial fracture (n=7560......), or a cerebral contusion or traumatic intracranial haemorrhage (n=11 766). All cases of deaths by the end of the study period were identified. RESULTS: In the three diagnostic groups there had been 750 (0.59%), 46 (0.61%), and 99 (0.84%) cases of suicide respectively. Standardised mortality ratios, stratified......). There was, however, no evidence of a specific risk period for suicide after injury. CONCLUSION: The increased risk of suicide among patients who had a mild traumatic brain injury may result from concomitant risk factors such as psychiatric conditions and psychosocial disadvantage. The greater risk among...

  10. 78 FR 76888 - MAP-21 Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... Federal Highway Administration MAP-21 Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study Materials AGENCY... for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study, which... public meetings on the MAP-21 Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study and to announce...

  11. Clinicopathological pattern of brain tumors: A 3-year study in a tertiary care hospital in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sajeeb Mondal; Rajashree Pradhan; Subrata Pal; Biswajit Biswas; Arindam Banerjee; Debosmita Bhattacharyya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brain tumors are heterogeneous group of neoplasms, affecting different age groups. Although some studies have been published regarding pathological pattern of brain tumors from different countries of the world and also from India, comprehensive clinicopathological studies from Eastern India is lacking. Aims: The aim of this study was to observe recent incidence of different brain tumors and to study clinical and histopathological spectrum of brain tumors in Eastern India. Material...

  12. Effect of environmental sound familiarity on dynamic neural activation/inhibition patterns: an ERD mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, N; Clochon, P; Etévenon, P; Baron, J C; Eustache, F

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the timing and topography of brain activity in relation to the cognitive processing of different types of auditory information. We specifically investigated the effects of familiarity on environmental sound identification, an issue which has been little studied with respect to cognitive processes, neural substrates, and time course of brain activity. To address this issue, we implemented and applied an electroencephalographic mapping method named event-related desynchronization, which allows one to assess the dynamics of neuronal activity with high temporal resolution (here, 125 ms); we used 19 recording electrodes with standard positioning. We designed an activation paradigm in which healthy subjects were asked to discriminate binaurally heard sounds belonging to one of two distinct categories, "familiar" (i.e., natural environmental sounds) or "unfamiliar" (i.e., altered environmental sounds). The sounds were selected according to strict preexperimental tests so that the former should engage greater semantic, and the latter greater structural, analysis, which we predicted to preferentially implicate left posterior and right brain regions, respectively. During the stimulations, significant desynchronizations (thought to reflect neuronal activations) were recorded over left hemisphere regions for familiar sounds and right temporofrontal regions for unfamiliar sounds, but with only few significant differences between the two sound categories and a common bilateral activation in the frontal regions. However, strongly significant differences between familiar and unfamiliar sounds occurred near the end of and following the stimulations, due to synchronizations (though to reflect deactivations) which appeared over the left posterior regions, as well as the vertex and bilateral frontal cortex, only after unfamiliar sounds. These unexpected synchronizations after the unfamiliar stimuli may reflect an awareness of the unfamiliarity of

  13. Towards ultra-high resolution fibre tract mapping of the human brain - registration of polarised light images and reorientation of fibre vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Palm

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Polarised Light Imaging (PLI utilises the birefringence of the myelin sheaths in order to visualise the orientation of nerve fibres in microtome sections of adult human post-mortem brains at ultra-high spatial resolution. The preparation of post-mortem brains for PLI involves fixation, freezing and cutting into 100-micrometer thick sections. Hence, geometrical distortions of histological sections are inevitable and have to be removed for 3D reconstruction and subsequent fibre tracking. We here present a processing pipeline for 3D reconstruction of these sections using PLI derived multimodal images of post-mortem brains. Blockface images of the brains were obtained during cutting; they serve as reference data for alignment and elimination of distortion artefacts. In addition to the spatial image transformation, fibre orientation vectors were reoriented using the transformation fields, which consider both affine and subsequent non-linear registration. The application of this registration and reorientation approach results in a smooth fibre vector field, which reflects brain morphology. PLI combined with 3D reconstruction and fibre tracking is a powerful tool for human brain mapping. It can also serve as an independent method for evaluating in vivo fibre tractography.

  14. Mapping patterns of depression-related brain regions with cytochrome oxidase histochemistry: relevance of animal affective systems to human disorders, with a focus on resilience to adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harro, Jaanus; Kanarik, Margus; Matrov, Denis; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    The search for novel antidepressants may be facilitated by pre-clinical animal models that relay on specific neural circuit and related neurochemical endpoint measures, which are anchored in concrete neuro-anatomical and functional neural-network analyzes. One of the most important initial considerations must be which regions of the brain are candidates for the maladaptive response to depressogenic challenges. Consideration of persistent differences or changes in the activity of cerebral networks can be achieved by mapping oxidative metabolism in ethologically or pathogenetically relevant animal models. Cytochrome oxidase histochemistry is a technique suitable to detect regional long-term brain activity changes relative to control conditions and has been used in a variety of animal models. This work is summarized and indicates that major changes occur mainly in subcortical areas, highlighting specific brain regions where some alterations in regional oxidative metabolism may represent adaptive changes to depressogenic adverse life events, while others may reflect failures of adaptation. Many of these changes in oxidative metabolism may depend upon the integrity of serotonergic neurotransmission, and occur in several brain regions shown by other techniques to be involved in endogenous affective circuits that control emotional behaviors as well as related higher brain regions that integrate learning and cognitive information processing. These brain regions appear as primary targets for further identification of endophenotypes specific to affective disorders.

  15. Vitamins in the monkey brain: An immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas, A; Coveñas, R; Bodet, D; Duleu, S; Marcos, P; Geffard, M

    2009-09-01

    Using highly specific antisera directed against vitamins, the distribution of pyridoxal-, pyridoxine-, vitamin C- and nicotinamide-immunoreactive structures in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis) brain was studied. Neither immunoreactive structures containing pyridoxine or nicotinamide, nor immunoreactive fibers containing vitamin C were found in the monkey brain. However, this work reports the first visualization and the morphological characteristics of pyridoxal- and vitamin C-immunoreactive cell bodies in the mammalian central nervous system using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. A high density of pyridoxal-immunoreactive cell bodies was found in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and in the supraoptic nucleus and a low density of the same was observed in the periventricular hypothalamic region, whereas a moderate density of vitamin C-immunoreactive cell bodies was observed in the somatosensorial cortex (precentral gyrus). Immunoreactive fibers containing pyridoxal were only visualized in the anterior commissure. The restricted distribution of pyridoxal and vitamin C in the monkey brain suggests that both vitamins could be involved in very specific physiological mechanisms.

  16. Direct mapping of 19F in 19FDG-6P in brain tissue at subcellular resolution using soft X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitry-Yamate, C.; Gianoncelli, A.; Kourousias, G.; Kaulich, B.; Lepore, M.; Gruetter, R.; Kiskinova, M.

    2013-10-01

    Low energy x-ray fluorescence (LEXRF) detection was optimized for imaging cerebral glucose metabolism by mapping the fluorine LEXRF signal of 19F in 19FDG, trapped as intracellular 19F-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate (19FDG-6P) at 1μm spatial resolution from 3μm thick brain slices. 19FDG metabolism was evaluated in brain structures closely resembling the general cerebral cytoarchitecture following formalin fixation of brain slices and their inclusion in an epon matrix. 2-dimensional distribution maps of 19FDG-6P were placed in a cytoarchitectural and morphological context by simultaneous LEXRF mapping of N and O, and scanning transmission x-ray (STXM) imaging. A disproportionately high uptake and metabolism of glucose was found in neuropil relative to intracellular domains of the cell body of hypothalamic neurons, showing directly that neurons, like glial cells, also metabolize glucose. As 19F-deoxyglucose-6P is structurally identical to 18F-deoxyglucose-6P, LEXRF of subcellular 19F provides a link to in vivo 18FDG PET, forming a novel basis for understanding the physiological mechanisms underlying the 18FDG PET image, and the contribution of neurons and glia to the PET signal.

  17. Modeling of activation data in the BrainMapTM database: Detection of outliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2002-01-01

    We describe a system for meta-analytical modeling of activation foci from functional neuroimaging studies. Our main vehicle is a set of density models in Talairach space capturing the distribution of activation foci in sets of experiments labeled by lobar anatomy. One important use of such density...

  18. Construction and evaluation of F-18 FDG PET probabilistic MAP for voxel based analysis of the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, K. C.; Kim, J. S.; Na, Y. S.; Moon, D. H.; Ryu, J. S. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop F-18 FDG PET and MRI template for normal rat brain. Also, feasibility of SPM in detailed regional analysis of molecular changes in the rat brain was explored for F-18 FDG PET imaging of a model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten normal rats were scanned with PET and MRI. The PET images were acquired with 3D mode using microPET focus 120 scanner after injection of 37 MBq F-18 FDG. T2-weighted MR images were acquired using 4.7T MRI system. A MRI-based spatial normalization was used. The PET images were coregistered to T2-weighted MR images. Maximum mutual information (MMI) registrations and affine spatial normalizations were performed using SPM2. The spatial normalization of the MRI to the standard MRI was applied to the integral images. The normalized PET images were averaged voxel wise to create PET template. Eight TBI model rats were subjected to a moderate lateral fluid percussion injury. At 2 days, 1 week, 3 weeks and 5 weeks post FPI, PET images of 8 TBI rats were acquired 4 times. TBI PET images were realigned, spatially normalized to a created PET-template and smoothed (8 mm FWHM). To assess the extent and severity of significant hypo metabolic lesions in TBI compared to normal controls were obtained by a two-sided t-test of SPM (uncorrected p < 0.001, 50 voxels). Visually acceptable PET and MRI templates were created. Registration errors were negligible when MMI procedure was used to register a translated or rotated image volume. Thirty-two PET studies of 8 TBI model subjects were obtained. SPM analysis showed injured distribution of decrease F-18 FDG uptake in TBI rats compared with normal rats. In SPM analysis, the extent and severity of significant hypo metabolic lesions were decreased according to a significant effect of time. At 5 weeks injured animals showed F-18 FDG uptake recovery using SPM analysis. These results indicate that voxel-based method will be useful for future longitudinal studies of rat brain.

  19. Whole-brain mapping of direct inputs to midbrain dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko; Zhu, Lisa; Ogawa, Sachie K; Vamanrao, Archana; Uchida, Naoshige

    2012-06-07

    Recent studies indicate that dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) convey distinct signals. To explore this difference, we comprehensively identified each area's monosynaptic inputs using the rabies virus. We show that dopamine neurons in both areas integrate inputs from a more diverse collection of areas than previously thought, including autonomic, motor, and somatosensory areas. SNc and VTA dopamine neurons receive contrasting excitatory inputs: the former from the somatosensory/motor cortex and subthalamic nucleus, which may explain their short-latency responses to salient events; and the latter from the lateral hypothalamus, which may explain their involvement in value coding. We demonstrate that neurons in the striatum that project directly to dopamine neurons form patches in both the dorsal and ventral striatum, whereas those projecting to GABAergic neurons are distributed in the matrix compartment. Neuron-type-specific connectivity lays a foundation for studying how dopamine neurons compute outputs.

  20. Brain potentials distinguish new and studied objects during working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunyan; Lawson, Adam L; Zhang, Qin; Jiang, Yang

    2008-04-01

    We investigated brain responses to matching versus nonmatching objects in working memory (WM) with a modified delayed match-to-sample task using event-related potentials (ERPs). In addition, ERP correlates of new items (new matches/new nonmatches) and previously studied items (studied matches/studied nonmatches) were examined in the WM task. Half of the common visual objects were initially studied until 95% accuracy was attained and half were new. Each memory trial began with the presentation of a sample object followed by nine test objects. Participants indicated whether each test item was the same as the object held in mind (i.e., match) or a nonmatch. Compared to studied matches, new matches evoked activity that was 50 ms earlier and largest at frontal sites. In contrast, P3 activity associated with studied nonmatches was larger than for new nonmatches at mostly posterior sites, which parallels previously reported old-new ERP effects. The ERP source analysis further confirms that the cortical mechanisms underlying matching objects and rejecting irrelevant objects during the task are both temporally and spatially distinct. Moreover, our current findings suggest that prior learning affects brain responses to matching visual items during a WM task.

  1. Mapping whole-brain activity with cellular resolution by light-sheet microscopy and high-throughput image analysis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Ludovico; Rudinskiy, Nikita; Paciscopi, Marco; Müllenbroich, Marie Caroline; Costantini, Irene; Sacconi, Leonardo; Frasconi, Paolo; Hyman, Bradley T.; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2016-03-01

    Mapping neuronal activity patterns across the whole brain with cellular resolution is a challenging task for state-of-the-art imaging methods. Indeed, despite a number of technological efforts, quantitative cellular-resolution activation maps of the whole brain have not yet been obtained. Many techniques are limited by coarse resolution or by a narrow field of view. High-throughput imaging methods, such as light sheet microscopy, can be used to image large specimens with high resolution and in reasonable times. However, the bottleneck is then moved from image acquisition to image analysis, since many TeraBytes of data have to be processed to extract meaningful information. Here, we present a full experimental pipeline to quantify neuronal activity in the entire mouse brain with cellular resolution, based on a combination of genetics, optics and computer science. We used a transgenic mouse strain (Arc-dVenus mouse) in which neurons which have been active in the last hours before brain fixation are fluorescently labelled. Samples were cleared with CLARITY and imaged with a custom-made confocal light sheet microscope. To perform an automatic localization of fluorescent cells on the large images produced, we used a novel computational approach called semantic deconvolution. The combined approach presented here allows quantifying the amount of Arc-expressing neurons throughout the whole mouse brain. When applied to cohorts of mice subject to different stimuli and/or environmental conditions, this method helps finding correlations in activity between different neuronal populations, opening the possibility to infer a sort of brain-wide 'functional connectivity' with cellular resolution.

  2. From complex B(1) mapping to local SAR estimation for human brain MR imaging using multi-channel transceiver coil at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Schmitter, Sebastian; Van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Liu, Jiaen; He, Bin

    2013-06-01

    Elevated specific absorption rate (SAR) associated with increased main magnetic field strength remains a major safety concern in ultra-high-field (UHF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. The calculation of local SAR requires the knowledge of the electric field induced by radio-frequency (RF) excitation, and the local electrical properties of tissues. Since electric field distribution cannot be directly mapped in conventional MR measurements, SAR estimation is usually performed using numerical model-based electromagnetic simulations which, however, are highly time consuming and cannot account for the specific anatomy and tissue properties of the subject undergoing a scan. In the present study, starting from the measurable RF magnetic fields (B1) in MRI, we conducted a series of mathematical deduction to estimate the local, voxel-wise and subject-specific SAR for each single coil element using a multi-channel transceiver array coil. We first evaluated the feasibility of this approach in numerical simulations including two different human head models. We further conducted experimental study in a physical phantom and in two human subjects at 7T using a multi-channel transceiver head coil. Accuracy of the results is discussed in the context of predicting local SAR in the human brain at UHF MRI using multi-channel RF transmission.

  3. Raven's Progressive Matrices in the Lexicon of Dynamic Mapping of the Brain (MRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhirina, K G; Mel'nikov, M E; Pokrovskii, M A; Petrovskii, E D; Savelov, A A; Shtark, M B

    2016-04-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we studied intracerebral dynamics during completion of Raven's Progressive Matrices test. Solving the test organized in sets of progressively increasing difficulty cause changes in cerebellar activation functionally related to cognitive activities and operations. As the tasks became more complicated, we observed gradual suppression of the activity of default mode network (DMN). The most pronounced changes in cerebral activation patterns occurred the second set of the test and involved associative somatosensory area and Wernicke's area that is known to play an important role in cognitive processes associated with synthesis and analysis of information.

  4. Balanced Steady State Free Precession for Arterial Spin Labeling MRI: Initial Experience for Blood Flow Mapping in Human Brain, Retina, and Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hong; Wang, Danny J.J.; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2013-01-01

    We implemented pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) with 2D and 3D balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) readout for mapping blood flow in the human brain, retina, and kidney, free of distortion and signal dropout, which are typically observed in the most commonly used echo-planar imaging acquisition. High resolution functional brain imaging in the human visual cortex was feasible with 3D bSSFP pCASL. Blood flow of the human retina could be imaged with pCASL and bSSFP in conjunction with a phase cycling approach to suppress the banding artifacts associated with bSSFP. Furthermore, bSSFP based pCASL enabled us to map renal blood flow within a single breath hold. Control and test-retest experiments suggested that the measured blood flow values in retina and kidney were reliable. Because there is no specific imaging tool for mapping human retina blood flow and the standard contrast agent technique for mapping renal blood flow can cause problems for patients with kidney dysfunction, bSSFP based pCASL may provide a useful tool for the diagnosis of retinal and renal diseases and can complement existing imaging techniques. PMID:23664680

  5. Synergetic fMRI-EEG brain mapping in alpha-rhythm voluntary control mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtark, M B; Verevkin, E G; Kozlova, L I; Mazhirina, K G; Pokrovskii, M A; Petrovskii, E D; Savelov, A A; Starostin, A S; Yarosh, S V

    2015-03-01

    For the first time in neurobiology-related issues, the synergistic spatial dynamics of EEG and fMRI (BOLD phenomenon) was studied during cognitive alpha biofeedback training in the operant conditioning mode (acoustic reinforcement of alpha-rhythm development and stability). Significant changes in alpha-rhythm intensity were found in T6 electrode area (Brodmann area 37). Brodmann areas related to solving alpha-training tasks and maximally involved in the formation of new neuronal network were middle and superior temporal gyri (areas 21, 22, and 37), fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus (areas 4, 6, and 46), anterior cingulate gyrus (areas 23 and 24), cuneus, and precuneus (area 7). Wide involvement of Brodmann areas is determined by psychological architecture of alpha-rhythm generating system control that includes complex cognitive activities: decision making, retrieval of long-term memory, evaluation of the reward and control efficiency during alpha-EEG biofeedback.

  6. Integrated SSFP for functional brain mapping at 7 T with reduced susceptibility artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kaibao; Xue, Rong; Zhang, Peng; Zuo, Zhentao; Chen, Zhongwei; Wang, Bo; Martin, Thomas; Wang, Yi; Chen, Lin; He, Sheng; Wang, Danny J. J.

    2017-03-01

    Balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) offers an alternative and potentially important tool to the standard gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI) for functional MRI (fMRI). Both passband and transition band based bSSFP have been proposed for fMRI. The applications of these methods, however, are limited by banding artifacts due to the sensitivity of bSSFP signal to off-resonance effects. In this article, a unique case of the SSFP-FID sequence, termed integrated-SSFP or iSSFP, was proposed to overcome the obstacle by compressing the SSFP profile into the width of a single voxel. The magnitude of the iSSFP signal was kept constant irrespective of frequency shift. Visual stimulation studies were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of fMRI using iSSFP at 7 T with flip angles of 4° and 25°, compared to standard bSSFP and gradient echo (GRE) imaging. The signal changes for the complex iSSFP signal in activated voxels were 2.48 ± 0.53 (%) and 2.96 ± 0.87 (%) for flip angles (FA) of 4° and 25° respectively at the TR of 9.88 ms. Simultaneous multi-slice acquisition (SMS) with the CAIPIRIHNA technique was carried out with iSSFP scanning to detect the anterior temporal lobe activation using a semantic processing task fMRI, compared with standard 2D GE-EPI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of iSSFP for fMRI with reduced susceptibility artifacts, while maintaining robust functional contrast at 7 T.

  7. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study : methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A.; Schouw, Marieke L. J.; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Schrantee, Anouk G. M.; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Boer, Frits; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Denys, Damiaan; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Reitsma, Hans B.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of dif

  8. Odour maps in the brain of butterflies with divergent host-plant preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael A Carlsson

    Full Text Available Butterflies are believed to use mainly visual cues when searching for food and oviposition sites despite that their olfactory system is morphologically similar to their nocturnal relatives, the moths. The olfactory ability in butterflies has, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we performed the first study of odour representation in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobes, of butterflies. Host plant range is highly variable within the butterfly family Nymphalidae, with extreme specialists and wide generalists found even among closely related species. Here we measured odour evoked Ca(2+ activity in the antennal lobes of two nymphalid species with diverging host plant preferences, the specialist Aglais urticae and the generalist Polygonia c-album. The butterflies responded with stimulus-specific combinations of activated glomeruli to single plant-related compounds and to extracts of host and non-host plants. In general, responses were similar between the species. However, the specialist A. urticae responded more specifically to its preferred host plant, stinging nettle, than P. c-album. In addition, we found a species-specific difference both in correlation between responses to two common green leaf volatiles and the sensitivity to these compounds. Our results indicate that these butterflies have the ability to detect and to discriminate between different plant-related odorants.

  9. Odour maps in the brain of butterflies with divergent host-plant preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Mikael A; Bisch-Knaden, Sonja; Schäpers, Alexander; Mozuraitis, Raimondas; Hansson, Bill S; Janz, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies are believed to use mainly visual cues when searching for food and oviposition sites despite that their olfactory system is morphologically similar to their nocturnal relatives, the moths. The olfactory ability in butterflies has, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we performed the first study of odour representation in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobes, of butterflies. Host plant range is highly variable within the butterfly family Nymphalidae, with extreme specialists and wide generalists found even among closely related species. Here we measured odour evoked Ca(2+) activity in the antennal lobes of two nymphalid species with diverging host plant preferences, the specialist Aglais urticae and the generalist Polygonia c-album. The butterflies responded with stimulus-specific combinations of activated glomeruli to single plant-related compounds and to extracts of host and non-host plants. In general, responses were similar between the species. However, the specialist A. urticae responded more specifically to its preferred host plant, stinging nettle, than P. c-album. In addition, we found a species-specific difference both in correlation between responses to two common green leaf volatiles and the sensitivity to these compounds. Our results indicate that these butterflies have the ability to detect and to discriminate between different plant-related odorants.

  10. Anticipatory Processing in the Brain on the Perception of Müller-Lyer Illusionary Figures—A Brain Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shusaku; Sasaki, Shuntaro; Hirakawa, Masato; Hiwaki, Osamu

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the brain potential in relation with the recognition of Müller-Lyer (ML) illusionary figure, which was a famous optical illusion. Although it is frequently assumed that the ML illusionary effect could be derived from its geometrical construction, it derives the same length miss-estimation effect on the sense of touch; haptic illusion. Moreover it occurs in people who are blindfolded or congenital blind. Thus somehow higher information processing than the optical one within the brain could be expected to involve with the recognition of ML figure while few brain studies have demonstrated it. We then investigated the brain waves under subjects' perceiving ML illusionary figure. As a result the marked difference of the brain potential between ML and the control condition around the midline of parietal brain, where the multi-modal perception information was thought to associate within the brain, was observed. This result implies that the anticipatory processing on the perception of ML illusionary figures would be derived by integrating multi-sensory information.

  11. A neurological comparative study of the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walløe, Solveig; Eriksen, Nina; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The cetacean brain is well studied. However, few comparisons have been done with other marine mammals. In this study, we compared the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and the harbor porpoise brain (Phocoena phocoena). Stereological methods were applied to compare three areas of interest...... are the first to provide estimates of the number of neurons and glial cells in the neocortex of the harp seal and harbor porpoise brain and offer new data to the comparative field of mammalian brain evolution....

  12. Brain shrinkage in chronic alcoholics: a pathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C G; Kril, J J; Holloway, R L

    1985-02-16

    A quantitative neuropathological necropsy study of 22 control and 22 chronic alcoholic subjects showed a statistically significant loss of brain tissue in the chronic alcoholic group. The loss of tissue appeared to be from the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres rather than the cerebral cortex. This may reflect a primary alteration in the composition or structure of the white matter or it may be secondary to loss of nerve cells from the cortex with subsequent degeneration of the axons in the white matter. Further morphometric analyses including cortical neuronal counts will be necessary to clarify this issue.

  13. Photoinduced surface voltage mapping study for large perovskite single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojing; Liu, Yucheng; Gao, Fei; Yang, Zhou; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2016-05-01

    Using a series of illumination sources, including white light (tungsten-halogen lamp), 445-nm, 532-nm, 635-nm, and 730-nm lasers, the surface photovoltage (SPV) images were mapped for centimeter-sized CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) perovskite single crystals using Kelvin probe force microscopy. The significant SPV signals were observed to be wavelength-dependent. We attribute the appreciable SPV to the built-in electric field in the space charge region. This study shines light into the understanding of photoinduced charge generation and separation processes at nanoscale to help advance the development of perovskite solar cells, optoelectronics, laser, photodetector, and light-emitting diode (LED).

  14. Doppler ultrasound study and venous mapping in chronic venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Carriazo, M; Gómez de las Heras, C; Mármol Vázquez, P; Ramos Solís, M F

    2016-01-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs is very prevalent. In recent decades, Doppler ultrasound has become the method of choice to study this condition, and it is considered essential when surgery is indicated. This article aims to establish a method for the examination, including venous mapping and preoperative marking. To this end, we review the venous anatomy of the lower limbs and the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and explain the basic hemodynamic concepts and the terminology required to elaborate a radiological report that will enable appropriate treatment planning and communication with other specialists. We briefly explain the CHIVA (the acronym for the French term "cure conservatrice et hémodynamique de l'insuffisance veineuse en ambulatoire"=conservative hemodynamic treatment for chronic venous insufficiency) strategy, a minimally invasive surgical strategy that aims to restore correct venous hemodynamics without resecting the saphenous vein.

  15. Study Suggests Brain Is Hard-Wired for Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Apkarian laboratory showed that the volume of grey matter in the brains of the same subjects who had persistent pain decreased over the same year. Grey matter describes the area of the brain where the ...

  16. Aerobic Exercise Intervention, CognitivePerformance, and Brain Structure : results from the Physical Influences on Brain in Aging (PHIBRA) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jonasson, Lars; Nyberg, Lars; Kramer, Arthur; Lundquist, Anders; Riklund, Katrine; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cognition and reduce brain atrophy in older adults. However, the literature is equivocal with regards to the specificity or generality of these effects. To this end, we report results on cognitive function and brain structure from a 6-month training intervention with 60 sedentary adults (64–78 years) randomized to either aerobic training or stretching and toning control training. Cognitive functions were assessed with a neu...

  17. Endocasts-the direct evidence and recent advances in the study of human brain evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Brain evolution is one of the most important aspects of human evolution, usually studied through endocasts. Analysis of fossil hominid endocasts allows inferences on functional anatomy, physiology, and phylogeny. In this paper, we describe the general features of endocast studies and review some of the major topics in paleoneurology. These are: absolute and relative brain size evolution; brain shape variation; brain asymmetry and lateralization; middle meningeal vessels and venous sinuses; application of computed tomography and virtual imaging; the history of Chinese brain endocast studies. In particular, this review emphasizes endocast studies on Chinese hominin fossils.

  18. A re-examination of neural basis of language processing: proposal of a dynamic hodotopical model from data provided by brain stimulation mapping during picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffau, Hugues; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Mandonnet, Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    From recent findings provided by brain stimulation mapping during picture naming, we re-examine the neural basis of language. We studied structural-functional relationships by correlating the types of language disturbances generated by stimulation in awake patients, mimicking a transient virtual lesion both at cortical and subcortical levels (white matter and deep grey nuclei), with the anatomical location of the stimulation probe. We propose a hodotopical (delocalized) and dynamic model of language processing, which challenges the traditional modular and serial view. According to this model, following the visual input, the language network is organized in parallel, segregated (even if interconnected) large-scale cortico-subcortical sub-networks underlying semantic, phonological and syntactic processing. Our model offers several advantages (i) it explains double dissociations during stimulation (comprehension versus naming disorders, semantic versus phonemic paraphasias, syntactic versus naming disturbances, plurimodal judgment versus naming disorders); (ii) it takes into account the cortical and subcortical anatomic constraints; (iii) it explains the possible recovery of aphasia following a lesion within the "classical" language areas; (iv) it establishes links with a model executive functions.

  19. Response to Deep Brain Stimulation in Three Brain Targets with Implications in Mental Disorders: A PET Study in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casquero-Veiga, Marta; Hadar, Ravit; Pascau, Javier; Winter, Christine; Desco, Manuel; Soto-Montenegro, María Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate metabolic changes in brain networks by deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and dorsomedial thalamus (DM) using positron emission tomography (PET) in naïve rats. Methods 43 male Wistar rats underwent stereotactic surgery and concentric bipolar platinum-iridium electrodes were bilaterally implanted into one of the three brain sites. [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose-PET (18FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) scans were performed at the 7th (without DBS) and 9th day (with DBS) after surgery. Stimulation period matched tracer uptake period. Images were acquired with a small-animal PET-CT scanner. Differences in glucose uptake between groups were assessed with Statistical Parametric Mapping. Results DBS induced site-specific metabolic changes, although a common increased metabolic activity in the piriform cortex was found for the three brain targets. mPFC-DBS increased metabolic activity in the striatum, temporal and amygdala, and reduced it in the cerebellum, brainstem (BS) and periaqueductal gray matter (PAG). NAcc-DBS increased metabolic activity in the subiculum and olfactory bulb, and decreased it in the BS, PAG, septum and hypothalamus. DM-DBS increased metabolic activity in the striatum, NAcc and thalamus and decreased it in the temporal and cingulate cortex. Conclusions DBS induced significant changes in 18FDG uptake in brain regions associated with the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry. Stimulation of mPFC, NAcc and DM induced different patterns of 18FDG uptake despite interacting with the same circuitries. This may have important implications to DBS research suggesting individualized target selection according to specific neural modulatory requirements. PMID:28033356

  20. Empirical Studies on the Use of Social Software in Global Software Development - a Systematic Mapping Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    , and to highlight the findings of research works which could prove to be beneficial for GSD researchers and practitioners. Method: A Systematic Mapping Study is conducted using a broad search string that allows identifying a variety of studies which can be beneficial for GSD. Papers have been retrieved through...... a combination of automatic search and snowballing, hence a wide quantitative map of the research area is provided. Additionally, text extracts from the studies are qualitatively synthesised to investigate benefits and challenges of the use of SoSo. Results: SoSo is reported as being chiefly used as a support...... of empirical studies on the usage of SoSo are available in related fields, there exists no comprehensive overview of what has been investigated to date across them. Objective: The aim of this review is to map empirical studies on the usage of SoSo in Software Engineering projects and in distributed teams...

  1. Baby Brain Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Out More! New! Critical Competencies for Educators - Buy eBook Magic of Everyday Moments - Now with STEM View ... Out More! New! Critical Competencies for Educators - Buy eBook Magic of Everyday Moments - Now with STEM Support ...

  2. A genome-wide Asian genetic map and ethnic comparison: The GENDISCAN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Joohon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic maps provide specific positions of genetic markers, which are required for performing genetic studies. Linkage analyses of Asian families have been performed with Caucasian genetic maps, since appropriate genetic maps of Asians were not available. Different ethnic groups may have different recombination rates as a result of genomic variations, which would generate misspecification of the genetic map and reduce the power of linkage analyses. Results We constructed the genetic map of a Mongolian population in Asia with CRIMAP software. This new map, called the GENDISCAN map, is based on genotype data collected from 1026 individuals of 73 large Mongolian families, and includes 1790 total and 1500 observable meioses. The GENDISCAN map provides sex-averaged and sex-specific genetic positions of 1039 microsatellite markers in Kosambi centimorgans (cM with physical positions. We also determined 95% confidence intervals of genetic distances of the adjacent marker intervals. Genetic lengths of the whole genome, chromosomes and adjacent marker intervals are compared with those of Rutgers Map v.2, which was constructed based on Caucasian populations (Centre d'Etudes du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH and Icelandic families by mapping methods identical to those of the GENDISCAN map, CRIMAP software and the Kosambi map function. Mongolians showed approximately 1.9 fewer recombinations per meiosis than Caucasians. As a result, genetic lengths of the whole genome and chromosomes of the GENDISCAN map are shorter than those of Rutgers Map v.2. Thirty-eight marker intervals differed significantly between the Mongolian and Caucasian genetic maps. Conclusion The new GENDISCAN map is applicable to the genetic study of Asian populations. Differences in the genetic distances between the GENDISCAN and Caucasian maps could facilitate elucidation of genomic variations between different ethnic groups.

  3. Crises in a driven Josephson junction studied by cell mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Davidson, A.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig;

    1988-01-01

    We use the method of cell-to-cell mapping to locate attractors, basins, and saddle nodes in the phase plane of a driven Josephson junction. The cell-mapping method is discussed in some detail, emphasizing its ability to provide a global view of the phase plane. Our computations confirm the existe...

  4. Permeability dependence study of the focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening at distinct pressures and microbubble diameters using DCE-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachos, Fotios; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Konofagou, Elisa

    2011-09-01

    Blood-brain barrier opening using focused ultrasound and microbubbles has been experimentally established as a noninvasive and localized brain drug delivery technique. In this study, the permeability of the opening is assessed in the murine hippocampus after the application of focused ultrasound at three different acoustic pressures and microbubble sizes. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, the transfer rates were estimated, yielding permeability maps and quantitative K(trans) values for a predefined region of interest. The volume of blood-brain barrier opening according to the K(trans) maps was proportional to both the pressure and the microbubble diameter. A K(trans) plateau of ∼0.05 min(-1) was reached at higher pressures (0.45 and 0.60 MPa) for the larger sized bubbles (4-5 and 6-8 μm), which was on the same order as the K(trans) of the epicranial muscle (no barrier). Smaller bubbles (1-2 μm) yielded significantly lower permeability values. A small percentage (7.5%) of mice showed signs of damage under histological examination, but no correlation with permeability was established. The assessment of the blood-brain barrier permeability properties and their dependence on both the pressure and the microbubble diameter suggests that K(trans) maps may constitute an in vivo tool for the quantification of the efficacy of the focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening.

  5. Cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using the Stroop task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Akio; Iwama, Toru [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Gifu City (Japan); Nakashima, Toshihiko; Okumura, Ayumi; Shinoda, Jun [Kizawa Memorial Hospital, Chubu Medical Center for Prolonged Traumatic Brain Dysfunction, Department of Neurosurgery, Minokamo (Japan); Kuwata, Kazuo [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Gifu (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a key role in cognition, motor function, and emotion processing. However, little is known about how traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects the ACC system. Our purpose was to compare, by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, the patterns of cortical activation in patients with cognitive impairment after TBI and those of normal subjects. Cortical activation maps of 11 right-handed healthy control subjects and five TBI patients with cognitive impairment were recorded in response to a Stroop task during a block-designed fMRI experiment. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) was used for individual subjects and group analysis. In TBI patients and controls, cortical activation, found in similar regions of the frontal, occipital, and parietal lobes, resembled patterns of activation documented in previous neuroimaging studies of the Stroop task in healthy controls. However, the TBI patients showed a relative decrease in ACC activity compared with the controls. Cognitive impairment in TBI patients seems to be associated with alterations in functional cerebral activity, especially less activation of the ACC. These changes are probably the result of destruction of neural networks after diffuse axonal injury and may reflect cortical disinhibition attributable to disconnection or compensation for an inefficient cognitive process. (orig.)

  6. Memory Networks in Tinnitus: A Functional Brain Image Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano, Maura Regina; Onishi, Ektor Tsuneo; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Castiglioni, Mario Luiz Vieira; Batista, Ilza Rosa; Reis, Marilia Alves; Garcia, Michele Vargas; de Andrade, Adriana Neves; de Almeida, Roberta Ribeiro; Garrido, Griselda J.; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is characterized by the perception of sound in the absence of an external auditory stimulus. The network connectivity of auditory and non-auditory brain structures associated with emotion, memory and attention are functionally altered in debilitating tinnitus. Current studies suggest that tinnitus results from neuroplastic changes in the frontal and limbic temporal regions. The objective of this study was to use Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) to evaluate changes in the cerebral blood flow in tinnitus patients with normal hearing compared with healthy controls. Methods: Twenty tinnitus patients with normal hearing and 17 healthy controls, matched for sex, age and years of education, were subjected to Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography using the radiotracer ethylenedicysteine diethyl ester, labeled with Technetium 99 m (99 mTc-ECD SPECT). The severity of tinnitus was assessed using the “Tinnitus Handicap Inventory” (THI). The images were processed and analyzed using “Statistical Parametric Mapping” (SPM8). Results: A significant increase in cerebral perfusion in the left parahippocampal gyrus (pFWE <0.05) was observed in patients with tinnitus compared with healthy controls. The average total THI score was 50.8+18.24, classified as moderate tinnitus. Conclusion: It was possible to identify significant changes in the limbic system of the brain perfusion in tinnitus patients with normal hearing, suggesting that central mechanisms, not specific to the auditory pathway, are involved in the pathophysiology of symptoms, even in the absence of clinically diagnosed peripheral changes. PMID:24516567

  7. STUDY ABOUT CLINICAL APPLICATION OF BRAIN ATLAS IN PAEDIATRICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Fanhang; LIU Cuiping; RENG Xiaoping; JIANG Lian

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To explore clinical application on brain atlas in paediatrics. Methode: Brain atlas was applied in diagnosis and treatment of paediatric diseases and its clinical value was discussed in 1990 ~2001. The manifestation of these diseases in brain atlas were analysed and the manifestation of CT of 67 cases and manifestations of EEG of 37 cases with that of BA were compared. Results The changes of cerebral electrical activity of these diseases were reflected objectively and showed directly in BA. Conclusion Brain atlas not only can point out quality of disease but also define position of disease. Therefore, brain atlas has important clinical value in paediatrics.

  8. The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity: a magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, I.; Stam, C.; Douw, L.; Bartolomei, F.; Heimans, J.; Dijk, van B.; Postma, T.; Klein, M.; Reijneveld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain activ

  9. The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity : a magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, I; Stam, C J; Douw, L; Bartolomei, F; Heimans, J J; van Dijk, B W; Postma, T J; Klein, M; Reijneveld, J C

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain activ

  10. The domesticated brain: genetics of brain mass and brain structure in an avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, R.; Johnsson, M.; Andersson, L.; Jensen, P.; Wright, D.

    2016-01-01

    As brain size usually increases with body size it has been assumed that the two are tightly constrained and evolutionary studies have therefore often been based on relative brain size (i.e. brain size proportional to body size) rather than absolute brain size. The process of domestication offers an excellent opportunity to disentangle the linkage between body and brain mass due to the extreme selection for increased body mass that has occurred. By breeding an intercross between domestic chicken and their wild progenitor, we address this relationship by simultaneously mapping the genes that control inter-population variation in brain mass and body mass. Loci controlling variation in brain mass and body mass have separate genetic architectures and are therefore not directly constrained. Genetic mapping of brain regions indicates that domestication has led to a larger body mass and to a lesser extent a larger absolute brain mass in chickens, mainly due to enlargement of the cerebellum. Domestication has traditionally been linked to brain mass regression, based on measurements of relative brain mass, which confounds the large body mass augmentation due to domestication. Our results refute this concept in the chicken. PMID:27687864

  11. The study on increasing the equivalent SNR in the certain DOI by adjusting the SD separation in near-infrared brain imaging application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhai; Liu, Dongyuan; Sun, Jinggong; Zhang, Yanjun; Sun, Qiuming; Ma, Jun; Zheng, Yu; Wang, Huiquan

    2016-10-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) brain imaging is one of the most promising techniques for brain research in recent years. As a significant supplement to the clinical imaging technique, such as CT and MRI, the NIR technique can achieve a fast, non-invasive, and low cost imaging of the brain, which is widely used for the brain functional imaging and hematoma detection. NIR imaging can achieve an imaging depth up to only several centimeters due to the reduced optical attenuation. The structure of the human brain is so particularly complex, from the perspective of optical detection, the measurement light needs go through the skin, skull, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), grey matter, and white matter, and then reverses the order reflected by the detector. The more photons from the Depth of Interest (DOI) in brain the detector capture, the better detection accuracy and stability can be obtained. In this study, the Equivalent Signal to Noise Ratio (ESNR) was defined as the proportion of the photons from the DOI to the total photons the detector evaluated the best Source and Detector (SD) separation. The Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation was used to establish a multi brain layer model to analyze the distribution of the ESNR along the radial direction for different DOIs and several basic brain optical and structure parameters. A map between the best detection SD separation, in which distance the ESNR was the highest, and the brain parameters was established for choosing the best detection point in the NIR brain imaging application. The results showed that the ESNR was very sensitivity to the SD separation. So choosing the best SD separation based on the ESNR is very significant for NIR brain imaging application. It provides an important reference and new thinking for the brain imaging in the near infrared.

  12. Alteration and reorganization of functional networks: a new perspective in brain injury study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazareth P. Castellanos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity is the mechanism underlying brain’s potential capability to compensate injury. Recently several studies have shown that functional connections among brain areas are severely altered by brain injury and plasticity leading to a reorganization of the networks. This new approach studies the impact of brain injury by means of alteration of functional interactions. The concept of functional connectivity refers to the statistical interdependencies between physiological time series simultaneously recorded in various brain areas and it could be an essential tool for brain function studies, being its deviation from healthy reference an indicator for damage. In this article, we review studies investigating functional connectivity changes after brain injury and subsequent recovery, providing an accessible introduction to common mathematical methods to infer functional connectivity, exploring their capabilities, future perspectives and clinical uses in brain injury studies.

  13. Functional-mixed effects models for candidate genetic mapping in imaging genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ja-An; Zhu, Hongtu; Mihye, Ahn; Sun, Wei; Ibrahim, Joseph G

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a functional-mixed effects modeling (FMEM) framework for the joint analysis of high-dimensional imaging data in a large number of locations (called voxels) of a three-dimensional volume with a set of genetic markers and clinical covariates. Our FMEM is extremely useful for efficiently carrying out the candidate gene approaches in imaging genetic studies. FMEM consists of two novel components including a mixed effects model for modeling nonlinear genetic effects on imaging phenotypes by introducing the genetic random effects at each voxel and a jumping surface model for modeling the variance components of the genetic random effects and fixed effects as piecewise smooth functions of the voxels. Moreover, FMEM naturally accommodates the correlation structure of the genetic markers at each voxel, while the jumping surface model explicitly incorporates the intrinsically spatial smoothness of the imaging data. We propose a novel two-stage adaptive smoothing procedure to spatially estimate the piecewise smooth functions, particularly the irregular functional genetic variance components, while preserving their edges among different piecewise-smooth regions. We develop weighted likelihood ratio tests and derive their exact approximations to test the effect of the genetic markers across voxels. Simulation studies show that FMEM significantly outperforms voxel-wise approaches in terms of higher sensitivity and specificity to identify regions of interest for carrying out candidate genetic mapping in imaging genetic studies. Finally, FMEM is used to identify brain regions affected by three candidate genes including CR1, CD2AP, and PICALM, thereby hoping to shed light on the pathological interactions between these candidate genes and brain structure and function.

  14. Microdialysis study of cefotaxime cerebral distribution in patients with acute brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahyot-Fizelier, Claire; Frasca, Denis; Grégoire, Nicolas; Adier, Christophe; Mimoz, Olivier; Debaene, Bertrand; Couet, William; Marchand, Sandrine

    2013-06-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) antibiotic distribution was described mainly from cerebrospinal fluid data, and only few data exist on brain extracellular fluid concentrations. The aim of this study was to describe brain distribution of cefotaxime (2 g/8 h) by microdialysis in patients with acute brain injury who were treated for a lung infection. Microdialysis probes were inserted into healthy brain tissue of five critical care patients. Plasma and unbound brain concentrations were determined at steady state by high-performance liquid chromatography. In vivo recoveries were determined individually using retrodialysis by drug. Noncompartmental and compartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were performed. Unbound cefotaxime brain concentrations were much lower than corresponding plasma concentrations, with a mean cefotaxime unbound brain-to-plasma area under the curve ratio equal to 26.1 ± 12.1%. This result was in accordance with the brain input-to-brain output clearances ratio (CL(in,brain)/CL(out,brain)). Unbound brain concentrations were then simulated at two dosing regimens (4 g every 6 h or 8 h), and the time over the MICs (T>MIC) was estimated for breakpoints of susceptible and resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. T>MIC was higher than 90% of the dosing interval for both dosing regimens for susceptible strains and only for 4 g every 6 h for resistant ones. In conclusion, brain distribution of cefotaxime was well described by microdialysis in patients and was limited.

  15. Mapeamento da área motora durante a cirurgia de tumor intracraniano: fatores que podem modificar a intensidade da estimulação Intraoperative mapping of motor areas during brain tumor surgery: electrical stimulation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Thadeu Brainer-Lima

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O mapeamento com estimulação direta do córtex cerebral foi utilizado quando o tumor estava próximo ou infiltrava o lobo central. OBJETIVO: Avaliar interferências na técnica de estimulação eletrica direta do córtex e substância branca, sob anestesia geral, durante cirurgia para tumor cerebral relacionado ao lobo central. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 42 pacientes operados de junho de 2000 a junho de 2003. Os fatores que modificaram a intensidade da estimulação necessaria para localizar a área motora durante a cirurgia foram estudados. RESULTADOS: A intensidade necessária do estimulo foi maior entre os pacientes com déficit motor antes da cirurgia (p=0,425, edema na ressonância magnetica (p=0,468 e anestesia com proporfol contínuo (p=0,001. CONCLUSÃO: O mapeamento funcional do lobo central durante a cirurgia foi prejudicado pelo deficit motor acentuado, edema cerebral e anestesia com propofol contínuo.Brain mapping with direct electrical stimulation is usefull when the tumor is located near or has infiltrated the central lobe. OBJETIVE: To analize the surgical findings with direct electrical stimulation of the cortex and white matter under general anesthesia during surgery for brain tumors related to the central lobe. METHOD: We studied 42 patients operated on from June 2000 to June 2003. We analyzed surgical findings and details of brain mapping. RESULTS: The mean value of the intensity of the stimulus was greater among those who presented motor deficit prior to surgery (p = 0.0425 and edema on MRI (p= 0.0468 or during anesthesia with continuous propofol (p=0.001. CONCLUSION: The functional mapping of the central lobe may be influenced by severe motor deficit, edema on MRI and propofol's anesthesia.

  16. Gender differences in brain development in Chinese children and adolescents: a structural MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Yao, Li

    2008-03-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated gender differences in brain development through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 158 Chinese normal children and adolescents aged 7.26 to 22.80 years (mean age 15.03+/-4.70 years, 78 boys and 80 girls). Gender groups were matched for measures of age, handedness, education level. The customized brain templates, including T I-weighted image and gray matter (GM)/white matter (WM)/cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) prior probability maps, were created from all participants. Results showed that the total intracranial volume (TIV), global absolute GM and global WM volume in girls were significantly smaller than those in boys. The hippocampus grew faster in girls than that in boys, but the amygdala grew faster in boys than that in girls. The rate of regional GM decreases with age was steeper in the left superior parietal lobule, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, left precuneus, and bilateral supramarginal gyrus in boys compared to girls, which was possibly related to better spatial processing ability in boys. Regional GM volumes were greater in bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus in girls. Regional WM volumes were greater in the left temporal lobe, right inferior parietal and bilateral middle frontal gyrus in girls. The gender differences in the temporal and frontal lobe maybe be related to better language ability in girls. These findings may aid in understanding the differences in cognitive function between boys and girls.

  17. The Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, S. D.; Germain, M. E.; Greene, T. P.; Harris, F. H.; Johnson, M. S.; Johnston, K. J.; Monet, D. G.; Murison, M. A.; Phillips, J. D.; Reasenberg, R. D.; Seidelmann, P. K.; Talabac, S. J.; Urban, S. E.; van Buren, D.; Vassar, R. H.

    1999-05-01

    NASA has selected the Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME) to be one of five MIDEX missions to be funded for a concept study. This concept study will be submitted to NASA on 18 June, with final selection, scheduled for September, of two of these missions for flight in 2003 or 2004. FAME is designed to perform an all-sky, astrometric survey with unprecedented accuracy. It will create a rigid astrometric catalog of 40,000,000 stars with visual band magnitudes 5 DSS colors. During the concept study, the team has worked to optimize the scientific return from FAME while minimizing cost and risk. The optical design was modified for improved accuracy of individual observations and improved mechanical design. The optical, mechanical, and thermal design of the instrument have been improved. Tests using CCDs in TDI mode are being conducted to confirm the accuracy obtainable from individual observations as well as determine the optimal clocking scheme for astrometric devices operated in TDI mode. The use of solar radiation pressure for spacecraft precession has undergone further feasibility study, as have the mechanisms for deploying the solar shield. Numerous other trade studies have been conducted, including orbit/communications, on board processing, and the use of neutral density filters for astrometry of bright stars versus other options. A detailed error budget has been formulated and the mission requirements have been defined. We look forward to selection for launch and a successful FAME mission that will redefine the extragalactic distance scale and provide a large, rich database of information on stellar properties that will enable numerous science investigations into stellar structure and evolution, the dynamics of the Milky Way, and stellar companions including brown dwarfs and giant planets. FAME is a joint development effort of the US Naval Observatory, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Lockheed Martin

  18. Development of the brain's structural network efficiency in early adolescence: A longitudinal DTI twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenis, Marinka M G; Brouwer, Rachel M; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Mandl, René C W; van Soelen, Inge L C; Kahn, René S; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-12-01

    The brain is a network and our intelligence depends in part on the efficiency of this network. The network of adolescents differs from that of adults suggesting developmental changes. However, whether the network changes over time at the individual level and, if so, how this relates to intelligence, is unresolved in adolescence. In addition, the influence of genetic factors in the developing network is not known. Therefore, in a longitudinal study of 162 healthy adolescent twins and their siblings (mean age at baseline 9.9 [range 9.0-15.0] years), we mapped local and global structural network efficiency of cerebral fiber pathways (weighted with mean FA and streamline count) and assessed intelligence over a three-year interval. We find that the efficiency of the brain's structural network is highly heritable (locally up to 74%). FA-based local and global efficiency increases during early adolescence. Streamline count based local efficiency both increases and decreases, and global efficiency reorganizes to a net decrease. Local FA-based efficiency was correlated to IQ. Moreover, increases in FA-based network efficiency (global and local) and decreases in streamline count based local efficiency are related to increases in intellectual functioning. Individual changes in intelligence and local FA-based efficiency appear to go hand in hand in frontal and temporal areas. More widespread local decreases in streamline count based efficiency (frontal cingulate and occipital) are correlated with increases in intelligence. We conclude that the teenage brain is a network in progress in which individual differences in maturation relate to level of intellectual functioning.

  19. Pig brain stereotaxic standard space: mapping of cerebral blood flow normative values and effect of MPTP-lesioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Watanabe, Hideaki; Bjarkam, Carsten;

    2005-01-01

    developed an analogous stereotaxic coordinate system for the brain of the Gottingen miniature pig, based on automatic co-registration of magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in 22 male pigs. The origin of the pig brain stereotaxic space (0, 0, 0) was arbitrarily placed in the centroid of the pineal gland...

  20. Road Map for Gender Equality in the FCC Study

    CERN Document Server

    Genevieve Guinot

    2015-01-01

    Plan towards defining well scoped deliverables on gender specific communication for discussion, mapping of country context and organisational practices and the establishment of a focused task-force on gender equality in participating institutes.

  1. A study of variational inequalities for set-valued mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarafdar Enayet

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Ky Fan's KKM mapping principle is used to establish the existence of solutions for simultaneous variational inequalities. By applying our earlier results together with Fan–Glicksberg fixed point theorem, we prove some existence results for implicit variational inequalities and implicit quasi-variational inequalities for set-valued mappings which are either monotone or upper semi-continuous.

  2. Computational anatomy for studying use-dependant brain plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan eDraganski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a comprehensive literature review on the in vivo assessment of use-dependant brain structure changes in humans using magnetic resonance imaging and computational anatomy. We highlight the recent findings in this field that allow the uncovering of the basic principles behind brain plasticity in light of the existing theoretical models at various scales of observation. Given the current lack of in-depth understanding of the neurobiological basis of brain structure changes we emphasize the necessity of a paradigm shift in the investigation and interpretation of use-dependent brain plasticity. Novel quantitative MRI acquisition techniques provide access to brain tissue microstructural properties (e.g. myelin, iron and water content in-vivo, thereby allowing unprecedented specific insights into the mechanisms underlying brain plasticity. These quantitative MRI techniques require novel methods for image processing and analysis of longitudinal data allowing for straightforward interpretation and causality inferences.

  3. A placebo-controlled, randomized phase II study of maintenance enzastaurin following whole brain radiation therapy in the treatment of brain metastases from lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønberg, Bjørn H; Ciuleanu, Tudor; Fløtten, Øystein;

    2012-01-01

    Enzastaurin is a protein kinase C inhibitor with anti-tumor activity. This study was designed to determine if maintenance enzastaurin improved the outcome of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in lung cancer (LC) patients with brain metastases (BMs).......Enzastaurin is a protein kinase C inhibitor with anti-tumor activity. This study was designed to determine if maintenance enzastaurin improved the outcome of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in lung cancer (LC) patients with brain metastases (BMs)....

  4. Empowering line intensity mapping to study early galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Comaschi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Line intensity mapping is a superb tool to study the collective radiation from early galaxies. However, the method is hampered by the presence of strong foregrounds, mostly produced by low-redshift interloping lines. We present here a general method to overcome this problem which is robust against foreground residual noise and based on the cross-correlation function $\\psi_{\\alpha L}(r)$ between diffuse line emission and Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAE). We compute the diffuse line (Ly$\\alpha$ is used as an example) emission from galaxies in a $(800{\\rm Mpc})^3$ box at $z = 5.7$ and $6.6$. We divide the box in slices and populate them with $14000(5500)$ LAEs at $z = 5.7(6.6)$, considering duty cycles from $10^{-3}$ to $1$. Both the LAE number density and slice volume are consistent with the expected outcome of the Subaru HSC survey. We add gaussian random noise with variance $\\sigma_{\\rm N}$ up to 100 times the variance of the Ly$\\alpha$ emission, $\\sigma_\\alpha$, to simulate foregrounds and compute $\\psi_{\\alpha L}(...

  5. Vergence in mild traumatic brain injury: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Szymanowicz, OD, MS

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Vergence dysfunction in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI may have a negative effect on quality of life, functional abilities, and rehabilitative progress. In this study, we used a range of dynamic and static objective and subjective measures of vergence to assess 21 adult patients with mTBI and nearwork symptoms. The results were compared with 10 control adult subjects. With respect to dynamic parameters, responses in those with mTBI were slowed, variable, and delayed. With respect to static parameters, reduced near point of convergence and restricted near vergence ranges were found in those with mTBI. The present results provide evidence for the substantial adverse effect of mTBI on vergence function.

  6. Intraoperative ultrasonography for presumed brain metastases: a case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Picarelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases (BM are one of the most common intracranial tumors and surgical treatment can improve both the functional outcomes and patient survival, particularly when systemic disease is controlled. Image-guided BM resection using intraoperative exams, such as intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS, can lead to better surgical results. METHODS: To evaluate the use of IOUS for BM resection, 20 consecutives patients were operated using IOUS to locate tumors, identify their anatomical relationships and surgical cavity after resection. Technical difficulties, complications, recurrence and survival rates were noted. RESULTS: IOUS proved effective for locating, determining borders and defining the anatomical relationships of BM, as well as to identify incomplete tumor resection. No complications related to IOUS were seen. CONCLUSION: IOUS is a practical supporting method for the resection of BM, but further studies comparing this method with other intraoperative exams are needed to evaluate its actual contribution and reliability.

  7. In vivo methods to study uptake of nanoparticles into the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooy, Inge; Cakir-Tascioglu, Serpil; Hennink, Wim E; Storm, Gert; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Mastrobattista, Enrico

    2011-03-01

    Several in vivo techniques have been developed to study and measure the uptake of CNS compounds into the brain. With these techniques, various parameters can be determined after drug administration, including the blood-to-brain influx constant (K(in)), the permeability-surface area (PS) product, and the brain uptake index (BUI). These techniques have been mostly used for drugs that are expected to enter the brain via transmembrane diffusion or by carrier-mediated transcytosis. Drugs that have limitations in entering the brain via such pathways have been encapsulated in nanoparticles (based on lipids or synthetic polymers) to enhance brain uptake. Nanoparticles are different from CNS compounds in size, composition and uptake mechanisms. This has led to different methods and approaches to study brain uptake in vivo. Here we discuss the techniques generally used to measure nanoparticle uptake in addition to the techniques used for CNS compounds. Techniques include visualization methods, behavioral tests, and quantitative methods.

  8. CBF/CBV maps in normal volunteers studied with (15)O PET: a possible index of cerebral perfusion pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Tadashi; Shimosegawa, Eku; Kato, Hiroki; Isohashi, Kayako; Ishibashi, Mana; Hatazawa, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Local cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is a primary factor controlling cerebral circulation and previous studies have indicated that the ratio of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to cerebral blood volume (CBV) can be used as an index of the local CPP. In this study, we investigated whether the CBF/CBV ratio differs among different brain structures under physiological conditions, by means of (15)O positron emission tomography. Nine healthy volunteers (5 men and 4 women; mean age, 47.0 ± 1.2 years) were studied by H2 (15)O bolus injection for CBF measurement and by C(15)O inhalation for CBV measurement. The CBF/CBV ratio maps were created by dividing the CBF images by the CBV images after anatomical normalization. Regions of interest were placed on the CBF/CBV maps and comparing the regions. The mean CBF/CBV ratio was highest in the cerebellum (19.3 ± 5.2/min), followed by the putamen (18.2 ± 3.9), pons (16.4 ± 4.6), thalamus (14.5 ± 3.3), cerebral cortices (13.2 ± 2.4), and centrum semiovale (11.5 ± 2.1). The cerebellum and putamen showed significantly higher CBF/CBV ratios than the cerebral cortices and centrum semiovale. We created maps of the CBF/CBV ratio in normal volunteers and demonstrated higher CBF/CBV ratios in the cerebellum and putamen than in the cerebral cortices and deep cerebral white matter. The CBF/CBV may reflect the local CPP and should be studied in hemodynamically compromised patients and in patients with risk factors for small-artery diseases of the brain.

  9. sfDM: Open-Source Software for Temporal Analysis and Visualization of Brain Tumor Diffusion MR Using Serial Functional Diffusion Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschin, Rafael; Panigrahy, Ashok; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors is tissue heterogeneity leading to mixed treatment response. Additionally, they are often difficult or at very high risk for biopsy, further hindering the clinical management process. To overcome this, novel advanced imaging methods are increasingly being adapted clinically to identify useful noninvasive biomarkers capable of disease stage characterization and treatment response prediction. One promising technique is called functional diffusion mapping (fDM), which uses diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to generate parametric maps between two imaging time points in order to identify significant voxel-wise changes in water diffusion within the tumor tissue. Here we introduce serial functional diffusion mapping (sfDM), an extension of existing fDM methods, to analyze the entire tumor diffusion profile along the temporal course of the disease. sfDM provides the tools necessary to analyze a tumor data set in the context of spatiotemporal parametric mapping: the image registration pipeline, biomarker extraction, and visualization tools. We present the general workflow of the pipeline, along with a typical use case for the software. sfDM is written in Python and is freely available as an open-source package under the Berkley Software Distribution (BSD) license to promote transparency and reproducibility.

  10. Brain Connectivity Studies in Schizophrenia: Unravelling the Effects of Antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejad, A.B.; Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte Yding;

    2012-01-01

    Impaired brain connectivity is a hallmark of schizophrenia brain dysfunction. However, the effect of drug treatment and challenges on the dysconnectivity of functional networks in schizophrenia is an understudied area. In this review, we provide an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging...

  11. Mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI): High-density electrical mapping of inhibitory processes during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Pierfilippo; Butler, John S; Green, Jason M; Snyder, Adam C; Foxe, John J

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the feasibility of acquiring high-density event-related brain potential (ERP) recordings during treadmill walking in human subjects. The work builds upon recent studies testing the applicability of real-world tasks while obtaining electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Participants performed a response inhibition GO/NOGO task - designed to evoke a P3 component for correct response inhibitions and an error-related negativity (ERN) for incorrect commission errors - while speed of walking was experimentally manipulated. Robust P3 and ERN components were obtained under all experimental conditions - while participants were sitting, walking at moderate speed (2.4 km/hour), or walking rapidly (5 km/hour). Signal-to-noise ratios were remarkably similar across conditions, pointing to the feasibility of high-fidelity ERP recordings under relatively vigorous activity regimens. There is considerable research and clinical motivation to obtain high quality neurophysiological measures under more naturalistic environmental settings such as these. Strong links between cognitive load and gait abnormalities are seen in a number of clinical populations and these MoBI technologies provide highly promising methods for gaining insights into the underlying pathophysiology.

  12. Structural mapping: how to study the genetic architecture of a phenotypic trait through its formation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chunfa; Shen, Lianying; Lv, Yafei; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Xiaoling; Feng, Sisi; Li, Xin; Sui, Yihan; Pang, Xiaoming; Wu, Rongling

    2014-01-01

    Traditional approaches for genetic mapping are to simply associate the genotypes of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) with the phenotypic variation of a complex trait. A more mechanistic strategy has emerged to dissect the trait phenotype into its structural components and map specific QTLs that control the mechanistic and structural formation of a complex trait. We describe and assess such a strategy, called structural mapping, by integrating the internal structural basis of trait formation into a QTL mapping framework. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been instrumental for describing the structural components of a phenotypic trait and their interactions. By building robust mathematical models on circuit EIS data and embedding these models within a mixture model-based likelihood for QTL mapping, structural mapping implements the EM algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of QTL genotype-specific EIS parameters. The uniqueness of structural mapping is to make it possible to test a number of hypotheses about the pattern of the genetic control of structural components. We validated structural mapping by analyzing an EIS data collected for QTL mapping of frost hardiness in a controlled cross of jujube trees. The statistical properties of parameter estimates were examined by simulation studies. Structural mapping can be a powerful alternative for genetic mapping of complex traits by taking account into the biological and physical mechanisms underlying their formation.

  13. Veridical mapping in savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synesthesia: an autism case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Lucie; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane; Caron, Chantal; Dawson, Michelle; Mottron, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    An enhanced role and autonomy of perception are prominent in autism. Furthermore, savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synesthesia are all more commonly found in autistic individuals than in the typical population. The mechanism of veridical mapping has been proposed to account for how enhanced perception in autism leads to the high prevalence of these three phenomena and their structural similarity. Veridical mapping entails functional rededication of perceptual brain regions to higher order cognitive operations, allowing the enhanced detection and memorization of isomorphisms between perceptual and non-perceptual structures across multiple scales. In this paper, we present FC, an autistic individual who possesses several savant abilities in addition to both absolute pitch and synesthesia-like associations. The co-occurrence in FC of abilities, some of them rare, which share the same structure, as well as FC's own accounts of their development, together suggest the importance of veridical mapping in the atypical range and nature of abilities displayed by autistic people.

  14. Continuous infusion of proinflammatory cytokines into the brain to study brain cytokine induced local and systemic immune effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöning, B; Elepfandt, P; Lanksch, W R; Volk, H D; Woiciechowsky, C

    1999-07-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines are produced in the brain after various kinds of insult (ischemia, trauma, infection). In this process interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are most important. These cytokines are key mediators of inflammation. Furthermore, these cytokines can act as neurotransmitters and develop direct effects on the central nervous system (CNS) including fever, sleep and stimulation of the neuroendocrine as well as sympathetic nervous system. Moreover, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha may also be involved in brain repair and regenerating processes. However, most of the data about the role of cytokines in the brain have been obtained from either in vitro studies or bolus injections into the brain parenchyma or cerebroventricular system. On the other hand, it is known that cytokines are released continuously into the brain after a cerebral insult over a period of 24 to 48 h. In order to further complete the knowledge about the interactions between neural and immune cells to overcome the primary insult and initiate repair and regeneration in the CNS, a new animal model of local inflammation reaction was established using chronic intracerebral infusion of rat recombinant cytokines.

  15. Clinical studies of brain functional images by motor activation using single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Masahiro [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-09-01

    Thirty participants (10 normal controls; group A, 5 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus without hemiparesis; group B, 10 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus with hemiparesis; group C, and 5 patients with brain tumors besides the central regions with hemiparesis; group D) were enrolled. The images were performed by means of split-dose method with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD at rest condition (SPECT 1) and during hand grasping (SPECT 2). The activation SPECT were obtained by subtracting SPECT 1 from SPECT 2, and the functional mapping was made by the strict registration of the activation SPECT with 3D MRI. To evaluate the changes of CBF (%{Delta}CBF) of the sensorimotor and supplementary motor areas on the functional mapping, ratio of the average counts of SPECT 1 and SPECT 2 was calculated and statistically compared. The functional activation paradigms caused a significant increase of CBF in the sensorimotor area contra-lateral to the stimulated hand, although the sensorimotor area and the central sulcus in groups B and C were dislocated, compared with hemisphere of non-tumor side. The sensorimotor area ipsi-lateral to the stimulated hand could be detected in almost of all subjects. The supplementary motor area could be detected in all subjects. In group A, the average %{Delta}CBF were up 24.1{+-}4.3% in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area, and 22.3{+-}3.6% in the supplementary motor area, respectively. The average %{Delta}CBF in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area of group D was significantly higher than that of group A. The brain functional mapping by motor activation using SPECT could localize the area of cortical motor function in normal volunteers and patients with brain tumors. The changes of regional CBF by activation SPECT precisely assess the cortical motor function even in patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus. (K.H.)

  16. The automatic brain: studies on practice and brain function in healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raalten, T.R.

    2009-01-01

    Practice makes perfect. The neural mechanisms behind the behavioral improvement of practice (automatization) however are largely unknown. Here we investigate how practice changes brain function and how this can improve our processing capacity. We also examine whether a deficit in automatization can

  17. Brain in situ hybridization maps as a source for reverse-engineering transcriptional regulatory networks: Alzheimer's disease insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acquaah-Mensah, George K.; Taylor, Ronald C.

    2016-07-01

    Microarray data have been a valuable resource for identifying transcriptional regulatory relationships among genes. As an example, brain region-specific transcriptional regulatory events have the potential of providing etiological insights into Alzheimer Disease (AD). However, there is often a paucity of suitable brain-region specific expression data obtained via microarrays or other high throughput means. The Allen Brain Atlas in situ hybridization (ISH) data sets (Jones et al., 2009) represent a potentially valuable alternative source of high-throughput brain region-specific gene expression data for such purposes. In this study, Allen BrainAtlasmouse ISH data in the hippocampal fields were extracted, focusing on 508 genes relevant to neurodegeneration. Transcriptional regulatory networkswere learned using three high-performing network inference algorithms. Only 17% of regulatory edges from a network reverse-engineered based on brain region-specific ISH data were also found in a network constructed upon gene expression correlations inmousewhole brain microarrays, thus showing the specificity of gene expression within brain sub-regions. Furthermore, the ISH data-based networks were used to identify instructive transcriptional regulatory relationships. Ncor2, Sp3 and Usf2 form a unique three-party regulatory motif, potentially affecting memory formation pathways. Nfe2l1, Egr1 and Usf2 emerge among regulators of genes involved in AD (e.g. Dhcr24, Aplp2, Tia1, Pdrx1, Vdac1, andSyn2). Further, Nfe2l1, Egr1 and Usf2 are sensitive to dietary factors and could be among links between dietary influences and genes in the AD etiology. Thus, this approach of harnessing brain region-specific ISH data represents a rare opportunity for gleaning unique etiological insights for diseases such as AD.

  18. Negative cerebral blood volume fMRI response coupled with Ca²⁺-dependent brain activity in a dopaminergic road map of nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Hua; Chang, Chen; Chen, Chiao-Chi V

    2014-04-15

    Decreased cerebral blood volume/flow (CBV/CBF) contributes to negative blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) signals. But it is still strongly debated whether these negative BOLD or CBV/CBF signals are indicative of decreased or increased neuronal activity. The fidelity of Ca(2+) signals in reflecting neuronal excitation is well documented. However, the roles of Ca(2+) signals and Ca(2+)-dependent activity in negative fMRI signals have never been explored; an understanding of this is essential to unraveling the underlying mechanisms and correctly interpreting the hemodynamic response of interest. The present study utilized a nociception-induced negative CBV fMRI response as a model. Ca(2+) signals were investigated in vivo using Mn(2+)-enhanced MRI (MEMRI), and the downstream Ca(2+)-dependent signaling was investigated using phosphorylated cAMP response-element-binding (pCREB) immunohistology. The results showed that nociceptive stimulation led to (1) striatal CBV decreases, (2) Ca(2+) increases via the nigrostriatal pathway, and (3) substantial expression of pCREB in substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons and striatal neurons. Interestingly, the striatal negative fMRI response was abolished by blocking substantia nigra activity but was not affected by blocking the striatal activity. This suggests the importance of input activity other than output in triggering the negative CBV signals. These findings indicate that the striatal negative CBV fMRI signals are associated with Ca(2+) increases and Ca(2+)-dependent signaling along the nigrostriatal pathway. The obtained data reveal a new brain road map in response to nociceptive stimulation of hemodynamic changes in association with Ca(2+) signals within the dopaminergic system.

  19. BRAIN VOLUMES OF THE LAMB, RAT AND BIRD DO NOT SHOW HEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRY: A STEREOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bünyamin Sahin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that there are functional differences between right and left brain hemispheres. However, it is not clear whether these functional differences are reflected in morphometric differences. This study was carried out to investigate the right-left asymmetry, and sex and species differences of the brains using the Cavalieri principle for volume estimation. Seventeen lambs, 10 rats and 12 avian brains were used to estimate brain volumes. A transparent point grid was superimposed on the slices of lamb brains directly and the slices of the rat and avian brains were projected onto a screen at 10x magnification. Surface areas of the cut slice faces were estimated by simply counting the points that hit the slices. Mean brain volumes were 37.74 cm3, 598.95 mm3 and 730.38 mm3 and the coefficients of variations were 0.08, 0.05 and 0.05 for lamb, rat and avian brains respectively. The differences between left and right hemispheres did not show statistical significance (P > 0.05. However, the male brain volumes were larger than the females for the lamb and bird (P < 0.05. In light of such findings, it will be necessary to evaluate neuron number of the brain hemispheres to provide more useful data regarding inter-hemispheric brain asymmetry.

  20. Study of Posterior Cerebral Artery in Human Cadaveric Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gunnal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Basilar artery (BA terminates in right and left posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs. Each PCA supplies respective occipital lobe of the cerebrum. The present study is designed to know the morphology, morphometry, branching pattern, and symmetry of PCA. Methods. The study included 340 PCAs dissected from 170 human cadaveric brains. Results. Morphological variations of P1 segment included, aplasia (2.35%, hypoplasia (5.29%, duplication (2.35%, fenestration (1.17%, and common trunk shared with SCA (1.76%. Morphological variations of origin of P2 segment included direct origin of it from BA (1.17% and ICA (2.35%. Unusually, two P2 segments, each arising separately from BA and ICA, were observed in 1.17%. Unilateral two P2 segments from CW were found in 0.58%. Morphological variations of course of P2 were duplication (0.58%, fenestration (0.58%, and aneurysm (1.76%. Unilateral P2 either adult or fetal was seen in 4.71%. The group II branching pattern was found to be most common. Asymmetry of P2 was 40%. Morphometry of P2 revealed mean length of 52 mm and mean diameter of 2.7 mm. Conclusion. The present study provides the complete anatomical description of PCA regarding morphology, morphometry, symmetry, and its branching pattern. Awareness of these variations is likely to be useful in cerebrovascular procedures.

  1. Brain MRI CO2 stress testing: a pilot study in patients with concussion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Alan C Mutch

    Full Text Available There is a real need for quantifiable neuro-imaging biomarkers in concussion. Here we outline a brain BOLD-MRI CO2 stress test to assess the condition.This study was approved by the REB at the University of Manitoba. A group of volunteers without prior concussion were compared to post-concussion syndrome (PCS patients--both symptomatic and recovered asymptomatic. Five 3-minute periods of BOLD imaging at 3.0 T were studied--baseline 1 (BL1--at basal CO2 tension, hypocapnia (CO2 decreased ∼5 mmHg, BL2, hypercapnia (CO2 increased ∼10 mmHg and BL3. Data were processed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM for 1st level analysis to compare each subject's response to the CO2 stress at the p = 0.001 level. A 2nd level analysis compared each PCS patient's response to the mean response of the control subjects at the p = 0.05 level.We report on 5 control subjects, 8 symptomatic and 4 asymptomatic PCS patients. Both increased and decreased response to CO2 was seen in all PCS patients in the 2nd level analysis. The responses were quantified as reactive voxel counts: whole brain voxel counts (2.0±1.6%, p = 0.012 for symptomatic patients for CO2 response controls: 0.49±0.31%, p = 0.053 for asymptomatic patients for CO2 response controls.Quantifiable alterations in regional cerebrovascular responsiveness are present in concussion patients during provocative CO2 challenge and BOLD MRI and not in healthy controls. Future longitudinal studies must aim to clarify the relationship between CO2 responsiveness and individual patient symptoms and outcomes.

  2. Myocardial function at the early phase of traumatic brain injury: a prospective controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Cuisinier, Adrien; Maufrais, Claire; Payen, Jean-François; Nottin, Stephane; Walther, Guillaume; Bouzat, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background The concept of brain-heart interaction has been described in several brain injuries. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may also lead to cardiac dysfunction but evidences are mainly based upon experimental and clinical retrospective studies. Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study in a level I trauma center. Twenty consecutive adult patients with severe TBI were matched according to age and gender with 20 control patients. The control group included adult patients undergoin...

  3. A study of the usability of CGDI in health mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Xialoun, Yi

    for health mapping. New Brunswick and Maine are territorial neighbors which means there are significant volumes of goods and people traveling across our international border, thus infectious agents are likely to carry from one jurisdiction to the other. In this paper, with the purpose to make infectious...

  4. Voxel significance mapping in epilepsy studies using subtraction ictal SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H.; O'Brien, Terence J.; Webster, Desmond B.; Robins, Peter D.; Mullan, Brian P.; Robb, Richard A.

    1999-05-01

    Subtraction ictal SPECT coregistered to MRI (SISCOM) has been shown to aid epileptogenic localization and improve surgical outcomes in partial epilepsy patients. This paper reports a new method of identifying significant areas of epileptogenic activation in the SISCOM subtraction image taking into account normal variation between sequential Tc-99m Ethyl Cysteinate Diethylester SPECT scans of single individuals. The method uses the AIR 3.0 nonlinear registration software to combine a group of subtraction images into a common anatomical framework. A map of the pixel intensity standard deviation values in the subtraction images is created, and this map is nonlinearly registered to a patient's SISCOM subtraction image. Pixels in the patient subtraction image may then be evaluated based upon the statistical characteristics of corresponding pixels in the atlas. Validation experiments were performed to verify that local image variances are not constant across the image and that nonlinear registration preserves local image variances. SISCOM images created with the voxel variance method were rated higher in quality than the conventional image variance method in images from fifteen patients. No difference in localization rate was observed between the voxel variance mapping and image variance methods. The voxel significance mapping method was shown to improve the quality of clinical SISCOM images without removing localizing information.

  5. Emulation of somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) components with the 3-shell head model and the problem of 'ghost potential fields' when using an average reference in brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, J E; Chalklin, V; Tomberg, C

    1990-01-01

    In brain topographic mapping, the putative location and orientation in the head space of neural generators are currently inferred from the features of negative and positive scalp potential fields. This procedure requires the use of a fairly neutral reference. The frequently advocated average reference creates problems because its effect is not merely to change a (steady) zero reference level, but to dynamically zero-center all scalp potentials at each latency. Ghost potential fields are thus created at the latencies for which the integral of scalp recorded potentials differs from zero. These distortions of brain mapping have been analyzed with a true 3-shell head model in conjunction with the emulation of SEP components. In the head model, surface potential fields generated by dipoles or dipole sheets of various depths and orientations were computed either over the north hemisphere, so as to emulate scalp recorded SEP components, or over the entire equivalent head sphere. The spurious effects of the average reference are shown to occur because it is computed from a limited number of (scalp) electrodes which fail to survey the bottom half of the head.

  6. Using Digital Mapping Programs to Augment Student Learning in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Thomas; An, Heejung

    2007-01-01

    Thomas Chandler and Heejung An describe how digital mapping technology can be incorporated into community-based K-12 social studies projects. According to Chandler and An, digital mapping can add value to the social studies curriculum by enabling students to better understand the interdependence between the lives of individuals and their…

  7. Quality and Rigor of the Concept Mapping Methodology: A Pooled Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Scott R.; Kane, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The use of concept mapping in research and evaluation has expanded dramatically over the past 20 years. Researchers in academic, organizational, and community-based settings have applied concept mapping successfully without the benefit of systematic analyses across studies to identify the features of a methodologically sound study. Quantitative…

  8. Recovery mechanisms of somatosensory function in stroke patients: implications of brain imaging studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Ho Jang

    2013-01-01

    Somatosensory dysfunction is associated with a high incidence of functional impairment and safety in patients with stroke.With developments in brain mapping techniques,many studies have addressed the recovery of various functions in such patients.However,relatively little is known about the mechanisms of recovery of somatosensory function.Based on the previous human studies,a review of 11 relevant studies on the mechanisms underlying the recovery of somatosensory function in stroke patients was conducted based on the following topics:(1) recovery of an injured somatosensory pathway,(2) peri-lesional reorganization,(3) contribution of the unaffected somatosensory cortex,(4) contribution of the secondary somatosensory cortex,and (5)mechanisms of recovery in patients with thalamic lesions.We believe that further studies in this field using combinations of diffusion tensor imaging,functional neuroimaging,and magnetoencephalography are needed.In addition,the clinical significance,critical period,and facilitatory strategies for each recovery mechanism should be clarified.

  9. Automatic Mapping Extraction from Multiecho T2-Star Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images for Improving Morphological Evaluations in Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaode Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapping extraction is useful in medical image analysis. Similarity coefficient mapping (SCM replaced signal response to time course in tissue similarity mapping with signal response to TE changes in multiecho T2-star weighted magnetic resonance imaging without contrast agent. Since different tissues are with different sensitivities to reference signals, a new algorithm is proposed by adding a sensitivity index to SCM. It generates two mappings. One measures relative signal strength (SSM and the other depicts fluctuation magnitude (FMM. Meanwhile, the new method is adaptive to generate a proper reference signal by maximizing the sum of contrast index (CI from SSM and FMM without manual delineation. Based on four groups of images from multiecho T2-star weighted magnetic resonance imaging, the capacity of SSM and FMM in enhancing image contrast and morphological evaluation is validated. Average contrast improvement index (CII of SSM is 1.57, 1.38, 1.34, and 1.41. Average CII of FMM is 2.42, 2.30, 2.24, and 2.35. Visual analysis of regions of interest demonstrates that SSM and FMM show better morphological structures than original images, T2-star mapping and SCM. These extracted mappings can be further applied in information fusion, signal investigation, and tissue segmentation.

  10. Brain-computer interfacing under distraction: an evaluation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Stephanie; Frølich, Laura; Höhne, Johannes; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Samek, Wojciech

    2016-10-01

    Objective. While motor-imagery based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been studied over many years by now, most of these studies have taken place in controlled lab settings. Bringing BCI technology into everyday life is still one of the main challenges in this field of research. Approach. This paper systematically investigates BCI performance under 6 types of distractions that mimic out-of-lab environments. Main results. We report results of 16 participants and show that the performance of the standard common spatial patterns (CSP) + regularized linear discriminant analysis classification pipeline drops significantly in this ‘simulated’ out-of-lab setting. We then investigate three methods for improving the performance: (1) artifact removal, (2) ensemble classification, and (3) a 2-step classification approach. While artifact removal does not enhance the BCI performance significantly, both ensemble classification and the 2-step classification combined with CSP significantly improve the performance compared to the standard procedure. Significance. Systematically analyzing out-of-lab scenarios is crucial when bringing BCI into everyday life. Algorithms must be adapted to overcome nonstationary environments in order to tackle real-world challenges.

  11. Sincipital Encephaloceles: A Study of Associated Brain Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashidhar Vedavyas Achar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associated intracranial malformations in patients with sincipital encephaloceles. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted over 8 years from June 2007 to May 2015 on 28 patients. The patients were evaluated by either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging whichever was feasible. Encephaloceles were described with respect to their types, contents, and extensions. A note was made on the associated malformations with sincipital encephaloceles. Results: Fifty percent of the patients presented before the age of 3 years and both the sexes were affected equally. Nasofrontal encephalocele was the most common type seen in 13 patients (46.4%, and corpus callosal agenesis (12 patients was the most common associated malformation. Other malformations noted were arachnoid cyst (10 patients, hydrocephalus (7 patients, and agyria-pachygyria complex (2 patients. Conclusion: Capital Brain malformations are frequently encountered in children with sincipital encephaloceles. Detail radiological evaluation is necessary to plan treatment and also to prognosticate such rare malformations.

  12. Revisiting hydrocephalus as a model to study brain resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Fernandes De Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocephalus is an entity which embraces a variety of diseases whose final result is the enlarged size of cerebral ventricular system, partially or completely. The physiopathology of hydrocephalus lies in the dynamics of circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. The consequent CSF stasis in hydrocephalus interferes with cerebral and ventricular system development. Children and adults who sustain congenital or acquired brain injury typically experience a diffuse insult that impacts many areas of the brain. Development and recovery after such injuries reflects both restoration and reorganization of cognitive functions. Classic examples were already reported in literature. This suggests the presence of biological mechanisms associated with resilient adaptation of brain networks. We will settle a link between the notable modifications to neurophysiology secondary to hydrocephalus and the ability of neuronal tissue to reassume and reorganize its functions.Key words: hydrocephalus; resilience; brain; neural networks; plasticity.

  13. Neurogenic fever after traumatic brain injury: an epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, H; Pinto-Martin, J; Bullock, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the incidence of neurogenic fever (NF) in a population of patients in the acute phase following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI); to identify factors associated with the development of NF following severe TBI in adults.

  14. A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application (III) - Drawing the Swamp Classification Map around River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Jeong Keon; Jeong, Hwi Chol [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The map of ecology/nature in the amended Natural Environment Conservation Act is the necessary data, which is drawn through assessing the national land with ecological factors, to execute the Korea's environmental policy. Such important ecology/nature map should be continuously revised and improved the reliability with adding several new factors. In this point of view, this study has the significance in presenting the improvement scheme of ecology/nature map. 'A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application' that has been performed for 3 years since 1998 has researched the drawing method of subject maps that could be built in a short time - a land-covering classification map, a vegetation classification map, and a swamp classification map around river - and the promoting principles hereafter. This study also presented the possibility and limit of classification by several satellite image data, so it would be a big help to build the subject map in the Government level. The land-covering classification map, a result of the first year, has been already being built by Ministry of Environment as a national project, and the improvement scheme of the vegetation map that was presented as a result of second year has been used in building the basic ecology/nature map. We hope that the results from this study will be applied as basic data to draw an ecology/nature map and contribute to expanding the understanding on the usefulness of the several ecosystem analysis methods with applying an ecology/nature map and a remote probe. 55 refs., 38 figs., 24 tabs.

  15. Weight Gain following Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A PET Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sauleau, Paul; Drapier, Sophie; Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Dondaine, Thibaut; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Dominique; Jannin, Pierre; Robert, Gabriel; Le Jeune, Florence; Vérin, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET) and weight gain following GPi...

  16. Neurophotonics: optical methods to study and control the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina-Amitonova, L. V.; Fedotov, I. V.; Fedotov, A. B.; Anokhin, K. V.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2015-04-01

    Methods of optical physics offer unique opportunities for the investigation of brain and higher nervous activity. The integration of cutting-edge laser technologies and advanced neurobiology opens a new cross-disciplinary area of natural sciences - neurophotonics - focusing on the development of a vast arsenal of tools for functional brain diagnostics, stimulation of individual neurons and neural networks, and the molecular engineering of brain cells aimed at the diagnosis and therapy of neurodegenerative and psychic diseases. Optical fibers help to confront the most challenging problems in brain research, including the analysis of molecular-cellular mechanisms of the formation of memory and behavior. New generation optical fibers provide new solutions for the development of fundamentally new, unique tools for neurophotonics and laser neuroengineering - fiber-optic neuroendoscopes and neurointerfaces. These instruments broaden research horizons when investigating the most complex brain functions, enabling a long-term multiplex detection of fluorescent protein markers, as well as photostimulation of neuronal activity in deep brain areas in living, freely moving animals with an unprecedented spatial resolution and minimal invasiveness. This emerging technology opens new horizons for understanding learning and long-term memory through experiments with living, freely moving mammals. Here, we present a brief review of this rapidly growing field of research.

  17. In vivo brain dopaminergic receptor site mapping using /sup 75/Se-labeled pergolide analogs: the effects of various dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, A.

    1986-01-01

    Perogolide mesylate is a new synthetic ergoline derivative which is reported to possess agonistic activity at central dopamine receptor sites in the brain. The authors have synthesized a (/sup 75/Se)-radiolabeled pergolide mesylate derivative, (/sup 75/Se)-pergolide tartrate, which, after i.v. administration to mature male rats, showed a time course differentiation in the uptake of this radiolabeled compound in isolated peripheral and central (brain) tissues that are known to be rich in dopamine receptor sites. Further studies were conducted in which the animals were preexposed to the dopamine receptor agonist SKF-38393, as well as the dopamine receptor antagonists (+)-butaclamol, (-)-butaclamol, (+/-)-butaclamol and (-)-chloroethylnorapomorphine, to substantiate the specific peripheral and central localization patterns of (/sup 75/Se)-pergolide tartrate. Further investigations were also conducted in which the animals received an i.v. administration of N-isopropyl-l-123-p-iodoamphetamine ((/sup 123/I)-iodoamphetamine). However, (/sup 123/I)-iodoamphetamine did not demonstrate a specific affinity for any type of receptor site in the brain. These investigations further substantiated the fact that (/sup 75/Se)-pergolide tartrate does cross the blood-brain barrier is quickly localized at specific dopamine receptor sites in the intact rat brain and that this localization pattern can be affected by preexposure to different dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists. Therefore, these investigations provided further evidence that (/sup 75/Se)-pergolide tartrate and other radiolabeled ergoline analogs might be useful as brain dopamine receptor localization radiopharmaceuticals.

  18. The calculating hemispheres: studies of a split-brain patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell, Margaret G; Colvin, Mary K; Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2007-06-11

    The purpose of the study was to investigate simple calculation in the two cerebral hemispheres of a split-brain patient. In a series of four experiments, the left hemisphere was superior to the right in simple calculation, confirming the previously reported left hemisphere specialization for calculation. In two different recognition paradigms, right hemisphere performance was at chance for all arithmetic operations, with the exception of subtraction in a two-alternative forced choice paradigm (performance was at chance when the lure differed from the correct answer by a magnitude of 1 but above chance when the magnitude difference was 4). In a recall paradigm, the right hemisphere performed above chance for both addition and subtraction, but performed at chance levels for multiplication and division. The error patterns in that experiment suggested that for subtraction and addition, the right hemisphere does have some capacity for approximating the solution even when it is unable to generate the exact solution. Furthermore, right hemisphere accuracy in addition and subtraction was higher for problems with small operands than with large operands. An additional experiment assessed approximate and exact addition in the two hemispheres for problems with small and large operands. The left hemisphere was equally accurate in both tasks but the right hemisphere was more accurate in approximate addition than in exact addition. In exact addition, right hemisphere accuracy was higher for problems with small operands than large, but the opposite pattern was found for approximate addition.

  19. Folic acid in the monkey brain: an immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas, A; Coveñas, R; Geffard, K; Geffard, M; Marcos, P; Insausti, R; Dabadie, M P

    2004-05-27

    The present report describes the first visualization of folic acid-immunoreactive fibers in the mammalian central nervous system using a highly specific antiserum directed against this vitamin. The distribution of folic acid-immunoreactive structures was studied in the brainstem and thalamus of the monkey using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. We observed fibers containing folic acid, but no folic acid-immunoreactive cell bodies were found. In the brainstem, no immunoreactive structures were visualized in the medulla oblongata, pons, or in the medial-caudal mesencephalon, since at this location immunoreactive fibers containing folic acid were only found at the rostral level in the dorsolateral mesencephalon (in the mesencephalic-diencephalic junction). In the thalamus, the distribution of folic acid-immunoreactive structures was more widespread. Thus, we found immunoreactive fibers in the midline, in nuclei close to the midline (dorsomedial nucleus, centrum medianum/parafascicular complex), in the ventral region of the thalamus (ventral posteroinferior nucleus, ventral posteromedial nucleus), in the ventrolateral thalamus (medial geniculate nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus, inferior pulvinar nucleus) and in the dorsolateral thalamus (lateral posterior nucleus, pulvinar nucleus). The highest density of fibers containing folic acid was observed in the dorsolateral mesencephalon and in the pulvinar nucleus. The distribution of folic acid-immunoreactive structures in the monkey brain suggests that this vitamin could be involved in several mechanisms, such as visual, auditory, motor and somatosensorial functions.

  20. Brain-Based Learning and Classroom Practice: A Study Investigating Instructional Methodologies of Urban School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lajuana Trezette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of brain-based instructional strategies by teachers serving at Title I elementary, middle, and high schools within the Memphis City School District. This study was designed to determine: (a) the extent to which Title I teachers applied brain-based strategies, (b) the differences in…

  1. Diffusion Tensor Imaging: Application to the Study of the Developing Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Carissa J.; Gerig, Guido; Piven, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and its application to the study of white matter in the developing brain in both healthy and clinical samples. Method: The development of DTI and its application to brain imaging of white matter tracts is discussed. Forty-eight studies using DTI to examine diffusion properties of…

  2. A phase 2 study of radiosurgery and temozolomide for patients with 1 to 4 brain metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Fiveash, MD

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: In this study, there was a relatively low risk of distant brain failure observed in the nonmelanoma subgroup receiving temozolamide. However, patient selection factors rather than chemotherapy treatment efficacy are more likely the reason for the relatively low risk of distant brain failure observed in this study. Future trial design should account for these risk factors.

  3. [Study of cytokines content and gangliosides metabolism at experimental brain edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakarian, A V; Kazarian, G S; Zakarian, G V; Melkonian, M M; Ovsesian, L M

    2011-01-01

    The content of cytokines, and gangliosides metabolism, and the quantity of lipid peroxidation products were studied at experimental brain edema. Data obtained show increase the level of proinflammatory cytokins and decrease the level of antiinflammatory cytokines during development of brain edema. Along with this we reveal the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (diene conjugates, hydroperoxides, and malonic dialdehyde). Each fraction of gangliosides decreased, but the product of their hydrolytic dissociation sphingosine increased at experimental brain edema.

  4. Unpublished Digital Geologic Hazards Map of the Zion National Park Study Area, Utah (NPS, GRD, GRI, ZION, ZION geohazards digital map) adapted from a Utah Geological Survey Special Study Map by Lund, Knudsen, and Sharrow (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Digital Geologic Hazards Map of the Zion National Park Study Area, Utah is composed of GIS data layers and GIS tables in a 10.0 file geodatabase...

  5. iMindMap as an Innovative Tool in Teaching and Learning Accounting: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Jusoh, Wan Noor Hazlina; Ahmad, Suraya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the use of iMindMap software as an interactive tool in the teaching and learning method and also to be able to consider iMindMap as an alternative instrument in achieving the ultimate learning outcome. Design/Methodology/Approach: Out of 268 students of the management accounting at the University of…

  6. Investigating Word Learning in Fragile X Syndrome: A Fast-Mapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Kover, Sara T.; Hagerman, Randi; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Fast-mapping paradigms have not been used previously to examine the process of word learning in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), who are likely to have intellectual impairment, language delays, and symptoms of autism. In this study, a fast-mapping task was used to investigate associative word learning in 4- to 10-year-old boys with FXS relative…

  7. Preservice Teachers Map Compassion: Connecting Social Studies and Literacy through Nonfictional Animal Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Montgomery, Sarah E.; Vander Zanden, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Nonfiction stories of animal compassion were used in this literacy-social studies integrated lesson to address both efferent and aesthetic stances in transmediation of text from picture books to maps. Preservice early childhood and elementary teachers chose places from the nine recent children's stories, symbolizing them on a map while…

  8. Using Concept Maps to Elicit and Study Student Teachers' Perceptions about Inclusive Education: A Tanzanian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormnaes, Siri; Mkumbo, Kitila; Skaar, Bjørn; Refseth, Yngve

    2015-01-01

    In this study, concept map activities were used to trigger group discussions about inclusive education, with a focus on learners with disabilities. The participants were 226 Tanzanian student teachers. This article reports and discusses how the maps were analysed and what they indicate about the students' thinking about certain aspects of…

  9. Verbal fluency as a prefrontal activation probe: a validation study using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University Hospital and Ghent University (Belgium); Brans, B.; Laere, K. van; Versijpt, J.; Dierckx, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Lahorte, P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Laboratory of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, Ghent University (Belgium); Heeringen, K. van [Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University Hospital and Ghent University (Belgium)

    2000-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) in the letter and category fluency paradigm of the Controlled Oral Word Association (COWA) test in healthy volunteers. Two groups each comprising ten right-handed healthy volunteers were injected twice with 370 MBq technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer following a split-dose paradigm (resting and activation condition). Statistical parametric mapping (SPM96) was used to determine voxelwise significant changes. The letter fluency and the category fluency activation paradigm had a differential brain activation pattern. The posterior part of the left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPC) was activated in both paradigms, with the category fluency task having an extra activation in the anterior LIPC. In the category fluency task, but not the letter fluency task, an activation in the right inferior prefrontal cortex was found. These findings confirm to a large extent the results of previous functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies in semantic and phonological activation paradigms. The choice and validity of various methodological characteristics of the experimental design leading to these results are critically discussed. It is concluded that brain SPET activation with the letter fluency and category fluency paradigm under standard neuropsychological conditions in healthy volunteers is both technically and practically feasible. (orig.)

  10. CT ASSESSMENT OF BRAIN VENTRICULAR SIZE BASED ON AGE AND SEX: A STUDY OF 112 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinoo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available CT being the primary modality of choice in many centers for the diagnosis of brain pathology, normal brain ventricular size measurem ents is an important parameter for the diagnosis of conditions like hydrocephalus, age related atrophic changes and also other brain pathologies producing ventriculomegaly. It is also important for knowing the normal upper and lower limits of the brain ven tricular system in the different age groups, and in both sexes so as to diagnose brain pathology.The ventricular system of the brain undergoes changes with aging and varies with gender.Our study consists of 48 female, and 64 male patients. Apart from the v entricular measurements, two ratios and two indices were also calculated – which included the right and left Evan’s ratio, CM index, and ventricular size inde

  11. The brain, obesity and addiction: an EEG neuroimaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, Dirk; Manning, Patrick; Leong, Sook Ling; Ross, Samantha; Sutherland, Wayne; Horwath, Caroline; Vanneste, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is among the greatest challenges facing healthcare systems with 20% of the world’s population afflicted. Great controversy exists whether obesity can be regarded as an addictive disorder or not. Recently the Yale Food Addiction Scale questionnaire has been developed as a tool to identify individuals with traits of addiction towards food. Using clinical and source localized EEG data we dichotomize obesity. Brain activity in food-addicted and non-food-addicted obese people is compared to alcohol-addicted and non-addicted lean controls. We show that food addiction shares common neural brain activity with alcohol addiction. This ‘addiction neural brain activity’ consists of the dorsal and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal area and precuneus. Furthermore, common neural obesity neural brain activity exists as well. The ‘obesity neural brain activity’ consists of dorsal and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate extending into the precuneus/cuneus as well as the parahippocampal and inferior parietal area. However food-addicted differ from non-food-addicted obese people by opposite activity in the anterior cingulate gyrus. This food addiction and non-food-addiction obesity dichotomy demonstrates there is at least 2 different kinds of obesity with overlapping network activity, but different in anterior cingulate cortex activity. PMID:27658351

  12. Effect of anatomical variability, reconstruction algorithms and scattered photons on the SPM output of brain PET studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, P; Pareto, D; Gispert, J D; Crespo, C; Falcón, C; Cot, A; Lomeña, F; Pavía, J; Ros, D

    2008-02-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) has become the standard technique to statistically evaluate differences between functional images. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of anatomical variability of skull, the reconstruction algorithm and the scattering of photons in the brain on the output of an SPM analysis of brain PET studies. To this end, Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate suitable PET sinograms and bootstrap techniques were employed to increase the reliability of the conclusions. Activity distribution maps were obtained by segmenting thirty nine T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Foci were placed on the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the superior temporal cortex (STC) and activation factors ranging between -25% and +25% were simulated. Preprocessing of the reconstructed images and statistical analysis were performed using SPM2. Our findings show that intersubject anatomical differences can cause the minimum sample size to increase between 10 and 42% for posterior cingulate Cortex and between 40 and 80% for superior temporal cortex. Ideal scatter correction (ISC) allowed us to diminish the sample size up to 18% and fully 3D reconstruction reduced the minimum sample size between 8 and 33%. Detection sensitivity was higher for hypo-activation than for hyper-activation situations and higher for superior temporal cortex than for posterior cingulate cortex.

  13. Sex steroids and connectivity in the human brain: a review of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Jiska S; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Mandl, René C W; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; van Honk, Jack

    2011-09-01

    Our brain operates by the way of interconnected networks. Connections between brain regions have been extensively studied at a functional and structural level, and impaired connectivity has been postulated as an important pathophysiological mechanism underlying several neuropsychiatric disorders. Yet the neurobiological mechanisms contributing to the development of functional and structural brain connections remain to be poorly understood. Interestingly, animal research has convincingly shown that sex steroid hormones (estrogens, progesterone and testosterone) are critically involved in myelination, forming the basis of white matter connectivity in the central nervous system. To get insights, we reviewed studies into the relation between sex steroid hormones, white matter and functional connectivity in the human brain, measured with neuroimaging. Results suggest that sex hormones organize structural connections, and activate the brain areas they connect. These processes could underlie a better integration of structural and functional communication between brain regions with age. Specifically, ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone) may enhance both cortico-cortical and subcortico-cortical functional connectivity, whereas androgens (testosterone) may decrease subcortico-cortical functional connectivity but increase functional connectivity between subcortical brain areas. Therefore, when examining healthy brain development and aging or when investigating possible biological mechanisms of 'brain connectivity' diseases, the contribution of sex steroids should not be ignored.

  14. Pygmy squids and giant brains: mapping the complex cephalopod CNS by phalloidin staining of vibratome sections and whole-mount preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, T; Loesel, R; Wanninger, A

    2009-01-01

    the subject of recent developmental and evolutionary studies, which may partly be due to the lack of suitable neural markers and the large size of cephalopod brains. Here, we demonstrate the usefulness of fluorescence-coupled phalloidin to characterize the CNS of cephalopods using histochemistry combined...... with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Whole-mount preparations of developmental stages as well as vibratome sections of embryonic and adult brains were analyzed and the benefits of this technique are illustrated. Compared to classical neuroanatomical and antibody-based studies, phalloidin labeling...

  15. Symbolic, Nonsymbolic and Conceptual: An Across-Notation Study on the Space Mapping of Numerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; You, Xuqun; Zhu, Rongjuan

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies suggested that there are interconnections between two numeral modalities of symbolic notation and nonsymbolic notation (array of dots), differences and similarities of the processing, and representation of the two modalities have both been found in previous research. However, whether there are differences between the spatial representation and numeral-space mapping of the two numeral modalities of symbolic notation and nonsymbolic notation is still uninvestigated. The present study aims to examine whether there are differences between the spatial representation and numeral-space mapping of the two numeral modalities of symbolic notation and nonsymbolic notation; especially how zero, as both a symbolic magnitude numeral and a nonsymbolic conceptual numeral, mapping onto space; and if the mapping happens automatically at an early stage of the numeral information processing. Results of the two experiments demonstrate that the low-level processing of symbolic numerals including zero and nonsymbolic numerals except zero can mapping onto space, whereas the low-level processing of nonsymbolic zero as a semantic conceptual numeral cannot mapping onto space, which indicating the specialty of zero in the numeral domain. The present study indicates that the processing of non-semantic numerals can mapping onto space, whereas semantic conceptual numerals cannot mapping onto space.

  16. A study of brain MRI findings and clinical response of bladder empting failure in brain bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoda, Keiichi (Yamashina Aiseikai Hospital, Kyoto (Japan)); Watanabe, Kousuke

    1993-02-01

    In 45 patients (38 males and 7 females; average age:78 years) with brain bladder, who did not have any peripheral neuropathies and spinal disturbance, cerebral findings of MRI (1.5 T) T[sub 2] enhanced image were analyzed in comparison with those of 7 control patients with normal urination after BPH operations. Patients with neurogenic bladder were divided into three groups as follows: 33 patients with a chief complaint of urinary disturbance (Group I), 9 patients with urinary incontinence (Group II) and 3 patients with balanced bladder (Group III). High frequency of lacune (24%) of the globus pallidus and low signalling of the corpus striatum (30%) was found in Group I patients, but low frequency in other Group patients and control patients. Furthermore, pathologic changes with various grades in the globus pallidus were observed in 91% of Group I patients. In the treatment of urinary disturbance, a high improvement rate of micturition disorder (77%) was obtained in patients treated with a combination of dantrolene and TURp (TUIbn for females). However, patients who had clear lacune of the globus pallidus showed the low improvement rate. It should be possible that the globus pallidus contributes to control the movement of the external sphincter and the pelvic base muscles as well as other striated muscles. Moreover, lacune was rarely found in the urination center of the brain-stem on MRI. (author).

  17. Traumatic Brain Injury Studies in Britain during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the wartime urgency to understand, prevent, and treat patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) during World War II (WWII), clinicians and basic scientists in Great Britain collaborated on research projects that included accident investigations, epidemiologic studies, and development of animal and physical models. Very quickly, investigators from different disciplines shared information and ideas that not only led to new insights into the mechanisms of TBI but also provided very practical approaches for preventing or ameliorating at least some forms of TBI. Neurosurgeon Hugh Cairns (1896-1952) conducted a series of influential studies on the prevention and treatment of head injuries that led to recognition of a high rate of fatal TBI among motorcycle riders and subsequently to demonstrations of the utility of helmets in lowering head injury incidence and case fatality. Neurologists Derek Denny-Brown (1901-1981) and (William) Ritchie Russell (1903-1980) developed an animal model of TBI that demonstrated the fundamental importance of sudden acceleration (i.e., jerking) of the head in causing concussion and forced a distinction between head injury associated with sudden acceleration/deceleration and that associated with crush or compression. Physicist A.H.S. Holbourn (1907-1962) used theoretical arguments and simple physical models to illustrate the importance of shear stress in TBI. The work of these British neurological clinicians and scientists during WWII had a strong influence on subsequent clinical and experimental studies of TBI and also eventually resulted in effective (albeit controversial) public health campaigns and legislation in several countries to prevent head injuries among motorcycle riders and others through the use of protective helmets. Collectively, these studies accelerated our understanding of TBI and had subsequent important implications for both military and civilian populations. As a result of the wartime urgency to understand

  18. Current trends in intraoperative optical imaging for functional brain mapping and delineation of lesions of language cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Neal; Uhlemann, Falk; Sheth, Sameer A; Bookheimer, Susan; Martin, Neil; Toga, Arthur W

    2009-08-01

    Resection of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM), epileptic focus, or glioma, ideally has a prerequisite of microscopic delineation of the lesion borders in relation to the normal gray and white matter that mediate critical functions. Currently, Wada testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are used for preoperative mapping of critical function, whereas electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) is used for intraoperative mapping. For lesion delineation, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) are used preoperatively, whereas microscopy and histological sectioning are used intraoperatively. However, for lesions near eloquent cortex, these imaging techniques may lack sufficient resolution to define the relationship between the lesion and language function, and thus not accurately determine which patients will benefit from neurosurgical resection of the lesion without iatrogenic aphasia. Optical techniques such as intraoperative optical imaging of intrinsic signals (iOIS) show great promise for the precise functional mapping of cortices, as well as delineation of the borders of AVMs, epileptic foci, and gliomas. Here we first review the physiology of neuroimaging, and then progress towards the validation and justification of using intraoperative optical techniques, especially in relation to neurosurgical planning of resection AVMs, epileptic foci, and gliomas near or in eloquent cortex. We conclude with a short description of potential novel intraoperative optical techniques.

  19. Calcium uptake in brain synaptosomes: a pharmacologic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampe, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Pinched-off nerve endings (synaptosomes) from rat and guinea pig brain were used as a model to study Ca/sup 2 +/ entry mechanisms in neuronal tissue. Synaptosomes contain high affinity binding sites for both, 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca/sup 2 +/ channel antagonists, and activators. The thermodynamic characteristics of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine building in synaptosomes were similar to those seen in both cardiac and smooth muscle preparations. Synaptosomes display two distinct K/sup +/-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ entry mechanisms. These are kinetically distinct with the faster of the two terminating in approx. 1 second while the slower persists for approx. minute. The slow phase uptake process is abolished in Na/sup +/-free media, is sensitive to antagonism by 3,4-dichlorobenzamil and displays a more rapid ontogenic appearance relative to the fast phase. It is likely that the slow phase represents Ca/sup 2 +/ entry via Na/sup +//Ca/sup 2 +/ exchange. The rapid inactivation of the fast phase coupled with its voltage dependence suggest that it represents Ca/sup 2 +/ entry via one or more types of voltage dependent Ca/sup 2 +/ channels. These channels may not be dihydropyridin sensitive since neither nitrendipine nor Bay K 8644 were shown to modulate synaptosomal Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake. The benzodiazepine receptor ligands Ro 5-4864, PK 11195 and diazepam all selectively inhibited fast phase Ca/sup 2 +/ entry relative to slow phase entry. In addition, these compounds altered (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding affinity. It is concluded that certain benzodiazepine receptor ligands can interact specifically with voltage dependent Ca/sup 2 +/ channels.

  20. Validation of a method for accurate and highly reproducible quantification of brain dopamine transporter SPECT studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter S; Ziebell, Morten; Skouboe, Glenna

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear medicine brain imaging, it is important to delineate regions of interest (ROIs) so that the outcome is both accurate and reproducible. The purpose of this study was to validate a new time-saving algorithm (DATquan) for accurate and reproducible quantification of the striatal dopamine...... transporter (DAT) with appropriate radioligands and SPECT and without the need for structural brain scanning....

  1. Development of luciferase tagged brain tumour models in mice for chemotherapy intervention studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, E.M.; Leenders, W.P.J.; Kusters, B.; Lyons, S.; Buckle, T.; Heerschap, A.; Boogerd, W.; Beijnen, J.H.; Tellingen, O.

    2006-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is considered one of the major causes for the low efficacy of cytotoxic compounds against primary brain tumours. The aim of this study was to develop intracranial tumour models in mice featuring intact or locally disrupted BBB properties, which can be used in testing ch

  2. Domiciliary therapy during inpatient rehabilitation treatment for patients with an acquired brain injury : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, AM; Spikman, JM; Wijbrandi, Wilma

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to assess the feasibility of additional domiciliary treatment for patients with an acquired brain injury while they are still inpatients at a rehabilitation centre. This cohort study included 22 patients with an acquired brain injury (mainly stroke) and with moderate to severe neur

  3. Effects of motor fatigue on human brain activity, an fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinen, Hiske; Renken, Remco; Maurits, Natasha; Zijdewind, Inge

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate effects of motor fatigue on brain activation in humans, using fMRI. First, we assessed brain activation that correlated with muscle activity during brief contractions at different force levels (force modulation). Second, a similar analysis was done f

  4. A Comparative Study of Theoretical Graph Models for Characterizing Structural Networks of Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated both structural and functional brain networks via graph-theoretical methods. However, there is an important issue that has not been adequately discussed before: what is the optimal theoretical graph model for describing the structural networks of human brain? In this paper, we perform a comparative study to address this problem. Firstly, large-scale cortical regions of interest (ROIs are localized by recently developed and validated brain reference system named Dense Individualized Common Connectivity-based Cortical Landmarks (DICCCOL to address the limitations in the identification of the brain network ROIs in previous studies. Then, we construct structural brain networks based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data. Afterwards, the global and local graph properties of the constructed structural brain networks are measured using the state-of-the-art graph analysis algorithms and tools and are further compared with seven popular theoretical graph models. In addition, we compare the topological properties between two graph models, namely, stickiness-index-based model (STICKY and scale-free gene duplication model (SF-GD, that have higher similarity with the real structural brain networks in terms of global and local graph properties. Our experimental results suggest that among the seven theoretical graph models compared in this study, STICKY and SF-GD models have better performances in characterizing the structural human brain network.

  5. Brain Potentials for Derivational Morphology: An ERP Study of Deadjectival Nominalizations in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Viktoria; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Clahsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates brain potentials to derived word forms in Spanish. Two experiments were performed on derived nominals that differ in terms of their productivity and semantic properties but are otherwise similar, an acceptability judgment task and a reading experiment using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in which correctly and…

  6. Heterogeneity in subcortical brain development: A structural magnetic resonance imaging study of brain maturation from 8 to 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostby, Ylva; Tamnes, Christian K; Fjell, Anders M; Westlye, Lars T; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2009-09-23

    Brain development during late childhood and adolescence is characterized by decreases in gray matter (GM) and increases in white matter (WM) and ventricular volume. The dynamic nature of development across different structures is, however, not well understood, and the present magnetic resonance imaging study took advantage of a whole-brain segmentation approach to describe the developmental trajectories of 16 neuroanatomical volumes in the same sample of children, adolescents, and young adults (n = 171; range, 8-30 years). The cerebral cortex, cerebral WM, caudate, putamen, pallidum, accumbens area, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, brainstem, cerebellar GM, cerebellar WM, lateral ventricles, inferior lateral ventricles, third ventricle, and fourth ventricle were studied. The cerebral cortex was further analyzed in terms of lobar thickness and surface area. The results revealed substantial heterogeneity in developmental trajectories. GM decreased nonlinearly in the cerebral cortex and linearly in the caudate, putamen, pallidum, accumbens, and cerebellar GM, whereas the amygdala and hippocampus showed slight, nonlinear increases in GM volume. WM increased nonlinearly in both the cerebrum and cerebellum, with an earlier maturation in cerebellar WM. In addition to similarities in developmental trajectories within subcortical regions, our results also point to differences between structures within the same regions: among the basal ganglia, the caudate showed a weaker relationship with age than the putamen and pallidum, and in the cerebellum, differences were found between GM and WM development. These results emphasize the importance of studying a wide range of structural variables in the same sample, for a broader understanding of brain developmental principles.

  7. Brain activity during driving with distraction: an immersive fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom A Schweizer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-invasive measurements of brain activity have an important role to play in understanding driving ability. The current study aimed to identify the neural underpinnings of human driving behavior by visualizing the areas of the brain involved in driving under different levels of demand, such as driving while distracted or making left turns at busy intersections. Methods: To capture brain activity during driving, we placed a driving simulator with a fully functional steering wheel and pedals in a 3.0 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI system. To identify the brain areas involved while performing different real-world driving maneuvers, participants completed tasks ranging from simple (right turns to more complex (left turns at busy intersections. To assess the effects of driving while distracted, participants were asked to perform an auditory task while driving analogous to speaking on a hands-free device and driving. Results: A widely distributed brain network was identified, especially when making left turns at busy intersections compared to more simple driving tasks. During distracted driving, brain activation shifted dramatically from the posterior, visual and spatial areas to the prefrontal cortex. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the distracted brain sacrificed areas in the posterior brain important for visual attention and alertness to recruit enough brain resources to perform a secondary, cognitive task. The present findings offer important new insights into the scientific understanding of the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of driving behavior and lay down an important foundation for future clinical research.

  8. Retention of features on a mapped Drosophila brain surface using a Bézier-tube-based surface model averaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan-Yu; Wu, Cheng-Chi; Shao, Hao-Chiang; Chang, Hsiu-Ming; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Chen, Yung-Chang

    2012-12-01

    Model averaging is a widely used technique in biomedical applications. Two established model averaging methods, iterative shape averaging (ISA) method and virtual insect brain (VIB) method, have been applied to several organisms to generate average representations of their brain surfaces. However, without sufficient samples, some features of the average Drosophila brain surface obtained using the above methods may disappear or become distorted. To overcome this problem, we propose a Bézier-tube-based surface model averaging strategy. The proposed method first compensates for disparities in position, orientation, and dimension of input surfaces, and then evaluates the average surface by performing shape-based interpolation. Structural features with larger individual disparities are simplified with half-ellipse-shaped Bézier tubes, and are unified according to these tubes to avoid distortion during the averaging process. Experimental results show that the average model yielded by our method could preserve fine features and avoid structural distortions even if only a limit amount of input samples are used. Finally, we qualitatively compare our results with those obtained by ISA and VIB methods by measuring the surface-to-surface distances between input surfaces and the averaged ones. The comparisons show that the proposed method could generate a more representative average surface than both ISA and VIB methods.

  9. Fertility, aging and the brain neuroendocrinological studies in female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that fertility decreases in female mammals with advancing age. In women this decrease already starts around the age of 30 and shows a large variation between individuals. The aim of this thesis was to elucidate changes in the reproductive system, especially in the brain, that may un

  10. Some Brain Cancer Patients Have Radiation Options: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The report was published July 26 in the Journal of the American Medical Association . In the past, whole brain radiation was ... New Hyde Park, N.Y.; July 26, 2016, Journal of the American Medical Association HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All rights ...

  11. Integrated undergraduate research experience for the study of brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Clifford L; Sierra, Michelle; Delay, Eugene R

    2003-01-01

    We developed a series of hands-on laboratory exercises on "Brain Injury" designed around several pedagogical goals that included the development of: 1) knowledge of the scientific method, 2) student problem solving skills by testing cause and effect relationships, 3) student analytical and critical thinking skills by evaluating and interpreting data, identifying alternative explanations for data, and identifying confounding variables, and 4) student writing skills by reporting their findings in manuscript form. Students, facilitated by the instructor, developed a testable hypothesis on short-term effects of brain injury by analyzing lesion size and astrocytic activity. Four sequential laboratory exercises were used to present and practice ablation techniques, histological processing, microscopic visualization and image-capture, and computer aided image analysis. This exercise culminated in a laboratory report that mimicked a research article. The effectiveness of the laboratory sequence was assessed by measuring the acquisition of 1) content on anatomical, physiological, and cellular responses of the brain to traumatic brain injury, and 2) laboratory skills and methods of data-collection and analysis using surgical procedures, histology, microscopy, and image analysis. Post-course test scores, significantly greater than pre-course test scores and greater than scores from a similar but unstructured laboratory class, indicated that this hands-on approach to teaching an undergraduate research laboratory was successful. Potential variations in the integrated laboratory exercise, including multidisciplinary collaborations, are also noted.

  12. Glycosylated Sertraline-Loaded Liposomes for Brain Targeting: QbD Study of Formulation Variabilities and Brain Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbi, Ibrahim; Aljaeid, Bader; El-Say, Khalid M; Zidan, Ahmed S

    2016-12-01

    Effectiveness of CNS-acting drugs depends on the localization, targeting, and capacity to be transported through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which can be achieved by designing brain-targeting delivery vectors. Hence, the objective of this study was to screen the formulation and process variables affecting the performance of sertraline (Ser-HCl)-loaded pegylated and glycosylated liposomes. The prepared vectors were characterized for Ser-HCl entrapment, size, surface charge, release behavior, and in vitro transport through the BBB. Furthermore, the compatibility among liposomal components was assessed using SEM, FTIR, and DSC analysis. Through a thorough screening study, enhancement of Ser-HCl entrapment, nanosized liposomes with low skewness, maximized stability, and controlled drug leakage were attained. The solid-state characterization revealed remarkable interaction between Ser-HCl and the charging agent to determine drug entrapment and leakage. Moreover, results of liposomal transport through mouse brain endothelialpolyoma cells demonstrated greater capacity of the proposed glycosylated liposomes to target the cerebellar due to its higher density of GLUT1 and higher glucose utilization. This transport capacity was confirmed by the inhibiting action of both cytochalasin B and phenobarbital. Using C6 glioma cells model, flow cytometry, time-lapse live cell imaging, and in vivo NIR fluorescence imaging demonstrated that optimized glycosylated liposomes can be transported through the BBB by classical endocytosis, as well as by specific transcytosis. In conclusion, the current study proposed a thorough screening of important formulation and process variabilities affecting brain-targeting liposomes for further scale-up processes.

  13. Introductory study of brain function data processing; No kino joho shori no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted of the brain function aiming at developing an interface with the same function as humans have. In the study, the most up-to-date information/knowledge and future problems were examined on brain measurement, brain modeling, making a model an element, and the brain function data processing system. As to the brain measurement, the paper took up the multielectrode simultaneous measuring method and the optical multipoint measuring method as an invasive measuring method, and the functional magnetic resonance imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy, magneto-encephalography, and electro-encephalography as a non-invasive measuring method. Relating to the brain modeling, studies were made on senses of sight and smell, the movement control and the learning. As to making a model an element, how to make the modeled function a chip on silicone for example becomes the problem. Reported were two reports on making the sense of sight an element and one report on making the parallel dispersed processing mechanism of brain an element. About the brain function data processing system, three reports were made on the present situation, matters in question, and the future development of the system in the case of catching data processing as a system taking a step ahead from making the model an element. 250 refs., 74 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Weight Gain following Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A PET Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauleau, Paul; Drapier, Sophie; Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Dondaine, Thibaut; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Dominique; Jannin, Pierre; Robert, Gabriel; Le Jeune, Florence; Vérin, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET) and weight gain following GPi-DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET four months before and four months after the start of GPi-DBS in 19 PD patients. Dopaminergic medication was included in the analysis to control for its possible influence on brain metabolism. Body mass index increased significantly by 0.66 ± 1.3 kg/m2 (p = 0.040). There were correlations between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in premotor areas, including the left and right superior gyri (Brodmann area, BA 6), left superior gyrus (BA 8), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right middle gyrus, BAs 9 and 46), and the left and right somatosensory association cortices (BA 7). However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in limbic and associative areas. Additionally, there was a trend toward a correlation between reduced dyskinesia and weight gain (r = 0.428, p = 0.067). These findings suggest that, unlike STN-DBS, motor improvement is the major contributing factor for weight gain following GPi-DBS PD, confirming the motor selectivity of this target.

  15. The brain finger protein gene (ZNF179), a member of the RING finger family, maps within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region at 17p11.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Toshiyuki; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Inazawa, Johji [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-31

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SAIS) is caused by a microdeletion of 17p11.2 and comprises developmental and growth delay, facial abnormalities, unusual behavior and sleep problems. This phenotype may be due to haploinsufficiency of several contiguous genes. The human brain finger protein gene (ZNF179), a member of the RING finger protein family, has been isolated and mapped to l7p11.2. FISH analyses of metaphase or interphase chromosomes of 6 patients with SMS show that ZNF179 was deleted in one of the 2 homologs (17p11.2), indicating a possible association of the defect of this gene with the pathogenesis of SMS. Furthermore, using a prophase FISH ordering system, we sublocalized ZNF179 proximally to LLGL which lies on the critical region for SMS. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Study of the development road map of China's renewable energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Qili; Li Junfeng; Gao Hu

    2009-01-01

    Renewable energy (RE) has been attached high attention around the world due to its carbon-free and indige-nous production in a sustainable way. China enjoys plenty of renewable energy resources, particularly the wind, solar, hydro- and biomass energy, which could be a sound basis for a large-scale exploitation. This report examines the current status of RE technology and industry, analyzes the challenges of promoting RE in China. In order to pave the way for a long-term development of RE, this paper outlines the basic principles and priorities for individual RE technology. In line with these, the paper puts forward the RE targets and further describes the RE road map by 2020, 2030 and extend to 2050, taking consideration of China's RE resources, industrial basis and energy demand etc. At last, this paper pro-vides some recommendations to ensure the achievements of the RE targets.

  17. Pilot study of the application of Tellus airborne radiometric and soil geochemical data for radon mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, J D; Miles, J C H; Green, B M R; Larmour, R

    2008-10-01

    The scope for using Tellus Project airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and soil geochemical data to predict the probability of houses in Northern Ireland having high indoor radon concentrations is evaluated, in a pilot study in the southeast of the province, by comparing these data statistically with in-house radon measurements. There is generally good agreement between radon maps modelled from the airborne radiometric and soil geochemical data using multivariate linear regression analysis and conventional radon maps which depend solely on geological and indoor radon data. The radon maps based on the Tellus Project data identify some additional areas where the radon risk appears to be relatively high compared with the conventional radon maps. One of the ways of validating radon maps modelled on the Tellus Project data will be to carry out additional indoor measurements in these areas.

  18. Comparison of Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform to study echo-planar imaging flow maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez G, A.; Bowtell, R.; Mansfield, P. [Area de Procesamiento Digital de Senales e Imagenes Biomedicas. Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa. Mexico D.F. 09340 Mexico (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Velocity maps were studied combining Doyle and Mansfield method (1986) with each of the following transforms: Fourier, window Fourier and wavelet (Mexican hat). Continuous wavelet transform was compared against the two Fourier transform to determine which technique is best suited to study blood maps generated by Half Fourier Echo-Planar Imaging. Coefficient images were calculated and plots of the pixel intensity variation are presented. Finally, contour maps are shown to visualize the behavior of the blood flow in the cardiac chambers for the wavelet technique. (Author)

  19. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study Reveals Local Brain Structural Alterations Associated with Ambient Fine Particles in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Ramon; Wang, Xinhui; Reyes, Jeanette; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L.; Vizuete, William; Chui, Helena C.; Driscoll, Ira; Resnick, Susan M.; Espeland, Mark A.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Goodwin, Mimi; DeNise, Richard; Lipton, Michael; Hannigan, James; Carpini, Anthony; Noble, David; Guzman, Wilton; Kotchen, Jane Morley; Goveas, Joseph; Kerwin, Diana; Ulmer, John; Censky, Steve; Flinton, Troy; Matusewic, Tracy; Prost, Robert; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Swope, Sue; Sawyer-Glover, Anne Marie; Hartley, Susan; Jackson, Rebecca; Hallarn, Rose; Kennedy, Bonnie; Bolognone, Jill; Casimir, Lindsay; Kochis, Amanda; Robbins, John; Zaragoza, Sophia; Carter, Cameron; Ryan, John; Macias, Denise; Sonico, Jerry; Nathan, Lauren; Voigt, Barbara; Villablanca, Pablo; Nyborg, Glen; Godinez, Sergio; Perrymann, Adele; Limacher, Marian; Anderson, Sheila; Toombs, Mary Ellen; Bennett, Jeffrey; Jones, Kevin; Brum, Sandy; Chatfield, Shane; Vantrees, Kevin; Robinson, Jennifer; Wilson, Candy; Koch, Kevin; Hart, Suzette; Carroll, Jennifer; Cherrico, Mary; Ockene, Judith; Churchill, Linda; Fellows, Douglas; Serio, Anthony; Jackson, Sharon; Spavich, Deidre; Margolis, Karen; Bjerk, Cindy; Truwitt, Chip; Peitso, Margaret; Camcrena, Alexa; Grim, Richard; Levin, Julie; Perron, Mary; Brunner, Robert; Golding, Ross; Pansky, Leslie; Arguello, Sandie; Hammons, Jane; Peterson, Nikki; Murphy, Carol; Morgan, Maggie; Castillo, Mauricio; Beckman, Thomas; Huang, Benjamin; Kuller, Lewis; McHugh, Pat; Meltzer, Carolyn; Davis, Denise; Davis, Joyce; Kost, Piera; Lucas, Kim; Potter, Tom; Tarr, Lee; Shumaker, Sally; Espeland, Mark; Coker, Laura; Williamson, Jeff; Felton, Debbie; Gleiser, LeeAnn; Rapp, Steve; Legault, Claudine; Dailey, Maggie; Casanova, Ramon; Robertson, Julia; Hogan, Patricia; Gaussoin, Sarah; Nance, Pam; Summerville, Cheryl; Peral, Ricardo; Tan, Josh; Bryan, Nick; Davatzikos, Christos; Desiderio, Lisa; Buckholtz, Neil; Molchan, Susan; Resnick, Susan; Rossouw, Jacques; Pottern, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5: PM with aerodynamic diameters voxel-wise analyses, we examined whether PM2.5 exposure also affects brain structure. Methods: Brain MRI data were obtained from 1365 women (aged 71–89) in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study and local brain volumes were estimated using RAVENS (regional analysis of volumes in normalized space). Based on geocoded residential locations and air monitoring data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, we employed a spatiotemporal model to estimate long-term (3-year average) exposure to ambient PM2.5 preceding MRI scans. Voxel-wise linear regression models were fit separately to gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) maps to analyze associations between brain structure and PM2.5 exposure, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Increased PM2.5 exposure was associated with smaller volumes in both cortical GM and subcortical WM areas. For GM, associations were clustered in the bilateral superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri. For WM, the largest clusters were in the frontal lobe, with smaller clusters in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. No statistically significant associations were observed between PM2.5 exposure and hippocampal volumes. Conclusions: Long-term PM2.5 exposures may accelerate loss of both GM and WM in older women. While our previous work linked smaller WM volumes to PM2.5, this is the first neuroimaging study reporting associations between air pollution exposure and smaller volumes of cortical GM. Our data support the hypothesized synaptic neurotoxicity of airborne particles.

  20. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study Reveals Local Brain Structural Alterations associated With Ambient Fine Particles in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Casanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5: PM with aerodynamic diameters <2.5µm has been linked with cognitive deficits in older adults. Using fine-grained voxel-wise analyses, we examined whether PM2.5 exposure also affects brain structure.Methods: Brain MRI data were obtained from 1,365 women (aged 71-89 in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study and local brain volumes were estimated using RAVENS (regional analysis of volumes in normalized space. Based on geocoded residential locations and air monitoring data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, we employed a spatiotemporal model to estimate long-term (3-year average exposure to ambient PM2.5 preceding MRI scans. Voxel-wise linear regression models were fit separately to gray matter (GM and white matter (WM maps to analyze associations between brain structure and PM2.5 exposure, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Increased PM2.5 exposure was associated with smaller volumes in both cortical GM and subcortical WM areas. For GM, associations were clustered in the bilateral superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri. For WM, the largest clusters were in the frontal lobe, with smaller clusters in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. No statistically significant associations were observed between PM2.5 exposure and hippocampal volumes. Conclusions: Long-term PM2.5 exposures may accelerate loss of both GM and WM in older women. While our previous work linked WM decreased volumes to PM2.5 air pollution, this is the first neuroimaging study reporting associations between air pollution exposure and smaller volumes of cortical GM. Our data support the hypothesized synaptic neurotoxicity of airborne particles.

  1. Selection of a taxonomic level for soil mapping using diversity and map purity indices: A case study from an Iranian arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, A.; Ayoubi, S.; Khademi, H.; Finke, P. A.; Toomanian, N.

    2013-11-01

    There is a growing demand for digital soil maps for environmental planning, modeling and management. If mapped soil classes are taken from a hierarchical taxonomic system, a question arises: which taxonomic level is most appropriate to be depicted on the map with a given sample size, available environmental covariates and the strength of predictive relations between covariates and the soil classes? Pedodiversity, the study and measurement of soil diversity, can be considered as a framework to analyze spatial patterns depicted on soil maps. This paper discusses the selection of the taxonomic level for soil mapping in an arid region in southeast Iran on the basis of (1) the purity of a digital soil class map derived from an artificial neural network (ANN) prediction method using environmental covariates and (2) pedodiversity indices of these soil maps. The prediction of soil classes and the calculation of diversity indices were carried out for taxonomic categories of order, suborder, great group, and subgroup. Using the feed forward back-propagation algorithm, three-layer ANNs with input, hidden and output layers were trained for soil class prediction at each category level. In most predictions, the combined use of terrain attributes and geomorphic surfaces provided the best results. When the taxonomic level changed from order to subgroup, the purity decreased, whereas the values of the diversity indices increased. The highest purity and lowest diversity are observed at the order level, indicating a good quality map in terms of its purity, but reflecting only little soil diversity, thus with a low usage potential. On the other hand, soil maps at the level of subgroup illustrate high diversity and low purity, so that the predicted map units are highly uncertain. This map is also inappropriate for users. We introduced an index combining the diversity and purity which indicated that the best taxonomic level for soil mapping in the study area is the great group, with

  2. A study of brain networks associated with swallowing using graph-theoretical approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Luan

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity between brain regions during swallowing tasks is still not well understood. Understanding these complex interactions is of great interest from both a scientific and a clinical perspective. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was utilized to study brain functional networks during voluntary saliva swallowing in twenty-two adult healthy subjects (all females, [Formula: see text] years of age. To construct these functional connections, we computed mean partial correlation matrices over ninety brain regions for each participant. Two regions were determined to be functionally connected if their correlation was above a certain threshold. These correlation matrices were then analyzed using graph-theoretical approaches. In particular, we considered several network measures for the whole brain and for swallowing-related brain regions. The results have shown that significant pairwise functional connections were, mostly, either local and intra-hemispheric or symmetrically inter-hemispheric. Furthermore, we showed that all human brain functional network, although varying in some degree, had typical small-world properties as compared to regular networks and random networks. These properties allow information transfer within the network at a relatively high efficiency. Swallowing-related brain regions also had higher values for some of the network measures in comparison to when these measures were calculated for the whole brain. The current results warrant further investigation of graph-theoretical approaches as a potential tool for understanding the neural basis of dysphagia.

  3. Microemulsion-based drug delivery system for transnasal delivery of Carbamazepine: preliminary brain-targeting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rashmin Bharatbhai; Patel, Mrunali Rashmin; Bhatt, Kashyap K