WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain integrates information

  1. Postnatal experiences influence how the brain integrates information from different senses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry E Stein

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD is characterized by anomalous reactions to, and integration of, sensory cues. Although the underlying etiology of SPD is unknown, one brain region likely to reflect these sensory and behavioral anomalies is the Superior Colliculus (SC; a structure involved in the synthesis of information from multiple sensory modalities and the control of overt orientation responses. In this review we describe normal functional properties of this structure, the manner in which its individual neurons integrate cues from different senses, and the overt SC-mediated behaviors that are believed to manifest this “multisensory integration.” Of particular interest here is how SC neurons develop their capacity to engage in multisensory integration during early postnatal life as a consequence of early sensory experience, and that it is the intimate communication between cortex and the midbrain makes this developmental process possible.

  2. A general factor of brain white matter integrity predicts information processing speed in healthy older people

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Penke, Lars; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J; Hernández, Maria C Valdés; Clayden, Jonathan D; Starr, John M; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J

    2010-01-01

    Human white matter integrity has been related to information processing speed, but it is unknown whether impaired integrity results from localized processes or is a general property shared across white matter tracts...

  3. Brain Radiation Information Data Exchange (BRIDE): integration of experimental data from low-dose ionising radiation research for pathway discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapiperis, Christos; Kempf, Stefan J; Quintens, Roel; Azimzadeh, Omid; Vidal, Victoria Linares; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Bazyka, Dimitry; Mastroberardino, Pier G; Scouras, Zacharias G; Tapio, Soile; Benotmane, Mohammed Abderrafi; Ouzounis, Christos A

    2016-05-11

    The underlying molecular processes representing stress responses to low-dose ionising radiation (LDIR) in mammals are just beginning to be understood. In particular, LDIR effects on the brain and their possible association with neurodegenerative disease are currently being explored using omics technologies. We describe a light-weight approach for the storage, analysis and distribution of relevant LDIR omics datasets. The data integration platform, called BRIDE, contains information from the literature as well as experimental information from transcriptomics and proteomics studies. It deploys a hybrid, distributed solution using both local storage and cloud technology. BRIDE can act as a knowledge broker for LDIR researchers, to facilitate molecular research on the systems biology of LDIR response in mammals. Its flexible design can capture a range of experimental information for genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. The data collection is available at: .

  4. Korea Brain Initiative: Integration and Control of Brain Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sung-Jin; Lee, Haejin; Hur, Eun-Mi; Choe, Youngshik; Koo, Ja Wook; Rah, Jong-Cheol; Lee, Kea Joo; Lim, Hyun-Ho; Sun, Woong; Moon, Cheil; Kim, Kyungjin

    2016-11-02

    This article introduces the history and the long-term goals of the Korea Brain Initiative, which is centered on deciphering the brain functions and mechanisms that mediate the integration and control of brain functions that underlie decision-making. The goal of this initiative is the mapping of a functional connectome with searchable, multi-dimensional, and information-integrated features. The project also includes the development of novel technologies and neuro-tools for integrated brain mapping. Beyond the scientific goals this grand endeavor will ultimately have socioeconomic ramifications that not only facilitate global collaboration in the neuroscience community, but also develop various brain science-related industrial and medical innovations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  6. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  7. Integrated inventory information system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarupria, J.S.; Kunte, P.D.

    The nature of oceanographic data and the management of inventory level information are described in Integrated Inventory Information System (IIIS). It is shown how a ROSCOPO (report on observations/samples collected during oceanographic programme...

  8. Integrated Reporting Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Integrated Reporting Information System (IRIS) is a flexible and scalable web-based system that supports post operational analysis and evaluation of the National...

  9. When Are New Hippocampal Neurons, Born in the Adult Brain, Integrated into the Network That Processes Spatial Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, C. Jimena; Pérez, Oswaldo; Ramírez-Amaya, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) functionally integrate into the behaviorally relevant hippocampal networks, showing a specific Arc-expression response to spatial exploration when mature. However, it is not clear when, during the 4- to 6-week interval that is critical for survival and maturation of these neurons, this specific response develops. Therefore, we characterized Arc expression after spatial exploration or cage control conditions in adult-born neurons from rats that were injected with BrdU on one day and were sacrificed 1, 7, 15, 30, and 45 days post-BrdU injection (PBI). Triple immunostaining for NeuN, Arc, and BrdU was analyzed through the different DG layers. Arc protein expression in BrdU-positive cells was observed from day 1 to day 15 PBI but was not related to behavioral stimulation. The specific Arc-expression response to spatial exploration was observed from day 30 and 45 in about 5% of the BrdU-positive cell population. Most of the BrdU-positive neurons expressing Arc in response to spatial exploration (∼90%) were located in DG layer 1, and no Arc expression was observed in cells located in the subgranular zone (SGZ). Using the current data and that obtained previously, we propose a mathematical model suggesting that new neurons are unlikely to respond to exploration by expressing Arc after they are 301 days old, and also that in a 7-month-old rat the majority (60%) of the neurons that respond to exploration must have been born during adulthood; thus, suggesting that adult neurogenesis in the DG is highly relevant for spatial information processing. PMID:21408012

  10. Brain Radiation Information Data Exchange (BRIDE): Integration of experimental data from low-dose ionising radiation research for pathway discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Karapiperis (Christos); S.J. Kempf (Stefan J.); R. Quintens (Roel); O. Azimzadeh (Omid); V.L. Vidal (Victoria Linares); S. Pazzaglia; D. Bazyka (Dimitry); P.G. Mastroberardino (Pier); Z.G. Scouras (Zacharias G.); S. Tapio (Soile); M.A. Benotmane (Mohammed Abderrafi); C.A. Ouzounis (Christos A.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The underlying molecular processes representing stress responses to low-dose ionising radiation (LDIR) in mammals are just beginning to be understood. In particular, LDIR effects on the brain and their possible association with neurodegenerative disease are currently being

  11. Creating the brain and interacting with the brain: an integrated approach to understanding the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Jun; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2015-03-06

    In the past two decades, brain science and robotics have made gigantic advances in their own fields, and their interactions have generated several interdisciplinary research fields. First, in the 'understanding the brain by creating the brain' approach, computational neuroscience models have been applied to many robotics problems. Second, such brain-motivated fields as cognitive robotics and developmental robotics have emerged as interdisciplinary areas among robotics, neuroscience and cognitive science with special emphasis on humanoid robots. Third, in brain-machine interface research, a brain and a robot are mutually connected within a closed loop. In this paper, we review the theoretical backgrounds of these three interdisciplinary fields and their recent progress. Then, we introduce recent efforts to reintegrate these research fields into a coherent perspective and propose a new direction that integrates brain science and robotics where the decoding of information from the brain, robot control based on the decoded information and multimodal feedback to the brain from the robot are carried out in real time and in a closed loop. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Creating the brain and interacting with the brain: an integrated approach to understanding the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Jun; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades, brain science and robotics have made gigantic advances in their own fields, and their interactions have generated several interdisciplinary research fields. First, in the ‘understanding the brain by creating the brain’ approach, computational neuroscience models have been applied to many robotics problems. Second, such brain-motivated fields as cognitive robotics and developmental robotics have emerged as interdisciplinary areas among robotics, neuroscience and cognitive science with special emphasis on humanoid robots. Third, in brain–machine interface research, a brain and a robot are mutually connected within a closed loop. In this paper, we review the theoretical backgrounds of these three interdisciplinary fields and their recent progress. Then, we introduce recent efforts to reintegrate these research fields into a coherent perspective and propose a new direction that integrates brain science and robotics where the decoding of information from the brain, robot control based on the decoded information and multimodal feedback to the brain from the robot are carried out in real time and in a closed loop. PMID:25589568

  13. Rule-based Information Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keijzer, Ander; van Keulen, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we show the process of information integration. We specifically discuss the language used for integration. We show that integration consists of two phases, the schema mapping phase and the data integration phase. We formally define transformation rules, conversion, evolution and

  14. Information: theory, brain, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Greg; Ward, Ryan D; Balsam, Peter D

    2013-11-01

    In the 65 years since its formal specification, information theory has become an established statistical paradigm, providing powerful tools for quantifying probabilistic relationships. Behavior analysis has begun to adopt these tools as a novel means of measuring the interrelations between behavior, stimuli, and contingent outcomes. This approach holds great promise for making more precise determinations about the causes of behavior and the forms in which conditioning may be encoded by organisms. In addition to providing an introduction to the basics of information theory, we review some of the ways that information theory has informed the studies of Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and behavioral neuroscience. In addition to enriching each of these empirical domains, information theory has the potential to act as a common statistical framework by which results from different domains may be integrated, compared, and ultimately unified. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  15. Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The purpose of ICIS is to meet evolving Enforcement and Compliance business needs for EPA and State users by integrating information into a single integrated data...

  16. Markers for blood-brain barrier integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    known when first introduced, but seem to have been forgotten since. Understanding these limitations is important because Evans blue is still the most commonly used marker of brain barrier integrity and those using it seem oblivious to problems arising from its in vivo application. The introduction......In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in brain barriers and various roles their intrinsic mechanisms may play in neurological disorders. Such studies require suitable models and markers to demonstrate integrity and functional changes at the interfaces between blood, brain......, and cerebrospinal fluid. Studies of brain barrier mechanisms and measurements of plasma volume using dyes have a long-standing history, dating back to the late nineteenth-century. Their use in blood-brain barrier studies continues in spite of their known serious limitations in in vivo applications. These were well...

  17. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA?s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is a compilation of electronic reports on specific substances found in the environment and their potential to cause...

  18. Integrating Retinoic Acid Signaling with Brain Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tuanlian; Wagner, Elisabeth; Drager, Ursula C.

    2009-01-01

    The vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) regulates the transcription of about a 6th of the human genome. Compelling evidence indicates a role of RA in cognitive activities, but its integration with the molecular mechanisms of higher brain functions is not known. Here we describe the properties of RA signaling in the mouse, which point to…

  19. Information flow dynamics in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Afraimovich, Valentin S.; Bick, Christian; Varona, Pablo

    2012-03-01

    Timing and dynamics of information in the brain is a hot field in modern neuroscience. The analysis of the temporal evolution of brain information is crucially important for the understanding of higher cognitive mechanisms in normal and pathological states. From the perspective of information dynamics, in this review we discuss working memory capacity, language dynamics, goal-dependent behavior programming and other functions of brain activity. In contrast with the classical description of information theory, which is mostly algebraic, brain flow information dynamics deals with problems such as the stability/instability of information flows, their quality, the timing of sequential processing, the top-down cognitive control of perceptual information, and information creation. In this framework, different types of information flow instabilities correspond to different cognitive disorders. On the other hand, the robustness of cognitive activity is related to the control of the information flow stability. We discuss these problems using both experimental and theoretical approaches, and we argue that brain activity is better understood considering information flows in the phase space of the corresponding dynamical model. In particular, we show how theory helps to understand intriguing experimental results in this matter, and how recent knowledge inspires new theoretical formalisms that can be tested with modern experimental techniques.

  20. Information dynamics of brain-heart physiological networks during sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, L.; Nollo, G.; Jurysta, F.; Marinazzo, D.

    2014-10-01

    This study proposes an integrated approach, framed in the emerging fields of network physiology and information dynamics, for the quantitative analysis of brain-heart interaction networks during sleep. With this approach, the time series of cardiac vagal autonomic activity and brain wave activities measured respectively as the normalized high frequency component of heart rate variability and the EEG power in the δ, θ, α, σ, and β bands, are considered as realizations of the stochastic processes describing the dynamics of the heart system and of different brain sub-systems. Entropy-based measures are exploited to quantify the predictive information carried by each (sub)system, and to dissect this information into a part actively stored in the system and a part transferred to it from the other connected systems. The application of this approach to polysomnographic recordings of ten healthy subjects led us to identify a structured network of sleep brain-brain and brain-heart interactions, with the node described by the β EEG power acting as a hub which conveys the largest amount of information flowing between the heart and brain nodes. This network was found to be sustained mostly by the transitions across different sleep stages, as the information transfer was weaker during specific stages than during the whole night, and vanished progressively when moving from light sleep to deep sleep and to REM sleep.

  1. Brain network clustering with information flow motifs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Märtens, M.; Meier, J.M.; Hillebrand, Arjan; Tewarie, Prejaas; Van Mieghem, P.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent work has revealed frequency-dependent global patterns of information flow by a network analysis of magnetoencephalography data of the human brain. However, it is unknown which properties on a small subgraph-scale of those functional brain networks are dominant at different frequencies bands.

  2. Integration of visual and haptic informations in the perception of the vertical in young and old healthy adults and right brain-damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, B; Honoré, J; Rousseaux, M; Saj, A; Coello, Y

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal perception raises the issue of sensory integration. The aim of this study is to assess whether the visuo-haptic subjective vertical could be predicted from the visual and haptic unimodal performances, according to a Bayesian model, which optimizes the reliability of the multimodal estimate. The limits of the model were assessed by evaluating the impact of aging, cerebral damage and spatial deficits. Young and older healthy participants, as well as patients with a right hemisphere lesion, suffering from spatial neglect or not, had to align a rod with the gravitational vertical in the visual, haptic and visuo-haptic modalities. Visuo-haptic subjective vertical was correctly predicted by the model in healthy participants, as well as in patients in spite of different performances. An anticlockwise deviation of the subjective vertical was observed in the neglect group whatever the experimental conditions. By contrast, no deviation was observed in both non-neglect and healthy groups, for the visual and the visuo-haptic modalities. Nevertheless, the haptic subjective vertical was deviated, anticlockwise in the non-neglect patients and older healthy adults, and clockwise in the young healthy adults. Moreover, the variance was the smallest in the bimodal condition. The integration of visual and haptic signals appeared to obey a Bayesian model optimizing the reliability of the multimodal estimate. This holds true despite of aging, brain damage or visuospatial disorders. Regarding the perception of the vertical, multisensory integration does not seem thus to depend only on right posterior cortical areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Brain networks for integrative rhythm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Thaut

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Performance of externally paced rhythmic movements requires brain and behavioral integration of sensory stimuli with motor commands. The underlying brain mechanisms to elaborate beat-synchronized rhythm and polyrhythms that musicians readily perform may differ. Given known roles in perceiving time and repetitive movements, we hypothesized that basal ganglia and cerebellar structures would have greater activation for polyrhythms than for on-the-beat rhythms.Using functional MRI methods, we investigated brain networks for performing rhythmic movements paced by auditory cues. Musically trained participants performed rhythmic movements at 2 and 3 Hz either at a 1:1 on-the-beat or with a 3:2 or a 2:3 stimulus-movement structure. Due to their prior musical experience, participants performed the 3:2 or 2:3 rhythmic movements automatically. Both the isorhythmic 1:1 and the polyrhythmic 3:2 or 2:3 movements yielded the expected activation in contralateral primary motor cortex and related motor areas and ipsilateral cerebellum. Direct comparison of functional MRI signals obtained during 3:2 or 2:3 and on-the-beat rhythms indicated activation differences bilaterally in the supplementary motor area, ipsilaterally in the supramarginal gyrus and caudate-putamen and contralaterally in the cerebellum.The activated brain areas suggest the existence of an interconnected brain network specific for complex sensory-motor rhythmic integration that might have specificity for elaboration of musical abilities.

  4. Theoretical information reuse and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Information Reuse and Integration addresses the efficient extension and creation of knowledge through the exploitation of Kolmogorov complexity in the extraction and application of domain symmetry. Knowledge, which seems to be novel, can more often than not be recast as the image of a sequence of transformations, which yield symmetric knowledge. When the size of those transformations and/or the length of that sequence of transforms exceeds the size of the image, then that image is said to be novel or random. It may also be that the new knowledge is random in that no such sequence of transforms, which produces it exists, or is at least known. The nine chapters comprising this volume incorporate symmetry, reuse, and integration as overt operational procedures or as operations built into the formal representations of data and operators employed. Either way, the aforementioned theoretical underpinnings of information reuse and integration are supported.

  5. Integrated risk information system (IRIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuxen, L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is an electronic information system developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) containing information related to health risk assessment. IRIS is the Agency`s primary vehicle for communication of chronic health hazard information that represents Agency consensus following comprehensive review by intra-Agency work groups. The original purpose for developing IRIS was to provide guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This original purpose for developing IRIS was to guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This role has expanded and evolved with wider access and use of the system. IRIS contains chemical-specific information in summary format for approximately 500 chemicals. IRIS is available to the general public on the National Library of Medicine`s Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) and on diskettes through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

  6. Pain: A Distributed Brain Information Network?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroaki; Seymour, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how pain is processed in the brain has been an enduring puzzle, because there doesn't appear to be a single “pain cortex” that directly codes the subjective perception of pain. An emerging concept is that, instead, pain might emerge from the coordinated activity of an integrated brain network. In support of this view, Woo and colleagues present evidence that distinct brain networks support the subjective changes in pain that result from nociceptive input and self-directed cognitive modulation. This evidence for the sensitivity of distinct neural subsystems to different aspects of pain opens up the way to more formal computational network theories of pain. PMID:25562782

  7. Obesity, fitness, and brain integrity in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Naima; Yau, Po Lai; Convit, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    We set out to ascertain the relationship between insulin resistance, fitness, and brain structure and function in adolescents. We studied 79 obese and 51 non-obese participants who were recruited from the community, all without type 2 diabetes mellitus. All participants received medical, endocrine, neuropsychological, and MRI evaluations as well as a 6-minute walk test that was used to estimate fitness (maximal oxygen consumption). Obese adolescents had significantly thinner orbitofrontal cortices and performed significantly worse on Visual Working Memory tasks and the Digit Vigilance task. Insulin sensitivity and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) were both highly correlated with central obesity and orbitofrontal cortical thickness, although insulin sensitivity was the stronger predictor for orbitofrontal cortical thickness. We also found that VO2 max was the only significant physiological variable related to visual working memory. This is the first study to report positive associations between insulin resistance, VO2 max, and frontal lobe brain integrity in adolescents. Given the importance of brain health for learning and school performance, we conclude that schools should also emphasize physical fitness in order to maintain structural and functional brain integrity and facilitate academic achievement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Brain parcellation based on information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmati, Ester; Bardera, Anton; Boada, Imma

    2017-11-01

    In computational neuroimaging, brain parcellation methods subdivide the brain into individual regions that can be used to build a network to study its structure and function. Using anatomical or functional connectivity, hierarchical clustering methods aim to offer a meaningful parcellation of the brain at each level of granularity. However, some of these methods have been only applied to small regions and strongly depend on the similarity measure used to merge regions. The aim of this work is to present a robust whole-brain hierarchical parcellation that preserves the global structure of the network. Brain regions are modeled as a random walk on the connectome. From this model, a Markov process is derived, where the different nodes represent brain regions and in which the structure can be quantified. Functional or anatomical brain regions are clustered by using an agglomerative information bottleneck method that minimizes the overall loss of information of the structure by using mutual information as a similarity measure. The method is tested with synthetic models, structural and functional human connectomes and is compared with the classic k-means. Results show that the parcellated networks preserve the main properties and are consistent across subjects. This work provides a new framework to study the human connectome using functional or anatomical connectivity at different levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Information Acquisition, Analysis and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    Deep neural networks with random Gaussian weights: A universal classification strategy?,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, 2016, to appear. 2. M. Tepper...new applications, new camera designs, and numerous DoD and industrial technology transfers. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Information acquisition, integration...Defense (ONR, ARO, NGA), to the NIH, and to industry (Adobe, LSS, etc). As mentioned above, these also resulted in numerous awards and become the core

  10. An information integration theory of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tononi Giulio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consciousness poses two main problems. The first is understanding the conditions that determine to what extent a system has conscious experience. For instance, why is our consciousness generated by certain parts of our brain, such as the thalamocortical system, and not by other parts, such as the cerebellum? And why are we conscious during wakefulness and much less so during dreamless sleep? The second problem is understanding the conditions that determine what kind of consciousness a system has. For example, why do specific parts of the brain contribute specific qualities to our conscious experience, such as vision and audition? Presentation of the hypothesis This paper presents a theory about what consciousness is and how it can be measured. According to the theory, consciousness corresponds to the capacity of a system to integrate information. This claim is motivated by two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: differentiation – the availability of a very large number of conscious experiences; and integration – the unity of each such experience. The theory states that the quantity of consciousness available to a system can be measured as the Φ value of a complex of elements. Φ is the amount of causally effective information that can be integrated across the informational weakest link of a subset of elements. A complex is a subset of elements with Φ>0 that is not part of a subset of higher Φ. The theory also claims that the quality of consciousness is determined by the informational relationships among the elements of a complex, which are specified by the values of effective information among them. Finally, each particular conscious experience is specified by the value, at any given time, of the variables mediating informational interactions among the elements of a complex. Testing the hypothesis The information integration theory accounts, in a principled manner, for several neurobiological observations

  11. Information integration for data fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, O.H.

    1997-01-01

    Data fusion has been identified by the Department of Defense as a critical technology for the U.S. defense industry. Data fusion requires combining expertise in two areas - sensors and information integration. Although data fusion is a rapidly growing area, there is little synergy and use of common, reusable, and/or tailorable objects and models, especially across different disciplines. The Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project had two purposes: to see if a natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used for data fusion problems, and if so, to determine whether this methodology would help identify commonalities across areas and achieve greater synergy. The project confirmed both of the initial hypotheses: that the natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used effectively in data fusion areas and that commonalities could be found that would allow synergy across various data fusion areas. The project found five common objects that are the basis for all of the data fusion areas examined: targets, behaviors, environments, signatures, and sensors. Many of the objects and the specific facts related to these objects were common across several areas and could easily be reused. In some cases, even the terminology remained the same. In other cases, different areas had their own terminology, but the concepts were the same. This commonality is important with the growing use of multisensor data fusion. Data fusion is much more difficult if each type of sensor uses its own objects and models rather than building on a common set. This report introduces data fusion, discusses how the synergy generated by this LDRD would have benefited an earlier successful project and contains a summary information model from that project, describes a preliminary management information model, and explains how information integration can facilitate cross-treaty synergy for various arms control treaties.

  12. Information Security and Integrity Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs from the Information Security and Integrity Systems seminar held at the University of Houston-Clear Lake on May 15-16, 1990 are presented. A tutorial on computer security is presented. The goals of this tutorial are the following: to review security requirements imposed by government and by common sense; to examine risk analysis methods to help keep sight of forest while in trees; to discuss the current hot topic of viruses (which will stay hot); to examine network security, now and in the next year to 30 years; to give a brief overview of encryption; to review protection methods in operating systems; to review database security problems; to review the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (Orange Book); to comment on formal verification methods; to consider new approaches (like intrusion detection and biometrics); to review the old, low tech, and still good solutions; and to give pointers to the literature and to where to get help. Other topics covered include security in software applications and development; risk management; trust: formal methods and associated techniques; secure distributed operating system and verification; trusted Ada; a conceptual model for supporting a B3+ dynamic multilevel security and integrity in the Ada runtime environment; and information intelligence sciences.

  13. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  14. Cyberinfrastructure for the digital brain: spatial standards for integrating rodent brain atlases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya eZaslavsky

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical research entails capture and analysis of massive data volumes and new discoveries arise from data-integration and mining. This is only possible if data can be mapped onto a common framework such as the genome for genomic data. In neuroscience, the framework is intrinsically spatial and based on a number of paper atlases. This cannot meet today’s data-intensive analysis and integration challenges. A scalable and extensible software infrastructure that is standards based but open for novel data and resources, is required for integrating information such as signal distributions, gene-expression, neuronal connectivity, electrophysiology, anatomy, and developmental processes. Therefore, the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF initiated the development of a spatial framework for neuroscience data integration with an associated Digital Atlasing Infrastructure (DAI. A prototype implementation of this infrastructure for the rodent brain is reported here. The infrastructure is based on a collection of reference spaces to which data is mapped at the required resolution, such as the Waxholm Space (WHS, a 3D reconstruction of the brain generated using high-resolution, multi-channel microMRI. The core standards of the digital atlasing service-oriented infrastructure include Waxholm Markup Language (WaxML: XML schema expressing a uniform information model for key elements such as coordinate systems, transformations, points of interest (POIs, labels, and annotations; and Atlas Web Services: interfaces for querying and updating atlas data. The services return WaxML-encoded documents with information about capabilities, spatial reference systems and structures, and execute coordinate transformations and POI-based requests. Key elements of INCF-DAI cyberinfrastructure have been prototyped for both mouse and rat brain atlas sources, including the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, UCSD Cell-Centered Database, and Edinburgh Mouse Atlas

  15. Brain tumor symptoms as antecedents to uncertainty: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Jennifer; LoBiondo-Wood, Geri; Bergstrom, Nancy; Armstrong, Terri

    2012-06-01

    Uncertainty is a common experience within human cancer. For brain tumor patients, irregular symptom pattern and presentation may promote uncertainties about treatment response, prognosis, and life quality. We sought to identify the somatic symptom experience associated with primary and secondary brain tumors and the potential impact on illness-related uncertainty. An integrative literature search of Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) was performed. Symptom data were excerpted into tables and reviewed critically against the broader uncertainty-focused oncology literature. Twenty-one studies investigated a diverse range of brain tumor symptoms that persist through the now-expanding, post-treatment survival. While symptoms such as fatigue were common, antecedents and patterns were poorly characterized and inconsistent between and within categories of tumor. Symptom investigation is an emerging and rapidly developing area of neuro-oncology. The extent to which symptoms are familiar, predictable, and understandable can mitigate uncertainty. The unstable nature of symptoms across the trajectory of a brain tumor may be a significant corollary to illness-related uncertainty. Because the majority of brain tumor patients cannot be cured of their cancer, understanding the symptom expanse and potential to promote uncertainty could inform alternative nursing strategies to reduce anxiety and distress, and to preserve life quality where cure is often unattainable. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  16. Integration of language and sensor information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid I.; Weijers, Bertus

    2003-04-01

    The talk describes the development of basic technologies of intelligent systems fusing data from multiple domains and leading to automated computational techniques for understanding data contents. Understanding involves inferring appropriate decisions and recommending proper actions, which in turn requires fusion of data and knowledge about objects, situations, and actions. Data might include sensory data, verbal reports, intelligence intercepts, or public records, whereas knowledge ought to encompass the whole range of objects, situations, people and their behavior, and knowledge of languages. In the past, a fundamental difficulty in combining knowledge with data was the combinatorial complexity of computations, too many combinations of data and knowledge pieces had to be evaluated. Recent progress in understanding of natural intelligent systems, including the human mind, leads to the development of neurophysiologically motivated architectures for solving these challenging problems, in particular the role of emotional neural signals in overcoming combinatorial complexity of old logic-based approaches. Whereas past approaches based on logic tended to identify logic with language and thinking, recent studies in cognitive linguistics have led to appreciation of more complicated nature of linguistic models. Little is known about the details of the brain mechanisms integrating language and thinking. Understanding and fusion of linguistic information with sensory data represent a novel challenging aspect of the development of integrated fusion systems. The presentation will describe a non-combinatorial approach to this problem and outline techniques that can be used for fusing diverse and uncertain knowledge with sensory and linguistic data.

  17. New Information about Albert Einstein's Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Dean

    2009-01-01

    In order to glean information about hominin (or other) brains that no longer exist, details of external neuroanatomy that are reproduced on endocranial casts (endocasts) from fossilized braincases may be described and interpreted. Despite being, of necessity, speculative, such studies can be very informative when conducted in light of the literature on comparative neuroanatomy, paleontology, and functional imaging studies. Albert Einstein's brain no longer exists in an intact state, but there are photographs of it in various views. Applying techniques developed from paleoanthropology, previously unrecognized details of external neuroanatomy are identified on these photographs. This information should be of interest to paleoneurologists, comparative neuroanatomists, historians of science, and cognitive neuroscientists. The new identifications of cortical features should also be archived for future scholars who will have access to additional information from improved functional imaging technology. Meanwhile, to the extent possible, Einstein's cerebral cortex is investigated in light of available data about variation in human sulcal patterns. Although much of his cortical surface was unremarkable, regions in and near Einstein's primary somatosensory and motor cortices were unusual. It is possible that these atypical aspects of Einstein's cerebral cortex were related to the difficulty with which he acquired language, his preference for thinking in sensory impressions including visual images rather than words, and his early training on the violin.

  18. Neo-classical principles for information integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaanse, R.; Hulstijn, J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: For inter-organizational systems, integrity of information is crucial: how to make sure that the information represented in a system will continue to faithfully represent business reality? In this paper we present a neo-classical approach to information integrity. We apply „classic?

  19. Information Integration; The process of integration, evolution and versioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keijzer, Ander; van Keulen, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    At present, many information sources are available wherever you are. Most of the time, the information needed is spread across several of those information sources. Gathering this information is a tedious and time consuming job. Automating this process would assist the user in its task. Integration

  20. Integrated information theory: from consciousness to its physical substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Melanie; Massimini, Marcello; Koch, Christof

    2016-07-01

    In this Opinion article, we discuss how integrated information theory accounts for several aspects of the relationship between consciousness and the brain. Integrated information theory starts from the essential properties of phenomenal experience, from which it derives the requirements for the physical substrate of consciousness. It argues that the physical substrate of consciousness must be a maximum of intrinsic cause-effect power and provides a means to determine, in principle, the quality and quantity of experience. The theory leads to some counterintuitive predictions and can be used to develop new tools for assessing consciousness in non-communicative patients.

  1. Formal learning theory dissociates brain regions with different temporal integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläscher, Jan; Büchel, Christian

    2005-07-21

    Learning can be characterized as the extraction of reliable predictions about stimulus occurrences from past experience. In two experiments, we investigated the interval of temporal integration of previous learning trials in different brain regions using implicit and explicit Pavlovian fear conditioning with a dynamically changing reinforcement regime in an experimental setting. With formal learning theory (the Rescorla-Wagner model), temporal integration is characterized by the learning rate. Using fMRI and this theoretical framework, we are able to distinguish between learning-related brain regions that show long temporal integration (e.g., amygdala) and higher perceptual regions that integrate only over a short period of time (e.g., fusiform face area, parahippocampal place area). This approach allows for the investigation of learning-related changes in brain activation, as it can dissociate brain areas that differ with respect to their integration of past learning experiences by either computing long-term outcome predictions or instantaneous reinforcement expectancies.

  2. Dynamic Functional Segregation and Integration in Human Brain Network During Complex Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen Ren; Junhua Li; Taya, Fumihiko; deSouza, Joshua; Thakor, Nitish V; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2017-06-01

    The analysis of the topology and organization of brain networks is known to greatly benefit from network measures in graph theory. However, to evaluate dynamic changes of brain functional connectivity, more sophisticated quantitative metrics characterizing temporal evolution of brain topological features are required. To simplify conversion of time-varying brain connectivity to a static graph representation is straightforward but the procedure loses temporal information that could be critical in understanding the brain functions. To extend the understandings of functional segregation and integration to a dynamic fashion, we recommend dynamic graph metrics to characterise temporal changes of topological features of brain networks. This study investigated functional segregation and integration of brain networks over time by dynamic graph metrics derived from EEG signals during an experimental protocol: performance of complex flight simulation tasks with multiple levels of difficulty. We modelled time-varying brain functional connectivity as multi-layer networks, in which each layer models brain connectivity at time window t + Δt. Dynamic graph metrics were calculated to quantify temporal and topological properties of the network. Results show that brain networks under the performance of complex tasks reveal a dynamic small-world architecture with a number of frequently connected nodes or hubs, which supports the balance of information segregation and integration in brain over time. The results also show that greater cognitive workloads caused by more difficult tasks induced a more globally efficient but less clustered dynamic small-world functional network. Our study illustrates that task-related changes of functional brain network segregation and integration can be characterized by dynamic graph metrics.

  3. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ITIS is an easily accessible database with reliable information on species names and their hierarchical classification that is publicly accessible with unlimited...

  4. Work-up times in an integrated brain cancer pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Laursen, Emilie; Rasmussen, Birthe Krogh

    2012-01-01

    The integrated brain cancer pathway (IBCP) aims to ensure fast-track diagnostics and treatment for brain cancers in Denmark. This paper focuses on the referral pattern and the time frame of key pathway elements during the first two years following implementation of the IBCP in a regional neurology...

  5. Information integration using belief functions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A. G. (Alyson G.)

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the use of belief functions (also known as Dempster-Shafer methods) in statistical reliability problems. Starting from the standard Bayesian model for estimating the survival probability in a binomial model, the problem is changed slightly to introduce indirect information. A Bayesian and a Dempster-Shafer approach are proposed for the new problem. The basic properties of the Dempster-Shafer method are discussed, along with connections to the theory of random sets.

  6. Integrated Primary Care Information Database (IPCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Integrated Primary Care Information Database is a longitudinal observational database that was created specifically for pharmacoepidemiological and pharmacoeconomic studies, inlcuding data from computer-based patient records supplied voluntarily by general practitioners.

  7. Representation and Integration of Scientific Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this Joint Research Interchange with NASA-Ames was to investigate how the Tsimmis technology could be used to represent and integrate scientific information. The funding allowed us to work with researchers within NAS at the NASA Ames Research Center, to understand their information needs, and to work with them on integration strategies. Most organizations have a need to access and integrate information from multiple, disparate information sources that may include both structured as well as semi-structured information. At Stanford we have been working on an information integration project called Tsimmis, supported by DARPA. The main goal of the Tsimmis project is to allow a decision maker to find information of interest from such sources, fuse it, and process it (e.g., summarize it, visualize it, discover trends). Another important goal is the easy incorporation of new sources, as well the ability of deal with sources whose structure or services evolve. During the Interchange we had research meetings approximately every month or two. The participants from NASA included Michael Cox and Peter Vanderbilt. The Stanford PI, and various students and Stanford staff members also participated. NASA researchers also participated in some of our regular Tsimmis meetings. As planned, our meetings discussed problems and solutions to various information integration problems.

  8. Integration of information operations in combat

    OpenAIRE

    Quick, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine whether the U.S. military is fully integrating information operations in combat operations. Using the organizational theories of Henry Mintzberg and the work of Richard Daft as one frame of reference, and the information theories of Claude Shannon, John Diebold, and Martin Libicki as the second frame of reference, this thesis produced testable propositions to determine which theory had a greater ability to explain the degree of integration as seen ...

  9. An integration of integrated information theory with fundamental physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Adam B

    2014-01-01

    To truly eliminate Cartesian ghosts from the science of consciousness, we must describe consciousness as an aspect of the physical. Integrated Information Theory states that consciousness arises from intrinsic information generated by dynamical systems; however existing formulations of this theory are not applicable to standard models of fundamental physical entities. Modern physics has shown that fields are fundamental entities, and in particular that the electromagnetic field is fundamental. Here I hypothesize that consciousness arises from information intrinsic to fundamental fields. This hypothesis unites fundamental physics with what we know empirically about the neuroscience underlying consciousness, and it bypasses the need to consider quantum effects.

  10. Integrated plant information technology design support functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Seung; Kim, Dae Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Barber, P. W.; Goland, D. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd., (Canada)

    1996-06-01

    This technical report was written as a result of Integrated Plant Information System (IPIS) feasibility study on CANDU 9 project which had been carried out from January, 1994 to March, 1994 at AECL (Atomic Energy Canada Limited) in Canada. From 1987, AECL had done endeavour to change engineering work process from paper based work process to computer based work process through CANDU 3 project. Even though AECL had a lot of good results form computerizing the Process Engineering, Instrumentation Control and Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Computer Aided Design and Drafting, and Document Management System, but there remains the problem of information isolation and integration. On this feasibility study, IPIS design support functionality guideline was suggested by evaluating current AECL CAE tools, analyzing computer aided engineering task and work flow, investigating request for implementing integrated computer aided engineering and describing Korean request for future CANDU design including CANDU 9. 6 figs. (Author).

  11. Problems of information technologies integration into humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana F. Milova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The author considers main transformations impacted by information technologies in humanitarian researches, discourse and education. Net resources, штащкьфешщт exchange, hypertext and interactive learn means are focused as key integration points.

  12. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic Information ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 1. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic Information System to target restoration actions in watersheds of arid environment: A case study of Hathmati watershed, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat. Dhruvesh P Patel Prashant K Srivastava ...

  13. Relevance of integrating Information Communication Technology (ICT)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the tool of Information Communication Technology (ICT), its relevance and the need to integrate it into teacher formation programmes in Nigerian universities. The paper defined ICT in pedagogical context and so established its implicatians in education management for teacher education.

  14. Curriculum integrated information literacy: a challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Mette; Kobow, Else; Kristensen, Anne-Kirstine Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    Information literacy is a competence needed for students and for practitioners in the nursing profession. A curriculum integrated intervention was qualitatively evaluated by focus group interviews of students, lecturers and the university librarian. Information literacy makes sense for students...... when it is linked to assignments, timed right, prepared, systematic and continuous. Support is needed to help students understand the meaning of seeking information, to focus their problem and to make them reflect on their search and its results. Feedback on materials used is also asked for....... The librarian must know the students prerequisites. Knowledge of each other’s profession helps us to refer students when needed....

  15. The modular and integrative functional architecture of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolero, Maxwell A; Yeo, B T Thomas; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-12-08

    Network-based analyses of brain imaging data consistently reveal distinct modules and connector nodes with diverse global connectivity across the modules. How discrete the functions of modules are, how dependent the computational load of each module is to the other modules' processing, and what the precise role of connector nodes is for between-module communication remains underspecified. Here, we use a network model of the brain derived from resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data and investigate the modular functional architecture of the human brain by analyzing activity at different types of nodes in the network across 9,208 experiments of 77 cognitive tasks in the BrainMap database. Using an author-topic model of cognitive functions, we find a strong spatial correspondence between the cognitive functions and the network's modules, suggesting that each module performs a discrete cognitive function. Crucially, activity at local nodes within the modules does not increase in tasks that require more cognitive functions, demonstrating the autonomy of modules' functions. However, connector nodes do exhibit increased activity when more cognitive functions are engaged in a task. Moreover, connector nodes are located where brain activity is associated with many different cognitive functions. Connector nodes potentially play a role in between-module communication that maintains the modular function of the brain. Together, these findings provide a network account of the brain's modular yet integrated implementation of cognitive functions.

  16. INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE PROVIDING BEHAVIORAL FEATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Shvedenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with creation of integrated information system architecture capable of supporting management decisions using behavioral features. The paper considers the architecture of information decision support system for production system management. The behavioral feature is given to an information system, and it ensures extraction, processing of information, management decision-making with both automated and automatic modes of decision-making subsystem being permitted. Practical implementation of information system with behavior is based on service-oriented architecture: there is a set of independent services in the information system that provides data of its subsystems or data processing by separate application under the chosen variant of the problematic situation settlement. For creation of integrated information system with behavior we propose architecture including the following subsystems: data bus, subsystem for interaction with the integrated applications based on metadata, business process management subsystem, subsystem for the current state analysis of the enterprise and management decision-making, behavior training subsystem. For each problematic situation a separate logical layer service is created in Unified Service Bus handling problematic situations. This architecture reduces system information complexity due to the fact that with a constant amount of system elements the number of links decreases, since each layer provides communication center of responsibility for the resource with the services of corresponding applications. If a similar problematic situation occurs, its resolution is automatically removed from problem situation metamodel repository and business process metamodel of its settlement. In the business process performance commands are generated to the corresponding centers of responsibility to settle a problematic situation.

  17. Unveiling the mystery of visual information processing in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-08-15

    It is generally accepted that human vision is an extremely powerful information processing system that facilitates our interaction with the surrounding world. However, despite extended and extensive research efforts, which encompass many exploration fields, the underlying fundamentals and operational principles of visual information processing in human brain remain unknown. We still are unable to figure out where and how along the path from eyes to the cortex the sensory input perceived by the retina is converted into a meaningful object representation, which can be consciously manipulated by the brain. Studying the vast literature considering the various aspects of brain information processing, I was surprised to learn that the respected scholarly discussion is totally indifferent to the basic keynote question: "What is information?" in general or "What is visual information?" in particular. In the old days, it was assumed that any scientific research approach has first to define its basic departure points. Why was it overlooked in brain information processing research remains a conundrum. In this paper, I am trying to find a remedy for this bizarre situation. I propose an uncommon definition of "information", which can be derived from Kolmogorov's Complexity Theory and Chaitin's notion of Algorithmic Information. Embracing this new definition leads to an inevitable revision of traditional dogmas that shape the state of the art of brain information processing research. I hope this revision would better serve the challenging goal of human visual information processing modeling.

  18. An integrated surgical suite management information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J B; Cantrell, M E; Fichman, R G; Hunsberger, P K; Radoyevich, M

    1984-08-01

    The operational aspects, application areas, and results achieved from an integrated surgical suite management information system are described. The system, which has been operating within Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, Michigan, for 4 years, captures comprehensive data for each surgical episode, performs extensive edits on these data to assure data base integrity, and utilizes this data base in multiple applications. These applications include fixed-format reporting for medical staff and management; ad hoc retrieval capabilities to support research, education, and decision making; and linkage to other hospital systems to reduce both data redundancy and paper flow.

  19. NF-κB and epigenetic mechanisms as integrative regulators of brain resilience to anoxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnico, Ilenia; Branca, Caterina; Lanzillotta, Annamaria; Porrini, Vanessa; Benarese, Marina; Spano, Pier Franco; Pizzi, Marina

    2012-10-02

    Brain cells display an amazing ability to respond to several different types of environmental stimuli and integrate this response physiologically. Some of these responses can outlive the original stimulus by days, weeks or even longer. Long-lasting changes in both physiological and pathological conditions occurring in response to external stimuli are almost always mediated by changes in gene expression. To effect these changes, cells have developed an impressive repertoire of signaling systems designed to modulate the activity of numerous transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms affecting the chromatin structure. Since its initial characterization in the nervous system, NF-κB has shown to respond to multiple signals and elicit pleiotropic activities suggesting that it may play a pivotal role in integration of different types of information within the brain. Ample evidence demonstrates that NF-κB factors are engaged in and necessary for neuronal development and synaptic plasticity, but they also regulate brain response to environmental noxae. By focusing on the complexity of NF-κB transcriptional activity in neuronal cell death, it emerged that the composition of NF-κB active dimers finely tunes the neuronal vulnerability to brain ischemia. Even though we are only beginning to understand the contribution of distinct NF-κB family members to the regulation of gene transcription in the brain, an additional level of regulation of NF-κB activity has emerged as operated by the epigenetic mechanisms modulating histone acetylation. We will discuss NF-κB and epigenetic mechanisms as integrative regulators of brain resilience to anoxic stress and useful drug targets for restoration of brain function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Brain Integration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Need-information organization of brain activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonov, P V

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results and literature data point to the leading role of four brain structures in the genesis of emotional states and in the organization of goal directed behaviour. Owing to the functioning of the frontal parts of the neocortex behaviour is oriented to signals with a high probability of their reinforcement, and owing to the hypothalamus--to satisfaction of the dominant need. Unlike the neocortex the hippocampus is necessary for reactions to signals of lowly probable events, which is typical of emotionally exicted brain. The amygdala complx participates in creation of a balance, a dynamic co-existence between completing needs (motivations) and corresponding emotions. As a result, behaviour becomes more plastic and adequate to the given situation.

  1. Integrated Genomic and Epigenomic Analysis of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhia, Bodour; Kiefer, Jeff; Ross, Julianna T. D.; Metapally, Raghu; Martinez, Rae Anne; Johnson, Kyle N.; DiPerna, Danielle M.; Paquette, Kimberly M.; Jung, Sungwon; Nasser, Sara; Wallstrom, Garrick; Tembe, Waibhav; Baker, Angela; Carpten, John; Resau, Jim; Ryken, Timothy; Sibenaller, Zita; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Liotta, Lance A.; Ramanathan, Ramesh K.; Berens, Michael E.; Tran, Nhan L.

    2014-01-01

    The brain is a common site of metastatic disease in patients with breast cancer, which has few therapeutic options and dismal outcomes. The purpose of our study was to identify common and rare events that underlie breast cancer brain metastasis. We performed deep genomic profiling, which integrated gene copy number, gene expression and DNA methylation datasets on a collection of breast brain metastases. We identified frequent large chromosomal gains in 1q, 5p, 8q, 11q, and 20q and frequent broad-level deletions involving 8p, 17p, 21p and Xq. Frequently amplified and overexpressed genes included ATAD2, BRAF, DERL1, DNMTRB and NEK2A. The ATM, CRYAB and HSPB2 genes were commonly deleted and underexpressed. Knowledge mining revealed enrichment in cell cycle and G2/M transition pathways, which contained AURKA, AURKB and FOXM1. Using the PAM50 breast cancer intrinsic classifier, Luminal B, Her2+/ER negative, and basal-like tumors were identified as the most commonly represented breast cancer subtypes in our brain metastasis cohort. While overall methylation levels were increased in breast cancer brain metastasis, basal-like brain metastases were associated with significantly lower levels of methylation. Integrating DNA methylation data with gene expression revealed defects in cell migration and adhesion due to hypermethylation and downregulation of PENK, EDN3, and ITGAM. Hypomethylation and upregulation of KRT8 likely affects adhesion and permeability. Genomic and epigenomic profiling of breast brain metastasis has provided insight into the somatic events underlying this disease, which have potential in forming the basis of future therapeutic strategies. PMID:24489661

  2. Information delivery manuals to integrate building product information into design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berard, Ole Bengt; Karlshøj, Jan

    2011-01-01

    . Traditional business process modeling languages often fail to completely cover all four perspectives. BuildingSMART has proposed Information Delivery Manuals (IDMs) to model and re-engineer processes that address the four perspectives through a collaborative methodology in order to standardize and implement...... them in information systems. BIM implies that objects are bearers of information and logic. The present study has three main aims: (1) to explore IDMs capability to capture all four perspectives, (2) to determine whether an IDM’s collaborative methodology is valid for developing standardized processes......, and (3) to ascertain whether IDM’s business rules can support the development of information and logic-bearing BIM objects. The research is based on a case study of re-engineering the bidding process for a design-build project to integrate building product manufacturers, subcontractors...

  3. Information delivery manuals to integrate building product information into design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berard, Ole Bengt; Karlshøj, Jan

    2013-01-01

    . Traditional business process modeling languages often fail to completely cover all four perspectives. BuildingSMART has proposed Information Delivery Manuals (IDMs) to model and re-engineer processes that address the four perspectives through a collaborative methodology in order to standardize and implement...... them in information systems. BIM implies that objects are bearers of information and logic. The present study has three main aims: (1) to explore IDMs capability to capture all four perspectives, (2) to determine whether an IDM's collaborative methodology is valid for developing standardized processes......, and (3) to ascertain whether IDM's business rules can support the development of information and logic-bearing BIM objects. The research is based on a case study of reengineering the bidding process for a design-build project to integrate building product manufacturers, subcontractors and their knowledge...

  4. Integrated Administration of the Organizations Informational Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations grow and develop continuosly and information volume grows in the same rythm, which makes from improvement or changing the old counting systems an imperative. More and more companies, instead of continuing to invest in small applications choose integrated informational solutions, which are adapted to the user’s daily needsfrom, all decisional levels. Although apparently profitable from the costs point of view, small applications assure only the simple economical solutions between clients, partners, furnisors, and employees. For high business volume companies, this kind of applications become useless in a short time, fact that involves extra sustained investitions

  5. Integrated information systems: tools for affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P A

    1995-05-01

    The development of healthcare information systems as tools to facilitate business success traditionally has focused on a single profit center. The cataclysmic changes that are reshaping American healthcare have accelerated the affiliation of provider entities to form systems that have broader geographic coverage, deliver a larger portion of the provider continuum of care, and are more attractive partners for purchasers of healthcare services. Integrated and/or standardized information system technologies can provide great benefit in containing costs and optimizing quality among partners resulting from healthcare mergers and acquisitions as the new entity positions itself to increase market share and enhance its bottom line. Graduate Health System (GHS) in the Philadelphia area has demonstrated the efficacy of its investment to build a system-wide information network that delivers multiple standardized, integrated systems for both the financial and operational advantage of all component institutions. Building on its patient information system as the centerpiece of its information strategy, GHS has deployed a variety of tools across its network infrastructure that have brought new capabilities and savings to its member hospitals. In light of some of GHS's successes, other hospitals and healthcare systems may be able to re-create similar savings and efficiencies by applying like strategies in cooperation with their affiliated partners.

  6. Information survey for microcomputer systems integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, K.A.

    1991-12-01

    One goal of the PM-AIM is to provide US Army Project Managers (PMs) and Project Executive Officers (PEOs) with a fundamental microcomputing resource to help perform acquisition information management and its concomitant reporting requirements. Providing key application software represents one means of accomplishing this goal. This workstation would furnish a broad range of capabilities needed in the PM and PEO office settings as well as software tools for specific project management and acquisition information. Although still in the conceptual phase, the practical result of this exercise in systems integration will likely be a system called the Project Manager's Information System (PMIS) or the AIM workstation. It would include such software as, Project Manager's System Software (PMSS), Defense Acquisition Executive Summary (DAES), and Consolidated Acquisition Reporting System (CARS) and would conform to open systems architecture as accepted by the Department of Defense. ORNL has assisted PM-AIM in the development of technology ideas for the PMIS workstation concept. This paper represents the compilation of information gained during this process. This information is presented as a body of knowledge (or knowledge domain) defining the complex technology of microcomputing. The concept of systems integration or tying together all hardware and software components reflects the nature of PM-AIM's task in attempting to field a PMIS or AIM workstation.

  7. Information survey for microcomputer systems integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, K.A.

    1991-12-01

    One goal of the PM-AIM is to provide US Army Project Managers (PMs) and Project Executive Officers (PEOs) with a fundamental microcomputing resource to help perform acquisition information management and its concomitant reporting requirements. Providing key application software represents one means of accomplishing this goal. This workstation would furnish a broad range of capabilities needed in the PM and PEO office settings as well as software tools for specific project management and acquisition information. Although still in the conceptual phase, the practical result of this exercise in systems integration will likely be a system called the Project Manager`s Information System (PMIS) or the AIM workstation. It would include such software as, Project Manager`s System Software (PMSS), Defense Acquisition Executive Summary (DAES), and Consolidated Acquisition Reporting System (CARS) and would conform to open systems architecture as accepted by the Department of Defense. ORNL has assisted PM-AIM in the development of technology ideas for the PMIS workstation concept. This paper represents the compilation of information gained during this process. This information is presented as a body of knowledge (or knowledge domain) defining the complex technology of microcomputing. The concept of systems integration or tying together all hardware and software components reflects the nature of PM-AIM`s task in attempting to field a PMIS or AIM workstation.

  8. Integrated Engineering Information Technology, FY93 accommplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.N.; Miller, D.K.; Neugebauer, G.L.; Orona, J.R.; Partridge, R.A.; Herman, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Engineering Information Technology (IEIT) project is providing a comprehensive, easy-to-use computer network solution or communicating with coworkers both inside and outside Sandia National Laboratories. IEIT capabilities include computer networking, electronic mail, mechanical design, and data management. These network-based tools have one fundamental purpose: to help create a concurrent engineering environment that will enable Sandia organizations to excel in today`s increasingly competitive business environment.

  9. Toward defining the anatomo-proteomic puzzle of the human brain: An integrative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Irigoyen, Joaquín; Labarga, Alberto; Zabaleta, Aintzane; de Morentin, Xabier Martínez; Perez-Valderrama, Estela; Zelaya, María Victoria; Santamaria, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    The human brain is exceedingly complex, constituted by billions of neurons and trillions of synaptic connections that, in turn, define ∼900 neuroanatomical subdivisions in the adult brain (Hawrylycz et al. An anatomically comprehensive atlas of the human brain transcriptome. Nature 2012, 489, 391-399). The human brain transcriptome has revealed specific regional transcriptional signatures that are regulated in a spatiotemporal manner, increasing the complexity of the structural and molecular organization of this organ (Kang et al. Spatio-temporal transcriptome of the human brain. Nature 2011, 478, 483-489). During the last decade, neuroproteomics has emerged as a powerful approach to profile neural proteomes using shotgun-based MS, providing complementary information about protein content and function at a global level. Here, we revise recent proteome profiling studies performed in human brain, with special emphasis on proteome mapping of anatomical macrostructures, specific subcellular compartments, and cerebrospinal fluid. Moreover, we have performed an integrative functional analysis of the protein compilation derived from these large-scale human brain proteomic studies in order to obtain a comprehensive view of human brain biology. Finally, we also discuss the potential contribution of our meta-analysis to the Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project initiative. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Brain Radiation Information Data Exchange (BRIDE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karapiperis, Christos; Kempf, Stefan J; Quintens, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The underlying molecular processes representing stress responses to low-dose ionising radiation (LDIR) in mammals are just beginning to be understood. In particular, LDIR effects on the brain and their possible association with neurodegenerative disease are currently being explored...... studies. It deploys a hybrid, distributed solution using both local storage and cloud technology. Conclusions: BRIDE can act as a knowledge broker for LDIR researchers, to facilitate molecular research on the systems biology of LDIR response in mammals. Its flexible design can capture a range...

  11. Intelligent Support for Solving Classification Differences in Statistical Information Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2003-01-01

    Integration of heterogeneous statistics is essential for political decision making on all levels. Like in intelligent information integration in general, the problem is to combine information from different autonomous sources, using different ontologies. However, in statistical information

  12. The integration of functional brain activity from adolescence to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Prantik; Benson, Brenda E; Rosen, Dana; Frangou, Sophia; Leibenluft, Ellen; Luh, Wen-Ming; Bandettini, Peter A; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

    2018-02-27

    Age-related changes in human functional neuroanatomy are poorly understood. This is partly due to the limits to interpretation of standard fMRI. These limits relate to age-related variation in noise levels across subjects, and the frequent need for standard adult parcellations in developmental studies. Here we used an emerging MRI approach called multi-echo (ME)-fMRI to characterize functional brain changes with age. ME-fMRI acquires blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals while also quantifying T2* signal decay. This newly enables reliable analysis of BOLD components at the subject level. We hypothesized that BOLD components of the resting state are not stable with age, and would decrease in number from adolescence to adulthood. This runs counter to the current assumptions in neurodevelopmental analyses of brain connectivity that the number of components is a random effect. From resting state ME-fMRI of 51 healthy subjects of both sexes, between ages of 8.3 and 46.2 y, we found a highly significant (R=-0.55, p[dlt]0.001) exponential decrease in the number of BOLD components with age. The number of BOLD components were halved from adolescence to the fifth decade of life, stabilizing in middle adulthood. The regions driving this change were dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, parietal cortex, and cerebellum. The functional network of these regions centered on the cerebellum. We conclude that age-related decrease in BOLD component number concurs with the hypothesis of neurodevelopmental integration of functional brain activity. We show evidence that the cerebellum may play a key role in this process. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Human brain development is ongoing to at least age 30. Functional MRI (fMRI) is key for studying the change in brain function with development. However, developmental fMRI studies have relied on reference maps of brain organization derived from adult data. This may limit sensitivity to major differences in younger brains. We created an f

  13. Integrated Information System for Higher Education Qualifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Ionut SILVESTRU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we aim to study thoroughly and detail aspects related to architectures specific for e-learning and management of human resources training interconnected to management of qualifications. In addition, we take into consideration combining e-learning architectures with software in an e-learning system interconnected with the National Registry of Qualifications of Higher Education, in view of developing and information system that correlates educational supply from higher education from Romania with labor market demands through qualifications. The scientific endeavor consists of original architectural solutions to integrate data, systems, processes, services from various sources and to use them in the proposed system. The practical result of the scientific endeavor is represented by design of architectures required for developing an e-learning system interconnected with the National Registry of Qualifications from Romania, which involve in first stage the qualifications provided by higher education. The proposed innovative solution consists in the fact that the proposed information system combines the advantages of content management system (CMS with learning content management system (LCMS and with reusable learning objects (RLO. Thus, the architecture proposed in the research ensures the integration of a content management system with a portal for information, guidance and support in making a professional project. The integration enables correlation of competences with content areas and specific items from various teaching subjects, thus evaluating the usefulness for this registry from learning/educational perspective. Using the proposed information system in enables correlation among qualifications, content of educational program and continuous self-evaluation opportunities, which facilitate monitoring of progress and adjustment of learning content.

  14. The Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte M.; Jensen, Peter S.; Erritzoe, David

    2016-01-01

    We here describe a multimodality neuroimaging containing data from healthy volunteers and patients, acquired within the Lundbeck Foundation Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) in Copenhagen, Denmark. The data is of particular relevance for neurobiological research questions rela...... currently contains blood and in some instances saliva samples from about 500 healthy volunteers and 300 patients with e.g., major depression, dementia, substance abuse, obesity, and impulsive aggression. Data continue to be added to the Cimbi database and biobank....

  15. Integrate offsites management with information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valleur, M. (TECHNIP, Paris (France))

    1993-11-01

    Computerized offsites management systems in oil refineries offer a unique opportunity to integrate advanced technology into a coherent refinery information system that contributes to benefits-driven optimal operations: from long-term, multirefinery linear programming (LP) models to sequential control of transfer lineups in the tank farm. There are strong incentives to automate and optimize the offsites operations, and benefits can be quantified to justify properly sized projects. The paper discusses the following: business opportunities, oil movement and advanced technology, project scoping and sizing, review of functional requirements, transfer automation, blending optimal control, on-line analyzers, oil movement and scheduling, organizational issues, and investment and benefits analysis.

  16. Processing Of Visual Information In Primate Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles H.; Van Essen, David C.

    1991-01-01

    Report reviews and analyzes information-processing strategies and pathways in primate retina and visual cortex. Of interest both in biological fields and in such related computational fields as artificial neural networks. Focuses on data from macaque, which has superb visual system similar to that of humans. Authors stress concept of "good engineering" in understanding visual system.

  17. Social neuroscience, empathy, brain integration, and neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, James C

    2003-08-01

    Paul MacLean has investigated integrated brain functioning through selected brain lesions in animals that disturb circuits necessary for complex behaviors, such as social displays. MacLean is unique in his comparative neurobehavioral approach that emphasizes the evolutionary origins of parenting and social behaviors and the implications of brain changes in the evolution from reptiles (social displays) to mammals (nursing, audiovocal communication, play) to man (self-awareness, intentionality, social context) that link affect and cognition. Subjectively, how "looking with feeling toward others," the basic element in empathy, evolved has been a central concern of his. Neuroimaging studies of social cognition, mother-infant communication, moral behavior, forgiveness, and trust are consistent with particular brain systems being activated in cooperative social behaviors. The identification of mirror neurons is pertinent to MacLean's model of isopraxis and studies of thalamocortical resonances may be pertinent to his neurobehavioral models. Studies of behavioral phenotypes in human neurodevelopmental disorders are consistent with MacLean's model of brain circuits being linked to complex behaviors during development. In autistic disorder, the behavioral phenotype involves disrupted social communication, deviant imaginative play, and motor stereotypies. In Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS), self-injury occurs in individuals with normal sensory systems intact who require and request physical restraint to prevent self-injury; they ask for assistance from others to prevent them from harming themselves. Autism involves the lack of subjective awareness of others intentions and LNS involves a failure in self-regulation and self-control of self-injurious behavior. MacLean's models laid the groundwork for studies focused on understanding brain functioning in these conditions.

  18. Multi-sensory integration in a small brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepner, Ruben; Wolk, Jason; Gershow, Marc

    Understanding how fluctuating multi-sensory stimuli are integrated and transformed in neural circuits has proved a difficult task. To address this question, we study the sensori-motor transformations happening in the brain of the Drosophila larva, a tractable model system with about 10,000 neurons. Using genetic tools that allow us to manipulate the activity of individual brain cells through their transparent body, we observe the stochastic decisions made by freely-behaving animals as their visual and olfactory environments fluctuate independently. We then use simple linear-nonlinear models to correlate outputs with relevant features in the inputs, and adaptive filtering processes to track changes in these relevant parameters used by the larva's brain to make decisions. We show how these techniques allow us to probe how statistics of stimuli from different sensory modalities combine to affect behavior, and can potentially guide our understanding of how neural circuits are anatomically and functionally integrated. Supported by NIH Grant 1DP2EB022359 and NSF Grant PHY-1455015.

  19. Europlanet Integrated and Distributed Information Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W.; Capria, M. T.; Chanteur, G.

    2009-04-01

    During the past decades the various disciplines in planetary sciences have developed to a very high international standard. But the collaboration between the different fields should be improved. To overcome the current fragmentation of the EU Planetary Science community and thereby to increase the scientific return of the related investment, the EU commission is funding via its Framework Program 7 the development of the "Europlanet Research Infrastructure -Europlanet RI". The Europlanet RI will consolidate the integration of the European Planetary Science community which started with Europlanet's FP6 project and will integrate major parts of the related distributed European infrastructure to be shared, fed and expanded by all planetary scientists. This infrastructure encompasses as diverse components as space exploration, ground-based observations, laboratory experiments and numerical modeling teams. Europlanet RI aims at bringing scientists from Europe and beyond together who are working in these fields, support the exchange of experts and ideas and make as many resources and data as possible available to the research community. A central part of Europlanet RI is the "Integrated and Distributed Information Service" or Europlanet-IDIS. The task of IDIS as central part of Europlanet is to provide an easy-to-use Web-based platform to locate teams and laboratories with special knowledge needed to support the own research activities, give access to the wealth of already available data, initiate new research activities needed to interpret accumulated data or to solve open questions, and to exploit synergies between space-based missions and capabilities of ground based observatories. It also offers to a wide range of teams and laboratories the possibility to share their data, advertise their capabilities and increase the scientific return by cooperation. IDIS is organized as an EU FP7 Support Activity, consisting of different access nodes which are connected by

  20. From the genome to the phenome and back: linking genes with human brain function and structure using genetically informed neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, H R; Callicott, J H; Sommer, T

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, an array of brain mapping techniques has been successfully employed to link individual differences in circuit function or structure in the living human brain with individual variations in the human genome. Several proof-of-principle studies provided converging evidence that brain......, the integration of genetic and neuroimaging data also poses major methodological and conceptual challenges. Therefore, this special issue also focuses on how these challenges can be met to fully exploit the synergism of genetically informed brain imaging.......In recent years, an array of brain mapping techniques has been successfully employed to link individual differences in circuit function or structure in the living human brain with individual variations in the human genome. Several proof-of-principle studies provided converging evidence that brain...

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury and Special Education: An Information Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alice M.

    This resource guide of annotated references on traumatic brain injury (TBI) was created to help educators locate information from such disciplines as neurology, neuropsychology, rehabilitation, and pediatric medicine. Twenty-four resources published from 1990 to 1994 are listed, with annotations. The resources include research reports/reviews,…

  2. Integration of auditory and visual speech information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, M.; Smeele, P.M.T.; Kuhl, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    The integration of auditory and visual speech is observed when modes specify different places of articulation. Influences of auditory variation on integration were examined using consonant identifi-cation, plus quality and similarity ratings. Auditory identification predicted auditory-visual

  3. CSIR's new integrated electronic library information-system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Michie, A

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR has developed a CDROM-based electronic library information system which provides the ability to reproduce and search for published information and colour brochures on the computer screen. The system integrates this information with online...

  4. Integration of Social Information by Human Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovskiy, Boris; Gold, Jason M; Sumpter, David J T; Goldstone, Robert L

    2015-07-01

    We consider a situation in which individuals search for accurate decisions without direct feedback on their accuracy, but with information about the decisions made by peers in their group. The "wisdom of crowds" hypothesis states that the average judgment of many individuals can give a good estimate of, for example, the outcomes of sporting events and the answers to trivia questions. Two conditions for the application of wisdom of crowds are that estimates should be independent and unbiased. Here, we study how individuals integrate social information when answering trivia questions with answers that range between 0% and 100% (e.g., "What percentage of Americans are left-handed?"). We find that, consistent with the wisdom of crowds hypothesis, average performance improves with group size. However, individuals show a consistent bias to produce estimates that are insufficiently extreme. We find that social information provides significant, albeit small, improvement to group performance. Outliers with answers far from the correct answer move toward the position of the group mean. Given that these outliers also tend to be nearer to 50% than do the answers of other group members, this move creates group polarization away from 50%. By looking at individual performance over different questions we find that some people are more likely to be affected by social influence than others. There is also evidence that people differ in their competence in answering questions, but lack of competence is not significantly correlated with willingness to change guesses. We develop a mathematical model based on these results that postulates a cognitive process in which people first decide whether to take into account peer guesses, and if so, to move in the direction of these guesses. The size of the move is proportional to the distance between their own guess and the average guess of the group. This model closely approximates the distribution of guess movements and shows how outlying

  5. The NASA Integrated Information Technology Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Tim

    1997-01-01

    of IT systems, 3) the Technical Architecture: a common, vendor-independent framework for design, integration and implementation of IT systems and 4) the Product Architecture: vendor=specific IT solutions. The Systems Architecture is effectively a description of the end-user "requirements". Generalized end-user requirements are discussed and subsequently organized into specific mission and project functions. The Technical Architecture depicts the framework, and relationship, of the specific IT components that enable the end-user functionality as described in the Systems Architecture. The primary components as described in the Technical Architecture are: 1) Applications: Basic Client Component, Object Creation Applications, Collaborative Applications, Object Analysis Applications, 2) Services: Messaging, Information Broker, Collaboration, Distributed Processing, and 3) Infrastructure: Network, Security, Directory, Certificate Management, Enterprise Management and File System. This Architecture also provides specific Implementation Recommendations, the most significant of which is the recognition of IT as core to NASA activities and defines a plan, which is aligned with the NASA strategic planning processes, for keeping the Architecture alive and useful.

  6. Information Technologies and Supply Chain Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemoine, W; Mortensen, Ole

    integration. Our results show that the current business integra-tion practices between manufacturers and TLSPs are primarily restricted to some sub-processes in three key SC processes: Customer Service Management, order fulfillment and backwards logistics. The use of IT tools to support the integration has...... been quite limited. Some managerial considera-tions and upcoming challenges about the standardization of business processes are discussed....

  7. Understanding Information Systems Integration Deficiencies in Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Kettinger, William J.

    2017-01-01

    Information systems (IS) integration is a critical challenge for value-creating mergers and acquisitions. Appropriate design and implementation of IS integration is typically a precondition for enabling a majority of the anticipated business benefits of a combined organization. Often...

  8. Integrating Information Technologies Into Large Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlich, Gretchen; Meyer, John M.; Nelson, Michael L.; Bianco, David J.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center's product is aerospace research information. To this end, Langley uses information technology tools in three distinct ways. First, information technology tools are used in the production of information via computation, analysis, data collection and reduction. Second, information technology tools assist in streamlining business processes, particularly those that are primarily communication based. By applying these information tools to administrative activities, Langley spends fewer resources on managing itself and can allocate more resources for research. Third, Langley uses information technology tools to disseminate its aerospace research information, resulting in faster turn around time from the laboratory to the end-customer.

  9. Knowledge and information management for integrated water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed information systems that integrate data and analytical tools are critical enabling technologies to support Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) by converting data into information, and information into knowledge. Many factors bring people to the table to participate in an IWRM fra...

  10. Brain Tumor Database, a free relational database for collection and analysis of brain tumor patient information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamino, Maurizio; Hamilton, David J; Castelletti, Lara; Barletta, Laura; Castellan, Lucio

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we describe the development and utilization of a relational database designed to manage the clinical and radiological data of patients with brain tumors. The Brain Tumor Database was implemented using MySQL v.5.0, while the graphical user interface was created using PHP and HTML, thus making it easily accessible through a web browser. This web-based approach allows for multiple institutions to potentially access the database. The BT Database can record brain tumor patient information (e.g. clinical features, anatomical attributes, and radiological characteristics) and be used for clinical and research purposes. Analytic tools to automatically generate statistics and different plots are provided. The BT Database is a free and powerful user-friendly tool with a wide range of possible clinical and research applications in neurology and neurosurgery. The BT Database graphical user interface source code and manual are freely available at http://tumorsdatabase.altervista.org. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Taming Data Explosion in Probabilistic Information Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keijzer, Ander; van Keulen, Maurice; Li, Yiping

    2006-01-01

    Data integration has been a challenging problem for decades. In autonomous data integration, i.e., without a user to solve semantic uncertainty and conflicts between data sources, it even becomes a serious bottleneck. A probabilistic approach seems promising as it does not require extensive semantic

  12. Academic Integrity: Information Systems Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHaney, Roger; Cronan, Timothy Paul; Douglas, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Academic integrity receives a great deal of attention in institutions of higher education. Universities and colleges provide specific honor codes or have administrative units to promote good behaviors and resolve dishonesty allegations. Students, faculty, and staff have stakes in maintaining high levels of academic integrity to ensure their…

  13. Regional Logistics Information Resources Integration Patterns and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Shangguan, Xu-ming

    Effective integration of regional logistics information resources can provide collaborative services in information flow, business flow and logistics for regional logistics enterprises, which also can reduce operating costs and improve market responsiveness. First, this paper analyzes the realistic significance on the integration of regional logistics information. Second, this paper brings forward three feasible patterns on the integration of regional logistics information resources, These three models have their own strengths and the scope of application and implementation, which model is selected will depend on the specific business and the regional distribution of enterprises. Last, this paper discusses the related countermeasures on the integration of regional logistics information resources, because the integration of regional logistics information is a systems engineering, when the integration is advancing, the countermeasures should pay close attention to the current needs and long-term development of regional enterprises.

  14. The posterior parietal cortex as integrative hub for whisker sensorimotor information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Hemanth; de Haan, Roel; Mansvelder, Huibert D; de Kock, Christiaan P J

    2018-01-01

    Our daily life consists of a continuous interplay between incoming sensory information and outgoing motor plans. Particularly during goal-directed behavior and active exploration of the sensory environment, brain circuits are merging sensory and motor signals. This is referred to as sensorimotor integration and is relevant for locomotion, vision or tactile exploration. The somatosensory (tactile) system is an attractive modality to study sensorimotor integration in health and disease, motivated by the need for revolutionary technology that builds upon conceptual understanding of sensorimotor integration, such as brain-machine-interfaces and neuro-prosthetics. In this perspective, we focus on the rat whisker system and put forward the posterior parietal cortex as a potential circuit where sensorimotor integration could occur during active somatosensation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. The Information Integration in the SMEs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dan Marius Coman; Mihaela Horga; Denisa-Mihaela Coman

    2016-01-01

    ..., “Integrated Computer Systems ERP in SMEs” means a coordinated study for completion of undergraduate studies master's degree where we tried along with the graduate to identify ERP solutions available on the market in Romania, and to determine...

  16. Social information changes stress hormone receptor expression in the songbird brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Jamie M; Perreau, Gillian; Bishop, Valerie R; Krause, Jesse S; Smith, Rachael; Hahn, Thomas P; Meddle, Simone L

    2018-01-01

    Social information is used by many vertebrate taxa to inform decision-making, including resource-mediated movements, yet the mechanisms whereby social information is integrated physiologically to affect such decisions remain unknown. Social information is known to influence the physiological response to food reduction in captive songbirds. Red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) that were food reduced for several days showed significant elevations in circulating corticosterone (a "stress" hormone often responsive to food limitation) only if their neighbors were similarly food restricted. Physiological responses to glucocorticoid hormones are enacted through two receptors that may be expressed differentially in target tissues. Therefore, we investigated the influence of social information on the expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA in captive red crossbill brains. Although the role of MR and GR in the response to social information may be highly complex, we specifically predicted social information from food-restricted individuals would reduce MR and GR expression in two brain regions known to regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity - given that reduced receptor expression may lessen the efficacy of negative feedback and release inhibitory tone on the HPA. Our results support these predictions - offering one potential mechanism whereby social cues could increase or sustain HPA-activity during stress. The data further suggest different mechanisms by which metabolic stress versus social information influence HPA activity and behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduced Predictable Information in Brain Signals in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eGomez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a common developmental disorder characterized by communication difficulties and impaired social interaction. Recent results suggest altered brain dynamics as a potential cause of symptoms in ASD. Here, we aim to describe potential information-processing consequences of these alterations by measuring active information storage (AIS – a key quantity in the theory of distributed computation in biological networks. AIS is defined as the mutual information between the semi-infinite past of a process and its next state. It measures the amount of stored information that is used for computation of the next time step of a process. AIS is high for rich but predictable dynamics. We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG signals in 13 ASD patients and 14 matched control subjects in a visual task. After a beamformer source analysis, twelve task-relevant sources were obtained. For these sources, stationary baseline activity was analyzed using AIS. Our results showed a decrease of AIS values in the hippocampus of ASD patients in comparison with controls, meaning that brain signals in ASD were either less predictable, reduced in their dynamic richness or both. Our study suggests the usefulness of AIS to detect an abnormal type of dynamics in ASD. The observed changes in AIS are compatible with Bayesian theories of reduced use or precision of priors in ASD.

  18. Reduced predictable information in brain signals in autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Carlos; Lizier, Joseph T.; Schaum, Michael; Wollstadt, Patricia; Grützner, Christine; Uhlhaas, Peter; Freitag, Christine M.; Schlitt, Sabine; Bölte, Sven; Hornero, Roberto; Wibral, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common developmental disorder characterized by communication difficulties and impaired social interaction. Recent results suggest altered brain dynamics as a potential cause of symptoms in ASD. Here, we aim to describe potential information-processing consequences of these alterations by measuring active information storage (AIS)—a key quantity in the theory of distributed computation in biological networks. AIS is defined as the mutual information between the past state of a process and its next measurement. It measures the amount of stored information that is used for computation of the next time step of a process. AIS is high for rich but predictable dynamics. We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in 10 ASD patients and 14 matched control subjects in a visual task. After a beamformer source analysis, 12 task-relevant sources were obtained. For these sources, stationary baseline activity was analyzed using AIS. Our results showed a decrease of AIS values in the hippocampus of ASD patients in comparison with controls, meaning that brain signals in ASD were either less predictable, reduced in their dynamic richness or both. Our study suggests the usefulness of AIS to detect an abnormal type of dynamics in ASD. The observed changes in AIS are compatible with Bayesian theories of reduced use or precision of priors in ASD. PMID:24592235

  19. Should the science of adolescent brain development inform public policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2009-11-01

    One factor that has contributed to confusion in discussions of the use of adolescent neuroscience in the development of public policies affecting young people is a blurring of three very different issues that need to be separated: (a) what science does and does not say about brain development in adolescence; (b) what neuroscience does and does not imply for the understanding of adolescent behavior; and (c) what these implications suggest for public policy. In this article, the author argues that a good deal is known about adolescent brain development, that this knowledge has in fact been useful in shaping our understanding of adolescent behavior, and that neuroscience, like behavioral science, can usefully inform policy discussions. He cautions, however, that nonexperts may be unduly swayed by neuroscience evidence and thus that such evidence should be presented with special care. Copyright 2009 by the American Psychological Association

  20. Data and information integration framework for highway project decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This report presents a three-tiered framework to integrate data, information, and decision-making in highway projects. The study uses the Jurans Triple Role concept and context graph to illustrate the relationship between data, information, and de...

  1. SUPPLY CHAIN INFORMATION INTEGRATION THROUGH SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Milanovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years information integration became significant problem for both natural and legal persons in everyday operations. Huge amount of information are available, but insufficiently processed in order to have useful value. Choosing the right combination of tools and technologies for integration is prerequisite for requiring information from multiple heterogeneous sources and their qualitative and simple using after.In this paper, we have focused on information integration within companies which are parts of supply chain or network. This environment typically includes a various mix of sources, structured (such as relational or other databases, and unstructured (such as document repositories, spreadsheets, documents, web pages, emails and others. Effective information integration and sharing significantly enhances supply chain practices. Service oriented architecture (SOA is an architectural style for building software applications that use services available in a network such as the web. The use of SOA to achieve inter-enterprise supply network information integration has many advantages.

  2. Environment, safety, and health information technology systems integration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, David A.; Bayer, Gregory W.

    2006-02-01

    The ES&H Information Systems department, motivated by the numerous isolated information technology systems under its control, undertook a significant integration effort. This effort was planned and executed over the course of several years and parts of it still continue today. The effect was to help move the ES&H Information Systems department toward integration with the corporate Information Solutions and Services center.

  3. Development of a fidelity measure for community integration programmes for people with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvaneh, Shahriar; Cocks, Errol; Buchanan, Angus; Ghahari, Setareh

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes development of the Assessment of Community Integration Programme Attributes (ACIPA) measure based on a descriptive community integration framework. The purpose of this measure is to allow evaluation of community integration programmes for adults with acquired brain injury (ABI). The Community Integration Framework (CIF) was used to design a fidelity evaluation measure through consultation with 37 participants from five stakeholder groups (practitioners, researchers, policy-makers, people with ABI and family members of people with ABI) using semi-structured interviews, focus groups, iterative surveys and a multi-attribute utility (MAU) method. The resultant measure included seven themes and 21 attributes. Each attribute included indicators and probing questions. Weights were assigned to each theme and constituent attributes. Programme evaluation commonly focuses on outcomes, often overlooking analysis of programme processes. Although it requires further psychometric (reliability and validity) development, the Assessment of Community Integration Programme Attributes may be used to assess the relationship between programme processes and specific outcomes and also to inform the development of programmes aiming to enhance community integration for adults with ABI.

  4. The BRAIN Initiative Provides a Unifying Context for Integrating Core STEM Competencies into a Neurobiology Course

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    The Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative introduced by the Obama Administration in 2013 presents a context for integrating many STEM competencies into undergraduate neuroscience coursework. The BRAIN Initiative core principles overlap with core STEM competencies identified by the AAAS Vision and Change report and other entities. This neurobiology course utilizes the BRAIN Initiative to serve as the unifying theme that facilitates a primary emphasis ...

  5. Assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in organization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in organisation is an important initiative to enable the Information System (IS) managers, as well as top management to understand the success status of their investment in IS integration efforts. However, without a proper assessment, an organisation will not know its IIS ...

  6. Integrated Information Systems Management: A Coordinated and Cooperative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-13

    Paul and Blanchard, Kenneth H. Management of Organizational Behavior : Utilizing Human Resources. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, N. J...p. 55. 7 1bid., p. 54. 81bid. 9Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchard, Manaqement of Organizational Behavior : Utilizing Human Resources, 2nd ed...Integrated-Information Systems and Organizational Management ... .......... . 118 I Organizational Management and Integrated Information

  7. Integration of Information Services in the Parliament of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwandamira, Lyn

    This paper discusses the integration of information services in the Parliament of Zimbabwe (PoZ). An organizational chart of the information systems at PoZ in 1999 is provided, and each of the four departments managing information services are described, i.e., the library, the research department, public relations, and information technology. An…

  8. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic Information ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To strengthen this approach, the Soil and. Water Conservation Division, Ministry of Agricul- ture, Government of India launched an integrated watershed management programme in a direction to conserve soil and water in degraded regions. The programme offered great potential in improving land and water resources by ...

  9. A Symmetric Approach Elucidates Multisensory Information Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Tozzi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in neuronal multisensory integration suggest that the five senses do not exist in isolation of each other. Perception, cognition and action are integrated at very early levels of central processing, in a densely-coupled system equipped with multisensory interactions occurring at all temporal and spatial stages. In such a novel framework, a concept from the far-flung branch of topology, namely the Borsuk-Ulam theorem, comes into play. The theorem states that when two opposite points on a sphere are projected onto a circumference, they give rise to a single point containing their matching description. Here we show that the theorem applies also to multisensory integration: two environmental stimuli from different sensory modalities display similar features when mapped into cortical neurons. Topological tools not only shed new light on questions concerning the functional architecture of mind and the nature of mental states, but also provide an empirically assessable methodology. We argue that the Borsuk-Ulam theorem is a general principle underlying nervous multisensory integration, resulting in a framework that has the potential to be operationalized.

  10. Transdiagnostic Associations Between Functional Brain Network Integrity and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Julia M; Kandala, Sridhar; Tamminga, Carol A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Sweeney, John A; Clementz, Brett A; Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B; Hill, S Kristian; Barch, Deanna M

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive impairment occurs across the psychosis spectrum and is associated with functional outcome. However, it is unknown whether these shared manifestations of cognitive dysfunction across diagnostic categories also reflect shared neurobiological mechanisms or whether the source of impairment differs. To examine whether the general cognitive deficit observed across psychotic disorders is similarly associated with functional integrity of 2 brain networks widely implicated in supporting many cognitive domains. A total of 201 healthy control participants and 375 patients with psychotic disorders from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) consortium were studied from September 29, 2007, to May 31, 2011. The B-SNIP recruited healthy controls and stable outpatients from 6 sites: Baltimore, Maryland; Boston, Massachusetts; Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Detroit, Michigan; and Hartford, Connecticut. All participants underwent cognitive testing and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Data analysis was performed from April 28, 2015, to February 21, 2017. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia was used to measure cognitive ability. A principal axis factor analysis on the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia battery yielded a single factor (54% variance explained) that served as the measure of general cognitive ability. Functional network integrity measures included global and local efficiency of the whole brain, cingulo-opercular network (CON), frontoparietal network, and auditory network and exploratory analyses of all networks from the Power atlas. Group differences in network measures, associations between cognition and network measures, and mediation models were tested. The final sample for the current study included 201 healthy controls, 143 patients with schizophrenia, 103 patients with schizoaffective disorder, and 129 patients with psychotic bipolar disorder (mean [SD] age, 35.1 [12.0] years

  11. Integrated Reporting and Assurance of Sustainability Information: An Experimental Study on Professional Investors’ Information Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimsbach, D.; Hahn, R.; Gürtürk, A.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability-related non-financial information is increasingly deemed value relevant. Against this background, two recent trends in non-financial reporting are frequently discussed: integrated reporting and assurance of sustainability information. Using an established framework of information

  12. Integration of Information Technologies in Enterprise Application Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia SURUGIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare enterprises are disconnected. In the era of integrated information systems and Internet explosion, the necessity of information systems integration reside from business process evolution, on the one hand, and from information technology tendencies, on the other hand. In order to become more efficient and adaptive to change, healthcare organizations are tremendously preoccupied of business process automation, flexibility and complexity. The need of information systems integration arise from these goals, explaining, at the same time, the special interest in EAI. Extensible software integration architectures and business orientation of process modeling and information systems functionalities, the same as open-connectivity, accessibility and virtualization lead to most suitable integration solutions: SOA and BPM architectural styles in a cloud computing environment.

  13. Integration of individual and social information for decision-making in groups of different sizes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongmin A Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When making judgments in a group, individuals often revise their initial beliefs about the best judgment to make given what others believe. Despite the ubiquity of this phenomenon, we know little about how the brain updates beliefs when integrating personal judgments (individual information with those of others (social information. Here, we investigated the neurocomputational mechanisms of how we adapt our judgments to those made by groups of different sizes, in the context of jury decisions for a criminal. By testing different theoretical models, we showed that a social Bayesian inference model captured changes in judgments better than 2 other models. Our results showed that participants updated their beliefs by appropriately weighting individual and social sources of information according to their respective credibility. When investigating 2 fundamental computations of Bayesian inference, belief updates and credibility estimates of social information, we found that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC computed the level of belief updates, while the bilateral frontopolar cortex (FPC was more engaged in individuals who assigned a greater credibility to the judgments of a larger group. Moreover, increased functional connectivity between these 2 brain regions reflected a greater influence of group size on the relative credibility of social information. These results provide a mechanistic understanding of the computational roles of the FPC-dACC network in steering judgment adaptation to a group's opinion. Taken together, these findings provide a computational account of how the human brain integrates individual and social information for decision-making in groups.

  14. Integration of individual and social information for decision-making in groups of different sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goïame, Sidney; O'Connor, David A.; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    When making judgments in a group, individuals often revise their initial beliefs about the best judgment to make given what others believe. Despite the ubiquity of this phenomenon, we know little about how the brain updates beliefs when integrating personal judgments (individual information) with those of others (social information). Here, we investigated the neurocomputational mechanisms of how we adapt our judgments to those made by groups of different sizes, in the context of jury decisions for a criminal. By testing different theoretical models, we showed that a social Bayesian inference model captured changes in judgments better than 2 other models. Our results showed that participants updated their beliefs by appropriately weighting individual and social sources of information according to their respective credibility. When investigating 2 fundamental computations of Bayesian inference, belief updates and credibility estimates of social information, we found that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) computed the level of belief updates, while the bilateral frontopolar cortex (FPC) was more engaged in individuals who assigned a greater credibility to the judgments of a larger group. Moreover, increased functional connectivity between these 2 brain regions reflected a greater influence of group size on the relative credibility of social information. These results provide a mechanistic understanding of the computational roles of the FPC-dACC network in steering judgment adaptation to a group’s opinion. Taken together, these findings provide a computational account of how the human brain integrates individual and social information for decision-making in groups. PMID:28658252

  15. Brain-on-a-chip integrated neuronal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Sijia

    2016-01-01

    The brain-on-a-chip technology aims to provide an efficient and economic in vitro platform for brain disease study. In the well-known literature on brain-on-a-chip systems, nonstructured surfaces were conventionally used for the cell attachment in a culture chamber, therefore the neuronal networks

  16. Integrating information for community-based health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garets, D E

    1996-08-01

    Healthcare providers are increasingly faced with the need to develop comprehensive, clinically-oriented, community-focused information systems in order to remain financially viable and meet the information demands of healthcare consumers. Some providers interface and integrate their disparate information systems on their own. Others form integrated delivery systems that take advantage of economies of scale from an enterprise approach to information technology management. Still others form health information networks that allow them to pool information technology resources while pursuing independent business goals.

  17. Integration of Social Information by Human Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granovskiy, Boris; Gold, Jason M; Sumpter, David J.T; Goldstone, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    We consider a situation in which individuals search for accurate decisions without direct feedback on their accuracy, but with information about the decisions made by peers in their group. The “wisdom of crowds...

  18. Semantics of interdisciplinary data and information integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P.; Raskin, R.; Sinha, A. K.

    2009-05-01

    We have developed an application of semantic web methods and technologies to address the integration of interdisciplinary earth-science datasets. The specific use case addresses seeking and using atmospheric chemistry and volcano geochemistry datasets. We have developed an integration framework based on semantic descriptions (ontologies) of the linking relations between the application domains. In doing this, we have extensively leveraged and existing ontology frameworks such as SWEET, VSTO and GEON as well as included extentions of them when needed. We present the components of this application, including the ontologies, the registration of datasets with ontologies at several levels of granularity, the data sources, and application results from the use case. We will also present the cur rent and near-future capabilities we are developing. This work arises from the Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project, which is an NASA/ESTO/ACCESS-funded project performed in part by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), McGuinness Associates, NASA/JPL and Virginia Polytechnic University.

  19. Integrating Information Networks for Collective Planetary Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A.

    2016-12-01

    Responsible behaviour resulting from climate literacy in global environmental movement is limited to policy and planning institutions in the Global South, while remaining absent for ends-user. Thus, planetary stewardship exists only at earth system boundaries where pressures sink to the local scale while ethics remains afloat. Existing citizen participation is restricted within policy spheres, appearing synonymous to enforcements in social psychology. Much, accounted reason is that existing information mechanisms operate mostly through linear exchanges between institutions and users, therefore reinforcing only hierarchical relationships. This study discloses such relationships that contribute to broad networking gaps through information demand assessment of stakeholders in a dozen development projects based in South Asia. Two parameters widely used for this purpose are: a. Feedback: Ends-user feedback to improve consumption literacy of climate sensitive resources (through consumption displays, billing, advisory services ecolabelling, sensors) and, b. Institutional Policy: Rewarding punishing to enforce desired behaviour (subsidies, taxation). Research answered: 1. Who gets the information (Equity in Information Distribution)? As existing information publishing mechanisms are designed by and for analysts, 2. How information translates to climate action Transparency of Execution)? Findings suggested that climate goals manifested in economic policy, than environmental policy, have potential clear short-term benefits and costs, and coincide with people's economic goals Also grassroots roles for responsible behaviour are empowered with presence of end user information. Barier free climate communication process and decision making is ensured among multiplicity of stakeholders with often conflicting perspectives. Research finds significance where collaboration among information networks can better translate regional policies into local action for climate adaptation and

  20. Classification Method in Integrated Information Network Using Vector Image Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yuan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Integrated Information Network (WMN consists of integrated information that can get data from its surrounding, such as image, voice. To transmit information, large resource is required which decreases the service time of the network. In this paper we present a Classification Approach based on Vector Image Comparison (VIC for WMN that improve the service time of the network. The available methods for sub-region selection and conversion are also proposed.

  1. The digital bee brain: integrating and managing neurons in a common 3D reference system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rybak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The honeybee standard brain (HSB serves as an interactive tool for relating morphologies of bee brain neurons and provides a reference system for functional and bibliographical properties (http://www.neurobiologie.fu-berlin.de/beebrain/. The ultimate goal is to document not only the morphological network properties of neurons collected from separate brains, but also to establish a graphical user interface for a neuron-related data base. Here, we review the current methods and protocols used to incorporate neuronal reconstructions into the HSB. Our registration protocol consists of two separate steps applied to imaging data from two-channel confocal microscopy scans: (1 The reconstruction of the neuron, facilitated by an automatic extraction of the neuron’s skeleton based on threshold segmentation, and (2 the semi-automatic 3D segmentation of the neuropils and their registration with the HSB. The integration of neurons in the HSB is performed by applying the transformation computed in step (2 to the reconstructed neurons of step (1. The most critical issue of this protocol in terms of user interaction time – the segmentation process – is drastically improved by the use of a model-based segmentation process. Furthermore, the underlying statistical shape models (SSM allow the visualization and analysis of characteristic variations in large sets of bee brain data. The anatomy of neural networks composed of multiple neurons that are registered into the HSB are visualized by depicting the 3D reconstructions together with semantic information with the objective to integrate data from multiple sources (electrophysiology, imaging, immunocytochemistry, molecular biology. Ultimately, this will allow the user to specify cell types and retrieve their morphologies along with physiological characterizations.

  2. Information Security Management - Part Of The Integrated Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Constantin Adrian

    2015-07-01

    The international management standards allow their integrated approach, thereby combining aspects of particular importance to the activity of any organization, from the quality management systems or the environmental management of the information security systems or the business continuity management systems. Although there is no national or international regulation, nor a defined standard for the Integrated Management System, the need to implement an integrated system occurs within the organization, which feels the opportunity to integrate the management components into a cohesive system, in agreement with the purpose and mission publicly stated. The issues relating to information security in the organization, from the perspective of the management system, raise serious questions to any organization in the current context of electronic information, reason for which we consider not only appropriate but necessary to promote and implement an Integrated Management System Quality - Environment - Health and Operational Security - Information Security

  3. INTEGRITY CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR DEPERSONALIZED INFORMATION IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS OF PERSONAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Gatchin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of integrity ensuring for the information processed in information systems of personal data by depersonalization data algorithm. In order to solve this problem, we propose to use integrity algorithm, based on hash functions to confirm the immutability of depersonalized data stored in the information systems of personal data.

  4. IntUBE energy information integration platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böhms, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Buildings are one of the major contributors to energy use and CO 2 emissions. The energy used in buildings accounts for about 40% of the total energy use in Europe. The main aim of the IntUBE project (http://www.intube.eu) is to develop intelligent Information and Communications Technologies (ICT)

  5. Discovering information from an integrated graph database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Van Mulligen (Erik M.); W.J. Vlietstra (Wytze J.); R. Vos (Rein); J.A. Kors (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe information explosion in science has become a different problem, not the sheer amount per se, but the multiplicity and heterogeneity of massive sets of data sources. Relations mined from these heterogeneous sources, namely texts, database records, and ontologies have been mapped to

  6. Climate Information for Development: An Integrated Dissemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link ...

  7. Integrating Academic Information into Developmental Writing Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Edna M.; Draus, Julia

    In 1983, Charles County Community College (CCCC) initiated a project to infuse academic information from the sciences, humanities, and social sciences into developmental courses. The reorganization assignments related to 27 topics that promoted academic examination and cultural literacy while at the same time drawing from students' own…

  8. Climate Information for Development: An Integrated Dissemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a new conceptual model of climate research and seasonal forecast dissemination for West Africa. The model was developed through a survey of 600 climate information end-users and 27 organisations in four West African countries – Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and Nigeria. Despite significant advances ...

  9. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  10. The brain as a "hyper-network": the key role of neural networks as main producers of the integrated brain actions especially via the "broadcasted" neuroconnectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnati, Luigi F; Marcoli, Manuela; Maura, Guido; Woods, Amina; Guidolin, Diego

    2018-02-09

    Investigations of brain complex integrative actions should consider beside neural networks, glial, extracellular molecular, and fluid channels networks. The present paper proposes that all these networks are assembled into the brain hyper-network that has as fundamental components, the tetra-partite synapses, formed by neural, glial, and extracellular molecular networks. Furthermore, peri-synaptic astrocytic processes by modulating the perviousness of extracellular fluid channels control the signals impinging on the tetra-partite synapses. It has also been surmised that global signalling via astrocytes networks and highly pervasive signals, such as electromagnetic fields (EMFs), allow the appropriate integration of the various networks especially at crucial nodes level, the tetra-partite synapses. As a matter of fact, it has been shown that astrocytes can form gap-junction-coupled syncytia allowing intercellular communication characterised by a rapid and possibly long-distance transfer of signals. As far as the EMFs are concerned, the concept of broadcasted neuroconnectomics (BNC) has been introduced to describe highly pervasive signals involved in resetting the information handling of brain networks at various miniaturisation levels. In other words, BNC creates, thanks to the EMFs, generated especially by neurons, different assemblages among the various networks forming the brain hyper-network. Thus, it is surmised that neuronal networks are the "core components" of the brain hyper-network that has as special "nodes" the multi-facet tetra-partite synapses. Furthermore, it is suggested that investigations on the functional plasticity of multi-partite synapses in response to BNC can be the background for a new understanding and perhaps a new modelling of brain morpho-functional organisation and integrative actions.

  11. Conscious Perception as Integrated Information Patterns in Human Electrocorticography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A significant problem in neuroscience concerns the distinction between neural processing that is correlated with conscious percepts from processing that is not. Here, we tested if a hierarchical structure of causal interactions between neuronal populations correlates with conscious perception. We derived the hierarchical causal structure as a pattern of integrated information, inspired by the integrated information theory (IIT) of consciousness. We computed integrated information patterns from intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG) from six human neurosurgical patients with electrodes implanted over lateral and ventral cortices. During recording, subjects viewed continuous flash suppression (CFS) and backward masking (BM) stimuli intended to dissociate conscious percept from stimulus, and unmasked suprathreshold stimuli. Object-sensitive areas revealed correspondence between conscious percepts and integrated information patterns. We quantified this correspondence using unsupervised classification methods that revealed clustering of visual experiences with integrated information, but not with broader information measures including mutual information and entropy. Our findings point to a significant role of locally integrated information for understanding the neural substrate of conscious object perception. PMID:29085895

  12. A mobile agent approach for secure integrated medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Hui; Chung, Yu-Fang; Chiang, Te-Wei; Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Wang, Sheng-De

    2012-10-01

    Different patient-related information in medical organizations is the primary reference for medical personnel diagnosing, treating, and caring patients. With the rapid development of information technology, paper-based medical records have gradually been changed to electronic forms. However, different medical organizations present individual system specifications and data-saving formats so that the medical information of the same patient cannot be exchanged, shared, and securely accessed. In order not to largely change the present medical information systems as well as not to increase abundant costs, Virtual Integrated Medical-information Systems (VIMS) is proposed to assist various hospitals in information exchange. Furthermore, with Mobile Agent, the dispersed medical information can be securely integrated. It presents confidentiality, non-repudiation, source authentication, and integrity in network transmission. Virtual Integrated Medical-information Systems (VIMS) is a virtual electronic integration system combined with Mobile Agent technology. With the features of independence, adaptability, mobility, objectives, and autonomy, Mobile Agent is applied to overcome the problems from heterogeneous systems. With the features, the over-dispersed medical records can be integrated. Moreover, Mobile Agent can ensure the instantaneity and usability of medical records from which doctors can make the most appropriate evaluation and diagnoses. It will avoid the waste of medical resources, such as repetition medication, as well as become the reference of further consultation or health check. Not only can it improve the medical care quality, but it can be provided for medical research.

  13. INTEGRATION OF OPEN ACCESS SCIENTIFIC AND EDUCATIONAL INFORMATION RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Brichkovskij

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the generation, use and dissemination of electronic information resources is analyzed. The integration of information resources and services through the application of advanced technologies of metadata have been considered. An approach aimed at creating a single information space of research and educational resources of open access is offered.

  14. Integrated Information Technology Policy Analysis Research, CSUSB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    cience  fields in order to combine efforts to better understand multiple network s systems, including technical, biological and social networks...intelligence.  Shared information is critical to  humanitarian assistance and disaster recovery operations and for saving the lives of  citizens  and...Flowing Valued Information (FVI) project has been discussed at the Network  cience  Workshops linked form the Center website and the FVI reports and

  15. Integrating the Supervised Information into Unsupervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Ling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assembling unsupervised learning framework that adopts the information coming from the supervised learning process and gives the corresponding implementation algorithm. The algorithm consists of two phases: extracting and clustering data representatives (DRs firstly to obtain labeled training data and then classifying non-DRs based on labeled DRs. The implementation algorithm is called SDSN since it employs the tuning-scaled Support vector domain description to collect DRs, uses spectrum-based method to cluster DRs, and adopts the nearest neighbor classifier to label non-DRs. The validation of the clustering procedure of the first-phase is analyzed theoretically. A new metric is defined data dependently in the second phase to allow the nearest neighbor classifier to work with the informed information. A fast training approach for DRs’ extraction is provided to bring more efficiency. Experimental results on synthetic and real datasets verify that the proposed idea is of correctness and performance and SDSN exhibits higher popularity in practice over the traditional pure clustering procedure.

  16. QUANTITATIVE СHARACTERISTICS OF COMPLEMENTARY INTEGRATED HEALTH CARE SYSTEM AND INTEGRATED MEDICATION MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Babintseva

    2015-05-01

    i mportant elements of state regulation of the pharmaceutical sector health. For the first time creation of two information systems: integrated medication management infor mation system and integrated health care system in an integrated medical infor mation area, operating based on th e principle of complementarity was justified. Global and technological coefficients of these systems’ functioning were introduced.

  17. Androgen modulation of social decision making mechanisms in the brain: an integrative and embodied perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Apart from their role in reproduction androgens also respond to social challenges and this response has been seen as a way to regulate the expression of behaviour according to the perceived social environment (Challenge hypothesis, Wingfield et al. 1990. This hypothesis implies that social decision-making mechanisms localized in the central nervous system (CNS are open to the influence of peripheral hormones that ultimately are under the control of the CNS through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Therefore, two puzzling questions emerge at two different levels of biological analysis: (1 Why does the brain, which perceives the social environment and regulates androgen production in the gonad, need feedback information from the gonad to adjust its social decision-making processes? (2 How does the brain regulate gonadal androgen responses to social challenges and how do these feedback into the brain? In this paper, we will address these two questions using the integrative approach proposed by Niko Tinbergen, who proposed that a full understanding of behaviour requires its analysis at both proximate (physiology, ontogeny and ultimate (ecology, evolution levels.

  18. Using integrated information systems in supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez-Gallego, Nicolás; Molina-Castillo, Francisco-Jose; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Varajao, Joao; Trigo, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to empirically test not only the direct effects of information and communication technology (ICT) capabilities and integrated information systems (IS) on firm performance, but also the moderating role of IS integration along the supply chain in the relationship between ICT external and capabilities and business performance. Data collected from 102 large Iberian firms from Spain and Portugal are used to test the research model. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis is employed to test the direct effects and the moderating relationships proposed. Results show that external and internal ICT capabilities are important drivers of firm performance, while merely having integrated IS do not lead to better firm performance. In addition, a moderating effect of IS integration in the relationship between ICT capabilities and business performance is found, although this integration only contributes to firm performance when it is directed to connect with suppliers or customers rather than when integrating the whole supply chain.

  19. Mobile agent based online integration modeling for traffic information services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingquan; Gao, Dequan; Fang, Zhixiang; Li, Lianying

    2007-06-01

    With the rapid development of urban economy and urbanization construction in China, traffic load rises sharply because of the larger vehicle occupancy within many urban areas, which has already led to serious traffic congestion problem. GIS-T is an efficient technological solution and core information infrastructure for solving modern urban transportation problems. High-level traffic systems must integrate real-time traffic information and spatial data of road to supply timely and efficient public services and guarantee a better orderly transportation. However, for traffic information is multisource, complex and massive, traffic information service must have fast, powerful capabilities for online integration processing. Online integration of traffic information emphasizes the traffic resources share and services optimization, and solve assignment, scheduling, monitoring and feedback of integration computing tasks in dynamic and distributed network. This paper firstly analyzes traffic data and existing problems of online integration, and then discusses mobile agent technology, and finally proposes a mobile agent based unified online integration model of traffic information. This model will achieve cooperative computing and more accessible, flexible and reliable traffic information services.

  20. Model choice considerations and information integration using analytical hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenbrunner, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [BOOKER SCIENTIFIC; Ross, Timothy J. [UNM

    2010-10-15

    Using the theory of information-gap for decision-making under severe uncertainty, it has been shown that model output compared to experimental data contains irrevocable trade-offs between fidelity-to-data, robustness-to-uncertainty and confidence-in-prediction. We illustrate a strategy for information integration by gathering and aggregating all available data, knowledge, theory, experience, similar applications. Such integration of information becomes important when the physics is difficult to model, when observational data are sparse or difficult to measure, or both. To aggregate the available information, we take an inference perspective. Models are not rejected, nor wasted, but can be integrated into a final result. We show an example of information integration using Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), integrating theory, simulation output and experimental data. We used expert elicitation to determine weights for two models and two experimental data sets, by forming pair-wise comparisons between model output and experimental data. In this way we transform epistemic and/or statistical strength from one field of study into another branch of physical application. The price to pay for utilizing all available knowledge is that inferences drawn for the integrated information must be accounted for and the costs can be considerable. Focusing on inferences and inference uncertainty (IU) is one way to understand complex information.

  1. Information Systems Integration and Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) Adoption: A Case from Financial Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wing

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, organizations find that they need to integrate large number of information systems in order to support enterprise-wide business initiatives such as e-business, supply chain management and customer relationship management. To date, organizations have largely tended to address information systems (IS) integration in an ad-hoc manner.…

  2. Information integration and red queen dynamics in coevolutionary optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagie, L.; Hogeweg, P.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract- Coevolution has been used as optimization technique both successfully and unsuccessfully. Successful optimization shows integration of information at the individual level over many fitness evaluation events and over many generations. Alternative outcomes of the evolutionary process,

  3. Integrating Brain, Behaviour and Phylogeny to understand the Evolution of Sensory Systems in Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Richard Wylie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The comparative anatomy of sensory systems has played a major role in developing theories and principles central to evolutionary neuroscience. This includes the central tenet of many comparative studies, the principle of proper mass, which states that the size of a neural structure reflects its processing capacity. The size of structures within the sensory system is not, however, the only salient variable in sensory evolution. Further, the evolution of the brain and behaviour are intimately tied to phylogenetic history, requiring studies to integrate neuroanatomy with behaviour and phylogeny to gain a more holistic view of brain evolution. Birds have proven to be a useful group for these studies because of widespread interest in their phylogenetic relationships and a wealth of information on the functional organization of most of their sensory pathways. In this review, we examine the principle of proper mass in relation differences in the sensory capabilities among birds. We discuss how neuroanatomy, behaviour and phylogeny can be integrated to understand the evolution of sensory systems in birds providing evidence from visual, auditory and somatosensory systems. We also consider the concept of a trade-off, whereby one sensory system (or subpathway within a sensory system, may be expanded in size, at the expense of others, which are reduced in size.

  4. Informing pedagogy through the brain-targeted teaching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Mariale

    2012-01-01

    Improving teaching to foster creative thinking and problem-solving for students of all ages will require two essential changes in current educational practice. First, to allow more time for deeper engagement with material, it is critical to reduce the vast number of topics often required in many courses. Second, and perhaps more challenging, is the alignment of pedagogy with recent research on cognition and learning. With a growing focus on the use of research to inform teaching practices, educators need a pedagogical framework that helps them interpret and apply research findings. This article describes the Brain-Targeted Teaching Model, a scheme that relates six distinct aspects of instruction to research from the neuro- and cognitive sciences.

  5. Human Resource Information Systems: An Integrated Research Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magalhaes, Rodrigo; Chiemeke, Charles C.; Bondarouk, T.V.; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, H.; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Looise, J.C.; Looise, Jan C.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims at setting an agenda for HRIS research from an integrative perspective. This perspective assumes that organization and information systems cannot be separated. By first elaborating on this integrated perspective in terms of a web of causes and consequences of the implementation of

  6. Integrating SAP to Information Systems Curriculum: Design and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Information Systems (IS) education is being transformed from the segmented applications toward the integrated enterprise-wide system software Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). ERP is a platform that integrates all business functions with its centralized data repository shared by all the business operations in the enterprise. This tremendous…

  7. Integrating an Information Literacy Quiz into the Learning Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, M. Sara; Booth, Char; Tagge, Natalie; Stone, Sean

    2014-01-01

    The Claremont Colleges Library Instruction Services Department developed a quiz that could be integrated into the consortial learning management software to accompany a local online, open-source information literacy tutorial. The quiz is integrated into individual course pages, allowing students to receive a grade for completion and improving…

  8. Integrating information systems in support of configuration management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, D.C.; Lowrie, D.A.

    1990-06-01

    Many nuclear power plants are reconstructing, validating, and documenting their plant design basis using configuration management and configuration control processes. Successful implementation of configuration management requires an up-to-date, accurate, and accessible information base. The quantity of information and complexity of its interrelationships makes development of an integrated, multifunctional, computer-based information system important, if not necessary, to meeting configuration management objectives. This paper discusses the approach applied at Texas Utilities (TU) Electrics Comanche Peak steam electric station to integrate and computerize the information base in support of configuration management.

  9. A GIServices-based transportation information resources integration platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinxing; Ma, Qi; Wang, Yiru; Zhou, Jingyue

    2010-11-01

    With fast development of urban informationalization, digital city and digital traffic, cross-sectoral and inter-departmental cooperation become increasingly needed. It is of difficulty for GIS system construction to break the information fragmentation, realize the heterogeneous and multi-source geospatial related information integration, sharing and interoperability. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is an effective solution to provide data access and application service by Web Services. The combination of GIS and SOA can help GIS business agility, change traditional GIS design, development and application patterns, which promote the conversion of visible GISystems to invisible GIServices. Based on the construction of dynamic transportation data exchange GIService and dynamic path planning GIService, and its integrated application of WebGIS transportation information service system, this paper presents the overall structure of the transportation information resources integration platform, which realizes transportation information resources integration, traffic block information submitting, information exchanging, traffic information query, dynamic traffic information publishing, and dynamic best path query, etc.. The application result proves that it is a better solution for transportation information resources sharing, and it also changes the traditional GIS design, development and application patterns.

  10. A Framework for Understanding Post-Merger Information Systems Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alaranta, Maria; Kautz, Karlheinz

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical framework for the integration of information systems (IS) after a merger or an acquisition. The framework integrates three perspectives: a structuralist, an individualist, and an interactive process perspective to analyze and understand such integrations....... The framework is applied to a longitudinal case study of a manufacturing company that grew through an acquisition. The management decided to integrate the production control IS via tailoring a new system that blends together features of existing IS. The application of the framework in the case study confirms...... several known impediments to IS integrations. It also identifies a number of new inhibitors, as well as known and new facilitators that can bring post-merger IS integration to a success. Our findings provide relevant insights to researching and managing post-merger IS integrations. They emphasize...

  11. Managing information in the academic medical center: building an integrated information environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, S; Braude, R M; Florance, V; Frisse, M E

    1995-10-01

    The strategic importance of integrated information systems and resources for academic medical centers should not be underestimated. Ten years ago, the National Library of Medicine in collaboration with the Association of Academic Medical Centers initiated the Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) program to assist academic medical centers in defining a process for addressing deficiencies in their information environments. The authors give a brief history of the IAIMS program, and they describe both the characteristics of an integrated information environment and the technical and organizational structures necessary to create such an environment. Strategies some institutions have used to implement integrated information systems are also outlined. Finally, the authors discuss the role of librarians in integrated information system design.

  12. Brain fingerprinting classification concealed information test detects US Navy military medical information with P300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence A. Farwell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A classification concealed information test (CIT used the brain fingerprinting method of applying P300 event-related potential (ERP in detecting information that is 1 acquired in real life and 2 unique to US Navy experts in military medicine. Military medicine experts and non-experts were asked to push buttons in response to 3 types of text stimuli. Targets contain known information relevant to military medicine, are identified to subjects as relevant, and require pushing one button. Subjects are told to push another button to all other stimuli. Probes contain concealed information relevant to military medicine, and are not identified to subjects. Irrelevants contain equally plausible, but incorrect/irrelevant information. Error rate was 0%. Median and mean statistical confidences for individual determinations were 99.9% with no indeterminates (results lacking sufficiently high statistical confidence to be classified. We compared error rate and statistical confidence for determinations of both information present and information absent produced by classification CIT (Is a probe ERP more similar to a target or to an irrelevant ERP? versus comparison CIT (Does a probe produce a larger ERP than an irrelevant? using P300 plus the late negative component (LNP; together, P300-MERMER. Comparison CIT produced a significantly higher error rate (20% and lower statistical confidences -- mean 67%; information-absent mean was 28.9%, less than chance (50%. We compared analysis using P300 alone with the P300 + LNP. P300 alone produced the same 0% error rate but significantly lower statistical confidences. These findings add to the evidence that the brain fingerprinting methods as described here provide sufficient conditions to produce less than 1% error rate and greater than 95% median statistical confidence in a CIT on information obtained in the course of real life that is characteristic of individuals with specific training, expertise, or organizational

  13. Brain fingerprinting classification concealed information test detects US Navy military medical information with P300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwell, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Drew C.; Richardson, Graham M.; Furedy, John J.

    2014-01-01

    A classification concealed information test (CIT) used the “brain fingerprinting” method of applying P300 event-related potential (ERP) in detecting information that is (1) acquired in real life and (2) unique to US Navy experts in military medicine. Military medicine experts and non-experts were asked to push buttons in response to three types of text stimuli. Targets contain known information relevant to military medicine, are identified to subjects as relevant, and require pushing one button. Subjects are told to push another button to all other stimuli. Probes contain concealed information relevant to military medicine, and are not identified to subjects. Irrelevants contain equally plausible, but incorrect/irrelevant information. Error rate was 0%. Median and mean statistical confidences for individual determinations were 99.9% with no indeterminates (results lacking sufficiently high statistical confidence to be classified). We compared error rate and statistical confidence for determinations of both information present and information absent produced by classification CIT (Is a probe ERP more similar to a target or to an irrelevant ERP?) vs. comparison CIT (Does a probe produce a larger ERP than an irrelevant?) using P300 plus the late negative component (LNP; together, P300-MERMER). Comparison CIT produced a significantly higher error rate (20%) and lower statistical confidences: mean 67%; information-absent mean was 28.9%, less than chance (50%). We compared analysis using P300 alone with the P300 + LNP. P300 alone produced the same 0% error rate but significantly lower statistical confidences. These findings add to the evidence that the brain fingerprinting methods as described here provide sufficient conditions to produce less than 1% error rate and greater than 95% median statistical confidence in a CIT on information obtained in the course of real life that is characteristic of individuals with specific training, expertise, or organizational

  14. Allostasis and the Human Brain: Integrating Models of Stress from the Social and Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzel, Barbara L.; Morris, Pamela A.; Wethington, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    We draw on the theory of allostasis to develop an integrative model of the current stress process that highlights the brain as a dynamically adapting interface between the changing environment and the biological self. We review evidence that the core emotional regions of the brain constitute the primary mediator of the well-established association…

  15. EFFICIENCY INDICATORS INFORMATION MANAGEMENT IN INTEGRATED SECURITY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Rodionova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Introduction of information technology to improve the efficiency of security activity leads to the need to consider a number of negative factors associated with in consequence of the use of these technologies as a key element of modern security systems. One of the most notable factor is the exposure to information processes in protection systems security threats. This largely relates to integrated security systems (ISS is the system of protection with the highest level of informatization security functions. Significant damage to protected objects that they could potentially incur as a result of abnormal operation ISS, puts a very actual problem of assessing factors that reduce the efficiency of the ISS to justify the ways and methods to improve it. Because of the nature of threats and blocking distortion of information in the ISS of interest are: the volume undistorted ISF working environment, as a characteristic of data integrity; time access to information as a feature of its availability. This in turn leads to the need to use these parameters as the performance characteristics of information processes in the ISS - the completeness and timeliness of information processing. The article proposes performance indicators of information processes in integrated security systems in terms of optimal control procedures to protect information from unauthorized access. Set the considered parameters allows to conduct comprehensive security analysis of integrated security systems, and to provide recommendations to improve the management of information security procedures in them.

  16. The Integrated Information System for Natural Disaster Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiu Wu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Supported by the World Bank, the Integrated Information System for Natural Disaster Mitigation (ISNDM, including the operational service system and network telecommunication system, has been in development for three years in the Center of Disaster Reduction, Chinese Academy of Sciences, based on the platform of the GIS software Arcview. It has five main modules: disaster background information, socio- economic information, disaster-induced factors database, disaster scenarios database, and disaster assessment. ISNDM has several significant functions, which include information collection, information processing, data storage, and information distribution. It is a simple but comprehensive demonstration system for our national center for natural disaster reduction.

  17. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infects human brain microvascular endothelial cells without compromising blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Martin; Vancova, Marie; Sirmarova, Jana; Elsterova, Jana; Perner, Jan; Ruzek, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Alteration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a hallmark of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), a life-threating human viral neuroinfection. However, the mechanism of BBB breakdown during TBE, as well as TBE virus (TBEV) entry into the brain is unclear. Here, primary human microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) were infected with TBEV to study interactions with the BBB. Although the number of infected cells was relatively low in culture (10 6 pfu/ml). Infection did not induce any significant changes in the expression of key tight junction proteins or upregulate the expression of cell adhesion molecules, and did not alter the highly organized intercellular junctions between HBMECs. In an in vitro BBB model, the virus crossed the BBB via a transcellular pathway without compromising the integrity of the cell monolayer. The results indicate that HBMECs may support TBEV entry into the brain without altering BBB integrity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The BRAIN Initiative Provides a Unifying Context for Integrating Core STEM Competencies into a Neurobiology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jennifer E

    2016-01-01

    The Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative introduced by the Obama Administration in 2013 presents a context for integrating many STEM competencies into undergraduate neuroscience coursework. The BRAIN Initiative core principles overlap with core STEM competencies identified by the AAAS Vision and Change report and other entities. This neurobiology course utilizes the BRAIN Initiative to serve as the unifying theme that facilitates a primary emphasis on student competencies such as scientific process, scientific communication, and societal relevance while teaching foundational neurobiological content such as brain anatomy, cellular neurophysiology, and activity modulation. Student feedback indicates that the BRAIN Initiative is an engaging and instructional context for this course. Course module organization, suitable BRAIN Initiative commentary literature, sample primary literature, and important assignments are presented.

  19. Integration of ultra-high field MRI and histology for connectome based research of brain disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan eYang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI became increasingly relevant for in vivo neuroscientific research because of improved spatial resolutions. However, this is still the unchallenged domain of histological studies, which long played an important role in the investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders. While the field of biological psychiatry strongly advanced on macroscopic levels, current developments are rediscovering the richness of immunohistological information when attempting a multi-level systematic approach to brain function and dysfunction. For most studies, histology sections lost information on three-dimensional reconstructions. Translating histological sections to 3D-volumes would thus not only allow for multi-stain and multi-subject alignment in post mortem data, but also provide a crucial step in big data initiatives involving the network analyses currently performed with in vivo MRI. We therefore investigated potential pitfalls during integration of MR and histological information where no additional blockface information is available. We demonstrated that strengths and requirements from both methods seem to be ideally merged at a spatial resolution of 200 μm. However, the success of this approach is heavily dependent on choices of hardware, sequence and reconstruction. We provide a fully automated pipeline that optimizes histological 3D reconstructions, providing a potentially powerful solution not only for primary human post mortem research institutions in neuropsychiatric research, but also to help alleviate the massive workloads in neuroanatomical atlas initiatives. We further demonstrate (for the first time the feasibility and quality of ultra-high spatial resolution (150 µm isotopic imaging of the entire human brain MRI at 7T, offering new opportunities for analyses on MR-derived information.

  20. An Integrated Model of Information Literacy, Based upon Domain Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gary B.; Lathey, Johnathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Grounded in Alexander's model of domain learning, this study presents an integrated micro-model of information literacy. It is predicated upon the central importance of domain learning for the development of the requisite research skills by students. Method. The authors reviewed previous models of information literacy and…

  1. [Information systems in health and health indicators: an integrating perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela-Soler, Jaume; Elvira-Martínez, David; Labordena-Barceló, María Jesús; Loyola-Elizondo, Enrique

    2010-02-01

    Health Information Systems (HIS) are the core support to decision-making in health organizations. Within HIS, health indicators (HI) reflect, numerically, events measured in the health-illness continuum. The integrated health information system is intended to standardize, integrate and organize all the information available in health information systems through an accessible and secure repository, and to conveniently distribute information for decision-making. To standardize information it is necessary to define standards and semantic information to enable us to identify concepts and relate them uniquely to each other. The definition of a catalog of entities (DEA) with concepts, attributes and domains will enable the configuration of the information system, so there will be a catalog of entities (concepts of information and domains). Based on operational systems, analytical systems enabling management and strategy in the management of organizations will be built. The maximum level of analysis is the Balanced Score Card (BSC), which is established as the strategic tool for managers. It is necessary for the organization an integrated information system to plan, manage, evaluate and therefore provide managers with a decision tool for strategic and tactical decision-making in short and medium term. 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Hybridization of Architectural Styles for Integrated Enterprise Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagusyte, Lina; Lupeikiene, Audrone

    Current enterprise systems engineering theory does not provide adequate support for the development of information systems on demand. To say more precisely, it is forming. This chapter proposes the main architectural decisions that underlie the design of integrated enterprise information systems. This chapter argues for the extending service-oriented architecture - for merging it with component-based paradigm at the design stage and using connectors of different architectural styles. The suitability of general-purpose language SysML for the modeling of integrated enterprise information systems architectures is described and arguments pros are presented.

  3. Novel theory of the human brain: information-commutation basis of architecture and principles of operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhovetskiy AS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Andrey S Bryukhovetskiy Center for Biomedical Technologies, Federal Research and Clinical Center for Specialized Types of Medical Assistance and Medical Technologies of the Federal Medical Biological Agency, NeuroVita Clinic of Interventional and Restorative Neurology and Therapy, Moscow, Russia Abstract: Based on the methodology of the informational approach and research of the genome, proteome, and complete transcriptome profiles of different cells in the nervous tissue of the human brain, the author proposes a new theory of information-commutation organization and architecture of the human brain which is an alternative to the conventional systemic connective morphofunctional paradigm of the brain framework. Informational principles of brain operation are defined: the modular principle, holographic principle, principle of systematicity of vertical commutative connection and complexity of horizontal commutative connection, regulatory principle, relay principle, modulation principle, “illumination” principle, principle of personalized memory and intellect, and principle of low energy consumption. The author demonstrates that the cortex functions only as a switchboard and router of information, while information is processed outside the nervous tissue of the brain in the intermeningeal space. The main structural element of information-commutation in the brain is not the neuron, but information-commutation modules that are subdivided into receiver modules, transmitter modules, and subscriber modules, forming a vertical architecture of nervous tissue in the brain as information lines and information channels, and a horizontal architecture as central, intermediate, and peripheral information-commutation platforms. Information in information-commutation modules is transferred by means of the carriers that are characteristic to the specific information level from inductome to genome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, secretome, and magnetome

  4. An Integrated Nursing Management Information System: From Concept to Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkley, Connie L.; Sommer, Patricia K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses the transition from the conceptualization of a Nursing Management Information System (NMIS) integrated and interdependent with the Hospital Information System (HIS) to its realization. Concepts of input, throughout, and output are presented to illustrate developmental strategies used to achieve nursing information products. Essential processing capabilities include: 1) ability to interact with multiple data sources; 2) database management, statistical, and graphics software packages; 3) online, batch and reporting; and 4) interactive data analysis. Challenges encountered in system construction are examined.

  5. Information integrity and privacy for computerized medical patient records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, J.; Hamilton, V.; Gaylor, T.; McCurley, K.; Meeks, T.

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Oceania, Inc. entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) in November 1993 to provide ``Information Integrity and Privacy for Computerized Medical Patient Records`` (CRADA No. SC93/01183). The main objective of the project was to develop information protection methods that are appropriate for databases of patient records in health information systems. This document describes the findings and alternative solutions that resulted from this CRADA.

  6. Integrated Medical Information Services: A Resource Management View of Automated Hospital Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Melrose, J. Peter; Ericson, R. Peter

    1981-01-01

    Rapid changes in information processing technology have made the problems of administrative and technical planning and integration difficult. Vendor-inspired terms such as “office of the future” have created confusion rather than clarification. However, the term “information resource management” (IRM) that has evolved in the private sector has potential merit. From the idea of IRM, the authors have developed the planning concept of Integrated Medical Information Services (IMIS) as a common ad...

  7. Poorer physical fitness is associated with reduced structural brain integrity in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L; Brickman, Adam M; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Griffith, Erica Y; Narkhede, Atul; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H; Colbert, Lisa H; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2013-05-15

    Physical fitness is an important correlate of structural and functional integrity of the brain in healthy adults. In heart failure (HF) patients, poor physical fitness may contribute to cognitive dysfunction and we examined the unique contribution of physical fitness to brain structural integrity among patients with HF. Sixty-nine HF patients performed the Modified Mini Mental State examination (3MS) and underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging. All participants completed the 2-minute step test (2MST), a brief measure of physical fitness. We examined the associations between cognitive performance, physical fitness, and three indices of global brain integrity: total cortical gray matter volume, total white matter volume, and whole brain cortical thickness. Regression analyses adjusting for demographic characteristics, medical variables (e.g., left ventricular ejection fraction), and intracranial volume revealed reduced performance on the 2MST were associated with decreased gray matter volume and thinner cortex (passociated with poorer 3MS scores (pphysical fitness is common in HF and associated with reduced structural brain integrity. Prospective studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms for the influence of physical fitness on brain health in HF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated PET/MRI for planning navigated biopsies in pediatric brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Matthias; Werner, Peter; Barthel, Henryk; Nestler, Ulf; Christiansen, Holger; Hirsch, Franz Wolfgang; Fritzsch, Dominik; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Bernhard, Matthias K; Sabri, Osama

    2014-08-01

    An integrated PET/MRI scanner has been used in selected cases of pediatric brain tumor patients to obtain additional metabolic information about lesions for preoperative biopsy planning and navigation. Four patients, age 9-16 years, received PET/MRI scans employing [(11)C]methionine positron emission tomography (PET) and contrast-enhanced 3D-MR sequences for neuronavigation. PET and MR sequences have been matched for neurosurgical guidance. An infrared camera-based neuronavigation system was employed with co-registered MR and PET images fused to hybrid images for preoperative planning, stereotactic biopsy planning, and/or intraoperative guidance. All patients showed hot spots of increased amino acid transport in PET and contrast-enhancing lesions in MRI. In three of the four patients, PET hot spots were congruent with contrast-enhancing areas in MRI. In two patients, frame-based stereotactic biopsies were taken from thalamo-mesencephalic lesions. One patient underwent second-look surgery for the suspicion of recurrent malignant glioma of the posterior fossa. One incidental frontal mass lesion was subtotally resected. No complications occurred. Hybrid imaging was helpful during the procedures to obtain representative histopathologic specimens and for surgical guidance during resection. Co-registered images did match with intraoperative landmarks, tumor borders, and histopathologic specimens. The integrated PET/MRI scanner offers co-registered multimodal, high-resolution data for neuronavigation with reduced radiation exposure compared to PET/CT scans. One examination session provides all necessary data for neuronavigation and preoperative planning, avoiding additional anesthesia in the small patients. Hybrid multimodality imaging may improve safety and yield additional information when obtaining representative histopathologic specimens of brain tumors.

  9. Is functional integration of resting state brain networks an unspecific biomarker for working memory performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavash, Mohsen; Doebler, Philipp; Holling, Heinz; Thiel, Christiane M; Gießing, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Is there one optimal topology of functional brain networks at rest from which our cognitive performance would profit? Previous studies suggest that functional integration of resting state brain networks is an important biomarker for cognitive performance. However, it is still unknown whether higher network integration is an unspecific predictor for good cognitive performance or, alternatively, whether specific network organization during rest predicts only specific cognitive abilities. Here, we investigated the relationship between network integration at rest and cognitive performance using two tasks that measured different aspects of working memory; one task assessed visual-spatial and the other numerical working memory. Network clustering, modularity and efficiency were computed to capture network integration on different levels of network organization, and to statistically compare their correlations with the performance in each working memory test. The results revealed that each working memory aspect profits from a different resting state topology, and the tests showed significantly different correlations with each of the measures of network integration. While higher global network integration and modularity predicted significantly better performance in visual-spatial working memory, both measures showed no significant correlation with numerical working memory performance. In contrast, numerical working memory was superior in subjects with highly clustered brain networks, predominantly in the intraparietal sulcus, a core brain region of the working memory network. Our findings suggest that a specific balance between local and global functional integration of resting state brain networks facilitates special aspects of cognitive performance. In the context of working memory, while visual-spatial performance is facilitated by globally integrated functional resting state brain networks, numerical working memory profits from increased capacities for local processing

  10. A Quality-Driven Methodology for Information Systems Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad Zikra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Information systems integration is an essential instrument for organizations to attain advantage in today’s growing and fast changing business and technology landscapes. Integration solutions generate added value by combining the functionality and services of heterogeneous and diverse systems. Existing integration environments tend to rely heavily on technical, platform-dependent skills. Consequently, the solutions that they enable are not optimally aligned with the envisioned business goals of the organization. Furthermore, the gap between the goals and the solutions complicates the task of evaluating the quality of integration solutions. To address these challenges, we propose a quality-driven, model-driven methodology for designing and developing integration solutions. The methodology spans organizational and systems design details, providing a holistic view of the integration solution and its underlying business goals. A multi-view meta-model provides the basis for the integration design. Quality factors that affect various aspects of the integration solution guide and inform the progress of the methodology. An example business case is presented to demonstrate the application of the methodology.

  11. [NOVEL STRATEGY IN THE RADIOTHERAPY OF METASTATIC BRAIN TUMORS: SIMULTANEOUS WHOLE BRAIN RADIOTHERAPY AND INTEGRATED STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalincsák, Judit; László, Zoltán; Sebestyén, Zsolt; Kovács, Péter; Horváth, Zsolt; Dóczi, Tamás; Mangel László

    2015-11-30

    Treatment of central nervous system (CNS) tumors has always played an important role in development of radiotherapy techniques. Precise patient immobilisation, non-coplanar field arrangement, conformal treatment, arc therapy, radiosurgery, application of image fusion to radiation planning or re-irradiation were first introduced into clinical routine in the treatment of brain tumors. A modern multifunctional radiation instrument, Novalis TX has been installed at the University of Pécs two years ago. New methods, such as real time 3D image guided therapy, dynamic arc therapy and ultra-conformity offer further progress in treatment of CNS tumors. Whole brain irradiation and simultaneous fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery or integrated boost seem to be an optimal method in the treatment of not only soliter or oligo, but even a higher number (4-9) and not typically radiosensitive brain metastases. The new treatment strategy is illustrated by presentation of four case histories. Treatment protocol was completed in all cases. Treatment period of 1.5 to 3 weeks, and treatment time of only a few minutes were not stressful for the patients. A quite remarkable clinical improvement as to general condition of the patients was experienced in three cases. Follow-up images confirmed either remission or a stable disease. Simultaneous whole brain radiotherapy and integrated stereotactic radiosurgery is a reproducible, safe method that offers an effective irradiation with delivery of definitive dosage even in cases with radio-insensitive brain metastasis.

  12. Disrupted functional brain networks in autistic toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, M.; Kemner, C.; Reus, M.A. de; Collin, G; Snijders, T.M.; Hofman, D.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Stam, C.J.; Heuvel, M.P. van den

    2013-01-01

    Communication and integration of information between brain regions plays a key role in healthy brain function. Conversely, disruption in brain communication may lead to cognitive and behavioral problems. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impaired social interactions

  13. Impaired visual integration in children with traumatic brain injury: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konigs, M.; Weeda, W.D.; van Heurn, L.W.E.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Goslings, J.C.; Luitse, J.S.K.; Poll-The, B.T.; Beelen, A.; Wees, M.; Kemps, R.J.J.K.; Catsman-Berrevoets, C.E.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Axonal injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may cause impaired sensory integration. We aim to determine the effects of childhood TBI on visual integration in relation to general neurocognitive functioning. Methods We compared children aged 6-13 diagnosed with TBI (n = 103; M = 1.7

  14. Impaired Visual Integration in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury: An Observational Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Königs (Marsh); W.D. Weeda (Wouter D.); L.W.E. Van Heurn (L.W. Ernest); R.J. Vermeulen (R. Jeroen); J.C. Goslings (Carel); J.S.K. Luitse (Jan S.K.); B.T. Poll-Thé (Bwee Tien); A. Beelen (Anita); M. Van Der Wees (Marleen); R.J.J.K. Kemps (Rachèl J.J.K.); C.E. Catsman-Berrevoets (Coriene); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground Axonal injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may cause impaired sensory integration. We aim to determine the effects of childhood TBI on visual integration in relation to general neurocognitive functioning. Methods We compared children aged 6-13 diagnosed with TBI (n =

  15. DESIGN OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF VERTICALLY INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Витальевич ШМАТКО

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an approach to the design and development of information systems for the management and optimization of the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holdings. A review of the problems of building and improving the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holding is made. A method of constructing a discrete model management structure agricultural holding, which minimizes the costs associated with attracting applicants to work, is proposed.

  16. Integrated computational and conceptual solutions for complex environmental information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückemann, Claus-Peter

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the recent results of the integration of computational and conceptual solutions for the complex case of environmental information management. The solution for the major goal of creating and developing long-term multi-disciplinary knowledge resources and conceptual and computational support was achieved by implementing and integrating key components. The key components are long-term knowledge resources providing required structures for universal knowledge creation, documentation, and preservation, universal multi-disciplinary and multi-lingual conceptual knowledge and classification, especially, references to Universal Decimal Classification (UDC), sustainable workflows for environmental information management, and computational support for dynamical use, processing, and advanced scientific computing with Integrated Information and Computing System (IICS) components and High End Computing (HEC) resources.

  17. Integrating hospital information systems in healthcare institutions: a mediation architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Azami, Ikram; Cherkaoui Malki, Mohammed Ouçamah; Tahon, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Many studies have examined the integration of information systems into healthcare institutions, leading to several standards in the healthcare domain (CORBAmed: Common Object Request Broker Architecture in Medicine; HL7: Health Level Seven International; DICOM: Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine; and IHE: Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise). Due to the existence of a wide diversity of heterogeneous systems, three essential factors are necessary to fully integrate a system: data, functions and workflow. However, most of the previous studies have dealt with only one or two of these factors and this makes the system integration unsatisfactory. In this paper, we propose a flexible, scalable architecture for Hospital Information Systems (HIS). Our main purpose is to provide a practical solution to insure HIS interoperability so that healthcare institutions can communicate without being obliged to change their local information systems and without altering the tasks of the healthcare professionals. Our architecture is a mediation architecture with 3 levels: 1) a database level, 2) a middleware level and 3) a user interface level. The mediation is based on two central components: the Mediator and the Adapter. Using the XML format allows us to establish a structured, secured exchange of healthcare data. The notion of medical ontology is introduced to solve semantic conflicts and to unify the language used for the exchange. Our mediation architecture provides an effective, promising model that promotes the integration of hospital information systems that are autonomous, heterogeneous, semantically interoperable and platform-independent.

  18. Brain Wave Biofeedback: Benefits of Integrating Neurofeedback in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jane E.; Young, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with the "2009 Standards" of the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, counselors must understand neurobiological behavior in individuals of all developmental levels. This requires understanding the brain and strategies for applying neurobiological concepts in counseling practice, training, and…

  19. Integration of letters and speech sounds in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Atteveldt, Nienke; Formisano, Elia; Goebel, Rainer; Blomert, Leo

    2004-01-01

    Most people acquire literacy skills with remarkable ease, even though the human brain is not evolutionarily adapted to this relatively new cultural phenomenon. Associations between letters and speech sounds form the basis of reading in alphabetic scripts. We investigated the functional neuroanatomy

  20. Brain integrative function driven by musical training during real-world music listening

    OpenAIRE

    Burunat Pérez, Iballa

    2017-01-01

    The present research investigated differences in the brain dynamics of continuous, real-world music listening between listeners with and without professional musical training, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A replication study was aimed at validating the reliability of the naturalistic approach to studying brain responses to music, wherein the brain signal and the acoustic information extracted from the musical stimulus were correlated. After a...

  1. No need to talk, I know you: familiarity influences early multisensory integration in a songbird's brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle GEORGE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that visual information can affect auditory perception, as in the famous McGurk effect, but little is known concerning the processes involved. To address this issue, we used the best-developed animal model to study language-related processes in the brain: songbirds. European starlings were exposed to audiovisual compared to auditory-only playback of conspecific songs, while electrophysiological recordings were made in their primary auditory area (Field L. The results show that the audiovisual condition modulated the auditory responses. Enhancement and suppression were both observed, depending on the stimulus familiarity. Seeing a familiar bird led to suppressed auditory responses while seeing an unfamiliar bird led to response enhancement, suggesting that unisensory perception may be enough if the stimulus is familiar while redundancy may be required for unfamiliar items. This is to our knowledge the first evidence that multisensory integration may occur in a low-level, putatively unisensory area of a non-mammalian vertebrate brain, and also that familiarity of the stimuli may influence modulation of auditory responses by vision.

  2. Risk Informed Structural Systems Integrity Management: A Decision Analytical Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber

    2017-01-01

    The present paper is predominantly a conceptual contribution with an appraisal of major developments in risk informed structural integrity management for offshore installations together with a discussion of their merits and the challenges which still lie ahead. Starting point is taken in a selected...... overview of research and development contributions which have formed the basis for Risk Based Inspection Planning (RBI) as we know it today. Thereafter an outline of the methodical basis for risk informed structural systems integrity management, i.e. the Bayesian decision analysis is provided in summary...

  3. Understanding How the Brain Learns Should Inform Our Teaching Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix Darden

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative review of: The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools; Mariale Hardiman; (2012. Corwin, Thousand Oaks, CA. 223 pages; and How the Brain Learns, 4th ed.; David A. Sousa; (2011. Corwin, Thousand Oaks, CA. 321 pages.

  4. Integrated Information Systems Across the Weather-Climate Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Higgins, W.; Nierenberg, C.; Trtanj, J.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing demand for well-organized (integrated) end-to-end research-based information has been highlighted in several National Academy studies, in IPCC Reports (such as the SREX and Fifth Assessment) and by public and private constituents. Such information constitutes a significant component of the "environmental intelligence" needed to address myriad societal needs for early warning and resilience across the weather-climate continuum. The next generation of climate research in service to the nation requires an even more visible, authoritative and robust commitment to scientific integration in support of adaptive information systems that address emergent risks and inform longer-term resilience strategies. A proven mechanism for resourcing such requirements is to demonstrate vision, purpose, support, connection to constituencies, and prototypes of desired capabilities. In this presentation we will discuss efforts at NOAA, and elsewhere, that: Improve information on how changes in extremes in key phenomena such as drought, floods, and heat stress impact management decisions for resource planning and disaster risk reduction Develop regional integrated information systems to address these emergent challenges, that integrate observations, monitoring and prediction, impacts assessments and scenarios, preparedness and adaptation, and coordination and capacity-building. Such systems, as illustrated through efforts such as NIDIS, have strengthened the integration across the foundational research enterprise (through for instance, RISAs, Modeling Analysis Predictions and Projections) by increasing agility for responding to emergent risks. The recently- initiated Climate Services Information System, in support of the WMO Global Framework for Climate Services draws on the above models and will be introduced during the presentation.

  5. Automatic segmentation of meningioma from non-contrasted brain MRI integrating fuzzy clustering and region growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Chun-Chih

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has become important in brain tumor diagnosis. Using this modality, physicians can locate specific pathologies by analyzing differences in tissue character presented in different types of MR images. This paper uses an algorithm integrating fuzzy-c-mean (FCM and region growing techniques for automated tumor image segmentation from patients with menigioma. Only non-contrasted T1 and T2 -weighted MR images are included in the analysis. The study's aims are to correctly locate tumors in the images, and to detect those situated in the midline position of the brain. Methods The study used non-contrasted T1- and T2-weighted MR images from 29 patients with menigioma. After FCM clustering, 32 groups of images from each patient group were put through the region-growing procedure for pixels aggregation. Later, using knowledge-based information, the system selected tumor-containing images from these groups and merged them into one tumor image. An alternative semi-supervised method was added at this stage for comparison with the automatic method. Finally, the tumor image was optimized by a morphology operator. Results from automatic segmentation were compared to the "ground truth" (GT on a pixel level. Overall data were then evaluated using a quantified system. Results The quantified parameters, including the "percent match" (PM and "correlation ratio" (CR, suggested a high match between GT and the present study's system, as well as a fair level of correspondence. The results were compatible with those from other related studies. The system successfully detected all of the tumors situated at the midline of brain. Six cases failed in the automatic group. One also failed in the semi-supervised alternative. The remaining five cases presented noticeable edema inside the brain. In the 23 successful cases, the PM and CR values in the two groups were highly related. Conclusions Results indicated

  6. Integrated Academic Information Management Systems (IAIMS). Part III. Implementation of integrated information services. Library/computer center partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, C C; Weise, F O

    1988-03-01

    Information technologies are changing the traditional role of the library from that of a repository of information to that of an aggressive provider of information services utilizing electronic methods. In many cases, the library cannot realistically achieve this transformation independently but must work with the computer center to reach its objectives. Various models of the integration of libraries and computer centers are thus emerging. At the University of Maryland at Baltimore the Health Sciences Library and the Information Resources Management Division have developed a partnership based on functional relationships without changing the organizational structure. Strategic planning for an Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS) acted as a catalyst in the process. The authors present the evolution of the partnership and discuss current projects being developed jointly by the two units.

  7. Hierarchy of Information Processing in the Brain: A Novel 'Intrinsic Ignition' Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deco, Gustavo; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2017-06-07

    A general theory of brain function has to be able to explain local and non-local network computations over space and time. We propose a new framework to capture the key principles of how local activity influences global computation, i.e., describing the propagation of information and thus the broadness of communication driven by local activity. More specifically, we consider the diversity in space (nodes or brain regions) over time using the concept of intrinsic ignition, which are naturally occurring intrinsic perturbations reflecting the capability of a given brain area to propagate neuronal activity to other regions in a given brain state. Characterizing the profile of intrinsic ignition for a given brain state provides insight into the precise nature of hierarchical information processing. Combining this data-driven method with a causal whole-brain computational model can provide novel insights into the imbalance of brain states found in neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The integrated inpatient management model's clinical management information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, L F; Eward, A M; Bernard, A M; Hayward, R A; Billi, J E; Rosevear, J S; Southwell, D

    1994-01-01

    The rising cost of health care has increased the call for cost control. The pressing need to control cost, coupled with the increase in managed care and prospective payment, has placed new urgency on administrators and clinicians to work collaboratively in providing efficient and effective care. We have developed the Integrated Inpatient Management Model (IIMM) to assist in this collaborative effort. We describe the IIMM's clinical information system that provides decision support to both administrators and clinicians. This clinical information system is the information backbone for the development and monitoring of practice guidelines or critical pathways. An integrated information system of this type is essential if hospitals are to prosper during the next decade.

  9. The Brain on Stress: Toward an Integrative Approach to Brain, Body and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    McEwen, Bruce S.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of stress hormone receptors in the hippocampal formation has fostered research showing that the brain, including its higher cognitive centers, is the key organ of the response to stressors, both in terms of perception of what is stressful and for its ability to determine the consequences of stress for both brain and body via the neuroendocrine, autonomic, immune and metabolic systems. These systems are, in turn, responsible for either successful adaptation or pathophysiology due...

  10. The Brain on Stress: Toward an Integrative Approach to Brain, Body, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Bruce S

    2013-11-01

    The discovery of stress-hormone receptors in the hippocampal formation has fostered research showing that the brain, including its higher cognitive centers, is the key organ of the response to stressors, in terms of both perception of what is stressful and its ability to determine the consequences of stress for brain and body via the neuroendocrine, autonomic, immune, and metabolic systems. These systems, in turn, are responsible for either successful adaptation or pathophysiology as a result of the cumulative burden of adaptation to stress and maladaptive lifestyle, which is known as "allostatic load." The brain itself is also a target of stress and stress-related hormones, and it undergoes structural and functional remodeling and significant changes in gene expression. These changes are adaptive under normal circumstances but can lead to damage when stress is excessive. The growing recognition of the adaptive plasticity and stress vulnerability of the brain itself, which began with research on the hippocampus, now includes other brain regions such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex and fear-related memories, working memory, and self-regulatory behaviors. The interactions between these brain regions during the biological embedding of experiences over the life course determines whether events in the social and physical environment will lead to successful adaptation or to maladaptation and impaired mental and physical health, with implications for understanding health disparities and the impact of early life adversity and for intervention and prevention strategies. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Predictors of social integration for individuals with brain injury: An application of the ICF model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchman, Nicole; Sheehan, Lindsay; Rafajko, Sean; Haak, Christopher; Kazukauskas, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    People with brain injury often experience significant challenges to social and community engagement following injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors impacting social integration for adults with brain injury using the International Classification and Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a conceptual model. Adults with brain injury (n = 103) recruited through two US state brain injury associations participated in a survey study. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the predictive impact of components of the ICF model on social integration outcomes. Specifically, demographic (age, gender, SES), disability (severity of functional limitations), personal (disability acceptance, social self-efficacy) and environmental (neighbourhood climate, stigma, social support network) factors were entered as four conceptual groups of predictors to examine the incremental contribution of the variance in social integration explained by each set. As hypothesized, the inclusion of each block of predictors significantly improved the model. The overall regression model explained 41% of the variance in social integration. Specifically, SES (β = 0.25), severity of functional limitations (β = 0.29) and social support network (β = 0.29) emerged as the strongest independent predictors. Findings from this study highlight the importance of adopting a biopsychosocial approach to understanding social integration for people with brain injury.

  12. The brain in the early fossil jawless vertebrates: evolutionary information from an empty nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, P

    2008-03-18

    Various 535-365 million year-old extinct jawless vertebrates taxa provide either direct or indirect information about brain and cranial nerve morphology. The paraphyletic group referred to as "ostracoderms", includes some forms in which the braincase closely encapsulated the brain, thereby providing relatively accurate data about its overall external morphology. Current morphology-based phylogenies suggests that "ostracoderms" are in fact jawless stem gnathostomes, and the closely similar aspect of their brain cavity suggests that it illustrates the ancestral condition of the gnathostome brain and fills the morphological gap between the brain condition of the extant cyclostomes and that of the extant jawed vertebrates.

  13. Integration of Informal Music Technologies in Secondary School Music Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Dan; Dixon, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Technologies such as YouTube, mobile phones and MP3 players are increasingly integrated into secondary school music in the UK. At the same time, the gap between formal and informal music learning is being bridged by the incorporation of students' preferred music into class activities. We conducted an ethnographic study in two secondary schools in…

  14. developing a one stop shop model for integrated land information

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    ABSTRACT. In Ghana much attention has not been given to the development of land information system which will integrate the data on land ownership, land use and land value for all the land agen- cies under the land administration system to facilitate the processing of applications within the land delivery systems.

  15. Galectin-1 suppresses methamphetamine induced neuroinflammation in human brain microvascular endothelial cells: Neuroprotective role in maintaining blood brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Neil U; Aalinkeel, R; Reynolds, J L; Nair, B B; Sykes, D E; Mammen, M J; Schwartz, S A; Mahajan, S D

    2015-10-22

    Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse can lead to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity leading to compromised CNS function. The role of Galectins in the angiogenesis process in tumor-associated endothelial cells (EC) is well established; however no data are available on the expression of Galectins in normal human brain microvascular endothelial cells and their potential role in maintaining BBB integrity. We evaluated the basal gene/protein expression levels of Galectin-1, -3 and -9 in normal primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) that constitute the BBB and examined whether Meth altered Galectin expression in these cells, and if Galectin-1 treatment impacted the integrity of an in-vitro BBB. Our results showed that BMVEC expressed significantly higher levels of Galectin-1 as compared to Galectin-3 and -9. Meth treatment increased Galectin-1 expression in BMVEC. Meth induced decrease in TJ proteins ZO-1, Claudin-3 and adhesion molecule ICAM-1 was reversed by Galectin-1. Our data suggests that Galectin-1 is involved in BBB remodeling and can increase levels of TJ proteins ZO-1 and Claudin-3 and adhesion molecule ICAM-1 which helps maintain BBB tightness thus playing a neuroprotective role. Galectin-1 is thus an important regulator of immune balance from neurodegeneration to neuroprotection, which makes it an important therapeutic agent/target in the treatment of drug addiction and other neurological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Framework for describing community integration for people with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvaneh, Shahriar; Cocks, Errol

    2012-04-01

    Community integration is the ultimate goal of rehabilitation of adults with acquired brain injury which has a high incidence in the Australian population. The literature shows a need for a more comprehensive framework for community integration. This study developed a descriptive community integration framework drawn from views of five stakeholder groups and was compared with four similar frameworks. Thirty-seven experts in acquired brain injury, including practitioners, researchers, policy makers, people with acquired brain injury and family members participated. Using a Delphi method, an iterative process of surveys, interviews, and focus groups sought their views on community integration. Responses were analysed in three stages systematically to reduce a large quantity of raw data into a core set of descriptive themes. A final member checking process rated participants' agreement with the importance of each theme. Seven themes were identified and described: Relationships, Community Access, Acceptance, Occupation, Being at Home, Picking up Life Again, and Heightened Risks and Vulnerability. Themes were congruent with elements of the frameworks from the literature. Rich data came from the diverse stakeholders in the participant groups. Two unique themes reflected the importance of re-integration and recovering important aspects of previous lives, and identifying risks and vulnerabilities and providing safeguards. The framework reflected emphases that may be specific to acquired brain injury. It can be used as a basis for development of community integration programmes and outcome measures. © 2012 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  17. Integration of information and scientific literacy: promoting literacy in undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Jason A; Wolbach, Kevin C; Purzycki, Catherine B; Bowman, Leslie A; Agbada, Eva; Mostrom, Alison M

    2010-01-01

    The Association of College and Research Libraries recommends incorporating information literacy (IL) skills across university and college curricula, for the goal of developing information literate graduates. Congruent with this goal, the Departments of Biological Sciences and Information Science developed an integrated IL and scientific literacy (SL) exercise for use in a first-year biology course. Students were provided the opportunity to access, retrieve, analyze, and evaluate primary scientific literature. By the completion of this project, student responses improved concerning knowledge and relevance of IL and SL skills. This project exposes students to IL and SL early in their undergraduate experience, preparing them for future academic advancement.

  18. Integration of Information and Scientific Literacy: Promoting Literacy in Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbach, Kevin C.; Purzycki, Catherine B.; Bowman, Leslie A.; Agbada, Eva; Mostrom, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    The Association of College and Research Libraries recommends incorporating information literacy (IL) skills across university and college curricula, for the goal of developing information literate graduates. Congruent with this goal, the Departments of Biological Sciences and Information Science developed an integrated IL and scientific literacy (SL) exercise for use in a first-year biology course. Students were provided the opportunity to access, retrieve, analyze, and evaluate primary scientific literature. By the completion of this project, student responses improved concerning knowledge and relevance of IL and SL skills. This project exposes students to IL and SL early in their undergraduate experience, preparing them for future academic advancement. PMID:21123700

  19. Limited predictability of postmortem human brain tissue quality by RNA integrity numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Kai-C; Tejada, George; Subburaju, Sivan; Berretta, Sabina; Benes, Francine M; Woo, Tsung-Ung W

    2016-07-01

    The RNA integrity number (RIN) is often considered to be a critical measure of the quality of postmortem human brains. However, it has been suggested that RINs do not necessarily reflect the availability of intact mRNA. Using the Agilent bioanalyzer and qRT-PCR, we explored whether RINs provide a meaningful way of assessing mRNA degradation and integrity in human brain samples by evaluating the expression of 3'-5' mRNA sequences of the cytochrome C-1 (CYC1) gene. Analysis of electropherograms showed that RINs were not consistently correlated with RNA or cDNA profiles and appeared to be poor predictors of overall cDNA quality. Cycle thresholds from qRT-PCR analysis to quantify the amount of CYC1 mRNA revealed positive correlations of RINs with amplification of full-length transcripts, despite the variable degree of linear degradation along the 3'-5' sequence. These data demonstrate that in postmortem human brain tissue the RIN is an indicator of mRNA quantity independent of degradation, but does not predict mRNA integrity, suggesting that RINs provide an incomplete measure of brain tissue quality. Quality assessment of postmortem human brains by RNA integrity numbers (RINs) may be misleading, as they do not measure intact mRNAs. We show that the RIN is an indicator of mRNA quantity independent of degradation, but does not predict mRNA integrity, suggesting that RINs provide an incomplete measure of brain tissue quality. Our results resolve controversial assumption on interpreting quality assessments of human postmortem brains by RINs. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  20. Development of integrated semiconductor optical sensors for functional brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas T.

    Optical imaging of neural activity is a widely accepted technique for imaging brain function in the field of neuroscience research, and has been used to study the cerebral cortex in vivo for over two decades. Maps of brain activity are obtained by monitoring intensity changes in back-scattered light, called Intrinsic Optical Signals (IOS), that correspond to fluctuations in blood oxygenation and volume associated with neural activity. Current imaging systems typically employ bench-top equipment including lamps and CCD cameras to study animals using visible light. Such systems require the use of anesthetized or immobilized subjects with craniotomies, which imposes limitations on the behavioral range and duration of studies. The ultimate goal of this work is to overcome these limitations by developing a single-chip semiconductor sensor using arrays of sources and detectors operating at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. A single-chip implementation, combined with wireless telemetry, will eliminate the need for immobilization or anesthesia of subjects and allow in vivo studies of free behavior. NIR light offers additional advantages because it experiences less absorption in animal tissue than visible light, which allows for imaging through superficial tissues. This, in turn, reduces or eliminates the need for traumatic surgery and enables long-term brain-mapping studies in freely-behaving animals. This dissertation concentrates on key engineering challenges of implementing the sensor. This work shows the feasibility of using a GaAs-based array of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and PIN photodiodes for IOS imaging. I begin with in-vivo studies of IOS imaging through the skull in mice, and use these results along with computer simulations to establish minimum performance requirements for light sources and detectors. I also evaluate the performance of a current commercial VCSEL for IOS imaging, and conclude with a proposed prototype sensor.

  1. Integrated information management systems; A solid basis for environmental compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, D.M.; Gay, J.L.; Stallard, G.S. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States))

    1992-01-01

    With the wide-ranging impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, effective management of environmental issues-particularly SO{sub 2} emissions - will require not only long range planning, but daily evaluations and decisions. To produce power in the most cost-effective manner, environmental concerns and operational and economic issues must be considered. Costs, performance, and emissions must be effectively monitored and controlled, and the resulting information must be integrated to provide a comprehensive basis for a variety of decisions. Achieving such broad-base integration must be integrated to provide a comprehensive basis for a variety of decisions. Achieving such broad-base integration is not a simple task. A continuous flow of new data must be collected and analyzed; current conditions must be carefully evaluated to support day-to-day decisions and long-term power production and emissions strategies must be developed and reviewed. This paper describes the main design concepts of an integrated information system, and provides examples of how its capabilities can be applied to environmental decisions.

  2. On the effects of multimodal information integration in multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Gohil, Krutika; Huster, René J; Beste, Christian

    2017-07-07

    There have recently been considerable advances in our understanding of the neuronal mechanisms underlying multitasking, but the role of multimodal integration for this faculty has remained rather unclear. We examined this issue by comparing different modality combinations in a multitasking (stop-change) paradigm. In-depth neurophysiological analyses of event-related potentials (ERPs) were conducted to complement the obtained behavioral data. Specifically, we applied signal decomposition using second order blind identification (SOBI) to the multi-subject ERP data and source localization. We found that both general multimodal information integration and modality-specific aspects (potentially related to task difficulty) modulate behavioral performance and associated neurophysiological correlates. Simultaneous multimodal input generally increased early attentional processing of visual stimuli (i.e. P1 and N1 amplitudes) as well as measures of cognitive effort and conflict (i.e. central P3 amplitudes). Yet, tactile-visual input caused larger impairments in multitasking than audio-visual input. General aspects of multimodal information integration modulated the activity in the premotor cortex (BA 6) as well as different visual association areas concerned with the integration of visual information with input from other modalities (BA 19, BA 21, BA 37). On top of this, differences in the specific combination of modalities also affected performance and measures of conflict/effort originating in prefrontal regions (BA 6).

  3. Brainstem stimulation augments information integration in the cerebral cortex of desflurane-anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siveshigan ePillay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available States of consciousness have been associated with information integration in the brain as modulated by anesthesia and the ascending arousal system. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that electrical stimulation of the oral part of the pontine reticular nucleus (PnO can augment information integration in the cerebral cortex of anesthetized rats. Extracellular unit activity and local field potentials were recorded in freely moving animals from parietal association (PtA and secondary visual (V2 cortices via chronically implanted microwire arrays at three levels of anesthesia produced by desflurane: 3.5%, 4.5%, and 6.0% (where 4.5% corresponds to that critical for the loss of consciousness. Information integration was characterized by integration (multiinformation and interaction entropy, estimated from the statistical distribution of coincident spike patterns. PnO stimulation elicited electrocortical activation as indicated by the reductions in δ- and θ-band powers at the intermediate level of anesthesia. PnO stimulation augmented integration from 1.13 ± 0.03 to 6.12 ± 1.98 x103 bits and interaction entropy from 0.44 ± 0.11 to 2.18 ± 0.72 x103 bits; these changes were most consistent in the PtA at all desflurane concentrations. Stimulation of the retina with discrete light flashes after PnO stimulation elicited an additional 166 ± 25 and 92 ± 12% increase in interaction entropy in V2 during light and intermediate levels. The results suggest that the PnO may modulate spontaneous ongoing and sensory stimulus-related cortical information integration under anesthesia.

  4. An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain-States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0037 An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain-States Adrian Lee UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON...FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION . 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY)      06-01-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-09-2012...to 14-09-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain- States 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  5. Integrated project management information systems: the French nuclear industry experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquin, J.-C.; Caupin, G.-M.

    1990-03-01

    The article discusses the desirability of integrated project management systems within the French nuclear power industry. Change in demand for nuclear generation facilities over the last two decades has necessitated a change of policy concerning organization, cost and planning within the industry. Large corporate systems can benefit from integrating equipment and bulk materials tracking. Project management for the nuclear industry will, in future, need to incorporate computer aided design tools and project management information systems data bases as well as equipment and planning data. (UK).

  6. Maximizing Information Diffusion in the Cyber-physical Integrated Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Lu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, our living environment has been embedded with smart objects, such as smart sensors, smart watches and smart phones. They make cyberspace and physical space integrated by their abundant abilities of sensing, communication and computation, forming a cyber-physical integrated network. In order to maximize information diffusion in such a network, a group of objects are selected as the forwarding points. To optimize the selection, a minimum connected dominating set (CDS strategy is adopted. However, existing approaches focus on minimizing the size of the CDS, neglecting an important factor: the weight of links. In this paper, we propose a distributed maximizing the probability of information diffusion (DMPID algorithm in the cyber-physical integrated network. Unlike previous approaches that only consider the size of CDS selection, DMPID also considers the information spread probability that depends on the weight of links. To weaken the effects of excessively-weighted links, we also present an optimization strategy that can properly balance the two factors. The results of extensive simulation show that DMPID can nearly double the information diffusion probability, while keeping a reasonable size of selection with low overhead in different distributed networks.

  7. Sustaining Engagements for Integrated Heat-Health Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtanj, J.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme heat events are on the rise, evidenced by the record breaking heat in the summer of 2016 in the US, increased heat-related death toll in south Asia, and projections from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The impacts, responses and adaptation to extreme heat are inherently local or region in nature and require multisector engagement to manage current and future heat risks. Understanding the character of the information demand, who needs it, when and how it is needed, how it is used, and the remaining research questions, requires sustained engagement of multiple science and decision making communities. The construct of Integrated Information Systems provides the framework that sustains this dialogue, supports the production of useful information, and the translation of knowledge to action. The National Integrated Heat Health Information System (NIHHIS), a multi-agency collaboration, working at state, local and international levels, designed to facilitate an integrated approach to providing a suite of decision support services that reduce heat-related illness and death. NIHHIS sustains engagement across the public health, emergency management, disaster risk reduction, planning, housing, communication, climate, weather and other science communities. This presentation will highlight NIHHS sustained engagements in the Rio Grande Bravo region, other NIHHIS pilots, and international efforts building on the NIHHIS framework. NIHHIS, launched by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2015, now has over eight Federal partners and a burgeoning mix of pilots, projects and partners at state, local and international levels.

  8. Automatic integration of confidence in the brain valuation signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Maël; Abitbol, Raphaëlle; Daunizeau, Jean; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2015-08-01

    A key process in decision-making is estimating the value of possible outcomes. Growing evidence suggests that different types of values are automatically encoded in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Here we extend this idea by suggesting that any overt judgment is accompanied by a second-order valuation (a confidence estimate), which is also automatically incorporated in VMPFC activity. In accordance with the predictions of our normative model of rating tasks, two behavioral experiments showed that confidence levels were quadratically related to first-order judgments (age, value or probability ratings). The analysis of three functional magnetic resonance imaging data sets using similar rating tasks confirmed that the quadratic extension of first-order ratings (our proxy for confidence) was encoded in VMPFC activity, even if no confidence judgment was required of the participants. Such an automatic aggregation of value and confidence in a same brain region might provide insight into many distortions of judgment and choice.

  9. Efficient physical embedding of topologically complex information processing networks in brains and computer circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S Bassett

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nervous systems are information processing networks that evolved by natural selection, whereas very large scale integrated (VLSI computer circuits have evolved by commercially driven technology development. Here we follow historic intuition that all physical information processing systems will share key organizational properties, such as modularity, that generally confer adaptivity of function. It has long been observed that modular VLSI circuits demonstrate an isometric scaling relationship between the number of processing elements and the number of connections, known as Rent's rule, which is related to the dimensionality of the circuit's interconnect topology and its logical capacity. We show that human brain structural networks, and the nervous system of the nematode C. elegans, also obey Rent's rule, and exhibit some degree of hierarchical modularity. We further show that the estimated Rent exponent of human brain networks, derived from MRI data, can explain the allometric scaling relations between gray and white matter volumes across a wide range of mammalian species, again suggesting that these principles of nervous system design are highly conserved. For each of these fractal modular networks, the dimensionality of the interconnect topology was greater than the 2 or 3 Euclidean dimensions of the space in which it was embedded. This relatively high complexity entailed extra cost in physical wiring: although all networks were economically or cost-efficiently wired they did not strictly minimize wiring costs. Artificial and biological information processing systems both may evolve to optimize a trade-off between physical cost and topological complexity, resulting in the emergence of homologous principles of economical, fractal and modular design across many different kinds of nervous and computational networks.

  10. Efficient physical embedding of topologically complex information processing networks in brains and computer circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Danielle S; Greenfield, Daniel L; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weinberger, Daniel R; Moore, Simon W; Bullmore, Edward T

    2010-04-22

    Nervous systems are information processing networks that evolved by natural selection, whereas very large scale integrated (VLSI) computer circuits have evolved by commercially driven technology development. Here we follow historic intuition that all physical information processing systems will share key organizational properties, such as modularity, that generally confer adaptivity of function. It has long been observed that modular VLSI circuits demonstrate an isometric scaling relationship between the number of processing elements and the number of connections, known as Rent's rule, which is related to the dimensionality of the circuit's interconnect topology and its logical capacity. We show that human brain structural networks, and the nervous system of the nematode C. elegans, also obey Rent's rule, and exhibit some degree of hierarchical modularity. We further show that the estimated Rent exponent of human brain networks, derived from MRI data, can explain the allometric scaling relations between gray and white matter volumes across a wide range of mammalian species, again suggesting that these principles of nervous system design are highly conserved. For each of these fractal modular networks, the dimensionality of the interconnect topology was greater than the 2 or 3 Euclidean dimensions of the space in which it was embedded. This relatively high complexity entailed extra cost in physical wiring: although all networks were economically or cost-efficiently wired they did not strictly minimize wiring costs. Artificial and biological information processing systems both may evolve to optimize a trade-off between physical cost and topological complexity, resulting in the emergence of homologous principles of economical, fractal and modular design across many different kinds of nervous and computational networks.

  11. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T; Humphreys, G W

    2002-01-01

    to the involvement of re-entrant activation from stored structural knowledge. Evidence in favor of this interpretation comes from the additional finding that activation of the anterior part of the left fusiform gyrus and a more anterior part of the right inferior temporal gyrus, areas previously associated......We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform...... and inferior temporal gyri were more activated by tasks with recognizable stimuli than by tasks with unrecognizable stimuli. We propose that the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri, compared with the inferior occipital gyri, are involved in higher level integration, due...

  12. Integrating Information and Communication Technology in the Classroom:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Sasseville

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The discourse about information technology is often overlooked by researchers and scholars as a means of understanding the recent process of computerization in education. The research explores this phenomenon through a comparative discourse analysis of primary and secondary school teachers and promoters of ICT integration. The results show that promoters tend to view ICT as a way of transforming education whereas teachers see it only as a means to an end. The former's vision is borrowed from a prospective current of thought, a vision of social changes based on technological advances; the latter's considers only the needs of the students and the practical ways to respond to them. The research shows that teachers are not opposed to ICT integration; they're interested in effective ways to implement learning. The organizational context into which ICT is integrated is also a major impediment when it comes to changing the teacher's practice.

  13. From hippocampus to whole-brain: The role of integrative processing in episodic memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Benjamin R; Stanley, Matthew L; Dennis, Nancy A; Woldorff, Marty G; Cabeza, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    Multivariate functional connectivity analyses of neuroimaging data have revealed the importance of complex, distributed interactions between disparate yet interdependent brain regions. Recent work has shown that topological properties of functional brain networks are associated with individual and group differences in cognitive performance, including in episodic memory. After constructing functional whole-brain networks derived from an event-related fMRI study of memory retrieval, we examined differences in functional brain network architecture between forgotten and remembered words. This study yielded three main findings. First, graph theory analyses showed that successfully remembering compared to forgetting was associated with significant changes in the connectivity profile of the left hippocampus and a corresponding increase in efficient communication with the rest of the brain. Second, bivariate functional connectivity analyses indicated stronger interactions between the left hippocampus and a retrieval assembly for remembered versus forgotten items. This assembly included the left precuneus, left caudate, bilateral supramarginal gyrus, and the bilateral dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus. Integrative properties of the retrieval assembly were greater for remembered than forgotten items. Third, whole-brain modularity analyses revealed that successful memory retrieval was marginally significantly associated with a less segregated modular architecture in the network. The magnitude of the decreases in modularity between remembered and forgotten conditions was related to memory performance. These findings indicate that increases in integrative properties at the nodal, retrieval assembly, and whole-brain topological levels facilitate memory retrieval, while also underscoring the potential of multivariate brain connectivity approaches for providing valuable new insights into the neural bases of memory processes. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2242-2259, 2017. © 2017 Wiley

  14. Integrative Mechanisms of Oriented Neuronal Migration in the Developing Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evsyukova, Irina; Plestant, Charlotte; Anton, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of functional neuronal connectivity in the developing cerebral cortex depends on neuronal migration. This process enables appropriate positioning of neurons and the emergence of neuronal identity so that the correct patterns of functional synaptic connectivity between the right types and numbers of neurons can emerge. Delineating the complexities of neuronal migration is critical to our understanding of normal cerebral cortical formation and neurodevelopmental disorders resulting from neuronal migration defects. For the most part, the integrated cell biological basis of the complex behavior of oriented neuronal migration within the developing mammalian cerebral cortex remains an enigma. This review aims to analyze the integrative mechanisms that enable neurons to sense environmental guidance cues and translate them into oriented patterns of migration toward defined areas of the cerebral cortex. We discuss how signals emanating from different domains of neurons get integrated to control distinct aspects of migratory behavior and how different types of cortical neurons coordinate their migratory activities within the developing cerebral cortex to produce functionally critical laminar organization. PMID:23937349

  15. Integrating Environmental and Information Systems Management: An Enterprise Architecture Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noran, Ovidiu

    Environmental responsibility is fast becoming an important aspect of strategic management as the reality of climate change settles in and relevant regulations are expected to tighten significantly in the near future. Many businesses react to this challenge by implementing environmental reporting and management systems. However, the environmental initiative is often not properly integrated in the overall business strategy and its information system (IS) and as a result the management does not have timely access to (appropriately aggregated) environmental information. This chapter argues for the benefit of integrating the environmental management (EM) project into the ongoing enterprise architecture (EA) initiative present in all successful companies. This is done by demonstrating how a reference architecture framework and a meta-methodology using EA artefacts can be used to co-design the EM system, the organisation and its IS in order to achieve a much needed synergy.

  16. Information integration for a sky survey by data warehousing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    The virtualization service of data system for a sky survey LAMOST is very important for astronomers The service needs to integrate information from data collections catalogs and references and support simple federation of a set of distributed files and associated metadata Data warehousing has been in existence for several years and demonstrated superiority over traditional relational database management systems by providing novel indexing schemes that supported efficient on-line analytical processing OLAP of large databases Now relational database systems such as Oracle etc support the warehouse capability which including extensions to the SQL language to support OLAP operations and a number of metadata management tools have been created The information integration of LAMOST by applying data warehousing is to effectively provide data and knowledge on-line

  17. Project Integration Architecture: A Practical Demonstration of Information Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    One of the goals of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) effort is to provide the ability to propagate information between disparate applications. With this ability, applications may then be formed into an application graph constituting a super-application. Such a super-application would then provide all of the analysis appropriate to a given technical system. This paper reports on a small demonstration of this concept in which a Computer Aided Design (CAD) application was connected to an inlet analysis code and geometry information automatically propagated from one to the other. The majority of the work reported involved not the technology of information propagation, but rather the conversion of propagated information into a form usable by the receiving application.

  18. Integrating information systems in support of configuration management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, D.C. (Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States)); Lowrie, D.A. (Texas Utilities Electric, Glen Rose, TX (US))

    1990-01-01

    In response to the increasing demand to achieve zero defects in design, operations, and maintenance, efforts are underway at many nuclear-power plants to reconstruct, validate, and document the plant design basis. Processes that implement and communicate changes to plant configuration are being updated to ensure that the plant baseline is maintained. Successful configuration management requires that the multiple organizations involved in plant work have ready accesses to meaningful, timely, and accurate information. This paper describes the development and integration of computer-based information systems to support the configuration management process at Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station.

  19. Creating integrated information management system for small and medium business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deinega Valentina Nikolaevna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises regardless of their size and ownership, focused on a long and successful work needed to create a system of integrated information systems. This is dictated by the fact that, firstly, it combines the financial data, and secondly provides a standardized manufacturing processes, thirdly, solves the problem of standardization of information in a frame. The main thing in your decision-making - the definition of the strategy of the business and the reflection of this strategy on goals and objectives. ERP-system help to maintain competitiveness and leadership in the market.

  20. MODELING STRUCTURES FOR INTEGRATED OBSTETRICS, GYNECOLOGY, AND NEONATAL INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKARGA-Bandurova Inna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic components of the model for integrated Obstetrics-Gynecology and Neonatal Information System (ObGyNeoIS. Analysis of the problems and ways to improve the quality of health information exchange to support effective clinical decision-making is represented. We have studied the document flows and data exchange in Ukrainian obstetrics, gynecology, and neonatology institutions, marked the main routes of patients in the outpatient departments of women's health care, proposed the concept of architecture and fragment of database.

  1. Differences in Information Mapping Strategies in Left and Right Brain Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, LaVerne S., Jr.

    The Information Mapping technique was used to present a learning packet, and its usefulness in helping right-brain cerebrally dominant students to achieve the same level of subject mastery as their left-brain counterparts was examined. Reading level, grade point average, and gender were also analyzed. Torrance's "Your Style of Learning and…

  2. Moral judgment as information processing: an integrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Steve

    2015-01-01

    How do humans make moral judgments about others’ behavior? This article reviews dominant models of moral judgment, organizing them within an overarching framework of information processing. This framework poses two distinct questions: (1) What input information guides moral judgments? and (2) What psychological processes generate these judgments? Information Models address the first question, identifying critical information elements (including causality, intentionality, and mental states) that shape moral judgments. A subclass of Biased Information Models holds that perceptions of these information elements are themselves driven by prior moral judgments. Processing Models address the second question, and existing models have focused on the relative contribution of intuitive versus deliberative processes. This review organizes existing moral judgment models within this framework and critically evaluates them on empirical and theoretical grounds; it then outlines a general integrative model grounded in information processing, and concludes with conceptual and methodological suggestions for future research. The information-processing framework provides a useful theoretical lens through which to organize extant and future work in the rapidly growing field of moral judgment. PMID:26579022

  3. Methodology of Adaptive Integrated Accounting System in Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochulya Tetyana V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of logical and methodological justification of formation of the integrated system of accounting based on realities of the co-ordinated transformation of the society and economy and development of a new knowledge about formation and adjustment of the accounting system in it’s a priori new information competence with expansion of functionality for the justified idea of existence and development of business. Taking developments of the best representatives of the leading scientific society as a basis, the article offers a new vision of organisation of the accounting system, based on the modern projection of information competence and harmonisation of main processes of information service for adaptation of the system for multi-vector inquiries of consumers of information. Pursuant to results of the conducted study, the article makes an effort to change the established opinion about information and professional competences of the accounting system and attach a new qualitative significance to them. The article makes a proposal with respect to calculation of quality of the information system on the basis of key indicators of its information service. It lays the foundation of the prospective study of the problems of building the accounting system in such a projection, so that realities of internal and external processes were maximally co-ordinated based on the idea of their information development.

  4. Architectural Building A Public Key Infrastructure Integrated Information Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Ivanovich Korolev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article keeps under consideration the mattersto apply the cryptographic system having a public key to provide information security and to implya digital signature. It performs the analysis of trust models at the formation of certificates and their use. The article describes the relationships between the trust model and the architecture public key infrastructure. It contains conclusions in respect of the options for building the public key infrastructure for integrated informationspace.

  5. BACS: evolution of an integrated library system toward information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, E A; Halbrook, B; Igielnik, S; Rueby, C

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of the Washington University School of Medicine BACS integrated library system toward information management functions is outlined. The creation of a machine-readable database and its extension through telecommunications have consequences that reach beyond the functions of the library as we have perceived them. It is argued that libraries are flexible institutions that, with automation, are likely to enlarge rather than to diminish.

  6. Earth science information: Planning for the integration and use of global change information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousma, Jack R.

    1992-01-01

    Activities and accomplishments of the first six months of the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN's) 1992 technical program have focused on four main missions: (1) the development and implementation of plans for initiation of the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) as part of the EOSDIS Program; (2) the pursuit and development of a broad-based global change information cooperative by providing systems analysis and integration between natural science and social science data bases held by numerous federal agencies and other sources; (3) the fostering of scientific research into the human dimensions of global change and providing integration between natural science and social science data and information; and (4) the serving of CIESIN as a gateway for global change data and information distribution through development of the Global Change Research Information Office and other comprehensive knowledge sharing systems.

  7. Information Science and integrative Science. A sistemic approach to information units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Dolores Santaella Ruiz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Structured in two parts: The Documentation like integrating science and Systematics approach to the documentary units, this work understands the Documentation from a brought integrating perspective of the twinning that supposes same modus operandi in the information systems through the use of the technologies of the communication. From the General Theory of Systems, the present work interprets this science to multidiscipline like a system formed by the technical subsystems, of elements and individuals

  8. [Evaluation of the community integration of persons with lateralised post-acute acquired brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas-Hoyas, E; Pedrero-Perez, E J; Aguila-Maturana, A M; Gonzalez-Alted, C

    2013-08-16

    INTRODUCTION. Hemispheric specialization is a topic of interest that has motivated an enormous amount of research in recent decades. After a unilateral brain injury, the consequences can affect various areas of specialization, leading, depending on the location of the injury, impairment in quality of life and community integration. PATIENTS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional study with a sample of 58 patients, 28 traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 30 cerebrovascular accidents, both lateralized. The level of integration in the community is measured by the Community Integration Questionnaire. RESULTS. There were three groups analyzed by considering unilateral injury (full sample, stroke sample, and TBI sample). Results showed a significantly high community integration of people with right hemisphere injury. However, to measure the level of community integration between TBI and stroke, the results showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION. According to the results of the study people with brain injury in the right hemisphere have a better community integration than people with lesions in the left hemisphere regardless of the origin of the lesions (vascular or traumatic). We discussed the reasons that may motivate the differences and clinical implications.

  9. A segmentation of brain MRI images utilizing intensity and contextual information by Markov random field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingsheng; Yan, Qingguang; Qin, Mingxin

    2017-12-01

    Image segmentation is a preliminary and fundamental step in computer aided magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images analysis. But the performance of most current image segmentation methods is easily depreciated by noise in MRI images. A precise and anti-noise segmentation of MRI images is desired in modern medical image diagnosis. This paper presents a segmentation of MRI images which combines fuzzy clustering and Markov random field (MRF). In order to utilize gray level information sufficiently and alleviate noise disturbance, fuzzy clustering is carried out on the original image and the coarse scale image of multi-scale decomposition. The spatial constraints between neighboring pixels are modeled by a defined potential function in the MRF to reduce the effect of noise and increase the integrity of segmented regions. Spatial constraints and the gray level information refined by Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm are integrated by maximum a posteriori Markov random field (MAP-MRF). In the proposed method, the fuzzy clustering membership obtained from the original image and the coarse scale image is integrated into the single-site clique potential functions by MAP-MRF. The defined potential functions and the distance weight are introduced to model the neighborhood constraint with MRF. The experiments are carried out on noised synthetic images, simulated brain MR images and real MR images. The experimental results show that the proposed method has strong robustness and satisfying performance. Meanwhile the method is compared with FCM, FGFCM and FLICM algorithms visually and statistically in the experiments. In the comparison, the proposed method has achieved the best results. In the statistical comparison, the proposed method has an average similarity index of 36.8%, 33.7%, 2.75% increase against FCM, FGFCM and FLICM. This paper proposes a MRI segmentation method combining fuzzy clustering and Markov random field. The method is tested in the noised image databases and

  10. Brain networks engaged in audiovisual integration during speech perception revealed by persistent homology-based network filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejung; Hahm, Jarang; Lee, Hyekyoung; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-05-01

    The human brain naturally integrates audiovisual information to improve speech perception. However, in noisy environments, understanding speech is difficult and may require much effort. Although the brain network is supposed to be engaged in speech perception, it is unclear how speech-related brain regions are connected during natural bimodal audiovisual or unimodal speech perception with counterpart irrelevant noise. To investigate the topological changes of speech-related brain networks at all possible thresholds, we used a persistent homological framework through hierarchical clustering, such as single linkage distance, to analyze the connected component of the functional network during speech perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging. For speech perception, bimodal (audio-visual speech cue) or unimodal speech cues with counterpart irrelevant noise (auditory white-noise or visual gum-chewing) were delivered to 15 subjects. In terms of positive relationship, similar connected components were observed in bimodal and unimodal speech conditions during filtration. However, during speech perception by congruent audiovisual stimuli, the tighter couplings of left anterior temporal gyrus-anterior insula component and right premotor-visual components were observed than auditory or visual speech cue conditions, respectively. Interestingly, visual speech is perceived under white noise by tight negative coupling in the left inferior frontal region-right anterior cingulate, left anterior insula, and bilateral visual regions, including right middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform components. In conclusion, the speech brain network is tightly positively or negatively connected, and can reflect efficient or effortful processes during natural audiovisual integration or lip-reading, respectively, in speech perception.

  11. Monoaminergic integration of diet and social signals in the brains of juvenile spadefoot toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Sabrina S; Rodriguez Moncalvo, Verónica G; Pfennig, Karin S

    2017-09-01

    Social behavior often includes the production of species-specific signals (e.g. mating calls or visual displays) that evoke context-dependent behavioral responses from conspecifics. Monoamines are important neuromodulators that have been implicated in context-dependent social behavior, yet we know little about the development of monoaminergic systems and whether they mediate the effects of early life experiences on adult behavior. We examined the effects of diet and social signals on monoamines early in development in the plains spadefoot toad (Spea bombifrons), a species in which diet affects the developmental emergence of species recognition and body condition affects the expression of adult mating preferences. To do so, we manipulated the diet of juveniles for 6 weeks following metamorphosis and collected their brains 40 min following the presentation of either a conspecific or a heterospecific call. We measured levels of monoamines and their metabolites using high pressure liquid chromatography from tissue punches of the auditory midbrain (i.e. torus semicircularis), hypothalamus and preoptic area. We found that call type affected dopamine and noradrenaline signaling in the auditory midbrain and that diet affected dopamine and serotonin in the hypothalamus. In the preoptic area, we detected an interaction between diet and call type, indicating that diet modulates how the preoptic area integrates social information. Our results suggest that the responsiveness of monoamine systems varies across the brain and highlight preoptic dopamine and noradrenaline as candidates for mediating effects of early diet experience on later expression of social preferences. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Integration of Brain and Skull in Prenatal Mouse Models of Apert and Crouzon Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motch Perrine, Susan M; Stecko, Tim; Neuberger, Thomas; Jabs, Ethylin W; Ryan, Timothy M; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2017-01-01

    The brain and skull represent a complex arrangement of integrated anatomical structures composed of various cell and tissue types that maintain structural and functional association throughout development. Morphological integration, a concept developed in vertebrate morphology and evolutionary biology, describes the coordinated variation of functionally and developmentally related traits of organisms. Syndromic craniosynostosis is characterized by distinctive changes in skull morphology and perceptible, though less well studied, changes in brain structure and morphology. Using mouse models for craniosynostosis conditions, our group has precisely defined how unique craniosynostosis causing mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptors affect brain and skull morphology and dysgenesis involving coordinated tissue-specific effects of these mutations. Here we examine integration of brain and skull in two mouse models for craniosynostosis: one carrying the FGFR2c C342Y mutation associated with Pfeiffer and Crouzon syndromes and a mouse model carrying the FGFR2 S252W mutation, one of two mutations responsible for two-thirds of Apert syndrome cases. Using linear distances estimated from three-dimensional coordinates of landmarks acquired from dual modality imaging of skull (high resolution micro-computed tomography and magnetic resonance microscopy) of mice at embryonic day 17.5, we confirm variation in brain and skull morphology in Fgfr2cC342Y/+ mice, Fgfr2+/S252W mice, and their unaffected littermates. Mutation-specific variation in neural and cranial tissue notwithstanding, patterns of integration of brain and skull differed only subtly between mice carrying either the FGFR2c C342Y or the FGFR2 S252W mutation and their unaffected littermates. However, statistically significant and substantial differences in morphological integration of brain and skull were revealed between the two mutant mouse models, each maintained on a different strain. Relative to the effects of

  13. Integration of Brain and Skull in Prenatal Mouse Models of Apert and Crouzon Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Motch Perrine

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The brain and skull represent a complex arrangement of integrated anatomical structures composed of various cell and tissue types that maintain structural and functional association throughout development. Morphological integration, a concept developed in vertebrate morphology and evolutionary biology, describes the coordinated variation of functionally and developmentally related traits of organisms. Syndromic craniosynostosis is characterized by distinctive changes in skull morphology and perceptible, though less well studied, changes in brain structure and morphology. Using mouse models for craniosynostosis conditions, our group has precisely defined how unique craniosynostosis causing mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptors affect brain and skull morphology and dysgenesis involving coordinated tissue-specific effects of these mutations. Here we examine integration of brain and skull in two mouse models for craniosynostosis: one carrying the FGFR2c C342Y mutation associated with Pfeiffer and Crouzon syndromes and a mouse model carrying the FGFR2 S252W mutation, one of two mutations responsible for two-thirds of Apert syndrome cases. Using linear distances estimated from three-dimensional coordinates of landmarks acquired from dual modality imaging of skull (high resolution micro-computed tomography and magnetic resonance microscopy of mice at embryonic day 17.5, we confirm variation in brain and skull morphology in Fgfr2cC342Y/+ mice, Fgfr2+/S252W mice, and their unaffected littermates. Mutation-specific variation in neural and cranial tissue notwithstanding, patterns of integration of brain and skull differed only subtly between mice carrying either the FGFR2c C342Y or the FGFR2 S252W mutation and their unaffected littermates. However, statistically significant and substantial differences in morphological integration of brain and skull were revealed between the two mutant mouse models, each maintained on a different strain. Relative

  14. How the brain integrates costs and benefits during decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basten, Ulrike; Biele, Guido; Heekeren, Hauke R; Fiebach, Christian J

    2010-12-14

    When we make decisions, the benefits of an option often need to be weighed against accompanying costs. Little is known, however, about the neural systems underlying such cost-benefit computations. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and choice modeling, we show that decision making based on cost-benefit comparison can be explained as a stochastic accumulation of cost-benefit difference. Model-driven functional MRI shows that ventromedial and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compare costs and benefits by computing the difference between neural signatures of anticipated benefits and costs from the ventral striatum and amygdala, respectively. Moreover, changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the bilateral middle intraparietal sulcus reflect the accumulation of the difference signal from ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In sum, we show that a neurophysiological mechanism previously established for perceptual decision making, that is, the difference-based accumulation of evidence, is fundamental also in value-based decisions. The brain, thus, weighs costs against benefits by combining neural benefit and cost signals into a single, difference-based neural representation of net value, which is accumulated over time until the individual decides to accept or reject an option.

  15. A Unified Brain Architecture for Perception and Cognition With Applications to Information Processing Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carpenter, Gail

    2004-01-01

    .... It does this by mathematically characterizing and quantitatively simulating key brain mechanisms underlying higher-order human information processing as carried out within the laminar structure of the cerebral cortex...

  16. Alteration of blood-brain barrier integrity by retroviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe V Afonso

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB, which forms the interface between the blood and the cerebral parenchyma, has been shown to be disrupted during retroviral-associated neuromyelopathies. Human T Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with BBB breakdown. The BBB is composed of three cell types: endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes. Although astrocytes have been shown to be infected by HTLV-1, until now, little was known about the susceptibility of BBB endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection and the impact of such an infection on BBB function. We first demonstrated that human cerebral endothelial cells express the receptors for HTLV-1 (GLUT-1, Neuropilin-1 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, both in vitro, in a human cerebral endothelial cell line, and ex vivo, on spinal cord autopsy sections from HAM/TSP and non-infected control cases. In situ hybridization revealed HTLV-1 transcripts associated with the vasculature in HAM/TSP. We were able to confirm that the endothelial cells could be productively infected in vitro by HTLV-1 and that blocking of either HSPGs, Neuropilin 1 or Glut1 inhibits this process. The expression of the tight-junction proteins within the HTLV-1 infected endothelial cells was altered. These cells were no longer able to form a functional barrier, since BBB permeability and lymphocyte passage through the monolayer of endothelial cells were increased. This work constitutes the first report of susceptibility of human cerebral endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection, with implications for HTLV-1 passage through the BBB and subsequent deregulation of the central nervous system homeostasis. We propose that the susceptibility of cerebral endothelial cells to retroviral infection and subsequent BBB dysfunction is an important aspect of HAM/TSP pathogenesis and should be considered in the design of future therapeutics strategies.

  17. Leading research on brain functional information processing; No kino joho shori no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This research aims at searching the concept of an information processing device with a fully different architecture from a previous ones based on the study on human brain function, sense and perception, and developing the basic fabrication technology for such system, and realizing the human-like information processing mechanism of memorization, learning, association, perception, intuition and value judgement. As an approach deriving biological and technological models from experimental brain studies, the model was derived from the brain functional information processing based on brain development/differentiation mechanism, the control mechanism/material of brain activities, and the knowledge obtained from brain measurement and study. In addition, for understanding a brain oscillation phenomenon by computational neuroscience, the cerebral cortex neural network model composed of realistic neuron models was proposed. Evaluation of the previous large-scale neural network chip system showed its ability of learning and fast processing, however, the next-generation brain computer requires further R and D of some novel architecture, device and system. 184 refs., 41 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Performance measurement integrated information framework in e-Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran, Hilaida; Hernandez, Juan Carlos; Vizán, Antonio; Ríos, José

    2014-11-01

    The implementation of Internet technologies has led to e-Manufacturing technologies becoming more widely used and to the development of tools for compiling, transforming and synchronising manufacturing data through the Web. In this context, a potential area for development is the extension of virtual manufacturing to performance measurement (PM) processes, a critical area for decision making and implementing improvement actions in manufacturing. This paper proposes a PM information framework to integrate decision support systems in e-Manufacturing. Specifically, the proposed framework offers a homogeneous PM information exchange model that can be applied through decision support in e-Manufacturing environment. Its application improves the necessary interoperability in decision-making data processing tasks. It comprises three sub-systems: a data model, a PM information platform and PM-Web services architecture. A practical example of data exchange for measurement processes in the area of equipment maintenance is shown to demonstrate the utility of the model.

  19. Integration of contour and surface information in shape detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machilsen, Bart; Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    In studies of shape perception, the detection of contours and the segregation of regions enclosed by these contours have mostly been treated in isolation. However, contours and surfaces somehow need to be combined to create a stable perception of shape. In this study, we used a 2AFC task with arrays of oriented Gabor elements to determine whether and to what extent human observers integrate information from the contour and from the interior surface of a shape embedded in this array. The saliency of the shapes depended on the alignment of Gabors along the shape outline and on the isolinearity of Gabors inside the shape. In two experiments we measured detectability of shapes defined by the contour cue, by the surface cue, and by the combination of both cues. As a first step, we matched performance in the two single-cue conditions. We then compared shape detectability in the double-cue condition with the two equally detectable single-cue conditions. Our results show a clear double-cue benefit: Participants used both cues to detect the shapes. Next, we compared performance in the double-cue condition with the performance predicted by two models of sensory cue combination: a minimum rule (probability summation) and an integration rule (information summation). Results from Experiment 2 indicate that participants applied a combination rule that was better than mere probability summation. We found no evidence against the integration rule. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of informal institutions on the development integration processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorova Alexandra, M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the impact of informal institutions on the definition of the vector integration processes and the development of integration processes in the countries of the Customs Union and Ukraine. The degree of scientific development of the phenomenon in different economic schools is determined in this article. Economic mentality is a basic informal institutions, which determines the degree of effectiveness of the integration processes. This paper examines the nature, characteristics and effects of economic mentality on the economic activities of people. Ethnometrichal method allows to quantify the economic mentality that enables deeper understanding and analysis of the formation and functioning of political and economic system, especially business and management, establishing contacts with other cultures. It was measured modern Belarusian economic mentality based on international methodology Hofstede and compared with the economic mentality of Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. With the help of cluster analysis congruence economic mentality of the Customs Union and Ukraine was determined. Economic mentality of these countries was also compared with the economic mentality of other countries in order to identify the main types of economic culture.

  1. TOMATOMICS: A Web Database for Integrated Omics Information in Tomato

    KAUST Repository

    Kudo, Toru

    2016-11-29

    Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) is an important agronomic crop and a major model fruit-producing plant. To facilitate basic and applied research, comprehensive experimental resources and omics information on tomato are available following their development. Mutant lines and cDNA clones from a dwarf cultivar, Micro-Tom, are two of these genetic resources. Large-scale sequencing data for ESTs and full-length cDNAs from Micro-Tom continue to be gathered. In conjunction with information on the reference genome sequence of another cultivar, Heinz 1706, the Micro-Tom experimental resources have facilitated comprehensive functional analyses. To enhance the efficiency of acquiring omics information for tomato biology, we have integrated the information on the Micro-Tom experimental resources and the Heinz 1706 genome sequence. We have also inferred gene structure by comparison of sequences between the genome of Heinz 1706 and the transcriptome, which are comprised of Micro-Tom full-length cDNAs and Heinz 1706 RNA-seq data stored in the KaFTom and Sequence Read Archive databases. In order to provide large-scale omics information with streamlined connectivity we have developed and maintain a web database TOMATOMICS (http://bioinf.mind.meiji.ac.jp/tomatomics/). In TOMATOMICS, access to the information on the cDNA clone resources, full-length mRNA sequences, gene structures, expression profiles and functional annotations of genes is available through search functions and the genome browser, which has an intuitive graphical interface.

  2. Misconceptions and Misattributions About Traumatic Brain Injury: An Integrated Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Cady K; West, Sarah E; Goldin, Yelena

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present narrative review was to provide a conceptual framework to address common misconceptions in the field of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and enhance clinical and research practices. This framework is based on review of the literature on TBI knowledge and beliefs. The comprehensive search of the literature included seminal and current texts as well as relevant articles on TBI knowledge and education, misconceptions, and misattributions. Reviewed materials ranged from 1970 to 2013 and were obtained from PubMed and PubMed Central online research databases. Research findings from the reviewed literature were integrated with existing social and cognitive psychological concepts to develop a framework that includes: (1) the identification antecedents of TBI-related misconceptions and misattribution; (2) understanding of how inaccurate beliefs form and persist as the result of pre- and postinjury cognitive operations such as informational cascades and attribution biases; and (3) a discussion of ways in which these beliefs can result in consequences in all domains of a survivor's life, including physical and mental health, stigma, and discrimination. This framework is intended to serve as a first stage of development of a model that will improve treatment endeavors and service delivery to individuals with TBI and their families. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The informed application of building-integrated wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breshears, J.; Briscoe, C. [Zimmer Gunsal Frasca Architects, Portland, OR (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on an exercise that was undertaken to integrate small-scale wind turbines into the design of an urban high-rise in Portland, Oregon. Wind behaviour in the urban environment is very complex, as the flow of wind over and around buildings often triggers multiple transitions of the air from laminar flow to turbulent. The study documented the process of moving beyond a simplistic approach to a truly informed application of building-integrated wind generation. The 4 key issues addressed in the study process were quantifying the geographical wind regime; predicting wind flow over the building; turbine selection; and pragmatics regarding the design of roof mounting to accommodate structural loads and mitigate vibration. The results suggested that the turbine array should produce in the range of only 1 per cent of the electrical load of the building. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Strengthening Rehabilitation in Health Systems Worldwide by Integrating Information on Functioning in National Health Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold; Bickenbach, Jerome; Melvin, John

    2017-09-01

    A complete understanding of the experience of health requires information relevant not merely to the health indicators of mortality and morbidity but also to functioning-that is, information about what it means to live in a health state, "the lived experience of health." Not only is functioning information relevant to healthcare and the overall objectives of person-centered healthcare but to the successful operation of all components of health systems.In light of population aging and major epidemiological trends, the health strategy of rehabilitation, whose aim has always been to optimize functioning and minimize disability, will become a key health strategy. The increasing prominence of the rehabilitative strategy within the health system drives the argument for the integration of functioning information as an essential component in national health information systems.Rehabilitation professionals and researchers have long recognized in WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health the best prospect for an internationally recognized, sufficiently complete and powerful information reference for the documentation of functioning information. This paper opens the discussion of the promise of integrating the ICF as an essential component in national health systems to secure access to functioning information for rehabilitation, across health systems and countries.

  5. A Topological Criterion for Filtering Information in Complex Brain Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio De Vico Fallani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many biological systems, the network of interactions between the elements can only be inferred from experimental measurements. In neuroscience, non-invasive imaging tools are extensively used to derive either structural or functional brain networks in-vivo. As a result of the inference process, we obtain a matrix of values corresponding to a fully connected and weighted network. To turn this into a useful sparse network, thresholding is typically adopted to cancel a percentage of the weakest connections. The structural properties of the resulting network depend on how much of the inferred connectivity is eventually retained. However, how to objectively fix this threshold is still an open issue. We introduce a criterion, the efficiency cost optimization (ECO, to select a threshold based on the optimization of the trade-off between the efficiency of a network and its wiring cost. We prove analytically and we confirm through numerical simulations that the connection density maximizing this trade-off emphasizes the intrinsic properties of a given network, while preserving its sparsity. Moreover, this density threshold can be determined a-priori, since the number of connections to filter only depends on the network size according to a power-law. We validate this result on several brain networks, from micro- to macro-scales, obtained with different imaging modalities. Finally, we test the potential of ECO in discriminating brain states with respect to alternative filtering methods. ECO advances our ability to analyze and compare biological networks, inferred from experimental data, in a fast and principled way.

  6. Multisensory integration sites identified by perception of spatial wavelet filtered visual speech gesture information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Daniel E; Jones, Jeffery A; Munhall, Kevin; Kroos, Christian; Callan, Akiko M; Vatikiotis-Bateson, Eric

    2004-06-01

    Perception of speech is improved when presentation of the audio signal is accompanied by concordant visual speech gesture information. This enhancement is most prevalent when the audio signal is degraded. One potential means by which the brain affords perceptual enhancement is thought to be through the integration of concordant information from multiple sensory channels in a common site of convergence, multisensory integration (MSI) sites. Some studies have identified potential sites in the superior temporal gyrus/sulcus (STG/S) that are responsive to multisensory information from the auditory speech signal and visual speech movement. One limitation of these studies is that they do not control for activity resulting from attentional modulation cued by such things as visual information signaling the onsets and offsets of the acoustic speech signal, as well as activity resulting from MSI of properties of the auditory speech signal with aspects of gross visual motion that are not specific to place of articulation information. This fMRI experiment uses spatial wavelet bandpass filtered Japanese sentences presented with background multispeaker audio noise to discern brain activity reflecting MSI induced by auditory and visual correspondence of place of articulation information that controls for activity resulting from the above-mentioned factors. The experiment consists of a low-frequency (LF) filtered condition containing gross visual motion of the lips, jaw, and head without specific place of articulation information, a midfrequency (MF) filtered condition containing place of articulation information, and an unfiltered (UF) condition. Sites of MSI selectively induced by auditory and visual correspondence of place of articulation information were determined by the presence of activity for both the MF and UF conditions relative to the LF condition. Based on these criteria, sites of MSI were found predominantly in the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and the left STG

  7. The integration of Information and Communication Technology into medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Hardey, Michael; Torrent, Joan; Ficapal, Pilar

    2010-07-01

    To identify doctors' utilization of ICT; to develop and characterise a typology of doctors' utilization of ICT and to identify factors that can enhance or inhibit the use of these technologies within medical practice. An online survey of the 16,531 members of the Physicians Association of Barcelona who had a registered email account in 2006 was carried out. Factor analysis, cluster analysis and binomial logit model were undertaken. Multivariate statistics analysis of the 2199 responses obtained revealed two profiles of adoption of ICT. The first profile (38.61% of respondents) represents those doctors who place high emphasis on ICT within their practice. This group is thus referred to as 'integrated doctors'. The second profile (61.39% of respondents) represents those doctors who make less use of ICT so are consequently labelled 'non-integrated doctors'. From the statistical modelling, it was observed that an emphasis on international information; emphasis on ICT for research and medical practice; emphasis on information systems to consult and prescribe; undertaking teaching/research activities; a belief that the use of the Internet improved communication with patients and practice in both public and private health organizations play a positive and significant role in the probability of being an 'integrated doctor'. The integration of ICT within medical practice cannot be adequately understood and appreciated without examining how doctors are making use of ICT within their own practice, organizational contexts and the opportunities and constraints afforded by institutional, professional and patient expectations and demands. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An integrative behavioral model of information security policy compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Yang, Kyung Hoon; Park, Sunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members' compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members' attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1) the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members' compliance with the information security policy, (2) the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3) the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training programs suppressing

  9. Evidence of altered DNA integrity in the brain regions of suicidal victims of Bipolar Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustak, Mohammed S; Hegde, Muralidhar L; Dinesh, Athira; Britton, Gabrielle B; Berrocal, Ruben; Subba Rao, K; Shamasundar, N M; Rao, K S J; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S

    2010-07-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity plays a significant role in cell function. There are limited studies with regard to the role of DNA damage in bipolar affective disorder (BP). In the present study, we have assessed DNA integrity, conformation, and stability in the brain region of bipolar depression (BD) patients (n=10) compared to age-matched controls (n=8). Genomic DNA was isolated from 10 postmortem BD patients' brain regions (frontal cortex, Pons, medulla, thalamus, cerebellum, hypothalamus, Parietal, temporal, occipital lobe, and hippocampus) and from the age-matched control subjects. DNA from the frontal cortex, pons, medulla, and thalamus showed significantly higher number of strand breaks in BD (P<0.01) compared to the age-matched controls. However, DNA from the hippocampus region was intact and did not show any strand breaks. The stability studies also indicated that the melting temperature and ethidium bromide binding pattern were altered in the DNA of BD patients' brain regions, except in the hippocampus. The conformation studies showed B-A or secondary B-DNA conformation (instead of the normal B-DNA) in BD patients' brain regions, with the exception of the hippocampus. The levels of redox metals such as Copper (Cu) and Iron (Fe) were significantly elevated in the brain regions of the sufferers of BD, while the Zinc (Zn) level was decreased. In the hippocampus, there was no change in the Fe or Cu levels, whereas, the Zn level was elevated. There was a clear correlation between Cu and Fe levels versus strand breaks in the brain regions of the BD. To date, as far as we are aware, this is a new comprehensive database on stability and conformations of DNA in different brain regions of patients affected with BD. The biological significance of these findings is discussed here.

  10. Integrated tokamak modeling: when physics informs engineering and research planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Francesca

    2017-10-01

    Simulations that integrate virtually all the relevant engineering and physics aspects of a real tokamak experiment are a power tool for experimental interpretation, model validation and planning for both present and future devices. This tutorial will guide through the building blocks of an ``integrated'' tokamak simulation, such as magnetic flux diffusion, thermal, momentum and particle transport, external heating and current drive sources, wall particle sources and sinks. Emphasis is given to the connection and interplay between external actuators and plasma response, between the slow time scales of the current diffusion and the fast time scales of transport, and how reduced and high-fidelity models can contribute to simulate a whole device. To illustrate the potential and limitations of integrated tokamak modeling for discharge prediction, a helium plasma scenario for the ITER pre-nuclear phase is taken as an example. This scenario presents challenges because it requires core-edge integration and advanced models for interaction between waves and fast-ions, which are subject to a limited experimental database for validation and guidance. Starting from a scenario obtained by re-scaling parameters from the demonstration inductive ``ITER baseline'', it is shown how self-consistent simulations that encompass both core and edge plasma regions, as well as high-fidelity heating and current drive source models are needed to set constraints on the density, magnetic field and heating scheme. This tutorial aims at demonstrating how integrated modeling, when used with adequate level of criticism, can not only support design of operational scenarios, but also help to asses the limitations and gaps in the available models, thus indicating where improved modeling tools are required and how present experiments can help their validation and inform research planning. Work supported by DOE under DE-AC02-09CH1146.

  11. Integrating digital information for coastal and marine sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marincioni, Fausto; Lightsom, Frances L.; Riall, Rebecca L.; Linck, Guthrie A.; Aldrich, Thomas C.; Caruso, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A pilot distributed geolibrary, the Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB), was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, to classify, integrate, and facilitate access to scientific information about oceans, coasts, and lakes. The MRIB is composed of a categorization scheme, a metadata database, and a specialized software backend, capable of drawing together information from remote sources without modifying their original format or content. Twelve facets are used to classify information: location, geologic time, feature type, biota, discipline, research method, hot topics, project, agency, author, content type, and file type. The MRIB approach allows easy and flexible organization of large or growing document collections for which centralized repositories would be impractical. Geographic searching based on the gazetteer and map interface is the centerpiece of the MRIB distributed geolibrary. The MRIB is one of a very few digital libraries that employ georeferencing -- a fundamentally different way to structure information from the traditional author/title/subject/keyword approach employed by most digital libraries. Lessons learned in developing the MRIB will be useful as other digital libraries confront the challenges of georeferencing.

  12. Integrating Decentralized Indoor Evacuation with Information Depositories in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The lonelier evacuees find themselves, the riskier become their wayfinding decisions. This research supports single evacuees in a dynamically changing environment with risk-aware guidance. It deploys the concept of decentralized evacuation, where evacuees are guided by smartphones acquiring environmental knowledge and risk information via exploration and knowledge sharing by peer-to-peer communication. Peer-to-peer communication, however, relies on the chance that people come into communication range with each other. This chance can be low. To bridge between people being not at the same time at the same places, this paper suggests information depositories at strategic locations to improve information sharing. Information depositories collect the knowledge acquired by the smartphones of evacuees passing by, maintain this information, and convey it to other passing-by evacuees. Multi-agent simulation implementing these depositories in an indoor environment shows that integrating depositories improves evacuation performance: It enhances the risk awareness and consequently increases the chance that people survive and reduces their evacuation time. For evacuating dynamic events, deploying depositories at staircases has been shown more effective than deploying them in corridors.

  13. Brain activity and cognition: a connection from thermodynamics and information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collell, Guillem; Fauquet, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The connection between brain and mind is an important scientific and philosophical question that we are still far from completely understanding. A crucial point to our work is noticing that thermodynamics provides a convenient framework to model brain activity, whereas cognition can be modeled in information-theoretical terms. In fact, several models have been proposed so far from both approaches. A second critical remark is the existence of deep theoretical connections between thermodynamics and information theory. In fact, some well-known authors claim that the laws of thermodynamics are nothing but principles in information theory. Unlike in physics or chemistry, a formalization of the relationship between information and energy is currently lacking in neuroscience. In this paper we propose a framework to connect physical brain and cognitive models by means of the theoretical connections between information theory and thermodynamics. Ultimately, this article aims at providing further insight on the formal relationship between cognition and neural activity.

  14. Brain activity and cognition: a connection from thermodynamics and information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collell, Guillem; Fauquet, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The connection between brain and mind is an important scientific and philosophical question that we are still far from completely understanding. A crucial point to our work is noticing that thermodynamics provides a convenient framework to model brain activity, whereas cognition can be modeled in information-theoretical terms. In fact, several models have been proposed so far from both approaches. A second critical remark is the existence of deep theoretical connections between thermodynamics and information theory. In fact, some well-known authors claim that the laws of thermodynamics are nothing but principles in information theory. Unlike in physics or chemistry, a formalization of the relationship between information and energy is currently lacking in neuroscience. In this paper we propose a framework to connect physical brain and cognitive models by means of the theoretical connections between information theory and thermodynamics. Ultimately, this article aims at providing further insight on the formal relationship between cognition and neural activity. PMID:26136709

  15. Project Integration Architecture: Inter-Application Propagation of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    A principal goal of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is to facilitate the meaningful inter-application transfer of application-value-added information. Such exchanging applications may be largely unrelated to each other except through their applicability to an overall project; however, the PIA effort recognizes as fundamental the need to make such applications cooperate despite wide disparaties either in the fidelity of the analyses carried out, or even the disciplines of the analysis. This paper discusses the approach and techniques applied and anticipated by the PIA project in treating this need.

  16. Planarian shows decision-making behavior in response to multiple stimuli by integrative brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Hoshino, Hajime; Yamashita, Taiga; Shimoyama, Seira; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2015-01-01

    Planarians belong to an evolutionarily early group of organisms that possess a central nervous system including a well-organized brain with a simple architecture but many types of neurons. Planarians display a number of behaviors, such as phototaxis and thermotaxis, in response to external stimuli, and it has been shown that various molecules and neural pathways in the brain are involved in controlling these behaviors. However, due to the lack of combinatorial assay methods, it remains obscure whether planarians possess higher brain functions, including integration in the brain, in which multiple signals coming from outside are coordinated and used in determining behavioral strategies. In the present study, we designed chemotaxis and thigmotaxis/kinesis tracking assays to measure several planarian behaviors in addition to those measured by phototaxis and thermotaxis assays previously established by our group, and used these tests to analyze planarian chemotactic and thigmotactic/kinetic behaviors. We found that headless planarian body fragments and planarians that had specifically lost neural activity following regeneration-dependent conditional gene knockdown (Readyknock) of synaptotagmin in the brain lost both chemotactic and thigmotactic behaviors, suggesting that neural activity in the brain is required for the planarian's chemotactic and thigmotactic behaviors. Furthermore, we compared the strength of phototaxis, chemotaxis, thigmotaxis/kinesis, and thermotaxis by presenting simultaneous binary stimuli to planarians. We found that planarians showed a clear order of predominance of these behaviors. For example, when planarians were simultaneously exposed to 400 lux of light and a chemoattractant, they showed chemoattractive behavior irrespective of the direction of the light source, although exposure to light of this intensity alone induces evasive behavior away from the light source. In contrast, when the light intensity was increased to 800 or 1600 lux and

  17. An integrated healthcare enterprise information portal and healthcare information system framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, S L; Lai, Feipei; Cheng, P H; Chen, J L; Lee, H H; Tsai, W N; Weng, Y C; Hsieh, S H; Hsu, K P; Ko, L F; Yang, T H; Chen, C H

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated, distributed Healthcare Enterprise Information Portal (HEIP) and Hospital Information Systems (HIS) framework over wireless/wired infrastructure at National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). A single sign-on solution for the hospital customer relationship management (CRM) in HEIP has been established. The outcomes of the newly developed Outpatient Information Systems (OIS) in HIS are discussed. The future HEIP blueprints with CRM oriented features: e-Learning, Remote Consultation and Diagnosis (RCD), as well as on-Line Vaccination Services are addressed. Finally, the integrated HEIP and HIS architectures based on the middleware technologies are proposed along with the feasible approaches. The preliminary performance of multi-media, time-based data exchanges over the wireless HEIP side is collected to evaluate the efficiency of the architecture.

  18. The Human Brain and Information Science: Lessons from Popular Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sturges

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Insights from the recent wealth of popular books on neuroscience are offered to suggest a strengthening of theory in information science. Information theory has traditionally neglected the human dimension in favour of 'scientific' theory often derived from the Shannon-Weaver model. Neuroscientists argue in excitingly fresh ways from the evidence of case studies, non-intrusive experimentation and the measurements that can be obtained from technologies that include electroencephalography, positron emission tomography (PET, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and magnetoencephalography (MEG. The way in which the findings of neuroscience intersect with ideas such as those of Kahneman on fast and slow thinking and Csikszentmihalyi on flow, is tentatively explored as lines of connection with information science. It is argued that the beginnings of a theoretical underpinning for current web-based information searching in relation to established information retrieval methods can be drawn from this.

  19. Design Principles for Achieving Integrated Healthcare Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-01-01

    Achieving integrated healthcare information systems has become a common goal for many countries in their pursuit of obtaining coordinated and comprehensive healthcare services. This article focuses on how a small local project termed ‘Standardized pull of patient data’ expanded and is now used...... on a large scale providing a majority of hospitals, general practitioners and citizens across Denmark with the possibility of accessing healthcare data from different electronic patient record systems and other systems. I build on design theory for information infrastructures, as presented by Hanseth...... and Lyytinen, to examine the design principles that facilitated this smallscale project to expand and become widespread. As a result of my findings, I outline three lessons learned that emphasize: (i) principles of flexibility, (ii) expansion from the installed base through modular strategies and (iii...

  20. Agricultural environment information monitoring instruments based on integrated intelligent sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoqing, Sr.; Sha, Zhanyou; Cai, Mingwei

    2009-07-01

    With the rapid development of facility agriculture in rural areas in China, the technology reform related to the auxiliary facilities has become the key factor to promote its development. And how to acquire the agricultural environment information effectively and rapidly becomes the most important factor. This article is aimed to make a study on the technical project of developing high performance and low cost environment monitoring instruments based on integrated intelligent sensors, which includes relative humidity/temperature monitor, intelligent turbidity sensor system with Microprocessor( μC) and single-bus interface and smog auto-detection and alarm system. The monitoring instruments can be applied to the overground information collecting, processing and alarming in greenhouses, poultry houses, livestock stables and so on.

  1. Haplotypes of catechol-O-methyltransferase modulate intelligence-related brain white matter integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Li, Jun; Yu, Chunshui; Li, Yonghui; Liu, Yong; Song, Ming; Fan, Ming; Li, Kuncheng; Jiang, Tianzi

    2010-03-01

    Twin studies have indicated a common genetic origin for intelligence and for variations in brain morphology. Our previous diffusion tensor imaging studies found an association between intelligence and white matter integrity of specific brain regions or tracts. However, specific genetic determinants of the white matter integrity of these brain regions and tracts are still unclear. In this study, we assess whether and how catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms affect brain white matter integrity. We genotyped twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the COMT gene and performed haplotype analyses on data from 79 healthy subjects. Our subjects had the same three major COMT haplotypes (termed the HPS, APS and LPS haplotypes) as previous studies have reported as regulating significantly different levels of enzymatic activity and dopamine. We used the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values from four regions and five tracts of interest to assess the effect of COMT polymorphisms, including the well-studied val158met SNP and the three main haplotypes that we had identified, on intelligence-related white matter integrity. We identified an association between the mean FA values of two regions in the bilateral prefrontal lobes and the COMT haplotypes, rather than between them and val158met. The haplotype-FA value associations modulated nonlinearly and fit an inverted U-model. Our findings suggest that COMT haplotypes can nonlinearly modulate the intelligence-related white matter integrity of the prefrontal lobes by more significantly influencing prefrontal dopamine variations than does val158met. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Age-related reduction of adaptive brain response during semantic integration is associated with gray matter reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zude Zhu

    Full Text Available While aging is associated with increased knowledge, it is also associated with decreased semantic integration. To investigate brain activation changes during semantic integration, a sample of forty-eight 25-75 year-old adults read sentences with high cloze (HC and low cloze (LC probability while functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted. Significant age-related reduction of cloze effect (LC vs. HC was found in several regions, especially the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, which play an important role in semantic integration. Moreover, when accounting for global gray matter volume reduction, the age-cloze correlation in the left MFG and right IFG was absent. The results suggest that brain structural atrophy may disrupt brain response in aging brains, which then show less brain engagement in semantic integration.

  3. Global Flood Monitoring: First Steps Toward Integrating Remote Sensing Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, R. F.; Wu, H.

    2016-12-01

    Various sources of remote sensing information are currently available to be used for quasi-real-time monitoring of global floods. These include flood inundation estimates based on optical sensors and from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), streamflow estimates derived from passive microwave radiances, and hydrological model results driven by multi-satellite precipitation analyses. All of these flood-monitoring methods have been shown to have skill and usefulness, but also have shortcomings in accuracy, timeliness, and/or limited time and space sampling. The user community, e.g., national and international agencies, especially those involved in disaster relief, require comparison and ultimately integration of such information. This talk addresses some of the potential steps to move the community closer to this goal. One component of such an integrated system, and perhaps the "base component", could be something like the Global Flood Monitoring System (GFMS) (http://flood.umd.edu), which has been developed and used in recent years to provide real-time flood detection, streamflow estimates and inundation calculations. The GFMS is driven by satellite-based precipitation, with the accuracy of the flood estimates being dependent on the accuracy of the precipitation analyses and the models used, but does provide flood estimates "all the time" (3-hr resolution) and everywhere (12 km to 1 km resolution). In terms of inundation mapping, the GFMS inundation calculations could be integrated with or replaced by those from the optical and SAR data sources, where/when available. A first step in this direction is a comparison of the inundation estimates. A few case studies will be presented for flood events over the last year, with varying results. In one case with aircraft validation, optical-based inundation is shown to improve with adjustment of the flood extent using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and the GFMS results as guidance. With additional comparisons, the GFMS inundation

  4. Unifying Kohlberg with Information Integration: The Moral Algebra of Recompense and of Kohlbergian Moral Informers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Hommers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to unify two major theories of moral judgment, a novel task is employed which combines elements of Kohlberg's stage theory and of the theory of information integration. In contrast to the format of Kohlberg's moral judgment interview, a nonverbal and quantitative response which makes low demands on verbal facility was used . Moral informers differing in value, i.e. high and low, are presented. The differences in effect of those two pieces of information should be substantial for a person at that specific moral stage, but small for a person at a different stage. Hence, these differences may diagnose the person's moral stage in the simplest possible way as the two levels of each of the thoughts were about typical content of the four Kohlbergian preconventional and conventional stages. The novel task allowed additionally to measure the influence of another moral concept which was about the non-Kohlbergian moral concept of recompense. After a training phase, pairs of those thoughts were presented to allow for the study of integration and individual differences. German and Korean children, 8, 10, and 12 years in age, judged deserved punishment. The patterns of means, correlations and factor loadings showed that elements of both theories can be unified, but produced unexpected results also. Additive integration of each of the two pairs of moral informers appeared, either with two Kohlbergian moral informers or with another Kohlbergian moral informer in combination with information about recompense. Also cultural independence as well as dependence, developmental changes between 8 and 10 years, and an outstanding moral impact of recompense in size and distinctiveness were observed.

  5. Towards a Unified Approach to Information Integration - A review paper on data/information fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Lei, Xingye C.

    2005-10-14

    Information or data fusion of data from different sources are ubiquitous in many applications, from epidemiology, medical, biological, political, and intelligence to military applications. Data fusion involves integration of spectral, imaging, text, and many other sensor data. For example, in epidemiology, information is often obtained based on many studies conducted by different researchers at different regions with different protocols. In the medical field, the diagnosis of a disease is often based on imaging (MRI, X-Ray, CT), clinical examination, and lab results. In the biological field, information is obtained based on studies conducted on many different species. In military field, information is obtained based on data from radar sensors, text messages, chemical biological sensor, acoustic sensor, optical warning and many other sources. Many methodologies are used in the data integration process, from classical, Bayesian, to evidence based expert systems. The implementation of the data integration ranges from pure software design to a mixture of software and hardware. In this review we summarize the methodologies and implementations of data fusion process, and illustrate in more detail the methodologies involved in three examples. We propose a unified multi-stage and multi-path mapping approach to the data fusion process, and point out future prospects and challenges.

  6. High-accuracy brain-machine interfaces using feedback information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Gi Yeom

    Full Text Available Sensory feedback is very important for movement control. However, feedback information has not been directly used to update movement prediction model in the previous BMI studies, although the closed-loop BMI system provides the visual feedback to users. Here, we propose a BMI framework combining image processing as the feedback information with a novel prediction method. The feedback-prediction algorithm (FPA generates feedback information from the positions of objects and modifies movement prediction according to the information. The FPA predicts a target among objects based on the movement direction predicted from the neural activity. After the target selection, the FPA modifies the predicted direction toward the target and modulates the magnitude of the predicted vector to easily reach the target. The FPA repeats the modification in every prediction time points. To evaluate the improvements of prediction accuracy provided by the feedback, we compared the prediction performances with feedback (FPA and without feedback. We demonstrated that accuracy of movement prediction can be considerably improved by the FPA combining feedback information. The accuracy of the movement prediction was significantly improved for all subjects (P<0.001 and 32.1% of the mean error was reduced. The BMI performance will be improved by combining feedback information and it will promote the development of a practical BMI system.

  7. (De-)Accentuation and the Processing of Information Status: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Stefan; Schumacher, Petra B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports on a perception experiment in German that investigated the neuro-cognitive processing of information structural concepts and their prosodic marking using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Experimental conditions controlled the information status (given vs. new) of referring and non-referring target expressions (nouns vs.…

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  10. Restructuring consciousness –the psychedelic state in light of integrated information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    The psychological state elicited by the classic psychedelics drugs, such as LSD and psilocybin, is one of the most fascinating and yet least understood states of consciousness. However, with the advent of modern functional neuroimaging techniques, the effect of these drugs on neural activity is now being revealed, although many of the varied phenomenological features of the psychedelic state remain challenging to explain. Integrated information theory (IIT) is one of the foremost contemporary theories of consciousness, providing a mathematical formalization of both the quantity and quality of conscious experience. This theory can be applied to all known states of consciousness, including the psychedelic state. Using the results of functional neuroimaging data on the psychedelic state, the effects of psychedelic drugs on both the level and structure of consciousness can be explained in terms of the conceptual framework of IIT. This new IIT-based model of the psychedelic state provides an explanation for many of its phenomenological features, including unconstrained cognition, alterations in the structure and meaning of concepts and a sense of expanded awareness. This model also suggests that whilst cognitive flexibility, creativity, and imagination are enhanced during the psychedelic state, this occurs at the expense of cause-effect information, as well as degrading the brain's ability to organize, categorize, and differentiate the constituents of conscious experience. Furthermore, the model generates specific predictions that can be tested using a combination of functional imaging techniques, as has been applied to the study of levels of consciousness during anesthesia and following brain injury. PMID:26124719

  11. Restructuring consciousness -the psychedelic state in light of integrated information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    The psychological state elicited by the classic psychedelics drugs, such as LSD and psilocybin, is one of the most fascinating and yet least understood states of consciousness. However, with the advent of modern functional neuroimaging techniques, the effect of these drugs on neural activity is now being revealed, although many of the varied phenomenological features of the psychedelic state remain challenging to explain. Integrated information theory (IIT) is one of the foremost contemporary theories of consciousness, providing a mathematical formalization of both the quantity and quality of conscious experience. This theory can be applied to all known states of consciousness, including the psychedelic state. Using the results of functional neuroimaging data on the psychedelic state, the effects of psychedelic drugs on both the level and structure of consciousness can be explained in terms of the conceptual framework of IIT. This new IIT-based model of the psychedelic state provides an explanation for many of its phenomenological features, including unconstrained cognition, alterations in the structure and meaning of concepts and a sense of expanded awareness. This model also suggests that whilst cognitive flexibility, creativity, and imagination are enhanced during the psychedelic state, this occurs at the expense of cause-effect information, as well as degrading the brain's ability to organize, categorize, and differentiate the constituents of conscious experience. Furthermore, the model generates specific predictions that can be tested using a combination of functional imaging techniques, as has been applied to the study of levels of consciousness during anesthesia and following brain injury.

  12. Improvement of Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity in Traumatic Brain Injury and Hemorrhagic Shock Following Treatment With Valproic Acid and Fresh Frozen Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolian, Vahagn C; Dekker, Simone E; Bambakidis, Ted; Higgins, Gerald A; Dennahy, Isabel S; Georgoff, Patrick E; Williams, Aaron M; Andjelkovic, Anuska V; Alam, Hasan B

    2018-01-01

    Combined traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock are highly lethal. Following injuries, the integrity of the blood-brain barrier can be impaired, contributing to secondary brain insults. The status of the blood-brain barrier represents a potential factor impacting long-term neurologic outcomes in combined injuries. Treatment strategies involving plasma-based resuscitation and valproic acid therapy have shown efficacy in this setting. We hypothesize that a component of this beneficial effect is related to blood-brain barrier preservation. Following controlled traumatic brain injury, hemorrhagic shock, various resuscitation and treatment strategies were evaluated for their association with blood-brain barrier integrity. Analysis of gene expression profiles was performed using Porcine Gene ST 1.1 microarray. Pathway analysis was completed using network analysis tools (Gene Ontology, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, and Parametric Gene Set Enrichment Analysis). Female Yorkshire swine were subjected to controlled traumatic brain injury and 2 hours of hemorrhagic shock (40% blood volume, mean arterial pressure 30-35 mmHg). Subjects were resuscitated with 1) normal saline, 2) fresh frozen plasma, 3) hetastarch, 4) fresh frozen plasma + valproic acid, or 5) hetastarch + valproic acid (n = 5 per group). After 6 hours of observation, brains were harvested for evaluation. Immunofluoroscopic evaluation of the traumatic brain injury site revealed significantly increased expression of tight-junction associated proteins (zona occludin-1, claudin-5) following combination therapy (fresh frozen plasma + valproic acid and hetastarch + valproic acid). The extracellular matrix protein laminin was found to have significantly improved expression with combination therapies. Pathway analysis indicated that valproic acid significantly modulated pathways involved in endothelial barrier function and cell signaling. Resuscitation with fresh frozen plasma results in improved expression of

  13. EEG-fMRI integration for the study of human brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, João; van der Zwaag, Wietske; Figueiredo, Patrícia

    2014-11-15

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have proved to be extremely valuable tools for the non-invasive study of human brain function. Moreover, due to a notable degree of complementarity between the two modalities, the combination of EEG and fMRI data has been actively sought in the last two decades. Although initially focused on epilepsy, EEG-fMRI applications were rapidly extended to the study of healthy brain function, yielding new insights into its underlying mechanisms and pathways. Nevertheless, EEG and fMRI have markedly different spatial and temporal resolutions, and probe neuronal activity through distinct biophysical processes, many aspects of which are still poorly understood. The remarkable conceptual and methodological challenges associated with EEG-fMRI integration have motivated the development of a wide range of analysis approaches over the years, each relying on more or less restrictive assumptions, and aiming to shed further light on the mechanisms of brain function along with those of the EEG-fMRI coupling itself. Here, we present a review of the most relevant EEG-fMRI integration approaches yet proposed for the study of brain function, supported by a general overview of our current understanding of the biophysical mechanisms coupling the signals obtained from the two modalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Informed consent for the diagnosis of brain death: a conceptual argument

    OpenAIRE

    Muramoto, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Background This essay provides an ethical and conceptual argument for the use of informed consent prior to the diagnosis of brain death. It is meant to enable the family to make critical end-of-life decisions, particularly withdrawal of life support system and organ donation, before brain death is diagnosed, as opposed to the current practice of making such decisions after the diagnosis of death. The recent tragic case of a 13-year-old brain-dead patient in California who was maintained on a ...

  15. Toward an integrative science of the developing human mind and brain: Focus on the developing cortex ?

    OpenAIRE

    Jernigan, Terry L.; Brown, Timothy T.; Bartsch, Hauke; Dale, Anders M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Authors. Based on the Huttenlocher lecture, this article describes the need for a more integrative scientific paradigm for addressing important questions raised by key observations made over 2 decades ago. Among these are the early descriptions by Huttenlocher of variability in synaptic density in cortex of postmortem brains of children of different ages and the almost simultaneous reports of cortical volume reductions on MR imaging in children and adolescents. In spite of much pro...

  16. Biochemical Markers of Brain Injury: An Integrated Proteomics-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    thapsigargin ( T24 )-treated PC12 cells compared with PC12 cells pre-treated with the Z-D-DCB pan- caspase inhibitor (Inh) before thapsigargin treatment or with...neuroproteomics analysis of traumatic brain injury in rats. Mol. Cell Proteom. web published in 2006. Abstracts 1. Ronald L. Hayes. An integrated...Electrophoresis 1997, 18, 533-537. (4) Gygi, S. P.; Rochon, Y.; Franza, B. R.; Aebersold, R. Mol. Cell . Biol. 1999, 19, 1720-1730. (5) Hanash, S. Nature

  17. Towards integrating control and information theories from information-theoretic measures to control performance limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Song; Ishii, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    This book investigates the performance limitation issues in networked feedback systems. The fact that networked feedback systems consist of control and communication devices and systems calls for the integration of control theory and information theory. The primary contributions of this book lie in two aspects: the newly-proposed information-theoretic measures and the newly-discovered control performance limitations. We first propose a number of information notions to facilitate the analysis. Using those notions, classes of performance limitations of networked feedback systems, as well as state estimation systems, are then investigated. In general, the book presents a unique, cohesive treatment of performance limitation issues of networked feedback systems via an information-theoretic approach. This book is believed to be the first to treat the aforementioned subjects systematically and in a unified manner, offering a unique perspective differing from existing books.

  18. An Anatomically Constrained Model for Path Integration in the Bee Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Thomas; Webb, Barbara; Adden, Andrea; Weddig, Nicolai Ben; Honkanen, Anna; Templin, Rachel; Wcislo, William; Scimeca, Luca; Warrant, Eric; Heinze, Stanley

    2017-10-23

    Path integration is a widespread navigational strategy in which directional changes and distance covered are continuously integrated on an outward journey, enabling a straight-line return to home. Bees use vision for this task-a celestial-cue-based visual compass and an optic-flow-based visual odometer-but the underlying neural integration mechanisms are unknown. Using intracellular electrophysiology, we show that polarized-light-based compass neurons and optic-flow-based speed-encoding neurons converge in the central complex of the bee brain, and through block-face electron microscopy, we identify potential integrator cells. Based on plausible output targets for these cells, we propose a complete circuit for path integration and steering in the central complex, with anatomically identified neurons suggested for each processing step. The resulting model circuit is thus fully constrained biologically and provides a functional interpretation for many previously unexplained architectural features of the central complex. Moreover, we show that the receptive fields of the newly discovered speed neurons can support path integration for the holonomic motion (i.e., a ground velocity that is not precisely aligned with body orientation) typical of bee flight, a feature not captured in any previously proposed model of path integration. In a broader context, the model circuit presented provides a general mechanism for producing steering signals by comparing current and desired headings-suggesting a more basic function for central complex connectivity, from which path integration may have evolved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain network analysis: separating cost from topology using cost-integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric E Ginestet

    Full Text Available A statistically principled way of conducting brain network analysis is still lacking. Comparison of different populations of brain networks is hard because topology is inherently dependent on wiring cost, where cost is defined as the number of edges in an unweighted graph. In this paper, we evaluate the benefits and limitations associated with using cost-integrated topological metrics. Our focus is on comparing populations of weighted undirected graphs that differ in mean association weight, using global efficiency. Our key result shows that integrating over cost is equivalent to controlling for any monotonic transformation of the weight set of a weighted graph. That is, when integrating over cost, we eliminate the differences in topology that may be due to a monotonic transformation of the weight set. Our result holds for any unweighted topological measure, and for any choice of distribution over cost levels. Cost-integration is therefore helpful in disentangling differences in cost from differences in topology. By contrast, we show that the use of the weighted version of a topological metric is generally not a valid approach to this problem. Indeed, we prove that, under weak conditions, the use of the weighted version of global efficiency is equivalent to simply comparing weighted costs. Thus, we recommend the reporting of (i differences in weighted costs and (ii differences in cost-integrated topological measures with respect to different distributions over the cost domain. We demonstrate the application of these techniques in a re-analysis of an fMRI working memory task. We also provide a Monte Carlo method for approximating cost-integrated topological measures. Finally, we discuss the limitations of integrating topology over cost, which may pose problems when some weights are zero, when multiplicities exist in the ranks of the weights, and when one expects subtle cost-dependent topological differences, which could be masked by cost-integration.

  20. Brain network analysis: separating cost from topology using cost-integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginestet, Cedric E; Nichols, Thomas E; Bullmore, Ed T; Simmons, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A statistically principled way of conducting brain network analysis is still lacking. Comparison of different populations of brain networks is hard because topology is inherently dependent on wiring cost, where cost is defined as the number of edges in an unweighted graph. In this paper, we evaluate the benefits and limitations associated with using cost-integrated topological metrics. Our focus is on comparing populations of weighted undirected graphs that differ in mean association weight, using global efficiency. Our key result shows that integrating over cost is equivalent to controlling for any monotonic transformation of the weight set of a weighted graph. That is, when integrating over cost, we eliminate the differences in topology that may be due to a monotonic transformation of the weight set. Our result holds for any unweighted topological measure, and for any choice of distribution over cost levels. Cost-integration is therefore helpful in disentangling differences in cost from differences in topology. By contrast, we show that the use of the weighted version of a topological metric is generally not a valid approach to this problem. Indeed, we prove that, under weak conditions, the use of the weighted version of global efficiency is equivalent to simply comparing weighted costs. Thus, we recommend the reporting of (i) differences in weighted costs and (ii) differences in cost-integrated topological measures with respect to different distributions over the cost domain. We demonstrate the application of these techniques in a re-analysis of an fMRI working memory task. We also provide a Monte Carlo method for approximating cost-integrated topological measures. Finally, we discuss the limitations of integrating topology over cost, which may pose problems when some weights are zero, when multiplicities exist in the ranks of the weights, and when one expects subtle cost-dependent topological differences, which could be masked by cost-integration.

  1. A deep learning model integrating FCNNs and CRFs for brain tumor segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaomei; Wu, Yihong; Song, Guidong; Li, Zhenye; Zhang, Yazhuo; Fan, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Accurate and reliable brain tumor segmentation is a critical component in cancer diagnosis, treatment planning, and treatment outcome evaluation. Build upon successful deep learning techniques, a novel brain tumor segmentation method is developed by integrating fully convolutional neural networks (FCNNs) and Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) in a unified framework to obtain segmentation results with appearance and spatial consistency. We train a deep learning based segmentation model using 2D image patches and image slices in following steps: 1) training FCNNs using image patches; 2) training CRFs as Recurrent Neural Networks (CRF-RNN) using image slices with parameters of FCNNs fixed; and 3) fine-tuning the FCNNs and the CRF-RNN using image slices. Particularly, we train 3 segmentation models using 2D image patches and slices obtained in axial, coronal and sagittal views respectively, and combine them to segment brain tumors using a voting based fusion strategy. Our method could segment brain images slice-by-slice, much faster than those based on image patches. We have evaluated our method based on imaging data provided by the Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Challenge (BRATS) 2013, BRATS 2015 and BRATS 2016. The experimental results have demonstrated that our method could build a segmentation model with Flair, T1c, and T2 scans and achieve competitive performance as those built with Flair, T1, T1c, and T2 scans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Integration of the antennal lobe glomeruli and three projection neurons in the standard brain atlas of the moth Heliothis virescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarte B Løfaldli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Digital three dimensional standard brain atlases are valuable tools for integrating neuroimaging data of different preparations. In insects, standard brain atlases of five species are available, including the atlas of the female Heliothis virescens moth brain. Like for the other species, the antennal lobes of the moth brain atlas were integrated as one material identity without internal structures. Different from the others, the H. virescens standard brain atlas exclusively included the glomerular layer of the antennal lobe. This was an advantage in the present study for performing a direct registration of the glomerular layer of individual preparations into the standard brain. We here present the H. virescens female standard brain atlas with a new model of the antennal lobe glomeruli integrated into the atlas, i.e. with each of the 66 glomeruli identified and labelled with a specific number. The new model differs from the previous H. virescens antennal lobe model both in respect to the number of glomeruli and the numbering system; the latter according to the system used for the antennal lobe atlases of two other heliothine species. For identifying female specific glomeruli comparison with the male antennal lobe was necessary. This required a new male antennal lobe atlas, included in this paper. As demonstrated by the integration of three antennal lobe projection neurons of different preparations, the new standard brain atlas with the integrated glomruli is a helpful tool for determining the glomeruli innervated as well as the relative position of the axonal projections in the protocerebrum.

  3. Information Technology Management: The Development of the Navy Standard Integrated Personnel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-12

    Information Technology Management Department of Defense Office of the Inspector General March 12, 2003 AccountabilityIntegrityQuality The...from... to) - Title and Subtitle Information Technology Management : The Development of the Navy Standard Integrated Personnel System Contract

  4. Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aas, Christopher A.; Lenhart, James E.; Bray, Olin H.; Witcher, Christina Jenkin

    2004-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with developing the Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS) with the sponsorship of NA-125.3 and the concurrence of DOE/NNSA field and area offices. The purpose of IIIMS was to modernize nuclear materials management information systems at the enterprise level. Projects over the course of several years attempted to spearhead this modernization. The scope of IIIMS was broken into broad enterprise-oriented materials management and materials forecasting. The IIIMS prototype was developed to allow multiple participating user groups to explore nuclear material requirements and needs in detail. The purpose of material forecasting was to determine nuclear material availability over a 10 to 15 year period in light of the dynamic nature of nuclear materials management. Formal DOE Directives (requirements) were needed to direct IIIMS efforts but were never issued and the project has been halted. When restarted, duplicating or re-engineering the activities from 1999 to 2003 is unnecessary, and in fact future initiatives can build on previous work. IIIMS requirements should be structured to provide high confidence that discrepancies are detected, and classified information is not divulged. Enterprise-wide materials management systems maintained by the military can be used as overall models to base IIIMS implementation concepts upon.

  5. How chimpanzees integrate sensory information to select figs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakel, Justin D.; Bhat, Uttam; Ramsden, Lawrence; Wrangham, Richard W.; Lucas, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Figs are keystone resources that sustain chimpanzees when preferred fruits are scarce. Many figs retain a green(ish) colour throughout development, a pattern that causes chimpanzees to evaluate edibility on the basis of achromatic accessory cues. Such behaviour is conspicuous because it entails a succession of discrete sensory assessments, including the deliberate palpation of individual figs, a task that requires advanced visuomotor control. These actions are strongly suggestive of domain-specific information processing and decision-making, and they call attention to a potential selective force on the origin of advanced manual prehension and digital dexterity during primate evolution. To explore this concept, we report on the foraging behaviours of chimpanzees and the spectral, chemical and mechanical properties of figs, with cutting tests revealing ease of fracture in the mouth. By integrating the ability of different sensory cues to predict fructose content in a Bayesian updating framework, we quantified the amount of information gained when a chimpanzee successively observes, palpates and bites the green figs of Ficus sansibarica. We found that the cue eliciting ingestion was not colour or size, but fig mechanics (including toughness estimates from wedge tests), which relays higher-quality information on fructose concentrations than colour vision. This result explains why chimpanzees evaluate green figs by palpation and dental incision, actions that could explain the adaptive origins of advanced manual prehension. PMID:27274803

  6. Integrating multimodal information for intraoperative assistance in neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenmann U.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer-assisted planning of complex neurosurgical interventions benefits from a variety of specific functions and tools. However, commercial planning- and neuronavigation systems are rather restrictive concerning the availability of innovative methods such as novel imaging modalities, fiber tracking algorithms or electrical dipole mapping. In this respect there is a demand for modular neurosurgical planning systems offering flexible interfaces for easy enhancement. Furthermore all relevant planning information should be available within neuron-avigation. In this work we present a planning system providing these capabilities and its suitability and application in a clinical setting. Our Multimodal Planning System (MOPS 3D offers a variety of tools such as definition of trajectories for minimally invasive surgery, segmentation of ROIs, integration of functional information from atlas maps or magnetoencephalography. It also supplies plugin interfaces for future extensions. For intraoperative application MOPS is coupled with the neuronavigation system Brainlab Vector Vision Cranial/ENT (VVC. We evaluated MOPS in the Department of Neurosurgery at the University Hospital Heidelberg. Surgical planning and navigation was performed in 5 frequently occurring clinical cases. The time necessary for planning was between 5 and 15 minutes including data import, segmentation and planning tasks. The additional information intraoperatively provided by MOPS 3D was highly appreciated by the neurosurgeons and the performance was satisfactory.

  7. [Development method of healthcare information system integration based on business collaboration model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shasha; Nie, Hongchao; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong

    2015-02-01

    Integration of heterogeneous systems is the key to hospital information construction due to complexity of the healthcare environment. Currently, during the process of healthcare information system integration, people participating in integration project usually communicate by free-format document, which impairs the efficiency and adaptability of integration. A method utilizing business process model and notation (BPMN) to model integration requirement and automatically transforming it to executable integration configuration was proposed in this paper. Based on the method, a tool was developed to model integration requirement and transform it to integration configuration. In addition, an integration case in radiology scenario was used to verify the method.

  8. Integration of Sensory Information via Central Thermoregulatory Leptin Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Münzberg, Heike

    2013-01-01

    The adipocyte derived hormone leptin acts in the brain to regulate body weight, food intake and energy expenditure. Even though it is well accepted that leptin regulates energy expenditure at least in part by modulating thermogenesis, the exact mechanisms are not clear. Particularly, it is unclear which central circuits regulate thermogenic leptin actions and if and how these may interact with feeding circuits. Within the last decade our understanding of central thermoregulatory circuits has increased substantially and allowed the identification of leptin target neurons (those expressing the long form leptin receptor –LepRb) that are involved in the sympathetic control of the heat generating brown adipose tissue (BAT). Indeed, LepRb neurons in the preoptic area and dorsomedial hypothalamus are part of known thermoregulatory circuits controlling sympathetic premotor neurons that are located in the raphe pallidus. Thermoregulatory control and food intake are both regulated by leptin signaling pathways, even though distinct neuronal pathways have been described, respectively. Nevertheless, feeding status and control of body temperature and energy expenditure are tightly interconnected, but it is unknown how these aspects are connected within leptin signaling pathways to result in appropriate output signals (e.g. BAT thermogenesis). Indeed, cold-induced thermogenesis is potently blocked during fasting, which instead triggers an active decrease in energy expenditure and body temperature, a state known as torpor. In this article we will review recent data characterizing central thermoregulatory LepRb pathways and speculate on potential integration mechanisms that may relay anorexic and thermoregulatory leptin action to control energy homeostasis. PMID:23458626

  9. Tibetan Information Extraction Technology Integrated with Event Feature and Semantic Role Labelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Fucheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available we integrate with semantic information which is based on syntactic analysis for extracting the Tibetan information. For Tibetan language information extraction, through experiments analyzed, syntactic analysis model which is integrated with information of semantics, as well as the evaluation of program can be used in Tibetan language information extraction task successfully.

  10. Integration of sparse electrophysiological measurements with preoperative MRI using 3D surface estimation in deep brain stimulation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husch, Andreas; Gemmar, Peter; Thunberg, Johan; Hertel, Frank

    2017-03-01

    Intraoperative microelectrode recordings (MER) have been used for several decades to guide neurosurgeons during the implantation of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) electrodes, especially when targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to suppress the symptoms of Parkinson's Disease. The standard approach is to use an array of up to five MER electrodes in a fixed configuration. Interpretation of the recorded signals yields a spatially very sparse set of information about the morphology of the respective brain structures in the targeted area. However, no aid is currently available for surgeons to intraoperatively integrate this information with other data available on the patient's individual morphology (e.g. MR imaging data used for surgical planning). This integration might allow surgeons to better determine the most probable position of the electrodes within the target structure during surgery. This paper suggests a method for reconstructing a surface patch from the sparse MER dataset utilizing additional a priori knowledge about the geometrical configuration of the measurement electrodes. The conventional representation of MER measurements as intervals of target region/non-target region is therefore transformed into an equivalent boundary set representation, allowing ecient point-based calculations. Subsequently, the problem is to integrate the resulting patch with a preoperative model of the target structure, which can be formulated as registration problem minimizing a distance measure between the two surfaces. When restricting this registration procedure to translations, which is reasonable given certain geometric considerations, the problem can be solved globally by employing an exhaustive search with arbitrary precision in polynomial time. The proposed method is demonstrated using bilateral STN/Substantia Nigra segmentation data from preoperative MRIs of 17 Patients with simulated MER electrode placement. When using simulated data of heavily perturbed electrodes

  11. Benchmarking integrated linear-optical architectures for quantum information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Fulvio; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Viggianiello, Niko; Crespi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2017-11-09

    Photonic platforms represent a promising technology for the realization of several quantum communication protocols and for experiments of quantum simulation. Moreover, large-scale integrated interferometers have recently gained a relevant role in quantum computing, specifically with Boson Sampling devices and the race for quantum supremacy. Indeed, various linear optical schemes have been proposed for the implementation of unitary transformations, each one suitable for a specific task. Notwithstanding, so far a comprehensive analysis of the state of the art under broader and realistic conditions is still lacking. In the present work we fill this gap, providing in a unified framework a quantitative comparison of the three main photonic architectures, namely the ones with triangular and square designs and the so-called fast transformations. All layouts have been analyzed in presence of losses and imperfect control over the internal reflectivities and phases, showing that the square design outperforms the triangular scheme in most operational conditions. Our results represent a further step ahead towards the implementation of quantum information protocols on large-scale integrated photonic devices.

  12. Integrated database of information from structural genomics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yukuhiko; Sugahara, Michihiro; Mizutani, Hisashi; Naitow, Hisashi; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Matsuura, Yoshinori; Agari, Yoshihiro; Ebihara, Akio; Shinkai, Akeo; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Kaminuma, Eri; Kobayashi, Norio; Nishikata, Koro; Shimoyama, Sayoko; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Kunishima, Naoki

    2013-05-01

    Information from structural genomics experiments at the RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Japan has been compiled and published as an integrated database. The contents of the database are (i) experimental data from nine species of bacteria that cover a large variety of protein molecules in terms of both evolution and properties (http://database.riken.jp/db/bacpedia), (ii) experimental data from mutant proteins that were designed systematically to study the influence of mutations on the diffraction quality of protein crystals (http://database.riken.jp/db/bacpedia) and (iii) experimental data from heavy-atom-labelled proteins from the heavy-atom database HATODAS (http://database.riken.jp/db/hatodas). The database integration adopts the semantic web, which is suitable for data reuse and automatic processing, thereby allowing batch downloads of full data and data reconstruction to produce new databases. In addition, to enhance the use of data (i) and (ii) by general researchers in biosciences, a comprehensible user interface, Bacpedia (http://bacpedia.harima.riken.jp), has been developed.

  13. Annotating novel genes by integrating synthetic lethals and genomic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faty Mahamadou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large scale screening for synthetic lethality serves as a common tool in yeast genetics to systematically search for genes that play a role in specific biological processes. Often the amounts of data resulting from a single large scale screen far exceed the capacities of experimental characterization of every identified target. Thus, there is need for computational tools that select promising candidate genes in order to reduce the number of follow-up experiments to a manageable size. Results We analyze synthetic lethality data for arp1 and jnm1, two spindle migration genes, in order to identify novel members in this process. To this end, we use an unsupervised statistical method that integrates additional information from biological data sources, such as gene expression, phenotypic profiling, RNA degradation and sequence similarity. Different from existing methods that require large amounts of synthetic lethal data, our method merely relies on synthetic lethality information from two single screens. Using a Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Model, we determine the best subset of features that assign the target genes to two groups. The approach identifies a small group of genes as candidates involved in spindle migration. Experimental testing confirms the majority of our candidates and we present she1 (YBL031W as a novel gene involved in spindle migration. We applied the statistical methodology also to TOR2 signaling as another example. Conclusion We demonstrate the general use of Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Modeling for selecting candidate genes for experimental characterization from synthetic lethality data sets. For the given example, integration of different data sources contributes to the identification of genetic interaction partners of arp1 and jnm1 that play a role in the same biological process.

  14. Annotating novel genes by integrating synthetic lethals and genomic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöner, Daniel; Kalisch, Markus; Leisner, Christian; Meier, Lukas; Sohrmann, Marc; Faty, Mahamadou; Barral, Yves; Peter, Matthias; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bühlmann, Peter

    2008-01-14

    Large scale screening for synthetic lethality serves as a common tool in yeast genetics to systematically search for genes that play a role in specific biological processes. Often the amounts of data resulting from a single large scale screen far exceed the capacities of experimental characterization of every identified target. Thus, there is need for computational tools that select promising candidate genes in order to reduce the number of follow-up experiments to a manageable size. We analyze synthetic lethality data for arp1 and jnm1, two spindle migration genes, in order to identify novel members in this process. To this end, we use an unsupervised statistical method that integrates additional information from biological data sources, such as gene expression, phenotypic profiling, RNA degradation and sequence similarity. Different from existing methods that require large amounts of synthetic lethal data, our method merely relies on synthetic lethality information from two single screens. Using a Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Model, we determine the best subset of features that assign the target genes to two groups. The approach identifies a small group of genes as candidates involved in spindle migration. Experimental testing confirms the majority of our candidates and we present she1 (YBL031W) as a novel gene involved in spindle migration. We applied the statistical methodology also to TOR2 signaling as another example. We demonstrate the general use of Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Modeling for selecting candidate genes for experimental characterization from synthetic lethality data sets. For the given example, integration of different data sources contributes to the identification of genetic interaction partners of arp1 and jnm1 that play a role in the same biological process.

  15. Modular multiple sensors information management for computer-integrated surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarella, Alberto; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Momi, Elena De

    2012-09-01

    In the past 20 years, technological advancements have modified the concept of modern operating rooms (ORs) with the introduction of computer-integrated surgery (CIS) systems, which promise to enhance the outcomes, safety and standardization of surgical procedures. With CIS, different types of sensor (mainly position-sensing devices, force sensors and intra-operative imaging devices) are widely used. Recently, the need for a combined use of different sensors raised issues related to synchronization and spatial consistency of data from different sources of information. In this study, we propose a centralized, multi-sensor management software architecture for a distributed CIS system, which addresses sensor information consistency in both space and time. The software was developed as a data server module in a client-server architecture, using two open-source software libraries: Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK) and OpenCV. The ROBOCAST project (FP7 ICT 215190), which aims at integrating robotic and navigation devices and technologies in order to improve the outcome of the surgical intervention, was used as the benchmark. An experimental protocol was designed in order to prove the feasibility of a centralized module for data acquisition and to test the application latency when dealing with optical and electromagnetic tracking systems and ultrasound (US) imaging devices. Our results show that a centralized approach is suitable for minimizing synchronization errors; latency in the client-server communication was estimated to be 2 ms (median value) for tracking systems and 40 ms (median value) for US images. The proposed centralized approach proved to be adequate for neurosurgery requirements. Latency introduced by the proposed architecture does not affect tracking system performance in terms of frame rate and limits US images frame rate at 25 fps, which is acceptable for providing visual feedback to the surgeon in the OR. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Digital Crust: Information architecture for heterogeneous data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S. M.; Zaslavsky, I.; Fan, Y.; Bristol, S.; Peters, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Digital Crust EarthCube Building block is addressing the issue of multiple, heterogeneous but related datasets characteristic of field and sample based research using a 'loose-schema' approach, with linked entity and attribute definitions in an information model (ontology) registry (IMR). Various data entities (RDA 'data types') are defined by mapping entity and attribute definitions to definitions in the IMR. Inclusion (loading) of new data at the simplest level can bring in entities that are not registered, but these will not be 'integratable' with other data until someone does the schema matching into the IMR. New datasets can be designed using registered entity and attributes that will from the beginning be integrated into the system (similar to the approach used by the National Information Exchange Model). The fundamental abstract components in this system are 1) a data repository that allows storage of key-value structured data objects; and 2) a registry that documents information models-- the base data types, attributes and entities -- and mappings from the registered types in the datastore to the registered items. This constitutes the data repository subsystem. Data access is enabled by caching views of aggregated data from the datastore (aggregated based on the semantics of the registered items in the IMR) and creating indexes based on the registered items in the IMR. Contributing data to this system will be greatly facilitated by using existing, documented information models. It can accept datasets that are not 'standardized' as well, but the consequence is that those data will not be integratable with other existing data until the work is done to document the entities and attributes in the data and to map those into existing registered types.

  17. Barriers to integrating information technology in Saudi Arabia science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alwani, Abdulkareem Eid Salamah

    This study examined current level of information technology integration in science education in the Yanbu school district in Saudi Arabia, and barriers to use. Sub-domains investigated included: infrastructure and resources, policy and support, science teachers' personal beliefs, and staff development. Survey determined demographic data and level of technology implementation, personal computer use, and current instructional practice. Mean frequency of information technology use was 1--2 times during a semester. Science teachers rated barriers limiting use of technology in teaching with a scale ranging from 0 (does not limit) to 3 (greatly limits). Results found all four factors were significant barriers: infrastructure and resources (M = 2.06; p gender predicted frequency of use (F(3,168) = 3.63, R2 = .10, p used IT significantly more frequently than those who did not receive any training (t = 2.41, p = 0.017). Teachers who received both pre-service and in-service training used IT significantly more frequently than those who did not receive any training (t = 2.61, p = 0.01). Low technology users perceived that there was no support or incentives for using technology, while high technology users did not perceive these barriers (r = -0.18, p = .01). High technology users had positive personal beliefs about how information technology benefits learning, while low technology users held negative beliefs about technology use (r = -0.20, p = .003). The more barriers science teachers experienced, the less likely they were to be information technology users (r = -0.16, p = .02). There is a need for more computers in school, more teacher training, more time for teachers to learn to use technology, and more readily-available, technical support staff. Further studies are needed to represent all science teachers in Saudi Arabia, assess technology capacity of all schools, and assess in-service staff development strategies.

  18. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Sagl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing. In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the

  19. 48 CFR 9.104-6 - Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Performance and Integrity Information System. 9.104-6 Section 9.104-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Contractors 9.104-6 Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System. (a) Before awarding a... Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS), (available at www.ppirs.gov, then...

  20. Earth science information: Planning for the integration and use of global change information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousma, Jack R.

    1992-01-01

    The Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) was founded in 1989 as a non-profit corporation dedicated to facilitating access to, use and understanding of global change information worldwide. The Consortium was created to cooperate and coordinate with organizations and researchers throughout the global change community to further access the most advanced technology, the latest scientific research, and the best information available for critical environmental decision making. CIESIN study efforts are guided by Congressional mandates to 'convene key present and potential users to assess the need for investment in integration of earth science information,' to 'outline the desirable pattern of interaction with the scientific and policy community,' and to 'develop recommendations and draft plans to achieve the appropriate level of effort in the use of earth science data for research and public policy purposes.' In addition, CIESIN is tasked by NASA to develop a data center that would extend the benefits of Earth Observing System (EOS) to the users of global change information related to human dimensions issues. For FY 1991, CIESIN focused on two main objectives. The first addressed the identification of information needs of global change research and non-research user groups worldwide. The second focused on an evaluation of the most efficient mechanisms for making this information available in usable forms.

  1. Quantum-like model of processing of information in the brain based on classical electromagnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2011-09-01

    We propose a model of quantum-like (QL) processing of mental information. This model is based on quantum information theory. However, in contrast to models of "quantum physical brain" reducing mental activity (at least at the highest level) to quantum physical phenomena in the brain, our model matches well with the basic neuronal paradigm of the cognitive science. QL information processing is based (surprisingly) on classical electromagnetic signals induced by joint activity of neurons. This novel approach to quantum information is based on representation of quantum mechanics as a version of classical signal theory which was recently elaborated by the author. The brain uses the QL representation (QLR) for working with abstract concepts; concrete images are described by classical information theory. Two processes, classical and QL, are performed parallely. Moreover, information is actively transmitted from one representation to another. A QL concept given in our model by a density operator can generate a variety of concrete images given by temporal realizations of the corresponding (Gaussian) random signal. This signal has the covariance operator coinciding with the density operator encoding the abstract concept under consideration. The presence of various temporal scales in the brain plays the crucial role in creation of QLR in the brain. Moreover, in our model electromagnetic noise produced by neurons is a source of superstrong QL correlations between processes in different spatial domains in the brain; the binding problem is solved on the QL level, but with the aid of the classical background fluctuations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Case Studies of Ecological Integrative Information Systems: The Luquillo and Sevilleta Information Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Gil, Inigo; White, Marshall; Melendez, Eda; Vanderbilt, Kristin

    The thirty-year-old United States Long Term Ecological Research Network has developed extensive metadata to document their scientific data. Standard and interoperable metadata is a core component of the data-driven analytical solutions developed by this research network Content management systems offer an affordable solution for rapid deployment of metadata centered information management systems. We developed a customized integrative metadata management system based on the Drupal content management system technology. Building on knowledge and experience with the Sevilleta and Luquillo Long Term Ecological Research sites, we successfully deployed the first two medium-scale customized prototypes. In this paper, we describe the vision behind our Drupal based information management instances, and list the features offered through these Drupal based systems. We also outline the plans to expand the information services offered through these metadata centered management systems. We will conclude with the growing list of participants deploying similar instances.

  3. From false integration of viewers on informative TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felisbela Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available New media fast-paced technologies are constantly feeding the contemporary (telespectator with the promise of "empowerment". In the last decades, an "empowered user" notion is being built around the mythical narrative of 'omnipotence', that becomes the verb and the active complement to the modern promise of 'omnividence": the one who sees everything, can do everything. However, what we actually find when we scan the news and information broadcasts of portuguese TV, is that we don't find many traces of this supposedly "empowered" spectator. Broadcasts scarcely consider a structural participation of their public,or they only include spectators in euphemistical terms, letting them in just for the sake of having them in, thus treating the public not as citizens but as audiences and revealing a false "empowerment". In this article we analyze the integration of TV spectators on a total of 1673 news and information broadcasts in 6 Portuguese channels (RTP1, SIC, TVI, SICN, RTPN, TVI 24. This work is part of a research project called "Television journalism and citizenship".

  4. Complete integrability of information processing by biochemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Dello Schiavo, Lorenzo; Moro, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Statistical mechanics provides an effective framework to investigate information processing in biochemical reactions. Within such framework far-reaching analogies are established among (anti-) cooperative collective behaviors in chemical kinetics, (anti-)ferromagnetic spin models in statistical mechanics and operational amplifiers/flip-flops in cybernetics. The underlying modeling - based on spin systems - has been proved to be accurate for a wide class of systems matching classical (e.g. Michaelis-Menten, Hill, Adair) scenarios in the infinite-size approximation. However, the current research in biochemical information processing has been focusing on systems involving a relatively small number of units, where this approximation is no longer valid. Here we show that the whole statistical mechanical description of reaction kinetics can be re-formulated via a mechanical analogy - based on completely integrable hydrodynamic-type systems of PDEs - which provides explicit finite-size solutions, matching recently investigated phenomena (e.g. noise-induced cooperativity, stochastic bi-stability, quorum sensing). The resulting picture, successfully tested against a broad spectrum of data, constitutes a neat rationale for a numerically effective and theoretically consistent description of collective behaviors in biochemical reactions.

  5. A DICOM-RT based ePR radiation therapy information system for managing brain tumor patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Brent J.; Law, Maria; Huang, H. K.; Zee, C. S.; Chan, Lawrence

    2005-04-01

    The need for comprehensive clinical image data and relevant information in image-guided Radiation Therapy (RT) is becoming steadily apparent. Multiple standalone systems utilizing the most technological advancements in imaging, therapeutic radiation, and computerized treatment planning systems acquire key data during the RT treatment course of a patient. One example are patients treated for brain tumors of greater sizes and irregular shapes that utilize state-of-the-art RT technology to deliver pinpoint accurate radiation doses. One such system, the Cyberknife, is a radiation treatment system that utilizes image-guided information to control a multi-jointed, six degrees of freedom, robotic arm to deliver precise and required radiation dose to the tumor site of a cancer patient. The image-guided system is capable of tracking the lesion orientations with respect to the patient"s position throughout the treatment process. This is done by correlating live radiographic images with pre-operative, CT and MR imaging information to determine relative patient and tumor position repeatedly over the course of the treatment. The disparate and complex data generated by the Cyberknife system along with related data is scattered throughout the RT department compromising an efficient clinical workflow since the data crucial for a clinical decision may be time-consuming to retrieve, temporarily missing, or even lost. To address these shortcomings, the ACR-NEMA Standards Committee extended its DICOM (Digital Imaging & Communications in Medicine) Standard from Radiology to RT by ratifying seven DICOM RT objects starting in 1997. However, they are rarely used by the RT community in daily clinical operations. In the past, the research focus of an RT department has primarily been developing new protocols and devices to improve treatment process and outcomes of cancer patients with minimal effort dedicated to integration of imaging and information systems. Our research, tightly

  6. [School re-integration after child brain dislocation : The trauma surgeon's role].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gänsslen, A; Neubauer, T; Hartl, C; Moser, N; Rickels, E; Lüngen, H; Nerlich, M; Krutsch, W

    2017-05-01

    Concussion injury of the brain is still a frequently underestimated injury, which can be associated with long-lasting consequences. Compared to adults, the recovery phase is often prolonged in childhood. Primary treatment consists of symptom-dependent physical and mental activities. Re-integration into daily life is crucial. In childhood, the primary focus is therefore on returning to school. New symptoms, or an increased presence of symptoms must be detected, to avoid prolonged recovery courses. School restrictions have to be minimized. Corresponding concepts are already implemented in North America. Comparable concepts are not established in Germany. In addition to well-known standard return-to-play protocols for sport re-integration, it is urgently recommended to integrate gradual return-to-learn protocols.Thus, academic adaptations and support must be established as well as symptom-oriented organizational and teaching modules.

  7. Connectomics-based analysis of information flow in the Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chi-Tin; Sporns, Olaf; Yuan, Shou-Li; Su, Ta-Shun; Lin, Yen-Jen; Chuang, Chao-Chun; Wang, Ting-Yuan; Lo, Chung-Chuang; Greenspan, Ralph J; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

    2015-05-18

    Understanding the overall patterns of information flow within the brain has become a major goal of neuroscience. In the current study, we produced a first draft of the Drosophila connectome at the mesoscopic scale, reconstructed from 12,995 images of neuron projections collected in FlyCircuit (version 1.1). Neuron polarities were predicted according to morphological criteria, with nodes of the network corresponding to brain regions designated as local processing units (LPUs). The weight of each directed edge linking a pair of LPUs was determined by the number of neuron terminals that connected one LPU to the other. The resulting network showed hierarchical structure and small-world characteristics and consisted of five functional modules that corresponded to sensory modalities (olfactory, mechanoauditory, and two visual) and the pre-motor center. Rich-club organization was present in this network and involved LPUs in all sensory centers, and rich-club members formed a putative motor center of the brain. Major intra- and inter-modular loops were also identified that could play important roles for recurrent and reverberant information flow. The present analysis revealed whole-brain patterns of network structure and information flow. Additionally, we propose that the overall organizational scheme showed fundamental similarities to the network structure of the mammalian brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pediatric Brain Tumors: Innovative Genomic Information Is Transforming the Diagnostic and Clinical Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Amar; Bowers, Daniel C; Karajannis, Matthias A; Leary, Sarah; Witt, Hendrik; Gottardo, Nicholas G

    2015-09-20

    Pediatric neuro-oncology has undergone an exciting and dramatic transformation during the past 5 years. This article summarizes data from collaborative group and institutional trials that have advanced the science of pediatric brain tumors and survival of patients with these tumors. Advanced genomic analysis of the entire spectrum of pediatric brain tumors has heralded an era in which stakeholders in the pediatric neuro-oncology community are being challenged to reconsider their current research and diagnostic and treatment strategies. The incorporation of this new information into the next-generation treatment protocols will unleash new challenges. This review succinctly summarizes the key advances in our understanding of the common pediatric brain tumors (ie, medulloblastoma, low- and high-grade gliomas, diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, and ependymoma) and some selected rare tumors (ie, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor and CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumor). The potential impact of this new information on future clinical protocols also is discussed. Cutting-edge genomics technologies and the information gained from such studies are facilitating the identification of molecularly defined subgroups within patients with particular pediatric brain tumors. The number of evaluable patients in each subgroup is small, particularly in the subgroups of rare diseases. Therefore, international collaboration will be crucial to draw meaningful conclusions about novel approaches to treating pediatric brain tumors. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. Gene set based integrated data analysis reveals phenotypic differences in a brain cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Petersen

    Full Text Available A key challenge in the data analysis of biological high-throughput experiments is to handle the often low number of samples in the experiments compared to the number of biomolecules that are simultaneously measured. Combining experimental data using independent technologies to illuminate the same biological trends, as well as complementing each other in a larger perspective, is one natural way to overcome this challenge. In this work we investigated if integrating proteomics and transcriptomics data from a brain cancer animal model using gene set based analysis methodology, could enhance the biological interpretation of the data relative to more traditional analysis of the two datasets individually. The brain cancer model used is based on serial passaging of transplanted human brain tumor material (glioblastoma--GBM through several generations in rats. These serial transplantations lead over time to genotypic and phenotypic changes in the tumors and represent a medically relevant model with a rare access to samples and where consequent analyses of individual datasets have revealed relatively few significant findings on their own. We found that the integrated analysis both performed better in terms of significance measure of its findings compared to individual analyses, as well as providing independent verification of the individual results. Thus a better context for overall biological interpretation of the data can be achieved.

  10. Information integration in health care organizations: The case of a European health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calciolari, Stefano; Buccoliero, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Information system integration is an important dimension of a company's information system maturity and plays a relevant role in meeting information needs and accountability targets. However, no generalizable evidence exists about whether and how the main integrating technologies influence information system integration in health care organizations. This study examined how integrating technologies are adopted in public health care organizations and chief information officers' (CIOs) perceptions about their influence on information system integration. We used primary data on integrating technologies' adoption and CIOs' perception regarding information system integration in public health care organizations. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multinomial logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between CIOs' perception about information system integration and the adopted technologies. Data from 90 health care organizations were available for analyses. Integrating technologies are relatively diffused in public health care organizations, and CIOs seem to shape information system toward integrated architectures. There is a significant positive (although modest, .3) correlation between the number of integrating technologies adopted and the CIO's satisfaction with them. However, regression analysis suggests that organizations covering a broader spectrum of these technologies are less likely to have their CIO reporting main problems concerning integration in the administrative area of the information system compared with the clinical area and where the two areas overlap. Integrating technologies are associated with less perceived problems in the information system administrative area rather than in other areas. Because CIOs play the role of information resource allocators, by influencing information system toward integrated architecture, health care organization leaders should foster cooperation between CIOs and medical staff to enhance information system

  11. Putting things into perspective: individual differences in working-memory span and the integration of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumback, Carrie R; Low, Kathy A; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2005-01-01

    An important function of working memory is the integration of incoming information into an appropriate model of the contextual situation. We hypothesized that individual variability in working-memory function (estimated using Engle's operation-span measure) may lead to differential reactivity to a changing context. We recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and reaction-time measures to stimuli embedded in long stimulus series (two auditory discrimination tasks), and examined the participants' responses in relation to how the current stimuli fit with the context generated by the previous stimuli. In both tasks, participants with low working-memory span scores showed larger brain responses as a function of variations in the local stimulus sequence than participants with high span scores. These data suggest that the low working-memory span group is more affected by the local stimulus sequence than the high span group, possibly because they are more easily swayed by ongoing changes and are therefore less capable of maintaining their attention on the overall sequence.

  12. Impaired Visual Integration in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königs, Marsh; Weeda, Wouter D; van Heurn, L W Ernest; Vermeulen, R Jeroen; Goslings, J Carel; Luitse, Jan S K; Poll-Thé, Bwee Tien; Beelen, Anita; van der Wees, Marleen; Kemps, Rachèl J J K; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Axonal injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may cause impaired sensory integration. We aim to determine the effects of childhood TBI on visual integration in relation to general neurocognitive functioning. We compared children aged 6-13 diagnosed with TBI (n = 103; M = 1.7 years post-injury) to children with traumatic control (TC) injury (n = 44). Three TBI severity groups were distinguished: mild TBI without risk factors for complicated TBI (mildRF- TBI, n = 22), mild TBI with ≥1 risk factor (mildRF+ TBI, n = 46) or moderate/severe TBI (n = 35). An experimental paradigm measured speed and accuracy of goal-directed behavior depending on: (1) visual identification; (2) visual localization; or (3) both, measuring visual integration. Group-differences on reaction time (RT) or accuracy were tracked down to task strategy, visual processing efficiency and extra-decisional processes (e.g. response execution) using diffusion model analysis. General neurocognitive functioning was measured by a Wechsler Intelligence Scale short form. The TBI group had poorer accuracy of visual identification and visual integration than the TC group (Ps ≤ .03; ds ≤ -0.40). Analyses differentiating TBI severity revealed that visual identification accuracy was impaired in the moderate/severe TBI group (P = .05, d = -0.50) and that visual integration accuracy was impaired in the mildRF+ TBI group and moderate/severe TBI group (Ps impaired visual integration accuracy down to lower visual integration efficiency in the mildRF+ TBI group and moderate/severe TBI group (Ps impairments observed in the TBI group (P = .009, d = -0.48) were statistically explained by visual integration efficiency (P = .002). Children with mildRF+ TBI or moderate/severe TBI have impaired visual integration efficiency, which may contribute to poorer general neurocognitive functioning.

  13. Impaired Visual Integration in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsh Königs

    Full Text Available Axonal injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI may cause impaired sensory integration. We aim to determine the effects of childhood TBI on visual integration in relation to general neurocognitive functioning.We compared children aged 6-13 diagnosed with TBI (n = 103; M = 1.7 years post-injury to children with traumatic control (TC injury (n = 44. Three TBI severity groups were distinguished: mild TBI without risk factors for complicated TBI (mildRF- TBI, n = 22, mild TBI with ≥1 risk factor (mildRF+ TBI, n = 46 or moderate/severe TBI (n = 35. An experimental paradigm measured speed and accuracy of goal-directed behavior depending on: (1 visual identification; (2 visual localization; or (3 both, measuring visual integration. Group-differences on reaction time (RT or accuracy were tracked down to task strategy, visual processing efficiency and extra-decisional processes (e.g. response execution using diffusion model analysis. General neurocognitive functioning was measured by a Wechsler Intelligence Scale short form.The TBI group had poorer accuracy of visual identification and visual integration than the TC group (Ps ≤ .03; ds ≤ -0.40. Analyses differentiating TBI severity revealed that visual identification accuracy was impaired in the moderate/severe TBI group (P = .05, d = -0.50 and that visual integration accuracy was impaired in the mildRF+ TBI group and moderate/severe TBI group (Ps < .02, ds ≤ -0.56. Diffusion model analyses tracked impaired visual integration accuracy down to lower visual integration efficiency in the mildRF+ TBI group and moderate/severe TBI group (Ps < .001, ds ≤ -0.73. Importantly, intelligence impairments observed in the TBI group (P = .009, d = -0.48 were statistically explained by visual integration efficiency (P = .002.Children with mildRF+ TBI or moderate/severe TBI have impaired visual integration efficiency, which may contribute to poorer general neurocognitive functioning.

  14. Investigating dynamical information transfer in the brain following a TMS pulse: Insights from structural architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Enrico; Van Mierlo, Pieter; Marinazzo, Daniele; Laureys, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used for more than 20 years to investigate connectivity and plasticity in the human cortex. By combining TMS with high-density electroencephalography (hd-EEG), one can stimulate any cortical area and measure the effects produced by this perturbation in the rest of the cerebral cortex. The purpose of this paper is to investigate changes of information flow in the brain after TMS from a functional and structural perspective, using multimodal modeling of source reconstructed TMS/hd-EEG recordings and DTI tractography. We prove how brain dynamics induced by TMS is constrained and driven by its structure, at different spatial and temporal scales, especially when considering cross-frequency interactions. These results shed light on the function-structure organization of the brain network at the global level, and on the huge variety of information contained in it.

  15. Vascular Functions and Brain Integrity in Midlife: Effects of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreana P. Haley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intact cognitive function is the best predictor of quality of life and functional ability in older age. Thus, preventing cognitive decline is central to any effort to guarantee successful aging for our growing population of elderly. The purpose of the work discussed in this outlook paper is to bridge knowledge from basic and clinical neuroscience with the aim of improving how we understand, predict, and treat age- and disease-related cognitive impairment. Over the past six years, our research team has focused on intermediate neuroimaging phenotypes of brain vulnerability in midlife and isolating the underlying physiological mechanisms. The ultimate goal of this work was to pave the road for the development of early interventions to enhance cognitive function and preserve brain integrity throughout the lifespan.

  16. Interleukin-34 restores blood-brain barrier integrity by upregulating tight junction proteins in endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Jin

    Full Text Available Interleukin-34 (IL-34 is a newly discovered cytokine as an additional ligand for colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R, and its functions are expected to overlap with colony stimulating factor-1/macrophage-colony stimulating factor. We have previously shown that the IL-34 is primarily produced by neurons in the central nervous system (CNS and induces proliferation and neuroprotective properties of microglia which express CSF1R. However, the functions of IL-34 in the CNS are still elucidative. Here we show that CNS capillary endothelial cells also express CSF1R. IL-34 protected blood-brain barrier integrity by restored expression levels of tight junction proteins, which were downregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. The novel function of IL-34 on the blood-brain barrier may give us a clue for new therapeutic strategies in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Toward an integrative science of the developing human mind and brain: Focus on the developing cortex☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Terry L.; Brown, Timothy T.; Bartsch, Hauke; Dale, Anders M.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Huttenlocher lecture, this article describes the need for a more integrative scientific paradigm for addressing important questions raised by key observations made over 2 decades ago. Among these are the early descriptions by Huttenlocher of variability in synaptic density in cortex of postmortem brains of children of different ages and the almost simultaneous reports of cortical volume reductions on MR imaging in children and adolescents. In spite of much progress in developmental neurobiology, developmental cognitive neuroscience, and behavioral and imaging genetics, we still do not know how these early observations relate to each other. It is argued that large scale, collaborative research programs are needed to establish the associations between behavioral differences among children and imaging biomarkers, and to link the latter to cellular changes in the developing brain. Examples of progress and challenges remaining are illustrated with data from the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics Project (PING). PMID:26347228

  18. Toward an integrative science of the developing human mind and brain: Focus on the developing cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Terry L; Brown, Timothy T; Bartsch, Hauke; Dale, Anders M

    2016-04-01

    Based on the Huttenlocher lecture, this article describes the need for a more integrative scientific paradigm for addressing important questions raised by key observations made over 2 decades ago. Among these are the early descriptions by Huttenlocher of variability in synaptic density in cortex of postmortem brains of children of different ages and the almost simultaneous reports of cortical volume reductions on MR imaging in children and adolescents. In spite of much progress in developmental neurobiology, developmental cognitive neuroscience, and behavioral and imaging genetics, we still do not know how these early observations relate to each other. It is argued that large scale, collaborative research programs are needed to establish the associations between behavioral differences among children and imaging biomarkers, and to link the latter to cellular changes in the developing brain. Examples of progress and challenges remaining are illustrated with data from the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics Project (PING). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Using remote sensing to inform integrated coastal zone management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated coastal management (ICM) is a process for the management of the coast using an integrated approach, regarding all aspects of the coastal zone, including geographical and political boundaries, in an attempt to achieve sustainability....

  20. Integrated region and edge segmentation using information divergence measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Lyndon S.

    2004-05-01

    Accurate models of human anatomy are obligatory for modern cancer radiotherapy. Maps of individual patient anatomies are usually drawn manually from CT images. Manual contouring is expensive and time-consuming because of the complexity of the anatomy, the low contrast of soft tissues in CT, and blurred image detail due to respiratory motion. We have developed automated contouring methods based on relative entropy and more general divergence measures from information theory and statistics that produce average minimum error inference like the traditional maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum a posteriori (MAP) classifiers. Unlike the ML/MAP classifiers that are frequently implemented assuming Gaussian models for the data, the information theoretic divergences require no data model. We have concentrated on the Jensen-Renyi divergence (JRD) by which multiple contours can be obtained simultaneously with the optimization of a single objective function. Region segmentation is accomplished by maximizing the divergence of pixel feature distributions inside and outside a flexible, closed, parametric curve. Recently we have integrated multivariate region segmentation with edge detection, also done by maximizing the JRD over sets of region-interior and region-edge pixels in edge-enhanced versions of the image. Further, region and edge detection are combined with prior shape constraints in which the combined JRD objective function is penalized if the flexible curve parameters deviate too far from those of a prior known shape. Though the performance of the JRD program is a complex function of pixel feature number and kind, edges, and shape priors, we demonstrate accurate contours computed from image data distributions and estimates of prior shape.

  1. Predicting brain structure in population-based samples with biologically informed genetic scores for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Auwera, Sandra; Wittfeld, Katharina; Shumskaya, Elena; Bralten, Janita; Zwiers, Marcel P; Onnink, A Marten H; Usberti, Niccolo; Hertel, Johannes; Völzke, Henry; Völker, Uwe; Hosten, Norbert; Franke, Barbara; Grabe, Hans J

    2017-04-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with brain structural abnormalities including gray and white matter volume reductions. Whether these alterations are caused by genetic risk variants for schizophrenia is unclear. Previous attempts to detect associations between polygenic factors for schizophrenia and structural brain phenotypes in healthy subjects have been negative or remain non-replicated. In this study, we used genetic risk scores that were based on the accumulated effect of selected risk variants for schizophrenia belonging to specific biological systems like synaptic function, neurodevelopment, calcium signaling, and glutamatergic neurotransmission. We hypothesized that this "biologically informed" approach would provide the missing link between genetic risk for schizophrenia and brain structural phenotypes. We applied whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses in two population-based target samples and subsequent regions of interest (ROIs) analyses in an independent replication sample (total N = 2725). No consistent association between the genetic scores and brain volumes were observed in the investigated samples. These results suggest that in healthy subjects with a higher genetic risk for schizophrenia additional factors apart from common genetic variants (e.g., infection, trauma, rare genetic variants, or gene-gene interactions) are required to induce structural abnormalities of the brain. Further studies are recommended to test for possible gene-gene or gene-environment effects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Community integration after traumatic brain injury: a systematic review of the clinical implications of measurement and service provision for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Linda; Wright-St Clair, Valerie A; Keogh, Justin; Gray, Marion

    2014-01-01

    To explore the scope, reliability, and validity of community integration measures for older adults after traumatic brain injury (TBI). A search of peer-reviewed articles in English from 1990 to April 2011 was conducted using the EBSCO Health and Scopus databases. Search terms included were community integration, traumatic brain injury or TBI, 65 plus or older adults, and assessment. Forty-three eligible articles were identified, with 11 selected for full review using a standardized critical review method. Common community integration measures were identified and ranked for relevance and psychometric properties. Of the 43 eligible articles, studies reporting community integration outcomes post-TBI were identified and critically reviewed. Older adults' community integration needs post-TBI from high quality studies were summarized. There is a relative lack of evidence pertaining to older adults post-TBI, but indicators are that older adults have poorer outcomes than their younger counterparts. The Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) is the most widely used community integration measurement tool used in research for people with TBI. Because of some limitations, many studies have used the CIQ in conjunction with other measures to better quantify and/or monitor changes in community integration. Enhancing integration of older adults after TBI into their community of choice, with particular emphasis on social integration and quality of life, should be a primary rehabilitation goal. However, more research is needed to inform best practice guidelines to meet the needs of this growing TBI population. It is recommended that subjective tools, such as quality of life measures, are used in conjunction with well-established community integration measures, such as the CIQ, during the assessment process. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Proteins API: accessing key integrated protein and genome information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Andrew; Antunes, Ricardo; Alpi, Emanuele; Bursteinas, Borisas; Gonzales, Leonardo; Liu, Wudong; Luo, Jie; Qi, Guoying; Turner, Edd; Martin, Maria

    2017-07-03

    The Proteins API provides searching and programmatic access to protein and associated genomics data such as curated protein sequence positional annotations from UniProtKB, as well as mapped variation and proteomics data from large scale data sources (LSS). Using the coordinates service, researchers are able to retrieve the genomic sequence coordinates for proteins in UniProtKB. This, the LSS genomics and proteomics data for UniProt proteins is programmatically only available through this service. A Swagger UI has been implemented to provide documentation, an interface for users, with little or no programming experience, to 'talk' to the services to quickly and easily formulate queries with the services and obtain dynamically generated source code for popular programming languages, such as Java, Perl, Python and Ruby. Search results are returned as standard JSON, XML or GFF data objects. The Proteins API is a scalable, reliable, fast, easy to use RESTful services that provides a broad protein information resource for users to ask questions based upon their field of expertise and allowing them to gain an integrated overview of protein annotations available to aid their knowledge gain on proteins in biological processes. The Proteins API is available at (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/proteins/api/doc). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. The Proteins API: accessing key integrated protein and genome information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Ricardo; Alpi, Emanuele; Gonzales, Leonardo; Liu, Wudong; Luo, Jie; Qi, Guoying; Turner, Edd

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Proteins API provides searching and programmatic access to protein and associated genomics data such as curated protein sequence positional annotations from UniProtKB, as well as mapped variation and proteomics data from large scale data sources (LSS). Using the coordinates service, researchers are able to retrieve the genomic sequence coordinates for proteins in UniProtKB. This, the LSS genomics and proteomics data for UniProt proteins is programmatically only available through this service. A Swagger UI has been implemented to provide documentation, an interface for users, with little or no programming experience, to ‘talk’ to the services to quickly and easily formulate queries with the services and obtain dynamically generated source code for popular programming languages, such as Java, Perl, Python and Ruby. Search results are returned as standard JSON, XML or GFF data objects. The Proteins API is a scalable, reliable, fast, easy to use RESTful services that provides a broad protein information resource for users to ask questions based upon their field of expertise and allowing them to gain an integrated overview of protein annotations available to aid their knowledge gain on proteins in biological processes. The Proteins API is available at (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/proteins/api/doc). PMID:28383659

  5. A comment on Farwell : brain fingerprinting: a comprehensive tutorial review of detection of concealed information with event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.H.; Ben-Shakhar, G.; Verschuere, B.; Donchin, E.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent issue of Cognitive Neurodynamics Farwell (Cogn Neurodyn 6:115-154, 2012) published a comprehensive tutorial review of the use of Event Related Brain Potentials (ERP) in the detection of concealed information. Farwell’s review covered much of his own work employing his ‘‘brain

  6. Relationship of preinjury caregiver and family functioning to community integration in adults with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sady, Maegan D; Sander, Angelle M; Clark, Allison N; Sherer, Mark; Nakase-Richardson, Risa; Malec, James F

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the relationship of preinjury caregiver and family functioning to community integration outcomes in persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Inception cohort. Three TBI Model Systems inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Persons with TBI (N=141) and their caregivers admitted to inpatient rehabilitation and followed up at 1 to 2 years after injury. Not applicable. Community Integration Questionnaire and the Social and Occupation scales of the Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique. There were significant interactions of several preinjury caregiver and family variables with injury severity. For persons with complicated mild/moderate injury, better family functioning was associated with greater home integration, and less caregiver distress was associated with better social integration. For persons with severe injuries, greater caregiver perceived social support was associated with better outcomes in productivity and social integration. Preinjury caregiver and family characteristics interact with injury severity to affect outcomes in persons with injury. Research on outcomes should include measures of caregiver and family functioning. Early interventions targeted toward decreasing caregiver distress, increasing support, and improving family functioning may have a positive impact on later outcomes. Copyright © 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrated semiconductor optical sensors for chronic, minimally-invasive imaging of brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas T; Levi, Ofer; Cang, Jianhua; Kaneko, Megumi; Stryker, Michael P; Smith, Stephen J; Shenoy, Krishna V; Harris, James S

    2006-01-01

    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging is a widely accepted technique for imaging brain activity. We propose an integrated device consisting of interleaved arrays of gallium arsenide (GaAs) based semiconductor light sources and detectors operating at telecommunications wavelengths in the near-infrared. Such a device will allow for long-term, minimally invasive monitoring of neural activity in freely behaving subjects, and will enable the use of structured illumination patterns to improve system performance. In this work we describe the proposed system and show that near-infrared IOS imaging at wavelengths compatible with semiconductor devices can produce physiologically significant images in mice, even through skull.

  8. Down syndrome screening information in midwifery practices in the Netherlands: Strategies to integrate biomedical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Sophia

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to analyse counselling with regard to prenatal screening in midwifery consultations in the Netherlands where a national prenatal screening programme has only existed since 2007, after years of social and political debates. The methodology is based on in situ observations of 25 counselling consultations in four midwifery practices in two main cities in the Netherlands. The results of this study show that, since midwives are obliged to offer information on Down syndrome screening to all pregnant women (2007), they have to deal with the communication of medical screening information using biostatistical concepts to explain risks, calculations, probabilities and chromosomal anomalies. In order to avoid the risk of medicalization of their consultation, midwives develop strategies that allow them to integrate this new biomedical discourse while maintaining their low medicalized approach of midwife-led care. One of their main strategies is to switch from 'alarming' biomedical messages to 'reassuring words' in order to manage the anxiety induced by the information and to keep the control over their low medicalized consultation. They also tend to distance themselves from the obligation to talk about screening. The way midwives handle these counselling consultations allows them to respect their obligation to propose information, and to remain faithful to their struggle to protect the natural process of pregnancy as well as their professional autonomy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Callosal Function in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Linked to Disrupted White Matter Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily L; Ellis, Monica U; Marion, Sarah D; Jin, Yan; Moran, Lisa; Olsen, Alexander; Kernan, Claudia; Babikian, Talin; Mink, Richard; Babbitt, Christopher; Johnson, Jeffrey; Giza, Christopher C; Thompson, Paul M; Asarnow, Robert F

    2015-07-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in traumatic axonal injury and white matter (WM) damage, particularly to the corpus callosum (CC). Damage to the CC can lead to impaired performance on neurocognitive tasks, but there is a high degree of heterogeneity in impairment following TBI. Here we examined the relation between CC microstructure and function in pediatric TBI. We used high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to evaluate the structural integrity of the CC in humans following brain injury in a sample of 32 children (23 males and 9 females) with moderate-to-severe TBI (msTBI) at 1-5 months postinjury, compared with well matched healthy control children. We assessed CC function through interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) as measured using event-related potentials (ERPs), and related this to DWI measures of WM integrity. Finally, the relation between DWI and IHTT results was supported by additional results of neurocognitive performance assessed using a single composite performance scale. Half of the msTBI participants (16 participants) had significantly slower IHTTs than the control group. This slow IHTT group demonstrated lower CC integrity (lower fractional anisotropy and higher mean diffusivity) and poorer neurocognitive functioning than both the control group and the msTBI group with normal IHTTs. Lower fractional anisotropy-a common sign of impaired WM-and slower IHTTs also predicted poor neurocognitive function. This study reveals that there is a subset of pediatric msTBI patients during the post-acute phase of injury who have markedly impaired CC functioning and structural integrity that is associated with poor neurocognitive functioning. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the primary cause of death and disability in children and adolescents. There is considerable heterogeneity in postinjury outcome, which is only partially explained by injury severity. Imaging biomarkers may help explain some of this variance, as diffusion weighted

  10. On the effects of multimodal information integration in multitasking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ann-Kathrin Stock; Krutika Gohil; René J Huster; Christian Beste

    2017-01-01

    There have recently been considerable advances in our understanding of the neuronal mechanisms underlying multitasking, but the role of multimodal integration for this faculty has remained rather unclear...

  11. MicroRNA-210 Suppresses Junction Proteins and Disrupts Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity in Neonatal Rat Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingyi; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Li, Yong; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Lubo

    2017-06-24

    Cerebral edema, primarily caused by disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), is one of the serious complications associated with brain injury in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Our recent study demonstrated that the hypoxic-ischemic (HI) treatment significantly increased microRNA-210 (miR-210) in the neonatal rat brain and inhibition of miR-210 provided neuroprotection in neonatal HI brain injury. The present study aims to determine the role of miR-210 in the regulation of BBB integrity in the developing brain. miR-210 mimic was administered via intracerebroventricular injection (i.c.v.) into the brain of rat pups. Forty-eight hours after the injection, a modified Rice-Vannucci model was conducted to produce HI brain injury. Post-assays included cerebral edema analysis, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining for serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) leakage. The results showed that miR-210 mimic exacerbated cerebral edema and IgG leakage into the brain parenchyma. In contrast, inhibition of miR-210 with its complementary locked nucleic acid oligonucleotides (miR-210-LNA) significantly reduced cerebral edema and IgG leakage. These findings suggest that miR-210 negatively regulates BBB integrity i n the neonatal brain. Mechanistically, the seed sequences of miR-210 were identified complementary to the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of the mRNA transcripts of tight junction protein occludin and adherens junction protein β-catenin, indicating downstream targets of miR-210. This was further validated by in vivo data showing that miR-210 mimic significantly reduced the expression of these junction proteins in rat pup brains. Of importance, miR-210-LNA preserved the expression of junction proteins occludin and β-catenin from neonatal HI insult. Altogether, the present study reveals a novel mechanism of miR-210 in impairing BBB integrity that contributes to cerebral edema formation after neonatal HI insult, and provides new insights in miR-210-LNA

  12. Air/ground wind shear information integration: Flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, David A.

    1992-01-01

    An element of the NASA/FAA wind shear program is the integration of ground-based microburst information on the flight deck, to support airborne wind shear alerting and microburst avoidance. NASA conducted a wind shear flight test program in the summer of 1991 during which airborne processing of Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) data was used to derive microburst alerts. High level microburst products were extracted from TDWR, transmitted to a NASA Boeing 737 in flight via data link, and processed to estimate the wind shear hazard level (F-factor) that would be experienced by the aircraft in the core of each microburst. The microburst location and F-factor were used to derive a situation display and alerts. The situation display was successfully used to maneuver the aircraft for microburst penetrations, during which in situ 'truth' measurements were made. A total of 19 penetrations were made of TDWR-reported microburst locations, resulting in 18 airborne microburst alerts from the TDWR data and two microburst alerts from the airborne in situ measurements. The primary factors affecting alerting performance were spatial offset of the flight path from the region of strongest shear, differences in TDWR measurement altitude and airplane penetration altitude, and variations in microburst outflow profiles. Predicted and measured F-factors agreed well in penetrations near microburst cores. Although improvements in airborne and ground processing of the TDWR measurement would be required to support an airborne executive-level alerting protocol, the feasibility of airborne utilization of TDWR data link data has been demonstrated.

  13. Categorizing communication errors in integrated hospital information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboor, Samrend; Ammenwerth, Elske

    2009-01-01

    Hospital information systems (HIS) are the hospital's nervous system. The HIS are mostly grown over several years, dedicated to specific needs and comprise individual workarounds. Changes to such complex systems may cause a variety of differ-ent negative side-effects. In order to understand the nature of incorrect communication in integrated HIS, a concise structured categorization of common communication problems and their reasons is essential. The objective of this paper is to present such a categorization, its development and verification. We used a combined approach for the development of the error categorization: We started with a qualitative content analysis on available literature in PubMed. In order to ensure the validity and completeness of the results, we chose the method of problem-centered expert interviews. The resulting categorization of communication problems is represented as a five-level hierarchy. It comprises 81 problems that are related to the electronic communication. Further, it contains in total 229 entries that are either the reasons of these problems or recommendation for avoiding the problems. To our knowledge there is no similar summary that concisely summarizes common communication problems and also refers to their underlying reasons. Equivalent content is mostly published in experience reports that just concentrate on single aspects. We used the details of such references in order to compile our categorization - it thus can be regarded as an intersection of relevant experiences. The categorization can raise a basic awareness on potential problems and supports the understanding of the underlying reasons. An evaluation in a real environment must prove whether the content of the categorization is correct.

  14. Neural Probes with Integrated Temperature Sensors for Monitoring Retina and Brain Implantation and Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaqi; Xie, Hui; Chung, Tsing; Chan, Leanne Lai Hang; Pang, Stella W

    2017-09-01

    Gold (Au) resistive temperature sensors were integrated on flexible polyimide-based neural probes to monitor temperature changes during neural probe implantation and stimulation. Temperature changes were measured as neural probes were implanted to infer the positions of the neural probes, and as the retina or the deep brain region was stimulated electrically. The temperature sensor consisted of a serpentine Au resistor and surrounded by four Au electrodes with 200 and [Formula: see text] diameter (dia.). The Au temperature sensors had temperature coefficient of 0.32%, and they were biocompatible and small in size. In vivo measurements of temperature changes during implantation and stimulation were carried out in the retina and deep brain region in rats. The desired implantation position was reached when temperature measured by the sensor increased to the calibrated level and became stable. There was no temperature increase when low level stimulation current of 8 and [Formula: see text] each for the two 200- and 400- [Formula: see text]-dia. electrodes, respectively, were applied. When higher level stimulation current of 100 and [Formula: see text] each were applied to the two 200- and 400- [Formula: see text]-dia. electrodes, respectively, maximum temperature increases of 1.2 °C in retina and 1 °C in deep brain region were found.

  15. Integrating Health Promotion Into Physical Therapy Practice to Improve Brain Health and Prevent Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Ellen; Kirk-Sanchez, Neva; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of dementia, and brain pathology appears years before symptoms are evident. Primary prevention through health promotion can incorporate lifestyle improvement across the lifespan. Risk factor assessment and identifying markers of disease might also trigger preventive measures needed for high-risk individuals and groups. Many potential risk factors are modifiable through exercise, and may be responsive to early intervention strategies to reduce the downward slope toward disability. Through the use of common clinical tests to identify cognitive and noncognitive functional markers of disease, detection and intervention can occur at earlier stages, including preclinical stages of disease. Physical activity and exercise interventions to address modifiable risk factors and impairments can play a pivotal role in the prevention and delay of functional decline, ultimately reducing the incidence of dementia. This article discusses prevention, prediction, plasticity, and participation in the context of preserving brain health and preventing Alzheimer disease and related dementias in aging adults. Rehabilitation professionals have opportunities to slow disease progression through research, practice, and education initiatives. From a clinical perspective, interventions that target brain health through lifestyle changes and exercise interventions show promise for preventing stroke and associated neurovascular diseases in addition to dementia. Physical therapists are well positioned to integrate primary health promotion into practice for the prevention of dementia and other neurological conditions in older adults.

  16. An open, component-based information infrastructure for integrated health information networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiknakis, Manolis; Katehakis, Dimitrios G; Orphanoudakis, Stelios C

    2002-12-18

    A fundamental requirement for achieving continuity of care is the seamless sharing of multimedia clinical information. Different technological approaches can be adopted for enabling the communication and sharing of health record segments. In the context of the emerging global information society, the creation of and access to the integrated electronic health record (I-EHR) of a citizen has been assigned high priority in many countries. This requirement is complementary to an overall requirement for the creation of a health information infrastructure (HII) to support the provision of a variety of health telematics and e-health services. In developing a regional or national HII, the components or building blocks that make up the overall information system ought to be defined and an appropriate component architecture specified. This paper discusses current international priorities and trends in developing the HII. It presents technological challenges and alternative approaches towards the creation of an I-EHR, being the aggregation of health data created during all interactions of an individual with the healthcare system. It also presents results from an ongoing Research and Development (R&D) effort towards the implementation of the HII in HYGEIAnet, the regional health information network of Crete, Greece, using a component-based software engineering approach. Critical design decisions and related trade-offs, involved in the process of component specification and development, are also discussed and the current state of development of an I-EHR service is presented. Finally, Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and security issues, which are important for the deployment and use of any I-EHR service, are considered.

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, and ongoing research that helps ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies ... medication. This information may someday make it possible to predict who ...

  19. 76 FR 54228 - Draft Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... AGENCY Draft Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated... Acrylonitrile: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)'' (EPA/635/R-08/013A). We are extending this notice 30 days at the request of the Acrylonitrile Group. The draft...

  20. 76 FR 38387 - Draft Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... AGENCY Draft Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated... Review of Acrylonitrile: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System... draft assessment for acrylonitrile will be held on August 10, 2011, beginning at 9 a.m. and ending at 4...

  1. Improving the Reliability of Network Metrics in Structural Brain Networks by Integrating Different Network Weighting Strategies into a Single Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros I. Dimitriadis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain networks estimated from diffusion MRI (dMRI via tractography have been widely studied in healthy controls and patients with neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, few studies have addressed the reliability of derived network metrics both node-specific and network-wide. Different network weighting strategies (NWS can be adopted to weight the strength of connection between two nodes yielding structural brain networks that are almost fully-weighted. Here, we scanned five healthy participants five times each, using a diffusion-weighted MRI protocol and computed edges between 90 regions of interest (ROI from the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL template. The edges were weighted according to nine different methods. We propose a linear combination of these nine NWS into a single graph using an appropriate diffusion distance metric. We refer to the resulting weighted graph as an Integrated Weighted Structural Brain Network (ISWBN. Additionally, we consider a topological filtering scheme that maximizes the information flow in the brain network under the constraint of the overall cost of the surviving connections. We compared each of the nine NWS and the ISWBN based on the improvement of: (a intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC of well-known network metrics, both node-wise and per network level; and (b the recognition accuracy of each subject compared to the remainder of the cohort, as an attempt to access the uniqueness of the structural brain network for each subject, after first applying our proposed topological filtering scheme. Based on a threshold where the network level ICC should be >0.90, our findings revealed that six out of nine NWS lead to unreliable results at the network level, while all nine NWS were unreliable at the node level. In comparison, our proposed ISWBN performed as well as the best performing individual NWS at the network level, and the ICC was higher compared to all individual NWS at the node

  2. Brain Stroke Detection by Microwaves Using Prior Information from Clinical Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Irishina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave tomographic imaging is an inexpensive, noninvasive modality of media dielectric properties reconstruction which can be utilized as a screening method in clinical applications such as breast cancer and brain stroke detection. For breast cancer detection, the iterative algorithm of structural inversion with level sets provides well-defined boundaries and incorporates an intrinsic regularization, which permits to discover small lesions. However, in case of brain lesion, the inverse problem is much more difficult due to the skull, which causes low microwave penetration and highly noisy data. In addition, cerebral liquid has dielectric properties similar to those of blood, which makes the inversion more complicated. Nevertheless, the contrast in the conductivity and permittivity values in this situation is significant due to blood high dielectric values compared to those of surrounding grey and white matter tissues. We show that using brain MRI images as prior information about brain's configuration, along with known brain dielectric properties, and the intrinsic regularization by structural inversion, allows successful and rapid stroke detection even in difficult cases. The method has been applied to 2D slices created from a database of 3D real MRI phantom images to effectively detect lesions larger than 2.5 × 10−2 m diameter.

  3. Resveratrol defends blood-brain barrier integrity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Li, Shi-Ping; Fu, Jin-Sheng; Zhang, Sheng; Bai, Lin; Guo, Li

    2016-11-01

    The mouse autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an experimental model of multiple sclerosis (MS), is primarily characterized as dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Resveratrol exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and neuroprotective activities. We investigated the beneficial effects of resveratrol in protecting the integrity of the BBB in EAE mice and observed improved clinical outcome in the EAE mice after resveratrol treatment. Evans blue (EB) extravasation was used to detect the disruption of BBB. Western blot were used to detected the tight junction proteins and adhesion molecules zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. Inflammatory factors inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, and arginase 1 were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) and IL-10 by ELISA. NADPH oxidase (NOX) levels were evaluated by qPCR, and its activity was analyzed by lucigenin-derived chemiluminescence. Resveratrol at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg produced a dose-dependent decrease in EAE paralysis and EB leakage, ameliorated EAE-induced loss of tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5, as well as repressed the EAE-induced increase in adhesion proteins ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. In addition, resveratrol suppressed the EAE-induced overexpression of proinflammatory transcripts iNOS and IL-1β and upregulated the expression of anti-inflammatory transcripts arginase 1 and IL-10 cytokine in the brain. Furthermore, resveratrol downregulated the overexpressed NOX2 and NOX4 in the brain and suppressed NADPH activity. Resveratrol ameliorates the clinical severity of MS through maintaining the BBB integrity in EAE mice. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Integrated scheduling and resource management. [for Space Station Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M. T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of integrated scheduling during the Space Station era. Scheduling for Space Station entails coordinating the support of many distributed users who are sharing common resources and pursuing individual and sometimes conflicting objectives. This paper compares the scheduling integration problems of current missions with those anticipated for the Space Station era. It examines the facilities and the proposed operations environment for Space Station. It concludes that the pattern of interdependecies among the users and facilities, which are the source of the integration problem is well structured, allowing a dividing of the larger problem into smaller problems. It proposes an architecture to support integrated scheduling by scheduling efficiently at local facilities as a function of dependencies with other facilities of the program. A prototype is described that is being developed to demonstrate this integration concept.

  5. Briefing and Building Information Modelling: Potential for integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutamanis, Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    The article brings together the subjects of briefing and Building Information Modelling. It considers the brief as information source for Building Information Modelling and Building Information Modelling as an environment for automating brief-related analysis and guidance. The approach is

  6. Associations between insulin action and integrity of brain microstructure differ with familial longevity and with age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola A. Akintola

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes have been associated with cognitive decline, dementia, and with structural and functional brain features. However, it is unclear whether these associations differ in individuals that differ in familial longevity or age. Here, we investigated the association between parameters of glucose metabolism and microstructural brain integrity in offspring of long-lived families (offspring and controls; and age categories thereof. From the Leiden Longevity Study, 132 participants underwent oral glucose tolerance test to assess glycemia (fasted glucose and glucose area-under-the-curve (AUC, insulin resistance (fasted insulin, AUCinsulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and pancreatic Beta cell secretory capacity (insulinogenic index. 3Tesla MRI and Magnetization Transfer (MT imaging MT-ratio peak-height was used to quantify differences in microstructural brain parenchymal tissue homogeneity that remain invisible on conventional MRI. Analyses were performed in offspring and age-matched controls, with and without stratification for age.In the full offspring group only, reduced peak-height in grey and white matter was inversely associated with AUCinsulin, fasted insulin, HOMA-IR and insulinogenic-index (all p65 years: in younger controls, significantly stronger inverse associations were observed between peak-height and fasted glucose, AUCglucose, fasted insulin, AUCinsulin and HOMA-IR in grey matter; and for AUCglucose, fasted insulin and HOMA-IR in white matter (all P-interaction<0.05. Although the strength of the associations tended to attenuate with age in the offspring group, the difference between age groups was not statistically significant. Thus, associations between impaired insulin action and reduced microstructural brain parenchymal tissue homogeneity were stronger in offspring compared to controls, and seemed to diminish with age.

  7. Nanofibrous gelatine scaffolds integrated with nerve growth factor-loaded alginate microspheres for brain tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyüköz, Melda; Erdal, Esra; Alsoy Altinkaya, Sacide

    2016-11-12

    Neural regeneration research is designed in part to develop strategies for therapy after nerve damage due to injury or disease. In this study, a new gelatine-based biomimetic scaffold was fabricated for brain tissue engineering applications. A technique combining thermally induced phase separation and porogen leaching was used to create interconnected macropores and nanofibrous structure. To promote tissue regeneration processes, the scaffolds were integrated with nerve growth factor (NGF)-loaded alginate microspheres. The results showed that nanofibrous matrix could only be obtained when gelatine concentration was at least 7.5% (w/v). The scaffold with a modulus value (1.2 kPa) similar to that of brain tissue (0.5-1 kPa) was obtained by optimizing the heat treatment time, macropore size and gelatine concentration. The encapsulation efficiencies of NGF into 0.1% and 1% alginate microspheres were 85% and 100%, respectively. The release rate of NGF from the microspheres was controlled by the alginate concentration and the poly(L-lysine) coating. The immobilization of the microspheres in the scaffold reduced burst release and significantly extended the release period. The nanofibrous architecture and controlled release of NGF from the microspheres induced neurite extension of PC12 cells, demonstrating that the released NGF was in an active form. The results suggest that the scaffolds prepared in this study may have potential applications in brain tissue engineering due to topologic and mechanical properties similar to brain tissue and pore structure suitable for cell growth and differentiation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Matching spatial with ontological brain regions using Java tools for visualization, database access, and integrated data analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezgin, G.; Reid, A.T.; Schubert, D.; Kotter, R.

    2009-01-01

    Brain atlases are widely used in experimental neuroscience as tools for locating and targeting specific brain structures. Delineated structures in a given atlas, however, are often difficult to interpret and to interface with database systems that supply additional information using hierarchically

  9. Integration of egocentric and allocentric information during memory-guided reaching to images of a natural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFiehler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available When interacting with our environment we generally make use of egocentric and allocentric object information by coding object positions relative to the observer or relative to the environment, respectively. Bayesian theories suggest that the brain integrates both sources of information optimally for perception and action. However, experimental evidence for egocentric and allocentric integration is sparse and has only been studied using abstract stimuli lacking ecological relevance. Here, we investigated the use of egocentric and allocentric information during memory-guided reaching to images of naturalistic scenes. Participants encoded a breakfast scene containing six objects on a table (local objects and three objects in the environment (global objects. After a 2s delay, a visual test scene reappeared for 1s in which one local object was missing (=target and of the remaining, one, three or five local objects or one of the global objects were shifted to the left or to the right. The offset of the test scene prompted participants to reach to the target as precisely as possible. Only local objects served as potential reach targets and thus were task-relevant. When shifting objects we predicted accurate reaching if participants only used egocentric coding of object position and systematic shifts of reach endpoints if allocentric information were used for movement planning. We found that reaching movements were largely affected by allocentric shifts showing an increase in endpoint errors in the direction of object shifts with the number of local objects shifted. No effect occurred when one local or one global object was shifted. Our findings suggest that allocentric cues are indeed used by the brain for memory-guided reaching towards targets in naturalistic visual scenes. Moreover, the integration of egocentric and allocentric object information seems to depend on the extent of changes in the scene.

  10. Evolvable neuronal paths: a novel basis for information and search in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Chrisantha; Vasas, Vera; Szathmáry, Eörs; Husbands, Phil

    2011-01-01

    We propose a previously unrecognized kind of informational entity in the brain that is capable of acting as the basis for unlimited hereditary variation in neuronal networks. This unit is a path of activity through a network of neurons, analogous to a path taken through a hidden Markov model. To prove in principle the capabilities of this new kind of informational substrate, we show how a population of paths can be used as the hereditary material for a neuronally implemented genetic algorithm, (the swiss-army knife of black-box optimization techniques) which we have proposed elsewhere could operate at somatic timescales in the brain. We compare this to the same genetic algorithm that uses a standard 'genetic' informational substrate, i.e. non-overlapping discrete genotypes, on a range of optimization problems. A path evolution algorithm (PEA) is defined as any algorithm that implements natural selection of paths in a network substrate. A PEA is a previously unrecognized type of natural selection that is well suited for implementation by biological neuronal networks with structural plasticity. The important similarities and differences between a standard genetic algorithm and a PEA are considered. Whilst most experiments are conducted on an abstract network model, at the conclusion of the paper a slightly more realistic neuronal implementation of a PEA is outlined based on Izhikevich spiking neurons. Finally, experimental predictions are made for the identification of such informational paths in the brain.

  11. Evolvable neuronal paths: a novel basis for information and search in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrisantha Fernando

    Full Text Available We propose a previously unrecognized kind of informational entity in the brain that is capable of acting as the basis for unlimited hereditary variation in neuronal networks. This unit is a path of activity through a network of neurons, analogous to a path taken through a hidden Markov model. To prove in principle the capabilities of this new kind of informational substrate, we show how a population of paths can be used as the hereditary material for a neuronally implemented genetic algorithm, (the swiss-army knife of black-box optimization techniques which we have proposed elsewhere could operate at somatic timescales in the brain. We compare this to the same genetic algorithm that uses a standard 'genetic' informational substrate, i.e. non-overlapping discrete genotypes, on a range of optimization problems. A path evolution algorithm (PEA is defined as any algorithm that implements natural selection of paths in a network substrate. A PEA is a previously unrecognized type of natural selection that is well suited for implementation by biological neuronal networks with structural plasticity. The important similarities and differences between a standard genetic algorithm and a PEA are considered. Whilst most experiments are conducted on an abstract network model, at the conclusion of the paper a slightly more realistic neuronal implementation of a PEA is outlined based on Izhikevich spiking neurons. Finally, experimental predictions are made for the identification of such informational paths in the brain.

  12. The Effect of Information Security Management on Organizational Processes Integration in Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Shafiei Nikabadi; Ahmad Jafarian; Azam Jalili Bolhasani

    2012-01-01

    : The major purpose of this article was that how information security management has effect on supply chain integration and the effect of implementing "information security management system" on enhancing supplies chain integration. In this respect, current research was seeking a combination overview to these tow approaches (Information Security Management and Organizational Processes Integration by Enterprise Resources Planning System) and after that determined factors of these two import...

  13. Investigation of Information Flow During a Novel Working Memory Task in Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobryakova, Ekaterina; Boukrina, Olga; Wylie, Glenn R

    2015-09-01

    Working memory (WM) is often compromised after traumatic brain injury (TBI). A number of functional and effective connectivity studies investigated the interaction between brain regions during WM task performance. However, previously used WM tasks did not allow differentiation of WM subprocesses such as capacity and manipulation. We used a novel WM paradigm, CapMan, to investigate effective connectivity associated with the capacity and manipulation subprocesses of WM in individuals with TBI relative to healthy controls (HCs). CapMan allows independent investigation of brain regions associated with capacity and manipulation, while minimizing the influence of other WM-related subprocesses. Areas of the fronto-parietal WM network, previously identified in healthy individuals as engaged in capacity and manipulation during CapMan, were analyzed with the Independent Multiple-sample Greedy Equivalence Search (IMaGES) method to investigate the differences in information flow between healthy individuals and individuals with TBI. We predicted that diffuse axonal injury that often occurs after TBI might lead to changes in task-based effective connectivity and result in hyperconnectivity between the regions engaged in task performance. In accordance with this hypothesis, TBI participants showed greater inter-hemispheric connectivity and less coherent information flow from posterior to anterior brain regions compared with HC participants. Thus, this study provides much needed evidence about the potential mechanism of neurocognitive impairments in individuals affected by TBI.

  14. Effects of Informative and Confirmatory Feedback on Brain Activation During Negative Feedback Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Kyoung eWoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study compared the effects of informative and confirmatory feedback on brain activation during negative feedback processing. For confirmatory feedback trials, participants were informed that they had failed the task, whereas informative feedback trials presented task relevant information along with the notification of their failure. Fourteen male undergraduates performed a series of spatial-perceptual tasks and received feedback while their brain activity was recorded. During confirmatory feedback trials, greater activations in the amygdala, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and the thalamus (including the habenular were observed in response to incorrect responses. These results suggest that confirmatory feedback induces negative emotional reactions to failure. In contrast, informative feedback trials elicited greater activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC when participants experienced failure. Further psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis revealed a negative coupling between the DLPFC and the amygdala during informative feedback relative to confirmatory feedback trials. These findings suggest that providing task-relevant information could facilitate implicit down-regulation of negative emotions following failure.

  15. Characterizing functional integrity: intraindividual brain signal variability predicts memory performance in patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protzner, Andrea B; Kovacevic, Natasa; Cohn, Melanie; McAndrews, Mary Pat

    2013-06-05

    Computational modeling suggests that variability in brain signals provides important information regarding the system's capacity to adopt different network configurations that may promote optimal responding to stimuli. Although there is limited empirical work on this construct, a recent study indicates that age-related decreases in variability across the adult lifespan correlate with less efficient and less accurate performance. Here, we extend this construct to the assessment of cerebral integrity by comparing fMRI BOLD variability and fMRI BOLD amplitude in their ability to account for differences in functional capacity in patients with focal unilateral medial temporal dysfunction. We were specifically interested in whether either of these BOLD measures could identify a link between the affected medial temporal region and memory performance (as measured by a clinical test of verbal memory retention). Using partial least-squares analyses, we found that variability in a set of regions including the left hippocampus predicted verbal retention and, furthermore, this relationship was similar across a range of cognitive tasks measured during scanning (i.e., the same pattern was seen in fixation, autobiographical recall, and word generation). In contrast, signal amplitude in the hippocampus did not predict memory performance, even for a task that reliably activates the medial temporal lobes (i.e., autobiographical recall). These findings provide a powerful validation of the concept that variability in brain signals reflects functional integrity. Furthermore, this measure can be characterized as a robust biomarker in this clinical setting because it reveals the same pattern regardless of cognitive challenge or task engagement during scanning.

  16. TechIP: A Methodology for Emerging Information Technology Insertion & Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patel, Has

    2004-01-01

    ...) processing and software agents. To implement these requirements, the system designers are required to insert, integrate and manage proven advances in Emerging Information Technology (EIT) in to the...

  17. Empowerment of Cancer Survivors Through Information Technology: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Wim G; Kuijpers, Wilma; Oldenburg, Hester Sa; Wouters, Michel Wjm; Aaronson, Neil K; van Harten, Wim H

    2015-11-27

    Patient empowerment may be an effective approach to strengthen the role of cancer survivors and to reduce the burden on health care. However, it is not well conceptualized, notably in oncology. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent information technology (IT) services can contribute to empowerment of cancer survivors. We aim to define the conceptual components of patient empowerment of chronic disease patients, especially cancer survivors, and to explore the contribution of existing and new IT services to promote empowerment. Electronic databases were searched to identify theoretical and empirical articles regarding empowerment. We extracted and synthesized conceptual components of patient empowerment (ie, attributes, antecedents, and consequences) according to the integrated review methodology. We identified recent IT services for cancer survivors by examining systematic reviews and a proposed inventory of new services, and we related their features and effects to the identified components of empowerment. Based on 26 articles, we identified five main attributes of patient empowerment: (1) being autonomous and respected, (2) having knowledge, (3) having psychosocial and behavioral skills, (4) perceiving support from community, family, and friends, and (5) perceiving oneself to be useful. The latter two were specific for the cancer setting. Systematic reviews of IT services and our additional inventory helped us identify five main categories: (1) educational services, including electronic survivorship care plan services, (2) patient-to-patient services, (3) electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) services, (4) multicomponent services, and (5) portal services. Potential impact on empowerment included knowledge enhancement and, to a lesser extent, enhancing autonomy and skills. Newly developed services offer promising and exciting opportunities to empower cancer survivors, for instance, by providing tailored advice for supportive or follow-up care based on

  18. Risk Informed Design Using Integrated Vehicle Rapid Assessment Tools Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A successful proof of concept was performed in FY 2012 integrating the Envision tool for parametric estimates of vehicle mass and the Rapid Response Risk Assessment...

  19. The Community Integration Questionnaire: factor structure across racial/ethnic groups in persons with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequerica, Anthony H; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Sander, Angelle M; Pappadis, Monique R; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Hart, Tessa; Baños, James H; Marquez De La Plata, Carlos D; Hammond, Flora M; Sherman, Tanya E

    2013-01-01

    To examine the factor structure and construct validity of the Community Integration Questionnaire, a widely used measure of community participation among individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), among 3 racial/ethnic groups. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Enrollment in acute inpatient TBI rehabilitation with follow-up at 1 year after injury. A total of 1756 persons with TBI enrolled in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) national Database. Community Integration Questionnaire at 1 year after injury. The goodness of fit for the factor structure of the Community Integration Questionnaire, separating items into Home Competency, Social Integration, and Productive Activity, was satisfactory for whites but not for blacks or Hispanics. Clinicians and researchers should take race/ethnicity into account when utilizing measures of community integration.

  20. Integrating Information from Multiple Sources: Expert Decision Making Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    in this procedural and student record sections, this format required a approach to information organization , the clusters of search information...Efficiency Ratio task measures combined to evaluate the effect of 0 48 0 07 0.47 009e 058eO188 information organization of decision making ease of...step I in the procedure. We have seen that an information organization scheme based on procedural knowledge (Condition C) can DISCUSSION facilitate

  1. Integrity and dissemination control in administrative applications through information designators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, W.G.

    When more and more information sources are being linked, it seems that it becomes ever more easy to track individuals in ways that are not deemed appropriate. However, increased linking of information does not need to imply increased dissemination of privacy-sensitive information. We present a new

  2. The Need for Integration of Information and Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a major factor in shaping a new global economy and producing rapid changes in society. In order to function in this new world economy, students and their teachers have to learn to deal with large amount of information. This entails the analysis of such information and ...

  3. Towards a digitized and integrated health information system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A strong health information system able to generate timely and accurate information is essential to ensure effective and efficient performance. Sudan's health information system is still paper-based and characterized by fragmentation and verticality. Efforts to overcome this have led to development of an ...

  4. Memory Processes and the Integration of Attitudinal and Behavioral Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxton, Jack S.; Miller, Arthur G.

    Many scientists are currently studying the manner in which individuals process social information. The reconstruction of attitudinal and subsequent behavioral information was studied to determine whether information about a person's schema can influence the interpretation of that person's subsequent behavior or whether the behavior itself is more…

  5. A mutual information approach to automate identification of neuronal clusters in Drosophila brain images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Yvan Masse

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mapping neural circuits can be accomplished by labeling a small number of neural structures per brain, and then combining these structures across multiple brains. This sparse labeling method has been particularly effective in Drosophila melanogaster, where clonally related clusters of neurons derived from the same neural stem cell (neuroblast clones are functionally related and morphologically highly stereotyped across animals. However identifying these neuroblast clones (approximately 180 per central brain hemisphere manually remains challenging and time consuming. Here, we take advantage of the stereotyped nature of neural circuits in Drosophila to automatically identify clones, requiring manual annotation of only an initial, smaller set of images. Our procedure starts by filtering the images to accentuate neural projections and cell bodies, and then skeletonises the projections with a dimension reduction algorithm. Images are then registered onto a common template brain, allowing us to determine which projections and cell bodies are shared across different brains. We then determine whether the presence of a cell body or projection is associated with the presence of a clone, allowing us identify the neural structures that can reliably indicate whether a brain contains a specific clone. This enables us to detect the presence of clones in novel images by mapping their cell bodies and projections and matching them against these informative neural structures. The approach is not limited to a specific labeling strategy and can be used to identify partial (e.g. individual neurons as well as complete matches. Furthermore this approach could be generalised to studies of neural circuits in other organisms.

  6. Using stochastic language models (SLM to map lexical, syntactic, and phonological information processing in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Lopopolo

    Full Text Available Language comprehension involves the simultaneous processing of information at the phonological, syntactic, and lexical level. We track these three distinct streams of information in the brain by using stochastic measures derived from computational language models to detect neural correlates of phoneme, part-of-speech, and word processing in an fMRI experiment. Probabilistic language models have proven to be useful tools for studying how language is processed as a sequence of symbols unfolding in time. Conditional probabilities between sequences of words are at the basis of probabilistic measures such as surprisal and perplexity which have been successfully used as predictors of several behavioural and neural correlates of sentence processing. Here we computed perplexity from sequences of words and their parts of speech, and their phonemic transcriptions. Brain activity time-locked to each word is regressed on the three model-derived measures. We observe that the brain keeps track of the statistical structure of lexical, syntactic and phonological information in distinct areas.

  7. Development of image and information management system for Korean standard brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soon Cheol; Choi, Do Young; Tack, Gye Rae; Sohn, Jin Hun

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a reference for image acquisition for completing a standard brain for diverse Korean population, and to develop database management system that saves and manages acquired brain images and personal information of subjects. 3D MP-RAGE (Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo) technique which has excellent Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) as well as reduces image acquisition time was selected for anatomical image acquisition, and parameter values were obtained for the optimal image acquisition. Using these standards, image data of 121 young adults (early twenties) were obtained and stored in the system. System was designed to obtain, save, and manage not only anatomical image data but also subjects' basic demographic factors, medical history, handedness inventory, state-trait anxiety inventory, A-type personality inventory, self-assessment depression inventory, mini-mental state examination, intelligence test, and results of personality test via a survey questionnaire. Additionally this system was designed to have functions of saving, inserting, deleting, searching, and printing image data and personal information of subjects, and to have accessibility to them as well as automatic connection setup with ODBC. This newly developed system may have major contribution to the completion of a standard brain for diverse Korean population since it can save and manage their image data and personal information.

  8. Using stochastic language models (SLM) to map lexical, syntactic, and phonological information processing in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopopolo, Alessandro; Frank, Stefan L; van den Bosch, Antal; Willems, Roel M

    2017-01-01

    Language comprehension involves the simultaneous processing of information at the phonological, syntactic, and lexical level. We track these three distinct streams of information in the brain by using stochastic measures derived from computational language models to detect neural correlates of phoneme, part-of-speech, and word processing in an fMRI experiment. Probabilistic language models have proven to be useful tools for studying how language is processed as a sequence of symbols unfolding in time. Conditional probabilities between sequences of words are at the basis of probabilistic measures such as surprisal and perplexity which have been successfully used as predictors of several behavioural and neural correlates of sentence processing. Here we computed perplexity from sequences of words and their parts of speech, and their phonemic transcriptions. Brain activity time-locked to each word is regressed on the three model-derived measures. We observe that the brain keeps track of the statistical structure of lexical, syntactic and phonological information in distinct areas.

  9. Human factors considerations for integrating traffic information on airport moving maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this research effort was to identify human factors considerations in the integration of traffic information and surface indications and alerts for runway status on airport moving maps for flight deck displays. The information is primar...

  10. The on-line processing of socio-emotional information in prototypical scenarios: inferences from brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuthold, Hartmut; Filik, Ruth; Murphy, Kirsty; Mackenzie, Ian G

    2012-04-01

    Little is known about the time course of the mechanisms involved in the on-line processing of socio-emotional information. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate this issue using vignettes that described prototypical, social scenarios. An initial sentence established the social context and the following target sentence ended with a critical word that informed the reader of the character's socio-emotional response to the situation. Critical words that mismatched rather than matched with a character's expected feelings elicited a larger ERP negativity (N400) ~200-500 ms after word onset, followed by a larger frontal positivity. Dipole source modeling results indicated that an anterior temporal lobe source accounted for the N400-like effect, which we attribute to the increased demands of integrating general knowledge about social situations (e.g. scripts) with personal- and context-specific information. An additional mediofrontal source contributed to the later ERP effect and presumably reflects high-level mindreading functions. Together, these findings indicate that readers rapidly infer and evaluate on-line a character's likely socio-emotional response based on the prototypical information provided by the text.

  11. Large-scale brain networks in affective and social neuroscience: towards an integrative functional architecture of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Satpute, Ajay Bhaskar

    2013-06-01

    Understanding how a human brain creates a human mind ultimately depends on mapping psychological categories and concepts to physical measurements of neural response. Although it has long been assumed that emotional, social, and cognitive phenomena are realized in the operations of separate brain regions or brain networks, we demonstrate that it is possible to understand the body of neuroimaging evidence using a framework that relies on domain general, distributed structure-function mappings. We review current research in affective and social neuroscience and argue that the emerging science of large-scale intrinsic brain networks provides a coherent framework for a domain-general functional architecture of the human brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A monolithic integrated low-voltage deep brain stimulator with wireless power and data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhang; Ye, Tan; Jianmin, Zeng; Xu, Han; Xin, Cheng; Guangjun, Xie

    2016-09-01

    A monolithic integrated low-voltage deep brain stimulator with wireless power and data transmission is presented. Data and power are transmitted to the stimulator by mutual inductance coupling, while the in-vitro controller encodes the stimulation parameters. The stimulator integrates the digital control module and can generate the bipolar current with equal amplitude in four channels. In order to reduce power consumption, a novel controlled threshold voltage cancellation rectifier is proposed in this paper to provide the supply voltage of the stimulator. The monolithic stimulator was fabricated in a SMIC 0.18 μm 1-poly 6-metal mixed-signal CMOS process, occupying 0.23 mm2, and consumes 180 μW on average. Compared with previously published stimulators, this design has advantages of large stimulated current (0-0.8 mA) with the double low-voltage supply (1.8 and 3.3 V), and high-level integration. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404043, 61401137), the Key Laboratory of Infrared Imaging Materials and Detectors, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Nos. IIMDKFJJ-13-06, IIMDKFJJ-14-03), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2015HGZX0026).

  13. Sustained NMDA receptor hypofunction induces compromised neural systems integration and schizophrenia-like alterations in functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Neil; Xiao, Xiaolin; McDonald, Martin; Higham, Desmond J; Morris, Brian J; Pratt, Judith A

    2014-02-01

    Compromised functional integration between cerebral subsystems and dysfunctional brain network organization may underlie the neurocognitive deficits seen in psychiatric disorders. Applying topological measures from network science to brain imaging data allows the quantification of complex brain network connectivity. While this approach has recently been used to further elucidate the nature of brain dysfunction in schizophrenia, the value of applying this approach in preclinical models of psychiatric disease has not been recognized. For the first time, we apply both established and recently derived algorithms from network science (graph theory) to functional brain imaging data from rats treated subchronically with the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP). We show that subchronic PCP treatment induces alterations in the global properties of functional brain networks akin to those reported in schizophrenia. Furthermore, we show that subchronic PCP treatment induces compromised functional integration between distributed neural systems, including between the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, that have established roles in cognition through, in part, the promotion of thalamic dysconnectivity. We also show that subchronic PCP treatment promotes the functional disintegration of discrete cerebral subsystems and also alters the connectivity of neurotransmitter systems strongly implicated in schizophrenia. Therefore, we propose that sustained NMDA receptor hypofunction contributes to the pathophysiology of dysfunctional brain network organization in schizophrenia.

  14. A RuleML Study on Integrating Geographical and Health Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Boley, Harold

    2008-01-01

    To facilitate health surveillance, flexible ways to represent, integrate, and deduce health information become increasingly important. In this paper, an ontology is used to support the semantic definition of spatial, temporal and thematic factors of health information. The ontology is realized...... operations and supports health information roll-up and visualization. The eHealthGeo study demonstrates a RuleML approach to supporting semantic health information integration and management....

  15. Informed consent for the diagnosis of brain death: a conceptual argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramoto, Osamu

    2016-10-13

    This essay provides an ethical and conceptual argument for the use of informed consent prior to the diagnosis of brain death. It is meant to enable the family to make critical end-of-life decisions, particularly withdrawal of life support system and organ donation, before brain death is diagnosed, as opposed to the current practice of making such decisions after the diagnosis of death. The recent tragic case of a 13-year-old brain-dead patient in California who was maintained on a ventilator for over 2 years illustrates how such a consent would have made a crucial difference. Conceptual, philosophical, and ethical analysis. I first consider a conceptual justification for the use of consent for certain non-beneficial and unwanted medical diagnoses. I suggest that the diagnosis of brain death falls into this category for some patients. Because the diagnostic process of brain death lacks the transparency of traditional death determination, has a unique epistemic structure and a complex risk-benefit profile which differs markedly from case to case, and presents conflicts of interest for physicians and society, I argue that pre-diagnostic counseling and informed consent should be part of the diagnostic process. This approach can be termed as "allow cardiac death", whose parallel logic with "allow natural death" is discussed. I also discuss potential negative impacts on organ donation and health care cost from this proposal and offer possible mitigation. I show that the pre-diagnostic counseling can improve the possibility for well-thought-out decisions regarding organ donation and terminating life-support system in cases of hopeless prognosis. This approach differs conceptually from the pluralism of the definition of death, such as those in New Jersey and Japan, and it upholds the Uniform Determination of Death Act. My intention is not to provide an instant panacea for the ongoing impasse of the brain death debate, but to point to a novel conceptual ground for a more

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE RESTRUCTURING AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION PROCESS OF ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steliac Nela

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many of the organizations that are part of the public and private domain in Romania have reached the stage in which the existing information systems can no longer comply with the requests of users. Therefore, we are compelled by necessity to use integrated information systems which should be able to control all kinds of data and to allow access to them, to ensure the coherence and consistency of the stored information. Managers must be aware of the importance of the implementation of integrated information systems in the background restructuring of the organization, which can thus become consistent and competitive with the European Union one, so the integration process becomes a real and possible one.

  17. Predicting functional neuroanatomical maps from fusing brain networks with genetic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganglberger, Florian; Kaczanowska, Joanna; Penninger, Josef M; Hess, Andreas; Bühler, Katja; Haubensak, Wulf

    2017-09-04

    Functional neuroanatomical maps provide a mesoscale reference framework for studies from molecular to systems neuroscience and psychiatry. The underlying structure-function relationships are typically derived from functional manipulations or imaging approaches. Although highly informative, these are experimentally costly. The increasing amount of publicly available brain and genetic data offers a rich source that could be mined to address this problem computationally. Here, we developed an algorithm that fuses gene expression and connectivity data with functional genetic meta data and exploits cumulative effects to derive neuroanatomical maps related to multi-genic functions. We validated the approach by using public available mouse and human data. The generated neuroanatomical maps recapture known functional anatomical annotations from literature and functional MRI data. When applied to multi-genic meta data from mouse quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies and human neuropsychiatric databases, this method predicted known functional maps underlying behavioral or psychiatric traits. Taken together, genetically weighted connectivity analysis (GWCA) allows for high throughput functional exploration of brain anatomy in silico. It maps functional genetic associations onto brain circuitry for refining functional neuroanatomy, or identifying trait-associated brain circuitry, from genetic data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrating an Information Literacy Quiz into the Learning Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sara Lowe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The [Library Name] [Department Name] developed a Quiz that could be integrated into the consortial learning management software to accompany a local online, open-source IL tutorial. The Quiz is integrated into individual course pages, allowing students to receive a grade for completion and improving buy-in at the faculty and student level. Piloted in nine first-year classes in Fall 2012 then revised and launched in Spring 2013, the Quiz has given the Library valuable assessment data on first-year student IL skills and enhanced the ability of teaching librarians to tailor their instruction to student performance.

  19. Information Integration and Communication in Plant Growth Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwanon, Juthamas; Wang, Wenfei; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Oh, Eunkyoo; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2016-03-10

    Plants are equipped with the capacity to respond to a large number of diverse signals, both internal ones and those emanating from the environment, that are critical to their survival and adaption as sessile organisms. These signals need to be integrated through highly structured intracellular networks to ensure coherent cellular responses, and in addition, spatiotemporal actions of hormones and peptides both orchestrate local cell differentiation and coordinate growth and physiology over long distances. Further, signal interactions and signaling outputs vary significantly with developmental context. This review discusses our current understanding of the integrated intracellular and intercellular signaling networks that control plant growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intrinsic activity in the fly brain gates visual information during behavioral choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiming Tang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The small insect brain is often described as an input/output system that executes reflex-like behaviors. It can also initiate neural activity and behaviors intrinsically, seen as spontaneous behaviors, different arousal states and sleep. However, less is known about how intrinsic activity in neural circuits affects sensory information processing in the insect brain and variability in behavior. Here, by simultaneously monitoring Drosophila's behavioral choices and brain activity in a flight simulator system, we identify intrinsic activity that is associated with the act of selecting between visual stimuli. We recorded neural output (multiunit action potentials and local field potentials in the left and right optic lobes of a tethered flying Drosophila, while its attempts to follow visual motion (yaw torque were measured by a torque meter. We show that when facing competing motion stimuli on its left and right, Drosophila typically generate large torque responses that flip from side to side. The delayed onset (0.1-1 s and spontaneous switch-like dynamics of these responses, and the fact that the flies sometimes oppose the stimuli by flying straight, make this behavior different from the classic steering reflexes. Drosophila, thus, seem to choose one stimulus at a time and attempt to rotate toward its direction. With this behavior, the neural output of the optic lobes alternates; being augmented on the side chosen for body rotation and suppressed on the opposite side, even though the visual input to the fly eyes stays the same. Thus, the flow of information from the fly eyes is gated intrinsically. Such modulation can be noise-induced or intentional; with one possibility being that the fly brain highlights chosen information while ignoring the irrelevant, similar to what we know to occur in higher animals.

  1. Computer security: a necessary element of integrated information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzen, F; Furler, F

    1986-07-01

    The Matheson Report sees the medical library as playing a key role in a network of interlocking information bases that will extend from central repositories of medical information to each physician's personal records. It appears, however, that the role of security in this vision has not been fully delineated. This paper discusses problems in maintaining the security of confidential medical information, the state of the applicable law, and techniques for security (with special emphasis on the UNIX operating system). It is argued that the absence of security threatens any plan to build an information network, as there will be resistance to any system that may give intruders access to confidential data.

  2. Computer security: a necessary element of integrated information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzen, F; Furler, F

    1986-01-01

    The Matheson Report sees the medical library as playing a key role in a network of interlocking information bases that will extend from central repositories of medical information to each physician's personal records. It appears, however, that the role of security in this vision has not been fully delineated. This paper discusses problems in maintaining the security of confidential medical information, the state of the applicable law, and techniques for security (with special emphasis on the UNIX operating system). It is argued that the absence of security threatens any plan to build an information network, as there will be resistance to any system that may give intruders access to confidential data. PMID:3742113

  3. A Fuzzy Integral Ensemble Method in Visual P300 Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavrini, Francesco; Bianchi, Luigi; Quitadamo, Lucia Rita; Saggio, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the possibility of application of combination of classifiers using fuzzy measures and integrals to Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) based on electroencephalography. In particular, we present an ensemble method that can be applied to a variety of systems and evaluate it in the context of a visual P300-based BCI. Offline analysis of data relative to 5 subjects lets us argue that the proposed classification strategy is suitable for BCI. Indeed, the achieved performance is significantly greater than the average of the base classifiers and, broadly speaking, similar to that of the best one. Thus the proposed methodology allows realizing systems that can be used by different subjects without the need for a preliminary configuration phase in which the best classifier for each user has to be identified. Moreover, the ensemble is often capable of detecting uncertain situations and turning them from misclassifications into abstentions, thereby improving the level of safety in BCI for environmental or device control.

  4. Modeling community integration in workers with delayed recovery from mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollayeva, T.; Shapiro, C. M.; Mollayeva, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delayed recovery in persons after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is poorly understood. Community integration (CI) is endorsed by persons with neurological disorders as an important outcome. We aimed to describe CI and its associated factors in insured Ontario workers with delayed...... recovery following mTBI. Methods: A cross-sectional study of insured workers in the chronic phase following mTBI was performed at a rehabilitation hospital in Ontario, Canada. Sociodemographic, occupational, injury-related, clinical, and claim-related data were collected from self-reports, medical.......2 +/- 9.9 years old, 61.2 % male) at 197 days post-injury (interquartile range, 139-416 days) were included. The CIQ total and subscale scores were similar to those reported in more severe TBI samples. The CIQ scores were moderately to strongly correlated with various sociodemographic, claim...

  5. Modeling community integration in workers with delayed recovery from mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollayeva, T.; Shapiro, C. M.; Mollayeva, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delayed recovery in persons after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is poorly understood. Community integration (CI) is endorsed by persons with neurological disorders as an important outcome. We aimed to describe CI and its associated factors in insured Ontario workers with delayed...... recovery following mTBI. Methods: A cross-sectional study of insured workers in the chronic phase following mTBI was performed at a rehabilitation hospital in Ontario, Canada. Sociodemographic, occupational, injury-related, clinical, and claim-related data were collected from self-reports, medical...... married or in a relationship, time since injury, and a diagnosis of possible/probable malingering were independently associated with limited CI. Conclusions: Workers with delayed recovery from mTBI experience difficulty with CI. Insomnia is a particularly relevant covariate, explaining the greater part...

  6. Brain functional network connectivity based on a visual task: visual information processing-related brain regions are significantly activated in the task state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-li Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not clear whether the method used in functional brain-network related research can be applied to explore the feature binding mechanism of visual perception. In this study, we investigated feature binding of color and shape in visual perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 38 healthy volunteers at rest and while performing a visual perception task to construct brain networks active during resting and task states. Results showed that brain regions involved in visual information processing were obviously activated during the task. The components were partitioned using a greedy algorithm, indicating the visual network existed during the resting state. Z-values in the vision-related brain regions were calculated, confirming the dynamic balance of the brain network. Connectivity between brain regions was determined, and the result showed that occipital and lingual gyri were stable brain regions in the visual system network, the parietal lobe played a very important role in the binding process of color features and shape features, and the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were crucial for processing color and shape information. Experimental findings indicate that understanding visual feature binding and cognitive processes will help establish computational models of vision, improve image recognition technology, and provide a new theoretical mechanism for feature binding in visual perception.

  7. Design of the Hospital Integrated Information Management System Based on Cloud Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijing, L; Jin, Y

    2015-12-01

    At present, the outdated information management style cannot meet the needs of hospital management, and has become the bottleneck of hospital's management and development. In order to improve the integrated management of information, hospitals have increased their investment in integrated information management systems. On account of the lack of reasonable and scientific design, some hospital integrated information management systems have common problems, such as unfriendly interface, poor portability and maintainability, low security and efficiency, lack of interactivity and information sharing. To solve the problem, this paper carries out the research and design of a hospital information management system based on cloud platform, which can realize the optimized integration of hospital information resources and save money.

  8. Integration and segregation of large-scale brain networks during short-term task automatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Holger; Wolfensteller, Uta; Betzel, Richard F; Mišić, Bratislav; Sporns, Olaf; Richiardi, Jonas; Ruge, Hannes

    2016-11-03

    The human brain is organized into large-scale functional networks that can flexibly reconfigure their connectivity patterns, supporting both rapid adaptive control and long-term learning processes. However, it has remained unclear how short-term network dynamics support the rapid transformation of instructions into fluent behaviour. Comparing fMRI data of a learning sample (N=70) with a control sample (N=67), we find that increasingly efficient task processing during short-term practice is associated with a reorganization of large-scale network interactions. Practice-related efficiency gains are facilitated by enhanced coupling between the cingulo-opercular network and the dorsal attention network. Simultaneously, short-term task automatization is accompanied by decreasing activation of the fronto-parietal network, indicating a release of high-level cognitive control, and a segregation of the default mode network from task-related networks. These findings suggest that short-term task automatization is enabled by the brain's ability to rapidly reconfigure its large-scale network organization involving complementary integration and segregation processes.

  9. Sixty minutes of what? A developing brain perspective for activating children with an integrative exercise approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Edwards, Nicholas M; Clark, Joseph F; Best, Thomas M; Sallis, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    Current recommendations for physical activity in children overlook the critical importance of motor skill acquisition early in life. Instead, they focus on the quantitative aspects of physical activity (eg, accumulate 60 min of daily moderate to vigorous physical activity) and selected health-related components of physical fitness (eg, aerobic fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition). This focus on exercise quantity in youth may limit considerations of qualitative aspects of programme design which include (1) skill development, (2) socialisation and (3) enjoyment of exercise. The timing of brain development and associated neuroplasticity for motor skill learning makes the preadolescence period a critical time to develop and reinforce fundamental movement skills in boys and girls. Children who do not participate regularly in structured motor skill-enriched activities during physical education classes or diverse youth sports programmes may never reach their genetic potential for motor skill control which underlies sustainable physical fitness later in life. The goals of this review are twofold: (1) challenge current dogma that is currently focused on the quantitative rather than qualitative aspects of physical activity recommendations for youth and (2) synthesise the latest evidence regarding the brain and motor control that will provide the foundation for integrative exercise programming that provide a framework sustainable activity for life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Integration of Intention and Outcome for Moral Judgment in Frontotemporal Dementia: Brain Structural Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Sandra; Kanske, Philipp; Matallana, Diana; Montañes, Patricia; Reyes, Pablo; Slachevsky, Andrea; Matus, Cristian; Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Torralva, Teresa; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment has been proposed to rely on a distributed brain network. This function is impaired in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), a condition involving damage to some regions of this network. However, no studies have investigated moral judgment in bvFTD via structural neuroimaging. We compared the performance of 21 bvFTD patients and 19 controls on a moral judgment task involving scenarios that discriminate between the contributions of intentions and outcomes. Voxel-based morphometry was used to assess (a) the atrophy pattern in bvFTD patients, (b) associations between gray matter (GM) volume and moral judgments, and (c) structural differences between bvFTD subgroups (patients with relatively preserved moral judgment and patients with severer moral judgment impairments). Patients judged attempted harm as more permissible and accidental harm as less permissible than controls. The groups' performance on accidental harm was associated with GM volume in the precuneus. In controls, it was al- so associated with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Also, both groups' performance on attempted harm was associated with GM volume in the temporoparietal junction. Patients exhibiting worse performance displayed smaller GM volumes in the precuneus and temporal pole. Results suggest that moral judgment abnormalities in bvFTD are associated with impaired integration of intentions and outcomes, which depends on an extended brain network. In bvFTD, moral judgment seems to critically depend on areas beyond the VMPFC. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. 77 FR 42339 - Improving Contracting Officers' Access to Relevant Integrity Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    .../omb/procurement/frn/frn-access-to-relevant-integrity-information-public-comments.pdf . Joseph G... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy Improving Contracting Officers' Access to Relevant Integrity Information AGENCY: Office of Federal Procurement Policy, Office of Management and Budget. ACTION: Notice of...

  12. The Integration of the Information and Communication Functions, and the Marketing of the Resulting Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Susan C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical basis for integration of information functions and communication functions, the relevance of this integration in the scientific information cycle, and its positive effect on commodity research networks. The application of this theory is described using three commodity programs of the Centro Internacional de Agricultura…

  13. 16 CFR 312.8 - Confidentiality, security, and integrity of personal information collected from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Confidentiality, security, and integrity of personal information collected from children. The operator must... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality, security, and integrity of personal information collected from children. 312.8 Section 312.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE...

  14. 45 CFR 61.12 - Requesting information from the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requesting information from the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank. 61.12 Section 61.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION...

  15. 45 CFR 61.14 - Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank information. 61.14 Section 61.14 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON...

  16. Toward an autonomous brain machine interface: integrating sensorimotor reward modulation and reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Brandi T; Tarigoppula, Venkata S Aditya; Chen, Chen; Francis, Joseph T

    2015-05-13

    For decades, neurophysiologists have worked on elucidating the function of the cortical sensorimotor control system from the standpoint of kinematics or dynamics. Recently, computational neuroscientists have developed models that can emulate changes seen in the primary motor cortex during learning. However, these simulations rely on the existence of a reward-like signal in the primary sensorimotor cortex. Reward modulation of the primary sensorimotor cortex has yet to be characterized at the level of neural units. Here we demonstrate that single units/multiunits and local field potentials in the primary motor (M1) cortex of nonhuman primates (Macaca radiata) are modulated by reward expectation during reaching movements and that this modulation is present even while subjects passively view cursor motions that are predictive of either reward or nonreward. After establishing this reward modulation, we set out to determine whether we could correctly classify rewarding versus nonrewarding trials, on a moment-to-moment basis. This reward information could then be used in collaboration with reinforcement learning principles toward an autonomous brain-machine interface. The autonomous brain-machine interface would use M1 for both decoding movement intention and extraction of reward expectation information as evaluative feedback, which would then update the decoding algorithm as necessary. In the work presented here, we show that this, in theory, is possible. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357374-14$15.00/0.

  17. Extent of the integration of information communication and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the extent of the integration of ICT systems in records management in labour organisations in Botswana. The study was largely guided by a survey research strategy. All the 50 registered labour organisations in Botswana were surveyed, 45 of which responded, representing a response rate of 90%.

  18. Integrating Geo-information Models with Participatory Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nidumolu, U.B.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we demonstrate some methods to integrate biophysical data with socio-economic variables with applications in agricultural land use analysis. Part of Nizamabad District of Andhra Pradesh State in India is considered for developing and testing the methods developed. First the study area

  19. Management of information in development projects – a proposed integrated model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bester

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The first section of the article focuses on the need for development in Africa and the specific challenges of development operations. It describes the need for a holistic and integrated information management model as part of the project management body of knowledge aimed at managing the information flow between communities and development project teams. It is argued that information, and access to information, is crucial in development projects and can therefore be seen as a critical success factor in any development project. In the second section of the article, the three information areas of the holistic and integrated information management model are described. In the section thereafter we suggest roles and actions for information managers to facilitate information processes integral to the model. These processes seek to create a developing information community that aligns itself with the development project, and supports and sustains it.

  20. Semantic Integration of Verbal Information Into a Visual Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    1,242 subjects, in five experiments plus a pilot study, saw a series of slides depicting a single auto-pedestrian accident. These experiments investigate how information supplied after an event influences a witness's memory for that event. Results suggest that information supplied a witness after an event, whether inconsistent or misleading, is…

  1. 178 Teacher Readiness to Integrate Information Technology into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... computer and technology or of using computers to handle data. Information technology connects people around ... 2002). Thus, we can not separate computers from information technology. Computers are great technological ... Thus, the policy's vision statement is to make Nigeria an IT capable country in ...

  2. Vertical Integration: Corporate Strategy in the Information Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Lizzie; Cronin, Blaise

    1986-01-01

    Profiles the corporate strategies of three sectors of the information industry and the trend toward consolidation in electronic publishing. Three companies' acquisitions are examined in detail using qualitative data from information industry columns and interpreting it on the basis of game theory. (EM)

  3. Integrating Information Literacy into the Virtual University: A Course Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Lori E.; Luck, DeAnne L.; Jones, Ted C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation between librarians and faculty at Austin Peay State University to create a graduate level online course in multimedia that incorporates information literacy standards. Topics include virtual universities; instructional design in an online environment; library user education; course development; information literacy outcomes;…

  4. Integrated management of information inside maintenance processes. From the building registry to BIM systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Talamo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents objec- tives, methods and results of two researches dealing with the improvement of integrated information management within maintenance processes. Focusing on information needs regarding the last phases of the building process, the two researches draft approaches characterizing a path of progressive improve- ment of strategies for integration: from a building registry, unique for the whole construction process, to an integrated management of the building process with the support of BIM systems.

  5. A resource for assessing information processing in the developing brain using EEG and eye tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Nicolas; Ho, Erica J.; Alexander, Lindsay M.; Xu, Helen Y.; Jozanovic, Renee K.; Henin, Simon; Petroni, Agustin; Cohen, Samantha; Marcelle, Enitan T.; Parra, Lucas C.; Milham, Michael P.; Kelly, Simon P.

    2017-01-01

    We present a dataset combining electrophysiology and eye tracking intended as a resource for the investigation of information processing in the developing brain. The dataset includes high-density task-based and task-free EEG, eye tracking, and cognitive and behavioral data collected from 126 individuals (ages: 6–44). The task battery spans both the simple/complex and passive/active dimensions to cover a range of approaches prevalent in modern cognitive neuroscience. The active task paradigms facilitate principled deconstruction of core components of task performance in the developing brain, whereas the passive paradigms permit the examination of intrinsic functional network activity during varying amounts of external stimulation. Alongside these neurophysiological data, we include an abbreviated cognitive test battery and questionnaire-based measures of psychiatric functioning. We hope that this dataset will lead to the development of novel assays of neural processes fundamental to information processing, which can be used to index healthy brain development as well as detect pathologic processes. PMID:28398357

  6. A Conceptual Framework for Digital Libraries for K-12 Mathematics Education: Part 1, Information Organization, Information Literacy, and Integrated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-liang; Doty, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This article is the first of two that present a six-part conceptual framework for the design and evaluation of digital libraries meant to support mathematics education in K-12 settings (see also pt. 2). This first article concentrates on (1) information organization, (2) information literacy, and (3) integrated learning with multimedia materials.…

  7. Recent German Educational Trends in the Information and Documentation Field: Integrating Subject Fields into Information Science Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Describes curriculum development in West German information science programs that integrates subject specialty knowledge with information science and technology. An overview of the West German educational system is given and a program with subject specialties in chemistry and electrical engineering at the Fachhochschule Darmstadt is explained.…

  8. USING OF NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) TO TEST THE INTEGRATED MODEL IN BUILDING MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Mohammad; Abdullah, Khairul

    2017-01-01

    The integrated model is a new model that is recently developed in order to build the management information systems (MIS's) by using the classical approach system development methodology. The integrated model aims to address the drawbacks of the classical approach in consumption additional time and cost while building the MIS's. The integrated model was subjected to two tests by using the mathematical probability theories in order to ensure the validity of the integrated model in it...

  9. Information-Sharing Application Standards for Integrated Government Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    tags are formed using XML that is readable across nearly all platforms . 8 integration of data...priority list. For DHS, an effective communication platform became one of the department’s highest priorities27. 25 Homeland Security...to SOA Environments – eLearning ,” n.d., http://www.sei.cmu.edu/training/v06.cfm. 102 Software AG, “Your Guide to SOA Success,” n.d., http

  10. Information Flow Integrity for Systems of Independently-Developed Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-22

    Hayawardh Vijayakumar, Ph.D. dissertation, Penn State University, May 2014. 2.2 Kernel Software Execution Integrity Computing systems now may utilize ... cookies , browsing history, and the contents of individual web pages loaded by the browser. Extension code is not sandboxed in the same way as web...capweave can be applied to rewrite security-critical UNIX utilities to satisfy practical security policies. capweave itself works quickly, and the

  11. Extending Current Theories of Cross-Boundary Information Sharing and Integration: A Case Study of Taiwan e-Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tung-Mou

    2011-01-01

    Information sharing and integration has long been considered an important approach for increasing organizational efficiency and performance. With advancements in information and communication technologies, sharing and integrating information across organizations becomes more attractive and practical to organizations. However, achieving…

  12. Automated granularity to integrate digital information: the "Antarctic Treaty Searchable Database" case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arthur Berkman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Access to information is necessary, but not sufficient in our digital era. The challenge is to objectively integrate digital resources based on user-defined objectives for the purpose of discovering information relationships that facilitate interpretations and decision making. The Antarctic Treaty Searchable Database (http://aspire.nvi.net, which is in its sixth edition, provides an example of digital integration based on the automated generation of information granules that can be dynamically combined to reveal objective relationships within and between digital information resources. This case study further demonstrates that automated granularity and dynamic integration can be accomplished simply by utilizing the inherent structure of the digital information resources. Such information integration is relevant to library and archival programs that require long-term preservation of authentic digital resources.

  13. Physical Exercise Keeps the Brain Connected: Biking Increases White Matter Integrity in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatkova, Alena; Mandl, René C W; Scheewe, Thomas W; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that learning a new skill leads to structural changes in the brain. However, it is unclear whether it is the acquisition or continuous practicing of the skill that causes this effect and whether brain connectivity of patients with schizophrenia can benefit from such practice. We examined the effect of 6 months exercise on a stationary bicycle on the brain in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Biking is an endemic skill in the Netherlands and thus offers an ideal situation to disentangle the effects of learning vs practice. The 33 participating patients with schizophrenia and 48 healthy individuals were assigned to either one of two conditions, ie, physical exercise or life-as-usual, balanced for diagnosis. Diffusion tensor imaging brain scans were made prior to and after intervention. We demonstrate that irrespective of diagnosis regular physical exercise of an overlearned skill, such as bicycling, significantly increases the integrity, especially of motor functioning related, white matter fiber tracts whereas life-as-usual leads to a decrease in fiber integrity. Our findings imply that exercise of an overlearned physical skill improves brain connectivity in patients and healthy individuals. This has important implications for understanding the effect of fitness programs on the brain in both healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, the outcome may even apply to the nonphysical realm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A State-of-the-Art Review on the Integration of Building Information Modeling (BIM and Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Building Information Modeling (BIM and Geographic Information System (GIS has been identified as a promising but challenging topic to transform information towards the generation of knowledge and intelligence. Achievement of integrating these two concepts and enabling technologies will have a significant impact on solving problems in the civil, building and infrastructure sectors. However, since GIS and BIM were originally developed for different purposes, numerous challenges are being encountered for the integration. To better understand these two different domains, this paper reviews the development and dissimilarities of GIS and BIM, the existing integration methods, and investigates their potential in various applications. This study shows that the integration methods are developed for various reasons and aim to solve different problems. The parameters influencing the choice can be summarized and named as “EEEF” criteria: effectiveness, extensibility, effort, and flexibility. Compared with other methods, semantic web technologies provide a promising and generalized integration solution. However, the biggest challenges of this method are the large efforts required at early stage and the isolated development of ontologies within one particular domain. The isolation problem also applies to other methods. Therefore, openness is the key of the success of BIM and GIS integration.

  15. Integrating the Allen Brain Institute Cell Types Database into Automated Neuroscience Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, David B; Santamaria, Fidel

    2017-10-01

    We developed software tools to download, extract features, and organize the Cell Types Database from the Allen Brain Institute (ABI) in order to integrate its whole cell patch clamp characterization data into the automated modeling/data analysis cycle. To expand the potential user base we employed both Python and MATLAB. The basic set of tools downloads selected raw data and extracts cell, sweep, and spike features, using ABI's feature extraction code. To facilitate data manipulation we added a tool to build a local specialized database of raw data plus extracted features. Finally, to maximize automation, we extended our NeuroManager workflow automation suite to include these tools plus a separate investigation database. The extended suite allows the user to integrate ABI experimental and modeling data into an automated workflow deployed on heterogeneous computer infrastructures, from local servers, to high performance computing environments, to the cloud. Since our approach is focused on workflow procedures our tools can be modified to interact with the increasing number of neuroscience databases being developed to cover all scales and properties of the nervous system.

  16. White matter integrity and cognition in mild traumatic brain injury following motor vehicle accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Kunlin; Zhu, Yongshan; Zhang, Yulong; Yin, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jingna; Qiu, Mingguo; Zhang, Weiguo

    2014-12-03

    The aim of this study is to explore the white matter structure integrity in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and to analyze the relationship between the white matter structure integrity and cognitive impairment of patients with mTBI. Twenty-five patients with mTBI and 25 healthy control subjects were studied with conventional MR imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps of patients with mTBI were calculated and compared, with these control maps using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Significantly lower fractional anisotropy was found in patients in the uncinate fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and internal capsule. Mean diffusivity was significantly elevated in the body of corpus callosum, uncinate fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and internal capsule in the mTBI group compared with the control group (PMental State Examination (MMSE) in the mTBI patient group (R(2)=0.36, P<0.05). TBSS analysis of DTI suggests that patients with mTBI have focal axonal injury, and the pathophysiology is significantly related to the MMSE and IQ of mTBI patients. Diffusion tensor imaging can be a powerful technique for in vivo detection of mTBI, and can help in the diagnosis of patients with mTBI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Anatomy of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Young Adult Guidelines For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis ...

  18. Disrupted functional brain networks in autistic toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Boersma, M.; Kemner, C.; M. de Reus; Collin, G; Snijders, T.; Hofman, D.; Buitelaar, J.; Stam, C.; van den Heuvel, M

    2013-01-01

    Communication and integration of information between brain regions plays a key role in healthy brain function. Conversely, disruption in brain communication may lead to cognitive and behavioral problems. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impaired social interactions and aberrant basic information processing. Aberrant brain connectivity patterns have indeed been hypothesized to be a key neural underpinning of autism. In this study, graph analytical tools are used...

  19. Quantitative projection of human brain penetration of the H3antagonist PF-03654746 by integrating rat-derived brain partitioning and PET receptor occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant-Basak, Aarti; Chen, Laigao; Shaffer, Christopher L; Palumbo, Donna; Schmidt, Anne; Tseng, Elaine; Spracklin, Douglas K; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Labaree, David; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E; McCarthy, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    1. Unbound brain drug concentration (C b,u ), a valid surrogate of interstitial fluid drug concentration (C ISF ), cannot be directly determined in humans, which limits accurately defining the human C b,u :C p,u of investigational molecules. 2. For the H 3 R antagonist (1R,3R)-N-ethyl-3-fluoro-3-[3-fluoro-4-(pyrrolidin-1-lmethyl)phenyl]cyclobutane-1-carboxamide (PF-03654746), we interrogated C b,u :C p,u in humans and nonhuman primate (NHP). 3. In rat, PF-03654746 achieved net blood-brain barrier (BBB) equilibrium (C b,u :C p,u of 2.11). 4. In NHP and humans, the PET receptor occupancy-based C p,u IC 50 of PF-03654746 was 0.99 nM and 0.31 nM, respectively, which were 2.1- and 7.4-fold lower than its in vitro human H 3 K i (2.3 nM). 5. In an attempt to understand this higher-than-expected potency in humans and NHP, rat-derived C b,u :C p,u of PF-03654746 was integrated with C p,u IC 50 to identify unbound (neuro) potency of PF-03654746, nIC 50 . 6. The nIC 50 of PF-03654746 was 2.1 nM in NHP and 0.66 nM in human which better correlated (1.1- and 3.49-fold lower) with in vitro human H 3 K i (2.3 nM). 7. This correlation of the nIC 50 and in vitro hH 3 K i suggested the translation of net BBB equilibrium of PF-03654746 from rat to NHP and humans, and confirmed the use of C p,u as a reliable surrogate of C b,u . 8. Thus, nIC 50 quantitatively informed the human C b,u :C p,u of PF-03654746.

  20. An extended multivariate autoregressive framework for EEG-based information flow analysis of a brain network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Imali T; Mohamed, Shady; Nyhof, Luke; Nahavandi, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Recently effective connectivity studies have gained significant attention among the neuroscience community as Electroencephalography (EEG) data with a high time resolution can give us a wider understanding of the information flow within the brain. Among other tools used in effective connectivity analysis Granger Causality (GC) has found a prominent place. The GC analysis, based on strictly causal multivariate autoregressive (MVAR) models does not account for the instantaneous interactions among the sources. If instantaneous interactions are present, GC based on strictly causal MVAR will lead to erroneous conclusions on the underlying information flow. Thus, the work presented in this paper applies an extended MVAR (eMVAR) model that accounts for the zero lag interactions. We propose a constrained adaptive Kalman filter (CAKF) approach for the eMVAR model identification and demonstrate that this approach performs better than the short time windowing-based adaptive estimation when applied to information flow analysis.

  1. Developing Integrated Taxonomies for a Tiered Information Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Jayne E.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of developing taxonomies for an information architecture. In order to assist people in accessing information required to access information and retrieval, including cross repository searching, a system of nested taxonomies is being developed. Another facet of this developmental project is collecting and documenting attributes about people, to allow for several uses: access management, i.e., who are you and what can you see?; targeted content delivery i.e., what content helps you get your work done?; w ork force planning i.e., what skill sets do you have that we can appl y to work?; and IT Services i.e., How can we provision you with the proper IT services?

  2. Plant it integrating information technology into automated manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Brandl, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) is an important element of plant floor operations and Dennis Brandl's monthly column on Manufacturing IT in Control Engineering magazine covers IT aspects that are critical to modern manufacturing. This book expands on the magazine's explanations of the concepts and tools needed to achieve higher manufacturing productivity and efficiencies. Written for manufacturing professionals, the book overviews the wide range of IT elements underlying the manufacturing IT environment. It provides you with the information to be conversant in IT elements and to effectively manage and participate in manufacturing IT projects. Each chapter of the book discusses an IT issue that is important to a manufacturing company, including practical programming, real-world design considerations, databases and master data management, knowledge management, tools and programming languages, cyber security, managing resource information and regulations. And because software engineering is a foundation for all IT e...

  3. Restructuring Consciousness –the Psychedelic State in Light of Integrated Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Robert Gallimore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The psychological state elicited by the classic psychedelics drugs, such as LSD and psilocybin, is one of the most fascinating and yet least understood states of consciousness. However, with the advent of modern functional neuroimaging techniques, the effect of these drugs on neural activity is now being revealed, although many of the varied phenomenological features of the psychedelic state remain challenging to explain. Integrated information theory (IIT is one of the foremost contemporary theories of consciousness, providing a mathematical formalization of both the quantity and quality of conscious experience. This theory can be applied to all known states of consciousness, including the psychedelic state. Using the results of functional neuroimaging data on the psychedelic state, the effects of psychedelic drugs on both the level and structure of consciousness can be explained in terms of the conceptual framework of IIT. This new IIT-based model of the psychedelic state provides an explanation for many of its phenomenological features, including unconstrained cognition, alterations in the structure and meaning of concepts and a sense of expanded awareness. This model also suggests that whilst cognitive flexibility, creativity, and imagination are enhanced during the psychedelic state, this occurs at the expense of cause-effect information, as well as degrading the brain’s ability to organize, categorize, and differentiate the constituents of conscious experience. Furthermore, the model generates specific predictions that can be tested using a combination of functional imaging techniques, as has been applied to the study of levels of consciousness during anesthesia and following brain injury.

  4. Discourse information content in non-aphasic adults with brain injury: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Sergio; Giannotti, Sara; Vorano, Lorenzo; Marini, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The functional evaluation of discourse informativeness is widely used in both clinical practice and research, and impoverished and confused discourse has been described in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). These symptoms have been related to language processing deficits at the macrolinguistic level. However, the functional counterpart of these deficits, i.e. poor informativeness in standardized analysis of elicited speech samples, has been less explored. In this pilot study, samples of narrative discourse from 10 non-aphasic TBI adults and 28 healthy adults were examined to study the relationship between standardized measures of informativeness (i.e. Correct Information Unit analysis) and language processing errors at the macrolinguistic level and to compare performance of the two groups. The participants with TBI did not produce relevant within-sentence errors and information content of their narratives was not different from that of the healthy participants. However, their production of errors of cohesion, local coherence and global coherence was significantly greater. These macrolinguistic errors corresponded to reduced levels of information efficiency (% CIUs score). Functional measures of speech informativeness such as the CIU scores may be useful for the clinical assessment of discourse processing deficits in TBI individuals without aphasic symptoms.

  5. Risk Information Management Resource (RIMR): modeling an approach to defending against military medical information assurance brain drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Willie E.

    2003-05-01

    As Military Medical Information Assurance organizations face off with modern pressures to downsize and outsource, they battle with losing knowledgeable people who leave and take with them what they know. This knowledge is increasingly being recognized as an important resource and organizations are now taking steps to manage it. In addition, as the pressures for globalization (Castells, 1998) increase, collaboration and cooperation are becoming more distributed and international. Knowledge sharing in a distributed international environment is becoming an essential part of Knowledge Management. This is a major shortfall in the current approach to capturing and sharing knowledge in Military Medical Information Assurance. This paper addresses this challenge by exploring Risk Information Management Resource (RIMR) as a tool for sharing knowledge using the concept of Communities of Practice. RIMR is based no the framework of sharing and using knowledge. This concept is done through three major components - people, process and technology. The people aspect enables remote collaboration, support communities of practice, reward and recognize knowledge sharing while encouraging storytelling. The process aspect enhances knowledge capture and manages information. While the technology aspect enhance system integration and data mining, it also utilizes intelligent agents and exploits expert systems. These coupled with supporting activities of education and training, technology infrastructure and information security enables effective information assurance collaboration.

  6. Disruption of White Matter Integrity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors: Correlates with Long-Term Intellectual Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tricia Z; Wang, Liya; Mao, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Although chemotherapy and radiation treatment have contributed to increased survivorship, treatment-induced brain injury has been a concern when examining long-term intellectual outcomes of survivors. Specifically, disruption of brain white matter integrity and its relationship to intellectual outcomes in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors needs to be better understood. Fifty-four participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging in addition to structural MRI and an intelligence test (IQ). Voxel-wise group comparisons of fractional anisotropy calculated from DTI data were performed using Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) on 27 survivors (14 treated with radiation with and without chemotherapy and 13 treated without radiation treatment on average over 13 years since diagnosis) and 27 healthy comparison participants. Whole brain white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) differences were explored between each group. The relationships between IQ and FA in the regions where statistically lower FA values were found in survivors were examined, as well as the role of cumulative neurological factors. The group of survivors treated with radiation with and without chemotherapy had lower IQ relative to the group of survivors without radiation treatment and the healthy comparison group. TBSS identified white matter regions with significantly different mean fractional anisotropy between the three different groups. A lower level of white matter integrity was found in the radiation with or without chemotherapy treated group compared to the group without radiation treatment and also the healthy control group. The group without radiation treatment had a lower mean FA relative to healthy controls. The white matter disruption of the radiation with or without chemotherapy treated survivors was positively correlated with IQ and cumulative neurological factors. Lower long-term intellectual outcomes of childhood brain tumor survivors are associated with lower white matter integrity

  7. Disruption of White Matter Integrity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors: Correlates with Long-Term Intellectual Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Z King

    Full Text Available Although chemotherapy and radiation treatment have contributed to increased survivorship, treatment-induced brain injury has been a concern when examining long-term intellectual outcomes of survivors. Specifically, disruption of brain white matter integrity and its relationship to intellectual outcomes in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors needs to be better understood.Fifty-four participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging in addition to structural MRI and an intelligence test (IQ. Voxel-wise group comparisons of fractional anisotropy calculated from DTI data were performed using Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS on 27 survivors (14 treated with radiation with and without chemotherapy and 13 treated without radiation treatment on average over 13 years since diagnosis and 27 healthy comparison participants. Whole brain white matter fractional anisotropy (FA differences were explored between each group. The relationships between IQ and FA in the regions where statistically lower FA values were found in survivors were examined, as well as the role of cumulative neurological factors.The group of survivors treated with radiation with and without chemotherapy had lower IQ relative to the group of survivors without radiation treatment and the healthy comparison group. TBSS identified white matter regions with significantly different mean fractional anisotropy between the three different groups. A lower level of white matter integrity was found in the radiation with or without chemotherapy treated group compared to the group without radiation treatment and also the healthy control group. The group without radiation treatment had a lower mean FA relative to healthy controls. The white matter disruption of the radiation with or without chemotherapy treated survivors was positively correlated with IQ and cumulative neurological factors.Lower long-term intellectual outcomes of childhood brain tumor survivors are associated with lower white

  8. Multi-Modal Integration of EEG-fNIRS for Brain-Computer Interfaces - Current Limitations and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sangtae; Jun, Sung C

    2017-01-01

    Multi-modal integration, which combines multiple neurophysiological signals, is gaining more attention for its potential to supplement single modality's drawbacks and yield reliable results by extracting complementary features. In particular, integration of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is cost-effective and portable, and therefore is a fascinating approach to brain-computer interface (BCI). However, outcomes from the integration of these two modalities have yielded only modest improvement in BCI performance because of the lack of approaches to integrate the two different features. In addition, mismatch of recording locations may hinder further improvement. In this literature review, we surveyed studies of the integration of EEG/fNIRS in BCI thoroughly and discussed its current limitations. We also suggested future directions for efficient and successful multi-modal integration of EEG/fNIRS in BCI systems.

  9. Multi-Modal Integration of EEG-fNIRS for Brain-Computer Interfaces – Current Limitations and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sangtae; Jun, Sung C.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-modal integration, which combines multiple neurophysiological signals, is gaining more attention for its potential to supplement single modality’s drawbacks and yield reliable results by extracting complementary features. In particular, integration of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is cost-effective and portable, and therefore is a fascinating approach to brain-computer interface (BCI). However, outcomes from the integration of these two modalities have yielded only modest improvement in BCI performance because of the lack of approaches to integrate the two different features. In addition, mismatch of recording locations may hinder further improvement. In this literature review, we surveyed studies of the integration of EEG/fNIRS in BCI thoroughly and discussed its current limitations. We also suggested future directions for efficient and successful multi-modal integration of EEG/fNIRS in BCI systems. PMID:29093673

  10. Multi-Modal Integration of EEG-fNIRS for Brain-Computer Interfaces – Current Limitations and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangtae Ahn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-modal integration, which combines multiple neurophysiological signals, is gaining more attention for its potential to supplement single modality’s drawbacks and yield reliable results by extracting complementary features. In particular, integration of electroencephalography (EEG and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is cost-effective and portable, and therefore is a fascinating approach to brain-computer interface (BCI. However, outcomes from the integration of these two modalities have yielded only modest improvement in BCI performance because of the lack of approaches to integrate the two different features. In addition, mismatch of recording locations may hinder further improvement. In this literature review, we surveyed studies of the integration of EEG/fNIRS in BCI thoroughly and discussed its current limitations. We also suggested future directions for efficient and successful multi-modal integration of EEG/fNIRS in BCI systems.

  11. A system architecture for sharing de-identified, research-ready brain scans and health information across clinical imaging centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Ann L; van Erp, Theo G M; Kesselman, Carl; D'Arcy, Mike; Sobell, Janet; Keator, David; Dahm, Lisa; Murry, Jim; Law, Meng; Hasso, Anton; Ames, Joseph; Macciardi, Fabio; Potkin, Steven G

    2012-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of brain disorders increasingly relies on the costly collection of large standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Moreover, the clinical interpretation of brain scans benefits from compare and contrast analyses of scans from patients with similar, and sometimes rare, demographic, diagnostic, and treatment status. A solution to both needs is to acquire standardized, research-ready clinical brain scans and to build the information technology infrastructure to share such scans, along with other pertinent information, across hospitals. This paper describes the design, deployment, and operation of a federated imaging system that captures and shares standardized, de-identified clinical brain images in a federation across multiple institutions. In addition to describing innovative aspects of the system architecture and our initial testing of the deployed infrastructure, we also describe the Standardized Imaging Protocol (SIP) developed for the project and our interactions with the Institutional Review Board (IRB) regarding handling patient data in the federated environment.

  12. Brain-wave Dynamics Related to Cognitive Tasks and Neurofeedback Information Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Pop-Jordanov, Jordan; Dimitrovski, Darko; Markovska, Natasa

    2003-08-01

    Synchronization of oscillating neuronal discharges has been recently correlated to the moment of perception and the ensuing motor response, with transition between these two cognitive acts "through cellular mechanisms that remain to be established"[1]. Last year, using genetic strategies, it was found that the switching off persistent electric activity in the brain blocks memory recall [2]. On the other hand, analyzing mental-neural information flow, the nobelist Eccles has formulated a fundamental hypotheses that mental events may change the probability of quantum vesicular emissions of transmitters analogously to probability functions of quantum mechanics [3]. Applying the advanced quantum modeling to molecular rotational states exposed to electric activity in brain cells, we found that the probability of transitions does not depend on the field amplitude, suggesting the electric field frequency as the possible information-bearing physical quantity [4]. In this paper, an attempt is made to inter-correlate the above results on frequency aspects of neural transitions induced by cognitive tasks. Furthermore, considering the consecutive steps of mental-neural information flow during the biofeedback training to normalize EEG frequencies, the rationales for neurofeedback efficiency have been deduced.

  13. Music Listening modulates Functional Connectivity and Information Flow in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmonik, Christof; Brandt, Anthony; Anderson, Jeff; Brooks, Forrest; Lytle, Julie; Silverman, Elliott; Frazier, Jeff T

    2016-07-27

    Listening to familiar music has recently been reported to be beneficial during recovery from stroke. A better understanding of changes in functional connectivity and information flow is warranted in order to further optimize and target this approach through music therapy. Twelve healthy volunteers listened to seven different auditory samples during an fMRI scanning session: a musical piece chosen by the volunteer that evokes a strong emotional response (referred to as: "self-selected emotional"), two unfamiliar music pieces (Invention #1 by J. S. Bach* and Gagaku - Japanese classical opera, referred to as "unfamiliar"), the Bach piece repeated with visual guidance (DML: Directed Music Listening) and three spoken language pieces (unfamiliar African click language, an excerpt of emotionally charged language, and an unemotional reading of a news bulletin). Functional connectivity and betweenness (BTW) maps, a measure for information flow, were created with a graph-theoretical approach. Distinct variation in functional connectivity was found for different music pieces consistently for all subjects. Largest brain areas were recruited for processing self-selected music with emotional attachment or culturally unfamiliar music. Maps of information flow correlated significantly with fMRI BOLD activation maps (p<0.05). Observed differences in BOLD activation and functional connectivity may help explain previously observed beneficial effects in stroke recovery, as increased blood flow to damaged brain areas stimulated by active engagement through music listening may have supported a state more conducive to therapy.

  14. An Art Information System: From Integration to Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Patricia J.

    1988-01-01

    Explores the qualities of bibliographic and object entities that contribute to the similarities and differences in the data describing them and the possibility of cooperation between indexers of art objects and indexers of bibliographic information. The discussion covers the role of authority control as the linking component between bibliographic…

  15. Exploitation of Unintentional Information Leakage from Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, William E.

    2011-01-01

    The information leakage of electronic devices, especially those used in cryptographic or other vital applications, represents a serious practical threat to secure systems. While physical implementation attacks have evolved rapidly over the last decade, relatively little work has been done to allow system designers to effectively counter the…

  16. Exploration into technical procedures for vertical integration. [information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, R. J.; Maw, K. D.

    1979-01-01

    Issues in the design and use of a digital geographic information system incorporating landuse, zoning, hazard, LANDSAT, and other data are discussed. An eleven layer database was generated. Issues in spatial resolution, registration, grid versus polygonal structures, and comparison of photointerpreted landuse to LANDSAT land cover are examined.

  17. Smart Libraries: Integrating Communications Channels and Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, T. D.; Jensen, E. A.

    Noting that the changing nature of information delivery has established immediacy as the new basis for modern library service, this paper describes the new facilities design and floor plan for the library of Kapiolani Community College of the University of Hawaii. The new library was carefully designed so that students can move progressively from…

  18. Integrated information management applying successful industrial concepts in IT

    CERN Document Server

    Zarnekow, Rüdiger; Pilgram, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    Addresses the challenges facing information management (IM) and presents practical solution propositions. Divided into three parts, this book addresses IT managers. It also presents results of real pilot projects, which were implemented at collaborating companies of the Competence Center for IIM at the University of St Gallen.

  19. Rejecting deep brain stimulation artefacts from MEG data using ICA and mutual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Omid; Hirschmann, Jan; Schmitz, Georg; Schnitzler, Alfons; Butz, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Recording brain activity during deep brain stimulation (DBS) using magnetoencephalography (MEG) can potentially help clarifying the neurophysiological mechanism of DBS. The DBS artefact, however, distorts MEG data significantly. We present an artefact rejection approach to remove the DBS artefact from MEG data. We developed an approach consisting of four consecutive steps: (i) independent component analysis was used to decompose MEG data to independent components (ICs); (ii) mutual information (MI) between stimulation signal and all ICs was calculated; (iii) artefactual ICs were identified by means of an MI threshold; and (iv) the MEG signal was reconstructed using only non-artefactual ICs. This approach was applied to MEG data from five Parkinson's disease patients with implanted DBS stimulators. MEG was recorded with DBS ON (unilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus) and DBS OFF during two experimental conditions: a visual attention task and alternating right and left median nerve stimulation. With the presented approach most of the artefact could be removed. The signal of interest could be retrieved in both conditions. In contrast to existing artefact rejection methods for MEG-DBS data (tSSS and S(3)P), the proposed method uses the actual artefact source, i.e. the stimulation signal, as reference signal. Using the presented method, the DBS artefact can be significantly rejected and the physiological data can be restored. This will facilitate research addressing the impact of DBS on brain activity during rest and various tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. On the possible role of protein vibrations in information processing in the brain: three Russian dolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythies, John

    2015-01-01

    Until recently it was held that the neurocomputations conducted by the brain involved only whole neurons as the operating units. This may however represent only a part of the mechanism. This theoretical and academic position article reviews the considerable evidence that allosteric interactions between proteins (as extensively described by Fuxe et al., 2014), and in particular protein vibrations in neurons, form small scale codes that are involved as parts of the complex information processing systems of the brain. The argument is then developed to suggest that the protein allosteric and vibration codes (that operate at the molecular level) are nested within a medium scale coding system whose computational units are organelles (such as microtubules). This medium scale code is nested in turn inside a large scale coding system, whose computational units are individual neurons. The hypothesis suggests that these three levels interact vertically in both directions thus materially increasing the computational capacity of the brain. The whole hierarchy is thus similar to three nested Russian dolls. This theoretical development may be of use in the design of experiments to test it.

  1. Turning Data into Information: Assessing and Reporting GIS Metadata Integrity Using Integrated Computing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulrooney, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    A Geographic Information System (GIS) serves as the tangible and intangible means by which spatially related phenomena can be created, analyzed and rendered. GIS metadata serves as the formal framework to catalog information about a GIS data set. Metadata is independent of the encoded spatial and attribute information. GIS metadata is a subset of…

  2. Implementation of integrated heterogeneous electronic electrocardiography data into Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumrin, Piyapong; Chumpoo, Pitupoom

    2016-03-01

    Electrocardiography is one of the most important non-invasive diagnostic tools for diagnosing coronary heart disease. The electrocardiography information system in Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital required a massive manual labor effort. In this article, we propose an approach toward the integration of heterogeneous electrocardiography data and the implementation of an integrated electrocardiography information system into the existing Hospital Information System. The system integrates different electrocardiography formats into a consistent electrocardiography rendering by using Java software. The interface acts as middleware to seamlessly integrate different electrocardiography formats. Instead of using a common electrocardiography protocol, we applied a central format based on Java classes for mapping different electrocardiography formats which contains a specific parser for each electrocardiography format to acquire the same information. Our observations showed that the new system improved the effectiveness of data management, work flow, and data quality; increased the availability of information; and finally improved quality of care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Application of Texture Analysis to Study Small Vessel Disease and Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del C. Valdés Hernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesWe evaluate the alternative use of texture analysis for evaluating the role of blood–brain barrier (BBB in small vessel disease (SVD.MethodsWe used brain magnetic resonance imaging from 204 stroke patients, acquired before and 20 min after intravenous gadolinium administration. We segmented tissues, white matter hyperintensities (WMH and applied validated visual scores. We measured textural features in all tissues pre- and post-contrast and used ANCOVA to evaluate the effect of SVD indicators on the pre-/post-contrast change, Kruskal–Wallis for significance between patient groups and linear mixed models for pre-/post-contrast variations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF with Fazekas scores.ResultsTextural “homogeneity” increase in normal tissues with higher presence of SVD indicators was consistently more overt than in abnormal tissues. Textural “homogeneity” increased with age, basal ganglia perivascular spaces scores (p < 0.01 and SVD scores (p < 0.05 and was significantly higher in hypertensive patients (p < 0.002 and lacunar stroke (p = 0.04. Hypertension (74% patients, WMH load (median = 1.5 ± 1.6% of intracranial volume, and age (mean = 65.6 years, SD = 11.3 predicted the pre/post-contrast change in normal white matter, WMH, and index stroke lesion. CSF signal increased with increasing SVD post-contrast.ConclusionA consistent general pattern of increasing textural “homogeneity” with increasing SVD and post-contrast change in CSF with increasing WMH suggest that texture analysis may be useful for the study of BBB integrity.

  4. Exploring the Further Integration of Machine Translation in English-Chinese Cross Language Information Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; He, Daqing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the further integration of machine translation technologies with cross language information access in providing web users the capabilities of accessing information beyond language barriers. Machine translation and cross language information access are related technologies, and yet they have their own unique…

  5. Integrated care: an Information Model for Patient Safety and Vigilance Reporting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jean-Marie; Schulz, Stefan; Souvignet, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Quality management information systems for safety as a whole or for specific vigilances share the same information types but are not interoperable. An international initiative tries to develop an integrated information model for patient safety and vigilance reporting to support a global approach of heath care quality.

  6. Integrating paleobiology, archeology, and history to inform biological conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Torben C; Lockwood, Rowan

    2013-02-01

    The search for novel approaches to establishing ecological baselines (reference conditions) is constrained by the fact that most ecological studies span the past few decades, at most, and investigate ecosystems that have been substantially altered by human activities for decades, centuries, or more. Paleobiology, archeology, and history provide historical ecological context for biological conservation, remediation, and restoration. We argue that linking historical ecology explicitly with conservation can help unify related disciplines of conservation paleobiology, conservation archeobiology, and environmental history. Differences in the spatial and temporal resolution and extent (scale) of prehistoric, historic, and modern ecological data remain obstacles to integrating historical ecology and conservation biology, but the prolonged temporal extents of historical ecological data can help establish more complete baselines for restoration, document a historical range of ecological variability, and assist in determining desired future conditions. We used the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) fishery of the Chesapeake Bay (U.S.A.) to demonstrate the utility of historical ecological data for elucidating oyster conservation and the need for an approach to conservation that transcends disciplinary boundaries. Historical ecological studies from the Chesapeake have documented dramatic declines (as much as 99%) in oyster abundance since the early to mid-1800 s, changes in oyster size in response to different nutrient levels from the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries, and substantial reductions in oyster accretion rates (from 10 mm/year to effectively 0 mm/year) from the Late Holocene to modern times. Better integration of different historical ecological data sets and increased collaboration between paleobiologists, geologists, archeologists, environmental historians, and ecologists to create standardized research designs and methodologies will help unify prehistoric

  7. Information Operations and FATA Integration into the National Mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    however, is to change it.115 — Karl Marx 115 Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Collected Works...three_years_of_reforms1.htm. Manheim, Jarol B. Strategy in Information and Influence Campaigns. Taylor & Francis, 2011. Marx , Karl and Frederick Engels. Collected Works...ambush, raids, sniping, assassination and the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). From 11 June 2004 to date, a three-pronged strategy has been

  8. Efficacy of integrating information literacy education into a women's health course on information literacy for RN-BSN students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Ya-Lie; Sheu, Sheila; Kuo, Shih-Ming

    2007-03-01

    Information literacy, essential to evidences-based nursing, can promote nurses' capability for life-long learning. Nursing education should strive to employ information literacy education in nursing curricula to improve information literacy abilities among nursing students. This study explored the effectiveness of information literacy education by comparing information literacy skills among a group of RN-BSN (Registered Nurse to Bachelors of Science in Nursing) students who received information literacy education with a group that did not. This quasi-experimental study was conducted during a women's health issues course taught between March and June 2004. Content was presented to the 32 RN-BSN students enrolled in this course, which also taught skills on searching and screening, integrating, analyzing, applying, and presenting information. At the beginning and end of the program, 75 RN-BSN student self-evaluated on a 10 point Likert scale their attained skills in searching and screening, integrating, analyzing, applying, and presenting information. Results identified no significant differences between the experimental (n = 32) and control groups (n = 43) in terms of age, marital status, job title, work unit, years of work experience, and information literacy skills as measured at the beginning of the semester. At the end of the semester during which content was taught, the information literacy of the experimental group in all categories, with the exception of information presentation, was significantly improved as compared to that of the control group. Results were especially significant in terms of integrating, analyzing, and applying skill categories. It is hoped that in the future nursing students will apply enhanced information literacy to address and resolve patients' health problems in clinical settings.

  9. Nutritional status-dependent endocannabinoid signalling regulates the integration of rat visceral information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlaifia, Abdessattar; Matias, Isabelle; Cota, Daniela; Tell, Fabien

    2017-06-01

    Vagal sensory inputs transmit information from the viscera to brainstem neurones located in the nucleus tractus solitarii to set physiological parameters. These excitatory synapses exhibit a CB1 endocannabinoid-induced long-term depression (LTD) triggered by vagal fibre stimulation. We investigated the impact of nutritional status on long-term changes in this long-term synaptic plasticity. Food deprivation prevents LTD induction by disrupting CB1 receptor signalling. Short-term refeeding restores the capacity of vagal synapses to express LTD. Ghrelin and cholecystokinin, respectively released during fasting and refeeding, play a key role in the control of LTD via the activation of energy sensing pathways such as AMPK and the mTOR and ERK pathways. Communication form the viscera to the brain is essential to set physiological homoeostatic parameters but also to drive more complex behaviours such as mood, memory and emotional states. Here we investigated the impact of the nutritional status on long-term changes in excitatory synaptic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii, a neural hub integrating visceral signals. These excitatory synapses exhibit a CB1 endocannabinoid (eCB)-induced long-term depression (LTD) triggered by vagal fibre stimulation. Since eCB signalling is known to be an important component of homoeostatic regulation of the body and is regulated during various stressful conditions, we tested the hypothesis that food deprivation alters eCB signalling in central visceral afferent fibres. Food deprivation prevents eCB-LTD induction due to the absence of eCB signalling. This loss was reversed by blockade of ghrelin receptors. Activation of the cellular fuel sensor AMP-activated protein kinase or inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway abolished eCB-LTD in free-fed rats. Signals associated with energy surfeit, such as short-term refeeding, restore eCB-LTD induction, which in turn requires activation of cholecystokinin receptors and

  10. Specification of an integrated information architecture for a mobile teleoperated robot for home telecare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannuzzi, David; Grant, Andrew; Corriveau, Hélène; Boissy, Patrick; Michaud, Francois

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to design effectively integrated information architecture for a mobile teleoperated robot in remote assistance to the delivery of home health care. Three role classes were identified related to the deployment of a telerobot, namely, engineer, technology integrator, and health professional. Patients and natural caregivers were indirectly considered, this being a component of future field studies. Interviewing representatives of each class provided the functions, and information content and flows for each function. Interview transcripts enabled the formulation of UML (Universal Modeling Language) diagrams for feedback from participants. The proposed information architecture was validated with a use-case scenario. The integrated information architecture incorporates progressive design, ergonomic integration, and the home care needs from medical specialist, nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and social worker care perspectives. The integrated architecture iterative process promoted insight among participants. The use-case scenario evaluation showed the design's robustness. Complex innovation such as a telerobot must coherently mesh with health-care service delivery needs. The deployment of integrated information architecture bridging development, with specialist and home care applications, is necessary for home care technology innovation. It enables continuing evolution of robot and novel health information design in the same integrated architecture, while accounting for patient ecological need.

  11. Acute Sleep Deprivation Induces a Local Brain Transfer Information Increase in the Frontal Cortex in a Widespread Decrease Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan F. Alonso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD has adverse effects on mental and physical health, affecting the cognitive abilities and emotional states. Specifically, cognitive functions and alertness are known to decrease after SD. The aim of this work was to identify the directional information transfer after SD on scalp EEG signals using transfer entropy (TE. Using a robust methodology based on EEG recordings of 18 volunteers deprived from sleep for 36 h, TE and spectral analysis were performed to characterize EEG data acquired every 2 h. Correlation between connectivity measures and subjective somnolence was assessed. In general, TE showed medium- and long-range significant decreases originated at the occipital areas and directed towards different regions, which could be interpreted as the transfer of predictive information from parieto-occipital activity to the rest of the head. Simultaneously, short-range increases were obtained for the frontal areas, following a consistent and robust time course with significant maps after 20 h of sleep deprivation. Changes during sleep deprivation in brain network were measured effectively by TE, which showed increased local connectivity and diminished global integration. TE is an objective measure that could be used as a potential measure of sleep pressure and somnolence with the additional property of directed relationships.

  12. Acute Sleep Deprivation Induces a Local Brain Transfer Information Increase in the Frontal Cortex in a Widespread Decrease Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Joan F; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miguel A; Alcalá, Marta; Antonijoan, Rosa M; Giménez, Sandra

    2016-04-14

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has adverse effects on mental and physical health, affecting the cognitive abilities and emotional states. Specifically, cognitive functions and alertness are known to decrease after SD. The aim of this work was to identify the directional information transfer after SD on scalp EEG signals using transfer entropy (TE). Using a robust methodology based on EEG recordings of 18 volunteers deprived from sleep for 36 h, TE and spectral analysis were performed to characterize EEG data acquired every 2 h. Correlation between connectivity measures and subjective somnolence was assessed. In general, TE showed medium- and long-range significant decreases originated at the occipital areas and directed towards different regions, which could be interpreted as the transfer of predictive information from parieto-occipital activity to the rest of the head. Simultaneously, short-range increases were obtained for the frontal areas, following a consistent and robust time course with significant maps after 20 h of sleep deprivation. Changes during sleep deprivation in brain network were measured effectively by TE, which showed increased local connectivity and diminished global integration. TE is an objective measure that could be used as a potential measure of sleep pressure and somnolence with the additional property of directed relationships.

  13. The posterior parietal cortex as integrative hub for whisker sensorimotor information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohan, Hemanth; de Haan, Roel; Mansvelder, Huibert D; de Kock, Christiaan P J

    2017-01-01

    Our daily life consists of a continuous interplay between incoming sensory information and outgoing motor plans. Particularly during goal-directed behavior and active exploration of the sensory environment, brain circuits are merging sensory and motor signals. This is referred to as sensorimotor

  14. Database and applications security integrating information security and data management

    CERN Document Server

    Thuraisingham, Bhavani

    2005-01-01

    This is the first book to provide an in-depth coverage of all the developments, issues and challenges in secure databases and applications. It provides directions for data and application security, including securing emerging applications such as bioinformatics, stream information processing and peer-to-peer computing. Divided into eight sections, each of which focuses on a key concept of secure databases and applications, this book deals with all aspects of technology, including secure relational databases, inference problems, secure object databases, secure distributed databases and emerging

  15. Integrating Health Information Technology Safety into Nursing Informatics Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycki, Elizabeth M; Cummings, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre W; Saranto, Kaija

    2017-01-01

    Nursing informatics competencies are constantly changing in response to advances in the health information technology (HIT) industry and research emerging from the fields of nursing and health informatics. In this paper we build off the work of Staggers and colleagues in defining nursing informatics competencies at five levels: the beginning nurse, the experienced nurse, the nursing informatics specialist, the nursing informatics innovator and the nursing informatics researcher in the area of HIT safety. The work represents a significant contribution to the literature in the area of nursing informatics competency development as it extends nursing informatics competencies to include those focused on the area of technology-induced errors and HIT safety.

  16. Time scales of representation in the human brain: weighing past information to predict future events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Lee M; Bestmann, Sven; Rosa, Maria Joao; Penny, William; Green, Gary G R

    2011-01-01

    The estimates that humans make of statistical dependencies in the environment and therefore their representation of uncertainty crucially depend on the integration of data over time. As such, the extent to which past events are used to represent uncertainty has been postulated to vary over the cortex. For example, primary visual cortex responds to rapid perturbations in the environment, while frontal cortices involved in executive control encode the longer term contexts within which these perturbations occur. Here we tested whether primary and executive regions can be distinguished by the number of past observations they represent. This was based on a decay-dependent model that weights past observations from a Markov process and Bayesian Model Selection to test the prediction that neuronal responses are characterized by different decay half-lives depending on location in the brain. We show distributions of brain responses for short and long term decay functions in primary and secondary visual and frontal cortices, respectively. We found that visual and parietal responses are released from the burden of the past, enabling an agile response to fluctuations in events as they unfold. In contrast, frontal regions are more concerned with average trends over longer time scales within which local variations are embedded. Specifically, we provide evidence for a temporal gradient for representing context within the prefrontal cortex and possibly beyond to include primary sensory and association areas.

  17. Time scales of representation in the human brain: weighing past information to predict future events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee eHarrison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The estimates that humans make of statistical dependencies in the environment and therefore their representation of uncertainty crucially depend on the integration of data over time. As such, the extent to which past events are used to represent uncertainty has been postulated to vary over the cortex. For example, primary visual cortex responds to rapid perturbations in the environment, while frontal cortices involved in executive control encode the longer term contexts within which these perturbations occur. Here we tested whether primary and executive regions can be distinguished by the number of past observations they represent. This was based on a decay-dependent model that weights past observations from a Markov process and Bayesian Model Selection (BMS to test the prediction that neuronal responses are characterised by different decay half-lives depending on location in the brain. We show distributions of brain responses for short and long term decay functions in primary and secondary visual and frontal cortices, respectively. We found that visual and parietal responses are released from the burden of the past, enabling an agile response to fluctuations in events as they unfold. In contrast, frontal regions are more concerned with average trends over longer time scales within which local variations are embedded. Specifically, we provide evidence for a temporal gradient for representing context within the prefrontal cortex and possibly beyond to include primary sensory and association areas.

  18. Prenatal Exposure of Guinea Pigs to the Organophosphorus Pesticide Chlorpyrifos Disrupts the Structural and Functional Integrity of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Roger J.; Xu, Su; Pereira, Edna F.R.; Pescrille, Joseph D.; Todd, Spencer W.; Mamczarz, Jacek; Albuquerque, Edson X.; Gullapalli, Rao P.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that prenatal exposure of guinea pigs to the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) disrupts the structural and functional integrity of the brain. Pregnant guinea pigs were injected with chlorpyrifos (20 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle (peanut oil) once per day for ten consecutive days, starting approximately on the 50th day of gestation. Cognitive behavior of female offspring was examined starting at 40–45 post-natal days (PND) using the Morris Water Maze (MWM), and brain structural integrity was analyzed at PND 70 using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods, including T2-weighted anatomical scans and Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI). The offspring of exposed mothers had significantly decreased body weight and brain volume, particularly in the frontal regions of the brain including the striatum. Furthermore, the offspring demonstrated significant spatial learning deficits in MWM recall compared to the vehicle group. Diffusion measures revealed reduced white matter integrity within the striatum and amygdala that correlated with spatial learning performance. These findings reveal the lasting effect of pre-natal exposure to CPF as well as the danger of mother to child transmission of CPF in the environment. PMID:25704171

  19. Semi-autonomous image-guided brain tumour resection using an integrated robotic system: A bench-top study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Danying; Gong, Yuanzheng; Seibel, Eric J; Sekhar, Laligam N; Hannaford, Blake

    2018-02-01

    Complete brain tumour resection is an extremely critical factor for patients' survival rate and long-term quality of life. This paper introduces a prototype medical robotic system that aims to automatically detect and clean up brain tumour residues after the removal of tumour bulk through conventional surgery. We focus on the development of an integrated surgical robotic system for image-guided robotic brain surgery. The Behavior Tree framework is explored to coordinate cross-platform medical subtasks. The integrated system was tested on a simulated laboratory platform. Results and performance indicate the feasibility of supervised semi-automation for residual brain tumour ablation in a simulated surgical cavity with sub-millimetre accuracy. The modularity in the control architecture allows straightforward integration of further medical devices. This work presents a semi-automated laboratory setup, simulating an intraoperative robotic neurosurgical procedure with real-time endoscopic image guidance and provides a foundation for the future transition from engineering approaches to clinical application. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Improving IMES Localization Accuracy by Integrating Dead Reckoning Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenjiro Fujii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor positioning remains an open problem, because it is difficult to achieve satisfactory accuracy within an indoor environment using current radio-based localization technology. In this study, we investigate the use of Indoor Messaging System (IMES radio for high-accuracy indoor positioning. A hybrid positioning method combining IMES radio strength information and pedestrian dead reckoning information is proposed in order to improve IMES localization accuracy. For understanding the carrier noise ratio versus distance relation for IMES radio, the signal propagation of IMES radio is modeled and identified. Then, trilateration and extended Kalman filtering methods using the radio propagation model are developed for position estimation. These methods are evaluated through robot localization and pedestrian localization experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid positioning method achieved average estimation errors of 217 and 1846 mm in robot localization and pedestrian localization, respectively. In addition, in order to examine the reason for the positioning accuracy of pedestrian localization being much lower than that of robot localization, the influence of the human body on the radio propagation is experimentally evaluated. The result suggests that the influence of the human body can be modeled.

  1. Improving IMES Localization Accuracy by Integrating Dead Reckoning Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Kenjiro; Arie, Hiroaki; Wang, Wei; Kaneko, Yuto; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Schmitz, Alexander; Sugano, Shigeki

    2016-01-27

    Indoor positioning remains an open problem, because it is difficult to achieve satisfactory accuracy within an indoor environment using current radio-based localization technology. In this study, we investigate the use of Indoor Messaging System (IMES) radio for high-accuracy indoor positioning. A hybrid positioning method combining IMES radio strength information and pedestrian dead reckoning information is proposed in order to improve IMES localization accuracy. For understanding the carrier noise ratio versus distance relation for IMES radio, the signal propagation of IMES radio is modeled and identified. Then, trilateration and extended Kalman filtering methods using the radio propagation model are developed for position estimation. These methods are evaluated through robot localization and pedestrian localization experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid positioning method achieved average estimation errors of 217 and 1846 mm in robot localization and pedestrian localization, respectively. In addition, in order to examine the reason for the positioning accuracy of pedestrian localization being much lower than that of robot localization, the influence of the human body on the radio propagation is experimentally evaluated. The result suggests that the influence of the human body can be modeled.

  2. Spectral Transfer Learning using Information Geometry for a User-Independent Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Roy Waytowich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques have enabled the application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI technologies to fields such as medicine, industry and recreation. However, BCIs still suffer from the requirement of frequent calibration sessions due to the intra- and inter- individual variability of brain-signals, which makes calibration suppression through transfer learning an area of increasing interest for the development of practical BCI systems. In this paper, we present an unsupervised transfer method (spectral transfer using information geometry, STIG, which ranks and combines unlabeled predictions from an ensemble of information geometry classifiers built on data from individual training subjects. The STIG method is validated in both offline and real-time feedback analysis during a rapid serial visual presentation task (RSVP. For detection of single-trial, event-related potentials (ERPs, the proposed method can significantly outperform existing calibration-free techniques as well as outperform traditional within-subject calibration techniques when limited data is available. This method demonstrates that unsupervised transfer learning for single-trial detection in ERP-based BCIs can be achieved without the requirement of costly training data, representing a step-forward in the overall goal of achieving a practical user-independent BCI system.

  3. Using geographical information systems mapping to identify areas presenting high risk for traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colantonio Angela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to show how geographical information systems (GIS can be used to track and compare hospitalization rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI over time and across a large geographical area using population based data. Results & Discussion Data on TBI hospitalizations, and geographic and demographic variables, came from the Ontario Trauma Registry Minimum Data Set for the fiscal years 1993-1994 and 2001-2002. Various visualization techniques, exploratory data analysis and spatial analysis were employed to map and analyze these data. Both the raw and standardized rates by age/gender of the geographical unit were studied. Data analyses revealed persistent high rates of hospitalization for TBI resulting from any injury mechanism between two time periods in specific geographic locations. Conclusions This study shows how geographic information systems can be successfully used to investigate hospitalizaton rates for traumatic brain injury using a range of tools and techniques; findings can be used for local planning of both injury prevention and post discharge services, including rehabilitation.

  4. Information-geometric measures estimate neural interactions during oscillatory brain states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yimin; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Tatsuno, Masami

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of functional network structures among multiple neurons is essential to understanding neural information processing. Information geometry (IG), a theory developed for investigating a space of probability distributions has recently been applied to spike-train analysis and has provided robust estimations of neural interactions. Although neural firing in the equilibrium state is often assumed in these studies, in reality, neural activity is non-stationary. The brain exhibits various oscillations depending on cognitive demands or when an animal is asleep. Therefore, the investigation of the IG measures during oscillatory network states is important for testing how the IG method can be applied to real neural data. Using model networks of binary neurons or more realistic spiking neurons, we studied how the single- and pairwise-IG measures were influenced by oscillatory neural activity. Two general oscillatory mechanisms, externally driven oscillations and internally induced oscillations, were considered. In both mechanisms, we found that the single-IG measure was linearly related to the magnitude of the external input, and that the pairwise-IG measure was linearly related to the sum of connection strengths between two neurons. We also observed that the pairwise-IG measure was not dependent on the oscillation frequency. These results are consistent with the previous findings that were obtained under the equilibrium conditions. Therefore, we demonstrate that the IG method provides useful insights into neural interactions under the oscillatory condition that can often be observed in the real brain.

  5. Information-geometric measures estimate neural interactions during oscillatory brain states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin eNie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of functional network structures among multiple neurons is essential to understanding neural information processing. Information geometry (IG, a theory developed for investigating a space of probability distributions has recently been applied to spike-train analysis and has provided robust estimations of neural interactions. Although neural firing in the equilibrium state is often assumed in these studies, in reality, neural activity is non-stationary. The brain exhibits various oscillations depending on cognitive demands or when an animal is asleep. Therefore, the investigation of the IG measures during oscillatory network states is important for testing how the IG method can be applied to real neural data. Using model networks of binary neurons or more realistic spiking neurons, we studied how the single- and pairwise-IG measures were influenced by oscillatory neural activity. Two general oscillatory mechanisms, externally driven oscillations and internally induced oscillations, were considered. In both mechanisms, we found that the single-IG measure was linearly related to the magnitude of the external input, and that the pairwise-IG measure was linearly related to the sum of connection strengths between two neurons. We also observed that the pairwise-IG measure was not dependent on the oscillation frequency. These results are consistent with the previous findings that were obtained under the equilibrium conditions. Therefore, we demonstrate that the IG method provides useful insights into neural interactions under the oscillatory condition that can often be observed in the real brain.

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," containing inherited genetic information that helps to define physical and some ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress Coalition ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ...

  9. Sharing Service Resource Information for Application Integration in a Virtual Enterprise - Modeling the Communication Protocol for Exchanging Service Resource Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Akira

    Grid computing and web service technologies enable us to use networked resources in a coordinated manner. An integrated service is made of individual services running on coordinated resources. In order to achieve such coordinated services autonomously, the initiator of a coordinated service needs to know detailed service resource information. This information ranges from static attributes like the IP address of the application server to highly dynamic ones like the CPU load. The most famous wide-area service discovery mechanism based on names is DNS. Its hierarchical tree organization and caching methods take advantage of the static information managed. However, in order to integrate business applications in a virtual enterprise, we need a discovery mechanism to search for the optimal resources based on the given a set of criteria (search keys). In this paper, we propose a communication protocol for exchanging service resource information among wide-area systems. We introduce the concept of the service domain that consists of service providers managed under the same management policy. This concept of the service domain is similar to that for autonomous systems (ASs). In each service domain, the service information provider manages the service resource information of service providers that exist in this service domain. The service resource information provider exchanges this information with other service resource information providers that belong to the different service domains. We also verified the protocol's behavior and effectiveness using a simulation model developed for proposed protocol.

  10. Population-averaged macaque brain atlas with high-resolution ex vivo DTI integrated into in vivo space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Jeon, Tina; Yu, Qiaowen; Ouyang, Minhui; Peng, Qinmu; Mishra, Virendra; Pletikos, Mihovil; Sestan, Nenad; Miller, Michael I; Mori, Susumu; Hsiao, Steven; Liu, Shuwei; Huang, Hao

    2017-12-01

    Animal models of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), the most widely used nonhuman primate, have been irreplaceable in neurobiological studies. However, a population-averaged macaque brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) atlas, including comprehensive gray and white matter labeling as well as bony and facial landmarks guiding invasive experimental procedures, is not available. The macaque white matter tract pathways and microstructures have been rarely recorded. Here, we established a population-averaged macaque brain atlas with high-resolution ex vivo DTI integrated into in vivo space incorporating bony and facial landmarks, and delineated microstructures and three-dimensional pathways of major white matter tracts in vivo MRI/DTI and ex vivo (postmortem) DTI of ten rhesus macaque brains were acquired. Single-subject macaque brain DTI template was obtained by transforming the postmortem high-resolution DTI data into in vivo space. Ex vivo DTI of ten macaque brains was then averaged in the in vivo single-subject template space to generate population-averaged macaque brain DTI atlas. The white matter tracts were traced with DTI-based tractography. One hundred and eighteen neural structures including all cortical gyri, white matter tracts and subcortical nuclei, were labeled manually on population-averaged DTI-derived maps. The in vivo microstructural metrics of fractional anisotropy, axial, radial and mean diffusivity of the traced white matter tracts were measured. Population-averaged digital atlas integrated into in vivo space can be used to label the experimental macaque brain automatically. Bony and facial landmarks will be available for guiding invasive procedures. The DTI metric measurements offer unique insights into heterogeneous microstructural profiles of different white matter tracts.

  11. Preparing Librarians to be Campus Leaders through Mapping and Integrating Information Literacy into Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Weiner, Sharon A; Wang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Curriculum mapping is a process by which curricula are methodically examined to determine where information literacy (IL) capabilities are, or should be taught during formal coursework. Curriculum integration is the process of intentionally integrating IL capability at the points in coursework when students need to master those capabilities and competencies. During this session, librarians will develop an understanding of curriculum mapping and how to integrate IL in curricula. This knowledge...

  12. Wiki-Based Data and Information Integration (WikiDI2) System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is: A data and information integration (DI2) system built from the methods and tools used to create Wiki websites. Wiki (Hawaiian for...

  13. Integration of weather information in transportation management center operations : self-evaluation and planning guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-30

    The Federal Highway Administrations Road Weather Management Program is helping to reduce the adverse impacts of weather on the transportation system by assisting agencies in integrating weather information and technologies into their daily Transpo...

  14. Research on application information system integration platform in medicine manufacturing enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wu; Zhao, Huimin; Zou, Li; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhengguang

    2012-08-01

    Computer and information technology popularizes in the medicine manufacturing enterprise for its potentials in working efficiency and service quality. In allusion to the explosive data and information of application system in current medicine manufacturing enterprise, we desire to propose a novel application information system integration platform in medicine manufacturing enterprise, which based on a combination of RFID technology and SOA, to implement information sharing and alternation. This method exploits the application integration platform across service interface layer to invoke the RFID middleware. The loose coupling in integration solution is realized by Web services. The key techniques in RFID event components and expanded role-based security access mechanism are studied in detail. Finally, a case study is implemented and tested to evidence our understanding on application system integration platform in medicine manufacturing enterprise.

  15. Resource Information and Forecasting Group; Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (ERBSI) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-01

    Researchers in the Resource Information and Forecasting group at NREL provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help characterize renewable energy resources and facilitate the integration of these clean energy sources into the electricity grid.

  16. Probabilistic Information Integration and Retrieval in the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predoiu, Livia

    The Semantic Web (SW) has been envisioned to enable software tools or Web Services, respectively, to process information provided on the Web automatically. For this purpose, languages for representing the semantics of data by means of ontologies have been proposed such as RDF(S) and OWL. While the semantics of RDF(S) requires a non-standard model-theory that goes beyond first order logics, OWL is intended to model subsets of first order logics. OWL consists of three variants that are layered on each other. The less expressive variants OWL-Light and OWL-DL correspond to the Description Logics {SHIF}(D) and {SHOIN}(D) [1], respectively, and thus to subsets of First Order Logics [2].

  17. Integrating climatic information in water resources modelling and optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelati, Emiliano

    Metoder til integering af klimatisk information i vandressource-modellering -optimering er udviklet og demonstreret i to eksempelvise anvendelser. I modelanvendelserne er variationen af de lokale hydrologiske variable betinget af værdierne af klimatiske variable på stor skala, svarende til...... kombination af flere tidssvarende modeller i en ikke-stationær beskrivelse af afstrømningen, hvorunder El Niño-betingede regimeskift tages i regning. Potentielle anvendelsesmuligheder omfatter udnyttelse af observerede og forudsagte storskala klimatiske data til simulering og forudsigelse af afstrømningen...... forudsigelse af lokale hydrologiske følgevirkninger af klimaændringer på stor skala. Det må imidlertid tages i betragtnig, at modeller, der er kalibreret under gældende klimatiske forhold, ikke nødvendigvis er gældende under værsentligt ændrede forhold....

  18. An integrated information retrieval and document management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, L. Stephen; Alvarez, J. Fernando; Chen, James; Chen, William; Cheung, Lai-Mei; Clancy, Susan; Wong, Alexis

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements and prototype development for an intelligent document management and information retrieval system that will be capable of handling millions of pages of text or other data. Technologies for scanning, Optical Character Recognition (OCR), magneto-optical storage, and multiplatform retrieval using a Standard Query Language (SQL) will be discussed. The semantic ambiguity inherent in the English language is somewhat compensated-for through the use of coefficients or weighting factors for partial synonyms. Such coefficients are used both for defining structured query trees for routine queries and for establishing long-term interest profiles that can be used on a regular basis to alert individual users to the presence of relevant documents that may have just arrived from an external source, such as a news wire service. Although this attempt at evidential reasoning is limited in comparison with the latest developments in AI Expert Systems technology, it has the advantage of being commercially available.

  19. Activity-Based Information Integrating the operations strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto da Rocha de Araujo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized world, companies seek for new operations strategies to ensure world corporate success. This article analyzes how the cost management models – both traditional and activity-based, aid the planning and management of corporate globalized operations. The efficacy of the models application depends on their alignment with the competitive strategy. Companies must evaluate the nature of the competition and its competitive priorities; they should then define the necessary and sufficient dependence level on costs information. In this article, three dependence levels are presented: operational, decision support and strategic control. The result of the research shows the importance of alignment between the cost management model and the competitive strategy for corporate success, and confirms the adequacy of the activity-based costing model as a supporting tool for decision taking in a global strategy. Case studies in world class companies in Brazil are presented.

  20. Information Structure: Towards an integrated formal theory of pragmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craige Roberts

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A framework for pragmatic analysis is proposed which treats discourse as a game, with context as a scoreboard organized around the questions under discussion by the interlocutors. The framework is intended to be coordinated with a dynamic compositional semantics. Accordingly, the context of utterance is modeled as a tuple of different types of information, and the questions therein — modeled, as is usual in formal semantics, as alternative sets of propositions — constrain the felicitous flow of discourse. A requirement of Relevance is satisfied by an utterance (whether an assertion, a question or a suggestion iff it addresses the question under discussion. Finally, it is argued that the prosodic focus of an utterance canonically serves to reflect the question under discussion (at least in English, placing additional constraints on felicity in context. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.5.6 BibTeX info

  1. Consumer Responses to Integrated Risk-Benefit Information Associated with the Consumption of Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van H.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Frewer, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The risk analysis of the health impact of foods is increasingly focused on integrated riskbenefit assessment, which will also need to be communicated to consumers. It therefore becomes important to understand how consumers respond to integrated risk-benefit information. Quality-adjusted-life-years

  2. Integrated information and logistics management, quality management and firm performance of pork processing industry in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to discuss the interactions amongst integrated information technology (IT), integrated logistics management, quality management practices and firm performance of pork processors in China. Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual framework was developed by examining the

  3. Investigation of Prospective Teachers' Information and Communication Technology Integration Practices in Terms of Transformative Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin Izmirli, Özden; Kabakçi Yurdakul, Isil

    2014-01-01

    An examination of prospective teachers' information and communication technology (ICT) integration skills development in an undergraduate program indicated that the only course available to practice these skills was the teaching practice course. However, the practice and development of these ICT integration skills in the teaching practice course…

  4. 76 FR 32367 - Agency Information Collection Activities, Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Integrated Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ...; Comment Request; Integrated Public Alert and Warning Systems (IPAWS) Inventory AGENCY: Federal Emergency... proposed revision of the information collection concerning public alert and warning systems at the Federal... evaluation and assessment of existing public alert and warning resources and their integration with the...

  5. Entropy in Postmerger and Acquisition Integration from an Information Technology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gloria S.

    2012-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions have historically experienced failure rates from 50% to more than 80%. Successful integration of information technology (IT) systems can be the difference between postmerger success or failure. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the entropy phenomenon during postmerger IT integration. To that end, a…

  6. Information Integration in Multiple Cue Judgment: A Division of Labor Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juslin, Peter; Karlsson, Linnea; Olsson, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that judgment is constrained to additive integration of information. The authors propose an explanation of why serial and additive cognitive integration can produce accurate multiple cue judgment both in additive and non-additive environments in terms of an adaptive division of labor between multiple representations.…

  7. Issues in Integrating Information Technology in Learning and Teaching EFL: The Saudi Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maini, Yousef Hamad

    2013-01-01

    The Saudi education system is facing a climate of change characterized by an interest in integrating new technology and educational approaches to improve teaching and learning. In this climate, the present paper explores the issues in integrating information technology in learning and teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in government…

  8. The Exercising Brain: Changes in Functional Connectivity Induced by an Integrated Multimodal Cognitive and Whole-Body Coordination Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirakca, Traute; Cardinale, Vita; Dehn, Sven; Ruf, Matthias; Ende, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of "life kinetik" training on brain plasticity in terms of an increased functional connectivity during resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). The training is an integrated multimodal training that combines motor and cognitive aspects and challenges the brain by introducing new and unfamiliar coordinative tasks. Twenty-one subjects completed at least 11 one-hour-per-week "life kinetik" training sessions in 13 weeks as well as before and after rs-fMRI scans. Additionally, 11 control subjects with 2 rs-fMRI scans were included. The CONN toolbox was used to conduct several seed-to-voxel analyses. We searched for functional connectivity increases between brain regions expected to be involved in the exercises. Connections to brain regions representing parts of the default mode network, such as medial frontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, did not change. Significant connectivity alterations occurred between the visual cortex and parts of the superior parietal area (BA7). Premotor area and cingulate gyrus were also affected. We can conclude that the constant challenge of unfamiliar combinations of coordination tasks, combined with visual perception and working memory demands, seems to induce brain plasticity expressed in enhanced connectivity strength of brain regions due to coactivation.

  9. Internationalisation of information services for publishers' open access policies: the DINI multilingual integration layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholze, Frank

    2008-07-28

    It is essential for the strategy of open access self-archiving that scientific authors are given comprehensive information on publisher copyright policies. DINI, the German Initiative for Networked Information, has developed a German (and potentially multilingual) interface to the English SHERPA/RoMEO service to provide additional information on German publishers' open access policies. As a next step, this interface was enhanced to an integration layer combining different sources on publisher copyright policies. This integration layer can be used in many different contexts. Together with the SHERPA/RoMEO team, DINI aims to build an international support structure for open access information.

  10. Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study - Data Information Management System (DIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James

    2004-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Integrated Science Study is an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that combines the expertise of federal, state and local partners to address some of the most pressing ecological problems of the Tampa Bay estuary. This project serves as a template for the application of integrated research projects in other estuaries in the Gulf of Mexico. Efficient information and data distribution for the Tampa Bay Study has required the development of a Data Information Management System (DIMS). This information system is being used as an outreach management tool, providing information to scientists, decision makers and the public on the coastal resources of the Gulf of Mexico.

  11. Integration of visual and tactile information in reproduction of traveled distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churan, Jan; Paul, Johannes; Klingenhoefer, Steffen; Bremmer, Frank

    2017-09-01

    In the natural world, self-motion always stimulates several different sensory modalities. Here we investigated the interplay between a visual optic flow stimulus simulating self-motion and a tactile stimulus (air flow resulting from self-motion) while human observers were engaged in a distance reproduction task. We found that adding congruent tactile information (i.e., speed of the air flow and speed of visual motion are directly proportional) to the visual information significantly improves the precision of the actively reproduced distances. This improvement, however, was smaller than predicted for an optimal integration of visual and tactile information. In contrast, incongruent tactile information (i.e., speed of the air flow and speed of visual motion are inversely proportional) did not improve subjects' precision indicating that incongruent tactile information and visual information were not integrated. One possible interpretation of the results is a link to properties of neurons in the ventral intraparietal area that have been shown to have spatially and action-congruent receptive fields for visual and tactile stimuli.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study shows that tactile and visual information can be integrated to improve the estimates of the parameters of self-motion. This, however, happens only if the two sources of information are congruent-as they are in a natural environment. In contrast, an incongruent tactile stimulus is still used as a source of information about self-motion but it is not integrated with visual information. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Development of an Information Database for the Integrated Airline Management System (IAMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdane Ruta; Dissanayake Yasaratne Bandara; Andersone Silva; Bitins Aleksandrs

    2017-01-01

    In present conditions the activity of any enterprise is represented as a combination of operational processes. Each of them corresponds to relevant airline management systems. Combining two or more management systems, it is possible to obtain an integrated management system. For the effective functioning of the integrated management system, an appropriate information system should be developed. This article proposes a model of such an information system.

  13. Rule-Based and Information-Integration Category Learning in Normal Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, W. Todd; Pacheco, Jennifer; Reeves, Maia; Zhu, Bo; Schnyer, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex play critical roles in category learning. Both regions evidence age-related structural and functional declines. The current study examined rule-based and information-integration category learning in a group of older and younger adults. Rule-based learning is thought to involve explicit, frontally mediated processes, whereas information-integration is thought to involve implicit, striatally mediated processes. As a group, older adults showed rule-based a...

  14. Development of an Information Database for the Integrated Airline Management System (IAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdane Ruta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In present conditions the activity of any enterprise is represented as a combination of operational processes. Each of them corresponds to relevant airline management systems. Combining two or more management systems, it is possible to obtain an integrated management system. For the effective functioning of the integrated management system, an appropriate information system should be developed. This article proposes a model of such an information system.

  15. The Effects of Inquiry-Based Integrated Information Literacy Instruction: Four-Year Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Ching Chen; Ren-De Yan; Tsai-Wei Huang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of four-year integrated information literacy instruction via a framework of inquiry-based learning on elementary students’ memory and comprehension. Moderating factors of students’ academic achievement was another focus of this study. The subjects were 72 students who have participated in this study since they entered an elementary school in Chiayi district. This elementary school adopted the integrated information literacy instruction, des...

  16. A Fuzzy Integral Ensemble Method in Visual P300 Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cavrini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the possibility of application of combination of classifiers using fuzzy measures and integrals to Brain-Computer Interface (BCI based on electroencephalography. In particular, we present an ensemble method that can be applied to a variety of systems and evaluate it in the context of a visual P300-based BCI. Offline analysis of data relative to 5 subjects lets us argue that the proposed classification strategy is suitable for BCI. Indeed, the achieved performance is significantly greater than the average of the base classifiers and, broadly speaking, similar to that of the best one. Thus the proposed methodology allows realizing systems that can be used by different subjects without the need for a preliminary configuration phase in which the best classifier for each user has to be identified. Moreover, the ensemble is often capable of detecting uncertain situations and turning them from misclassifications into abstentions, thereby improving the level of safety in BCI for environmental or device control.

  17. WORKING WITH INFORMATION IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOL BASED ON INTEGRATIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г В Никифорова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article notes that the development of processes of information and the new information reality necessitate significant upgrade training content with a focus on the development of the ability to work with information. In this regard, as an effective propaedeutic reflective material integrative communication of mathematics and computer science, proposed a system of job-related performance measurement and information, as well as guidelines for their use in mathematics lessons and in extracurricular activities in elementary school.

  18. Candesartan attenuates ischemic brain edema and protects the blood-brain barrier integrity from ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahpour, Hamdollah; Nekooeian, Ali Akbar; Dehghani, Gholam Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has an important role on cerebral microcirculation; however, its direct roles in terms of ischemic brain edema need to be clarified. This study evaluated the role of central Ang II by using candesartan, as an AT1 receptor blocker, in the brain edema formation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries in rat. Rats were exposed to 60-min middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Vehicle and non-hypotensive doses of candesartan (0.1 mg/kg) were administered one hour before ischemia. Neurological dysfunction scoring was evaluated following 24 h of reperfusion. Animals were then decapitated under deep anesthesia for the assessments of cerebral infarct size, edema formation, and BBB permeability. The outcomes of 24 h reperfusion after 60-min MCA occlusion were severe neurological disability, massive BBB disruption (Evans blue extravasation = 12.5 ± 1.94 µg/g tissue), 4.02% edema, and cerebral infarction (317 ± 21 mm3). Candesartan at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg, without changing arterial blood pressure, improved neurological dysfunction scoring together with significant reductions in BBB disruption (54.9%), edema (59.2%), and cerebral infarction (54.9%). Inactivation of central AT1 receptors, if not accompanied with arterial hypotension, protected cerebral micro-vasculatures from damaging effects of acute stroke.

  19. Candesartan Attenuates Ischemic Brain Edema and Protects the Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahpour, Hamdollah; Nekooeian, Ali Akbar; Dehghani, Gholam Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Angiotensin II (Ang II) has an important role on cerebral microcirculation; however, its direct roles in terms of ischemic brain edema need to be clarified. This study evaluated the role of central Ang II by using candesartan, as an AT1 receptor blocker, in the brain edema formation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries in rat. Methods: Rats were exposed to 60-min middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Vehicle and non-hypotensive doses of candesartan (0.1 mg/kg) were administered one hour before ischemia. Neurological dysfunction scoring was evaluated following 24 h of reperfusion. Animals were then decapitated under deep anesthesia for the assessments of cerebral infarct size, edema formation, and BBB permeability. Results: The outcomes of 24 h reperfusion after 60-min MCA occlusion were severe neurological disability, massive BBB disruption (Evans blue extravasation = 12.5 ± 1.94 µg/g tissue), 4.02% edema, and cerebral infarction (317 ± 21 mm3). Candesartan at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg, without changing arterial blood pressure, improved neurological dysfunction scoring together with significant reductions in BBB disruption (54.9%), edema (59.2%), and cerebral infarction (54.9%). Conclusions: Inactivation of central AT1 receptors, if not accompanied with arterial hypotension, protected cerebral micro-vasculatures from damaging effects of acute stroke. PMID:25326022

  20. Quantitative magnetization transfer provides information complementary to grey matter atrophy in Alzheimer's disease brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulietti, Giovanni; Bozzali, Marco; Figura, Viviana; Spanò, Barbara; Perri, Roberta; Marra, Camillo; Lacidogna, Giordano; Giubilei, Franco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara

    2012-01-16

    Preliminary studies, based on a region-of-interest approach, suggest that quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT), an extension of magnetization transfer imaging, provides complementary information to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the characterisation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to extend these findings to the whole brain, using a voxel-wise approach. We recruited 19AD patients and 11 healthy subjects (HS). All subjects had an MRI acquisition at 3.0T including a T(1)-weighted volume, 12 MT-weighted volumes for qMT, and data for computing T(1) and B(1) maps. The T(1)-weighted volumes were processed to yield grey matter (GM) volumetric maps, while the other sequences were used to compute qMT parametric maps of the whole brain. qMT maps were warped to standard space and smoothed, and subsequently compared between groups. Of all the qMT parameters considered, only the forward exchange rate, RM(0)(B), showed significant group differences. These images were therefore retained for the multimodal statistical analysis, designed to locate brain regions of RM(0)(B) differences between AD and HS groups, adjusting for local GM atrophy. Widespread areas of reduced RM(0)(B) were found in AD patients, mainly located in the hippocampus, in the temporal lobe, in the posterior cingulate and in the parietal cortex. These results indicate that, among qMT parameters, RM(0)(B) is the most sensitive to AD pathology. This quantity is altered in the hippocampus of patients with AD (as found by previous works) but also in other brain areas, that PET studies have highlighted as involved with both, reduced glucose metabolism and amyloid β deposition. RM(0)(B) might reflect, through the measurement of the efficiency of MT exchange, some information with a specific pathological counterpart. Given previous evidence of a strict relationship between RM(0)(B) and intracellular pH, an intriguing speculation is that our findings might reflect metabolic