WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain integrates information

  1. Decreased integration and information capacity in stroke measured by whole brain models of resting state activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Mohit H; Hacker, Carl D; Siegel, Josh S; Griffa, Alessandra; Hagmann, Patric; Deco, Gustavo; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    While several studies have shown that focal lesions affect the communication between structurally normal regions of the brain, and that these changes may correlate with behavioural deficits, their impact on brain's information processing capacity is currently unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that focal lesions decrease the brain's information processing capacity, of which changes in functional connectivity may be a measurable correlate. To measure processing capacity, we turned to whole brain computational modelling to estimate the integration and segregation of information in brain networks. First, we measured functional connectivity between different brain areas with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects (n = 26), and subjects who had suffered a cortical stroke (n = 36). We then used a whole-brain network model that coupled average excitatory activities of local regions via anatomical connectivity. Model parameters were optimized in each healthy or stroke participant to maximize correlation between model and empirical functional connectivity, so that the model's effective connectivity was a veridical representation of healthy or lesioned brain networks. Subsequently, we calculated two model-based measures: 'integration', a graph theoretical measure obtained from functional connectivity, which measures the connectedness of brain networks, and 'information capacity', an information theoretical measure that cannot be obtained empirically, representative of the segregative ability of brain networks to encode distinct stimuli. We found that both measures were decreased in stroke patients, as compared to healthy controls, particularly at the level of resting-state networks. Furthermore, we found that these measures, especially information capacity, correlate with measures of behavioural impairment and the segregation of resting-state networks empirically measured. This study shows that focal lesions affect the brain's ability to

  2. Postnatal experiences influence how the brain integrates information from different senses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry E Stein

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD is characterized by anomalous reactions to, and integration of, sensory cues. Although the underlying etiology of SPD is unknown, one brain region likely to reflect these sensory and behavioral anomalies is the Superior Colliculus (SC; a structure involved in the synthesis of information from multiple sensory modalities and the control of overt orientation responses. In this review we describe normal functional properties of this structure, the manner in which its individual neurons integrate cues from different senses, and the overt SC-mediated behaviors that are believed to manifest this “multisensory integration.” Of particular interest here is how SC neurons develop their capacity to engage in multisensory integration during early postnatal life as a consequence of early sensory experience, and that it is the intimate communication between cortex and the midbrain makes this developmental process possible.

  3. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  4. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  5. Integrated Information Management (IIM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McIlvain, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Information Technology is the core capability required to align our resources and increase our effectiveness on the battlefield by integrating and coordinating our preventative measures and responses...

  6. Integrated inventory information system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarupria, J.S.; Kunte, P.D.

    The nature of oceanographic data and the management of inventory level information are described in Integrated Inventory Information System (IIIS). It is shown how a ROSCOPO (report on observations/samples collected during oceanographic programme...

  7. Phenotypic integration of neurocranium and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtsmeier, Joan T; Aldridge, Kristina; DeLeon, Valerie B; Panchal, Jayesh; Kane, Alex A; Marsh, Jeffrey L; Yan, Peng; Cole, Theodore M

    2006-07-15

    Evolutionary history of Mammalia provides strong evidence that the morphology of skull and brain change jointly in evolution. Formation and development of brain and skull co-occur and are dependent upon a series of morphogenetic and patterning processes driven by genes and their regulatory programs. Our current concept of skull and brain as separate tissues results in distinct analyses of these tissues by most researchers. In this study, we use 3D computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of pediatric individuals diagnosed with premature closure of cranial sutures (craniosynostosis) to investigate phenotypic relationships between the brain and skull. It has been demonstrated previously that the skull and brain acquire characteristic dysmorphologies in isolated craniosynostosis, but relatively little is known of the developmental interactions that produce these anomalies. Our comparative analysis of phenotypic integration of brain and skull in premature closure of the sagittal and the right coronal sutures demonstrates that brain and skull are strongly integrated and that the significant differences in patterns of association do not occur local to the prematurely closed suture. We posit that the current focus on the suture as the basis for this condition may identify a proximate, but not the ultimate cause for these conditions. Given that premature suture closure reduces the number of cranial bones, and that a persistent loss of skull bones is demonstrated over the approximately 150 million years of synapsid evolution, craniosynostosis may serve as an informative model for evolution of the mammalian skull. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Information technology for brain banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Peer

    2018-01-01

    Implementing and maintaining the information technology (IT) infrastructure of a brain bank can be a daunting task for any brain bank coordinator, particularly when access to both funds and IT professionals is limited. Many questions arise when attempting to determine which IT products are most suitable for a brain bank. The requirements of each brain bank must be assessed carefully to ensure that the chosen IT infrastructure will be able to meet those requirements successfully and will be able to expand and adapt as the size of the brain bank increases. This chapter provides some valuable insights to be considered when implementing the IT infrastructure for a brain bank and discusses the pros and cons of various approaches and products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrated Reporting Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Integrated Reporting Information System (IRIS) is a flexible and scalable web-based system that supports post operational analysis and evaluation of the National...

  10. Integration of sensory information precedes the sensation of vection: a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Berti, Stefan

    2014-02-01

    Illusory self-motion (known as vection) describes the sensation of ego-motion in the absence of physical movement. Vection typically occurs in stationary observers being exposed to visual information that suggest self-motion (e.g. simulators, virtual reality). In the present study, we tested whether sensory integration of visual information triggers vection: participants (N=13) perceived patterns of moving altered black-and-white vertical stripes on a screen that was divided into a central and a surrounding peripheral visual field. In both fields the pattern was either moving or stationary, resulting in four combinations of central and peripheral motions: (1) central and peripheral stripes moved into the same direction, (2) central and peripheral stripes moved in opposite directions, or (3) either the central or (4) the peripheral stripes were stable while the other stripes were in motion. This stimulation induced vection: Results showed significantly higher vection ratings when the stationary center of the pattern was surrounded by a moving periphery. Event-related potentials mirrored this finding: The occipital N2 was largest with stationary central and moving peripheral stripes. Our findings suggest that sensory integration of peripheral and central visual information triggers the perception of vection. Furthermore, we found evidence that neural processes precede the subjective perception of vection strength prior to the actual onset of vection. We will discuss our findings with respect to the role of stimulus eccentricity, stimulus' depth, and neural correlates involved during the genesis of vection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrated care information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Ian; Brimacombe, Phil

    2003-02-21

    Counties Manukau District Health Board (CMDHB) uses information technology (IT) to drive its Integrated Care strategy. IT enables the sharing of relevant health information between care providers. This information sharing is critical to closing the gaps between fragmented areas of the health system. The tragic case of James Whakaruru demonstrates how people have been falling through those gaps. The starting point of the Integrated Care strategic initiative was the transmission of electronic discharges and referral status messages from CMDHB's secondary provider, South Auckland Health (SAH), to GPs in the district. Successful pilots of a Well Child system and a diabetes disease management system embracing primary and secondary providers followed this. The improved information flowing from hospital to GPs now enables GPs to provide better management for their patients. The Well Child system pilot helped improve reported immunization rates in a high health need area from 40% to 90%. The diabetes system pilot helped reduce the proportion of patients with HbA1c rang:9 from 47% to 16%. IT has been implemented as an integral component of an overall Integrated Care strategic initiative. Within this context, Integrated Care IT has helped to achieve significant improvements in care outcomes, broken down barriers between health system silos, and contributed to the establishment of a system of care continuum that is better for patients.

  12. Information Integration Architecture Development

    OpenAIRE

    Faulkner, Stéphane; Kolp, Manuel; Nguyen, Duy Thai; Coyette, Adrien; Do, Thanh Tung; 16th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) architectures are gaining popularity for building open, distributed, and evolving software required by systems such as information integration applications. Unfortunately, despite considerable work in software architecture during the last decade, few research efforts have aimed at truly defining patterns and languages for designing such multiagent architectures. We propose a modern approach based on organizational structures and architectural description lan...

  13. When Are New Hippocampal Neurons, Born in the Adult Brain, Integrated into the Network That Processes Spatial Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, C. Jimena; Pérez, Oswaldo; Ramírez-Amaya, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) functionally integrate into the behaviorally relevant hippocampal networks, showing a specific Arc-expression response to spatial exploration when mature. However, it is not clear when, during the 4- to 6-week interval that is critical for survival and maturation of these neurons, this specific response develops. Therefore, we characterized Arc expression after spatial exploration or cage control conditions in adult-born neurons from rats that were injected with BrdU on one day and were sacrificed 1, 7, 15, 30, and 45 days post-BrdU injection (PBI). Triple immunostaining for NeuN, Arc, and BrdU was analyzed through the different DG layers. Arc protein expression in BrdU-positive cells was observed from day 1 to day 15 PBI but was not related to behavioral stimulation. The specific Arc-expression response to spatial exploration was observed from day 30 and 45 in about 5% of the BrdU-positive cell population. Most of the BrdU-positive neurons expressing Arc in response to spatial exploration (∼90%) were located in DG layer 1, and no Arc expression was observed in cells located in the subgranular zone (SGZ). Using the current data and that obtained previously, we propose a mathematical model suggesting that new neurons are unlikely to respond to exploration by expressing Arc after they are 301 days old, and also that in a 7-month-old rat the majority (60%) of the neurons that respond to exploration must have been born during adulthood; thus, suggesting that adult neurogenesis in the DG is highly relevant for spatial information processing. PMID:21408012

  14. Brain control and information transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehovnik, Edward J; Chen, Lewis L

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we examine the importance of having a body as essential for the brain to transfer information about the outside world to generate appropriate motor responses. We discuss the context-dependent conditioning of the motor control neural circuits and its dependence on the completion of feedback loops, which is in close agreement with the insights of Hebb and colleagues, who have stressed that for learning to occur the body must be intact and able to interact with the outside world. Finally, we apply information theory to data from published studies to evaluate the robustness of the neuronal signals obtained by bypassing the body (as used for brain-machine interfaces) versus via the body to move in the world. We show that recording from a group of neurons that bypasses the body exhibits a vastly degraded level of transfer of information as compared to that of an entire brain using the body to engage in the normal execution of behaviour. We conclude that body sensations provide more than just feedback for movements; they sustain the necessary transfer of information as animals explore their environment, thereby creating associations through learning. This work has implications for the development of brain-machine interfaces used to move external devices.

  15. Creating the brain and interacting with the brain: an integrated approach to understanding the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Jun; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades, brain science and robotics have made gigantic advances in their own fields, and their interactions have generated several interdisciplinary research fields. First, in the ‘understanding the brain by creating the brain’ approach, computational neuroscience models have been applied to many robotics problems. Second, such brain-motivated fields as cognitive robotics and developmental robotics have emerged as interdisciplinary areas among robotics, neuroscience and cognitive science with special emphasis on humanoid robots. Third, in brain–machine interface research, a brain and a robot are mutually connected within a closed loop. In this paper, we review the theoretical backgrounds of these three interdisciplinary fields and their recent progress. Then, we introduce recent efforts to reintegrate these research fields into a coherent perspective and propose a new direction that integrates brain science and robotics where the decoding of information from the brain, robot control based on the decoded information and multimodal feedback to the brain from the robot are carried out in real time and in a closed loop. PMID:25589568

  16. Rule-based Information Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keijzer, Ander; van Keulen, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we show the process of information integration. We specifically discuss the language used for integration. We show that integration consists of two phases, the schema mapping phase and the data integration phase. We formally define transformation rules, conversion, evolution and

  17. Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The purpose of ICIS is to meet evolving Enforcement and Compliance business needs for EPA and State users by integrating information into a single integrated data...

  18. Markers for blood-brain barrier integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in brain barriers and various roles their intrinsic mechanisms may play in neurological disorders. Such studies require suitable models and markers to demonstrate integrity and functional changes at the interfaces between blood, brain......, and cerebrospinal fluid. Studies of brain barrier mechanisms and measurements of plasma volume using dyes have a long-standing history, dating back to the late nineteenth-century. Their use in blood-brain barrier studies continues in spite of their known serious limitations in in vivo applications. These were well...... known when first introduced, but seem to have been forgotten since. Understanding these limitations is important because Evans blue is still the most commonly used marker of brain barrier integrity and those using it seem oblivious to problems arising from its in vivo application. The introduction...

  19. Information Integration Technology Demonstration (IITD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loe, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the Information Integration Technology Demonstration (IITD) were to investigate, design a software architecture and demonstrate a capability to display intelligence data from multiple disciplines...

  20. Probabilistic XML in Information Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keijzer, Ander; Shim, J.; Casati, F.

    2006-01-01

    Information integration is a difficult research problem. In an ambient environment, where devices can connect and disconnect arbitrarily, the problem only increases, because data sources may become available at any time, but can also disappear. In such an environment, information integration needs

  1. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA?s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is a compilation of electronic reports on specific substances found in the environment and their potential to cause...

  2. Information flow dynamics in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Afraimovich, Valentin S.; Bick, Christian; Varona, Pablo

    2012-03-01

    Timing and dynamics of information in the brain is a hot field in modern neuroscience. The analysis of the temporal evolution of brain information is crucially important for the understanding of higher cognitive mechanisms in normal and pathological states. From the perspective of information dynamics, in this review we discuss working memory capacity, language dynamics, goal-dependent behavior programming and other functions of brain activity. In contrast with the classical description of information theory, which is mostly algebraic, brain flow information dynamics deals with problems such as the stability/instability of information flows, their quality, the timing of sequential processing, the top-down cognitive control of perceptual information, and information creation. In this framework, different types of information flow instabilities correspond to different cognitive disorders. On the other hand, the robustness of cognitive activity is related to the control of the information flow stability. We discuss these problems using both experimental and theoretical approaches, and we argue that brain activity is better understood considering information flows in the phase space of the corresponding dynamical model. In particular, we show how theory helps to understand intriguing experimental results in this matter, and how recent knowledge inspires new theoretical formalisms that can be tested with modern experimental techniques.

  3. Brain network clustering with information flow motifs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Märtens, M.; Meier, J.M.; Hillebrand, Arjan; Tewarie, Prejaas; Van Mieghem, P.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent work has revealed frequency-dependent global patterns of information flow by a network analysis of magnetoencephalography data of the human brain. However, it is unknown which properties on a small subgraph-scale of those functional brain networks are dominant at different frequencies bands.

  4. Information dynamics of brain-heart physiological networks during sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, L.; Nollo, G.; Jurysta, F.; Marinazzo, D.

    2014-10-01

    This study proposes an integrated approach, framed in the emerging fields of network physiology and information dynamics, for the quantitative analysis of brain-heart interaction networks during sleep. With this approach, the time series of cardiac vagal autonomic activity and brain wave activities measured respectively as the normalized high frequency component of heart rate variability and the EEG power in the δ, θ, α, σ, and β bands, are considered as realizations of the stochastic processes describing the dynamics of the heart system and of different brain sub-systems. Entropy-based measures are exploited to quantify the predictive information carried by each (sub)system, and to dissect this information into a part actively stored in the system and a part transferred to it from the other connected systems. The application of this approach to polysomnographic recordings of ten healthy subjects led us to identify a structured network of sleep brain-brain and brain-heart interactions, with the node described by the β EEG power acting as a hub which conveys the largest amount of information flowing between the heart and brain nodes. This network was found to be sustained mostly by the transitions across different sleep stages, as the information transfer was weaker during specific stages than during the whole night, and vanished progressively when moving from light sleep to deep sleep and to REM sleep.

  5. Data integration through brain atlasing: Human Brain Project tools and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Ingvild E; Øvsthus, Martin; Papp, Eszter A; Yates, Sharon C; Silvestri, Ludovico; Fiorilli, Julien; Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Pavone, Francesco S; Puchades, Maja A; Leergaard, Trygve B; Bjaalie, Jan G

    2018-04-01

    The Human Brain Project (HBP), an EU Flagship Initiative, is currently building an infrastructure that will allow integration of large amounts of heterogeneous neuroscience data. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and its diseases, and beyond this to emulate the computational capabilities of the brain. Reference atlases of the brain are one of the key components in this infrastructure. Based on a new generation of three-dimensional (3D) reference atlases, new solutions for analyzing and integrating brain data are being developed. HBP will build services for spatial query and analysis of brain data comparable to current online services for geospatial data. The services will provide interactive access to a wide range of data types that have information about anatomical location tied to them. The 3D volumetric nature of the brain, however, introduces a new level of complexity that requires a range of tools for making use of and interacting with the atlases. With such new tools, neuroscience research groups will be able to connect their data to atlas space, share their data through online data systems, and search and find other relevant data through the same systems. This new approach partly replaces earlier attempts to organize research data based only on a set of semantic terminologies describing the brain and its subdivisions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  6. Information processing in miniature brains

    OpenAIRE

    Chittka, L.; Skorupski, P.

    2011-01-01

    Since a comprehensive understanding of brain function and evolution in vertebrates is often hobbled by the sheer size of the nervous system, as well as ethical concerns, major research efforts have been made to understand the neural circuitry underpinning behaviour and cognition in invertebrates, and its costs and benefits under natural conditions. This special feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B contains an idiosyncratic range of current research perspectives on neural underpinning...

  7. Pain: a distributed brain information network?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Mano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how pain is processed in the brain has been an enduring puzzle, because there doesn't appear to be a single "pain cortex" that directly codes the subjective perception of pain. An emerging concept is that, instead, pain might emerge from the coordinated activity of an integrated brain network. In support of this view, Woo and colleagues present evidence that distinct brain networks support the subjective changes in pain that result from nociceptive input and self-directed cognitive modulation. This evidence for the sensitivity of distinct neural subsystems to different aspects of pain opens up the way to more formal computational network theories of pain.

  8. Genomic integrity and the ageing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Hei-man; Herrup, Karl

    2015-11-01

    DNA damage is correlated with and may drive the ageing process. Neurons in the brain are postmitotic and are excluded from many forms of DNA repair; therefore, neurons are vulnerable to various neurodegenerative diseases. The challenges facing the field are to understand how and when neuronal DNA damage accumulates, how this loss of genomic integrity might serve as a 'time keeper' of nerve cell ageing and why this process manifests itself as different diseases in different individuals.

  9. Theoretical information reuse and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Information Reuse and Integration addresses the efficient extension and creation of knowledge through the exploitation of Kolmogorov complexity in the extraction and application of domain symmetry. Knowledge, which seems to be novel, can more often than not be recast as the image of a sequence of transformations, which yield symmetric knowledge. When the size of those transformations and/or the length of that sequence of transforms exceeds the size of the image, then that image is said to be novel or random. It may also be that the new knowledge is random in that no such sequence of transforms, which produces it exists, or is at least known. The nine chapters comprising this volume incorporate symmetry, reuse, and integration as overt operational procedures or as operations built into the formal representations of data and operators employed. Either way, the aforementioned theoretical underpinnings of information reuse and integration are supported.

  10. Integrated risk information system (IRIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuxen, L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is an electronic information system developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) containing information related to health risk assessment. IRIS is the Agency`s primary vehicle for communication of chronic health hazard information that represents Agency consensus following comprehensive review by intra-Agency work groups. The original purpose for developing IRIS was to provide guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This original purpose for developing IRIS was to guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This role has expanded and evolved with wider access and use of the system. IRIS contains chemical-specific information in summary format for approximately 500 chemicals. IRIS is available to the general public on the National Library of Medicine`s Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) and on diskettes through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

  11. Human midsagittal brain shape variation: patterns, allometry and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Emiliano; Martin-Loeches, Manuel; Colom, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Midsagittal cerebral morphology provides a homologous geometrical reference for brain shape and cortical vs. subcortical spatial relationships. In this study, midsagittal brain shape variation is investigated in a sample of 102 humans, in order to describe and quantify the major patterns of correlation between morphological features, the effect of size and sex on general anatomy, and the degree of integration between different cortical and subcortical areas. The only evident pattern of covariation was associated with fronto-parietal cortical bulging. The allometric component was weak for the cortical profile, but more robust for the posterior subcortical areas. Apparent sex differences were evidenced in size but not in brain shape. Cortical and subcortical elements displayed scarcely integrated changes, suggesting a modular separation between these two areas. However, a certain correlation was found between posterior subcortical and parietal cortical variations. These results should be directly integrated with information ranging from functional craniology to wiring organization, and with hypotheses linking brain shape and the mechanical properties of neurons during morphogenesis. PMID:20345859

  12. An information integration theory of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tononi Giulio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consciousness poses two main problems. The first is understanding the conditions that determine to what extent a system has conscious experience. For instance, why is our consciousness generated by certain parts of our brain, such as the thalamocortical system, and not by other parts, such as the cerebellum? And why are we conscious during wakefulness and much less so during dreamless sleep? The second problem is understanding the conditions that determine what kind of consciousness a system has. For example, why do specific parts of the brain contribute specific qualities to our conscious experience, such as vision and audition? Presentation of the hypothesis This paper presents a theory about what consciousness is and how it can be measured. According to the theory, consciousness corresponds to the capacity of a system to integrate information. This claim is motivated by two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: differentiation – the availability of a very large number of conscious experiences; and integration – the unity of each such experience. The theory states that the quantity of consciousness available to a system can be measured as the Φ value of a complex of elements. Φ is the amount of causally effective information that can be integrated across the informational weakest link of a subset of elements. A complex is a subset of elements with Φ>0 that is not part of a subset of higher Φ. The theory also claims that the quality of consciousness is determined by the informational relationships among the elements of a complex, which are specified by the values of effective information among them. Finally, each particular conscious experience is specified by the value, at any given time, of the variables mediating informational interactions among the elements of a complex. Testing the hypothesis The information integration theory accounts, in a principled manner, for several neurobiological observations

  13. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  14. Natural brain-information interfaces: Recommending information by relevance inferred from human brain signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Manuel J. A.; Ruotsalo, Tuukka; Spapé, Michiel M.; Barral, Oswald; Ravaja, Niklas; Jacucci, Giulio; Kaski, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Finding relevant information from large document collections such as the World Wide Web is a common task in our daily lives. Estimation of a user’s interest or search intention is necessary to recommend and retrieve relevant information from these collections. We introduce a brain-information interface used for recommending information by relevance inferred directly from brain signals. In experiments, participants were asked to read Wikipedia documents about a selection of topics while their EEG was recorded. Based on the prediction of word relevance, the individual’s search intent was modeled and successfully used for retrieving new relevant documents from the whole English Wikipedia corpus. The results show that the users’ interests toward digital content can be modeled from the brain signals evoked by reading. The introduced brain-relevance paradigm enables the recommendation of information without any explicit user interaction and may be applied across diverse information-intensive applications. PMID:27929077

  15. Brain activity patterns uniquely supporting visual feature integration after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali eRaja Beharelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI patients typically respond more slowly and with more variability than controls during tasks of attention requiring speeded reaction time. These behavioral changes are attributable, at least in part, to diffuse axonal injury (DAI, which affects integrated processing in distributed systems. Here we use a multivariate method sensitive to distributed neural activity to compare brain activity patterns of patients with chronic phase moderate-to-severe TBI to those of controls during performance on a visual feature-integration task assessing complex attentional processes that has previously shown sensitivity to TBI. The TBI patients were carefully screened to be free of large focal lesions that can affect performance and brain activation independently of DAI. The task required subjects to hold either one or three features of a target in mind while suppressing responses to distracting information. In controls, the multi-feature condition activated a distributed network including limbic, prefrontal, and medial temporal structures. TBI patients engaged this same network in the single-feature and baseline conditions. In multi-feature presentations, TBI patients alone activated additional frontal, parietal, and occipital regions. These results are consistent with neuroimaging studies using tasks assessing different cognitive domains, where increased spread of brain activity changes was associated with TBI. Our results also extend previous findings that brain activity for relatively moderate task demands in TBI patients is similar to that associated with of high task demands in controls.

  16. Cyberinfrastructure for the digital brain: spatial standards for integrating rodent brain atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, Ilya; Baldock, Richard A; Boline, Jyl

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research entails capture and analysis of massive data volumes and new discoveries arise from data-integration and mining. This is only possible if data can be mapped onto a common framework such as the genome for genomic data. In neuroscience, the framework is intrinsically spatial and based on a number of paper atlases. This cannot meet today's data-intensive analysis and integration challenges. A scalable and extensible software infrastructure that is standards based but open for novel data and resources, is required for integrating information such as signal distributions, gene-expression, neuronal connectivity, electrophysiology, anatomy, and developmental processes. Therefore, the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) initiated the development of a spatial framework for neuroscience data integration with an associated Digital Atlasing Infrastructure (DAI). A prototype implementation of this infrastructure for the rodent brain is reported here. The infrastructure is based on a collection of reference spaces to which data is mapped at the required resolution, such as the Waxholm Space (WHS), a 3D reconstruction of the brain generated using high-resolution, multi-channel microMRI. The core standards of the digital atlasing service-oriented infrastructure include Waxholm Markup Language (WaxML): XML schema expressing a uniform information model for key elements such as coordinate systems, transformations, points of interest (POI)s, labels, and annotations; and Atlas Web Services: interfaces for querying and updating atlas data. The services return WaxML-encoded documents with information about capabilities, spatial reference systems (SRSs) and structures, and execute coordinate transformations and POI-based requests. Key elements of INCF-DAI cyberinfrastructure have been prototyped for both mouse and rat brain atlas sources, including the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, UCSD Cell-Centered Database, and Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project.

  17. Cyberinfrastructure for the digital brain: spatial standards for integrating rodent brain atlases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya eZaslavsky

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical research entails capture and analysis of massive data volumes and new discoveries arise from data-integration and mining. This is only possible if data can be mapped onto a common framework such as the genome for genomic data. In neuroscience, the framework is intrinsically spatial and based on a number of paper atlases. This cannot meet today’s data-intensive analysis and integration challenges. A scalable and extensible software infrastructure that is standards based but open for novel data and resources, is required for integrating information such as signal distributions, gene-expression, neuronal connectivity, electrophysiology, anatomy, and developmental processes. Therefore, the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF initiated the development of a spatial framework for neuroscience data integration with an associated Digital Atlasing Infrastructure (DAI. A prototype implementation of this infrastructure for the rodent brain is reported here. The infrastructure is based on a collection of reference spaces to which data is mapped at the required resolution, such as the Waxholm Space (WHS, a 3D reconstruction of the brain generated using high-resolution, multi-channel microMRI. The core standards of the digital atlasing service-oriented infrastructure include Waxholm Markup Language (WaxML: XML schema expressing a uniform information model for key elements such as coordinate systems, transformations, points of interest (POIs, labels, and annotations; and Atlas Web Services: interfaces for querying and updating atlas data. The services return WaxML-encoded documents with information about capabilities, spatial reference systems and structures, and execute coordinate transformations and POI-based requests. Key elements of INCF-DAI cyberinfrastructure have been prototyped for both mouse and rat brain atlas sources, including the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, UCSD Cell-Centered Database, and Edinburgh Mouse Atlas

  18. Information Security and Integrity Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs from the Information Security and Integrity Systems seminar held at the University of Houston-Clear Lake on May 15-16, 1990 are presented. A tutorial on computer security is presented. The goals of this tutorial are the following: to review security requirements imposed by government and by common sense; to examine risk analysis methods to help keep sight of forest while in trees; to discuss the current hot topic of viruses (which will stay hot); to examine network security, now and in the next year to 30 years; to give a brief overview of encryption; to review protection methods in operating systems; to review database security problems; to review the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (Orange Book); to comment on formal verification methods; to consider new approaches (like intrusion detection and biometrics); to review the old, low tech, and still good solutions; and to give pointers to the literature and to where to get help. Other topics covered include security in software applications and development; risk management; trust: formal methods and associated techniques; secure distributed operating system and verification; trusted Ada; a conceptual model for supporting a B3+ dynamic multilevel security and integrity in the Ada runtime environment; and information intelligence sciences.

  19. Brain networks underlying mental imagery of auditory and visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Clemens, Benjamin; Chechko, Natalya; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Sack, Alexander T; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-05-01

    Mental imagery is a complex cognitive process that resembles the experience of perceiving an object when this object is not physically present to the senses. It has been shown that, depending on the sensory nature of the object, mental imagery also involves correspondent sensory neural mechanisms. However, it remains unclear which areas of the brain subserve supramodal imagery processes that are independent of the object modality, and which brain areas are involved in modality-specific imagery processes. Here, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study to reveal supramodal and modality-specific networks of mental imagery for auditory and visual information. A common supramodal brain network independent of imagery modality, two separate modality-specific networks for imagery of auditory and visual information, and a common deactivation network were identified. The supramodal network included brain areas related to attention, memory retrieval, motor preparation and semantic processing, as well as areas considered to be part of the default-mode network and multisensory integration areas. The modality-specific networks comprised brain areas involved in processing of respective modality-specific sensory information. Interestingly, we found that imagery of auditory information led to a relative deactivation within the modality-specific areas for visual imagery, and vice versa. In addition, mental imagery of both auditory and visual information widely suppressed the activity of primary sensory and motor areas, for example deactivation network. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms that are involved in generation of mental imagery. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. New Information about Albert Einstein's Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Dean

    2009-01-01

    In order to glean information about hominin (or other) brains that no longer exist, details of external neuroanatomy that are reproduced on endocranial casts (endocasts) from fossilized braincases may be described and interpreted. Despite being, of necessity, speculative, such studies can be very informative when conducted in light of the literature on comparative neuroanatomy, paleontology, and functional imaging studies. Albert Einstein's brain no longer exists in an intact state, but there are photographs of it in various views. Applying techniques developed from paleoanthropology, previously unrecognized details of external neuroanatomy are identified on these photographs. This information should be of interest to paleoneurologists, comparative neuroanatomists, historians of science, and cognitive neuroscientists. The new identifications of cortical features should also be archived for future scholars who will have access to additional information from improved functional imaging technology. Meanwhile, to the extent possible, Einstein's cerebral cortex is investigated in light of available data about variation in human sulcal patterns. Although much of his cortical surface was unremarkable, regions in and near Einstein's primary somatosensory and motor cortices were unusual. It is possible that these atypical aspects of Einstein's cerebral cortex were related to the difficulty with which he acquired language, his preference for thinking in sensory impressions including visual images rather than words, and his early training on the violin.

  1. Functional brain networks underlying detection and integration of disconfirmatory evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Katie M; Metzak, Paul D; Woodward, Todd S

    2015-05-15

    Processing evidence that disconfirms a prior interpretation is a fundamental aspect of belief revision, and has clear social and clinical relevance. This complex cognitive process requires (at minimum) an alerting stage and an integration stage, and in the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we used multivariate analysis methodology on two datasets in an attempt to separate these sequentially-activated cognitive stages and link them to distinct functional brain networks. Thirty-nine healthy participants completed one of two versions of an evidence integration experiment involving rating two consecutive animal images, both of which consisted of two intact images of animal faces morphed together at different ratios (e.g., 70/30 bird/dolphin followed by 10/90 bird/dolphin). The two versions of the experiment differed primarily in terms of stimulus presentation and timing, which facilitated functional interpretation of brain networks based on differences in the hemodynamic response shapes between versions. The data were analyzed using constrained principal component analysis for fMRI (fMRI-CPCA), which allows distinct, simultaneously active task-based networks to be separated, and these were interpreted using both temporal (task-based hemodynamic response shapes) and spatial (dominant brain regions) information. Three networks showed increased activity during integration of disconfirmatory relative to confirmatory evidence: (1) a network involved in alerting to the requirement to revise an interpretation, identified as the salience network (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral insula); (2) a sensorimotor response-related network (pre- and post-central gyri, supplementary motor area, and thalamus); and (3) an integration network involving rostral prefrontal, orbitofrontal and posterior parietal cortex. These three networks were staggered in their peak activity (alerting, responding, then integrating), but at certain time points (e

  2. Finding influential nodes for integration in brain networks using optimal percolation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Ferraro, Gino; Moreno, Andrea; Min, Byungjoon; Morone, Flaviano; Pérez-Ramírez, Úrsula; Pérez-Cervera, Laura; Parra, Lucas C; Holodny, Andrei; Canals, Santiago; Makse, Hernán A

    2018-06-11

    Global integration of information in the brain results from complex interactions of segregated brain networks. Identifying the most influential neuronal populations that efficiently bind these networks is a fundamental problem of systems neuroscience. Here, we apply optimal percolation theory and pharmacogenetic interventions in vivo to predict and subsequently target nodes that are essential for global integration of a memory network in rodents. The theory predicts that integration in the memory network is mediated by a set of low-degree nodes located in the nucleus accumbens. This result is confirmed with pharmacogenetic inactivation of the nucleus accumbens, which eliminates the formation of the memory network, while inactivations of other brain areas leave the network intact. Thus, optimal percolation theory predicts essential nodes in brain networks. This could be used to identify targets of interventions to modulate brain function.

  3. Brain Radiation Information Data Exchange (BRIDE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karapiperis, Christos; Kempf, Stefan J; Quintens, Roel

    2016-01-01

    studies. It deploys a hybrid, distributed solution using both local storage and cloud technology. Conclusions: BRIDE can act as a knowledge broker for LDIR researchers, to facilitate molecular research on the systems biology of LDIR response in mammals. Its flexible design can capture a range...... using omics technologies. Results: We describe a light-weight approach for the storage, analysis and distribution of relevant LDIR omics datasets. The data integration platform, called BRIDE, contains information from the literature as well as experimental information from transcriptomics and proteomics...

  4. Information Integration; The process of integration, evolution and versioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keijzer, Ander; van Keulen, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    At present, many information sources are available wherever you are. Most of the time, the information needed is spread across several of those information sources. Gathering this information is a tedious and time consuming job. Automating this process would assist the user in its task. Integration

  5. Efficient Algorithms for Searching the Minimum Information Partition in Integrated Information Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazono, Jun; Kanai, Ryota; Oizumi, Masafumi

    2018-03-01

    The ability to integrate information in the brain is considered to be an essential property for cognition and consciousness. Integrated Information Theory (IIT) hypothesizes that the amount of integrated information ($\\Phi$) in the brain is related to the level of consciousness. IIT proposes that to quantify information integration in a system as a whole, integrated information should be measured across the partition of the system at which information loss caused by partitioning is minimized, called the Minimum Information Partition (MIP). The computational cost for exhaustively searching for the MIP grows exponentially with system size, making it difficult to apply IIT to real neural data. It has been previously shown that if a measure of $\\Phi$ satisfies a mathematical property, submodularity, the MIP can be found in a polynomial order by an optimization algorithm. However, although the first version of $\\Phi$ is submodular, the later versions are not. In this study, we empirically explore to what extent the algorithm can be applied to the non-submodular measures of $\\Phi$ by evaluating the accuracy of the algorithm in simulated data and real neural data. We find that the algorithm identifies the MIP in a nearly perfect manner even for the non-submodular measures. Our results show that the algorithm allows us to measure $\\Phi$ in large systems within a practical amount of time.

  6. Development of the Integrated Information Technology System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Information Technology System (IMITS) Program is focused on implementation of advanced technology solutions that eliminate inefficiencies, increase utilization and improve quality of care for active duty forces...

  7. Community integration after severe traumatic brain injury in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelle, Jean-Luc; Fayol, Patrick; Montreuil, Michèle; Chevignard, Mathilde

    2010-12-01

    Despite being the main cause of death and disability in young adults, traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a rather neglected epidemic. Community integration of persons with TBI was, until recently, insufficiently informed by clinical research. To bridge the gap between rehabilitation and community re-entry, the first task is to assess the person, using TBI-specific outcome measures. The second task is to provide re-entry programs, the effectiveness of which is assessed by those measures, using well designed studies. There are very few such studies. However, there are some effective comprehensive programs and others which are specifically targeted dealing mainly with return to work, behavior, and family issues. The complex psychological and environmental components of the disability require individualized and often long-term care. For persons with severe TBI trying to achieve the best possible community integration a new semiology is required, not just limited to medical care, but also involving social and psychological care that is tailored to the needs of each individual and family, living within his/her environment. Currently, only a minority benefit from well validated programs.

  8. Integrating Information & Communications Technologies into the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, Lawrence, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Integrating Information & Communications Technologies Into the Classroom" examines topics critical to business, computer science, and information technology education, such as: school improvement and reform, standards-based technology education programs, data-driven decision making, and strategic technology education planning. This book also…

  9. Models of neural dynamics in brain information processing - the developments of 'the decade'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisyuk, G N; Borisyuk, R M; Kazanovich, Yakov B; Ivanitskii, Genrikh R

    2002-01-01

    Neural network models are discussed that have been developed during the last decade with the purpose of reproducing spatio-temporal patterns of neural activity in different brain structures. The main goal of the modeling was to test hypotheses of synchronization, temporal and phase relations in brain information processing. The models being considered are those of temporal structure of spike sequences, of neural activity dynamics, and oscillatory models of attention and feature integration. (reviews of topical problems)

  10. The Virtual Brain Integrates Computational Modeling and Multimodal Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirner, Michael; McIntosh, Anthony R.; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Brain function is thought to emerge from the interactions among neuronal populations. Apart from traditional efforts to reproduce brain dynamics from the micro- to macroscopic scales, complementary approaches develop phenomenological models of lower complexity. Such macroscopic models typically generate only a few selected—ideally functionally relevant—aspects of the brain dynamics. Importantly, they often allow an understanding of the underlying mechanisms beyond computational reproduction. Adding detail to these models will widen their ability to reproduce a broader range of dynamic features of the brain. For instance, such models allow for the exploration of consequences of focal and distributed pathological changes in the system, enabling us to identify and develop approaches to counteract those unfavorable processes. Toward this end, The Virtual Brain (TVB) (www.thevirtualbrain.org), a neuroinformatics platform with a brain simulator that incorporates a range of neuronal models and dynamics at its core, has been developed. This integrated framework allows the model-based simulation, analysis, and inference of neurophysiological mechanisms over several brain scales that underlie the generation of macroscopic neuroimaging signals. In this article, we describe how TVB works, and we present the first proof of concept. PMID:23442172

  11. Unveiling the mystery of visual information processing in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-08-15

    It is generally accepted that human vision is an extremely powerful information processing system that facilitates our interaction with the surrounding world. However, despite extended and extensive research efforts, which encompass many exploration fields, the underlying fundamentals and operational principles of visual information processing in human brain remain unknown. We still are unable to figure out where and how along the path from eyes to the cortex the sensory input perceived by the retina is converted into a meaningful object representation, which can be consciously manipulated by the brain. Studying the vast literature considering the various aspects of brain information processing, I was surprised to learn that the respected scholarly discussion is totally indifferent to the basic keynote question: "What is information?" in general or "What is visual information?" in particular. In the old days, it was assumed that any scientific research approach has first to define its basic departure points. Why was it overlooked in brain information processing research remains a conundrum. In this paper, I am trying to find a remedy for this bizarre situation. I propose an uncommon definition of "information", which can be derived from Kolmogorov's Complexity Theory and Chaitin's notion of Algorithmic Information. Embracing this new definition leads to an inevitable revision of traditional dogmas that shape the state of the art of brain information processing research. I hope this revision would better serve the challenging goal of human visual information processing modeling.

  12. Experiences of giving and receiving care in traumatic brain injury: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivunja, Stephen; River, Jo; Gullick, Janice

    2018-04-01

    To synthesise the literature on the experiences of giving or receiving care for traumatic brain injury for people with traumatic brain injury, their family members and nurses in hospital and rehabilitation settings. Traumatic brain injury represents a major source of physical, social and economic burden. In the hospital setting, people with traumatic brain injury feel excluded from decision-making processes and perceive impatient care. Families describe inadequate information and support for psychological distress. Nurses find the care of people with traumatic brain injury challenging particularly when experiencing heavy workloads. To date, a contemporary synthesis of the literature on people with traumatic brain injury, family and nurse experiences of traumatic brain injury care has not been conducted. Integrative literature review. A systematic search strategy guided by the PRISMA statement was conducted in CINAHL, PubMed, Proquest, EMBASE and Google Scholar. Whittemore and Knafl's (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52, 2005, 546) integrative review framework guided data reduction, data display, data comparison and conclusion verification. Across the three participant categories (people with traumatic brain injury/family members/nurses) and sixteen subcategories, six cross-cutting themes emerged: seeking personhood, navigating challenging behaviour, valuing skills and competence, struggling with changed family responsibilities, maintaining productive partnerships and reflecting on workplace culture. Traumatic brain injury creates changes in physical, cognitive and emotional function that challenge known ways of being in the world for people. This alters relationship dynamics within families and requires a specific skill set among nurses. Recommendations include the following: (i) formal inclusion of people with traumatic brain injury and families in care planning, (ii) routine risk screening for falls and challenging behaviour to ensure that controls are based on

  13. Patients' experiences and care needs during the diagnostic phase of an Integrated Brain Cancer Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedelø, Tina Wang; Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann; Delmar, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    of brain cancer, not knowing what to expect and participants' perceptions of the relationship with the health care providers. The analysis revealed that participants were in risk of having unmet information needs and that contextual factors seemed to cause fragmented care that led to feelings...... that the shock of the diagnosis, combined with the multiple symptoms, affect patients' ability to understand information and express needs of care and support. Unmet needs have been reported within this group of patients, however, the experiences and care needs of patients going through the diagnostic phase...... of a standardised Integrated Brain Cancer Pathway have not previously been explored. DESIGN: A Case Study design was used to provide detailed information of the complex needs of patients being diagnosed with a malignant brain tumour. METHODS: Research interviews and direct participant observation of four patients...

  14. Risk Informed Structural Systems Integrity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber

    2017-01-01

    The present paper is predominantly a conceptual contribution with an appraisal of major developments in risk informed structural integrity management for offshore installations together with a discussion of their merits and the challenges which still lie ahead. Starting point is taken in a selected...... overview of research and development contributions which have formed the basis for Risk Based Inspection Planning (RBI) as we know it today. Thereafter an outline of the methodical basis for risk informed structural systems integrity management, i.e. the Bayesian decision analysis is provided in summary....... The main focus is here directed on RBI for offshore facilities subject to fatigue damages. New ideas and methodical frameworks in the area of robustness and resilience modeling of structural systems are then introduced, and it is outlined how these may adequately be utilized to enhance Structural Integrity...

  15. Integrated plant information technology design support functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Seung; Kim, Dae Jin; Barber, P. W.; Goland, D.

    1996-06-01

    This technical report was written as a result of Integrated Plant Information System (IPIS) feasibility study on CANDU 9 project which had been carried out from January, 1994 to March, 1994 at AECL (Atomic Energy Canada Limited) in Canada. From 1987, AECL had done endeavour to change engineering work process from paper based work process to computer based work process through CANDU 3 project. Even though AECL had a lot of good results form computerizing the Process Engineering, Instrumentation Control and Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Computer Aided Design and Drafting, and Document Management System, but there remains the problem of information isolation and integration. On this feasibility study, IPIS design support functionality guideline was suggested by evaluating current AECL CAE tools, analyzing computer aided engineering task and work flow, investigating request for implementing integrated computer aided engineering and describing Korean request for future CANDU design including CANDU 9. 6 figs. (Author)

  16. Integrated plant information technology design support functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Seung; Kim, Dae Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Barber, P W; Goland, D [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd., (Canada)

    1996-06-01

    This technical report was written as a result of Integrated Plant Information System (IPIS) feasibility study on CANDU 9 project which had been carried out from January, 1994 to March, 1994 at AECL (Atomic Energy Canada Limited) in Canada. From 1987, AECL had done endeavour to change engineering work process from paper based work process to computer based work process through CANDU 3 project. Even though AECL had a lot of good results form computerizing the Process Engineering, Instrumentation Control and Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Computer Aided Design and Drafting, and Document Management System, but there remains the problem of information isolation and integration. On this feasibility study, IPIS design support functionality guideline was suggested by evaluating current AECL CAE tools, analyzing computer aided engineering task and work flow, investigating request for implementing integrated computer aided engineering and describing Korean request for future CANDU design including CANDU 9. 6 figs. (Author).

  17. Information delivery manuals to integrate building product information into design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berard, Ole Bengt; Karlshøj, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Despite continuing BIM progress, professionals in the AEC industry often lack the information they need to perform their work. Although this problem could be alleviated by information systems similar to those in other industries, companies struggle to model processes and information needs...... them in information systems. BIM implies that objects are bearers of information and logic. The present study has three main aims: (1) to explore IDMs capability to capture all four perspectives, (2) to determine whether an IDM’s collaborative methodology is valid for developing standardized processes......, and (3) to ascertain whether IDM’s business rules can support the development of information and logic-bearing BIM objects. The research is based on a case study of re-engineering the bidding process for a design-build project to integrate building product manufacturers, subcontractors...

  18. Reduced integration and improved segregation of functional brain networks in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbara, A; Eid, H; El Falou, W; Khalil, M; Wendling, F; Hassan, M

    2018-04-01

    Emerging evidence shows that cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with disruptions in brain functional connectivity. Thus, the identification of alterations in AD functional networks has become a topic of increasing interest. However, to what extent AD induces disruption of the balance of local and global information processing in the human brain remains elusive. The main objective of this study is to explore the dynamic topological changes of AD networks in terms of brain network segregation and integration. We used electroencephalography (EEG) data recorded from 20 participants (10 AD patients and 10 healthy controls) during resting state. Functional brain networks were reconstructed using EEG source connectivity computed in different frequency bands. Graph theoretical analyses were performed assess differences between both groups. Results revealed that AD networks, compared to networks of age-matched healthy controls, are characterized by lower global information processing (integration) and higher local information processing (segregation). Results showed also significant correlation between the alterations in the AD patients' functional brain networks and their cognitive scores. These findings may contribute to the development of EEG network-based test that could strengthen results obtained from currently-used neurophysiological tests in neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Reduced integration and improved segregation of functional brain networks in Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbara, A.; Eid, H.; El Falou, W.; Khalil, M.; Wendling, F.; Hassan, M.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Emerging evidence shows that cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are associated with disruptions in brain functional connectivity. Thus, the identification of alterations in AD functional networks has become a topic of increasing interest. However, to what extent AD induces disruption of the balance of local and global information processing in the human brain remains elusive. The main objective of this study is to explore the dynamic topological changes of AD networks in terms of brain network segregation and integration. Approach. We used electroencephalography (EEG) data recorded from 20 participants (10 AD patients and 10 healthy controls) during resting state. Functional brain networks were reconstructed using EEG source connectivity computed in different frequency bands. Graph theoretical analyses were performed assess differences between both groups. Main results. Results revealed that AD networks, compared to networks of age-matched healthy controls, are characterized by lower global information processing (integration) and higher local information processing (segregation). Results showed also significant correlation between the alterations in the AD patients’ functional brain networks and their cognitive scores. Significance. These findings may contribute to the development of EEG network-based test that could strengthen results obtained from currently-used neurophysiological tests in neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Curriculum integrated information literacy: a challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Mette; Kobow, Else; Kristensen, Anne-Kirstine Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    Information literacy is a competence needed for students and for practitioners in the nursing profession. A curriculum integrated intervention was qualitatively evaluated by focus group interviews of students, lecturers and the university librarian. Information literacy makes sense for students...... when it is linked to assignments, timed right, prepared, systematic and continuous. Support is needed to help students understand the meaning of seeking information, to focus their problem and to make them reflect on their search and its results. Feedback on materials used is also asked for...

  1. An integrated brain-behavior model for working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D A; Doucet, G E; Ing, A; Dima, D; Schumann, G; Bilder, R M; Frangou, S

    2017-12-05

    Working memory (WM) is a central construct in cognitive neuroscience because it comprises mechanisms of active information maintenance and cognitive control that underpin most complex cognitive behavior. Individual variation in WM has been associated with multiple behavioral and health features including demographic characteristics, cognitive and physical traits and lifestyle choices. In this context, we used sparse canonical correlation analyses (sCCAs) to determine the covariation between brain imaging metrics of WM-network activation and connectivity and nonimaging measures relating to sensorimotor processing, affective and nonaffective cognition, mental health and personality, physical health and lifestyle choices derived from 823 healthy participants derived from the Human Connectome Project. We conducted sCCAs at two levels: a global level, testing the overall association between the entire imaging and behavioral-health data sets; and a modular level, testing associations between subsets of the two data sets. The behavioral-health and neuroimaging data sets showed significant interdependency. Variables with positive correlation to the neuroimaging variate represented higher physical endurance and fluid intelligence as well as better function in multiple higher-order cognitive domains. Negatively correlated variables represented indicators of suboptimal cardiovascular and metabolic control and lifestyle choices such as alcohol and nicotine use. These results underscore the importance of accounting for behavioral-health factors in neuroimaging studies of WM and provide a neuroscience-informed framework for personalized and public health interventions to promote and maintain the integrity of the WM network.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 5 December 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.247.

  2. INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE PROVIDING BEHAVIORAL FEATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Shvedenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with creation of integrated information system architecture capable of supporting management decisions using behavioral features. The paper considers the architecture of information decision support system for production system management. The behavioral feature is given to an information system, and it ensures extraction, processing of information, management decision-making with both automated and automatic modes of decision-making subsystem being permitted. Practical implementation of information system with behavior is based on service-oriented architecture: there is a set of independent services in the information system that provides data of its subsystems or data processing by separate application under the chosen variant of the problematic situation settlement. For creation of integrated information system with behavior we propose architecture including the following subsystems: data bus, subsystem for interaction with the integrated applications based on metadata, business process management subsystem, subsystem for the current state analysis of the enterprise and management decision-making, behavior training subsystem. For each problematic situation a separate logical layer service is created in Unified Service Bus handling problematic situations. This architecture reduces system information complexity due to the fact that with a constant amount of system elements the number of links decreases, since each layer provides communication center of responsibility for the resource with the services of corresponding applications. If a similar problematic situation occurs, its resolution is automatically removed from problem situation metamodel repository and business process metamodel of its settlement. In the business process performance commands are generated to the corresponding centers of responsibility to settle a problematic situation.

  3. ADRB2, brain white matter integrity and cognitive ageing in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Donald M; Lopez, Lorna M; Bastin, Mark E; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Penke, Lars; Valdés Hernández, Maria del C; Royle, Natalie A; Starr, John M; Porteous, David J; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J

    2013-01-01

    The non-synonymous mutations arg16gly (rs1042713) and gln27glu (rs1042714) in the adrenergic β-2 receptor gene (ADRB2) have been associated with cognitive function and brain white matter integrity. The current study aimed to replicate these findings and expand them to a broader range of cognitive and brain phenotypes. The sample used is a community-dwelling group of older people, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. They had been assessed cognitively at age 11 years, and undertook further cognitive assessments and brain diffusion MRI tractography in older age. The sample size range for cognitive function variables was N = 686-765, and for neuroimaging variables was N = 488-587. Previously-reported findings with these genetic variants did not replicate in this cohort. Novel, nominally significant associations were observed; notably, the integrity of the left arcuate fasciculus mediated the association between rs1042714 and the Digit Symbol Coding test of information processing speed. No significant associations of cognitive and brain phenotypes with ADRB2 variants survived correction for false discovery rate. Previous findings may therefore have been subject to type 1 error. Further study into links between ADRB2, cognitive function and brain white matter integrity is required.

  4. The Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte M.; Jensen, Peter S.; Erritzoe, David

    2016-01-01

    We here describe a multimodality neuroimaging containing data from healthy volunteers and patients, acquired within the Lundbeck Foundation Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) in Copenhagen, Denmark. The data is of particular relevance for neurobiological research questions rela...... currently contains blood and in some instances saliva samples from about 500 healthy volunteers and 300 patients with e.g., major depression, dementia, substance abuse, obesity, and impulsive aggression. Data continue to be added to the Cimbi database and biobank....

  5. Integrated occupational radiation exposure information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, H.W.

    1983-06-01

    The integrated (Occupational Radiation Exposure) data base information system has many advantages. Radiation exposure information is available to operating management in a more timely manner and in a more flexible mode. The ORE system has permitted the integration of scattered files and data to be stored in a more cost-effective method that permits easy and simultaneous access by a variety of users with different data needs. The external storage needs of the radiation exposure source documents are several orders of magnitude less through the use of the computer assisted retrieval techniques employed in the ORE system. Groundwork is being layed to automate the historical files, which are maintained to help describe the radiation protection programs and policies at any one point in time. The file unit will be microfilmed for topical indexing on the ORE data base

  6. FEMA's Integrated Emergency Management Information System (IEMIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaske, R.T.; Meitzler, W.

    1987-01-01

    FEMA is implementing a computerized system for use in optimizing planning, and for supporting exercises of these plans. Called the Integrated Emergency Management Information System (IEMIS), it consists of a base geographic information system upon which analytical models are superimposed in order to load data and report results analytically. At present, it supports FEMA's work in offsite preparedness around nuclear power stations, but is being developed to deal with a full range of natural and technological accident hazards for which emergency evacuation or population movement is required

  7. Integrated Engineering Information Technology, FY93 accommplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.N.; Miller, D.K.; Neugebauer, G.L.; Orona, J.R.; Partridge, R.A.; Herman, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Engineering Information Technology (IEIT) project is providing a comprehensive, easy-to-use computer network solution or communicating with coworkers both inside and outside Sandia National Laboratories. IEIT capabilities include computer networking, electronic mail, mechanical design, and data management. These network-based tools have one fundamental purpose: to help create a concurrent engineering environment that will enable Sandia organizations to excel in today`s increasingly competitive business environment.

  8. Nuclear plants gain integrated information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio-Ramirez, A.; Rodriquez-Alvarez, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    With the objective of simplifying the complex mesh of computing devices employed within nuclear power plants, modern technology and integration techniques are being used to form centralized (but backed up) databases and distributed processing and display networks. Benefits are immediate as a result of the integration and the use of standards. The use of a unique data acquisition and database subsystem optimizes the high costs of engineering, as this task is done only once for the life span of the system. This also contributes towards a uniform user interface and allows for graceful expansion and maintenance. This article features an integrated information system, Sistema Integral de Informacion de Proceso (SIIP). The development of this system enabled the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant to fully use the already existing universe of signals and its related engineering during all plant conditions, namely, start up, normal operation, transient analysis, and emergency operation. Integrated systems offer many advantages over segregated systems, and this experience should benefit similar development efforts in other electric power utilities, not only for nuclear but also for other types of generating plants

  9. Structure-function relationships during segregated and integrated network states of human brain functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Betzel, Richard F; He, Ye; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Sporns, Olaf

    2018-04-01

    Structural white matter connections are thought to facilitate integration of neural information across functionally segregated systems. Recent studies have demonstrated that changes in the balance between segregation and integration in brain networks can be tracked by time-resolved functional connectivity derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data and that fluctuations between segregated and integrated network states are related to human behavior. However, how these network states relate to structural connectivity is largely unknown. To obtain a better understanding of structural substrates for these network states, we investigated how the relationship between structural connectivity, derived from diffusion tractography, and functional connectivity, as measured by rs-fMRI, changes with fluctuations between segregated and integrated states in the human brain. We found that the similarity of edge weights between structural and functional connectivity was greater in the integrated state, especially at edges connecting the default mode and the dorsal attention networks. We also demonstrated that the similarity of network partitions, evaluated between structural and functional connectivity, increased and the density of direct structural connections within modules in functional networks was elevated during the integrated state. These results suggest that, when functional connectivity exhibited an integrated network topology, structural connectivity and functional connectivity were more closely linked to each other and direct structural connections mediated a larger proportion of neural communication within functional modules. Our findings point out the possibility of significant contributions of structural connections to integrative neural processes underlying human behavior.

  10. Functional integrity in children with anoxic brain injury from drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaque, Mariam; Manning, Janessa H; Woolsey, Mary D; Franklin, Crystal G; Tullis, Elizabeth W; Beckmann, Christian F; Fox, Peter T

    2017-10-01

    Drowning is a leading cause of accidental injury and death in young children. Anoxic brain injury (ABI) is a common consequence of drowning and can cause severe neurological morbidity in survivors. Assessment of functional status and prognostication in drowning victims can be extremely challenging, both acutely and chronically. Structural neuroimaging modalities (CT and MRI) have been of limited clinical value. Here, we tested the utility of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) for assessing brain functional integrity in this population. Eleven children with chronic, spastic quadriplegia due to drowning-induced ABI were investigated. All were comatose immediately after the injury and gradually regained consciousness, but with varying ability to communicate their cognitive state. Eleven neurotypical children matched for age and gender formed the control group. Resting-state fMRI and co-registered T1-weighted anatomical MRI were acquired at night during drug-aided sleep. Network integrity was quantified by independent components analysis (ICA), at both group- and per-subject levels. Functional-status assessments based on in-home observations were provided by families and caregivers. Motor ICNs were grossly compromised in ABI patients both group-wise and individually, concordant with their prominent motor deficits. Striking preservations of perceptual and cognitive ICNs were observed, and the degree of network preservation correlated (ρ = 0.74) with the per-subject functional status assessments. Collectively, our findings indicate that rs-fMRI has promise for assessing brain functional integrity in ABI and, potentially, in other disorders. Furthermore, our observations suggest that the severe motor deficits observed in this population can mask relatively intact perceptual and cognitive capabilities. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4813-4831, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Assessing Extinction Risk: Integrating Genetic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Dunham

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Risks of population extinction have been estimated using a variety of methods incorporating information from different spatial and temporal scales. We briefly consider how several broad classes of extinction risk assessments, including population viability analysis, incidence functions, and ranking methods integrate information on different temporal and spatial scales. In many circumstances, data from surveys of neutral genetic variability within, and among, populations can provide information useful for assessing extinction risk. Patterns of genetic variability resulting from past and present ecological and demographic events, can indicate risks of extinction that are otherwise difficult to infer from ecological and demographic analyses alone. We provide examples of how patterns of neutral genetic variability, both within, and among populations, can be used to corroborate and complement extinction risk assessments.

  12. Integrated Information System for Higher Education Qualifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Ionut SILVESTRU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we aim to study thoroughly and detail aspects related to architectures specific for e-learning and management of human resources training interconnected to management of qualifications. In addition, we take into consideration combining e-learning architectures with software in an e-learning system interconnected with the National Registry of Qualifications of Higher Education, in view of developing and information system that correlates educational supply from higher education from Romania with labor market demands through qualifications. The scientific endeavor consists of original architectural solutions to integrate data, systems, processes, services from various sources and to use them in the proposed system. The practical result of the scientific endeavor is represented by design of architectures required for developing an e-learning system interconnected with the National Registry of Qualifications from Romania, which involve in first stage the qualifications provided by higher education. The proposed innovative solution consists in the fact that the proposed information system combines the advantages of content management system (CMS with learning content management system (LCMS and with reusable learning objects (RLO. Thus, the architecture proposed in the research ensures the integration of a content management system with a portal for information, guidance and support in making a professional project. The integration enables correlation of competences with content areas and specific items from various teaching subjects, thus evaluating the usefulness for this registry from learning/educational perspective. Using the proposed information system in enables correlation among qualifications, content of educational program and continuous self-evaluation opportunities, which facilitate monitoring of progress and adjustment of learning content.

  13. ACCOUNTING INFORMATION INTEGRATION TROUGH AN ENTERPRISE PORTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina RIZESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available If companies are lacking integrated enterprise software applications, or they simply do not use them on a large scale, accounting departments have to face lots of difficulties, concerning both the inflexibility in achieving good results and the limited possibility of communicating these results. Thus, most times, accounting departments are limited to generating predefined reports provided by a software application and the most they can do is export these reports into Microsoft Excel. Another cause which leads to late obtaining and publishing of accounting information is the lack of data from other departments and their corresponding software applications. That is why, in many enterprises, accounting data becomes irrelevant for the users. The main goal of this article is to show how accounting can benefit from an integrated software solution, namely an enterprise portal.

  14. Examination of Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) Integrity In A Mouse Brain Tumor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, Ngoc; Mitchell, Ryan; Savant, Sanjot D.; Bachmeier, Corbin. J.; Hatch, Grant M.; Miller, Donald W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluates, both functionally and biochemically, brain tumor-induced alterations in brain capillary endothelial cells. Brain tumors were induced in Balb/c mice via intracranial injection of Lewis Lung carcinoma (3LL) cells into the right hemisphere of the mouse brain using stereotaxic apparatus. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability was assessed at various stages of tumor development, using both radiolabeled tracer permeability and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium diethylene-triamine-pentaacetate contrast enhancement (Gad-DTPA). The expression of the drug efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), in the BBB at various stages of tumor development was also evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Median mouse survival following tumor cell injection was 17 days. The permeability of the BBB to 3H-mannitol was similar in both brain hemispheres at 7 and 10 days post-injection. By day 15, there was a 2-fold increase in 3H-mannitol permeability in the tumor bearing hemispheres compared to the non-tumor hemispheres. Examination of BBB permeability with Gad-DTPA contrast enhanced MRI indicated cerebral vascular permeability changes were confined to the tumor area. The permeability increase observed at the later stages of tumor development correlated with an increase in cerebral vascular volume suggesting angiogenesis within the tumor bearing hemisphere. Furthermore, the Gad-DPTA enhancement observed within the tumor area was significantly less than Gad-DPTA enhancement within the circumventricular organs not protected by the BBB. Expression of P-gp in both the tumor bearing and non-tumor bearing portions of the brain appeared similar at all time points examined. These studies suggest that although BBB integrity is altered within the tumor site at later stages of development, the BBB is still functional and limiting in terms of solute and drug permeability in and around the tumor. PMID:23184143

  15. Integrate offsites management with information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valleur, M. (TECHNIP, Paris (France))

    1993-11-01

    Computerized offsites management systems in oil refineries offer a unique opportunity to integrate advanced technology into a coherent refinery information system that contributes to benefits-driven optimal operations: from long-term, multirefinery linear programming (LP) models to sequential control of transfer lineups in the tank farm. There are strong incentives to automate and optimize the offsites operations, and benefits can be quantified to justify properly sized projects. The paper discusses the following: business opportunities, oil movement and advanced technology, project scoping and sizing, review of functional requirements, transfer automation, blending optimal control, on-line analyzers, oil movement and scheduling, organizational issues, and investment and benefits analysis.

  16. Integrating information for better environmental decisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonell, M.; Morgan, K.; Newland, L.; Environmental Assessment; Texas Christian Univ.

    2002-01-01

    As more is learned about the complex nature and extent of environmental impacts from progressive human disturbance, scientists, policy analysts, decision makers, educators, and communicators are increasingly joining forces to develop strategies for preserving and protecting the environment. The Eco-Informa Foundation is an educational scientific organization dedicated to promoting the collaborative development and sharing of scientific information. The Foundation participated in a recent international conference on environmental informatics through a special symposium on integrating information for better environmental decisions. Presentations focused on four general themes: (1) remote sensing and data interpretation, including through new knowledge management tools; (2) risk assessment and communication, including for radioactively contaminated facilities, introduced biological hazards, and food safety; (3) community involvement in cleanup projects; and (4) environmental education. The general context for related issues, methods and applications, and results and recommendations from those discussions are highlighted here.

  17. Representation and Integration of Scientific Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this Joint Research Interchange with NASA-Ames was to investigate how the Tsimmis technology could be used to represent and integrate scientific information. The main goal of the Tsimmis project is to allow a decision maker to find information of interest from such sources, fuse it, and process it (e.g., summarize it, visualize it, discover trends). Another important goal is the easy incorporation of new sources, as well the ability to deal with sources whose structure or services evolve. During the Interchange we had research meetings approximately every month or two. The funds provided by NASA supported work that lead to the following two papers: Fusion Queries over Internet Databases; Efficient Query Subscription Processing in a Multicast Environment.

  18. Integrated environmental monitoring and information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of the environmental monitoring within the territory of the Slovak Republic and the concept of the integrated environmental information system of the Slovak Republic were accepted and confirmed by the Government Order No. 449/1992. The state monitoring system covering the whole territory of Slovakia is the most important and consists of 13 Partial Monitoring Systems (PMSs). List of PMSs is included. The listed PMSs are managed according to the concept of the Sectoral Information System (SIS) of the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic (MESR) which was established by the National Council Act No. 261/1995 Coll. on the SIS. The SIS consists of 18 subsystems which are listed. The overviews of budget of PMSs as well as of environmental publications and periodicals of the MESR are included

  19. Developing a comprehensive framework of community integration for people with acquired brain injury: a conceptual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nusratnaaz M; Kersten, Paula; Siegert, Richard J; Theadom, Alice

    2018-03-06

    Despite increasing emphasis on the importance of community integration as an outcome for acquired brain injury (ABI), there is still no consensus on the definition of community integration. The aim of this study was to complete a concept analysis of community integration in people with ABI. The method of concept clarification was used to guide concept analysis of community integration based on a literature review. Articles were included if they explored community integration in people with ABI. Data extraction was performed by the initial coding of (1) the definition of community integration used in the articles, (2) attributes of community integration recognized in the articles' findings, and (3) the process of community integration. This information was synthesized to develop a model of community integration. Thirty-three articles were identified that met the inclusion criteria. The construct of community integration was found to be a non-linear process reflecting recovery over time, sequential goals, and transitions. Community integration was found to encompass six components including: independence, sense of belonging, adjustment, having a place to live, involved in a meaningful occupational activity, and being socially connected into the community. Antecedents to community integration included individual, injury-related, environmental, and societal factors. The findings of this concept analysis suggest that the concept of community integration is more diverse than previously recognized. New measures and rehabilitation plans capturing all attributes of community integration are needed in clinical practice. Implications for rehabilitation Understanding of perceptions and lived experiences of people with acquired brain injury through this analysis provides basis to ensure rehabilitation meets patients' needs. This model highlights the need for clinicians to be aware and assess the role of antecedents as well as the attributes of community integration itself to

  20. Dutch virtual integration of healthcare information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, J C; Vlug, A E; van Boven, G J

    2007-01-01

    As information technology creates opportunities for cooperation which crosses the boundaries between healthcare institutions, it will become an integral part of the Dutch healthcare system. Along with many involved organizations in healthcare the National IT Institute for Healthcare in the Netherlands (NICTIZ) is working on the realization of a national IT infrastructure for healthcare and a national electronic patient record (EPR). An underlying national architecture is designed to enable the Dutch EPR virtually, not in a national database, nor on a patient's smartcard. The required secure infrastructure provides generic functions for healthcare applications: patient identification, authentication and authorization of healthcare professionals. The first national applications in the EPR program using a national index of where patient data is stored, are the electronic medication record and the electronic record for after hours GP services. The rollout of the electronic medication record and electronic record for after hours GP services has been started in 2007. To guarantee progress of electronic data exchange in healthcare in the Netherlands we have primarily opted for two healthcare applications: the electronic medication record and the electronic record for after hours GP services. The use of a national switch-point containing the registry of where to find what information, guarantees that the professional receives the most recent information and omits large databases to contain downloaded data. Proper authorization, authentication as well as tracing by the national switchpoint also ensures a secure environment for the communication of delicate information.

  1. Meditation is associated with increased brain network integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lutterveld, Remko; van Dellen, Edwin; Pal, Prasanta; Yang, Hua; Stam, Cornelis Jan; Brewer, Judson

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to identify novel quantitative EEG measures associated with mindfulness meditation. As there is some evidence that meditation is associated with higher integration of brain networks, we focused on EEG measures of network integration. Sixteen novice meditators and sixteen experienced meditators participated in the study. Novice meditators performed a basic meditation practice that supported effortless awareness, which is an important quality of experience related to mindfulness practices, while their EEG was recorded. Experienced meditators performed a self-selected meditation practice that supported effortless awareness. Network integration was analyzed with maximum betweenness centrality and leaf fraction (which both correlate positively with network integration) as well as with diameter and average eccentricity (which both correlate negatively with network integration), based on a phase-lag index (PLI) and minimum spanning tree (MST) approach. Differences between groups were assessed using repeated-measures ANOVA for the theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz) and lower beta (13-20 Hz) frequency bands. Maximum betweenness centrality was significantly higher in experienced meditators than in novices (P = 0.012) in the alpha band. In the same frequency band, leaf fraction showed a trend toward being significantly higher in experienced meditators than in novices (P = 0.056), while diameter and average eccentricity were significantly lower in experienced meditators than in novices (P = 0.016 and P = 0.028 respectively). No significant differences between groups were observed for the theta and beta frequency bands. These results show that alpha band functional network topology is better integrated in experienced meditators than in novice meditators during meditation. This novel finding provides the rationale to investigate the temporal relation between measures of functional connectivity network integration and meditation quality, for example using

  2. Integrating neuroinformatics tools in TheVirtualBrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, M Marmaduke; Pezard, Laurent; Domide, Lia; Knock, Stuart A; Sanz-Leon, Paula; Mersmann, Jochen; McIntosh, Anthony R; Jirsa, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    TheVirtualBrain (TVB) is a neuroinformatics Python package representing the convergence of clinical, systems, and theoretical neuroscience in the analysis, visualization and modeling of neural and neuroimaging dynamics. TVB is composed of a flexible simulator for neural dynamics measured across scales from local populations to large-scale dynamics measured by electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and core analytic and visualization functions, all accessible through a web browser user interface. A datatype system modeling neuroscientific data ties together these pieces with persistent data storage, based on a combination of SQL and HDF5. These datatypes combine with adapters allowing TVB to integrate other algorithms or computational systems. TVB provides infrastructure for multiple projects and multiple users, possibly participating under multiple roles. For example, a clinician might import patient data to identify several potential lesion points in the patient's connectome. A modeler, working on the same project, tests these points for viability through whole brain simulation, based on the patient's connectome, and subsequent analysis of dynamical features. TVB also drives research forward: the simulator itself represents the culmination of several simulation frameworks in the modeling literature. The availability of the numerical methods, set of neural mass models and forward solutions allows for the construction of a wide range of brain-scale simulation scenarios. This paper briefly outlines the history and motivation for TVB, describing the framework and simulator, giving usage examples in the web UI and Python scripting.

  3. Integrating neuroinformatics tools in TheVirtualBrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Marmaduke Woodman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available TheVirtualBrain (TVB is a neuroinformatics Python package representing theconvergence of clinical, systems, and theoretical neuroscience in the analysis,visualization and modeling of neural and neuroimaging dynamics. TVB iscomposed of a flexible simulator for neural dynamics measured across scalesfrom local populations to large-scale dynamics measured byelectroencephalography (EEG, magnetoencephalography (MEG and functionalmagnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and core analytic and visualizationfunctions, all accessible through a web browser user interface. A datatypesystem modeling neuroscientific data ties together these pieces with persistentdata storage, based on a combination of SQL & HDF5. These datatypes combinewith adapters allowing TVB to integrate other algorithms or computationalsystems. TVB provides infrastructure for multiple projects and multiple users,possibly participating under multiple roles. For example, a clinician mightimport patient data to identify several potential lesion points in thepatient's connectome. A modeler, working on the same project, tests thesepoints for viability through whole brain simulation, based on the patient'sconnectome, and subsequent analysis of dynamical features. TVB also drivesresearch forward: the simulator itself represents the culmination of severalsimulation frameworks in the modeling literature. The availability of thenumerical methods, set of neural mass models and forward solutions allows forthe construction of a wide range of brain-scale simulation scenarios. Thispaper briefly outlines the history and motivation for TVB, describing theframework and simulator, giving usage examples in the web UI and Pythonscripting.

  4. Information and image integration: project spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, G. James; Jost, R. Gilbert; Martin, Lori; Weiss, David A.; Lehmann, Ron; Fritz, Kevin

    1998-07-01

    The BJC Health System (BJC) and the Washington University School of Medicine (WUSM) formed a technology alliance with industry collaborators to develop and implement an integrated, advanced clinical information system. The industry collaborators include IBM, Kodak, SBC and Motorola. The activity, called Project Spectrum, provides an integrated clinical repository for the multiple hospital facilities of the BJC. The BJC System consists of 12 acute care hospitals serving over one million patients in Missouri and Illinois. An interface engine manages transactions from each of the hospital information systems, lab systems and radiology information systems. Data is normalized to provide a consistent view for the primary care physician. Access to the clinical repository is supported by web-based server/browser technology which delivers patient data to the physician's desktop. An HL7 based messaging system coordinates the acquisition and management of radiological image data and sends image keys to the clinical data repository. Access to the clinical chart browser currently provides radiology reports, laboratory data, vital signs and transcribed medical reports. A chart metaphor provides tabs for the selection of the clinical record for review. Activation of the radiology tab facilitates a standardized view of radiology reports and provides an icon used to initiate retrieval of available radiology images. The selection of the image icon spawns an image browser plug-in and utilizes the image key from the clinical repository to access the image server for the requested image data. The Spectrum system is collecting clinical data from five hospital systems and imaging data from two hospitals. Domain specific radiology imaging systems support the acquisition and primary interpretation of radiology exams. The spectrum clinical workstations are deployed to over 200 sites utilizing local area networks and ISDN connectivity.

  5. Whole brain helical Tomotherapy with integrated boost for brain metastases in patients with malignant melanoma–a randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauswald, Henrik; Habl, Gregor; Krug, David; Kehle, Denise; Combs, Stephanie E; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Debus, Jürgen; Sterzing, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Patients with malignant melanoma may develop brain metastases during the course of the disease, requiring radiotherapeutic treatment. In patients with 1–3 brain metastases, radiosurgery has been established as a treatment option besides surgery. For patients with 4 or more brain metastases, whole brain radiotherapy is considered the standard treatment. In certain patients with brain metastases, radiation treatment using whole brain helical Tomotherapy with integrated boost and hippocampal-sparing may improve prognosis of these patients. The present prospective, randomized two-armed trial aims to exploratory investigate the treatment response to conventional whole brain radiotherapy applying 30 Gy in 10 fractions versus whole brain helical Tomotherapy applying 30 Gy in 10 fractions with an integrated boost of 50 Gy to the brain metastases as well as hippocampal-sparing in patients with brain metastases from malignant melanoma. The main inclusion criteria include magnetic resonance imaging confirmed brain metastases from a histopathologically confirmed malignant melanoma in patients with a minimum age of 18 years. The main exclusion criteria include a previous radiotherapy of the brain and not having recovered from acute high-grade toxicities of prior therapies. The primary endpoint is treatment-related toxicity. Secondary endpoints include imaging response, local and loco-regional progression-free survival, overall survival and quality of life

  6. Social Information Is Integrated into Value and Confidence Judgments According to Its Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Benedetto; Bobadilla-Suarez, Sebastian; Nouguchi, Takao; Sharot, Tali; Love, Bradley C

    2017-06-21

    How much we like something, whether it be a bottle of wine or a new film, is affected by the opinions of others. However, the social information that we receive can be contradictory and vary in its reliability. Here, we tested whether the brain incorporates these statistics when judging value and confidence. Participants provided value judgments about consumer goods in the presence of online reviews. We found that participants updated their initial value and confidence judgments in a Bayesian fashion, taking into account both the uncertainty of their initial beliefs and the reliability of the social information. Activity in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex tracked the degree of belief update. Analogous to how lower-level perceptual information is integrated, we found that the human brain integrates social information according to its reliability when judging value and confidence. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The field of perceptual decision making has shown that the sensory system integrates different sources of information according to their respective reliability, as predicted by a Bayesian inference scheme. In this work, we hypothesized that a similar coding scheme is implemented by the human brain to process social signals and guide complex, value-based decisions. We provide experimental evidence that the human prefrontal cortex's activity is consistent with a Bayesian computation that integrates social information that differs in reliability and that this integration affects the neural representation of value and confidence. Copyright © 2017 De Martino et al.

  7. Early amplitude‐integrated electroencephalography for monitoring neonates at high risk for brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fernando Todeschi Variane

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study supports previous results and demonstrates the utility of amplitude‐integrated electroencephalography for monitoring brain function and predicting early outcome in the studied groups of infants at high risk for brain injury.

  8. Data Entities and Information System Matrix for Integrated Agriculture Information System (IAIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Santoso, Halim; Delima, Rosa

    2018-03-01

    Integrated Agriculture Information System is a system that is developed to process data, information, and knowledge in Agriculture sector. Integrated Agriculture Information System brings valuable information for farmers: (1) Fertilizer price; (2) Agriculture technique and practise; (3) Pest management; (4) Cultivation; (5) Irrigation; (6) Post harvest processing; (7) Innovation in agriculture processing. Integrated Agriculture Information System contains 9 subsystems. To bring an integrated information to the user and stakeholder, it needs an integrated database approach. Thus, researchers describes data entity and its matrix relate to subsystem in Integrated Agriculture Information System (IAIS). As a result, there are 47 data entities as entities in single and integrated database.

  9. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes through Integrated Study of Alzheimer's Disease Affected Brain Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Puthiyedth

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia in older adults that damages the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behaviour. The identification of differentially expressed genes and related pathways among affected brain regions can provide more information on the mechanisms of AD. In the past decade, several studies have reported many genes that are associated with AD. This wealth of information has become difficult to follow and interpret as most of the results are conflicting. In that case, it is worth doing an integrated study of multiple datasets that helps to increase the total number of samples and the statistical power in detecting biomarkers. In this study, we present an integrated analysis of five different brain region datasets and introduce new genes that warrant further investigation.The aim of our study is to apply a novel combinatorial optimisation based meta-analysis approach to identify differentially expressed genes that are associated to AD across brain regions. In this study, microarray gene expression data from 161 samples (74 non-demented controls, 87 AD from the Entorhinal Cortex (EC, Hippocampus (HIP, Middle temporal gyrus (MTG, Posterior cingulate cortex (PC, Superior frontal gyrus (SFG and visual cortex (VCX brain regions were integrated and analysed using our method. The results are then compared to two popular meta-analysis methods, RankProd and GeneMeta, and to what can be obtained by analysing the individual datasets.We find genes related with AD that are consistent with existing studies, and new candidate genes not previously related with AD. Our study confirms the up-regualtion of INFAR2 and PTMA along with the down regulation of GPHN, RAB2A, PSMD14 and FGF. Novel genes PSMB2, WNK1, RPL15, SEMA4C, RWDD2A and LARGE are found to be differentially expressed across all brain regions. Further investigation on these genes may provide new insights into the development of AD. In addition, we

  10. Read My Lips: Brain Dynamics Associated with Audiovisual Integration and Deviance Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chun-Yu; Gratton, Gabriele; Garnsey, Susan M; Novak, Michael A; Fabiani, Monica

    2015-09-01

    Information from different modalities is initially processed in different brain areas, yet real-world perception often requires the integration of multisensory signals into a single percept. An example is the McGurk effect, in which people viewing a speaker whose lip movements do not match the utterance perceive the spoken sounds incorrectly, hearing them as more similar to those signaled by the visual rather than the auditory input. This indicates that audiovisual integration is important for generating the phoneme percept. Here we asked when and where the audiovisual integration process occurs, providing spatial and temporal boundaries for the processes generating phoneme perception. Specifically, we wanted to separate audiovisual integration from other processes, such as simple deviance detection. Building on previous work employing ERPs, we used an oddball paradigm in which task-irrelevant audiovisually deviant stimuli were embedded in strings of non-deviant stimuli. We also recorded the event-related optical signal, an imaging method combining spatial and temporal resolution, to investigate the time course and neuroanatomical substrate of audiovisual integration. We found that audiovisual deviants elicit a short duration response in the middle/superior temporal gyrus, whereas audiovisual integration elicits a more extended response involving also inferior frontal and occipital regions. Interactions between audiovisual integration and deviance detection processes were observed in the posterior/superior temporal gyrus. These data suggest that dynamic interactions between inferior frontal cortex and sensory regions play a significant role in multimodal integration.

  11. Brain Tumor Database, a free relational database for collection and analysis of brain tumor patient information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamino, Maurizio; Hamilton, David J; Castelletti, Lara; Barletta, Laura; Castellan, Lucio

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we describe the development and utilization of a relational database designed to manage the clinical and radiological data of patients with brain tumors. The Brain Tumor Database was implemented using MySQL v.5.0, while the graphical user interface was created using PHP and HTML, thus making it easily accessible through a web browser. This web-based approach allows for multiple institutions to potentially access the database. The BT Database can record brain tumor patient information (e.g. clinical features, anatomical attributes, and radiological characteristics) and be used for clinical and research purposes. Analytic tools to automatically generate statistics and different plots are provided. The BT Database is a free and powerful user-friendly tool with a wide range of possible clinical and research applications in neurology and neurosurgery. The BT Database graphical user interface source code and manual are freely available at http://tumorsdatabase.altervista.org. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Closed Loop Brain Model of Neocortical Information Based Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eKozloski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe an information based exchange' model of brain function that ascribes to neocortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus distinct network functions. The model allows us to analyze whole brain system set point measures, such as the rate and heterogeneity of transitions in striatum and neocortex, in the context of neuromodulation and other perturbations. Our closed-loop model is grounded in neuroanatomical observations, proposing a novel Grand Loop through neocortex, and invokes different forms of plasticity at specific tissue interfaces and their principle cell synapses to achieve these transitions. By implementing a system for maximum information based exchange of action potentials between modeled neocortical areas, we observe changes to these measures in simulation. We hypothesize that similar dynamic set points and modulations exist in the brain's resting state activity, and that different modifications to information based exchange may shift the risk profile of different component tissues, resulting in different neurodegenerative diseases. This model is targeted for further development using IBM's Neural Tissue Simulator, which allows scalable elaboration of networks, tissues, and their neural and synaptic components towards ever greater complexity and biological realism.

  13. Models of neural dynamics in brain information processing - the developments of 'the decade'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisyuk, G N; Borisyuk, R M; Kazanovich, Yakov B [Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Ivanitskii, Genrikh R [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2002-10-31

    Neural network models are discussed that have been developed during the last decade with the purpose of reproducing spatio-temporal patterns of neural activity in different brain structures. The main goal of the modeling was to test hypotheses of synchronization, temporal and phase relations in brain information processing. The models being considered are those of temporal structure of spike sequences, of neural activity dynamics, and oscillatory models of attention and feature integration. (reviews of topical problems)

  14. Integration of auditory and visual speech information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, M.; Smeele, P.M.T.; Kuhl, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    The integration of auditory and visual speech is observed when modes specify different places of articulation. Influences of auditory variation on integration were examined using consonant identifi-cation, plus quality and similarity ratings. Auditory identification predicted auditory-visual

  15. CSIR's new integrated electronic library information-system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Michie, A

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR has developed a CDROM-based electronic library information system which provides the ability to reproduce and search for published information and colour brochures on the computer screen. The system integrates this information with online...

  16. Autonomous Preference-Aware Information Services Integration for High Response in Integrated Faded Information Field Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaodong; Mori, Kinji

    The market and users' requirements have been rapidly changing and diversified. Under these heterogeneous and dynamic situations, not only the system structure itself, but also the accessible information services would be changed constantly. To cope with the continuously changing conditions of service provision and utilization, Faded Information Field (FIF) has been proposed, which is a agent-based distributed information service system architecture. In the case of a mono-service request, the system is designed to improve users' access time and preserve load balancing through the information structure. However, with interdependent requests of multi-service increasing, adaptability and timeliness have to be assured by the system. In this paper, the relationship that exists among the correlated services and the users' preferences for separate and integrated services is clarified. Based on these factors, the autonomous preference-aware information services integration technology to provide one-stop service for users multi-service requests is proposed. As compared to the conventional system, we show that proposed technology is able to reduce the total access time.

  17. Integration of Information Technologies in Enterprise Application Development

    OpenAIRE

    Iulia SURUGIU

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare enterprises are disconnected. In the era of integrated information systems and Internet explosion, the necessity of information systems integration reside from business process evolution, on the one hand, and from information technology tendencies, on the other hand. In order to become more efficient and adaptive to change, healthcare organizations are tremendously preoccupied of business process automation, flexibility and complexity. The need of information systems integration ar...

  18. State-related functional integration and functional segregation brain networks in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingbao; Sui, Jing; Kiehl, Kent A; Pearlson, Godfrey; Calhoun, Vince D

    2013-11-01

    Altered topological properties of brain connectivity networks have emerged as important features of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate how the state-related modulations to graph measures of functional integration and functional segregation brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia. Firstly, resting state and auditory oddball discrimination (AOD) fMRI data of healthy controls (HCs) and schizophrenia patients (SZs) were decomposed into spatially independent components (ICs) by group independent component analysis (ICA). Then, weighted positive and negative functional integration (inter-component networks) and functional segregation (intra-component networks) brain networks were built in each subject. Subsequently, connectivity strength, clustering coefficient, and global efficiency of all brain networks were statistically compared between groups (HCs and SZs) in each state and between states (rest and AOD) within group. We found that graph measures of negative functional integration brain network and several positive functional segregation brain networks were altered in schizophrenia during AOD task. The metrics of positive functional integration brain network and one positive functional segregation brain network were higher during the resting state than during the AOD task only in HCs. These findings imply that state-related characteristics of both functional integration and functional segregation brain networks are impaired in schizophrenia which provides new insight into the altered brain performance in this brain disorder. © 2013.

  19. The NASA Integrated Information Technology Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Tim

    1997-01-01

    of IT systems, 3) the Technical Architecture: a common, vendor-independent framework for design, integration and implementation of IT systems and 4) the Product Architecture: vendor=specific IT solutions. The Systems Architecture is effectively a description of the end-user "requirements". Generalized end-user requirements are discussed and subsequently organized into specific mission and project functions. The Technical Architecture depicts the framework, and relationship, of the specific IT components that enable the end-user functionality as described in the Systems Architecture. The primary components as described in the Technical Architecture are: 1) Applications: Basic Client Component, Object Creation Applications, Collaborative Applications, Object Analysis Applications, 2) Services: Messaging, Information Broker, Collaboration, Distributed Processing, and 3) Infrastructure: Network, Security, Directory, Certificate Management, Enterprise Management and File System. This Architecture also provides specific Implementation Recommendations, the most significant of which is the recognition of IT as core to NASA activities and defines a plan, which is aligned with the NASA strategic planning processes, for keeping the Architecture alive and useful.

  20. Should a reliable information processor be chaotic (brain models)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolis, J S

    1982-01-01

    Brain-like structures have evolved by performing signal processing initially by minimizing tracking errors on a competitive basis. Such systems are highly complex and at the same time notoriously disordered. The functional trace of the cerebral cortex of the human brain is a good example. The electroencephalogram (EEG) appears particularly fragmented during the execution of mental tasks, as well as during the recurrent episodes of rem sleep. A stochastically regular or a highly synchronized EEG on the other hand, characterises a drowsy (relaxing) or epileptic subject respectively and indicates-in both cases-a very incompetent information processor. The author suggests that such behavioral changeovers are produced via bifurcations which trigger the thalamocortical nonlinear pacemaking oscillator to switch from an unstable limit cycle to a strange attractor regime (i.e. to chaos), or vice versa. This analysis aims to show that the EEGs characteristics are not accidental but inevitable and even necessary and, therefore, functionally significant. 25 references.

  1. Reduced Predictable Information in Brain Signals in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eGomez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a common developmental disorder characterized by communication difficulties and impaired social interaction. Recent results suggest altered brain dynamics as a potential cause of symptoms in ASD. Here, we aim to describe potential information-processing consequences of these alterations by measuring active information storage (AIS – a key quantity in the theory of distributed computation in biological networks. AIS is defined as the mutual information between the semi-infinite past of a process and its next state. It measures the amount of stored information that is used for computation of the next time step of a process. AIS is high for rich but predictable dynamics. We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG signals in 13 ASD patients and 14 matched control subjects in a visual task. After a beamformer source analysis, twelve task-relevant sources were obtained. For these sources, stationary baseline activity was analyzed using AIS. Our results showed a decrease of AIS values in the hippocampus of ASD patients in comparison with controls, meaning that brain signals in ASD were either less predictable, reduced in their dynamic richness or both. Our study suggests the usefulness of AIS to detect an abnormal type of dynamics in ASD. The observed changes in AIS are compatible with Bayesian theories of reduced use or precision of priors in ASD.

  2. Information Technologies and Supply Chain Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemoine, W; Mortensen, Ole

    integration. This study illustrates, from an empirical point of view, the problems associ-ated to SC integration among European firms operating in global/international markets. The focus is on the relationship between two echelons in the supply chain: manufacturers and their transport and logistics service......The goal of the Supply Chain Management process is to create value for customers, stakeholders and all supply chain members, through the integration of different processes like manufacturing flow management, customer service and order fulfillment. However, many firms fail in the path of achieving...... integration. Our results show that the current business integra-tion practices between manufacturers and TLSPs are primarily restricted to some sub-processes in three key SC processes: Customer Service Management, order fulfillment and backwards logistics. The use of IT tools to support the integration has...

  3. Social information changes stress hormone receptor expression in the songbird brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Jamie M; Perreau, Gillian; Bishop, Valerie R; Krause, Jesse S; Smith, Rachael; Hahn, Thomas P; Meddle, Simone L

    2018-01-01

    Social information is used by many vertebrate taxa to inform decision-making, including resource-mediated movements, yet the mechanisms whereby social information is integrated physiologically to affect such decisions remain unknown. Social information is known to influence the physiological response to food reduction in captive songbirds. Red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) that were food reduced for several days showed significant elevations in circulating corticosterone (a "stress" hormone often responsive to food limitation) only if their neighbors were similarly food restricted. Physiological responses to glucocorticoid hormones are enacted through two receptors that may be expressed differentially in target tissues. Therefore, we investigated the influence of social information on the expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA in captive red crossbill brains. Although the role of MR and GR in the response to social information may be highly complex, we specifically predicted social information from food-restricted individuals would reduce MR and GR expression in two brain regions known to regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity - given that reduced receptor expression may lessen the efficacy of negative feedback and release inhibitory tone on the HPA. Our results support these predictions - offering one potential mechanism whereby social cues could increase or sustain HPA-activity during stress. The data further suggest different mechanisms by which metabolic stress versus social information influence HPA activity and behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding Information Systems Integration Deficiencies in Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Kettinger, William J.

    2017-01-01

    Information systems (IS) integration is a critical challenge for value-creating mergers and acquisitions. Appropriate design and implementation of IS integration is typically a precondition for enabling a majority of the anticipated business benefits of a combined organization. Often...

  5. Central Artery Stiffness, Baroreflex Sensitivity, and Brain White Matter Neuronal Fiber Integrity in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tarumi, Takashi; de Jong, Daan L.K.; Zhu, David C.; Tseng, Benjamin Y.; Liu, Jie; Hill, Candace; Riley, Jonathan; Womack, Kyle B.; Kerwin, Diana R.; Lu, Hanzhang; Cullum, C. Munro; Zhang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral hypoperfusion elevates the risk of brain white matter (WM) lesions and cognitive impairment. Central artery stiffness impairs baroreflex, which controls systemic arterial perfusion, and may deteriorate neuronal fiber integrity of brain WM. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among brain WM neuronal fiber integrity, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and central artery stiffness in older adults. Fifty-four adults (65±6 years) with normal cognitive function or mild cog...

  6. Knowledge and information management for integrated water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed information systems that integrate data and analytical tools are critical enabling technologies to support Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) by converting data into information, and information into knowledge. Many factors bring people to the table to participate in an IWRM fra...

  7. Academic Integrity: Information Systems Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHaney, Roger; Cronan, Timothy Paul; Douglas, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Academic integrity receives a great deal of attention in institutions of higher education. Universities and colleges provide specific honor codes or have administrative units to promote good behaviors and resolve dishonesty allegations. Students, faculty, and staff have stakes in maintaining high levels of academic integrity to ensure their…

  8. Principles and core functions of integrated child health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Alan R; Atkinson, Delton; Diehn, Tonya Norvell; Eichwald, John; Heberer, Jennifer; Hoyle, Therese; King, Pam; Kossack, Robert E; Williams, Donna C; Zimmerman, Amy

    2004-11-01

    Infants undergo a series of preventive and therapeutic health interventions and activities. Typically, each activity includes collection and submission of data to a dedicated information system. Subsequently, health care providers, families, and health programs must query each information system to determine the child's status in a given area. Efforts are underway to integrate information in these separate information systems. This requires specifying the core functions that integrated information systems must perform.

  9. Regional Logistics Information Resources Integration Patterns and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Shangguan, Xu-ming

    Effective integration of regional logistics information resources can provide collaborative services in information flow, business flow and logistics for regional logistics enterprises, which also can reduce operating costs and improve market responsiveness. First, this paper analyzes the realistic significance on the integration of regional logistics information. Second, this paper brings forward three feasible patterns on the integration of regional logistics information resources, These three models have their own strengths and the scope of application and implementation, which model is selected will depend on the specific business and the regional distribution of enterprises. Last, this paper discusses the related countermeasures on the integration of regional logistics information resources, because the integration of regional logistics information is a systems engineering, when the integration is advancing, the countermeasures should pay close attention to the current needs and long-term development of regional enterprises.

  10. Integration issues of information engineering based I-CASE tools

    OpenAIRE

    Kurbel, Karl; Schnieder, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Problems and requirements regarding integration of methods and tools across phases of the software-development life cycle are discussed. Information engineering (IE) methodology and I-CASE (integrated CASE) tools supporting IE claim to have an integrated view across major stages of enterprise-wide information-system development: information strategy planning, business area analysis, system design, and construction. In the main part of this paper, two comprehensive I-CASE tools, ADW (Applicati...

  11. Integration of fMRI, NIROT and ERP for studies of human brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, John C; Horovitz, Silvina G; Cannistraci, Christopher J; Skudlarski, Pavel

    2006-05-01

    Different methods of assessing human brain function possess specific advantages and disadvantages compared to others, but it is believed that combining different approaches will provide greater information than can be obtained from each alone. For example, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has good spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution, whereas the converse is true for electrophysiological recordings (event-related potentials or ERPs). In this review of recent work, we highlight a novel approach to combining these modalities in a manner designed to increase information on the origins and locations of the generators of specific ERPs and the relationship between fMRI and ERP signals. Near infrared imaging techniques have also been studied as alternatives to fMRI and can be readily integrated with simultaneous electrophysiological recordings. Each of these modalities may in principle be also used in so-called steady-state acquisitions in which the correlational structure of signals from the brain may be analyzed to provide new insights into brain function.

  12. Information delivery manuals to integrate building product information into design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berard, Ole Bengt; Karlshøj, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Despite continuing BIM progress, professionals in the AEC industry often lack the information they need to perform their work. Although this problem could be alleviated by information systems similar to those in other industries, companies struggle to model processes and information needs....... Traditional business process modeling languages often fail to completely cover all four perspectives. BuildingSMART has proposed Information Delivery Manuals (IDMs) to model and re-engineer processes that address the four perspectives through a collaborative methodology in order to standardize and implement...... in the manner necessary to develop information systems that support digital collaboration, workflows, and information exchange. Processes for information systems can be described from four perspectives: task sequence, information need, organizational interaction, and required logic for the specific task...

  13. Integration of Visual and Proprioceptive Limb Position Information in Human Posterior Parietal, Premotor, and Extrastriate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowski, Jakub; Blankenburg, Felix

    2016-03-02

    The brain constructs a flexible representation of the body from multisensory information. Previous work on monkeys suggests that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and ventral premotor cortex (PMv) represent the position of the upper limbs based on visual and proprioceptive information. Human experiments on the rubber hand illusion implicate similar regions, but since such experiments rely on additional visuo-tactile interactions, they cannot isolate visuo-proprioceptive integration. Here, we independently manipulated the position (palm or back facing) of passive human participants' unseen arm and of a photorealistic virtual 3D arm. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed that matching visual and proprioceptive information about arm position engaged the PPC, PMv, and the body-selective extrastriate body area (EBA); activity in the PMv moreover reflected interindividual differences in congruent arm ownership. Further, the PPC, PMv, and EBA increased their coupling with the primary visual cortex during congruent visuo-proprioceptive position information. These results suggest that human PPC, PMv, and EBA evaluate visual and proprioceptive position information and, under sufficient cross-modal congruence, integrate it into a multisensory representation of the upper limb in space. The position of our limbs in space constantly changes, yet the brain manages to represent limb position accurately by combining information from vision and proprioception. Electrophysiological recordings in monkeys have revealed neurons in the posterior parietal and premotor cortices that seem to implement and update such a multisensory limb representation, but this has been difficult to demonstrate in humans. Our fMRI experiment shows that human posterior parietal, premotor, and body-selective visual brain areas respond preferentially to a virtual arm seen in a position corresponding to one's unseen hidden arm, while increasing their communication with regions conveying visual

  14. Assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in organization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in organization. ... to enable the Information System (IS) managers, as well as top management to understand the ... since organisational and strategic aspects in IIS should also be considered.

  15. The digital bee brain: integrating and managing neurons in a common 3D reference system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rybak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The honeybee standard brain (HSB serves as an interactive tool for relating morphologies of bee brain neurons and provides a reference system for functional and bibliographical properties (http://www.neurobiologie.fu-berlin.de/beebrain/. The ultimate goal is to document not only the morphological network properties of neurons collected from separate brains, but also to establish a graphical user interface for a neuron-related data base. Here, we review the current methods and protocols used to incorporate neuronal reconstructions into the HSB. Our registration protocol consists of two separate steps applied to imaging data from two-channel confocal microscopy scans: (1 The reconstruction of the neuron, facilitated by an automatic extraction of the neuron’s skeleton based on threshold segmentation, and (2 the semi-automatic 3D segmentation of the neuropils and their registration with the HSB. The integration of neurons in the HSB is performed by applying the transformation computed in step (2 to the reconstructed neurons of step (1. The most critical issue of this protocol in terms of user interaction time – the segmentation process – is drastically improved by the use of a model-based segmentation process. Furthermore, the underlying statistical shape models (SSM allow the visualization and analysis of characteristic variations in large sets of bee brain data. The anatomy of neural networks composed of multiple neurons that are registered into the HSB are visualized by depicting the 3D reconstructions together with semantic information with the objective to integrate data from multiple sources (electrophysiology, imaging, immunocytochemistry, molecular biology. Ultimately, this will allow the user to specify cell types and retrieve their morphologies along with physiological characterizations.

  16. Environment, safety, and health information technology systems integration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, David A.; Bayer, Gregory W.

    2006-02-01

    The ES&H Information Systems department, motivated by the numerous isolated information technology systems under its control, undertook a significant integration effort. This effort was planned and executed over the course of several years and parts of it still continue today. The effect was to help move the ES&H Information Systems department toward integration with the corporate Information Solutions and Services center.

  17. MEASURING INFORMATION INTEGR-ATION MODEL FOR CAD/CMM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A CAD/CMM workpiece modeling system based on IGES file is proposed. The modeling system is implemented by using a new method for labelling the tolerance items of 3D workpiece. The concept-"feature face" is used in the method. First the CAD data of workpiece are extracted and recognized automatically. Then a workpiece model is generated, which is the integration of pure 3D geometry form with its corresponding inspection items. The principle of workpiece modeling is also presented. At last, the experiment results are shown and correctness of the model is certified.

  18. The brain as a "hyper-network": the key role of neural networks as main producers of the integrated brain actions especially via the "broadcasted" neuroconnectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnati, Luigi F; Marcoli, Manuela; Maura, Guido; Woods, Amina; Guidolin, Diego

    2018-06-01

    Investigations of brain complex integrative actions should consider beside neural networks, glial, extracellular molecular, and fluid channels networks. The present paper proposes that all these networks are assembled into the brain hyper-network that has as fundamental components, the tetra-partite synapses, formed by neural, glial, and extracellular molecular networks. Furthermore, peri-synaptic astrocytic processes by modulating the perviousness of extracellular fluid channels control the signals impinging on the tetra-partite synapses. It has also been surmised that global signalling via astrocytes networks and highly pervasive signals, such as electromagnetic fields (EMFs), allow the appropriate integration of the various networks especially at crucial nodes level, the tetra-partite synapses. As a matter of fact, it has been shown that astrocytes can form gap-junction-coupled syncytia allowing intercellular communication characterised by a rapid and possibly long-distance transfer of signals. As far as the EMFs are concerned, the concept of broadcasted neuroconnectomics (BNC) has been introduced to describe highly pervasive signals involved in resetting the information handling of brain networks at various miniaturisation levels. In other words, BNC creates, thanks to the EMFs, generated especially by neurons, different assemblages among the various networks forming the brain hyper-network. Thus, it is surmised that neuronal networks are the "core components" of the brain hyper-network that has as special "nodes" the multi-facet tetra-partite synapses. Furthermore, it is suggested that investigations on the functional plasticity of multi-partite synapses in response to BNC can be the background for a new understanding and perhaps a new modelling of brain morpho-functional organisation and integrative actions.

  19. Legal Issues for an Integrated Information Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Warren; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The ability to collect, store, retrieve, and combine information in computerized databases has magnified the potential for misuse of information. Laws have begun to deal with these new threats by expanding rights of privacy, copyright, misrepresentation, products liability, and defamation. Laws regarding computerized databases are certain to…

  20. Effects of visual working memory on brain information processing of irrelevant auditory stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiagui Qu

    Full Text Available Selective attention has traditionally been viewed as a sensory processing modulator that promotes cognitive processing efficiency by favoring relevant stimuli while inhibiting irrelevant stimuli. However, the cross-modal processing of irrelevant information during working memory (WM has been rarely investigated. In this study, the modulation of irrelevant auditory information by the brain during a visual WM task was investigated. The N100 auditory evoked potential (N100-AEP following an auditory click was used to evaluate the selective attention to auditory stimulus during WM processing and at rest. N100-AEP amplitudes were found to be significantly affected in the left-prefrontal, mid-prefrontal, right-prefrontal, left-frontal, and mid-frontal regions while performing a high WM load task. In contrast, no significant differences were found between N100-AEP amplitudes in WM states and rest states under a low WM load task in all recorded brain regions. Furthermore, no differences were found between the time latencies of N100-AEP troughs in WM states and rest states while performing either the high or low WM load task. These findings suggested that the prefrontal cortex (PFC may integrate information from different sensory channels to protect perceptual integrity during cognitive processing.

  1. Effects of visual working memory on brain information processing of irrelevant auditory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jiagui; Rizak, Joshua D; Zhao, Lun; Li, Minghong; Ma, Yuanye

    2014-01-01

    Selective attention has traditionally been viewed as a sensory processing modulator that promotes cognitive processing efficiency by favoring relevant stimuli while inhibiting irrelevant stimuli. However, the cross-modal processing of irrelevant information during working memory (WM) has been rarely investigated. In this study, the modulation of irrelevant auditory information by the brain during a visual WM task was investigated. The N100 auditory evoked potential (N100-AEP) following an auditory click was used to evaluate the selective attention to auditory stimulus during WM processing and at rest. N100-AEP amplitudes were found to be significantly affected in the left-prefrontal, mid-prefrontal, right-prefrontal, left-frontal, and mid-frontal regions while performing a high WM load task. In contrast, no significant differences were found between N100-AEP amplitudes in WM states and rest states under a low WM load task in all recorded brain regions. Furthermore, no differences were found between the time latencies of N100-AEP troughs in WM states and rest states while performing either the high or low WM load task. These findings suggested that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may integrate information from different sensory channels to protect perceptual integrity during cognitive processing.

  2. Integrated Reporting and Assurance of Sustainability Information: An Experimental Study on Professional Investors’ Information Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimsbach, D.; Hahn, R.; Gürtürk, A.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainability-related non-financial information is increasingly deemed value relevant. Against this background, two recent trends in non-financial reporting are frequently discussed: integrated reporting and assurance of sustainability information. Using an established framework of information

  3. Integration of Information Technologies in Enterprise Application Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia SURUGIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare enterprises are disconnected. In the era of integrated information systems and Internet explosion, the necessity of information systems integration reside from business process evolution, on the one hand, and from information technology tendencies, on the other hand. In order to become more efficient and adaptive to change, healthcare organizations are tremendously preoccupied of business process automation, flexibility and complexity. The need of information systems integration arise from these goals, explaining, at the same time, the special interest in EAI. Extensible software integration architectures and business orientation of process modeling and information systems functionalities, the same as open-connectivity, accessibility and virtualization lead to most suitable integration solutions: SOA and BPM architectural styles in a cloud computing environment.

  4. Integrating Information Networks for Collective Planetary Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A.

    2016-12-01

    Responsible behaviour resulting from climate literacy in global environmental movement is limited to policy and planning institutions in the Global South, while remaining absent for ends-user. Thus, planetary stewardship exists only at earth system boundaries where pressures sink to the local scale while ethics remains afloat. Existing citizen participation is restricted within policy spheres, appearing synonymous to enforcements in social psychology. Much, accounted reason is that existing information mechanisms operate mostly through linear exchanges between institutions and users, therefore reinforcing only hierarchical relationships. This study discloses such relationships that contribute to broad networking gaps through information demand assessment of stakeholders in a dozen development projects based in South Asia. Two parameters widely used for this purpose are: a. Feedback: Ends-user feedback to improve consumption literacy of climate sensitive resources (through consumption displays, billing, advisory services ecolabelling, sensors) and, b. Institutional Policy: Rewarding punishing to enforce desired behaviour (subsidies, taxation). Research answered: 1. Who gets the information (Equity in Information Distribution)? As existing information publishing mechanisms are designed by and for analysts, 2. How information translates to climate action Transparency of Execution)? Findings suggested that climate goals manifested in economic policy, than environmental policy, have potential clear short-term benefits and costs, and coincide with people's economic goals Also grassroots roles for responsible behaviour are empowered with presence of end user information. Barier free climate communication process and decision making is ensured among multiplicity of stakeholders with often conflicting perspectives. Research finds significance where collaboration among information networks can better translate regional policies into local action for climate adaptation and

  5. Decision making by relatives about brain death organ donation: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Jack; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia; Hoitsma, Andries; Smeets, Wim; van Leeuwen, Evert

    2012-06-27

    Deciding about the organ donation of one's brain-dead beloved often occurs in an unexpected and delicate situation. We explored the decision making of the relatives of potential brain-dead donors, its evaluation, and the factors influencing decision making. We used the integrative review method. Our search included 10 databases. Inclusion criteria were presence of the donation request or the subsequent decision process. Three authors independently assessed the eligibility of identified articles. Content analysis of 70 included articles led to three themes: decision, evaluation, and support. We extracted results and recommendations concerning these three themes. The timing of the request and understandable information influence the decision. The relatives evaluate their decision differently: in case of refusal, approximately one third regret their decision, and in case of consent, approximately one tenth mention regret. The relatives are often ambivalent about their values (protection, altruism, and respect) and the deceased's wishes, not wanting additional suffering either for their beloved or for themselves. Support is mainly focused on increasing consent rates and less on satisfaction with the decision. Evaluation of decision making by the relatives of potential brain-dead donors reveals possibilities for improving the decision process. Special skills of the requester, attention to the circumstances, and unconditional support for the relatives might prevent the relatives' regret about refusal and unnecessary loss of organs. We hypothesize that support in exploring the relatives' values and the deceased's wishes can lead to stable decisions. This hypothesis deserves further investigation.

  6. Androgen modulation of social decision making mechanisms in the brain: an integrative and embodied perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Apart from their role in reproduction androgens also respond to social challenges and this response has been seen as a way to regulate the expression of behaviour according to the perceived social environment (Challenge hypothesis, Wingfield et al. 1990. This hypothesis implies that social decision-making mechanisms localized in the central nervous system (CNS are open to the influence of peripheral hormones that ultimately are under the control of the CNS through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Therefore, two puzzling questions emerge at two different levels of biological analysis: (1 Why does the brain, which perceives the social environment and regulates androgen production in the gonad, need feedback information from the gonad to adjust its social decision-making processes? (2 How does the brain regulate gonadal androgen responses to social challenges and how do these feedback into the brain? In this paper, we will address these two questions using the integrative approach proposed by Niko Tinbergen, who proposed that a full understanding of behaviour requires its analysis at both proximate (physiology, ontogeny and ultimate (ecology, evolution levels.

  7. Brain Information Sharing During Visual Short-Term Memory Binding Yields a Memory Biomarker for Familial Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mario A; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Trujillo, Natalia; Sala, Sergio Della; Lopera, Francisco; Manes, Facundo; Starr, John; Ibanez, Agustin

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a disconnection syndrome which disrupts both brain information sharing and memory binding functions. The extent to which these two phenotypic expressions share pathophysiological mechanisms remains unknown. To unveil the electrophysiological correlates of integrative memory impairments in AD towards new memory biomarkers for its prodromal stages. Patients with 100% risk of familial AD (FAD) and healthy controls underwent assessment with the Visual Short-Term Memory binding test (VSTMBT) while we recorded their EEG. We applied a novel brain connectivity method (Weighted Symbolic Mutual Information) to EEG data. Patients showed significant deficits during the VSTMBT. A reduction of brain connectivity was observed during resting as well as during correct VSTM binding, particularly over frontal and posterior regions. An increase of connectivity was found during VSTM binding performance over central regions. While decreased connectivity was found in cases in more advanced stages of FAD, increased brain connectivity appeared in cases in earlier stages. Such altered patterns of task-related connectivity were found in 89% of the assessed patients. VSTM binding in the prodromal stages of FAD are associated to altered patterns of brain connectivity thus confirming the link between integrative memory deficits and impaired brain information sharing in prodromal FAD. While significant loss of brain connectivity seems to be a feature of the advanced stages of FAD increased brain connectivity characterizes its earlier stages. These findings are discussed in the light of recent proposals about the earliest pathophysiological mechanisms of AD and their clinical expression. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. INEL Waste and Environmental Information Integration Project approach and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, L.A.; Fairbourn, P.J.; Randall, V.C.; Riedesel, A.M.

    1994-06-01

    The Idaho National Engineering, Laboratory (INEL) Waste and Environmental Information integration Project (IWEIIP) was established in December 1993 to address issues related to INEL waste and environmental information including: Data quality; Data redundancy; Data accessibility; Data integration. This effort includes existing information, new development, and acquisition activities. Existing information may not be a database record; it may be an entire document (electronic, scanned, or hard-copy), a video clip, or a file cabinet of information. The IWEIIP will implement an effective integrated information framework to manage INEL waste and environmental information as an asset. This will improve data quality, resolve data redundancy, and increase data accessibility; therefore, providing more effective utilization of the dollars spent on waste and environmental information

  9. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M Hotaling

    Full Text Available In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that lead to differences in the nature of processing. Stimuli that require controlled integration of information, such as the quantitative or linguistic information (commonly found in judgment studies, may lead to suboptimal performance. In contrast, perceptual stimuli may lend themselves to automatic processing, resulting in integration that is closer to optimal. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in which participants categorized faces based on resemblance to a family patriarch. The amount of evidence contained in the top and bottom halves of each test face was independently manipulated. These data allow us to investigate a canonical example of sub-optimal information integration from the judgment and decision making literature, the dilution effect. Splitting the top and bottom halves of a face, a manipulation meant to encourage controlled integration of information, produced farther from optimal behavior and larger dilution effects. The Multi-component Information Accumulation model, a hybrid optimal/averaging model of information integration, successfully accounts for key accuracy, response time, and dilution effects.

  10. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotaling, Jared M; Cohen, Andrew L; Shiffrin, Richard M; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2015-01-01

    In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that lead to differences in the nature of processing. Stimuli that require controlled integration of information, such as the quantitative or linguistic information (commonly found in judgment studies), may lead to suboptimal performance. In contrast, perceptual stimuli may lend themselves to automatic processing, resulting in integration that is closer to optimal. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in which participants categorized faces based on resemblance to a family patriarch. The amount of evidence contained in the top and bottom halves of each test face was independently manipulated. These data allow us to investigate a canonical example of sub-optimal information integration from the judgment and decision making literature, the dilution effect. Splitting the top and bottom halves of a face, a manipulation meant to encourage controlled integration of information, produced farther from optimal behavior and larger dilution effects. The Multi-component Information Accumulation model, a hybrid optimal/averaging model of information integration, successfully accounts for key accuracy, response time, and dilution effects.

  11. Informing pedagogy through the brain-targeted teaching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Mariale

    2012-01-01

    Improving teaching to foster creative thinking and problem-solving for students of all ages will require two essential changes in current educational practice. First, to allow more time for deeper engagement with material, it is critical to reduce the vast number of topics often required in many courses. Second, and perhaps more challenging, is the alignment of pedagogy with recent research on cognition and learning. With a growing focus on the use of research to inform teaching practices, educators need a pedagogical framework that helps them interpret and apply research findings. This article describes the Brain-Targeted Teaching Model, a scheme that relates six distinct aspects of instruction to research from the neuro- and cognitive sciences.

  12. Classification Method in Integrated Information Network Using Vector Image Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yuan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Integrated Information Network (WMN consists of integrated information that can get data from its surrounding, such as image, voice. To transmit information, large resource is required which decreases the service time of the network. In this paper we present a Classification Approach based on Vector Image Comparison (VIC for WMN that improve the service time of the network. The available methods for sub-region selection and conversion are also proposed.

  13. The role of right frontal brain regions in integration of spatial relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiahui; Cao, Bihua; Cao, Yunfei; Gao, Heming; Li, Fuhong

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have explored the neural mechanisms of spatial reasoning on a two-dimensional (2D) plane; however, it remains unclear how spatial reasoning is conducted in a three-dimensional (3D) condition. In the present study, we presented 3D geometric objects to 16 adult participants, and asked them to process the spatial relationship between different corners of the geometric objects. In premise-1, the first two corners of a geometric shape (e.g., A vs. B) were displayed. In premise-2, the second and third corners (e.g., B vs. C) were displayed. After integrating the two premises, participants were required to infer the spatial relationship between the first and the third corners (e.g., A and C). Finally, the participants were presented with a conclusion object, and they were required to judge whether the conclusion was true or false based on their inference. The event-related potential evoked by premise-2 revealed that (1) compared with 2D spatial reasoning, 3D reasoning elicited a smaller P3b component, and (2) in the right frontal areas, increased negativities were found in the 3D condition during the N400 and late negative components (LNC). These findings imply that higher brain activity in the right frontal brain regions were related with the integration and maintenance of spatial information in working memory for reasoning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Three-dimensional visualization of functional brain tissue and functional magnetic resonance imaging-integrated neuronavigation in the resection of brain tumor adjacent to motor cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Tong; Cui Shimin; Tong Xiaoguang; Liu Li; Xue Kai; Liu Meili; Liang Siquan; Zhang Yunting; Zhi Dashi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of three -dimensional visualization of functional brain tissue and the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-integrated neuronavigation in the resection of brain tumor adjacent to motor cortex. Method: Sixty patients with tumor located in the central sulcus were enrolled. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to function group and 30 to control group. Patients in function group underwent fMRI to localize the functional brain tissues. Then the function information was transferred to the neurosurgical navigator. The patients in control group underwent surgery with navigation without function information. The therapeutic effect, excision rate. improvement of motor function, and survival quality during follow-up were analyzed. Result: All patients in function group were accomplished visualization of functional brain tissues and fMRI-integrated neuronavigation. The locations of tumors, central sulcus and motor cortex were marked during the operation. The fMRI -integrated information played a great role in both pre- and post-operation. Pre-operation: designing the location of the skin flap and window bone, determining the relationship between the tumor and motor cortex, and designing the pathway for the resection. Post- operation: real-time navigation of relationship between the tumor and motor cortex, assisting to localize the motor cortex using interoperation ultra-sound for correcting the displacement by the CSF outflow and collapsing tumor. The patients in the function group had better results than the patients in the control group in therapeutic effect (u=2.646, P=0.008), excision rate (χ = 7.200, P<0.01), improvement of motor function (u=2.231, P=0.026), and survival quality (KPS u c = 2.664, P=0.008; Zubrod -ECOG -WHO u c =2.135, P=0.033). Conclusions: Using preoperative three -dimensional visualization of cerebral function tissue and the fMRI-integrated neuronavigation technology, combining intraoperative accurate

  15. Information Security Management - Part Of The Integrated Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Constantin Adrian

    2015-07-01

    The international management standards allow their integrated approach, thereby combining aspects of particular importance to the activity of any organization, from the quality management systems or the environmental management of the information security systems or the business continuity management systems. Although there is no national or international regulation, nor a defined standard for the Integrated Management System, the need to implement an integrated system occurs within the organization, which feels the opportunity to integrate the management components into a cohesive system, in agreement with the purpose and mission publicly stated. The issues relating to information security in the organization, from the perspective of the management system, raise serious questions to any organization in the current context of electronic information, reason for which we consider not only appropriate but necessary to promote and implement an Integrated Management System Quality - Environment - Health and Operational Security - Information Security

  16. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  17. A Kansas Integrated Commercialization Information Network (KICIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, C.; And Others

    A consortium of Kansas economic development service providers is building a web of virtual satellite offices that will demonstrate the delivery of economic development services in all areas of Kansas. These "offices" will use the Internet and a novel information delivery system to reach small and medium-sized businesses and individuals…

  18. Teacher Readiness to Integrate Information Technology into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of simple percentage and frequency calculation. The results revealed that majority of the teachers have low level of knowledge about IT. In the same vein, majority of teachers in the schools in this study did not have adequate IT skills. However, the teachers have positive attitude toward the use of information technology.

  19. Integrated information theory of consciousness: an updated account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tononi, G

    2012-12-01

    This article presents an updated account of integrated information theory of consciousness (liT) and some of its implications. /IT stems from thought experiments that lead to phenomenological axioms (existence, compositionality, information, integration, exclusion) and corresponding ontological postulates. The information axiom asserts that every experience is spec~fic - it is what it is by differing in its particular way from a large repertoire of alternatives. The integration axiom asserts that each experience is unified- it cannot be reduced to independent components. The exclusion axiom asserts that every experience is definite - it is limited to particular things and not others and flows at a particular speed and resolution. /IT formalizes these intuitions with postulates. The information postulate states that only "differences that make a difference" from the intrinsic perpective of a system matter: a mechanism generates cause-effect information if its present state has selective past causes and selective future effects within a system. The integration postulate states that only information that is irreducible matters: mechanisms generate integrated information only to the extent that the information they generate cannot be partitioned into that generated within independent components. The exclusion postulate states that only maxima of integrated information matter: a mechanism specifies only one maximally irreducible set of past causes and future effects - a concept. A complex is a set of elements specifying a maximally irreducible constellation of concepts, where the maximum is evaluated over elements and at the optimal spatiatemporal scale. Its concepts specify a maximally integrated conceptual information structure or quale, which is identical with an experience. Finally, changes in information integration upon exposure to the environment reflect a system's ability to match the causal structure of the world. After introducing an updated definition of

  20. General Information about Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The tentorium separates the supratentorium from the infratentorium (right panel). The skull and meninges protect the brain and spinal cord (left panel). The spinal cord connects the brain with ...

  1. Evaluating Changes to Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity in Brain Metastasis over Time and after Radiation Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna H. Murrell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The incidence of brain metastasis due to breast cancer is increasing, and prognosis is poor. Treatment is challenging because the blood-brain barrier (BBB limits efficacy of systemic therapies. In this work, we develop a clinically relevant whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT plan to investigate the impact of radiation on brain metastasis development and BBB permeability in a murine model. We hypothesize that radiotherapy will decrease tumor burden and increase tumor permeability, which could offer a mechanism to increase drug uptake in brain metastases. METHODS: Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and high-resolution anatomical MRI were used to evaluate BBB integrity associated with brain metastases due to breast cancer in the MDA-MB-231-BR-HER2 model during their natural development. Novel image-guided microirradiation technology was employed to develop WBRT treatment plans and to investigate if this altered brain metastatic growth or permeability. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed on whole brain slices corresponding with MRI to validate and further investigate radiological findings. RESULTS: Herein, we show successful implementation of microirradiation technology that can deliver WBRT to small animals. We further report that WBRT following diagnosis of brain metastasis can mitigate, but not eliminate, tumor growth in the MDA-MB-231-BR-HER2 model. Moreover, radiotherapy did not impact BBB permeability associated with metastases. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically relevant WBRT is not curative when delivered after MRI-detectable tumors have developed in this model. A dose of 20 Gy in 2 fractions was not sufficient to increase tumor permeability such that it could be used as a method to increase systemic drug uptake in brain metastasis.

  2. Seizure Control and Memory Impairment Are Related to Disrupted Brain Functional Integration in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Hyun; Choi, Yun Seo; Jung, A-Reum; Chung, Hwa-Kyoung; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Hyang Woon

    2017-01-01

    Brain functional integration can be disrupted in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but the clinical relevance of this disruption is not completely understood. The authors hypothesized that disrupted functional integration over brain regions remote from, as well as adjacent to, the seizure focus could be related to clinical severity in terms of seizure control and memory impairment. Using resting-state functional MRI data acquired from 48 TLE patients and 45 healthy controls, the authors mapped functional brain networks and assessed changes in a network parameter of brain functional integration, efficiency, to examine the distribution of disrupted functional integration within and between brain regions. The authors assessed whether the extent of altered efficiency was influenced by seizure control status and whether the degree of altered efficiency was associated with the severity of memory impairment. Alterations in the efficiency were observed primarily near the subcortical region ipsilateral to the seizure focus in TLE patients. The extent of regional involvement was greater in patients with poor seizure control: it reached the frontal, temporal, occipital, and insular cortices in TLE patients with poor seizure control, whereas it was limited to the limbic and parietal cortices in TLE patients with good seizure control. Furthermore, TLE patients with poor seizure control experienced more severe memory impairment, and this was associated with lower efficiency in the brain regions with altered efficiency. These findings indicate that the distribution of disrupted brain functional integration is clinically relevant, as it is associated with seizure control status and comorbid memory impairment.

  3. Integrating the Supervised Information into Unsupervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Ling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assembling unsupervised learning framework that adopts the information coming from the supervised learning process and gives the corresponding implementation algorithm. The algorithm consists of two phases: extracting and clustering data representatives (DRs firstly to obtain labeled training data and then classifying non-DRs based on labeled DRs. The implementation algorithm is called SDSN since it employs the tuning-scaled Support vector domain description to collect DRs, uses spectrum-based method to cluster DRs, and adopts the nearest neighbor classifier to label non-DRs. The validation of the clustering procedure of the first-phase is analyzed theoretically. A new metric is defined data dependently in the second phase to allow the nearest neighbor classifier to work with the informed information. A fast training approach for DRs’ extraction is provided to bring more efficiency. Experimental results on synthetic and real datasets verify that the proposed idea is of correctness and performance and SDSN exhibits higher popularity in practice over the traditional pure clustering procedure.

  4. The integrated approach methodology for operator information evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroube, K.; Modarres, M.; Roush, M.; Hunt, N.; Pearce, R.

    1986-01-01

    The Integrated Approach has developed a complete method for evaluating the relative importance of operation information improvements. By use of decision trees the impact of information on success probability of a function or system can be evaluated. This approach couples goal trees and human success likelihoods to estimate anticipated consequences of a given information system

  5. Ontology Based Resolution of Semantic Conflicts in Information Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Han; LI Qing-zhong

    2004-01-01

    Semantic conflict is the conflict caused by using different ways in heterogeneous systems to express the same entity in reality.This prevents information integration from accomplishing semantic coherence.Since ontology helps to solve semantic problems, this area has become a hot topic in information integration.In this paper, we introduce semantic conflict into information integration of heterogeneous applications.We discuss the origins and categories of the conflict, and present an ontology-based schema mapping approach to eliminate semantic conflicts.

  6. An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain-States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0037 An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain-States Adrian Lee UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON...to 14-09-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain- States 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...specific cognitive states remains elusive, owing perhaps to limited crosstalk between the fields of neuroscience and engineering. Here, we report a

  7. Integration of sparse multi-modality representation and geometrical constraint for isointense infant brain segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Li, Gang; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-01-01

    Segmentation of infant brain MR images is challenging due to insufficient image quality, severe partial volume effect, and ongoing maturation and myelination process. During the first year of life, the signal contrast between white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) in MR images undergoes inverse changes. In particular, the inversion of WM/GM signal contrast appears around 6-8 months of age, where brain tissues appear isointense and hence exhibit extremely low tissue contrast, posing significant challenges for automated segmentation. In this paper, we propose a novel segmentation method to address the above-mentioned challenge based on the sparse representation of the complementary tissue distribution information from T1, T2 and diffusion-weighted images. Specifically, we first derive an initial segmentation from a library of aligned multi-modality images with ground-truth segmentations by using sparse representation in a patch-based fashion. The segmentation is further refined by the integration of the geometrical constraint information. The proposed method was evaluated on 22 6-month-old training subjects using leave-one-out cross-validation, as well as 10 additional infant testing subjects, showing superior results in comparison to other state-of-the-art methods.

  8. Integration of ultra-high field MRI and histology for connectome based research of brain disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan eYang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI became increasingly relevant for in vivo neuroscientific research because of improved spatial resolutions. However, this is still the unchallenged domain of histological studies, which long played an important role in the investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders. While the field of biological psychiatry strongly advanced on macroscopic levels, current developments are rediscovering the richness of immunohistological information when attempting a multi-level systematic approach to brain function and dysfunction. For most studies, histology sections lost information on three-dimensional reconstructions. Translating histological sections to 3D-volumes would thus not only allow for multi-stain and multi-subject alignment in post mortem data, but also provide a crucial step in big data initiatives involving the network analyses currently performed with in vivo MRI. We therefore investigated potential pitfalls during integration of MR and histological information where no additional blockface information is available. We demonstrated that strengths and requirements from both methods seem to be ideally merged at a spatial resolution of 200 μm. However, the success of this approach is heavily dependent on choices of hardware, sequence and reconstruction. We provide a fully automated pipeline that optimizes histological 3D reconstructions, providing a potentially powerful solution not only for primary human post mortem research institutions in neuropsychiatric research, but also to help alleviate the massive workloads in neuroanatomical atlas initiatives. We further demonstrate (for the first time the feasibility and quality of ultra-high spatial resolution (150 µm isotopic imaging of the entire human brain MRI at 7T, offering new opportunities for analyses on MR-derived information.

  9. Integrated Information Technology Policy Analysis Research, CSUSB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    cience  fields in order to combine efforts to better understand multiple network s systems, including technical, biological and social networks...Flowing Valued Information (FVI) project has been discussed at the Network  cience  Workshops linked form the Center website and the FVI reports and

  10. Informed Consent Decision-Making in Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarelli, Gabriele; Moretti, Germana; Pasquini, Massimo; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2018-05-11

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has proved useful for several movement disorders (Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, dystonia), in which first and/or second line pharmacological treatments were inefficacious. Initial evidence of DBS efficacy exists for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder, treatment-resistant major depressive disorder, and impulse control disorders. Ethical concerns have been raised about the use of an invasive surgical approach involving the central nervous system in patients with possible impairment in cognitive functioning and decision-making capacity. Most of the disorders in which DBS has been used might present with alterations in memory, attention, and executive functioning, which may have an impact on the mental capacity to give informed consent to neurosurgery. Depression, anxiety, and compulsivity are also common in DBS candidate disorders, and could also be associated with an impaired capacity to consent to treatment or clinical research. Despite these issues, there is limited empirical knowledge on the decision-making levels of these patients. The possible informed consent issues of DBS will be discussed by focusing on the specific treatable diseases.

  11. Informed Consent Decision-Making in Deep Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mandarelli

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS has proved useful for several movement disorders (Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, dystonia, in which first and/or second line pharmacological treatments were inefficacious. Initial evidence of DBS efficacy exists for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder, treatment-resistant major depressive disorder, and impulse control disorders. Ethical concerns have been raised about the use of an invasive surgical approach involving the central nervous system in patients with possible impairment in cognitive functioning and decision-making capacity. Most of the disorders in which DBS has been used might present with alterations in memory, attention, and executive functioning, which may have an impact on the mental capacity to give informed consent to neurosurgery. Depression, anxiety, and compulsivity are also common in DBS candidate disorders, and could also be associated with an impaired capacity to consent to treatment or clinical research. Despite these issues, there is limited empirical knowledge on the decision-making levels of these patients. The possible informed consent issues of DBS will be discussed by focusing on the specific treatable diseases.

  12. QUANTITATIVE СHARACTERISTICS OF COMPLEMENTARY INTEGRATED HEALTH CARE SYSTEM AND INTEGRATED MEDICATION MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Babintseva

    2015-05-01

    i mportant elements of state regulation of the pharmaceutical sector health. For the first time creation of two information systems: integrated medication management infor mation system and integrated health care system in an integrated medical infor mation area, operating based on th e principle of complementarity was justified. Global and technological coefficients of these systems’ functioning were introduced.

  13. Using integrated information systems in supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez-Gallego, Nicolás; Molina-Castillo, Francisco-Jose; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Varajao, Joao; Trigo, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to empirically test not only the direct effects of information and communication technology (ICT) capabilities and integrated information systems (IS) on firm performance, but also the moderating role of IS integration along the supply chain in the relationship between ICT external and capabilities and business performance. Data collected from 102 large Iberian firms from Spain and Portugal are used to test the research model. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis is employed to test the direct effects and the moderating relationships proposed. Results show that external and internal ICT capabilities are important drivers of firm performance, while merely having integrated IS do not lead to better firm performance. In addition, a moderating effect of IS integration in the relationship between ICT capabilities and business performance is found, although this integration only contributes to firm performance when it is directed to connect with suppliers or customers rather than when integrating the whole supply chain.

  14. Novel theory of the human brain: information-commutation basis of architecture and principles of operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhovetskiy AS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Andrey S Bryukhovetskiy Center for Biomedical Technologies, Federal Research and Clinical Center for Specialized Types of Medical Assistance and Medical Technologies of the Federal Medical Biological Agency, NeuroVita Clinic of Interventional and Restorative Neurology and Therapy, Moscow, Russia Abstract: Based on the methodology of the informational approach and research of the genome, proteome, and complete transcriptome profiles of different cells in the nervous tissue of the human brain, the author proposes a new theory of information-commutation organization and architecture of the human brain which is an alternative to the conventional systemic connective morphofunctional paradigm of the brain framework. Informational principles of brain operation are defined: the modular principle, holographic principle, principle of systematicity of vertical commutative connection and complexity of horizontal commutative connection, regulatory principle, relay principle, modulation principle, “illumination” principle, principle of personalized memory and intellect, and principle of low energy consumption. The author demonstrates that the cortex functions only as a switchboard and router of information, while information is processed outside the nervous tissue of the brain in the intermeningeal space. The main structural element of information-commutation in the brain is not the neuron, but information-commutation modules that are subdivided into receiver modules, transmitter modules, and subscriber modules, forming a vertical architecture of nervous tissue in the brain as information lines and information channels, and a horizontal architecture as central, intermediate, and peripheral information-commutation platforms. Information in information-commutation modules is transferred by means of the carriers that are characteristic to the specific information level from inductome to genome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, secretome, and magnetome

  15. Information Systems Integration and Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) Adoption: A Case from Financial Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wing

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, organizations find that they need to integrate large number of information systems in order to support enterprise-wide business initiatives such as e-business, supply chain management and customer relationship management. To date, organizations have largely tended to address information systems (IS) integration in an ad-hoc manner.…

  16. Integrated three-dimensional display of MR, CT, and PET images of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, D.N.; Herrmann, A.; Chen, G.T.Y.

    1988-01-01

    MR, CT, and PET studies depict complementary aspects of brain anatomy and function. The authors' own image-processing software and a Pixar image computer were used to create three-dimensional models of brain soft tissues from MR images, of the skull and calcifications from CT scans, and of brain metabolism from PET images. An image correlation program, based on surface fitting, was used for retrospective registration and merging of these three-dimensional models. The results are demonstrated in a video clip showing how the operator may rotate and perform electronic surgery on the integrated, multimodality three-dimensional model of each patient's brain

  17. Integrating knowledge based functionality in commercial hospital information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M L; Ganslandt, T; Eich, H P; Lang, K; Ohmann, C; Prokosch, H U

    2000-01-01

    Successful integration of knowledge-based functions in the electronic patient record depends on direct and context-sensitive accessibility and availability to clinicians and must suit their workflow. In this paper we describe an exemplary integration of an existing standalone scoring system for acute abdominal pain into two different commercial hospital information systems using Java/Corba technolgy.

  18. Integrating SAP to Information Systems Curriculum: Design and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Information Systems (IS) education is being transformed from the segmented applications toward the integrated enterprise-wide system software Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). ERP is a platform that integrates all business functions with its centralized data repository shared by all the business operations in the enterprise. This tremendous…

  19. Integrating an Information Literacy Quiz into the Learning Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, M. Sara; Booth, Char; Tagge, Natalie; Stone, Sean

    2014-01-01

    The Claremont Colleges Library Instruction Services Department developed a quiz that could be integrated into the consortial learning management software to accompany a local online, open-source information literacy tutorial. The quiz is integrated into individual course pages, allowing students to receive a grade for completion and improving…

  20. A Framework for Understanding Post-Merger Information Systems Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alaranta, Maria; Kautz, Karlheinz

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical framework for the integration of information systems (IS) after a merger or an acquisition. The framework integrates three perspectives: a structuralist, an individualist, and an interactive process perspective to analyze and understand such integrations....... The framework is applied to a longitudinal case study of a manufacturing company that grew through an acquisition. The management decided to integrate the production control IS via tailoring a new system that blends together features of existing IS. The application of the framework in the case study confirms...... several known impediments to IS integrations. It also identifies a number of new inhibitors, as well as known and new facilitators that can bring post-merger IS integration to a success. Our findings provide relevant insights to researching and managing post-merger IS integrations. They emphasize...

  1. A prospective study to evaluate a new residential community reintegration programme for severe chronic brain injury: the Brain Integration Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurtsen, G J; Martina, J D; Van Heugten, C M; Geurts, A C H

    2008-07-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a residential community reintegration programme for participants with chronic sequelae of severe acquired brain injury that hamper community functioning. Prospective cohort study. Twenty-four participants with acquired brain injury (traumatic n = 18; stroke n = 3, tumour n = 2, encephalitis n = 1). Participants had impaired illness awareness, alcohol and drug problems and/or behavioural problems. A skills-oriented programme with modules related to independent living, work, social and emotional well-being. The Community Integration Questionnaire, CES-Depression, EuroQOL, Employability Rating Scale, living situation and work status were scored at the start (T0), end of treatment (T1) and 1-year follow-up (T2). Significant effects on the majority of outcome measures were present at T1. Employability significantly improved at T2 and living independently rose from 42% to over 70%. Participants working increased from 38% to 58% and the hours of work per week increased from 8 to 15. The Brain Integration Programme led to a sustained reduction in experienced problems and improved community integration. It is concluded that even participants with complex problems due to severe brain injury who got stuck in life could improve their social participation and emotional well-being through a residential community reintegration programme.

  2. Disrupted functional brain networks in autistic toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, M.; Kemner, C.; Reus, M.A. de; Collin, G; Snijders, T.M.; Hofman, D.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Stam, C.J.; Heuvel, M.P. van den

    2013-01-01

    Communication and integration of information between brain regions plays a key role in healthy brain function. Conversely, disruption in brain communication may lead to cognitive and behavioral problems. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impaired social interactions

  3. Is functional integration of resting state brain networks an unspecific biomarker for working memory performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavash, Mohsen; Doebler, Philipp; Holling, Heinz; Thiel, Christiane M; Gießing, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Is there one optimal topology of functional brain networks at rest from which our cognitive performance would profit? Previous studies suggest that functional integration of resting state brain networks is an important biomarker for cognitive performance. However, it is still unknown whether higher network integration is an unspecific predictor for good cognitive performance or, alternatively, whether specific network organization during rest predicts only specific cognitive abilities. Here, we investigated the relationship between network integration at rest and cognitive performance using two tasks that measured different aspects of working memory; one task assessed visual-spatial and the other numerical working memory. Network clustering, modularity and efficiency were computed to capture network integration on different levels of network organization, and to statistically compare their correlations with the performance in each working memory test. The results revealed that each working memory aspect profits from a different resting state topology, and the tests showed significantly different correlations with each of the measures of network integration. While higher global network integration and modularity predicted significantly better performance in visual-spatial working memory, both measures showed no significant correlation with numerical working memory performance. In contrast, numerical working memory was superior in subjects with highly clustered brain networks, predominantly in the intraparietal sulcus, a core brain region of the working memory network. Our findings suggest that a specific balance between local and global functional integration of resting state brain networks facilitates special aspects of cognitive performance. In the context of working memory, while visual-spatial performance is facilitated by globally integrated functional resting state brain networks, numerical working memory profits from increased capacities for local processing

  4. Standards to support information systems integration in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Christel; García Rojo, Marcial; Bourquard, Karima; Henin, Dominique; Schrader, Thomas; Della Mea, Vincenzo; Gilbertson, John; Beckwith, Bruce A

    2009-11-01

    Integrating anatomic pathology information- text and images-into electronic health care records is a key challenge for enhancing clinical information exchange between anatomic pathologists and clinicians. The aim of the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) international initiative is precisely to ensure interoperability of clinical information systems by using existing widespread industry standards such as Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) and Health Level Seven (HL7). To define standard-based informatics transactions to integrate anatomic pathology information to the Healthcare Enterprise. We used the methodology of the IHE initiative. Working groups from IHE, HL7, and DICOM, with special interest in anatomic pathology, defined consensual technical solutions to provide end-users with improved access to consistent information across multiple information systems. The IHE anatomic pathology technical framework describes a first integration profile, "Anatomic Pathology Workflow," dedicated to the diagnostic process including basic image acquisition and reporting solutions. This integration profile relies on 10 transactions based on HL7 or DICOM standards. A common specimen model was defined to consistently identify and describe specimens in both HL7 and DICOM transactions. The IHE anatomic pathology working group has defined standard-based informatics transactions to support the basic diagnostic workflow in anatomic pathology laboratories. In further stages, the technical framework will be completed to manage whole-slide images and semantically rich structured reports in the diagnostic workflow and to integrate systems used for patient care and those used for research activities (such as tissue bank databases or tissue microarrayers).

  5. EFFICIENCY INDICATORS INFORMATION MANAGEMENT IN INTEGRATED SECURITY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Rodionova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Introduction of information technology to improve the efficiency of security activity leads to the need to consider a number of negative factors associated with in consequence of the use of these technologies as a key element of modern security systems. One of the most notable factor is the exposure to information processes in protection systems security threats. This largely relates to integrated security systems (ISS is the system of protection with the highest level of informatization security functions. Significant damage to protected objects that they could potentially incur as a result of abnormal operation ISS, puts a very actual problem of assessing factors that reduce the efficiency of the ISS to justify the ways and methods to improve it. Because of the nature of threats and blocking distortion of information in the ISS of interest are: the volume undistorted ISF working environment, as a characteristic of data integrity; time access to information as a feature of its availability. This in turn leads to the need to use these parameters as the performance characteristics of information processes in the ISS - the completeness and timeliness of information processing. The article proposes performance indicators of information processes in integrated security systems in terms of optimal control procedures to protect information from unauthorized access. Set the considered parameters allows to conduct comprehensive security analysis of integrated security systems, and to provide recommendations to improve the management of information security procedures in them.

  6. The Integrated Information System for Natural Disaster Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiu Wu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Supported by the World Bank, the Integrated Information System for Natural Disaster Mitigation (ISNDM, including the operational service system and network telecommunication system, has been in development for three years in the Center of Disaster Reduction, Chinese Academy of Sciences, based on the platform of the GIS software Arcview. It has five main modules: disaster background information, socio- economic information, disaster-induced factors database, disaster scenarios database, and disaster assessment. ISNDM has several significant functions, which include information collection, information processing, data storage, and information distribution. It is a simple but comprehensive demonstration system for our national center for natural disaster reduction.

  7. Volatile anesthetics influence blood-brain barrier integrity by modulation of tight junction protein expression in traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge C Thal

    Full Text Available Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB results in cerebral edema formation, which is a major cause for high mortality after traumatic brain injury (TBI. As anesthetic care is mandatory in patients suffering from severe TBI it may be important to elucidate the effect of different anesthetics on cerebral edema formation. Tight junction proteins (TJ such as zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 and claudin-5 (cl5 play a central role for BBB stability. First, the influence of the volatile anesthetics sevoflurane and isoflurane on in-vitro BBB integrity was investigated by quantification of the electrical resistance (TEER in murine brain endothelial monolayers and neurovascular co-cultures of the BBB. Secondly brain edema and TJ expression of ZO-1 and cl5 were measured in-vivo after exposure towards volatile anesthetics in native mice and after controlled cortical impact (CCI. In in-vitro endothelial monocultures, both anesthetics significantly reduced TEER within 24 hours after exposure. In BBB co-cultures mimicking the neurovascular unit (NVU volatile anesthetics had no impact on TEER. In healthy mice, anesthesia did not influence brain water content and TJ expression, while 24 hours after CCI brain water content increased significantly stronger with isoflurane compared to sevoflurane. In line with the brain edema data, ZO-1 expression was significantly higher in sevoflurane compared to isoflurane exposed CCI animals. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed disruption of ZO-1 at the cerebrovascular level, while cl5 was less affected in the pericontusional area. The study demonstrates that anesthetics influence brain edema formation after experimental TBI. This effect may be attributed to modulation of BBB permeability by differential TJ protein expression. Therefore, selection of anesthetics may influence the barrier function and introduce a strong bias in experimental research on pathophysiology of BBB dysfunction. Future research is required to investigate

  8. Brain Wave Biofeedback: Benefits of Integrating Neurofeedback in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jane E.; Young, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with the "2009 Standards" of the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, counselors must understand neurobiological behavior in individuals of all developmental levels. This requires understanding the brain and strategies for applying neurobiological concepts in counseling practice, training, and…

  9. Understanding How the Brain Learns Should Inform Our Teaching Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix Darden

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative review of: The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools; Mariale Hardiman; (2012. Corwin, Thousand Oaks, CA. 223 pages; and How the Brain Learns, 4th ed.; David A. Sousa; (2011. Corwin, Thousand Oaks, CA. 321 pages.

  10. No need to talk, I know you: familiarity influences early multisensory integration in a songbird's brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle GEORGE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that visual information can affect auditory perception, as in the famous McGurk effect, but little is known concerning the processes involved. To address this issue, we used the best-developed animal model to study language-related processes in the brain: songbirds. European starlings were exposed to audiovisual compared to auditory-only playback of conspecific songs, while electrophysiological recordings were made in their primary auditory area (Field L. The results show that the audiovisual condition modulated the auditory responses. Enhancement and suppression were both observed, depending on the stimulus familiarity. Seeing a familiar bird led to suppressed auditory responses while seeing an unfamiliar bird led to response enhancement, suggesting that unisensory perception may be enough if the stimulus is familiar while redundancy may be required for unfamiliar items. This is to our knowledge the first evidence that multisensory integration may occur in a low-level, putatively unisensory area of a non-mammalian vertebrate brain, and also that familiarity of the stimuli may influence modulation of auditory responses by vision.

  11. Broad knowledge of information technologies: a prerequisite for the effective management of the integrated information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landau, H.B.

    1980-09-01

    There is a trend towards the bringing together of various information technologies into integrated information systems. The managers of these total systems therefore must be familiar with each of the component technologies and how they may be combined into a total information system. To accomplish this, the effective manager should first define the overall system as an integrated flow of information with each step identified; then, the alternate technologies applicable to each step may be selected. Methods of becoming technologically aware are suggested and examples of integrated systems are discussed.

  12. Development of Integrated Information System for Travel Bureau Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karma, I. G. M.; Susanti, J.

    2018-01-01

    Related to the effectiveness of decision-making by the management of travel bureau company, especially by managers, information serves frequent delays or incomplete. Although already computer-assisted, the existing application-based is used only handle one particular activity only, not integrated. This research is intended to produce an integrated information system that handles the overall operational activities of the company. By applying the object-oriented system development approach, the system is built with Visual Basic. Net programming language and MySQL database package. The result is a system that consists of 4 (four) separated program packages, including Reservation System, AR System, AP System and Accounting System. Based on the output, we can conclude that this system is able to produce integrated information that related to the problem of reservation, operational and financial those produce up-to-date information in order to support operational activities and decisionmaking process by related parties.

  13. Development of an integrated medical supply information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Eric; Wermus, Marek; Blythe Bauman, Deborah

    2011-08-01

    The integrated medical supply inventory control system introduced in this study is a hybrid system that is shaped by the nature of medical supply, usage and storage capacity limitations of health care facilities. The system links demand, service provided at the clinic, health care service provider's information, inventory storage data and decision support tools into an integrated information system. ABC analysis method, economic order quantity model, two-bin method and safety stock concept are applied as decision support models to tackle inventory management issues at health care facilities. In the decision support module, each medical item and storage location has been scrutinised to determine the best-fit inventory control policy. The pilot case study demonstrates that the integrated medical supply information system holds several advantages for inventory managers, since it entails benefits of deploying enterprise information systems to manage medical supply and better patient services.

  14. Automatic segmentation of meningioma from non-contrasted brain MRI integrating fuzzy clustering and region growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Chun-Chih

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has become important in brain tumor diagnosis. Using this modality, physicians can locate specific pathologies by analyzing differences in tissue character presented in different types of MR images. This paper uses an algorithm integrating fuzzy-c-mean (FCM and region growing techniques for automated tumor image segmentation from patients with menigioma. Only non-contrasted T1 and T2 -weighted MR images are included in the analysis. The study's aims are to correctly locate tumors in the images, and to detect those situated in the midline position of the brain. Methods The study used non-contrasted T1- and T2-weighted MR images from 29 patients with menigioma. After FCM clustering, 32 groups of images from each patient group were put through the region-growing procedure for pixels aggregation. Later, using knowledge-based information, the system selected tumor-containing images from these groups and merged them into one tumor image. An alternative semi-supervised method was added at this stage for comparison with the automatic method. Finally, the tumor image was optimized by a morphology operator. Results from automatic segmentation were compared to the "ground truth" (GT on a pixel level. Overall data were then evaluated using a quantified system. Results The quantified parameters, including the "percent match" (PM and "correlation ratio" (CR, suggested a high match between GT and the present study's system, as well as a fair level of correspondence. The results were compatible with those from other related studies. The system successfully detected all of the tumors situated at the midline of brain. Six cases failed in the automatic group. One also failed in the semi-supervised alternative. The remaining five cases presented noticeable edema inside the brain. In the 23 successful cases, the PM and CR values in the two groups were highly related. Conclusions Results indicated

  15. A Quality-Driven Methodology for Information Systems Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad Zikra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Information systems integration is an essential instrument for organizations to attain advantage in today’s growing and fast changing business and technology landscapes. Integration solutions generate added value by combining the functionality and services of heterogeneous and diverse systems. Existing integration environments tend to rely heavily on technical, platform-dependent skills. Consequently, the solutions that they enable are not optimally aligned with the envisioned business goals of the organization. Furthermore, the gap between the goals and the solutions complicates the task of evaluating the quality of integration solutions. To address these challenges, we propose a quality-driven, model-driven methodology for designing and developing integration solutions. The methodology spans organizational and systems design details, providing a holistic view of the integration solution and its underlying business goals. A multi-view meta-model provides the basis for the integration design. Quality factors that affect various aspects of the integration solution guide and inform the progress of the methodology. An example business case is presented to demonstrate the application of the methodology.

  16. Integrating some mind and brain views of transference: the phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, F M

    1997-01-01

    Because understanding the underpinnings of transferential learning allows the analyst to more effectively exploit transference in the clinical situation, as well as to advance psychoanalytic theory, the functions and mechanisms of transference phenomena in learning are subjected to an interdisciplinary analysis. Through transference the brain creates hierarchical databases that make emotional sense of the world, especially the world of human relationships. Transference plays a role in defense and resistance clinically; less explored but equally important is the adaptive potential of transference and its effect on an individual's readiness for structural change through the activation of working memory. Most investigators within psychoanalysis have not considered the importance of similarity judgments and memory priming, especially as these help to explain why transference and its proper handling are effective in treatment. Yet there are complex relationships among transference, similarity judgment, and memory priming that tie together psychoanalysis, cognitive psychology, and neurophysiology. Evidence increasingly suggests a relationship between transference and the transfer of knowledge between various content domains (databases) of mind and brain, which is essential to cognitive and emotional learning. There are indications as well that transference decisively facilitates learning readiness ("windows") in general by means of two of its components: free association and spontaneous (self-initiated) activity. The important question of which mind/brain mechanisms motivate transference is not yet understood comprehensively. However, Vygotsky's work on the zone of proximal development (ZPD), M.Stern's teleonomic theory, schema theory, and neural network theory offer further insights into what motivates transference.

  17. Speaker gaze increases information coupling between infant and adult brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Victoria; Byrne, Elizabeth; Clackson, Kaili; Georgieva, Stanimira; Lam, Sarah; Wass, Sam

    2017-12-12

    When infants and adults communicate, they exchange social signals of availability and communicative intention such as eye gaze. Previous research indicates that when communication is successful, close temporal dependencies arise between adult speakers' and listeners' neural activity. However, it is not known whether similar neural contingencies exist within adult-infant dyads. Here, we used dual-electroencephalography to assess whether direct gaze increases neural coupling between adults and infants during screen-based and live interactions. In experiment 1 ( n = 17), infants viewed videos of an adult who was singing nursery rhymes with ( i ) direct gaze (looking forward), ( ii ) indirect gaze (head and eyes averted by 20°), or ( iii ) direct-oblique gaze (head averted but eyes orientated forward). In experiment 2 ( n = 19), infants viewed the same adult in a live context, singing with direct or indirect gaze. Gaze-related changes in adult-infant neural network connectivity were measured using partial directed coherence. Across both experiments, the adult had a significant (Granger) causal influence on infants' neural activity, which was stronger during direct and direct-oblique gaze relative to indirect gaze. During live interactions, infants also influenced the adult more during direct than indirect gaze. Further, infants vocalized more frequently during live direct gaze, and individual infants who vocalized longer also elicited stronger synchronization from the adult. These results demonstrate that direct gaze strengthens bidirectional adult-infant neural connectivity during communication. Thus, ostensive social signals could act to bring brains into mutual temporal alignment, creating a joint-networked state that is structured to facilitate information transfer during early communication and learning. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  18. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T; Humphreys, G W

    2002-01-01

    We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform a......) that perceptual and memorial processes can be dissociated on both functional and anatomical grounds. No evidence was obtained for the involvement of the parietal lobes in the integration of single objects....

  19. Moral Judgment as Information Processing: An Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eGuglielmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews dominant models of moral judgment, organizing them within an overarching framework of information processing. This framework poses two fundamental questions: (1 What input information guides moral judgments?; and (2 What psychological processes generate these judgments? Information Models address the first question, identifying critical information elements (including causality, intentionality, and mental states that shape moral judgments. A subclass of Biased Information Models holds that perceptions of these information elements are themselves driven by prior moral judgments. Processing Models address the second question, and existing models have focused on the relative contribution of intuitive versus deliberative processes. This review organizes existing moral judgment models within this framework, critically evaluates them on empirical and theoretical grounds, outlines a general integrative model grounded in information processing, and offers conceptual and methodological suggestions for future research. The information processing perspective provides a useful theoretical framework for organizing extant and future work in the rapidly growing field of moral judgment.

  20. Using remote sensing to inform integrated coastal zone management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available TO INFORM INTERGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT GISSA Western Cape Regional Meeting Wesley Roberts & Melanie Luck-Vogel 2 June 2010 CSIR NRE Ecosystems Earth Observation Group What is Integrated Coastal Zone Management? Integrated coastal management... D1D1 B a n d 1 Band 2 Quick theory of CVA Magnitude Direction ( ) ( )22 xaxbyaybM ?+?= Quadrant 1 (++) Accretion Quadrant 2 (-+) Quadrant 4 (+-) Quadrant 3 (--) Erosion CVA Results & Conclusions ? Change in image time series...

  1. DESIGN OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF VERTICALLY INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Витальевич ШМАТКО

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an approach to the design and development of information systems for the management and optimization of the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holdings. A review of the problems of building and improving the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holding is made. A method of constructing a discrete model management structure agricultural holding, which minimizes the costs associated with attracting applicants to work, is proposed.

  2. Intervention and societal costs of residential community reintegration for patients with acquired brain injury: a cost-analysis of the Brain Integration Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heugten, Caroline M; Geurtsen, Gert J; Derksen, R Elze; Martina, Juan D; Geurts, Alexander C H; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the intervention costs of a residential community reintegration programme for patients with acquired brain injury and to compare the societal costs before and after treatment. A cost-analysis was performed identifying costs of healthcare, informal care, and productivity losses. The costs in the year before the Brain Integration Programme (BIP) were compared with the costs in the year after the BIP using the following cost categories: care consumption, caregiver support, productivity losses. Dutch guidelines were used for cost valuation. Thirty-three cases participated (72% response). Mean age was 29.8 years, 59% traumatic brain injury. The BIP costs were €68,400. The informal care and productivity losses reduced significantly after BIP (p costs per patient were €48,449. After BIP these costs were €39,773; a significant reduction (p costs after the BIP advocates the allocation of resources and, from an economic perspective, favours reimbursement of the BIP costs by healthcare insurance companies. However, this cost-analysis is limited as it does not relate costs to clinical effectiveness. :

  3. Information-integration category learning and the human uncertainty response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Erick J; Boomer, Joseph; Smith, J David; Ashby, F Gregory

    2011-04-01

    The human response to uncertainty has been well studied in tasks requiring attention and declarative memory systems. However, uncertainty monitoring and control have not been studied in multi-dimensional, information-integration categorization tasks that rely on non-declarative procedural memory. Three experiments are described that investigated the human uncertainty response in such tasks. Experiment 1 showed that following standard categorization training, uncertainty responding was similar in information-integration tasks and rule-based tasks requiring declarative memory. In Experiment 2, however, uncertainty responding in untrained information-integration tasks impaired the ability of many participants to master those tasks. Finally, Experiment 3 showed that the deficit observed in Experiment 2 was not because of the uncertainty response option per se, but rather because the uncertainty response provided participants a mechanism via which to eliminate stimuli that were inconsistent with a simple declarative response strategy. These results are considered in the light of recent models of category learning and metacognition.

  4. Development of integrated semiconductor optical sensors for functional brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas T.

    Optical imaging of neural activity is a widely accepted technique for imaging brain function in the field of neuroscience research, and has been used to study the cerebral cortex in vivo for over two decades. Maps of brain activity are obtained by monitoring intensity changes in back-scattered light, called Intrinsic Optical Signals (IOS), that correspond to fluctuations in blood oxygenation and volume associated with neural activity. Current imaging systems typically employ bench-top equipment including lamps and CCD cameras to study animals using visible light. Such systems require the use of anesthetized or immobilized subjects with craniotomies, which imposes limitations on the behavioral range and duration of studies. The ultimate goal of this work is to overcome these limitations by developing a single-chip semiconductor sensor using arrays of sources and detectors operating at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. A single-chip implementation, combined with wireless telemetry, will eliminate the need for immobilization or anesthesia of subjects and allow in vivo studies of free behavior. NIR light offers additional advantages because it experiences less absorption in animal tissue than visible light, which allows for imaging through superficial tissues. This, in turn, reduces or eliminates the need for traumatic surgery and enables long-term brain-mapping studies in freely-behaving animals. This dissertation concentrates on key engineering challenges of implementing the sensor. This work shows the feasibility of using a GaAs-based array of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and PIN photodiodes for IOS imaging. I begin with in-vivo studies of IOS imaging through the skull in mice, and use these results along with computer simulations to establish minimum performance requirements for light sources and detectors. I also evaluate the performance of a current commercial VCSEL for IOS imaging, and conclude with a proposed prototype sensor.

  5. Integrating hospital information systems in healthcare institutions: a mediation architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Azami, Ikram; Cherkaoui Malki, Mohammed Ouçamah; Tahon, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Many studies have examined the integration of information systems into healthcare institutions, leading to several standards in the healthcare domain (CORBAmed: Common Object Request Broker Architecture in Medicine; HL7: Health Level Seven International; DICOM: Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine; and IHE: Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise). Due to the existence of a wide diversity of heterogeneous systems, three essential factors are necessary to fully integrate a system: data, functions and workflow. However, most of the previous studies have dealt with only one or two of these factors and this makes the system integration unsatisfactory. In this paper, we propose a flexible, scalable architecture for Hospital Information Systems (HIS). Our main purpose is to provide a practical solution to insure HIS interoperability so that healthcare institutions can communicate without being obliged to change their local information systems and without altering the tasks of the healthcare professionals. Our architecture is a mediation architecture with 3 levels: 1) a database level, 2) a middleware level and 3) a user interface level. The mediation is based on two central components: the Mediator and the Adapter. Using the XML format allows us to establish a structured, secured exchange of healthcare data. The notion of medical ontology is introduced to solve semantic conflicts and to unify the language used for the exchange. Our mediation architecture provides an effective, promising model that promotes the integration of hospital information systems that are autonomous, heterogeneous, semantically interoperable and platform-independent.

  6. Integrated system of production information processing for surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Wang, S.; Zeng, Z.; Wei, J.; Ren, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). Dept of Mining Engineering

    2000-09-01

    Based on the concept of geological statistic, mathematical program, condition simulation, system engineering, and the features and duties of each main department in surface mine production, an integrated system for surface mine production information was studied systematically and developed by using the technology of data warehousing, CAD, object-oriented and system integration, which leads to the systematizing and automating of the information management, data processing, optimization computing and plotting. In this paper, its overall object, system design, structure and functions and some key techniques were described. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Visualization and Integrated Data Mining of Disparate Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saffer, Jeffrey D.(OMNIVIZ, INC); Albright, Cory L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Calapristi, Augustin J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Chen, Guang (OMNIVIZ, INC); Crow, Vernon L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Decker, Scott D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Groch, Kevin M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Havre, Susan L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Malard, Joel (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Martin, Tonya J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Miller, Nancy E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Monroe, Philip J.(OMNIVIZ, INC); Nowell, Lucy T.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Payne, Deborah A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Reyes Spindola, Jorge F.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Scarberry, Randall E.(OMNIVIZ, INC); Sofia, Heidi J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stillwell, Lisa C.(OMNIVIZ, INC); Thomas, Gregory S.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Thurston, Sarah J.(OMNIVIZ, INC); Williams, Leigh K.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Zabriskie, Sean J.(OMNIVIZ, INC); MG Hicks

    2001-05-11

    The volumes and diversity of information in the discovery, development, and business processes within the chemical and life sciences industries require new approaches for analysis. Traditional list- or spreadsheet-based methods are easily overwhelmed by large amounts of data. Furthermore, generating strong hypotheses and, just as importantly, ruling out weak ones, requires integration across different experimental and informational sources. We have developed a framework for this integration, including common conceptual data models for multiple data types and linked visualizations that provide an overview of the entire data set, a measure of how each data record is related to every other record, and an assessment of the associations within the data set.

  8. International seminar on integrated information systems. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The information available to the IAEA under comprehensive safeguards agreement with an Additional protocol is intended to provide for as complete a picture as practicable of a State's current or planned nuclear programme. The central components of the strengthened safeguards system are: increased IAEA access to and evaluation of information about States' nuclear and nuclear-related activities and increased physical access to relevant locations for verification of the exclusively peaceful content of a States' nuclear programme. Strengthening measures implemented under the existing legal authority of the Agency have contributed to increased information and physical access. Thus the role of integrated information systems for safeguards relevant data acquisition became more significant.

  9. International seminar on integrated information systems. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    The information available to the IAEA under comprehensive safeguards agreement with an Additional protocol is intended to provide for as complete a picture as practicable of a State's current or planned nuclear programme. The central components of the strengthened safeguards system are: increased IAEA access to and evaluation of information about States' nuclear and nuclear-related activities and increased physical access to relevant locations for verification of the exclusively peaceful content of a States' nuclear programme. Strengthening measures implemented under the existing legal authority of the Agency have contributed to increased information and physical access. Thus the role of integrated information systems for safeguards relevant data acquisition became more significant

  10. Integrated Information Systems Across the Weather-Climate Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Higgins, W.; Nierenberg, C.; Trtanj, J.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing demand for well-organized (integrated) end-to-end research-based information has been highlighted in several National Academy studies, in IPCC Reports (such as the SREX and Fifth Assessment) and by public and private constituents. Such information constitutes a significant component of the "environmental intelligence" needed to address myriad societal needs for early warning and resilience across the weather-climate continuum. The next generation of climate research in service to the nation requires an even more visible, authoritative and robust commitment to scientific integration in support of adaptive information systems that address emergent risks and inform longer-term resilience strategies. A proven mechanism for resourcing such requirements is to demonstrate vision, purpose, support, connection to constituencies, and prototypes of desired capabilities. In this presentation we will discuss efforts at NOAA, and elsewhere, that: Improve information on how changes in extremes in key phenomena such as drought, floods, and heat stress impact management decisions for resource planning and disaster risk reduction Develop regional integrated information systems to address these emergent challenges, that integrate observations, monitoring and prediction, impacts assessments and scenarios, preparedness and adaptation, and coordination and capacity-building. Such systems, as illustrated through efforts such as NIDIS, have strengthened the integration across the foundational research enterprise (through for instance, RISAs, Modeling Analysis Predictions and Projections) by increasing agility for responding to emergent risks. The recently- initiated Climate Services Information System, in support of the WMO Global Framework for Climate Services draws on the above models and will be introduced during the presentation.

  11. Integrated information in discrete dynamical systems: motivation and theoretical framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Balduzzi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a time- and state-dependent measure of integrated information, phi, which captures the repertoire of causal states available to a system as a whole. Specifically, phi quantifies how much information is generated (uncertainty is reduced when a system enters a particular state through causal interactions among its elements, above and beyond the information generated independently by its parts. Such mathematical characterization is motivated by the observation that integrated information captures two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: (i there is a large repertoire of conscious experiences so that, when one particular experience occurs, it generates a large amount of information by ruling out all the others; and (ii this information is integrated, in that each experience appears as a whole that cannot be decomposed into independent parts. This paper extends previous work on stationary systems and applies integrated information to discrete networks as a function of their dynamics and causal architecture. An analysis of basic examples indicates the following: (i phi varies depending on the state entered by a network, being higher if active and inactive elements are balanced and lower if the network is inactive or hyperactive. (ii phi varies for systems with identical or similar surface dynamics depending on the underlying causal architecture, being low for systems that merely copy or replay activity states. (iii phi varies as a function of network architecture. High phi values can be obtained by architectures that conjoin functional specialization with functional integration. Strictly modular and homogeneous systems cannot generate high phi because the former lack integration, whereas the latter lack information. Feedforward and lattice architectures are capable of generating high phi but are inefficient. (iv In Hopfield networks, phi is low for attractor states and neutral states, but increases if the networks

  12. Integrated information in discrete dynamical systems: motivation and theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduzzi, David; Tononi, Giulio

    2008-06-13

    This paper introduces a time- and state-dependent measure of integrated information, phi, which captures the repertoire of causal states available to a system as a whole. Specifically, phi quantifies how much information is generated (uncertainty is reduced) when a system enters a particular state through causal interactions among its elements, above and beyond the information generated independently by its parts. Such mathematical characterization is motivated by the observation that integrated information captures two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: (i) there is a large repertoire of conscious experiences so that, when one particular experience occurs, it generates a large amount of information by ruling out all the others; and (ii) this information is integrated, in that each experience appears as a whole that cannot be decomposed into independent parts. This paper extends previous work on stationary systems and applies integrated information to discrete networks as a function of their dynamics and causal architecture. An analysis of basic examples indicates the following: (i) phi varies depending on the state entered by a network, being higher if active and inactive elements are balanced and lower if the network is inactive or hyperactive. (ii) phi varies for systems with identical or similar surface dynamics depending on the underlying causal architecture, being low for systems that merely copy or replay activity states. (iii) phi varies as a function of network architecture. High phi values can be obtained by architectures that conjoin functional specialization with functional integration. Strictly modular and homogeneous systems cannot generate high phi because the former lack integration, whereas the latter lack information. Feedforward and lattice architectures are capable of generating high phi but are inefficient. (iv) In Hopfield networks, phi is low for attractor states and neutral states, but increases if the networks are optimized

  13. Brain response during the M170 time interval is sensitive to socially relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arviv, Oshrit; Goldstein, Abraham; Weeting, Janine C; Becker, Eni S; Lange, Wolf-Gero; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Deciphering the social meaning of facial displays is a highly complex neurological process. The M170, an event related field component of MEG recording, like its EEG counterpart N170, was repeatedly shown to be associated with structural encoding of faces. However, the scope of information encoded during the M170 time window is still being debated. We investigated the neuronal origin of facial processing of integrated social rank cues (SRCs) and emotional facial expressions (EFEs) during the M170 time interval. Participants viewed integrated facial displays of emotion (happy, angry, neutral) and SRCs (indicated by upward, downward, or straight head tilts). We found that the activity during the M170 time window is sensitive to both EFEs and SRCs. Specifically, highly prominent activation was observed in response to SRC connoting dominance as compared to submissive or egalitarian head cues. Interestingly, the processing of EFEs and SRCs appeared to rely on different circuitry. Our findings suggest that vertical head tilts are processed not only for their sheer structural variance, but as social information. Exploring the temporal unfolding and brain localization of non-verbal cues processing may assist in understanding the functioning of the social rank biobehavioral system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Disentangling brain activity related to the processing of emotional visual information and emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniecki, Michał; Wołoszyn, Kinga; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Pilarczyk, Joanna

    2018-05-01

    Processing of emotional visual information engages cognitive functions and induces arousal. We aimed to examine the modulatory role of emotional valence on brain activations linked to the processing of visual information and those linked to arousal. Participants were scanned and their pupil size was measured while viewing negative and neutral images. The visual noise was added to the images in various proportions to parametrically manipulate the amount of visual information. Pupil size was used as an index of physiological arousal. We show that arousal induced by the negative images, as compared to the neutral ones, is primarily related to greater amygdala activity while increasing visibility of negative content to enhanced activity in the lateral occipital complex (LOC). We argue that more intense visual processing of negative scenes can occur irrespective of the level of arousal. It may suggest that higher areas of the visual stream are fine-tuned to process emotionally relevant objects. Both arousal and processing of emotional visual information modulated activity within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Overlapping activations within the vmPFC may reflect the integration of these aspects of emotional processing. Additionally, we show that emotionally-evoked pupil dilations are related to activations in the amygdala, vmPFC, and LOC.

  15. An information integration system for structured documents, Web, and databases

    OpenAIRE

    Morishima, Atsuyuki

    1998-01-01

    Rapid advance in computer network technology has changed the style of computer utilization. Distributed computing resources over world-wide computer networks are available from our local computers. They include powerful computers and a variety of information sources. This change is raising more advanced requirements. Integration of distributed information sources is one of such requirements. In addition to conventional databases, structured documents have been widely used, and have increasing...

  16. Stress affects the neural ensemble for integrating new information and prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susanne; Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Fernández, Guillén; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-06-01

    Prior knowledge, represented as a schema, facilitates memory encoding. This schema-related learning is assumed to rely on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that rapidly integrates new information into the schema, whereas schema-incongruent or novel information is encoded by the hippocampus. Stress is a powerful modulator of prefrontal and hippocampal functioning and first studies suggest a stress-induced deficit of schema-related learning. However, the underlying neural mechanism is currently unknown. To investigate the neural basis of a stress-induced schema-related learning impairment, participants first acquired a schema. One day later, they underwent a stress induction or a control procedure before learning schema-related and novel information in the MRI scanner. In line with previous studies, learning schema-related compared to novel information activated the mPFC, angular gyrus, and precuneus. Stress, however, affected the neural ensemble activated during learning. Whereas the control group distinguished between sets of brain regions for related and novel information, stressed individuals engaged the hippocampus even when a relevant schema was present. Additionally, stressed participants displayed aberrant functional connectivity between brain regions involved in schema processing when encoding novel information. The failure to segregate functional connectivity patterns depending on the presence of prior knowledge was linked to impaired performance after stress. Our results show that stress affects the neural ensemble underlying the efficient use of schemas during learning. These findings may have relevant implications for clinical and educational settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The integration of Information and Communication Technology into nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Hardey, Michael; Torrent, Joan; Ficapal, Pilar

    2011-02-01

    To identify and characterise different profiles of nurses' utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the Internet and to identify factors that can enhance or inhibit the use of these technologies within nursing. An online survey of the 13,588 members of the Nurses Association of Barcelona who had a registered email account in 2006 was carried out. Factor analysis, cluster analysis and binomial logit model was undertaken. Although most of the nurses (76.70%) are utilizing the Internet within their daily work, multivariate statistics analysis revealed two profiles of the adoption of ICT. The first profile (4.58%) represents those nurses who value ICT and the Internet so that it forms an integral part of their practice. This group is thus referred to as 'integrated nurses'. The second profile (95.42%) represents those nurses who place less emphasis on ICT and the Internet and are consequently labelled 'non-integrated nurses'. From the statistical modelling, it was observed that undertaking research activities an emphasis on international information and a belief that health information available on the Internet was 'very relevant' play a positive and significant role in the probability of being an integrated nurse. The emerging world of the 'integrated nurse' cannot be adequately understood without examining how nurses make use of ICT and the Internet within nursing practice and the way this is shaped by institutional, technical and professional opportunities and constraints. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrated Information Centers within Academic Environments: Introduction and Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunin, Luis F., Ed.; D'Elia, George, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Introduces eight articles on the Integrated Information Center (IIC) Project, which investigated significant behavioral, technological, organizational, financial, and legal factors involved in the management of IICs. Four articles address design and management issues of general interest, and four focus on specific design considerations and a…

  19. Efficient physical embedding of topologically complex information processing networks in brains and computer circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S Bassett

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nervous systems are information processing networks that evolved by natural selection, whereas very large scale integrated (VLSI computer circuits have evolved by commercially driven technology development. Here we follow historic intuition that all physical information processing systems will share key organizational properties, such as modularity, that generally confer adaptivity of function. It has long been observed that modular VLSI circuits demonstrate an isometric scaling relationship between the number of processing elements and the number of connections, known as Rent's rule, which is related to the dimensionality of the circuit's interconnect topology and its logical capacity. We show that human brain structural networks, and the nervous system of the nematode C. elegans, also obey Rent's rule, and exhibit some degree of hierarchical modularity. We further show that the estimated Rent exponent of human brain networks, derived from MRI data, can explain the allometric scaling relations between gray and white matter volumes across a wide range of mammalian species, again suggesting that these principles of nervous system design are highly conserved. For each of these fractal modular networks, the dimensionality of the interconnect topology was greater than the 2 or 3 Euclidean dimensions of the space in which it was embedded. This relatively high complexity entailed extra cost in physical wiring: although all networks were economically or cost-efficiently wired they did not strictly minimize wiring costs. Artificial and biological information processing systems both may evolve to optimize a trade-off between physical cost and topological complexity, resulting in the emergence of homologous principles of economical, fractal and modular design across many different kinds of nervous and computational networks.

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regulate Blood Brain Barrier Integrity in Traumatic Brain Injury Through Production of the Soluble Factor TIMP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menge, Tyler; Zhao, Yuhai; Zhao, Jing; Wataha, Kathryn; Geber, Michael; Zhang, Jianhu; Letourneau, Phillip; Redell, John; Shen, Li; Wang, Jing; Peng, Zhalong; Xue, Hasen; Kozar, Rosemary; Cox, Charles S.; Khakoo, Aarif Y.; Holcomb, John B.; Dash, Pramod K.; Pati, Shibani

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MCSs) have been shown to have therapeutic potential in multiple disease states associated with vascular instability including traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) is identified as the soluble factor produced by MSCs that can recapitulate the beneficial effects of MSCs on endothelial function and blood brain barrier (BBB) compromise in TBI. Attenuation of TIMP3 expression in MSCs completely abrogates the effect of MSCs on BBB permeability and stability, while intravenous administration of rTIMP3 alone can inhibit BBB permeability in TBI. Our results demonstrate that MSCs increase circulating levels of soluble TIMP3, which inhibits VEGF-A induced breakdown of endothelial AJs in vitro and in vivo. These findings elucidate a clear molecular mechanism for the effects of MSCs on the BBB in TBI, and directly demonstrate a role for TIMP3 in regulation of BBB integrity. PMID:23175708

  1. Differences in Information Mapping Strategies in Left and Right Brain Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, LaVerne S., Jr.

    The Information Mapping technique was used to present a learning packet, and its usefulness in helping right-brain cerebrally dominant students to achieve the same level of subject mastery as their left-brain counterparts was examined. Reading level, grade point average, and gender were also analyzed. Torrance's "Your Style of Learning and…

  2. An integration of Emergency Department Information and Ambulance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harbi, Nada; El-Masri, Samir; Saddik, Basema

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose an Emergency Department Information System that will be integrated with the ambulance system to improve the communication, enhance the quality of provided emergency services and facilitate information sharing. The proposed system utilizes new advanced technologies such as mobile web services that overcome the problems of interoperability between different systems, HL7 and GPS. The system is unique in that it allows ambulance officers to locate the nearest specialized hospital and allows access to the patient's electronic health record as well as providing the hospital with required information to prepare for the incoming patient.

  3. Integration of Information and Scientific Literacy: Promoting Literacy in Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbach, Kevin C.; Purzycki, Catherine B.; Bowman, Leslie A.; Agbada, Eva; Mostrom, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    The Association of College and Research Libraries recommends incorporating information literacy (IL) skills across university and college curricula, for the goal of developing information literate graduates. Congruent with this goal, the Departments of Biological Sciences and Information Science developed an integrated IL and scientific literacy (SL) exercise for use in a first-year biology course. Students were provided the opportunity to access, retrieve, analyze, and evaluate primary scientific literature. By the completion of this project, student responses improved concerning knowledge and relevance of IL and SL skills. This project exposes students to IL and SL early in their undergraduate experience, preparing them for future academic advancement. PMID:21123700

  4. Imatinib preserves blood-brain barrier integrity following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yan; Krafft, Paul R; Lekic, Tim; Ma, Qingyi; Souvenir, Rhonda; Zhang, John H; Tang, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and consequent edema formation contribute to the development of early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Various cerebrovascular insults result in increased platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-α stimulation, which has been linked to BBB breakdown and edema formation. This study examines whether imatinib, a PDGFR inhibitor, can preserve BBB integrity in a rat endovascular perforation SAH model. Imatinib (40 or 120 mg/kg) or a vehicle was administered intraperitoneally at 1 hr after SAH induction. BBB leakage, brain edema, and neurological deficits were evaluated. Total and phosphorylated protein expressions of PDGFR-α, c-Src, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and c-Jun were measured, and enzymatic activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were determined in the injured brain. Imatinib treatment significantly ameliorated BBB leakage and edema formation 24 hr after SAH, which was paralleled by improved neurological functions. Decreased brain expressions of phosphorylated PDGFR-α, c-Src, JNK, and c-Jun as well as reduced MMP-9 activities were found in treated animals. PDGFR-α inhibition preserved BBB integrity following experimental SAH; however, the protective mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Targeting PDGFR-α signaling might be advantageous to ameliorate early brain injury following SAH. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. GABA regulates synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shaoyu; Goh, Eyleen L. K.; Sailor, Kurt A.; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun

    2006-02-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the birth and integration of new neurons from adult neural stem cells, is a striking form of structural plasticity and highlights the regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal activity regulates adult neurogenesis and that new neurons contribute to specific brain functions. The mechanism that regulates the integration of newly generated neurons into the pre-existing functional circuitry in the adult brain is unknown. Here we show that newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus are tonically activated by ambient GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) before being sequentially innervated by GABA- and glutamate-mediated synaptic inputs. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, initially exerts an excitatory action on newborn neurons owing to their high cytoplasmic chloride ion content. Conversion of GABA-induced depolarization (excitation) into hyperpolarization (inhibition) in newborn neurons leads to marked defects in their synapse formation and dendritic development in vivo. Our study identifies an essential role for GABA in the synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain, and suggests an unexpected mechanism for activity-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis, in which newborn neurons may sense neuronal network activity through tonic and phasic GABA activation.

  6. Position of probe determines prognostic information of brain tissue PO2 in severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Lucido L; Pillai, Shibu; Cruz, Jovany; Li, Xiaoqi; Julia, H; Gopinath, Shankar; Robertson, Claudia S

    2012-06-01

    Monitoring brain tissue PO2 (PbtO2) is part of multimodality monitoring of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, PbtO2 measurement is a sampling of only a small area of tissue surrounding the sensor tip. To examine the effect of catheter location on the relationship between PbtO2 and neurological outcome. A total of 405 patients who had PbtO2 monitoring as part of standard management of severe traumatic brain injury were studied. The relationships between probe location and resulting PbtO2 and outcome were examined. When the probe was located in normal brain, PbtO2 averaged 30.8 ± 18.2 compared with 25.6 ± 14.8 mm Hg when placed in abnormal brain (P < .001). Factors related to neurological outcome in the best-fit logistic regression model were age, PbtO2 probe position, postresuscitation motor Glasgow Coma Scale score, and PbtO2 trend pattern. Although average PbtO2 was significantly related to outcome in univariate analyses, it was not significant in the final logistic model. However, the interaction between PbtO2 and probe position was statistically significant. When the PbtO2 probe was placed in abnormal brain, the average PbtO2 was higher in those with a favorable outcome, 28.8 ± 12.0 mm Hg, compared with those with an unfavorable outcome, 19.5 ± 13.7 mm Hg (P = .01). PbtO2 and outcome were not related when the probe was placed in normal-appearing brain. These results suggest that the location of the PbtO2 probe determines the PbtO2 values and the relationship of PbtO2 to neurological outcome.

  7. The Segregation and Integration of Distinct Brain Networks and Their Relationship to Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jessica R; D'Esposito, Mark

    2016-11-30

    A critical feature of the human brain that gives rise to complex cognition is its ability to reconfigure its network structure dynamically and adaptively in response to the environment. Existing research probing task-related reconfiguration of brain network structure has concluded that, although there are many similarities in network structure during an intrinsic, resting state and during the performance of a variety of cognitive tasks, there are meaningful differences as well. In this study, we related intrinsic, resting state network organization to reconfigured network organization during the performance of two tasks: a sequence tapping task, which is thought to probe motor execution and likely engages a single brain network, and an n-back task, which is thought to probe working memory and likely requires coordination across multiple networks. We implemented graph theoretical analyses using functional connectivity data from fMRI scans to calculate whole-brain measures of network organization in healthy young adults. We focused on quantifying measures of network segregation (modularity, system segregation, local efficiency, number of provincial hub nodes) and measures of network integration (global efficiency, number of connector hub nodes). Using these measures, we found converging evidence that local, within-network communication is critical for motor execution, whereas integrative, between-network communication is critical for working memory. These results confirm that the human brain has the remarkable ability to reconfigure its large-scale organization dynamically in response to current cognitive demands and that interpreting reconfiguration in terms of network segregation and integration may shed light on the optimal network structures underlying successful cognition. The dynamic nature of the human brain gives rise to the wide range of behaviors and cognition of which humans are capable. We collected fMRI data from healthy young adults and measured large

  8. Brain networks engaged in audiovisual integration during speech perception revealed by persistent homology-based network filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejung; Hahm, Jarang; Lee, Hyekyoung; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-05-01

    The human brain naturally integrates audiovisual information to improve speech perception. However, in noisy environments, understanding speech is difficult and may require much effort. Although the brain network is supposed to be engaged in speech perception, it is unclear how speech-related brain regions are connected during natural bimodal audiovisual or unimodal speech perception with counterpart irrelevant noise. To investigate the topological changes of speech-related brain networks at all possible thresholds, we used a persistent homological framework through hierarchical clustering, such as single linkage distance, to analyze the connected component of the functional network during speech perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging. For speech perception, bimodal (audio-visual speech cue) or unimodal speech cues with counterpart irrelevant noise (auditory white-noise or visual gum-chewing) were delivered to 15 subjects. In terms of positive relationship, similar connected components were observed in bimodal and unimodal speech conditions during filtration. However, during speech perception by congruent audiovisual stimuli, the tighter couplings of left anterior temporal gyrus-anterior insula component and right premotor-visual components were observed than auditory or visual speech cue conditions, respectively. Interestingly, visual speech is perceived under white noise by tight negative coupling in the left inferior frontal region-right anterior cingulate, left anterior insula, and bilateral visual regions, including right middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform components. In conclusion, the speech brain network is tightly positively or negatively connected, and can reflect efficient or effortful processes during natural audiovisual integration or lip-reading, respectively, in speech perception.

  9. HERMES: towards an integrated toolbox to characterize functional and effective brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niso, Guiomar; Bruña, Ricardo; Pereda, Ernesto; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Bajo, Ricardo; Maestú, Fernando; del-Pozo, Francisco

    2013-10-01

    The analysis of the interdependence between time series has become an important field of research in the last years, mainly as a result of advances in the characterization of dynamical systems from the signals they produce, the introduction of concepts such as generalized and phase synchronization and the application of information theory to time series analysis. In neurophysiology, different analytical tools stemming from these concepts have added to the 'traditional' set of linear methods, which includes the cross-correlation and the coherency function in the time and frequency domain, respectively, or more elaborated tools such as Granger Causality.This increase in the number of approaches to tackle the existence of functional (FC) or effective connectivity (EC) between two (or among many) neural networks, along with the mathematical complexity of the corresponding time series analysis tools, makes it desirable to arrange them into a unified-easy-to-use software package. The goal is to allow neuroscientists, neurophysiologists and researchers from related fields to easily access and make use of these analysis methods from a single integrated toolbox.Here we present HERMES ( http://hermes.ctb.upm.es ), a toolbox for the Matlab® environment (The Mathworks, Inc), which is designed to study functional and effective brain connectivity from neurophysiological data such as multivariate EEG and/or MEG records. It includes also visualization tools and statistical methods to address the problem of multiple comparisons. We believe that this toolbox will be very helpful to all the researchers working in the emerging field of brain connectivity analysis.

  10. Monoaminergic integration of diet and social signals in the brains of juvenile spadefoot toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Sabrina S; Rodriguez Moncalvo, Verónica G; Pfennig, Karin S

    2017-09-01

    Social behavior often includes the production of species-specific signals (e.g. mating calls or visual displays) that evoke context-dependent behavioral responses from conspecifics. Monoamines are important neuromodulators that have been implicated in context-dependent social behavior, yet we know little about the development of monoaminergic systems and whether they mediate the effects of early life experiences on adult behavior. We examined the effects of diet and social signals on monoamines early in development in the plains spadefoot toad ( Spea bombifrons ), a species in which diet affects the developmental emergence of species recognition and body condition affects the expression of adult mating preferences. To do so, we manipulated the diet of juveniles for 6 weeks following metamorphosis and collected their brains 40 min following the presentation of either a conspecific or a heterospecific call. We measured levels of monoamines and their metabolites using high pressure liquid chromatography from tissue punches of the auditory midbrain (i.e. torus semicircularis), hypothalamus and preoptic area. We found that call type affected dopamine and noradrenaline signaling in the auditory midbrain and that diet affected dopamine and serotonin in the hypothalamus. In the preoptic area, we detected an interaction between diet and call type, indicating that diet modulates how the preoptic area integrates social information. Our results suggest that the responsiveness of monoamine systems varies across the brain and highlight preoptic dopamine and noradrenaline as candidates for mediating effects of early diet experience on later expression of social preferences. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Integrating histology and MRI in the first digital brain of common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peizhen; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G.; Gao, Yurui; Janve, Vaibhav; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    This effort is a continuation of development of a digital brain atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. Here, we present the integration of histology with multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. The central concept of this work is to use block face photography to establish an intermediate common space in coordinate system which preserves the high resolution in-plane resolution of histology while enabling 3-D correspondence with MRI. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging (300 μm isotropic) and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging (600 um isotropic). Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (both 300 μm isotropic). Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections in-plane. We describe mapping of histology and MRI based data of the common squirrel monkey and construction of a viewing tool that enable online viewing of these datasets. The previously descried atlas MRI is used for its deformation to provide accurate conformation to the MRI, thus adding information at the histological level to the MRI volume. This paper presents the mapping of single 2D image slice in block face as a proof of concept and this can be extended to map the atlas space in 3D coordinate system as part of the future work and can be loaded to an XNAT system for further use.

  12. On the effects of multimodal information integration in multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Gohil, Krutika; Huster, René J; Beste, Christian

    2017-07-07

    There have recently been considerable advances in our understanding of the neuronal mechanisms underlying multitasking, but the role of multimodal integration for this faculty has remained rather unclear. We examined this issue by comparing different modality combinations in a multitasking (stop-change) paradigm. In-depth neurophysiological analyses of event-related potentials (ERPs) were conducted to complement the obtained behavioral data. Specifically, we applied signal decomposition using second order blind identification (SOBI) to the multi-subject ERP data and source localization. We found that both general multimodal information integration and modality-specific aspects (potentially related to task difficulty) modulate behavioral performance and associated neurophysiological correlates. Simultaneous multimodal input generally increased early attentional processing of visual stimuli (i.e. P1 and N1 amplitudes) as well as measures of cognitive effort and conflict (i.e. central P3 amplitudes). Yet, tactile-visual input caused larger impairments in multitasking than audio-visual input. General aspects of multimodal information integration modulated the activity in the premotor cortex (BA 6) as well as different visual association areas concerned with the integration of visual information with input from other modalities (BA 19, BA 21, BA 37). On top of this, differences in the specific combination of modalities also affected performance and measures of conflict/effort originating in prefrontal regions (BA 6).

  13. An Integrated Information Retrieval Support System for Campus Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new integrated information retrieval support system (IIRSS) which can help Web search engines retrieve cross-lingual information from heterogeneous resources stored in multi-databases in Intranet. The IIRSS, with a three-layer architecture, can cooperate with other application servers running in Intranet. By using intelligent agents to collect information and to create indexes on-the-fly, using an access control strategy to confine a user to browsing those accessible documents for him/her through a single portal, and using a new cross-lingual translation tool to help the search engine retrieve documents, the new system provides controllable information access with different authorizations, personalized services, and real-time information retrieval.

  14. A Unified Brain Architecture for Perception and Cognition With Applications to Information Processing Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carpenter, Gail

    2004-01-01

    .... It does this by mathematically characterizing and quantitatively simulating key brain mechanisms underlying higher-order human information processing as carried out within the laminar structure of the cerebral cortex...

  15. Integrated project management information systems: the French nuclear industry experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquin, J.-C.; Caupin, G.-M.

    1990-01-01

    The article discusses the desirability of integrated project management systems within the French nuclear power industry. Change in demand for nuclear generation facilities over the last two decades has necessitated a change of policy concerning organization, cost and planning within the industry. Large corporate systems can benefit from integrating equipment and bulk materials tracking. Project management for the nuclear industry will, in future, need to incorporate computer aided design tools and project management information systems data bases as well as equipment and planning data. (UK)

  16. Integrated project management information systems: the French nuclear industry experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquin, J.-C.; Caupin, G.-M.

    1990-03-01

    The article discusses the desirability of integrated project management systems within the French nuclear power industry. Change in demand for nuclear generation facilities over the last two decades has necessitated a change of policy concerning organization, cost and planning within the industry. Large corporate systems can benefit from integrating equipment and bulk materials tracking. Project management for the nuclear industry will, in future, need to incorporate computer aided design tools and project management information systems data bases as well as equipment and planning data. (UK).

  17. Alteration of blood-brain barrier integrity by retroviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe V Afonso

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB, which forms the interface between the blood and the cerebral parenchyma, has been shown to be disrupted during retroviral-associated neuromyelopathies. Human T Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with BBB breakdown. The BBB is composed of three cell types: endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes. Although astrocytes have been shown to be infected by HTLV-1, until now, little was known about the susceptibility of BBB endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection and the impact of such an infection on BBB function. We first demonstrated that human cerebral endothelial cells express the receptors for HTLV-1 (GLUT-1, Neuropilin-1 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, both in vitro, in a human cerebral endothelial cell line, and ex vivo, on spinal cord autopsy sections from HAM/TSP and non-infected control cases. In situ hybridization revealed HTLV-1 transcripts associated with the vasculature in HAM/TSP. We were able to confirm that the endothelial cells could be productively infected in vitro by HTLV-1 and that blocking of either HSPGs, Neuropilin 1 or Glut1 inhibits this process. The expression of the tight-junction proteins within the HTLV-1 infected endothelial cells was altered. These cells were no longer able to form a functional barrier, since BBB permeability and lymphocyte passage through the monolayer of endothelial cells were increased. This work constitutes the first report of susceptibility of human cerebral endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection, with implications for HTLV-1 passage through the BBB and subsequent deregulation of the central nervous system homeostasis. We propose that the susceptibility of cerebral endothelial cells to retroviral infection and subsequent BBB dysfunction is an important aspect of HAM/TSP pathogenesis and should be considered in the design of future therapeutics strategies.

  18. Leading research on brain functional information processing; No kino joho shori no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This research aims at searching the concept of an information processing device with a fully different architecture from a previous ones based on the study on human brain function, sense and perception, and developing the basic fabrication technology for such system, and realizing the human-like information processing mechanism of memorization, learning, association, perception, intuition and value judgement. As an approach deriving biological and technological models from experimental brain studies, the model was derived from the brain functional information processing based on brain development/differentiation mechanism, the control mechanism/material of brain activities, and the knowledge obtained from brain measurement and study. In addition, for understanding a brain oscillation phenomenon by computational neuroscience, the cerebral cortex neural network model composed of realistic neuron models was proposed. Evaluation of the previous large-scale neural network chip system showed its ability of learning and fast processing, however, the next-generation brain computer requires further R and D of some novel architecture, device and system. 184 refs., 41 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Mediator infrastructure for information integration and semantic data integration environment for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grethe, Jeffrey S; Ross, Edward; Little, David; Sanders, Brian; Gupta, Amarnath; Astakhov, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents current progress in the development of semantic data integration environment which is a part of the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN; http://www.nbirn.net) project. BIRN is sponsored by the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). A goal is the development of a cyberinfrastructure for biomedical research that supports advance data acquisition, data storage, data management, data integration, data mining, data visualization, and other computing and information processing services over the Internet. Each participating institution maintains storage of their experimental or computationally derived data. Mediator-based data integration system performs semantic integration over the databases to enable researchers to perform analyses based on larger and broader datasets than would be available from any single institution's data. This paper describes recent revision of the system architecture, implementation, and capabilities of the semantically based data integration environment for BIRN.

  20. Testing can counteract proactive interference by integrating competing information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    Testing initially learned information before presenting new information has been shown to counteract the deleterious effects of proactive interference by segregating competing sources of information. The present experiments were conducted to demonstrate that testing can also have its effects in part by integrating competing information. Variations of classic A–B, A–D paired-associate learning paradigms were employed that included two lists of word pairs and a cued-recall test. Repeated pairs appeared in both lists (A–B, A–B), control pairs appeared in List 2 only (A–B, C–D), and changed pairs appeared with the same cue in both lists but with different responses (A–B, A–D). The critical manipulation was whether pairs were tested or restudied in an interpolated phase that occurred between Lists 1 and 2. On a final cued-recall test, participants recalled List 2 responses and then indicated when they recollected that responses had earlier changed between lists. The change recollection measure indexed the extent to which competing responses were integrated during List 2. Change was recollected more often for tested than for restudied pairs. Proactive facilitation was obtained in cued recall when change was recollected, whereas proactive interference was obtained when change was not recollected. These results provide evidence that testing counteracted proactive interference in part by making List 1 responses more accessible during List 2, thus promoting integration and increasing later recollection of change. These results have theoretical implications because they show that testing can counteract proactive interference by integrating or segregating competing information. PMID:25120241

  1. Testing can counteract proactive interference by integrating competing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N

    2015-01-01

    Testing initially learned information before presenting new information has been shown to counteract the deleterious effects of proactive interference by segregating competing sources of information. The present experiments were conducted to demonstrate that testing can also have its effects in part by integrating competing information. Variations of classic A-B, A-D paired-associate learning paradigms were employed that included two lists of word pairs and a cued-recall test. Repeated pairs appeared in both lists (A-B, A-B), control pairs appeared in List 2 only (A-B, C-D), and changed pairs appeared with the same cue in both lists but with different responses (A-B, A-D). The critical manipulation was whether pairs were tested or restudied in an interpolated phase that occurred between Lists 1 and 2. On a final cued-recall test, participants recalled List 2 responses and then indicated when they recollected that responses had earlier changed between lists. The change recollection measure indexed the extent to which competing responses were integrated during List 2. Change was recollected more often for tested than for restudied pairs. Proactive facilitation was obtained in cued recall when change was recollected, whereas proactive interference was obtained when change was not recollected. These results provide evidence that testing counteracted proactive interference in part by making List 1 responses more accessible during List 2, thus promoting integration and increasing later recollection of change. These results have theoretical implications because they show that testing can counteract proactive interference by integrating or segregating competing information.

  2. Review of Statistical Learning Methods in Integrated Omics Studies (An Integrated Information Science).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Irene Sui Lan; Lumley, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Integrated omics is becoming a new channel for investigating the complex molecular system in modern biological science and sets a foundation for systematic learning for precision medicine. The statistical/machine learning methods that have emerged in the past decade for integrated omics are not only innovative but also multidisciplinary with integrated knowledge in biology, medicine, statistics, machine learning, and artificial intelligence. Here, we review the nontrivial classes of learning methods from the statistical aspects and streamline these learning methods within the statistical learning framework. The intriguing findings from the review are that the methods used are generalizable to other disciplines with complex systematic structure, and the integrated omics is part of an integrated information science which has collated and integrated different types of information for inferences and decision making. We review the statistical learning methods of exploratory and supervised learning from 42 publications. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the extended principal component analysis, cluster analysis, network analysis, and regression methods. Statistical techniques such as penalization for sparsity induction when there are fewer observations than the number of features and using Bayesian approach when there are prior knowledge to be integrated are also included in the commentary. For the completeness of the review, a table of currently available software and packages from 23 publications for omics are summarized in the appendix.

  3. I-123 iomazenil single photon emission computed tomography for detecting loss of neuronal integrity in patients with traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Abiko, Kagari; Ikoma, Katsunori; Shiga, Tohru; Katoh, Chietsugu; Hirata, Kenji; Kuge, Yuji; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Tamaki, Nagara

    2017-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes brain dysfunction in many patients. Using C-11 flumazenil (FMZ) positron emission tomography (PET), we have detected and reported the loss of neuronal integrity, leading to brain dysfunction in TBI patients. Similarly to FMZ PET, I-123 iomazenil (IMZ) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is widely used to determine the distribution of the benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) in the brain cortex. The purpose of this study is to examine whet...

  4. Identifying influential factors on integrated marketing planning using information technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Hamdi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to identify important factors influencing integrated marketing planning using information technology. The proposed study designs a questionnaire for measuring integrated marketing planning, which consists of three categories of structural factors, behavioral factors and background factors. There are 40 questions associated with the proposed study in Likert scale. Cronbach alphas have been calculated for structural factors, behavioral factors and background factors as 0.89, 0.86 and 0.83, respectively. Using some statistical test, the study has confirmed the effects of three factors on integrated marketing. In addition, the implementation of Freedman test has revealed that structural factors were the most important factor followed by background factors and behavioral factors.

  5. The modulation of neural gain facilitates a transition between functional segregation and integration in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, James M; Aburn, Matthew J; Breakspear, Michael; Poldrack, Russell A

    2018-01-29

    Cognitive function relies on a dynamic, context-sensitive balance between functional integration and segregation in the brain. Previous work has proposed that this balance is mediated by global fluctuations in neural gain by projections from ascending neuromodulatory nuclei. To test this hypothesis in silico, we studied the effects of neural gain on network dynamics in a model of large-scale neuronal dynamics. We found that increases in neural gain directed the network through an abrupt dynamical transition, leading to an integrated network topology that was maximal in frontoparietal 'rich club' regions. This gain-mediated transition was also associated with increased topological complexity, as well as increased variability in time-resolved topological structure, further highlighting the potential computational benefits of the gain-mediated network transition. These results support the hypothesis that neural gain modulation has the computational capacity to mediate the balance between integration and segregation in the brain. © 2018, Shine et al.

  6. Informant Report of Financial Capacity for Individuals With Chronic Acquired Brain Injury: An Assessment of Informant Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderaraman, Preeti; Cosentino, Stephanie; Lindgren, Karen; James, Angela; Schultheis, Maria

    2018-03-29

    Primarily, to investigate the association between informant report and objective performance on specific financial capacity (FC) tasks by adults with chronic, moderate to severe acquired brain injury, and to examine the nature of misestimates by the informants. Cross-sectional design. A postacute, community-based rehabilitation center. Data were obtained from 22 chronic acquired brain injury (CABI) adults, mean age of 46.6 years (SD = 8.67), mean years of education of 13.45 years (SD = 2.15), with moderate to severe acquired brain injury (86% had traumatic brain injury), with a mean postinjury period of 17.14 years (SD = 9.5). Whereas the CABI adults completed the Financial Competence Assessment Inventory interview-a combination of self-report and performance-based assessment, 22 informants completed a specifically designed parallel version of the interview. Pearson correlations and 1-sample t tests based on the discrepancy scores between informant report and CABI group's performance were used. The CABI group's performance was not associated with its informant's perceptions. One-sample t tests revealed that informants both underestimated and overestimated CABI group's performance. Results indicate lack of correspondence between self- and informant ratings. Further investigation revealed that misestimations by informants occurred in contrary directions with CABI adults' performance being inaccurately rated. These findings raise critical issues related to assuming that the informant report can be used as a "gold standard" for collecting functional data related to financial management, and the idea that obtaining objective data on financial tasks may represent a more valid method of assessing financial competency in adults with brain injury.

  7. IMIS (Integrated Measurement and Information System) - the German integrated radioactivity information and decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, W.; Leeb, H.

    1993-01-01

    IMIS is being set up as part of the German Government's National Response Plan for dealing with the consequences of a large scale radioactive contamination of the environment. The IMIS system has three operational action levels. Level 3 covers the collection of radiological data from state-of-the-art monitoring networks and measurement laboratories. Level 2 involves computerised data processing and quality control, based on standardised procedures for the collection and presentation of measurements. This level also includes the use of transport and dose assessment models. Level 1 includes evaluation of the data, management of the consequences of a given situation, legal enforcement of protective measures and provision of information to the public. In its final form the IMIS system will consist of a total of 75 RISC computers linked together by an efficient packet-switched Wide Area Network. Owing to various demands of the individual users, three different types of RISC computers are used. The system software includes ULTRIX, TCP/IP and X windows. The relational database management system ORACLE is used together with the query language SQL-Plus. Statistical analyses are carried out with the standard product SAS. The geographical information system TERRA provides all the tools necessary for a detailed geographic presentation of the data. (author)

  8. Information integration for a sky survey by data warehousing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    The virtualization service of data system for a sky survey LAMOST is very important for astronomers The service needs to integrate information from data collections catalogs and references and support simple federation of a set of distributed files and associated metadata Data warehousing has been in existence for several years and demonstrated superiority over traditional relational database management systems by providing novel indexing schemes that supported efficient on-line analytical processing OLAP of large databases Now relational database systems such as Oracle etc support the warehouse capability which including extensions to the SQL language to support OLAP operations and a number of metadata management tools have been created The information integration of LAMOST by applying data warehousing is to effectively provide data and knowledge on-line

  9. Integrating Environmental and Information Systems Management: An Enterprise Architecture Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noran, Ovidiu

    Environmental responsibility is fast becoming an important aspect of strategic management as the reality of climate change settles in and relevant regulations are expected to tighten significantly in the near future. Many businesses react to this challenge by implementing environmental reporting and management systems. However, the environmental initiative is often not properly integrated in the overall business strategy and its information system (IS) and as a result the management does not have timely access to (appropriately aggregated) environmental information. This chapter argues for the benefit of integrating the environmental management (EM) project into the ongoing enterprise architecture (EA) initiative present in all successful companies. This is done by demonstrating how a reference architecture framework and a meta-methodology using EA artefacts can be used to co-design the EM system, the organisation and its IS in order to achieve a much needed synergy.

  10. Integration of genomic information with biological networks using Cytoscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Mehren, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Cytoscape is an open-source software for visualizing, analyzing, and modeling biological networks. This chapter explains how to use Cytoscape to analyze the functional effect of sequence variations in the context of biological networks such as protein-protein interaction networks and signaling pathways. The chapter is divided into five parts: (1) obtaining information about the functional effect of sequence variation in a Cytoscape readable format, (2) loading and displaying different types of biological networks in Cytoscape, (3) integrating the genomic information (SNPs and mutations) with the biological networks, and (4) analyzing the effect of the genomic perturbation onto the network structure using Cytoscape built-in functions. Finally, we briefly outline how the integrated data can help in building mathematical network models for analyzing the effect of the sequence variation onto the dynamics of the biological system. Each part is illustrated by step-by-step instructions on an example use case and visualized by many screenshots and figures.

  11. Information resources assessment of a healthcare integrated delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, C. S.; Friedman, C. P.; Douglas, G.; Miller, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    While clinical healthcare systems may have lagged behind computer applications in other fields in the shift from mainframes to client-server architectures, the rapid deployment of newer applications is closing that gap. Organizations considering the transition to client-server must identify and position themselves to provide the resources necessary to implement and support the infrastructure requirements of client-server architectures and to manage the accelerated complexity at the desktop, including hardware and software deployment, training, and maintenance needs. This paper describes an information resources assessment of the recently aligned Pennsylvania regional Veterans Administration Stars and Stripes Health Network (VISN4), in anticipation of the shift from a predominantly mainframe to a client-server information systems architecture in its well-established VistA clinical information system. The multimethod assessment study is described here to demonstrate this approach and its value to regional healthcare networks undergoing organizational integration and/or significant information technology transformations. PMID:10566414

  12. Project Integration Architecture: A Practical Demonstration of Information Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    One of the goals of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) effort is to provide the ability to propagate information between disparate applications. With this ability, applications may then be formed into an application graph constituting a super-application. Such a super-application would then provide all of the analysis appropriate to a given technical system. This paper reports on a small demonstration of this concept in which a Computer Aided Design (CAD) application was connected to an inlet analysis code and geometry information automatically propagated from one to the other. The majority of the work reported involved not the technology of information propagation, but rather the conversion of propagated information into a form usable by the receiving application.

  13. Information resources assessment of a healthcare integrated delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, C S; Friedman, C P; Douglas, G; Miller, D J

    1999-01-01

    While clinical healthcare systems may have lagged behind computer applications in other fields in the shift from mainframes to client-server architectures, the rapid deployment of newer applications is closing that gap. Organizations considering the transition to client-server must identify and position themselves to provide the resources necessary to implement and support the infrastructure requirements of client-server architectures and to manage the accelerated complexity at the desktop, including hardware and software deployment, training, and maintenance needs. This paper describes an information resources assessment of the recently aligned Pennsylvania regional Veterans Administration Stars and Stripes Health Network (VISN4), in anticipation of the shift from a predominantly mainframe to a client-server information systems architecture in its well-established VistA clinical information system. The multimethod assessment study is described here to demonstrate this approach and its value to regional healthcare networks undergoing organizational integration and/or significant information technology transformations.

  14. Effect of clinical information in brain CT scan interpretation : a blinded double crossover study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhianpour, M.; Janghorbani, M.

    2004-01-01

    Errors and variations in interpretation can happen in clinical imaging. Few studies have examined the biased effect of clinical information on reporting of brain CT scans. In a blinded double crossover design, we studied whether three radiologists were biased by clinical information when making CT scan diagnosis of the brain. Three consultant radiologists in three rounds with at least a one month interval assessed 100 consecutive cases of brain CT scan. In the first round, clinical information was not available and 100 films without clinical information were given to radiologists. In the second round, the same 100 films were given and true clinical information was available. In the third round, the same 100 films were given and false clinical information was allocated. In 180 cases (60%) the evaluation resulted in the same diagnosis on all three occasions (95% confidence interval (CI): 54.5, 65.5), whereas 120(40%; 95% CI:34.5, 45.5) sets were evaluated differently. 48 cases (16%; 95% CI:11.9,20.1) had discordant evaluation with true and 33 (11%; 95% CI:7.5, 14.5) with false clinical information. Discordance without and with true and false clinical information was 39 (13%; 95% CI:9.2, 16.8). Correct clinical information improves the brain CT report, while the report became less accurate false clinical information was allocated. These results indicate that radiologists are biased by clinical information when reporting brian CT scans

  15. A High-Performance Application Specific Integrated Circuit for Electrical and Neurochemical Traumatic Brain Injury Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagkalos, Ilias; Rogers, Michelle L; Boutelle, Martyn G; Drakakis, Emmanuel M

    2018-05-22

    This paper presents the first application specific integrated chip (ASIC) for the monitoring of patients who have suffered a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). By monitoring the neurophysiological (ECoG) and neurochemical (glucose, lactate and potassium) signals of the injured human brain tissue, it is possible to detect spreading depolarisations, which have been shown to be associated with poor TBI patient outcome. This paper describes the testing of a new 7.5 mm 2 ASIC fabricated in the commercially available AMS 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The ASIC has been designed to meet the demands of processing the injured brain tissue's ECoG signals, recorded by means of depth or brain surface electrodes, and neurochemical signals, recorded using microdialysis coupled to microfluidics-based electrochemical biosensors. The potentiostats use switchedcapacitor charge integration to record currents with 100 fA resolution, and allow automatic gain changing to track the falling sensitivity of a biosensor. This work supports the idea of a "behind the ear" wireless microplatform modality, which could enable the monitoring of currently non-monitored mobile TBI patients for the onset of secondary brain injury. ©2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  16. Information Integration in Risky Choice: Identification and Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Neil

    2011-01-01

    How is information integrated across the\\ud attributes of an option when making risky\\ud choices? In most descriptive models of\\ud decision under risk, information about\\ud risk, and reward is combined multiplicatively\\ud (e.g., expected value; expected utility\\ud theory, Bernouli, 1738/1954; subjective\\ud expected utility theory, Savage, 1954;\\ud Edwards, 1955; prospect theory, Kahneman\\ud and Tversky, 1979; rank-dependent utility,\\ud Quiggin, 1993; decision field theory,\\ud Busemeyer and To...

  17. Creating integrated information management system for small and medium business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deinega Valentina Nikolaevna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises regardless of their size and ownership, focused on a long and successful work needed to create a system of integrated information systems. This is dictated by the fact that, firstly, it combines the financial data, and secondly provides a standardized manufacturing processes, thirdly, solves the problem of standardization of information in a frame. The main thing in your decision-making - the definition of the strategy of the business and the reflection of this strategy on goals and objectives. ERP-system help to maintain competitiveness and leadership in the market.

  18. Information Extraction, Data Integration, and Uncertain Data Management: The State of The Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, Mena Badieh; van Keulen, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    Information Extraction, data Integration, and uncertain data management are different areas of research that got vast focus in the last two decades. Many researches tackled those areas of research individually. However, information extraction systems should have integrated with data integration

  19. Moral judgment as information processing: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Steve

    2015-01-01

    How do humans make moral judgments about others' behavior? This article reviews dominant models of moral judgment, organizing them within an overarching framework of information processing. This framework poses two distinct questions: (1) What input information guides moral judgments? and (2) What psychological processes generate these judgments? Information Models address the first question, identifying critical information elements (including causality, intentionality, and mental states) that shape moral judgments. A subclass of Biased Information Models holds that perceptions of these information elements are themselves driven by prior moral judgments. Processing Models address the second question, and existing models have focused on the relative contribution of intuitive versus deliberative processes. This review organizes existing moral judgment models within this framework and critically evaluates them on empirical and theoretical grounds; it then outlines a general integrative model grounded in information processing, and concludes with conceptual and methodological suggestions for future research. The information-processing framework provides a useful theoretical lens through which to organize extant and future work in the rapidly growing field of moral judgment.

  20. Methodology of Adaptive Integrated Accounting System in Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochulya Tetyana V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of logical and methodological justification of formation of the integrated system of accounting based on realities of the co-ordinated transformation of the society and economy and development of a new knowledge about formation and adjustment of the accounting system in it’s a priori new information competence with expansion of functionality for the justified idea of existence and development of business. Taking developments of the best representatives of the leading scientific society as a basis, the article offers a new vision of organisation of the accounting system, based on the modern projection of information competence and harmonisation of main processes of information service for adaptation of the system for multi-vector inquiries of consumers of information. Pursuant to results of the conducted study, the article makes an effort to change the established opinion about information and professional competences of the accounting system and attach a new qualitative significance to them. The article makes a proposal with respect to calculation of quality of the information system on the basis of key indicators of its information service. It lays the foundation of the prospective study of the problems of building the accounting system in such a projection, so that realities of internal and external processes were maximally co-ordinated based on the idea of their information development.

  1. Moral judgment as information processing: an integrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Steve

    2015-01-01

    How do humans make moral judgments about others’ behavior? This article reviews dominant models of moral judgment, organizing them within an overarching framework of information processing. This framework poses two distinct questions: (1) What input information guides moral judgments? and (2) What psychological processes generate these judgments? Information Models address the first question, identifying critical information elements (including causality, intentionality, and mental states) that shape moral judgments. A subclass of Biased Information Models holds that perceptions of these information elements are themselves driven by prior moral judgments. Processing Models address the second question, and existing models have focused on the relative contribution of intuitive versus deliberative processes. This review organizes existing moral judgment models within this framework and critically evaluates them on empirical and theoretical grounds; it then outlines a general integrative model grounded in information processing, and concludes with conceptual and methodological suggestions for future research. The information-processing framework provides a useful theoretical lens through which to organize extant and future work in the rapidly growing field of moral judgment. PMID:26579022

  2. Integration of information and communication technologies in special relativity teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Remi; Fleck, Sonia; Perries, Stephane; Ray, Cedric

    2005-01-01

    Integration of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in special relativity teaching may bring multiple and complementary methods for introducing either difficult or abstract counterintuitive concepts. This paper describes multimedia content developed at Lyon University to enhance the learning process of undergraduate students. Two categories of animated scenarios have been identified: real experiments and thought experiments. Both typical examples of these scenarios and their impacts on the teaching process are discussed

  3. Diablo Canyon plant information management system and integrated communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, J.W.; Groff, C.

    1990-01-01

    The implementation of a comprehensive maintenance system called the plant information management system (PIMS) at the Diablo Canyon plant, together with its associated integrated communication system (ICS), is widely regarded as the most comprehensive undertaking of its kind in the nuclear industry. This paper provides an overview of the program at Diablo Canyon, an evaluation of system benefits, and highlights the future course of PIMS

  4. Diablo Canyon plant information management system and integrated communication system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, J.W.; Groff, C.

    1990-06-01

    The implementation of a comprehensive maintenance system called the plant information management system (PIMS) at the Diablo Canyon plant, together with its associated integrated communication system (ICS), is widely regarded as the most comprehensive undertaking of its kind in the nuclear industry. This paper provides an overview of the program at Diablo Canyon, an evaluation of system benefits, and highlights the future course of PIMS.

  5. The Influence of Information Technology on Integration of Logistics Processess

    OpenAIRE

    Ivica Jujnovic

    2011-01-01

    Business globalization increases physical distance between location of raw material production and location of product and services consummation, by which logistics expenses and the entire business costs increase. Achieving greater efficiency and competitiveness requires adoption of numerous recent trends in logistics. It includes process approach to business using information technology in the integration of logistics processes, especially technologies such as exchange of electronic data, ba...

  6. Architectural Building A Public Key Infrastructure Integrated Information Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Ivanovich Korolev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article keeps under consideration the mattersto apply the cryptographic system having a public key to provide information security and to implya digital signature. It performs the analysis of trust models at the formation of certificates and their use. The article describes the relationships between the trust model and the architecture public key infrastructure. It contains conclusions in respect of the options for building the public key infrastructure for integrated informationspace.

  7. Earth science information: Planning for the integration and use of global change information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousma, Jack R.

    1992-01-01

    Activities and accomplishments of the first six months of the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN's) 1992 technical program have focused on four main missions: (1) the development and implementation of plans for initiation of the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) as part of the EOSDIS Program; (2) the pursuit and development of a broad-based global change information cooperative by providing systems analysis and integration between natural science and social science data bases held by numerous federal agencies and other sources; (3) the fostering of scientific research into the human dimensions of global change and providing integration between natural science and social science data and information; and (4) the serving of CIESIN as a gateway for global change data and information distribution through development of the Global Change Research Information Office and other comprehensive knowledge sharing systems.

  8. Benefits and problems in implementation for integrated medical information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Seo; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Hyok; Jeong, Ho Gul

    2005-01-01

    Once the decision has been made to adopt an integrated medical information system (IMIS), there are a number of tissues to overcome. Users need to be aware of the impact the change will make on end users and be prepared to address issues that arise before they become problems. The purpose of this study is to investigate the benefits and unexpected problems encountered in the implementation of IMIS and to determine a useful framework for IMIS. The Yonsei University Dental Hospital is steadily constructing an IMIS. The vendor's PACS software, Piview STAR, supports transactions between workstations that are approved to integrating the health care enterprise (IHE) with security function. It is necessary to develop an excellent framework that is good for the patient, health care provider and information system vendors, in an expert, efficient, and cost-effective manner. The problems encountered with IMIS implementation were high initial investments, delay of EMR enforcement, underdevelopment of digital radiographic appliances and software and insufficient educational training for users. The clinical environments of dental IMIS is some different from the medical situation. The best way to overcome these differences is to establish a gold standard of dental IMIS integration, which estimates the cost payback. The IHE and its technical framework are good for the patient, the health care provider and all information systems vendors.

  9. Information Science and integrative Science. A sistemic approach to information units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Dolores Santaella Ruiz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Structured in two parts: The Documentation like integrating science and Systematics approach to the documentary units, this work understands the Documentation from a brought integrating perspective of the twinning that supposes same modus operandi in the information systems through the use of the technologies of the communication. From the General Theory of Systems, the present work interprets this science to multidiscipline like a system formed by the technical subsystems, of elements and individuals

  10. Central Artery Stiffness, Baroreflex Sensitivity, and Brain White Matter Neuronal Fiber Integrity in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Takashi; de Jong, Daan L.K.; Zhu, David C.; Tseng, Benjamin Y.; Liu, Jie; Hill, Candace; Riley, Jonathan; Womack, Kyle B.; Kerwin, Diana R.; Lu, Hanzhang; Cullum, C. Munro; Zhang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral hypoperfusion elevates the risk of brain white matter (WM) lesions and cognitive impairment. Central artery stiffness impairs baroreflex, which controls systemic arterial perfusion, and may deteriorate neuronal fiber integrity of brain WM. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among brain WM neuronal fiber integrity, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and central artery stiffness in older adults. Fifty-four adults (65±6 years) with normal cognitive function or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were tested. The neuronal fiber integrity of brain WM was assessed from diffusion metrics acquired by diffusion tensor imaging. BRS was measured in response to acute changes in blood pressure induced by bolus injections of vasoactive drugs. Central artery stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). The WM diffusion metrics including fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial (RD) and axial (AD) diffusivities, BRS, and cfPWV were not different between the control and MCI groups. Thus, the data from both groups were combined for subsequent analyses. Across WM, fiber tracts with decreased FA and increased RD were associated with lower BRS and higher cfPWV, with many of the areas presenting spatial overlap. In particular, the BRS assessed during hypotension was strongly correlated with FA and RD when compared with hypertension. Executive function performance was associated with FA and RD in the areas that correlated with cfPWV and BRS. These findings suggest that baroreflex-mediated control of systemic arterial perfusion, especially during hypotension, may play a crucial role in maintaining neuronal fiber integrity of brain WM in older adults. PMID:25623500

  11. Integration of temporal and spatial properties of dynamic connectivity networks for automatic diagnosis of brain disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Biao; Liu, Mingxia; Shen, Dinggang

    2018-07-01

    Functional connectivity networks (FCNs) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have been applied to the analysis and diagnosis of brain disease, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodrome, i.e., mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Different from conventional studies focusing on static descriptions on functional connectivity (FC) between brain regions in rs-fMRI, recent studies have resorted to dynamic connectivity networks (DCNs) to characterize the dynamic changes of FC, since dynamic changes of FC may indicate changes in macroscopic neural activity patterns in cognitive and behavioral aspects. However, most of the existing studies only investigate the temporal properties of DCNs (e.g., temporal variability of FC between specific brain regions), ignoring the important spatial properties of the network (e.g., spatial variability of FC associated with a specific brain region). Also, emerging evidence on FCNs has suggested that, besides temporal variability, there is significant spatial variability of activity foci over time. Hence, integrating both temporal and spatial properties of DCNs can intuitively promote the performance of connectivity-network-based learning methods. In this paper, we first define a new measure to characterize the spatial variability of DCNs, and then propose a novel learning framework to integrate both temporal and spatial variabilities of DCNs for automatic brain disease diagnosis. Specifically, we first construct DCNs from the rs-fMRI time series at successive non-overlapping time windows. Then, we characterize the spatial variability of a specific brain region by computing the correlation of functional sequences (i.e., the changing profile of FC between a pair of brain regions within all time windows) associated with this region. Furthermore, we extract both temporal variabilities and spatial variabilities from DCNs as features, and integrate them for classification by using manifold regularized multi

  12. Brain activity and cognition: a connection from thermodynamics and information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collell, Guillem; Fauquet, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The connection between brain and mind is an important scientific and philosophical question that we are still far from completely understanding. A crucial point to our work is noticing that thermodynamics provides a convenient framework to model brain activity, whereas cognition can be modeled in information-theoretical terms. In fact, several models have been proposed so far from both approaches. A second critical remark is the existence of deep theoretical connections between thermodynamics and information theory. In fact, some well-known authors claim that the laws of thermodynamics are nothing but principles in information theory. Unlike in physics or chemistry, a formalization of the relationship between information and energy is currently lacking in neuroscience. In this paper we propose a framework to connect physical brain and cognitive models by means of the theoretical connections between information theory and thermodynamics. Ultimately, this article aims at providing further insight on the formal relationship between cognition and neural activity.

  13. Brain activity and cognition: a connection from thermodynamics and information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collell, Guillem; Fauquet, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The connection between brain and mind is an important scientific and philosophical question that we are still far from completely understanding. A crucial point to our work is noticing that thermodynamics provides a convenient framework to model brain activity, whereas cognition can be modeled in information-theoretical terms. In fact, several models have been proposed so far from both approaches. A second critical remark is the existence of deep theoretical connections between thermodynamics and information theory. In fact, some well-known authors claim that the laws of thermodynamics are nothing but principles in information theory. Unlike in physics or chemistry, a formalization of the relationship between information and energy is currently lacking in neuroscience. In this paper we propose a framework to connect physical brain and cognitive models by means of the theoretical connections between information theory and thermodynamics. Ultimately, this article aims at providing further insight on the formal relationship between cognition and neural activity. PMID:26136709

  14. Mood-dependent integration in discourse comprehension: happy and sad moods affect consistency processing via different brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egidi, Giovanna; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2014-12-01

    According to recent research on language comprehension, the semantic features of a text are not the only determinants of whether incoming information is understood as consistent. Listeners' pre-existing affective states play a crucial role as well. The current fMRI experiment examines the effects of happy and sad moods during comprehension of consistent and inconsistent story endings, focusing on brain regions previously linked to two integration processes: inconsistency detection, evident in stronger responses to inconsistent endings, and fluent processing (accumulation), evident in stronger responses to consistent endings. The analysis evaluated whether differences in the BOLD response for consistent and inconsistent story endings correlated with self-reported mood scores after a mood induction procedure. Mood strongly affected regions previously associated with inconsistency detection. Happy mood increased sensitivity to inconsistency in regions specific for inconsistency detection (e.g., left IFG, left STS), whereas sad mood increased sensitivity to inconsistency in regions less specific for language processing (e.g., right med FG, right SFG). Mood affected more weakly regions involved in accumulation of information. These results show that mood can influence activity in areas mediating well-defined language processes, and highlight that integration is the result of context-dependent mechanisms. The finding that language comprehension can involve different networks depending on people's mood highlights the brain's ability to reorganize its functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of the German integrated information and measurement system (IMIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Weiss, W.

    2002-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident led to a widespread contamination of the environment in most European countries. In Germany, like in all other countries, it took some time to evaluate the radiological situation, time which is extremely valuable in the early phases of an accident when decisions on countermeasures like sheltering, iodine prophylaxis or evacuation have to be taken. For a better emergency preparedness the Integrated Information and Measurement System (IMIS) has been developed and established in Germany. In case of a widespread contamination of the environment, the system will provide the decision makers with all information necessary to evaluate the radiological situation and to decide on countermeasures. Presently this system is upgraded due to the adoption of the European decision supporting system RODOS and by the improvement of the national information exchange. For this purpose the web based information system ELAN has been developed. The national systems have to be integrated into the European and international communication systems. In this presentation the IMIS system is briefly described and the new features and modules of the system are discussed in greater detail

  16. The Human Brain and Information Science: Lessons from Popular Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sturges

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Insights from the recent wealth of popular books on neuroscience are offered to suggest a strengthening of theory in information science. Information theory has traditionally neglected the human dimension in favour of 'scientific' theory often derived from the Shannon-Weaver model. Neuroscientists argue in excitingly fresh ways from the evidence of case studies, non-intrusive experimentation and the measurements that can be obtained from technologies that include electroencephalography, positron emission tomography (PET, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and magnetoencephalography (MEG. The way in which the findings of neuroscience intersect with ideas such as those of Kahneman on fast and slow thinking and Csikszentmihalyi on flow, is tentatively explored as lines of connection with information science. It is argued that the beginnings of a theoretical underpinning for current web-based information searching in relation to established information retrieval methods can be drawn from this.

  17. Age-related reduction of adaptive brain response during semantic integration is associated with gray matter reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zude Zhu

    Full Text Available While aging is associated with increased knowledge, it is also associated with decreased semantic integration. To investigate brain activation changes during semantic integration, a sample of forty-eight 25-75 year-old adults read sentences with high cloze (HC and low cloze (LC probability while functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted. Significant age-related reduction of cloze effect (LC vs. HC was found in several regions, especially the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, which play an important role in semantic integration. Moreover, when accounting for global gray matter volume reduction, the age-cloze correlation in the left MFG and right IFG was absent. The results suggest that brain structural atrophy may disrupt brain response in aging brains, which then show less brain engagement in semantic integration.

  18. Performance measurement integrated information framework in e-Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran, Hilaida; Hernandez, Juan Carlos; Vizán, Antonio; Ríos, José

    2014-11-01

    The implementation of Internet technologies has led to e-Manufacturing technologies becoming more widely used and to the development of tools for compiling, transforming and synchronising manufacturing data through the Web. In this context, a potential area for development is the extension of virtual manufacturing to performance measurement (PM) processes, a critical area for decision making and implementing improvement actions in manufacturing. This paper proposes a PM information framework to integrate decision support systems in e-Manufacturing. Specifically, the proposed framework offers a homogeneous PM information exchange model that can be applied through decision support in e-Manufacturing environment. Its application improves the necessary interoperability in decision-making data processing tasks. It comprises three sub-systems: a data model, a PM information platform and PM-Web services architecture. A practical example of data exchange for measurement processes in the area of equipment maintenance is shown to demonstrate the utility of the model.

  19. Systems Information Therapy and the central role of the brain in allostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foletti, Alberto; Grimaldi, Settimio

    2011-12-01

    This work arose from the necessity to up date and clarify some basic concepts in contemporary medical practice such as those of health, disease, therapy and prevention. According to this perspective the work starts with a general epistemological review and goes on with an epistemological revision of biology and medicine. The concept of adaptation and the central role of the brain is then analysed and stated as the base to next consideration and deepening from a biophysical perspective. Physio-pathology of adaptation is assumed as a key concept in the definition and in the understanding of health and disease. A huge amount of endogenous and external stimuli has to be processed and response to them may lead to increase, stability or decrease of coherence in agreement with Frohlich's pioneering ideas. In this framework, the concept of stress, allostasis and allostatic load are outlined. Allostasis is defined as the capability of keeping stability through dynamic changes. A particular attention is paid to the emerging paradigms in biology and medicine especially those of system biology and system medicine trying to integrate the concept of complexity and hierarchical organization of the information flow in living organisms and in humans. In this framework biophysical signalling could play a significant role in modulating endogenous dynamics and in mediating external interactions. Additionally biophysical mechanisms could be involved in biological systems inner communication and could be responsible for the maintenance of systems inner coherence. The integration of the biophysical paradigm into contemporary medical practice is leading from one side to a better understanding of many pathways in physiopathology and from the other side to some new effective clinical applications. System Information Therapy is, for instance, is rising as a suitable and coherent tool in the application of thise concept being able to restore the self regulation and self regeneration

  20. Systems Information Therapy and the central role of the brain in allostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foletti, Alberto; Grimaldi, Settimio

    2011-01-01

    This work arose from the necessity to up date and clarify some basic concepts in contemporary medical practice such as those of health, disease, therapy and prevention. According to this perspective the work starts with a general epistemological review and goes on with an epistemological revision of biology and medicine. The concept of adaptation and the central role of the brain is then analysed and stated as the base to next consideration and deepening from a biophysical perspective. Physio-pathology of adaptation is assumed as a key concept in the definition and in the understanding of health and disease. A huge amount of endogenous and external stimuli has to be processed and response to them may lead to increase, stability or decrease of coherence in agreement with Frohlich's pioneering ideas. In this framework, the concept of stress, allostasis and allostatic load are outlined. Allostasis is defined as the capability of keeping stability through dynamic changes. A particular attention is paid to the emerging paradigms in biology and medicine especially those of system biology and system medicine trying to integrate the concept of complexity and hierarchical organization of the information flow in living organisms and in humans. In this framework biophysical signalling could play a significant role in modulating endogenous dynamics and in mediating external interactions. Additionally biophysical mechanisms could be involved in biological systems inner communication and could be responsible for the maintenance of systems inner coherence. The integration of the biophysical paradigm into contemporary medical practice is leading from one side to a better understanding of many pathways in physiopathology and from the other side to some new effective clinical applications. System Information Therapy is, for instance, is rising as a suitable and coherent tool in the application of thise concept being able to restore the self regulation and self regeneration

  1. Waste Information Management System with Integrated Transportation Forecast Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, H.; Quintero, W.; Shoffner, P.; Lagos, L.

    2009-01-01

    The Waste Information Management System with Integrated Transportation Forecast Data was developed to support the Department of Energy (DOE) mandated accelerated cleanup program. The schedule compression required close coordination and a comprehensive review and prioritization of the barriers that impeded treatment and disposition of the waste streams at each site. Many issues related to site waste treatment and disposal were potential critical path issues under the accelerated schedules. In order to facilitate accelerated cleanup initiatives, waste managers at DOE field sites and at DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., needed timely waste forecast and transportation information regarding the volumes and types of waste that would be generated by the DOE sites over the next 40 years. Each local DOE site has historically collected, organized, and displayed site waste forecast information in separate and unique systems. However, waste and shipment information from all sites needed a common application to allow interested parties to understand and view the complete complex-wide picture. The Waste Information Management System with Integrated Transportation Forecast Data allows identification of total forecasted waste volumes, material classes, disposition sites, choke points, technological or regulatory barriers to treatment and disposal, along with forecasted waste transportation information by rail, truck and inter-modal shipments. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, has deployed the web-based forecast and transportation system and is responsible for updating the waste forecast and transportation data on a regular basis to ensure the long-term viability and value of this system. (authors)

  2. IHE, Solution for integration of information systems and PACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Janghorban Lariche

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available PACS is used as a way to store images and matches well with the workflow in the radiology department and can spread to other parts of hospital. Integration with other PACS and other hospital systems like radiology information system (RIS, hospital information system (HIS, and electronic patient records has been completely done, but there are still problems. PACS also provide good conditions for setting up Tele-radiology. The next step for PACS is where hospitals and health care organizations share photos in integrated electronic patient record. Among the different ways for sharing photos between different hospitals, IHE (integrating the health care enterprise standard indexes the cross-enterprise document sharing profile (XDS and allows sharing photos from various hospitals even if their PACS has different brands and different vendors. Application of XDS is useful for sharing images between health care organizations without duplicating them in a central archive. Images need to be indexed in a central registry. In the XDS profile, IHE defines an indexing mechanism for printing and indexing images in the central document registry. IHE also defines mechanisms to be used by each hospital to retrieve images, regardless of storing them in hospital PACS.

  3. Impact of informal institutions on the development integration processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorova Alexandra, M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the impact of informal institutions on the definition of the vector integration processes and the development of integration processes in the countries of the Customs Union and Ukraine. The degree of scientific development of the phenomenon in different economic schools is determined in this article. Economic mentality is a basic informal institutions, which determines the degree of effectiveness of the integration processes. This paper examines the nature, characteristics and effects of economic mentality on the economic activities of people. Ethnometrichal method allows to quantify the economic mentality that enables deeper understanding and analysis of the formation and functioning of political and economic system, especially business and management, establishing contacts with other cultures. It was measured modern Belarusian economic mentality based on international methodology Hofstede and compared with the economic mentality of Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. With the help of cluster analysis congruence economic mentality of the Customs Union and Ukraine was determined. Economic mentality of these countries was also compared with the economic mentality of other countries in order to identify the main types of economic culture.

  4. TOMATOMICS: A Web Database for Integrated Omics Information in Tomato

    KAUST Repository

    Kudo, Toru; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Terashima, Shin; Katayama, Minami; Ozaki, Soichi; Kanno, Maasa; Saito, Misa; Yokoyama, Koji; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Aoki, Koh; Kubo, Yasutaka; Yano, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) is an important agronomic crop and a major model fruit-producing plant. To facilitate basic and applied research, comprehensive experimental resources and omics information on tomato are available following their development. Mutant lines and cDNA clones from a dwarf cultivar, Micro-Tom, are two of these genetic resources. Large-scale sequencing data for ESTs and full-length cDNAs from Micro-Tom continue to be gathered. In conjunction with information on the reference genome sequence of another cultivar, Heinz 1706, the Micro-Tom experimental resources have facilitated comprehensive functional analyses. To enhance the efficiency of acquiring omics information for tomato biology, we have integrated the information on the Micro-Tom experimental resources and the Heinz 1706 genome sequence. We have also inferred gene structure by comparison of sequences between the genome of Heinz 1706 and the transcriptome, which are comprised of Micro-Tom full-length cDNAs and Heinz 1706 RNA-seq data stored in the KaFTom and Sequence Read Archive databases. In order to provide large-scale omics information with streamlined connectivity we have developed and maintain a web database TOMATOMICS (http://bioinf.mind.meiji.ac.jp/tomatomics/). In TOMATOMICS, access to the information on the cDNA clone resources, full-length mRNA sequences, gene structures, expression profiles and functional annotations of genes is available through search functions and the genome browser, which has an intuitive graphical interface.

  5. TOMATOMICS: A Web Database for Integrated Omics Information in Tomato

    KAUST Repository

    Kudo, Toru

    2016-11-29

    Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) is an important agronomic crop and a major model fruit-producing plant. To facilitate basic and applied research, comprehensive experimental resources and omics information on tomato are available following their development. Mutant lines and cDNA clones from a dwarf cultivar, Micro-Tom, are two of these genetic resources. Large-scale sequencing data for ESTs and full-length cDNAs from Micro-Tom continue to be gathered. In conjunction with information on the reference genome sequence of another cultivar, Heinz 1706, the Micro-Tom experimental resources have facilitated comprehensive functional analyses. To enhance the efficiency of acquiring omics information for tomato biology, we have integrated the information on the Micro-Tom experimental resources and the Heinz 1706 genome sequence. We have also inferred gene structure by comparison of sequences between the genome of Heinz 1706 and the transcriptome, which are comprised of Micro-Tom full-length cDNAs and Heinz 1706 RNA-seq data stored in the KaFTom and Sequence Read Archive databases. In order to provide large-scale omics information with streamlined connectivity we have developed and maintain a web database TOMATOMICS (http://bioinf.mind.meiji.ac.jp/tomatomics/). In TOMATOMICS, access to the information on the cDNA clone resources, full-length mRNA sequences, gene structures, expression profiles and functional annotations of genes is available through search functions and the genome browser, which has an intuitive graphical interface.

  6. The impact of IAIMS on the work of information experts. Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, J

    1995-10-01

    Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) programs differ but have certain characteristics in common. Technological and organizational integration are universal goals. As integration takes place, what happens to those implementing the vision? A survey of 125 staff members, or information experts, involved in information or informatics at an IAIMS-funded institution was conducted during the last year of the implementation phase. The purpose was to measure the impact of IAIMS on the jobs of those in the library and related service units, and the computing, telecommunications, and health informatics divisions. The researchers used newly developed scales measuring levels of integration (knowledge of and involvement with other departments), customer orientation (focus on the user), and informatedness (changes in the nature of work beyond automation of former routines). Ninety-four percent of respondents indicated that their jobs had changed a great deal; the changes were similar regardless of division. To further investigate the impact of IAIMS on librarians in particular, a separate skills survey was conducted. The IAIMS librarians indicated that technology and training skills are especially needed in the new, integrated environment.

  7. Information flow between interacting human brains: Identification, validation, and relationship to social expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Edda; Ruf, Matthias; Schäfer, Axel; Akdeniz, Ceren; Calhoun, Vince D; Schmahl, Christian; Demanuele, Charmaine; Tost, Heike; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-04-21

    Social interactions are fundamental for human behavior, but the quantification of their neural underpinnings remains challenging. Here, we used hyperscanning functional MRI (fMRI) to study information flow between brains of human dyads during real-time social interaction in a joint attention paradigm. In a hardware setup enabling immersive audiovisual interaction of subjects in linked fMRI scanners, we characterize cross-brain connectivity components that are unique to interacting individuals, identifying information flow between the sender's and receiver's temporoparietal junction. We replicate these findings in an independent sample and validate our methods by demonstrating that cross-brain connectivity relates to a key real-world measure of social behavior. Together, our findings support a central role of human-specific cortical areas in the brain dynamics of dyadic interactions and provide an approach for the noninvasive examination of the neural basis of healthy and disturbed human social behavior with minimal a priori assumptions.

  8. Integrated radiation information system in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.; Prouza, Z.; Malatova, I.; Kuca, P.; Bucina, I.

    1998-01-01

    Outline and organizational structure of radiation monitoring network (RMN) in the Czech Republic is conformable with similar networks abroad integrated system of a number of components serve for continuous monitoring of radiation situation on the territory of the Czech Republic, detecting an abnormal radiological situation due to domestic source, detecting a non notified accident abroad with consequences on the territory of the Czech Republic, monitoring the evolution, determining the components of any radioactivity discharge, first estimation of accident extent, forecasting of accident development and of dispersion of radionuclides in the vicinity of source, acquisition of base for decision upon evaluation and other countermeasures and remedial actions, assessment and forecast of contamination for regulation of food and water consumption, review of enforced countermeasures based on actual monitoring data and refined forecast. For model calculations and decision making in case of a nuclear accident an integrated comprehensive computer based information system is now being set up in Czech Republic. (R.P.)

  9. The informed application of building-integrated wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breshears, J.; Briscoe, C. [Zimmer Gunsal Frasca Architects, Portland, OR (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on an exercise that was undertaken to integrate small-scale wind turbines into the design of an urban high-rise in Portland, Oregon. Wind behaviour in the urban environment is very complex, as the flow of wind over and around buildings often triggers multiple transitions of the air from laminar flow to turbulent. The study documented the process of moving beyond a simplistic approach to a truly informed application of building-integrated wind generation. The 4 key issues addressed in the study process were quantifying the geographical wind regime; predicting wind flow over the building; turbine selection; and pragmatics regarding the design of roof mounting to accommodate structural loads and mitigate vibration. The results suggested that the turbine array should produce in the range of only 1 per cent of the electrical load of the building. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Unifying Kohlberg with Information Integration: The Moral Algebra of Recompense and of Kohlbergian Moral Informers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommers, Wilfried; Lee, Wha-Yong

    2010-01-01

    In order to unify two major theories of moral judgment, a novel task is employed which combines elements of Kohlberg's stage theory and of the theory of information integration. In contrast to the format of Kohlberg's moral judgment interview, a nonverbal and quantitative response which makes low demands on verbal facility was used. Moral…

  11. Distributed XQuery-Based Integration and Visualization of Multimodality Brain Mapping Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detwiler, Landon T; Suciu, Dan; Franklin, Joshua D; Moore, Eider B; Poliakov, Andrew V; Lee, Eunjung S; Corina, David P; Ojemann, George A; Brinkley, James F

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for relatively small groups of collaborating investigators to integrate distributed and heterogeneous data about the brain. Although various national efforts facilitate large-scale data sharing, these approaches are generally too "heavyweight" for individual or small groups of investigators, with the result that most data sharing among collaborators continues to be ad hoc. Our approach to this problem is to create a "lightweight" distributed query architecture, in which data sources are accessible via web services that accept arbitrary query languages but return XML results. A Distributed XQuery Processor (DXQP) accepts distributed XQueries in which subqueries are shipped to the remote data sources to be executed, with the resulting XML integrated by DXQP. A web-based application called DXBrain accesses DXQP, allowing a user to create, save and execute distributed XQueries, and to view the results in various formats including a 3-D brain visualization. Example results are presented using distributed brain mapping data sources obtained in studies of language organization in the brain, but any other XML source could be included. The advantage of this approach is that it is very easy to add and query a new source, the tradeoff being that the user needs to understand XQuery and the schemata of the underlying sources. For small numbers of known sources this burden is not onerous for a knowledgeable user, leading to the conclusion that the system helps to fill the gap between ad hoc local methods and large scale but complex national data sharing efforts.

  12. Integrated information system for analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.

    1994-01-01

    Performing complicated engineering analyses of a nuclear power plant requires storage and manipulation of a large amount of information, both data and knowledge. This information is characterized by its multidisciplinary nature, complexity, and diversity. The problems caused by inefficient and lengthy manual operations involving the data flow management within the frame-work of the safety-related analysis of a power plant can be solved by applying the computer aided engineering principles. These principles are the basis of the design of an integrated information storage system (IRIS). The basic idea is to create a computerized environment, which includes both database and functional capabilities. Consideration and analysis of the data types and required data manipulation capabilities as well as operational requirements, resulted in the choice of an object-oriented data-base management system (OODBMS) as a development platform for solving the software engineering problems. Several advantages of OODBMSs over conventional relations database systems were found of crucial importance, especially providing the necessary flexibility for different data types and extensibility potential. A detailed design of a data model is produced for the plant technical data and for the storage of analysis results. The overall system architecture was designed to assure the feasibility of integrating database capabilities with procedures and functions written in conventional algorithmic programming languages

  13. Strengthening Rehabilitation in Health Systems Worldwide by Integrating Information on Functioning in National Health Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold; Bickenbach, Jerome; Melvin, John

    2017-09-01

    A complete understanding of the experience of health requires information relevant not merely to the health indicators of mortality and morbidity but also to functioning-that is, information about what it means to live in a health state, "the lived experience of health." Not only is functioning information relevant to healthcare and the overall objectives of person-centered healthcare but to the successful operation of all components of health systems.In light of population aging and major epidemiological trends, the health strategy of rehabilitation, whose aim has always been to optimize functioning and minimize disability, will become a key health strategy. The increasing prominence of the rehabilitative strategy within the health system drives the argument for the integration of functioning information as an essential component in national health information systems.Rehabilitation professionals and researchers have long recognized in WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health the best prospect for an internationally recognized, sufficiently complete and powerful information reference for the documentation of functioning information. This paper opens the discussion of the promise of integrating the ICF as an essential component in national health systems to secure access to functioning information for rehabilitation, across health systems and countries.

  14. The integration of Information and Communication Technology into medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Hardey, Michael; Torrent, Joan; Ficapal, Pilar

    2010-07-01

    To identify doctors' utilization of ICT; to develop and characterise a typology of doctors' utilization of ICT and to identify factors that can enhance or inhibit the use of these technologies within medical practice. An online survey of the 16,531 members of the Physicians Association of Barcelona who had a registered email account in 2006 was carried out. Factor analysis, cluster analysis and binomial logit model were undertaken. Multivariate statistics analysis of the 2199 responses obtained revealed two profiles of adoption of ICT. The first profile (38.61% of respondents) represents those doctors who place high emphasis on ICT within their practice. This group is thus referred to as 'integrated doctors'. The second profile (61.39% of respondents) represents those doctors who make less use of ICT so are consequently labelled 'non-integrated doctors'. From the statistical modelling, it was observed that an emphasis on international information; emphasis on ICT for research and medical practice; emphasis on information systems to consult and prescribe; undertaking teaching/research activities; a belief that the use of the Internet improved communication with patients and practice in both public and private health organizations play a positive and significant role in the probability of being an 'integrated doctor'. The integration of ICT within medical practice cannot be adequately understood and appreciated without examining how doctors are making use of ICT within their own practice, organizational contexts and the opportunities and constraints afforded by institutional, professional and patient expectations and demands. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Integrative Behavioral Model of Information Security Policy Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members’ compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members’ attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1 the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members’ compliance with the information security policy, (2 the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3 the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training

  16. An integrative behavioral model of information security policy compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Yang, Kyung Hoon; Park, Sunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members' compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members' attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1) the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members' compliance with the information security policy, (2) the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3) the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training programs suppressing

  17. Cerebral energy metabolism and the brain's functional network architecture: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Louis-David; Expert, Paul; Huckins, Jeremy F; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2013-09-01

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have emphasized the contributions of synchronized activity in distributed brain networks to cognitive processes in both health and disease. The brain's 'functional connectivity' is typically estimated from correlations in the activity time series of anatomically remote areas, and postulated to reflect information flow between neuronal populations. Although the topological properties of functional brain networks have been studied extensively, considerably less is known regarding the neurophysiological and biochemical factors underlying the temporal coordination of large neuronal ensembles. In this review, we highlight the critical contributions of high-frequency electrical oscillations in the γ-band (30 to 100 Hz) to the emergence of functional brain networks. After describing the neurobiological substrates of γ-band dynamics, we specifically discuss the elevated energy requirements of high-frequency neural oscillations, which represent a mechanistic link between the functional connectivity of brain regions and their respective metabolic demands. Experimental evidence is presented for the high oxygen and glucose consumption, and strong mitochondrial performance required to support rhythmic cortical activity in the γ-band. Finally, the implications of mitochondrial impairments and deficits in glucose metabolism for cognition and behavior are discussed in the context of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative syndromes characterized by large-scale changes in the organization of functional brain networks.

  18. Modeling community integration in workers with delayed recovery from mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollayeva, T.; Shapiro, C. M.; Mollayeva, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delayed recovery in persons after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is poorly understood. Community integration (CI) is endorsed by persons with neurological disorders as an important outcome. We aimed to describe CI and its associated factors in insured Ontario workers with delayed...... assessments, and insurers' referral files. Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) scores were compared using analysis of variance or Spearman's correlation tests. Stepwise multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations with CI. Results: Ninety-four workers with mTBI (45...

  19. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Michelle W; Weng, Timothy B; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Cooke, Gillian E; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-05-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Michelle W.; Weng, Timothy B.; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P.; Olson, Erin A.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the Default Mode Network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks. PMID:26493108

  1. Integrating Decentralized Indoor Evacuation with Information Depositories in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The lonelier evacuees find themselves, the riskier become their wayfinding decisions. This research supports single evacuees in a dynamically changing environment with risk-aware guidance. It deploys the concept of decentralized evacuation, where evacuees are guided by smartphones acquiring environmental knowledge and risk information via exploration and knowledge sharing by peer-to-peer communication. Peer-to-peer communication, however, relies on the chance that people come into communication range with each other. This chance can be low. To bridge between people being not at the same time at the same places, this paper suggests information depositories at strategic locations to improve information sharing. Information depositories collect the knowledge acquired by the smartphones of evacuees passing by, maintain this information, and convey it to other passing-by evacuees. Multi-agent simulation implementing these depositories in an indoor environment shows that integrating depositories improves evacuation performance: It enhances the risk awareness and consequently increases the chance that people survive and reduces their evacuation time. For evacuating dynamic events, deploying depositories at staircases has been shown more effective than deploying them in corridors.

  2. Project Integration Architecture: Inter-Application Propagation of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    A principal goal of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is to facilitate the meaningful inter-application transfer of application-value-added information. Such exchanging applications may be largely unrelated to each other except through their applicability to an overall project; however, the PIA effort recognizes as fundamental the need to make such applications cooperate despite wide disparaties either in the fidelity of the analyses carried out, or even the disciplines of the analysis. This paper discusses the approach and techniques applied and anticipated by the PIA project in treating this need.

  3. Brain Network Analysis: Separating Cost from Topology Using Cost-Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginestet, Cedric E.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Bullmore, Ed T.; Simmons, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A statistically principled way of conducting brain network analysis is still lacking. Comparison of different populations of brain networks is hard because topology is inherently dependent on wiring cost, where cost is defined as the number of edges in an unweighted graph. In this paper, we evaluate the benefits and limitations associated with using cost-integrated topological metrics. Our focus is on comparing populations of weighted undirected graphs that differ in mean association weight, using global efficiency. Our key result shows that integrating over cost is equivalent to controlling for any monotonic transformation of the weight set of a weighted graph. That is, when integrating over cost, we eliminate the differences in topology that may be due to a monotonic transformation of the weight set. Our result holds for any unweighted topological measure, and for any choice of distribution over cost levels. Cost-integration is therefore helpful in disentangling differences in cost from differences in topology. By contrast, we show that the use of the weighted version of a topological metric is generally not a valid approach to this problem. Indeed, we prove that, under weak conditions, the use of the weighted version of global efficiency is equivalent to simply comparing weighted costs. Thus, we recommend the reporting of (i) differences in weighted costs and (ii) differences in cost-integrated topological measures with respect to different distributions over the cost domain. We demonstrate the application of these techniques in a re-analysis of an fMRI working memory task. We also provide a Monte Carlo method for approximating cost-integrated topological measures. Finally, we discuss the limitations of integrating topology over cost, which may pose problems when some weights are zero, when multiplicities exist in the ranks of the weights, and when one expects subtle cost-dependent topological differences, which could be masked by cost-integration. PMID:21829437

  4. Brain network analysis: separating cost from topology using cost-integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric E Ginestet

    Full Text Available A statistically principled way of conducting brain network analysis is still lacking. Comparison of different populations of brain networks is hard because topology is inherently dependent on wiring cost, where cost is defined as the number of edges in an unweighted graph. In this paper, we evaluate the benefits and limitations associated with using cost-integrated topological metrics. Our focus is on comparing populations of weighted undirected graphs that differ in mean association weight, using global efficiency. Our key result shows that integrating over cost is equivalent to controlling for any monotonic transformation of the weight set of a weighted graph. That is, when integrating over cost, we eliminate the differences in topology that may be due to a monotonic transformation of the weight set. Our result holds for any unweighted topological measure, and for any choice of distribution over cost levels. Cost-integration is therefore helpful in disentangling differences in cost from differences in topology. By contrast, we show that the use of the weighted version of a topological metric is generally not a valid approach to this problem. Indeed, we prove that, under weak conditions, the use of the weighted version of global efficiency is equivalent to simply comparing weighted costs. Thus, we recommend the reporting of (i differences in weighted costs and (ii differences in cost-integrated topological measures with respect to different distributions over the cost domain. We demonstrate the application of these techniques in a re-analysis of an fMRI working memory task. We also provide a Monte Carlo method for approximating cost-integrated topological measures. Finally, we discuss the limitations of integrating topology over cost, which may pose problems when some weights are zero, when multiplicities exist in the ranks of the weights, and when one expects subtle cost-dependent topological differences, which could be masked by cost-integration.

  5. An Anatomically Constrained Model for Path Integration in the Bee Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Thomas; Webb, Barbara; Adden, Andrea; Weddig, Nicolai Ben; Honkanen, Anna; Templin, Rachel; Wcislo, William; Scimeca, Luca; Warrant, Eric; Heinze, Stanley

    2017-10-23

    Path integration is a widespread navigational strategy in which directional changes and distance covered are continuously integrated on an outward journey, enabling a straight-line return to home. Bees use vision for this task-a celestial-cue-based visual compass and an optic-flow-based visual odometer-but the underlying neural integration mechanisms are unknown. Using intracellular electrophysiology, we show that polarized-light-based compass neurons and optic-flow-based speed-encoding neurons converge in the central complex of the bee brain, and through block-face electron microscopy, we identify potential integrator cells. Based on plausible output targets for these cells, we propose a complete circuit for path integration and steering in the central complex, with anatomically identified neurons suggested for each processing step. The resulting model circuit is thus fully constrained biologically and provides a functional interpretation for many previously unexplained architectural features of the central complex. Moreover, we show that the receptive fields of the newly discovered speed neurons can support path integration for the holonomic motion (i.e., a ground velocity that is not precisely aligned with body orientation) typical of bee flight, a feature not captured in any previously proposed model of path integration. In a broader context, the model circuit presented provides a general mechanism for producing steering signals by comparing current and desired headings-suggesting a more basic function for central complex connectivity, from which path integration may have evolved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An integrated healthcare enterprise information portal and healthcare information system framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, S L; Lai, Feipei; Cheng, P H; Chen, J L; Lee, H H; Tsai, W N; Weng, Y C; Hsieh, S H; Hsu, K P; Ko, L F; Yang, T H; Chen, C H

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated, distributed Healthcare Enterprise Information Portal (HEIP) and Hospital Information Systems (HIS) framework over wireless/wired infrastructure at National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). A single sign-on solution for the hospital customer relationship management (CRM) in HEIP has been established. The outcomes of the newly developed Outpatient Information Systems (OIS) in HIS are discussed. The future HEIP blueprints with CRM oriented features: e-Learning, Remote Consultation and Diagnosis (RCD), as well as on-Line Vaccination Services are addressed. Finally, the integrated HEIP and HIS architectures based on the middleware technologies are proposed along with the feasible approaches. The preliminary performance of multi-media, time-based data exchanges over the wireless HEIP side is collected to evaluate the efficiency of the architecture.

  7. Immediate integration of prosodic information from speech and visual information from pictures in the absence of focused attention: a mismatch negativity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Yang, Y; Ren, G

    2009-06-16

    Language is often perceived together with visual information. Recent experimental evidences indicated that, during spoken language comprehension, the brain can immediately integrate visual information with semantic or syntactic information from speech. Here we used the mismatch negativity to further investigate whether prosodic information from speech could be immediately integrated into a visual scene context or not, and especially the time course and automaticity of this integration process. Sixteen Chinese native speakers participated in the study. The materials included Chinese spoken sentences and picture pairs. In the audiovisual situation, relative to the concomitant pictures, the spoken sentence was appropriately accented in the standard stimuli, but inappropriately accented in the two kinds of deviant stimuli. In the purely auditory situation, the speech sentences were presented without pictures. It was found that the deviants evoked mismatch responses in both audiovisual and purely auditory situations; the mismatch negativity in the purely auditory situation peaked at the same time as, but was weaker than that evoked by the same deviant speech sounds in the audiovisual situation. This pattern of results suggested immediate integration of prosodic information from speech and visual information from pictures in the absence of focused attention.

  8. Design principles for achieving integrated healthcare information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-03-01

    Achieving integrated healthcare information systems has become a common goal for many countries in their pursuit of obtaining coordinated and comprehensive healthcare services. This article focuses on how a small local project termed 'Standardized pull of patient data' expanded and is now used on a large scale providing a majority of hospitals, general practitioners and citizens across Denmark with the possibility of accessing healthcare data from different electronic patient record systems and other systems. I build on design theory for information infrastructures, as presented by Hanseth and Lyytinen, to examine the design principles that facilitated this smallscale project to expand and become widespread. As a result of my findings, I outline three lessons learned that emphasize: (i) principles of flexibility, (ii) expansion from the installed base through modular strategies and (iii) identification of key healthcare actors to provide them with immediate benefits.

  9. Fusing in vivo and ex vivo NMR sources of information for brain tumor classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitor-Sava, A R; Laudadio, T; Sima, D M; Van Huffel, S; Martinez-Bisbal, M C; Celda, B; Piquer, J; Heerschap, A

    2011-01-01

    In this study we classify short echo-time brain magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) data by applying a model-based canonical correlation analyses algorithm and by using, as prior knowledge, multimodal sources of information coming from high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS), MRSI and magnetic resonance imaging. The potential and limitations of fusing in vivo and ex vivo nuclear magnetic resonance sources to detect brain tumors is investigated. We present various modalities for multimodal data fusion, study the effect and the impact of using multimodal information for classifying MRSI brain glial tumors data and analyze which parameters influence the classification results by means of extensive simulation and in vivo studies. Special attention is drawn to the possibility of considering HR-MAS data as a complementary dataset when dealing with a lack of MRSI data needed to build a classifier. Results show that HR-MAS information can have added value in the process of classifying MRSI data

  10. Integrating Records Management (RM) and Information Technology (IT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NUSBAUM,ANNA W.; CUSIMANO,LINDA J.

    2000-03-02

    Records Managers are continually exploring ways to integrate their services with those offered by Information Technology-related professions to capitalize on the advantages of providing customers a total solution to managing their records and information. In this day and age, where technology abounds, there often exists a fear on the part of records management that this integration will result in a loss of identity and the focus of one's own mission - a fear that records management may become subordinated to the fast-paced technology fields. They need to remember there is strength in numbers and it benefits RM, IT, and the customer when they can bring together the unique offerings each possess to reach synergy for the benefit of all the corporations. Records Managers, need to continually strive to move ''outside the records management box'', network, expand their knowledge, and influence the IT disciplines to incorporate the concept of ''management'' into their customer solutions.

  11. Seeds integrate biological information about conspecific and allospecific neighbours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawo, Akira; Mukai, Hiromi

    2017-06-28

    Numerous organisms integrate information from multiple sources and express adaptive behaviours, but how they do so at different developmental stages remains to be identified. Seeds, which are the embryonic stage of plants, need to make decisions about the timing of emergence in response to environmental cues related to survival. We investigated the timing of emergence of Plantago asiatica (Plantaginaceae) seed while manipulating the presence of Trifolium repens seed and the relatedness of neighbouring P. asiatica seed. The relatedness of neighbouring P. asiatica seed and the presence of seeds of T. repens did not on their own influence the timing of P. asiatica emergence. However, when encountering a T. repens seed, a P. asiatica seed emerged faster in the presence of a sibling seed than in the presence of a non-sibling seed. Water extracts of seeds gave the same result. We show that P. asiatica seeds integrate information about the relatedness of neighbouring P. asiatica seeds and the presence of seeds of a different species via water-soluble chemicals and adjust their emergence behaviour in response. These findings suggest the presence of kin-dependent interspecific interactions. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Integration of sparse electrophysiological measurements with preoperative MRI using 3D surface estimation in deep brain stimulation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husch, Andreas; Gemmar, Peter; Thunberg, Johan; Hertel, Frank

    2017-03-01

    Intraoperative microelectrode recordings (MER) have been used for several decades to guide neurosurgeons during the implantation of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) electrodes, especially when targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to suppress the symptoms of Parkinson's Disease. The standard approach is to use an array of up to five MER electrodes in a fixed configuration. Interpretation of the recorded signals yields a spatially very sparse set of information about the morphology of the respective brain structures in the targeted area. However, no aid is currently available for surgeons to intraoperatively integrate this information with other data available on the patient's individual morphology (e.g. MR imaging data used for surgical planning). This integration might allow surgeons to better determine the most probable position of the electrodes within the target structure during surgery. This paper suggests a method for reconstructing a surface patch from the sparse MER dataset utilizing additional a priori knowledge about the geometrical configuration of the measurement electrodes. The conventional representation of MER measurements as intervals of target region/non-target region is therefore transformed into an equivalent boundary set representation, allowing ecient point-based calculations. Subsequently, the problem is to integrate the resulting patch with a preoperative model of the target structure, which can be formulated as registration problem minimizing a distance measure between the two surfaces. When restricting this registration procedure to translations, which is reasonable given certain geometric considerations, the problem can be solved globally by employing an exhaustive search with arbitrary precision in polynomial time. The proposed method is demonstrated using bilateral STN/Substantia Nigra segmentation data from preoperative MRIs of 17 Patients with simulated MER electrode placement. When using simulated data of heavily perturbed electrodes

  13. Information Compression, Multiple Alignment, and the Representation and Processing of Knowledge in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, J Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The SP theory of intelligence , with its realization in the SP computer model , aims to simplify and integrate observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. This paper describes how abstract structures and processes in the theory may be realized in terms of neurons, their interconnections, and the transmission of signals between neurons. This part of the SP theory- SP-neural -is a tentative and partial model for the representation and processing of knowledge in the brain. Empirical support for the SP theory-outlined in the paper-provides indirect support for SP-neural. In the abstract part of the SP theory (SP-abstract), all kinds of knowledge are represented with patterns , where a pattern is an array of atomic symbols in one or two dimensions. In SP-neural, the concept of a "pattern" is realized as an array of neurons called a pattern assembly , similar to Hebb's concept of a "cell assembly" but with important differences. Central to the processing of information in SP-abstract is information compression via the matching and unification of patterns (ICMUP) and, more specifically, information compression via the powerful concept of multiple alignment , borrowed and adapted from bioinformatics. Processes such as pattern recognition, reasoning and problem solving are achieved via the building of multiple alignments, while unsupervised learning is achieved by creating patterns from sensory information and also by creating patterns from multiple alignments in which there is a partial match between one pattern and another. It is envisaged that, in SP-neural, short-lived neural structures equivalent to multiple alignments will be created via an inter-play of excitatory and inhibitory neural signals. It is also envisaged that unsupervised learning will be achieved by the creation of pattern assemblies from sensory information and from the

  14. Information Compression, Multiple Alignment, and the Representation and Processing of Knowledge in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gerard Wolff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The SP theory of intelligence, with its realisation in the SP computer model, aims to simplify and integrate observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. This paper describes how abstract structures and processes in the theory may be realised in terms of neurons, their interconnections, and the transmission of signals between neurons. This part of the SP theory -- SP-neural -- is a tentative and partial model for the representation and processing of knowledge in the brain. Empirical support for the SP theory -- outlined in the paper -- provides indirect support for SP-neural.In the abstract part of the SP theory (SP-abstract, all kinds of knowledge are represented with patterns, where a pattern is an array of atomic symbols in one or two dimensions. In SP-neural, the concept of a ‘pattern’ is realised as an array of neurons called a pattern assembly, similar to Hebb's concept of a ‘cell assembly’ but with important differences.Central to the processing of information in SP-abstract is information compression via the matching and unification of patterns (ICMUP and, more specifically, information compression via the powerful concept of multiple alignment, borrowed and adapted from bioinformatics. Processes such as pattern recognition, reasoning and problem solving are achieved via the building of multiple alignments, while unsupervised learning is achieved by creating patterns from sensory information and also by creating patterns from multiple alignments in which there is a partial match between one pattern and another.It is envisaged that, in SP-neural, short-lived neural structures equivalent to multiple alignments will be created via an inter-play of excitatory and inhibitory neural signals. It is also envisaged that unsupervised learning will be achieved by the creation of pattern assemblies from

  15. Quantum-like model of processing of information in the brain based on classical electromagnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2011-09-01

    We propose a model of quantum-like (QL) processing of mental information. This model is based on quantum information theory. However, in contrast to models of "quantum physical brain" reducing mental activity (at least at the highest level) to quantum physical phenomena in the brain, our model matches well with the basic neuronal paradigm of the cognitive science. QL information processing is based (surprisingly) on classical electromagnetic signals induced by joint activity of neurons. This novel approach to quantum information is based on representation of quantum mechanics as a version of classical signal theory which was recently elaborated by the author. The brain uses the QL representation (QLR) for working with abstract concepts; concrete images are described by classical information theory. Two processes, classical and QL, are performed parallely. Moreover, information is actively transmitted from one representation to another. A QL concept given in our model by a density operator can generate a variety of concrete images given by temporal realizations of the corresponding (Gaussian) random signal. This signal has the covariance operator coinciding with the density operator encoding the abstract concept under consideration. The presence of various temporal scales in the brain plays the crucial role in creation of QLR in the brain. Moreover, in our model electromagnetic noise produced by neurons is a source of superstrong QL correlations between processes in different spatial domains in the brain; the binding problem is solved on the QL level, but with the aid of the classical background fluctuations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Desire for Amputation or Paralyzation: Evidence for Structural Brain Anomalies in Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Rianne M; van Wingen, Guido A; van der Wal, Sija J; Luigjes, Judy; van Dijk, Milenna T; Scholte, H Steven; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-01-01

    Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is a condition in which individuals perceive a mismatch between their internal body scheme and physical body shape, resulting in an absolute desire to be either amputated or paralyzed. The condition is hypothesized to be of congenital nature, but evidence for a neuro-anatomical basis is sparse. We collected T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans on a 3T scanner in eight individuals with BIID and 24 matched healthy controls, and analyzed the data using voxel-based morphometry. The results showed reduced grey matter volume in the left dorsal and ventral premotor cortices and larger grey matter volume in the cerebellum (lobule VIIa) in individuals with BIID compared to controls. The premotor cortex and cerebellum are thought to be crucial for the experience of body-ownership and the integration of multisensory information. Our results suggest that BIID is associated with structural brain anomalies and might result from a dysfunction in the integration of multisensory information, leading to the feeling of disunity between the mental and physical body shape.

  17. Unifying Kohlberg with Information Integration: The Moral Algebra of Recompense and of Kohlbergian Moral Informers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Hommers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to unify two major theories of moral judgment, a novel task is employed which combines elements of Kohlberg's stage theory and of the theory of information integration. In contrast to the format of Kohlberg's moral judgment interview, a nonverbal and quantitative response which makes low demands on verbal facility was used . Moral informers differing in value, i.e. high and low, are presented. The differences in effect of those two pieces of information should be substantial for a person at that specific moral stage, but small for a person at a different stage. Hence, these differences may diagnose the person's moral stage in the simplest possible way as the two levels of each of the thoughts were about typical content of the four Kohlbergian preconventional and conventional stages. The novel task allowed additionally to measure the influence of another moral concept which was about the non-Kohlbergian moral concept of recompense. After a training phase, pairs of those thoughts were presented to allow for the study of integration and individual differences. German and Korean children, 8, 10, and 12 years in age, judged deserved punishment. The patterns of means, correlations and factor loadings showed that elements of both theories can be unified, but produced unexpected results also. Additive integration of each of the two pairs of moral informers appeared, either with two Kohlbergian moral informers or with another Kohlbergian moral informer in combination with information about recompense. Also cultural independence as well as dependence, developmental changes between 8 and 10 years, and an outstanding moral impact of recompense in size and distinctiveness were observed.

  18. Towards a Unified Approach to Information Integration - A review paper on data/information fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Lei, Xingye C.

    2005-10-14

    Information or data fusion of data from different sources are ubiquitous in many applications, from epidemiology, medical, biological, political, and intelligence to military applications. Data fusion involves integration of spectral, imaging, text, and many other sensor data. For example, in epidemiology, information is often obtained based on many studies conducted by different researchers at different regions with different protocols. In the medical field, the diagnosis of a disease is often based on imaging (MRI, X-Ray, CT), clinical examination, and lab results. In the biological field, information is obtained based on studies conducted on many different species. In military field, information is obtained based on data from radar sensors, text messages, chemical biological sensor, acoustic sensor, optical warning and many other sources. Many methodologies are used in the data integration process, from classical, Bayesian, to evidence based expert systems. The implementation of the data integration ranges from pure software design to a mixture of software and hardware. In this review we summarize the methodologies and implementations of data fusion process, and illustrate in more detail the methodologies involved in three examples. We propose a unified multi-stage and multi-path mapping approach to the data fusion process, and point out future prospects and challenges.

  19. An Integrated Information System for Supporting Quality Management Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, N.; Helmreich, W.

    2004-08-01

    In a competitive environment, well defined processes become the strategic advantage of a company. Hence, targeted Quality Management ensures efficiency, trans- parency and, ultimately, customer satisfaction. In the particular context of a Space Test Centre, a num- ber of specific Quality Management standards have to be applied. According to the revision of ISO 9001 dur- ing 2000, and due to the adaptation of ECSS-Q20-07, process orientation and data analysis are key tasks for ensuring and evaluating the efficiency of a company's processes. In line with these requirements, an integrated management system for accessing the necessary infor- mation to support Quality Management and other proc- esses has been established. Some of its test-related fea- tures are presented here. Easy access to the integrated management system from any work place at IABG's Space Test Centre is ensured by means of an intranet portal. It comprises a full set of quality-related process descriptions, information on test facilities, emergency procedures, and other relevant in- formation. The portal's web interface provides direct access to a couple of external applications. Moreover, easy updating of all information and low cost mainte- nance are features of this integrated information system. The timely and transparent management of non- conformances is covered by a dedicated NCR database which incorporates full documentation capability, elec- tronic signature and e-mail notification of concerned staff. A search interface allows for queries across all documented non-conformances. Furthermore, print ver- sions can be generated at any stage in the process, e.g. for distribution to customers. Feedback on customer satisfaction is sought through a web-based questionnaire. The process is initiated by the responsible test manager through submission of an e- mail that contains a hyperlink to a secure website, ask- ing the customer to complete the brief online form, which is directly fed to a database

  20. Towards brain-activity-controlled information retrieval: Decoding image relevance from MEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kandemir, Melih; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Parkkonen, Lauri; Klami, Arto; Hari, Riitta; Kaski, Samuel

    2015-05-15

    We hypothesize that brain activity can be used to control future information retrieval systems. To this end, we conducted a feasibility study on predicting the relevance of visual objects from brain activity. We analyze both magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and gaze signals from nine subjects who were viewing image collages, a subset of which was relevant to a predetermined task. We report three findings: i) the relevance of an image a subject looks at can be decoded from MEG signals with performance significantly better than chance, ii) fusion of gaze-based and MEG-based classifiers significantly improves the prediction performance compared to using either signal alone, and iii) non-linear classification of the MEG signals using Gaussian process classifiers outperforms linear classification. These findings break new ground for building brain-activity-based interactive image retrieval systems, as well as for systems utilizing feedback both from brain activity and eye movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The integral biologically effective dose to predict brain stem toxicity of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Brenda G.; Souhami, Luis; Pla, Conrado; Al-Amro, Abdullah S.; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Villemure, Jean-Guy; Caron, Jean-Louis; Olivier, Andre; Podgorsak, Ervin B.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to develop a parameter for use during fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy treatment planning to aid in the determination of the appropriate treatment volume and fractionation regimen that will minimize risk of late damage to normal tissue. Materials and Methods: We have used the linear quadratic model to assess the biologically effective dose at the periphery of stereotactic radiotherapy treatment volumes that impinge on the brain stem. This paper reports a retrospective study of 77 patients with malignant and benign intracranial lesions, treated between 1987 and 1995, with the dynamic rotation technique in 6 fractions over a period of 2 weeks, to a total dose of 42 Gy prescribed at the 90% isodose surface. From differential dose-volume histograms, we evaluated biologically effective dose-volume histograms and obtained an integral biologically-effective dose (IBED) in each case. Results: Of the 77 patients in the study, 36 had target volumes positioned so that the brain stem received more than 1% of the prescribed dose, and 4 of these, all treated for meningioma, developed serious late damage involving the brain stem. Other than type of lesion, the only significant variable was the volume of brain stem exposed. An analysis of the IBEDs received by these 36 patients shows evidence of a threshold value for late damage to the brain stem consistent with similar thresholds that have been determined for external beam radiotherapy. Conclusions: We have introduced a new parameter, the IBED, that may be used to represent the fractional effective dose to structures such as the brain stem that are partially irradiated with stereotactic dose distributions. The IBED is easily calculated prior to treatment and may be used to determine appropriate treatment volumes and fractionation regimens minimizing possible toxicity to normal tissue

  2. Managing brain metastases patients with and without radiotherapy: initial lessonsfrom a team-based consult service through a multidisciplinary integrated palliative oncology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hellen; Sinnarajah, Aynharan; Enns, Bert; Voroney, Jon-Paul; Murray, Alison; Pelletier, Guy; Wu, Jackson Sai-Yiu

    2013-12-01

    A new ambulatory consultative clinic with integrated assessments by palliative care, radiation oncology, and allied health professionals was introduced to (1) assess patients with brain metastases at a regional comprehensive cancer center and (2) inform and guide patients on management strategies, including palliative radiotherapy, symptom control, and end-of-life care issues. We conducted a quality assurance study to inform clinical program development. Between January 2011 and May 2012, 100 consecutive brain metastases patients referred and assessed through a multidisciplinary clinic were evaluated for baseline characteristics, radiotherapy use, and supportive care decisions. Overall survival was examined by known prognostic groups. Proportion of patients receiving end-of-life radiotherapy (death within 30 and 14 days of brain radiotherapy) was used as a quality metric. The median age was 65 years, with non-small cell lung cancer (n = 38) and breast cancer (n = 23) being the most common primary cancers. At least 57 patients were engaged in advance care planning discussions at first consult visit. In total, 75 patients eventually underwent brain radiotherapy, whereas 25 did not. The most common reasons for nonradiotherapy management were patient preference and rapid clinical deterioration. Overall survival for prognostic subgroups was consistent with literature reports. End-of-life brain radiotherapy was observed in 9 % (death within 30 days) and 1 % (within 14 days) of treated patients. By integrating palliative care expertise to address the complex needs of patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases, end-of-life radiotherapy use appears acceptable and improved over historical rates at our institution. An appreciable proportion of patients are not suitable for palliative brain radiotherapy or opt against this treatment option, but the team approach involving nurses, palliative care experts, allied health, and clinical oncologists facilitates

  3. Cancer survival classification using integrated data sets and intermediate information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shinuk; Park, Taesung; Kon, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Although numerous studies related to cancer survival have been published, increasing the prediction accuracy of survival classes still remains a challenge. Integration of different data sets, such as microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA, might increase the accuracy of survival class prediction. Therefore, we suggested a machine learning (ML) approach to integrate different data sets, and developed a novel method based on feature selection with Cox proportional hazard regression model (FSCOX) to improve the prediction of cancer survival time. FSCOX provides us with intermediate survival information, which is usually discarded when separating survival into 2 groups (short- and long-term), and allows us to perform survival analysis. We used an ML-based protocol for feature selection, integrating information from miRNA and mRNA expression profiles at the feature level. To predict survival phenotypes, we used the following classifiers, first, existing ML methods, support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF), second, a new median-based classifier using FSCOX (FSCOX_median), and third, an SVM classifier using FSCOX (FSCOX_SVM). We compared these methods using 3 types of cancer tissue data sets: (i) miRNA expression, (ii) mRNA expression, and (iii) combined miRNA and mRNA expression. The latter data set included features selected either from the combined miRNA/mRNA profile or independently from miRNAs and mRNAs profiles (IFS). In the ovarian data set, the accuracy of survival classification using the combined miRNA/mRNA profiles with IFS was 75% using RF, 86.36% using SVM, 84.09% using FSCOX_median, and 88.64% using FSCOX_SVM with a balanced 22 short-term and 22 long-term survivor data set. These accuracies are higher than those using miRNA alone (70.45%, RF; 75%, SVM; 75%, FSCOX_median; and 75%, FSCOX_SVM) or mRNA alone (65.91%, RF; 63.64%, SVM; 72.73%, FSCOX_median; and 70.45%, FSCOX_SVM). Similarly in the glioblastoma multiforme data, the accuracy of miRNA/mRNA using IFS

  4. Telematics and smart cards in integrated health information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicurello, F; Nicolosi, A

    1997-01-01

    Telematics and information technology are the base on which it will be possible to build an integrated health information system to support population and improve their quality of life. This system should be based on record linkage of all data based on the interactions of the patients with the health structures, such as general practitioners, specialists, health institutes and hospitals, pharmacies, etc. The record linkage can provide the connection and integration of various records, thanks to the use of telematic technology (either urban or geographical local networks, such as the Internet) and electronic data cards. Particular emphasis should be placed on the introduction of smart cards, such as portable health cards, which will contain a standardized data set and will be sufficient to access different databases found in various health services. The inter-operability of the social-health records (including multimedia types) and the smart cards (which are one of the most important prerequisites for the homogenization and wide diffusion of these cards at an European level) should be strongly taken into consideration. In this framework a project is going to be developed aiming towards the integration of various data bases distributed territorially, from the reading of the software and the updating of the smart cards to the complete management of the patients' evaluation records, to the quality of the services offered and to the health planning. The applications developed will support epidemiological investigation software and data analysis. The inter-connection of all the databases of the various structures involved will take place through a coordination center, the most important system of which we will call "record linkage" or "integrated database". Smart cards will be distributed to a sample group of possible users and the necessary smart card management tools will be installed in all the structures involved. All the final users (the patients) in the whole

  5. Towards integrating control and information theories from information-theoretic measures to control performance limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Song; Ishii, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    This book investigates the performance limitation issues in networked feedback systems. The fact that networked feedback systems consist of control and communication devices and systems calls for the integration of control theory and information theory. The primary contributions of this book lie in two aspects: the newly-proposed information-theoretic measures and the newly-discovered control performance limitations. We first propose a number of information notions to facilitate the analysis. Using those notions, classes of performance limitations of networked feedback systems, as well as state estimation systems, are then investigated. In general, the book presents a unique, cohesive treatment of performance limitation issues of networked feedback systems via an information-theoretic approach. This book is believed to be the first to treat the aforementioned subjects systematically and in a unified manner, offering a unique perspective differing from existing books.

  6. Neural precursor cells in the ischemic brain - integration, cellular crosstalk and consequences for stroke recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk M. Hermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available After an ischemic stroke, neural precursor cells (NPCs proliferate within major germinal niches of the brain. Endogenous NPCs subsequently migrate towards the ischemic lesion where they promote tissue remodelling and neural repair. Unfortunately, this restorative process is generally insufficient and thus unable to support a full recovery of lost neurological functions. Supported by solid experimental and preclinical data, the transplantation of exogenous NPCs has emerged as a potential tool for stroke treatment. Transplanted NPCs are thought to act mainly via trophic and immune modulatory effects, thereby complementing the restorative responses initially executed by the endogenous NPC population. Recent studies have attempted to elucidate how the therapeutic properties of transplanted NPCs vary depending on the route of transplantation. Systemic NPC delivery leads to potent immune modulatory actions, which prevent secondary neuronal degeneration, reduces glial scar formation, diminishes oxidative stress and stabilizes blood-brain barrier integrity. On the contrary, local stem cell delivery, allows for the accumulation of large numbers of transplanted NPCs in the brain, thus achieving high levels of locally available tissue trophic factors, which may better induce a strong endogenous NPC proliferative response.Herein we describe the diverse capabilities of exogenous (systemically vs locally transplanted NPCs in enhancing the endogenous neurogenic response after stroke, and how the route of transplantation may affect migration, survival, bystander effects and integration of the cellular graft. It is the authors’ claim that understanding these aspects will be of pivotal importance in discerning how transplanted NPCs exert their therapeutic effects in stroke.

  7. Integrating multimodal information for intraoperative assistance in neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenmann U.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer-assisted planning of complex neurosurgical interventions benefits from a variety of specific functions and tools. However, commercial planning- and neuronavigation systems are rather restrictive concerning the availability of innovative methods such as novel imaging modalities, fiber tracking algorithms or electrical dipole mapping. In this respect there is a demand for modular neurosurgical planning systems offering flexible interfaces for easy enhancement. Furthermore all relevant planning information should be available within neuron-avigation. In this work we present a planning system providing these capabilities and its suitability and application in a clinical setting. Our Multimodal Planning System (MOPS 3D offers a variety of tools such as definition of trajectories for minimally invasive surgery, segmentation of ROIs, integration of functional information from atlas maps or magnetoencephalography. It also supplies plugin interfaces for future extensions. For intraoperative application MOPS is coupled with the neuronavigation system Brainlab Vector Vision Cranial/ENT (VVC. We evaluated MOPS in the Department of Neurosurgery at the University Hospital Heidelberg. Surgical planning and navigation was performed in 5 frequently occurring clinical cases. The time necessary for planning was between 5 and 15 minutes including data import, segmentation and planning tasks. The additional information intraoperatively provided by MOPS 3D was highly appreciated by the neurosurgeons and the performance was satisfactory.

  8. Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aas, Christopher A.; Lenhart, James E.; Bray, Olin H.; Witcher, Christina Jenkin

    2004-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with developing the Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS) with the sponsorship of NA-125.3 and the concurrence of DOE/NNSA field and area offices. The purpose of IIIMS was to modernize nuclear materials management information systems at the enterprise level. Projects over the course of several years attempted to spearhead this modernization. The scope of IIIMS was broken into broad enterprise-oriented materials management and materials forecasting. The IIIMS prototype was developed to allow multiple participating user groups to explore nuclear material requirements and needs in detail. The purpose of material forecasting was to determine nuclear material availability over a 10 to 15 year period in light of the dynamic nature of nuclear materials management. Formal DOE Directives (requirements) were needed to direct IIIMS efforts but were never issued and the project has been halted. When restarted, duplicating or re-engineering the activities from 1999 to 2003 is unnecessary, and in fact future initiatives can build on previous work. IIIMS requirements should be structured to provide high confidence that discrepancies are detected, and classified information is not divulged. Enterprise-wide materials management systems maintained by the military can be used as overall models to base IIIMS implementation concepts upon.

  9. A New Multi-Sensor Track Fusion Architecture for Multi-Sensor Information Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jean, Buddy H; Younker, John; Hung, Chih-Cheng

    2004-01-01

    .... This new technology will integrate multi-sensor information and extract integrated multi-sensor information to detect, track and identify multiple targets at any time, in any place under all weather conditions...

  10. Investigating dynamical information transfer in the brain following a TMS pulse: Insights from structural architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Enrico; Van Mierlo, Pieter; Marinazzo, Daniele; Laureys, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used for more than 20 years to investigate connectivity and plasticity in the human cortex. By combining TMS with high-density electroencephalography (hd-EEG), one can stimulate any cortical area and measure the effects produced by this perturbation in the rest of the cerebral cortex. The purpose of this paper is to investigate changes of information flow in the brain after TMS from a functional and structural perspective, using multimodal modeling of source reconstructed TMS/hd-EEG recordings and DTI tractography. We prove how brain dynamics induced by TMS is constrained and driven by its structure, at different spatial and temporal scales, especially when considering cross-frequency interactions. These results shed light on the function-structure organization of the brain network at the global level, and on the huge variety of information contained in it.

  11. [Development method of healthcare information system integration based on business collaboration model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shasha; Nie, Hongchao; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong

    2015-02-01

    Integration of heterogeneous systems is the key to hospital information construction due to complexity of the healthcare environment. Currently, during the process of healthcare information system integration, people participating in integration project usually communicate by free-format document, which impairs the efficiency and adaptability of integration. A method utilizing business process model and notation (BPMN) to model integration requirement and automatically transforming it to executable integration configuration was proposed in this paper. Based on the method, a tool was developed to model integration requirement and transform it to integration configuration. In addition, an integration case in radiology scenario was used to verify the method.

  12. Decomposing Gratitude: Representation and Integration of Cognitive Antecedents of Gratitude in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbo; Gao, Xiaoxue; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2018-05-23

    Gratitude is a typical social-moral emotion that plays a crucial role in maintaining human cooperative interpersonal relationship. Although neural correlates of gratitude have been investigated, the neurocognitive processes that lead to gratitude, namely, the representation and integration of its cognitive antecedents, remain largely unknown. Here, we combined fMRI and a human social interactive task to investigate how benefactor's cost and beneficiary's benefit, two critical antecedents of gratitude, are encoded and integrated in beneficiary's brain, and how the neural processing of gratitude is converted to reciprocity. A coplayer decided whether to help a human participant (either male or female) avoid pain at his/her own monetary cost; the participants could transfer monetary points to the benefactor with the knowledge that the benefactor was unaware of this transfer. By independently manipulating monetary cost and the degree of pain reduction, we could identify the neural signatures of benefactor's cost and recipient's benefit and examine how they were integrated. Recipient's self-benefit was encoded in reward-sensitive regions (e.g., ventral striatum), whereas benefactor-cost was encoded in regions associated with mentalizing (e.g., temporoparietal junction). Gratitude was represented in perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), the strength of which correlated with trait gratitude. Dynamic causal modeling showed that the neural signals representing benefactor-cost and self-benefit passed to pgACC via effective connectivities, suggesting an integrative role of pgACC in generating gratitude. Moreover, gyral ACC plays an intermediary role in converting gratitude representation into reciprocal behaviors. Our findings provide a neural mechanistic account of gratitude and its role in social-moral life. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Gratitude plays an integral role in subjective well-being and harmonious interpersonal relationships. However, the neurocognitive

  13. AN INTERACTIVE LOGISTICS CENTRE INFORMATION INTEGRATION SYSTEM USING VIRTUAL REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The logistics industry plays a very important role in the operation of modern cities. Meanwhile, the development of logistics industry has derived various problems that are urgent to be solved, such as the safety of logistics products. This paper combines the study of logistics industry traceability and logistics centre environment safety supervision with virtual reality technology, creates an interactive logistics centre information integration system. The proposed system utilizes the immerse characteristic of virtual reality, to simulate the real logistics centre scene distinctly, which can make operation staff conduct safety supervision training at any time without regional restrictions. On the one hand, a large number of sensor data can be used to simulate a variety of disaster emergency situations. On the other hand, collecting personnel operation data, to analyse the improper operation, which can improve the training efficiency greatly.

  14. An Interactive Logistics Centre Information Integration System Using Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S.; Mao, B.

    2018-04-01

    The logistics industry plays a very important role in the operation of modern cities. Meanwhile, the development of logistics industry has derived various problems that are urgent to be solved, such as the safety of logistics products. This paper combines the study of logistics industry traceability and logistics centre environment safety supervision with virtual reality technology, creates an interactive logistics centre information integration system. The proposed system utilizes the immerse characteristic of virtual reality, to simulate the real logistics centre scene distinctly, which can make operation staff conduct safety supervision training at any time without regional restrictions. On the one hand, a large number of sensor data can be used to simulate a variety of disaster emergency situations. On the other hand, collecting personnel operation data, to analyse the improper operation, which can improve the training efficiency greatly.

  15. Integrated System Technologies for Modular Trapped Ion Quantum Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen G.

    Although trapped ion technology is well-suited for quantum information science, scalability of the system remains one of the main challenges. One of the challenges associated with scaling the ion trap quantum computer is the ability to individually manipulate the increasing number of qubits. Using micro-mirrors fabricated with micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, laser beams are focused on individual ions in a linear chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. Multiple single qubit gates are demonstrated on trapped 171Yb+ qubits and the gate performance is characterized using quantum state tomography. The system features negligible crosstalk to neighboring ions (technologies demonstrated in this thesis can be integrated to form a single quantum register with all of the necessary resources to perform local gates as well as high fidelity readout and provide a photon link to other systems.

  16. Integrated multimedia information system on interactive CATV network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Huang; Chang, Shin-Hung

    1998-10-01

    In the current CATV system architectures, they provide one- way delivery of a common menu of entertainment to all the homes through the cable network. Through the technologies evolution, the interactive services (or two-way services) can be provided in the cable TV systems. They can supply customers with individualized programming and support real- time two-way communications. With a view to the service type changed from the one-way delivery systems to the two-way interactive systems, `on demand services' is a distinct feature of multimedia systems. In this paper, we present our work of building up an integrated multimedia system on interactive CATV network in Shih Chien University. Besides providing the traditional analog TV programming from the cable operator, we filter some channels to reserve them as our campus information channels. In addition to the analog broadcasting channel, the system also provides the interactive digital multimedia services, e.g. Video-On- Demand (VOD), Virtual Reality, BBS, World-Wide-Web, and Internet Radio Station. These two kinds of services are integrated in a CATV network by the separation of frequency allocation for the analog broadcasting service and the digital interactive services. Our ongoing work is to port our previous work of building up a VOD system conformed to DAVIC standard (for inter-operability concern) on Ethernet network into the current system.

  17. MIMI: multimodality, multiresource, information integration environment for biomedical core facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Jacek; Wilson, David L; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2009-10-01

    The rapid expansion of biomedical research has brought substantial scientific and administrative data management challenges to modern core facilities. Scientifically, a core facility must be able to manage experimental workflow and the corresponding set of large and complex scientific data. It must also disseminate experimental data to relevant researchers in a secure and expedient manner that facilitates collaboration and provides support for data interpretation and analysis. Administratively, a core facility must be able to manage the scheduling of its equipment and to maintain a flexible and effective billing system to track material, resource, and personnel costs and charge for services to sustain its operation. It must also have the ability to regularly monitor the usage and performance of its equipment and to provide summary statistics on resources spent on different categories of research. To address these informatics challenges, we introduce a comprehensive system called MIMI (multimodality, multiresource, information integration environment) that integrates the administrative and scientific support of a core facility into a single web-based environment. We report the design, development, and deployment experience of a baseline MIMI system at an imaging core facility and discuss the general applicability of such a system in other types of core facilities. These initial results suggest that MIMI will be a unique, cost-effective approach to addressing the informatics infrastructure needs of core facilities and similar research laboratories.

  18. Modular multiple sensors information management for computer-integrated surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarella, Alberto; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Momi, Elena De

    2012-09-01

    In the past 20 years, technological advancements have modified the concept of modern operating rooms (ORs) with the introduction of computer-integrated surgery (CIS) systems, which promise to enhance the outcomes, safety and standardization of surgical procedures. With CIS, different types of sensor (mainly position-sensing devices, force sensors and intra-operative imaging devices) are widely used. Recently, the need for a combined use of different sensors raised issues related to synchronization and spatial consistency of data from different sources of information. In this study, we propose a centralized, multi-sensor management software architecture for a distributed CIS system, which addresses sensor information consistency in both space and time. The software was developed as a data server module in a client-server architecture, using two open-source software libraries: Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK) and OpenCV. The ROBOCAST project (FP7 ICT 215190), which aims at integrating robotic and navigation devices and technologies in order to improve the outcome of the surgical intervention, was used as the benchmark. An experimental protocol was designed in order to prove the feasibility of a centralized module for data acquisition and to test the application latency when dealing with optical and electromagnetic tracking systems and ultrasound (US) imaging devices. Our results show that a centralized approach is suitable for minimizing synchronization errors; latency in the client-server communication was estimated to be 2 ms (median value) for tracking systems and 40 ms (median value) for US images. The proposed centralized approach proved to be adequate for neurosurgery requirements. Latency introduced by the proposed architecture does not affect tracking system performance in terms of frame rate and limits US images frame rate at 25 fps, which is acceptable for providing visual feedback to the surgeon in the OR. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Annotating novel genes by integrating synthetic lethals and genomic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faty Mahamadou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large scale screening for synthetic lethality serves as a common tool in yeast genetics to systematically search for genes that play a role in specific biological processes. Often the amounts of data resulting from a single large scale screen far exceed the capacities of experimental characterization of every identified target. Thus, there is need for computational tools that select promising candidate genes in order to reduce the number of follow-up experiments to a manageable size. Results We analyze synthetic lethality data for arp1 and jnm1, two spindle migration genes, in order to identify novel members in this process. To this end, we use an unsupervised statistical method that integrates additional information from biological data sources, such as gene expression, phenotypic profiling, RNA degradation and sequence similarity. Different from existing methods that require large amounts of synthetic lethal data, our method merely relies on synthetic lethality information from two single screens. Using a Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Model, we determine the best subset of features that assign the target genes to two groups. The approach identifies a small group of genes as candidates involved in spindle migration. Experimental testing confirms the majority of our candidates and we present she1 (YBL031W as a novel gene involved in spindle migration. We applied the statistical methodology also to TOR2 signaling as another example. Conclusion We demonstrate the general use of Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Modeling for selecting candidate genes for experimental characterization from synthetic lethality data sets. For the given example, integration of different data sources contributes to the identification of genetic interaction partners of arp1 and jnm1 that play a role in the same biological process.

  20. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  1. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-07-14

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today's technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  2. Distributed XQuery-based integration and visualization of multimodality brain mapping data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landon T Detwiler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the need for relatively small groups of collaborating investigators to integrate distributed and heterogeneous data about the brain. Although various national efforts facilitate large-scale data sharing, these approaches are generally too “heavyweight” for individual or small groups of investigators, with the result that most data sharing among collaborators continues to be ad hoc. Our approach to this problem is to create a “lightweight” distributed query architecture, in which data sources are accessible via web services that accept arbitrary query languages but return XML results. A Distributed XQuery Processor (DXQP accepts distributed XQueries in which subqueries are shipped to the remote data sources to be executed, with the resulting XML integrated by DXQP. A web-based application called DXBrain accesses DXQP, allowing a user to create, save and execute distributed XQueries, and to view the results in various formats including a 3-D brain visualization. Example results are presented using distributed brain mapping data sources obtained in studies of language organization in the brain, but any other XML source could be included. The advantage of this approach is that it is very easy to add and query a new source, the tradeoff being that the user needs to understand XQuery and the schemata of the underlying sources. For small numbers of known sources this burden is not onerous for a knowledgeable user, leading to the conclusion that the system helps to fill the gap between ad hoc local methods and large scale but complex national data sharing efforts.

  3. 48 CFR 9.104-6 - Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Performance and Integrity Information System. 9.104-6 Section 9.104-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Contractors 9.104-6 Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System. (a) Before awarding a... Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS), (available at www.ppirs.gov, then...

  4. A comment on Farwell : brain fingerprinting: a comprehensive tutorial review of detection of concealed information with event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.H.; Ben-Shakhar, G.; Verschuere, B.; Donchin, E.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent issue of Cognitive Neurodynamics Farwell (Cogn Neurodyn 6:115-154, 2012) published a comprehensive tutorial review of the use of Event Related Brain Potentials (ERP) in the detection of concealed information. Farwell’s review covered much of his own work employing his ‘‘brain

  5. The integration of audio−tactile information is modulated by multimodal social interaction with physical contact in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Tanaka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between caregivers and infants is multimodal in nature. To react interactively and smoothly to such multimodal signals, infants must integrate all these signals. However, few empirical infant studies have investigated how multimodal social interaction with physical contact facilitates multimodal integration, especially regarding audio − tactile (A-T information. By using electroencephalogram (EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs, the present study investigated how neural processing involved in A-T integration is modulated by tactile interaction. Seven- to 8-months-old infants heard one pseudoword both whilst being tickled (multimodal ‘A-T’ condition, and not being tickled (unimodal ‘A’ condition. Thereafter, their EEG was measured during the perception of the same words. Compared to the A condition, the A-T condition resulted in enhanced ERPs and higher beta-band activity within the left temporal regions, indicating neural processing of A-T integration. Additionally, theta-band activity within the middle frontal region was enhanced, which may reflect enhanced attention to social information. Furthermore, differential ERPs correlated with the degree of engagement in the tickling interaction. We provide neural evidence that the integration of A-T information in infants’ brains is facilitated through tactile interaction with others. Such plastic changes in neural processing may promote harmonious social interaction and effective learning in infancy. Keywords: Electroencephalogram (EEG, Infants, Multisensory integration, Touch interaction

  6. Mechanisms for integration of information models across related domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Rob

    2010-05-01

    It is well recognised that there are opportunities and challenges in cross-disciplinary data integration. A significant barrier, however, is creating a conceptual model of the combined domains and the area of integration. For example, a groundwater domain application may require information from several related domains: geology, hydrology, water policy, etc. Each domain may have its own data holdings and conceptual models, but these will share various common concepts (eg. The concept of an aquifer). These areas of semantic overlap present significant challenges, firstly to choose a single representation (model) of a concept that appears in multiple disparate models,, then to harmonise these other models with the single representation. In addition, models may exist at different levels of abstraction depending on how closely aligned they are with a particular implementation. This makes it hard for modellers in one domain to introduce elements from another domain without either introducing a specific style of implementation, or conversely dealing with a set of abstract patterns that are hard to integrate with existing implementations. Models are easier to integrate if they are broken down into small units, with common concepts implemented using common models from well-known, and predictably managed shared libraries. This vision however requires development of a set of mechanisms (tools and procedures) for implementing and exploiting libraries of model components. These mechanisms need to handle publication, discovery, subscription, versioning and implementation of models in different forms. In this presentation a coherent suite of such mechanisms is proposed, using a scenario based on re-use of geosciences models. This approach forms the basis of a comprehensive strategy to empower domain modellers to create more interoperable systems. The strategy address a range of concerns and practice, and includes methodologies, an accessible toolkit, improvements to available

  7. From false integration of viewers on informative TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felisbela Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available New media fast-paced technologies are constantly feeding the contemporary (telespectator with the promise of "empowerment". In the last decades, an "empowered user" notion is being built around the mythical narrative of 'omnipotence', that becomes the verb and the active complement to the modern promise of 'omnividence": the one who sees everything, can do everything. However, what we actually find when we scan the news and information broadcasts of portuguese TV, is that we don't find many traces of this supposedly "empowered" spectator. Broadcasts scarcely consider a structural participation of their public,or they only include spectators in euphemistical terms, letting them in just for the sake of having them in, thus treating the public not as citizens but as audiences and revealing a false "empowerment". In this article we analyze the integration of TV spectators on a total of 1673 news and information broadcasts in 6 Portuguese channels (RTP1, SIC, TVI, SICN, RTPN, TVI 24. This work is part of a research project called "Television journalism and citizenship".

  8. Brain network segregation and integration during an epoch-related working memory fMRI experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Peter; Schiffler, Björn C; Thompson, William Hedley

    2018-05-17

    The characterization of brain subnetwork segregation and integration has previously focused on changes that are detectable at the level of entire sessions or epochs of imaging data. In this study, we applied time-varying functional connectivity analysis together with temporal network theory to calculate point-by-point estimates in subnetwork segregation and integration during an epoch-based (2-back, 0-back, baseline) working memory fMRI experiment as well as during resting-state. This approach allowed us to follow task-related changes in subnetwork segregation and integration at a high temporal resolution. At a global level, the cognitively more taxing 2-back epochs elicited an overall stronger response of integration between subnetworks compared to the 0-back epochs. Moreover, the visual, sensorimotor and fronto-parietal subnetworks displayed characteristic and distinct temporal profiles of segregation and integration during the 0- and 2-back epochs. During the interspersed epochs of baseline, several subnetworks, including the visual, fronto-parietal, cingulo-opercular and dorsal attention subnetworks showed pronounced increases in segregation. Using a drift diffusion model we show that the response time for the 2-back trials are correlated with integration for the fronto-parietal subnetwork and correlated with segregation for the visual subnetwork. Our results elucidate the fast-evolving events with regard to subnetwork integration and segregation that occur in an epoch-related task fMRI experiment. Our findings suggest that minute changes in subnetwork integration are of importance for task performance. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Large-scale brain networks in affective and social neuroscience: Towards an integrative functional architecture of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Satpute, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how a human brain creates a human mind ultimately depends on mapping psychological categories and concepts to physical measurements of neural response. Although it has long been assumed that emotional, social, and cognitive phenomena are realized in the operations of separate brain regions or brain networks, we demonstrate that it is possible to understand the body of neuroimaging evidence using a framework that relies on domain general, distributed structure-function mappings. We review current research in affective and social neuroscience and argue that the emerging science of large-scale intrinsic brain networks provides a coherent framework for a domain-general functional architecture of the human brain. PMID:23352202

  10. Potentiated antibodies to mu-opiate receptors: effect on integrative activity of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiko, V V; Vorob'eva, T M; Berchenko, O G; Epstein, O I

    2003-01-01

    The effect of homeopathically potentiated antibodies to mu-receptors (10(-100) wt %) on integrative activity of rat brain was studied using the models of self-stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus and convulsions produced by electric current. Electric current was delivered through electrodes implanted into the ventromedial hypothalamus. Single treatment with potentiated antibodies to mu-receptors increased the rate of self-stimulation and decreased the threshold of convulsive seizures. Administration of these antibodies for 7 days led to further activation of the positive reinforcement system and decrease in seizure thresholds. Distilled water did not change the rate of self-stimulation and seizure threshold.

  11. Combining the boundary shift integral and tensor-based morphometry for brain atrophy estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalkiewicz, Mateusz; Pai, Akshay; Leung, Kelvin K.; Sommer, Stefan; Darkner, Sune; Sørensen, Lauge; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2016-03-01

    Brain atrophy from structural magnetic resonance images (MRIs) is widely used as an imaging surrogate marker for Alzheimers disease. Their utility has been limited due to the large degree of variance and subsequently high sample size estimates. The only consistent and reasonably powerful atrophy estimation methods has been the boundary shift integral (BSI). In this paper, we first propose a tensor-based morphometry (TBM) method to measure voxel-wise atrophy that we combine with BSI. The combined model decreases the sample size estimates significantly when compared to BSI and TBM alone.

  12. Integrated semiconductor optical sensors for chronic, minimally-invasive imaging of brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas T; Levi, Ofer; Cang, Jianhua; Kaneko, Megumi; Stryker, Michael P; Smith, Stephen J; Shenoy, Krishna V; Harris, James S

    2006-01-01

    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging is a widely accepted technique for imaging brain activity. We propose an integrated device consisting of interleaved arrays of gallium arsenide (GaAs) based semiconductor light sources and detectors operating at telecommunications wavelengths in the near-infrared. Such a device will allow for long-term, minimally invasive monitoring of neural activity in freely behaving subjects, and will enable the use of structured illumination patterns to improve system performance. In this work we describe the proposed system and show that near-infrared IOS imaging at wavelengths compatible with semiconductor devices can produce physiologically significant images in mice, even through skull.

  13. [Psychotherapy of patients with brain lesions: an integrative model based on neuropsychological and psychodynamic perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouss-Ryngaert, Lisa

    2010-12-01

    Our model of psychotherapy for patients with brain lesions is based on an integrative approach of psychobehavioral symptoms, especially from the neuropsychological and psychodynamic perspectives. Adjustment of technical modalities and aims of psychoanalytical therapy is required for these patients. The analysis of the influence of cognitive disorders on transference and contre-transference plays a major role, including the role of procedural processes in changes in the intersubjective relationship between the patient and the therapist. Two vignettes are presented to illustrate our model, which respects the integrity of the cognitive and psychodynamic approaches and can be implemented by only one therapist, using alternatively each lecture, or by a working team bringing to light the different aspects of the same symptom.

  14. Measuring brain atrophy with a generalized formulation of the boundary shift integral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Ferran; Cardoso, Manuel Jorge; Leung, Kelvin K; Cash, David M; Modat, Marc; Fox, Nick C; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Brain atrophy measured using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used as an imaging biomarker for disease diagnosis and tracking of pathologic progression in neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we present a generalized and extended formulation of the boundary shift integral (gBSI) using probabilistic segmentations to estimate anatomic changes between 2 time points. This method adaptively estimates a non-binary exclusive OR region of interest from probabilistic brain segmentations of the baseline and repeat scans to better localize and capture the brain atrophy. We evaluate the proposed method by comparing the sample size requirements for a hypothetical clinical trial of Alzheimer's disease to that needed for the current implementation of BSI as well as a fuzzy implementation of BSI. The gBSI method results in a modest but reduced sample size, providing increased sensitivity to disease changes through the use of the probabilistic exclusive OR region. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Weather information integration in transportation management center (TMC) operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-02

    This report presents the results of the third phase of an on-going FHWA study on weather integration in Transportation Management Center (TMC) operations. The report briefly describes the earlier phases of the integration study, summarizes the findin...

  16. Information needs and requirements in patients with brain tumours and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Christiane; Rathberger, Katharina; Klinkhammer-Schalke, Monika; Kölbl, Oliver; Proescholdt, Martin; Riemenschneider, Markus J; Schuierer, Gerhard; Hutterer, Markus; Gerken, Michael; Hau, Peter

    2018-06-01

    Patients with brain tumours face a number of medical and social challenges. Previous studies have shown that these patients and their relatives need a high level of patient-oriented information and counselling. However, these needs are often underestimated. In this single-centre cross-sectional study, we evaluated, for the first time, the information needs of patients with brain tumours and their relatives depending on diagnosis, age and level of education. The participants were interviewed using pre-specified questionnaires. Answers were evaluated descriptively using standard statistical methods. A total of 888 questionnaires were sent out. The return rate was 50.7%. The majority of patients (nP = 103; 59.9%) and a higher proportion of relatives (nR = 103; 72.5%; p = 0.019) wished to receive a maximum of information. The majority (79.7% of patients; 83.1% of relatives) also stated that they preferred a personal, face-to-face meeting as primary source of information. The need for information increased with education (p = 0.015), and decreased with tumour grade (p = 0.025) and age (p = 0.118). Our data indicate that patients with brain tumours and their relatives have high information needs throughout their disease and continuously require information and counselling. Optimal provision of information is based on personal preferences, which needs to be evaluated appropriately. Patient-oriented information and counselling are parts of a successful communication strategy that can improve cancer care significantly.

  17. Improving the Reliability of Network Metrics in Structural Brain Networks by Integrating Different Network Weighting Strategies into a Single Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros I. Dimitriadis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain networks estimated from diffusion MRI (dMRI via tractography have been widely studied in healthy controls and patients with neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, few studies have addressed the reliability of derived network metrics both node-specific and network-wide. Different network weighting strategies (NWS can be adopted to weight the strength of connection between two nodes yielding structural brain networks that are almost fully-weighted. Here, we scanned five healthy participants five times each, using a diffusion-weighted MRI protocol and computed edges between 90 regions of interest (ROI from the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL template. The edges were weighted according to nine different methods. We propose a linear combination of these nine NWS into a single graph using an appropriate diffusion distance metric. We refer to the resulting weighted graph as an Integrated Weighted Structural Brain Network (ISWBN. Additionally, we consider a topological filtering scheme that maximizes the information flow in the brain network under the constraint of the overall cost of the surviving connections. We compared each of the nine NWS and the ISWBN based on the improvement of: (a intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC of well-known network metrics, both node-wise and per network level; and (b the recognition accuracy of each subject compared to the remainder of the cohort, as an attempt to access the uniqueness of the structural brain network for each subject, after first applying our proposed topological filtering scheme. Based on a threshold where the network level ICC should be >0.90, our findings revealed that six out of nine NWS lead to unreliable results at the network level, while all nine NWS were unreliable at the node level. In comparison, our proposed ISWBN performed as well as the best performing individual NWS at the network level, and the ICC was higher compared to all individual NWS at the node

  18. Research on monitoring and management information integration technique in waste treatment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Yu Ren; Mao Wei

    2013-01-01

    The integration of the waste treatment process and the device status monitoring information and management information is a key problem required to be solved in the information integration of the waste treatment and management. The main content of the monitoring and management information integration is discussed in the paper. The data exchange techniques, which are based on the OPC, FTP and data push technology, are applied to the different monitoring system respectively, according to their development platform, to realize the integration of the waste treatment process and device status monitoring information and management information in a waste treatment center. (authors)

  19. Integrated System Validation Usability Questionnaire: Information Display Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcés, Ma. I.; Torralba, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Research and Development (R&D) project on “Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Integrated System Validation of Control Rooms, 2014-2015”, in which the research activities described in this report are framed, has two main objectives: to develop the items for an usability methodology conceived as a part of the measurement framework for performance-based control room evaluation that the OECD Halden Reactor Project will test in the experiments planned for 2015; and the statistical analysis of the data generated in the experimental activities of the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB) facility, with previous usability questionnaires, in 2010 and 2011. In this report, the procedure designed to meet the first goal of the project is described, in particular, the process followed to identify the items related to information displays, one of the elements to be included in the usability questionnaire. Three phases are performed, in the first one, the approaches developed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC, are reviewed and the models proposed by the nuclear energy industry and their technical support organizations, mainly, the United States Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI, are analyzed. In the remaining stages, general and specific guidelines for information displays, in particular, display pages, formats, elements and data quality and update rate recommendations are compared and criteria for the preliminary selection of the items that should be incorporated into the usability questionnaire are defined. This proposal will be reviewed and adapted by the Halden Reactor Project to the design of the specific experiments performed in HAMMLAB.

  20. ROLE OF INTEGRATIVE ENTERPRENEURIAL CULTURE IN THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Malysheva, E.V.

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with concepts such as universal entrepreneurial culture and integrative entrepreneurial culture. In article studied main characteristics of universal entrepreneurial culture and integrative entrepreneurial culture. In article explores the concept of «knowledge management» and « diversity management». In the article presents real examples of the integrative entrepreneurial culture in companies.

  1. Brain Stroke Detection by Microwaves Using Prior Information from Clinical Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Irishina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave tomographic imaging is an inexpensive, noninvasive modality of media dielectric properties reconstruction which can be utilized as a screening method in clinical applications such as breast cancer and brain stroke detection. For breast cancer detection, the iterative algorithm of structural inversion with level sets provides well-defined boundaries and incorporates an intrinsic regularization, which permits to discover small lesions. However, in case of brain lesion, the inverse problem is much more difficult due to the skull, which causes low microwave penetration and highly noisy data. In addition, cerebral liquid has dielectric properties similar to those of blood, which makes the inversion more complicated. Nevertheless, the contrast in the conductivity and permittivity values in this situation is significant due to blood high dielectric values compared to those of surrounding grey and white matter tissues. We show that using brain MRI images as prior information about brain's configuration, along with known brain dielectric properties, and the intrinsic regularization by structural inversion, allows successful and rapid stroke detection even in difficult cases. The method has been applied to 2D slices created from a database of 3D real MRI phantom images to effectively detect lesions larger than 2.5 × 10−2 m diameter.

  2. Pigment-Dispersing Factor-expressing neurons convey circadian information in the honey bee brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Katharina; Kolbe, Esther; Kahana, Noa B.; Yayon, Nadav; Weiss, Ron; Menegazzi, Pamela; Bloch, Guy

    2018-01-01

    Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) is an important neuropeptide in the brain circadian network of Drosophila and other insects, but its role in bees in which the circadian clock influences complex behaviour is not well understood. We combined high-resolution neuroanatomical characterizations, quantification of PDF levels over the day and brain injections of synthetic PDF peptide to study the role of PDF in the honey bee Apis mellifera. We show that PDF co-localizes with the clock protein Period (PER) in a cluster of laterally located neurons and that the widespread arborizations of these PER/PDF neurons are in close vicinity to other PER-positive cells (neurons and glia). PDF-immunostaining intensity oscillates in a diurnal and circadian manner with possible influences for age or worker task on synchrony of oscillations in different brain areas. Finally, PDF injection into the area between optic lobes and the central brain at the end of the subjective day produced a consistent trend of phase-delayed circadian rhythms in locomotor activity. Altogether, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that PDF is a neuromodulator that conveys circadian information from pacemaker cells to brain centres involved in diverse functions including locomotion, time memory and sun-compass orientation. PMID:29321240

  3. A pilot study of three dimensional color CT images of brain diseases to improve informed consent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanizaki, Yoshio; Akiyama, Takenori; Hiraga, Kenji; Akaji, Kazunori

    2005-01-01

    We have described brain diseases to patients and their family using monochrome CT images. It is thought that patients have difficulties in giving their consent to our conventional explanation because their understanding of brain diseases is based on three dimensional and color images, however, standard CT images are two dimensional and gray scale images. We have been trying to use three dimensional color CT images to improve the typical patient's comprehension of brain diseases. We also try to simulate surgery using these images. Multi-slice CT accumulates precise isotropic voxel data within a half minute. These two dimensional and monochrome data are converted to three dimensional color CT images by 3D workstation. Three dimensional color CT images of each brain structures (e.g. scalp, skull, brain, ventricles and lesions) are created separately. Then, selected structures are fused together for different purposes. These images are able to rotate around any axis. Because the methods to generate three-dimensional color images have not established, we neurosurgeons must create these images. In particular, when an operation is required, the surgeon should create the images. In this paper, we demonstrate how three-dimensional color CT images can improve informed consent. (author)

  4. The integration of audio-tactile information is modulated by multimodal social interaction with physical contact in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yukari; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Myowa, Masako

    2018-04-01

    Interaction between caregivers and infants is multimodal in nature. To react interactively and smoothly to such multimodal signals, infants must integrate all these signals. However, few empirical infant studies have investigated how multimodal social interaction with physical contact facilitates multimodal integration, especially regarding audio - tactile (A-T) information. By using electroencephalogram (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study investigated how neural processing involved in A-T integration is modulated by tactile interaction. Seven- to 8-months-old infants heard one pseudoword both whilst being tickled (multimodal 'A-T' condition), and not being tickled (unimodal 'A' condition). Thereafter, their EEG was measured during the perception of the same words. Compared to the A condition, the A-T condition resulted in enhanced ERPs and higher beta-band activity within the left temporal regions, indicating neural processing of A-T integration. Additionally, theta-band activity within the middle frontal region was enhanced, which may reflect enhanced attention to social information. Furthermore, differential ERPs correlated with the degree of engagement in the tickling interaction. We provide neural evidence that the integration of A-T information in infants' brains is facilitated through tactile interaction with others. Such plastic changes in neural processing may promote harmonious social interaction and effective learning in infancy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrating robotic action with biologic perception: A brain-machine symbiosis theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Babak

    In patients with motor disability the natural cyclic flow of information between the brain and external environment is disrupted by their limb impairment. Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) aim to provide new communication channels between the brain and environment by direct translation of brain's internal states into actions. For enabling the user in a wide range of daily life activities, the challenge is designing neural decoders that autonomously adapt to different tasks, environments, and to changes in the pattern of neural activity. In this dissertation, a novel decoding framework for BMIs is developed in which a computational agent autonomously learns how to translate neural states into action based on maximization of a measure of shared goal between user and the agent. Since the agent and brain share the same goal, a symbiotic relationship between them will evolve therefore this decoding paradigm is called a Brain-Machine Symbiosis (BMS) framework. A decoding agent was implemented within the BMS framework based on the Actor-Critic method of Reinforcement Learning. The rule of the Actor as a neural decoder was to find mapping between the neural representation of motor states in the primary motor cortex (MI) and robot actions in order to solve reaching tasks. The Actor learned the optimal control policy using an evaluative feedback that was estimated by the Critic directly from the user's neural activity of the Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc). Through a series of computational neuroscience studies in a cohort of rats it was demonstrated that NAcc could provide a useful evaluative feedback by predicting the increase or decrease in the probability of earning reward based on the environmental conditions. Using a closed-loop BMI simulator it was demonstrated the Actor-Critic decoding architecture was able to adapt to different tasks as well as changes in the pattern of neural activity. The custom design of a dual micro-wire array enabled simultaneous implantation of MI and

  6. Functional integration changes in regional brain glucose metabolism from childhood to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Nicola; Archambaud, Frédérique; Goldman, Serge; Baete, Kristof; Van Laere, Koen; Wens, Vincent; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Chiron, Catherine; De Tiège, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the age-related changes in resting-state neurometabolic connectivity from childhood to adulthood (6-50 years old). Fifty-four healthy adult subjects and twenty-three pseudo-healthy children underwent [(18) F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography at rest. Using statistical parametric mapping (SPM8), age and age squared were first used as covariate of interest to identify linear and non-linear age effects on the regional distribution of glucose metabolism throughout the brain. Then, by selecting voxels of interest (VOI) within the regions showing significant age-related metabolic changes, a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis was used to search for age-induced changes in the contribution of VOIs to the metabolic activity in other brain areas. Significant linear or non-linear age-related changes in regional glucose metabolism were found in prefrontal cortices (DMPFC/ACC), cerebellar lobules, and thalamo-hippocampal areas bilaterally. Decreases were found in the contribution of thalamic, hippocampal, and cerebellar regions to DMPFC/ACC metabolic activity as well as in the contribution of hippocampi to preSMA and right IFG metabolic activities. Increases were found in the contribution of the right hippocampus to insular cortex and of the cerebellar lobule IX to superior parietal cortex metabolic activities. This study evidences significant linear or non-linear age-related changes in regional glucose metabolism of mesial prefrontal, thalamic, mesiotemporal, and cerebellar areas, associated with significant modifications in neurometabolic connectivity involving fronto-thalamic, fronto-hippocampal, and fronto-cerebellar networks. These changes in functional brain integration likely represent a metabolic correlate of age-dependent effects on sensory, motor, and high-level cognitive functional networks. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3017-3030, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Proteins API: accessing key integrated protein and genome information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Andrew; Antunes, Ricardo; Alpi, Emanuele; Bursteinas, Borisas; Gonzales, Leonardo; Liu, Wudong; Luo, Jie; Qi, Guoying; Turner, Edd; Martin, Maria

    2017-07-03

    The Proteins API provides searching and programmatic access to protein and associated genomics data such as curated protein sequence positional annotations from UniProtKB, as well as mapped variation and proteomics data from large scale data sources (LSS). Using the coordinates service, researchers are able to retrieve the genomic sequence coordinates for proteins in UniProtKB. This, the LSS genomics and proteomics data for UniProt proteins is programmatically only available through this service. A Swagger UI has been implemented to provide documentation, an interface for users, with little or no programming experience, to 'talk' to the services to quickly and easily formulate queries with the services and obtain dynamically generated source code for popular programming languages, such as Java, Perl, Python and Ruby. Search results are returned as standard JSON, XML or GFF data objects. The Proteins API is a scalable, reliable, fast, easy to use RESTful services that provides a broad protein information resource for users to ask questions based upon their field of expertise and allowing them to gain an integrated overview of protein annotations available to aid their knowledge gain on proteins in biological processes. The Proteins API is available at (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/proteins/api/doc). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Evolvable Neuronal Paths: A Novel Basis for Information and Search in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Chrisantha; Vasas, Vera; Szathmáry, Eörs; Husbands, Phil

    2011-01-01

    We propose a previously unrecognized kind of informational entity in the brain that is capable of acting as the basis for unlimited hereditary variation in neuronal networks. This unit is a path of activity through a network of neurons, analogous to a path taken through a hidden Markov model. To prove in principle the capabilities of this new kind of informational substrate, we show how a population of paths can be used as the hereditary material for a neuronally implemented genetic algorithm, (the swiss-army knife of black-box optimization techniques) which we have proposed elsewhere could operate at somatic timescales in the brain. We compare this to the same genetic algorithm that uses a standard ‘genetic’ informational substrate, i.e. non-overlapping discrete genotypes, on a range of optimization problems. A path evolution algorithm (PEA) is defined as any algorithm that implements natural selection of paths in a network substrate. A PEA is a previously unrecognized type of natural selection that is well suited for implementation by biological neuronal networks with structural plasticity. The important similarities and differences between a standard genetic algorithm and a PEA are considered. Whilst most experiments are conducted on an abstract network model, at the conclusion of the paper a slightly more realistic neuronal implementation of a PEA is outlined based on Izhikevich spiking neurons. Finally, experimental predictions are made for the identification of such informational paths in the brain. PMID:21887266

  9. Integrated Modeling Approach for the Development of Climate-Informed, Actionable Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Judi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is a prevalent natural disaster with both short and long-term social, economic, and infrastructure impacts. Changes in intensity and frequency of precipitation (including rain, snow, and rain-on-snow events create challenges for the planning and management of resilient infrastructure and communities. While there is general acknowledgment that new infrastructure design should account for future climate change, no clear methods or actionable information are available to community planners and designers to ensure resilient designs considering an uncertain climate future. This research demonstrates an approach for an integrated, multi-model, and multi-scale simulation to evaluate future flood impacts. This research used regional climate projections to drive high-resolution hydrology and flood models to evaluate social, economic, and infrastructure resilience for the Snohomish Watershed, WA, USA. Using the proposed integrated modeling approach, the peaks of precipitation and streamflows were found to shift from spring and summer to the earlier winter season. Moreover, clear non-stationarities in future flood risk were discovered under various climate scenarios. This research provides a clear approach for the incorporation of climate science in flood resilience analysis and to also provides actionable information relative to the frequency and intensity of future precipitation events.

  10. Analysis of Factors Affect to Organizational Performance In Using Accounting Information Systems Through Users Satisfaction and Integration Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Arisman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate the factors affecting organizational performance in using accounting information system through users satisfaction and integration information systems. The research respondents were 447 companies that listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange. The data are gathered through consensus method and in total there are 176 responses with complete data. Structural Equation Model (SEM is used in analyzing the data and system theory is utilized in this research. The result shows that knowledge management systems and management control system have significant influence on users satisfaction and integration information systems.  Integration information system and users satisfaction has positive significant on organizational performance.

  11. The neural substrate and functional integration of uncertainty in decision making: an information theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Joaquín; Aznárez-Sanado, Maite; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Fernández-Seara, María; Loayza, Francis R; Heukamp, Franz H; Pastor, María A

    2011-03-09

    Decision making can be regarded as the outcome of cognitive processes leading to the selection of a course of action among several alternatives. Borrowing a central measurement from information theory, Shannon entropy, we quantified the uncertainties produced by decisions of participants within an economic decision task under different configurations of reward probability and time. These descriptors were used to obtain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal correlates of uncertainty and two clusters codifying the Shannon entropy of task configurations were identified: a large cluster including parts of the right middle cingulate cortex (MCC) and left and right pre-supplementary motor areas (pre-SMA) and a small cluster at the left anterior thalamus. Subsequent functional connectivity analyses using the psycho-physiological interactions model identified areas involved in the functional integration of uncertainty. Results indicate that clusters mostly located at frontal and temporal cortices experienced an increased connectivity with the right MCC and left and right pre-SMA as the uncertainty was higher. Furthermore, pre-SMA was also functionally connected to a rich set of areas, most of them associative areas located at occipital and parietal lobes. This study provides a map of the human brain segregation and integration (i.e., neural substrate and functional connectivity respectively) of the uncertainty associated to an economic decision making paradigm.

  12. The neural substrate and functional integration of uncertainty in decision making: an information theory approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Goñi

    Full Text Available Decision making can be regarded as the outcome of cognitive processes leading to the selection of a course of action among several alternatives. Borrowing a central measurement from information theory, Shannon entropy, we quantified the uncertainties produced by decisions of participants within an economic decision task under different configurations of reward probability and time. These descriptors were used to obtain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD signal correlates of uncertainty and two clusters codifying the Shannon entropy of task configurations were identified: a large cluster including parts of the right middle cingulate cortex (MCC and left and right pre-supplementary motor areas (pre-SMA and a small cluster at the left anterior thalamus. Subsequent functional connectivity analyses using the psycho-physiological interactions model identified areas involved in the functional integration of uncertainty. Results indicate that clusters mostly located at frontal and temporal cortices experienced an increased connectivity with the right MCC and left and right pre-SMA as the uncertainty was higher. Furthermore, pre-SMA was also functionally connected to a rich set of areas, most of them associative areas located at occipital and parietal lobes. This study provides a map of the human brain segregation and integration (i.e., neural substrate and functional connectivity respectively of the uncertainty associated to an economic decision making paradigm.

  13. Effects of Informative and Confirmatory Feedback on Brain Activation During Negative Feedback Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Kyoung eWoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study compared the effects of informative and confirmatory feedback on brain activation during negative feedback processing. For confirmatory feedback trials, participants were informed that they had failed the task, whereas informative feedback trials presented task relevant information along with the notification of their failure. Fourteen male undergraduates performed a series of spatial-perceptual tasks and received feedback while their brain activity was recorded. During confirmatory feedback trials, greater activations in the amygdala, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and the thalamus (including the habenular were observed in response to incorrect responses. These results suggest that confirmatory feedback induces negative emotional reactions to failure. In contrast, informative feedback trials elicited greater activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC when participants experienced failure. Further psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis revealed a negative coupling between the DLPFC and the amygdala during informative feedback relative to confirmatory feedback trials. These findings suggest that providing task-relevant information could facilitate implicit down-regulation of negative emotions following failure.

  14. Whole Brain Radiotherapy With Hippocampal Avoidance and Simultaneous Integrated Boost for 1-3 Brain Metastases: A Feasibility Study Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Fred; Carolan, Hannah; Nichol, Alan; Cao, Fred; Nuraney, Nimet; Lee, Richard; Gete, Ermias; Wong, Frances; Schmuland, Moira; Heran, Manraj; Otto, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to deliver whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with hippocampal avoidance and a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) for one to three brain metastases. Methods and Materials: Ten patients previously treated with stereotactic radiosurgery for one to three brain metastases underwent repeat planning using VMAT. The whole brain prescription dose was 32.25 Gy in 15 fractions, and SIB doses to brain metastases were 63 Gy to lesions ≥2.0 cm and 70.8 Gy to lesions 2 . Plans were optimized for conformity and target coverage while minimizing hippocampal and ocular doses. Plans were evaluated on target coverage, prescription isodose to target volume ratio, conformity number, homogeneity index, and maximum dose to prescription dose ratio. Results: Ten patients had 18 metastases. Mean values for the brain metastases were as follows: conformity number = 0.73 ± 0.10, target coverage = 0.98 ± 0.01, prescription isodose to target volume = 1.34 ± 0.19, maximum dose to prescription dose ratio = 1.09 ± 0.02, and homogeneity index = 0.07 ± 0.02. For the whole brain, the mean target coverage and homogeneity index were 0.960 ± 0.002 and 0.39 ± 0.06, respectively. The mean hippocampal dose was 5.23 ± 0.39 Gy 2 . The mean treatment delivery time was 3.6 min (range, 3.3-4.1 min). Conclusions: VMAT was able to achieve adequate whole brain coverage with conformal hippocampal avoidance and radiosurgical quality dose distributions for one to three brain metastases. The mean delivery time was under 4 min.

  15. Extent of the integration of information communication and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editor

    manage electronic records and information. Key words: Botswana ... International Records Management Trust,. 2004, p. 5, Katuu ... ICT/information management in labour organisations. ...... and Information. Architecture-A Study of the Swedish.

  16. Approaches to cancer assessment in EPA's Integrated Risk Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlhaus, Martin W; Gift, Jeffrey S; Hogan, Karen A; Kopylev, Leonid; Schlosser, Paul M; Kadry, Abdel-Razak

    2011-07-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Program develops assessments of health effects that may result from chronic exposure to chemicals in the environment. The IRIS database contains more than 540 assessments. When supported by available data, IRIS assessments provide quantitative analyses of carcinogenic effects. Since publication of EPA's 2005 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, IRIS cancer assessments have implemented new approaches recommended in these guidelines and expanded the use of complex scientific methods to perform quantitative dose-response assessments. Two case studies of the application of the mode of action framework from the 2005 Cancer Guidelines are presented in this paper. The first is a case study of 1,2,3-trichloropropane, as an example of a chemical with a mutagenic mode of carcinogenic action thus warranting the application of age-dependent adjustment factors for early-life exposure; the second is a case study of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, as an example of a chemical with a carcinogenic action consistent with a nonlinear extrapolation approach. The use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to quantify interindividual variability and account for human parameter uncertainty as part of a quantitative cancer assessment is illustrated using a case study involving probabilistic PBPK modeling for dichloromethane. We also discuss statistical issues in assessing trends and model fit for tumor dose-response data, analysis of the combined risk from multiple types of tumors, and application of life-table methods for using human data to derive cancer risk estimates. These issues reflect the complexity and challenges faced in assessing the carcinogenic risks from exposure to environmental chemicals, and provide a view of the current trends in IRIS carcinogenicity risk assessment. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Approaches to cancer assessment in EPA's Integrated Risk Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlhaus, Martin W.; Gift, Jeffrey S.; Hogan, Karen A.; Kopylev, Leonid; Schlosser, Paul M.; Kadry, Abdel-Razak

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Program develops assessments of health effects that may result from chronic exposure to chemicals in the environment. The IRIS database contains more than 540 assessments. When supported by available data, IRIS assessments provide quantitative analyses of carcinogenic effects. Since publication of EPA's 2005 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, IRIS cancer assessments have implemented new approaches recommended in these guidelines and expanded the use of complex scientific methods to perform quantitative dose-response assessments. Two case studies of the application of the mode of action framework from the 2005 Cancer Guidelines are presented in this paper. The first is a case study of 1,2,3-trichloropropane, as an example of a chemical with a mutagenic mode of carcinogenic action thus warranting the application of age-dependent adjustment factors for early-life exposure; the second is a case study of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, as an example of a chemical with a carcinogenic action consistent with a nonlinear extrapolation approach. The use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to quantify interindividual variability and account for human parameter uncertainty as part of a quantitative cancer assessment is illustrated using a case study involving probabilistic PBPK modeling for dichloromethane. We also discuss statistical issues in assessing trends and model fit for tumor dose-response data, analysis of the combined risk from multiple types of tumors, and application of life-table methods for using human data to derive cancer risk estimates. These issues reflect the complexity and challenges faced in assessing the carcinogenic risks from exposure to environmental chemicals, and provide a view of the current trends in IRIS carcinogenicity risk assessment.

  18. Using stochastic language models (SLM) to map lexical, syntactic, and phonological information processing in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopopolo, Alessandro; Frank, Stefan L; van den Bosch, Antal; Willems, Roel M

    2017-01-01

    Language comprehension involves the simultaneous processing of information at the phonological, syntactic, and lexical level. We track these three distinct streams of information in the brain by using stochastic measures derived from computational language models to detect neural correlates of phoneme, part-of-speech, and word processing in an fMRI experiment. Probabilistic language models have proven to be useful tools for studying how language is processed as a sequence of symbols unfolding in time. Conditional probabilities between sequences of words are at the basis of probabilistic measures such as surprisal and perplexity which have been successfully used as predictors of several behavioural and neural correlates of sentence processing. Here we computed perplexity from sequences of words and their parts of speech, and their phonemic transcriptions. Brain activity time-locked to each word is regressed on the three model-derived measures. We observe that the brain keeps track of the statistical structure of lexical, syntactic and phonological information in distinct areas.

  19. An open, component-based information infrastructure for integrated health information networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiknakis, Manolis; Katehakis, Dimitrios G; Orphanoudakis, Stelios C

    2002-12-18

    A fundamental requirement for achieving continuity of care is the seamless sharing of multimedia clinical information. Different technological approaches can be adopted for enabling the communication and sharing of health record segments. In the context of the emerging global information society, the creation of and access to the integrated electronic health record (I-EHR) of a citizen has been assigned high priority in many countries. This requirement is complementary to an overall requirement for the creation of a health information infrastructure (HII) to support the provision of a variety of health telematics and e-health services. In developing a regional or national HII, the components or building blocks that make up the overall information system ought to be defined and an appropriate component architecture specified. This paper discusses current international priorities and trends in developing the HII. It presents technological challenges and alternative approaches towards the creation of an I-EHR, being the aggregation of health data created during all interactions of an individual with the healthcare system. It also presents results from an ongoing Research and Development (R&D) effort towards the implementation of the HII in HYGEIAnet, the regional health information network of Crete, Greece, using a component-based software engineering approach. Critical design decisions and related trade-offs, involved in the process of component specification and development, are also discussed and the current state of development of an I-EHR service is presented. Finally, Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and security issues, which are important for the deployment and use of any I-EHR service, are considered.

  20. Knowledge-Intensive Gathering and Integration of Statistical Information on European Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkert, M.; Treur, J.; Verwaart, T.; Loganantharaj, R.; Palm, G.; Ali, M.

    2000-01-01

    Gathering, maintenance, integration and presentation of statistics are major activities of the Dutch Agricultural Economics Research Institute LEI. In this paper we explore how knowledge and agent technology can be exploited to support the information gathering and integration process. In

  1. 76 FR 17145 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Business Transformation-Automated Integrated Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... Collection Activities: Business Transformation--Automated Integrated Operating Environment (IOE), New... through efforts like USCIS' Business Transformation initiative. The IOE will be implemented by USCIS and... information collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Business Transformation-- Automated Integrated...

  2. Sustained NMDA receptor hypofunction induces compromised neural systems integration and schizophrenia-like alterations in functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Neil; Xiao, Xiaolin; McDonald, Martin; Higham, Desmond J; Morris, Brian J; Pratt, Judith A

    2014-02-01

    Compromised functional integration between cerebral subsystems and dysfunctional brain network organization may underlie the neurocognitive deficits seen in psychiatric disorders. Applying topological measures from network science to brain imaging data allows the quantification of complex brain network connectivity. While this approach has recently been used to further elucidate the nature of brain dysfunction in schizophrenia, the value of applying this approach in preclinical models of psychiatric disease has not been recognized. For the first time, we apply both established and recently derived algorithms from network science (graph theory) to functional brain imaging data from rats treated subchronically with the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP). We show that subchronic PCP treatment induces alterations in the global properties of functional brain networks akin to those reported in schizophrenia. Furthermore, we show that subchronic PCP treatment induces compromised functional integration between distributed neural systems, including between the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, that have established roles in cognition through, in part, the promotion of thalamic dysconnectivity. We also show that subchronic PCP treatment promotes the functional disintegration of discrete cerebral subsystems and also alters the connectivity of neurotransmitter systems strongly implicated in schizophrenia. Therefore, we propose that sustained NMDA receptor hypofunction contributes to the pathophysiology of dysfunctional brain network organization in schizophrenia.

  3. Perspectives of survivors of traumatic brain injury and their caregivers on long-term social integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Hélène; Cloutier, Geneviève; Josée Levert, Marie

    2008-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has damaging impacts on victims and family members' lives and their long-term social integration constitutes a major challenge. The objective of the study was to document the repercussions of TBI on victims' long-term social integration (10 years post-trauma) and the contribution made by the services received from the point of view of TBI victims and family caregivers. This article examines the determinants of long-term social integration as well as the impact of TBI on family caregivers. A qualitative design was used (semi-directed interviews). The sample consisted of 22 individuals who had sustained a moderate or severe TBI and 21 family caregivers. The results show that TBI is an experience that continues to present difficulties, even 10 years after the accident, and that different barriers contribute to this difficulty: not going back to work, depressive episodes, problems in relationships and sequellae. Family caregivers must help TBI victims confront the barriers in their path. This study adopts a longitudinal perspective to help professionals determine how to intervene with TBI victims and their families. It validates the importance of having clients and family caregivers describe their reality.

  4. Estimating the Integrated Information Measure Phi from High-Density Electroencephalography during States of Consciousness in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungkyu; Hudetz, Anthony G; Lee, Joseph; Mashour, George A; Lee, UnCheol

    2018-01-01

    The integrated information theory (IIT) proposes a quantitative measure, denoted as Φ, of the amount of integrated information in a physical system, which is postulated to have an identity relationship with consciousness. IIT predicts that the value of Φ estimated from brain activities represents the level of consciousness across phylogeny and functional states. Practical limitations, such as the explosive computational demands required to estimate Φ for real systems, have hindered its application to the brain and raised questions about the utility of IIT in general. To achieve practical relevance for studying the human brain, it will be beneficial to establish the reliable estimation of Φ from multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) and define the relationship of Φ to EEG properties conventionally used to define states of consciousness. In this study, we introduce a practical method to estimate Φ from high-density (128-channel) EEG and determine the contribution of each channel to Φ. We examine the correlation of power, frequency, functional connectivity, and modularity of EEG with regional Φ in various states of consciousness as modulated by diverse anesthetics. We find that our approximation of Φ alone is insufficient to discriminate certain states of anesthesia. However, a multi-dimensional parameter space extended by four parameters related to Φ and EEG connectivity is able to differentiate all states of consciousness. The association of Φ with EEG connectivity during clinically defined anesthetic states represents a new practical approach to the application of IIT, which may be used to characterize various physiological (sleep), pharmacological (anesthesia), and pathological (coma) states of consciousness in the human brain.

  5. Integration of egocentric and allocentric information during memory-guided reaching to images of a natural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFiehler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available When interacting with our environment we generally make use of egocentric and allocentric object information by coding object positions relative to the observer or relative to the environment, respectively. Bayesian theories suggest that the brain integrates both sources of information optimally for perception and action. However, experimental evidence for egocentric and allocentric integration is sparse and has only been studied using abstract stimuli lacking ecological relevance. Here, we investigated the use of egocentric and allocentric information during memory-guided reaching to images of naturalistic scenes. Participants encoded a breakfast scene containing six objects on a table (local objects and three objects in the environment (global objects. After a 2s delay, a visual test scene reappeared for 1s in which one local object was missing (=target and of the remaining, one, three or five local objects or one of the global objects were shifted to the left or to the right. The offset of the test scene prompted participants to reach to the target as precisely as possible. Only local objects served as potential reach targets and thus were task-relevant. When shifting objects we predicted accurate reaching if participants only used egocentric coding of object position and systematic shifts of reach endpoints if allocentric information were used for movement planning. We found that reaching movements were largely affected by allocentric shifts showing an increase in endpoint errors in the direction of object shifts with the number of local objects shifted. No effect occurred when one local or one global object was shifted. Our findings suggest that allocentric cues are indeed used by the brain for memory-guided reaching towards targets in naturalistic visual scenes. Moreover, the integration of egocentric and allocentric object information seems to depend on the extent of changes in the scene.

  6. Information properties of morphologically complex words modulate brain activity during word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Tero; Hultén, Annika; Lehtonen, Minna; Lagus, Krista; Salmelin, Riitta

    2018-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies of the reading process point to functionally distinct stages in word recognition. Yet, current understanding of the operations linked to those various stages is mainly descriptive in nature. Approaches developed in the field of computational linguistics may offer a more quantitative approach for understanding brain dynamics. Our aim was to evaluate whether a statistical model of morphology, with well-defined computational principles, can capture the neural dynamics of reading, using the concept of surprisal from information theory as the common measure. The Morfessor model, created for unsupervised discovery of morphemes, is based on the minimum description length principle and attempts to find optimal units of representation for complex words. In a word recognition task, we correlated brain responses to word surprisal values derived from Morfessor and from other psycholinguistic variables that have been linked with various levels of linguistic abstraction. The magnetoencephalography data analysis focused on spatially, temporally and functionally distinct components of cortical activation observed in reading tasks. The early occipital and occipito-temporal responses were correlated with parameters relating to visual complexity and orthographic properties, whereas the later bilateral superior temporal activation was correlated with whole-word based and morphological models. The results show that the word processing costs estimated by the statistical Morfessor model are relevant for brain dynamics of reading during late processing stages. © 2018 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Brain functional network connectivity based on a visual task: visual information processing-related brain regions are significantly activated in the task state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-li Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not clear whether the method used in functional brain-network related research can be applied to explore the feature binding mechanism of visual perception. In this study, we investigated feature binding of color and shape in visual perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 38 healthy volunteers at rest and while performing a visual perception task to construct brain networks active during resting and task states. Results showed that brain regions involved in visual information processing were obviously activated during the task. The components were partitioned using a greedy algorithm, indicating the visual network existed during the resting state. Z-values in the vision-related brain regions were calculated, confirming the dynamic balance of the brain network. Connectivity between brain regions was determined, and the result showed that occipital and lingual gyri were stable brain regions in the visual system network, the parietal lobe played a very important role in the binding process of color features and shape features, and the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were crucial for processing color and shape information. Experimental findings indicate that understanding visual feature binding and cognitive processes will help establish computational models of vision, improve image recognition technology, and provide a new theoretical mechanism for feature binding in visual perception.

  8. Intrinsic activity in the fly brain gates visual information during behavioral choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiming Tang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The small insect brain is often described as an input/output system that executes reflex-like behaviors. It can also initiate neural activity and behaviors intrinsically, seen as spontaneous behaviors, different arousal states and sleep. However, less is known about how intrinsic activity in neural circuits affects sensory information processing in the insect brain and variability in behavior. Here, by simultaneously monitoring Drosophila's behavioral choices and brain activity in a flight simulator system, we identify intrinsic activity that is associated with the act of selecting between visual stimuli. We recorded neural output (multiunit action potentials and local field potentials in the left and right optic lobes of a tethered flying Drosophila, while its attempts to follow visual motion (yaw torque were measured by a torque meter. We show that when facing competing motion stimuli on its left and right, Drosophila typically generate large torque responses that flip from side to side. The delayed onset (0.1-1 s and spontaneous switch-like dynamics of these responses, and the fact that the flies sometimes oppose the stimuli by flying straight, make this behavior different from the classic steering reflexes. Drosophila, thus, seem to choose one stimulus at a time and attempt to rotate toward its direction. With this behavior, the neural output of the optic lobes alternates; being augmented on the side chosen for body rotation and suppressed on the opposite side, even though the visual input to the fly eyes stays the same. Thus, the flow of information from the fly eyes is gated intrinsically. Such modulation can be noise-induced or intentional; with one possibility being that the fly brain highlights chosen information while ignoring the irrelevant, similar to what we know to occur in higher animals.

  9. Functional brain networks contributing to the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory of Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhtin, Andrei A; Ryman, Sephira G; Flores, Ranee A; Jung, Rex E

    2014-12-01

    The refinement of localization of intelligence in the human brain is converging onto a distributed network that broadly conforms to the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory (P-FIT). While this theory has received support in the neuroimaging literature, no functional magnetic resonance imaging study to date has conducted a whole-brain network-wise examination of the changes during engagement in tasks that are reliable measures of general intelligence (e.g., Raven's Progressive Matrices Test; RPM). Seventy-nine healthy subjects were scanned while solving RPM problems and during rest. Functional networks were extracted from the RPM and resting state data using Independent Component Analysis. Twenty-nine networks were identified, 26 of which were detected in both conditions. Fourteen networks were significantly correlated with the RPM task. The networks' spatial maps and functional connectivity measures at 3 frequency levels (low, medium, & high) were compared between the RPM and rest conditions. The regions involved in the networks that were found to be task related were consistent with the P-FIT, localizing to the bilateral medial frontal and parietal regions, right superior frontal lobule, and the right cingulate gyrus. Functional connectivity in multiple component pairs was differentially affected across all frequency levels during the RPM task. Our findings demonstrate that functional brain networks are more stable than previously thought, and maintain their general features across resting state and engagement in a complex cognitive task. The described spatial and functional connectivity alterations that such components undergo during fluid reasoning provide a network-wise framework of the P-FIT that can be valuable for further, network based, neuroimaging inquiries regarding the neural underpinnings of intelligence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The Effect of Information Security Management on Organizational Processes Integration in Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Shafiei Nikabadi; Ahmad Jafarian; Azam Jalili Bolhasani

    2012-01-01

    : The major purpose of this article was that how information security management has effect on supply chain integration and the effect of implementing "information security management system" on enhancing supplies chain integration. In this respect, current research was seeking a combination overview to these tow approaches (Information Security Management and Organizational Processes Integration by Enterprise Resources Planning System) and after that determined factors of these two import...

  11. Integrating Neuropsychology and Brain Imaging for a Referral of Possible Pseudodementia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J J; Mellott, E; Dunne, E M; Price, C C

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to highlight the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration and the value for combining normative neuropsychological and neuroradiological measures for clinical purposes. We present the case of "CL," a 65-year-old, right-handed, Caucasian female referred for a neuropsychological evaluation of memory difficulties and depression with the rule-out of pseudodementia. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan was conducted within 24 hours of the neuropsychology exam. Mood measures showed elevated depression and apathy symptoms. The neuropsychological profile showed variable effort, intact comprehension but compromised confrontation naming and verbal memory deficits. Using normative references from 20 female age- and education-matched healthy control peers, CL showed significantly reduced temporal cortex thickness with reduced bilateral hippocampal, right amygdala, and right caudate volumes. Combined data were supportive of a diagnosis of semantic dementia. Examining neuropsychological profiles in combination with neuroimaging standardized metrics relative to peers improved case conceptualization. Standard measures of effort and malingering examined alone and without MRI for the diagnosis of pseudodementia have questionable validity and rationale. We additionally discuss the advantages and limitations/challenges for integrating neuropsychological assessments with normative based MRI brain metrics.

  12. Brain systems for probabilistic and dynamic prediction: computational specificity and integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill X O'Reilly

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A computational approach to functional specialization suggests that brain systems can be characterized in terms of the types of computations they perform, rather than their sensory or behavioral domains. We contrasted the neural systems associated with two computationally distinct forms of predictive model: a reinforcement-learning model of the environment obtained through experience with discrete events, and continuous dynamic forward modeling. By manipulating the precision with which each type of prediction could be used, we caused participants to shift computational strategies within a single spatial prediction task. Hence (using fMRI we showed that activity in two brain systems (typically associated with reward learning and motor control could be dissociated in terms of the forms of computations that were performed there, even when both systems were used to make parallel predictions of the same event. A region in parietal cortex, which was sensitive to the divergence between the predictions of the models and anatomically connected to both computational networks, is proposed to mediate integration of the two predictive modes to produce a single behavioral output.

  13. Integration and segregation of large-scale brain networks during short-term task automatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Holger; Wolfensteller, Uta; Betzel, Richard F; Mišić, Bratislav; Sporns, Olaf; Richiardi, Jonas; Ruge, Hannes

    2016-11-03

    The human brain is organized into large-scale functional networks that can flexibly reconfigure their connectivity patterns, supporting both rapid adaptive control and long-term learning processes. However, it has remained unclear how short-term network dynamics support the rapid transformation of instructions into fluent behaviour. Comparing fMRI data of a learning sample (N=70) with a control sample (N=67), we find that increasingly efficient task processing during short-term practice is associated with a reorganization of large-scale network interactions. Practice-related efficiency gains are facilitated by enhanced coupling between the cingulo-opercular network and the dorsal attention network. Simultaneously, short-term task automatization is accompanied by decreasing activation of the fronto-parietal network, indicating a release of high-level cognitive control, and a segregation of the default mode network from task-related networks. These findings suggest that short-term task automatization is enabled by the brain's ability to rapidly reconfigure its large-scale network organization involving complementary integration and segregation processes.

  14. Sixty minutes of what? A developing brain perspective for activating children with an integrative exercise approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Edwards, Nicholas M; Clark, Joseph F; Best, Thomas M; Sallis, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    Current recommendations for physical activity in children overlook the critical importance of motor skill acquisition early in life. Instead, they focus on the quantitative aspects of physical activity (eg, accumulate 60 min of daily moderate to vigorous physical activity) and selected health-related components of physical fitness (eg, aerobic fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition). This focus on exercise quantity in youth may limit considerations of qualitative aspects of programme design which include (1) skill development, (2) socialisation and (3) enjoyment of exercise. The timing of brain development and associated neuroplasticity for motor skill learning makes the preadolescence period a critical time to develop and reinforce fundamental movement skills in boys and girls. Children who do not participate regularly in structured motor skill-enriched activities during physical education classes or diverse youth sports programmes may never reach their genetic potential for motor skill control which underlies sustainable physical fitness later in life. The goals of this review are twofold: (1) challenge current dogma that is currently focused on the quantitative rather than qualitative aspects of physical activity recommendations for youth and (2) synthesise the latest evidence regarding the brain and motor control that will provide the foundation for integrative exercise programming that provide a framework sustainable activity for life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Artificial brains. A million spiking-neuron integrated circuit with a scalable communication network and interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolla, Paul A; Arthur, John V; Alvarez-Icaza, Rodrigo; Cassidy, Andrew S; Sawada, Jun; Akopyan, Filipp; Jackson, Bryan L; Imam, Nabil; Guo, Chen; Nakamura, Yutaka; Brezzo, Bernard; Vo, Ivan; Esser, Steven K; Appuswamy, Rathinakumar; Taba, Brian; Amir, Arnon; Flickner, Myron D; Risk, William P; Manohar, Rajit; Modha, Dharmendra S

    2014-08-08

    Inspired by the brain's structure, we have developed an efficient, scalable, and flexible non-von Neumann architecture that leverages contemporary silicon technology. To demonstrate, we built a 5.4-billion-transistor chip with 4096 neurosynaptic cores interconnected via an intrachip network that integrates 1 million programmable spiking neurons and 256 million configurable synapses. Chips can be tiled in two dimensions via an interchip communication interface, seamlessly scaling the architecture to a cortexlike sheet of arbitrary size. The architecture is well suited to many applications that use complex neural networks in real time, for example, multiobject detection and classification. With 400-pixel-by-240-pixel video input at 30 frames per second, the chip consumes 63 milliwatts. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Toward an autonomous brain machine interface: integrating sensorimotor reward modulation and reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Brandi T; Tarigoppula, Venkata S Aditya; Chen, Chen; Francis, Joseph T

    2015-05-13

    For decades, neurophysiologists have worked on elucidating the function of the cortical sensorimotor control system from the standpoint of kinematics or dynamics. Recently, computational neuroscientists have developed models that can emulate changes seen in the primary motor cortex during learning. However, these simulations rely on the existence of a reward-like signal in the primary sensorimotor cortex. Reward modulation of the primary sensorimotor cortex has yet to be characterized at the level of neural units. Here we demonstrate that single units/multiunits and local field potentials in the primary motor (M1) cortex of nonhuman primates (Macaca radiata) are modulated by reward expectation during reaching movements and that this modulation is present even while subjects passively view cursor motions that are predictive of either reward or nonreward. After establishing this reward modulation, we set out to determine whether we could correctly classify rewarding versus nonrewarding trials, on a moment-to-moment basis. This reward information could then be used in collaboration with reinforcement learning principles toward an autonomous brain-machine interface. The autonomous brain-machine interface would use M1 for both decoding movement intention and extraction of reward expectation information as evaluative feedback, which would then update the decoding algorithm as necessary. In the work presented here, we show that this, in theory, is possible. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357374-14$15.00/0.

  17. Distinct brain mechanisms support spatial vs temporal filtering of nociceptive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Martucci, Katherine T; Granovsky, Yelena; Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Yarnitsky, David; Coghill, Robert C

    2014-12-01

    The role of endogenous analgesic mechanisms has largely been viewed in the context of gain modulation during nociceptive processing. However, these analgesic mechanisms may play critical roles in the extraction and subsequent utilization of information related to spatial and temporal features of nociceptive input. To date, it remains unknown if spatial and temporal filtering of nociceptive information is supported by similar analgesic mechanisms. To address this question, human volunteers were recruited to assess brain activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging during conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and offset analgesia (OA). CPM provides one paradigm for assessing spatial filtering of nociceptive information while OA provides a paradigm for assessing temporal filtering of nociceptive information. CPM and OA both produced statistically significant reductions in pain intensity. However, the magnitude of pain reduction elicited by CPM was not correlated with that elicited by OA across different individuals. Different patterns of brain activation were consistent with the psychophysical findings. CPM elicited widespread reductions in regions engaged in nociceptive processing such as the thalamus, insula, and secondary somatosensory cortex. OA produced reduced activity in the primary somatosensory cortex but was associated with greater activation in the anterior insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, intraparietal sulcus, and inferior parietal lobule relative to CPM. In the brain stem, CPM consistently produced reductions in activity, while OA produced increases in activity. Conjunction analysis confirmed that CPM-related activity did not overlap with that of OA. Thus, dissociable mechanisms support inhibitory processes engaged during spatial vs temporal filtering of nociceptive information. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. White matter hyperintensities and normal-appearing white matter integrity in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Clayden, Jonathan D; Royle, Natalie A; Murray, Catherine; Morris, Zoe; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-02-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin are a common finding in brain magnetic resonance imaging of older individuals and contribute to cognitive and functional decline. It is unknown how WMH form, although white matter degeneration is characterized pathologically by demyelination, axonal loss, and rarefaction, often attributed to ischemia. Changes within normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in subjects with WMH have also been reported but have not yet been fully characterized. Here, we describe the in vivo imaging signatures of both NAWM and WMH in a large group of community-dwelling older people of similar age using biomarkers derived from magnetic resonance imaging that collectively reflect white matter integrity, myelination, and brain water content. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) were significantly lower, whereas mean diffusivity (MD) and longitudinal relaxation time (T1) were significantly higher, in WMH than NAWM (p curve, 0.982; 95% CI, 0.975-0.989). Furthermore, the level of deterioration of NAWM was strongly associated with the severity of WMH, with MD and T1 increasing and FA and MTR decreasing in NAWM with increasing WMH score, a relationship that was sustained regardless of distance from the WMH. These multimodal imaging data indicate that WMH have reduced structural integrity compared with surrounding NAWM, and MD provides the best discriminator between the 2 tissue classes even within the mild range of WMH severity, whereas FA, MTR, and T1 only start reflecting significant changes in tissue microstructure as WMH become more severe. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Empowerment of Cancer Survivors Through Information Technology: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Wim G; Kuijpers, Wilma; Oldenburg, Hester Sa; Wouters, Michel Wjm; Aaronson, Neil K; van Harten, Wim H

    2015-11-27

    Patient empowerment may be an effective approach to strengthen the role of cancer survivors and to reduce the burden on health care. However, it is not well conceptualized, notably in oncology. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent information technology (IT) services can contribute to empowerment of cancer survivors. We aim to define the conceptual components of patient empowerment of chronic disease patients, especially cancer survivors, and to explore the contribution of existing and new IT services to promote empowerment. Electronic databases were searched to identify theoretical and empirical articles regarding empowerment. We extracted and synthesized conceptual components of patient empowerment (ie, attributes, antecedents, and consequences) according to the integrated review methodology. We identified recent IT services for cancer survivors by examining systematic reviews and a proposed inventory of new services, and we related their features and effects to the identified components of empowerment. Based on 26 articles, we identified five main attributes of patient empowerment: (1) being autonomous and respected, (2) having knowledge, (3) having psychosocial and behavioral skills, (4) perceiving support from community, family, and friends, and (5) perceiving oneself to be useful. The latter two were specific for the cancer setting. Systematic reviews of IT services and our additional inventory helped us identify five main categories: (1) educational services, including electronic survivorship care plan services, (2) patient-to-patient services, (3) electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) services, (4) multicomponent services, and (5) portal services. Potential impact on empowerment included knowledge enhancement and, to a lesser extent, enhancing autonomy and skills. Newly developed services offer promising and exciting opportunities to empower cancer survivors, for instance, by providing tailored advice for supportive or follow-up care based on

  20. TechIP: A Methodology for Emerging Information Technology Insertion & Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patel, Has

    2004-01-01

    ...) processing and software agents. To implement these requirements, the system designers are required to insert, integrate and manage proven advances in Emerging Information Technology (EIT) in to the...

  1. Risk Informed Design Using Integrated Vehicle Rapid Assessment Tools

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A successful proof of concept was performed in FY 2012 integrating the Envision tool for parametric estimates of vehicle mass and the Rapid Response Risk Assessment...

  2. Multi-Sensor Information Integration and Automatic Understanding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Welborn, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    ... anomalous behavior characteristics. The SIG team attended the PI Gathering at ONR in May 2008 and presented our current results as well as providing a demonstration of the integrated software behavior detection application...

  3. Information Exchange Architecture for Integrating Unmanned Vehicles into Maritime Missions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woolsey, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    .... The focus of this study is to analyze the structure of information flow for unmanned systems and suggest an exchange architecture to successfully inform and build decision maker understanding based...

  4. [Research on medical instrument information integration technology based on IHE PCD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianli; Liao, Yun; Yang, Yongyong

    2014-06-01

    Integrating medical instruments with medical information systems becomes more and more important in healthcare industry. To make medical instruments without standard communication interface possess the capability of interoperating and sharing information with medical information systems, we developed a medical instrument integration gateway based on Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise Patient Care Device (IHE PCD) integration profiles in this research. The core component is an integration engine which is implemented according to integration profiles and Health Level Seven (HL7) messages defined in IHE PCD. Working with instrument specific Javascripts, the engine transforms medical instrument data into HL7 ORU message. This research enables medical instruments to interoperate and exchange medical data with information systems in a standardized way, and is valuable for medical instrument integration, especially for traditional instruments.

  5. The Effect of Information Security Management on Organizational Processes Integration in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shafiei Nikabadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available : The major purpose of this article was that how information security management has effect on supply chain integration and the effect of implementing "information security management system" on enhancing supplies chain integration. In this respect, current research was seeking a combination overview to these tow approaches (Information Security Management and Organizational Processes Integration by Enterprise Resources Planning System and after that determined factors of these two important issue by factor analysis. Researchers using a series of comments in the automotive experts (production planning and management and supply chain experts and caregivers car makers and suppliers in the first level and second level supply chain industry. In this way, it has been done that impact on how information security management processes enterprise supply chain integration with the help of statistical correlation analysis. The results of this investigation indicated effect of "information security management system" various dimensions that were coordination of information, prevent human errors and hardware, the accuracy of information and education for users on two dimensions of internal and external integration of business processes, supply chain and finally, it can increased integration of business processes in supply chain. At the end owing to quite these results, deployment of "information security management system" increased the integration of organizational processes in supply chain. It could be demonstrate with the consideration of relation of organizational integration processes whit the level of coordination of information, prevent errors and accuracy of information throughout the supply chain.

  6. The Need for Integration of Information and Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a major factor in shaping a new global economy and producing rapid changes in society. In order to function in this new world economy, students and their teachers have to learn to deal with large amount of information. This entails the analysis of such information and ...

  7. Integrity and dissemination control in administrative applications through information designators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, W.G.

    When more and more information sources are being linked, it seems that it becomes ever more easy to track individuals in ways that are not deemed appropriate. However, increased linking of information does not need to imply increased dissemination of privacy-sensitive information. We present a new

  8. Towards a digitized and integrated health information system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A strong health information system able to generate timely and accurate information is essential to ensure effective and efficient performance. Sudan's health information system is still paper-based and characterized by fragmentation and verticality. Efforts to overcome this have led to development of an ...

  9. Intervention and societal costs of residential community reintegration for patients with acquired brain injury: a cost-analysis of the Brain Integration Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heugten, Caroline M.; Geurtsen, Gert J.; Derksen, R. Elze; Martina, Juan D.; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Evers, Silvia M. A. A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the intervention costs of a residential community reintegration programme for patients with acquired brain injury and to compare the societal costs before and after treatment. A cost-analysis was performed identifying costs of healthcare, informal care, and

  10. Brain reflections: A circuit-based framework for understanding information processing and cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Gabriele

    2018-03-01

    Here, I propose a view of the architecture of the human information processing system, and of how it can be adapted to changing task demands (which is the hallmark of cognitive control). This view is informed by an interpretation of brain activity as reflecting the excitability level of neural representations, encoding not only stimuli and temporal contexts, but also action plans and task goals. The proposed cognitive architecture includes three types of circuits: open circuits, involved in feed-forward processing such as that connecting stimuli with responses and characterized by brief, transient brain activity; and two types of closed circuits, positive feedback circuits (characterized by sustained, high-frequency oscillatory activity), which help select and maintain representations, and negative feedback circuits (characterized by brief, low-frequency oscillatory bursts), which are instead associated with changes in representations. Feed-forward activity is primarily responsible for the spread of activation along the information processing system. Oscillatory activity, instead, controls this spread. Sustained oscillatory activity due to both local cortical circuits (gamma) and longer corticothalamic circuits (alpha and beta) allows for the selection of individuated representations. Through the interaction of these circuits, it also allows for the preservation of representations across different temporal spans (sensory and working memory) and their spread across the brain. In contrast, brief bursts of oscillatory activity, generated by novel and/or conflicting information, lead to the interruption of sustained oscillatory activity and promote the generation of new representations. I discuss how this framework can account for a number of psychological and behavioral phenomena. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Physical Exercise Keeps the Brain Connected: Biking Increases White Matter Integrity in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatkova, Alena; Mandl, René C W; Scheewe, Thomas W; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that learning a new skill leads to structural changes in the brain. However, it is unclear whether it is the acquisition or continuous practicing of the skill that causes this effect and whether brain connectivity of patients with schizophrenia can benefit from such practice. We examined the effect of 6 months exercise on a stationary bicycle on the brain in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Biking is an endemic skill in the Netherlands and thus offers an ideal situation to disentangle the effects of learning vs practice. The 33 participating patients with schizophrenia and 48 healthy individuals were assigned to either one of two conditions, ie, physical exercise or life-as-usual, balanced for diagnosis. Diffusion tensor imaging brain scans were made prior to and after intervention. We demonstrate that irrespective of diagnosis regular physical exercise of an overlearned skill, such as bicycling, significantly increases the integrity, especially of motor functioning related, white matter fiber tracts whereas life-as-usual leads to a decrease in fiber integrity. Our findings imply that exercise of an overlearned physical skill improves brain connectivity in patients and healthy individuals. This has important implications for understanding the effect of fitness programs on the brain in both healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, the outcome may even apply to the nonphysical realm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Age-related reduction of adaptive brain response during semantic integration is associated with gray matter reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zude; Yang, Fengjun; Li, Dongning; Zhou, Lianjun; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xuezhi

    2017-01-01

    While aging is associated with increased knowledge, it is also associated with decreased semantic integration. To investigate brain activation changes during semantic integration, a sample of forty-eight 25-75 year-old adults read sentences with high cloze (HC) and low cloze (LC) probability while functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted. Significant age-related reduction of cloze effect (LC vs. HC) was found in several regions, especially the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and ri...

  13. Ensuring the integrity of information resources based methods dvooznakovoho structural data encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.К. Юдін

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available  Developed methods of estimation of noise stability and correction of structural code constructions to distortion in comunication of data in informatively communication systems and networks taking into account providing of integrity of informative resource.

  14. Endothelial β-Catenin Signaling Is Required for Maintaining Adult Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and Central Nervous System Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Khiem A; Zhang, Xianming; Predescu, Dan; Huang, Xiaojia; Machado, Roberto F; Göthert, Joachim R; Malik, Asrar B; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Zhao, You-Yang

    2016-01-12

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by brain endothelial cells interconnected by tight junctions is essential for the homeostasis of the central nervous system. Although studies have shown the importance of various signaling molecules in BBB formation during development, little is known about the molecular basis regulating the integrity of the adult BBB. Using a mouse model with tamoxifen-inducible endothelial cell-restricted disruption of ctnnb1 (iCKO), we show here that endothelial β-catenin signaling is essential for maintaining BBB integrity and central nervous system homeostasis in adult mice. The iCKO mice developed severe seizures accompanied by neuronal injury, multiple brain petechial hemorrhages, and central nervous system inflammation, and all had postictal death. Disruption of endothelial β-catenin induced BBB breakdown and downregulation of the specific tight junction proteins claudin-1 and -3 in adult brain endothelial cells. The clinical relevance of the data is indicated by the observation of decreased expression of claudin-1 and nuclear β-catenin in brain endothelial cells of hemorrhagic lesions of hemorrhagic stroke patients. These results demonstrate the prerequisite role of endothelial β-catenin in maintaining the integrity of adult BBB. The results suggest that BBB dysfunction secondary to defective β-catenin transcription activity is a key pathogenic factor in hemorrhagic stroke, seizure activity, and central nervous system inflammation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Integration of intraoperative stereovision imaging for brain shift visualization during image-guided cranial procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaewe, Timothy J.; Fan, Xiaoyao; Ji, Songbai; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Simon, David A.

    2014-03-01

    Dartmouth and Medtronic Navigation have established an academic-industrial partnership to develop, validate, and evaluate a multi-modality neurosurgical image-guidance platform for brain tumor resection surgery that is capable of updating the spatial relationships between preoperative images and the current surgical field. A stereovision system has been developed and optimized for intraoperative use through integration with a surgical microscope and an image-guided surgery system. The microscope optics and stereovision CCD sensors are localized relative to the surgical field using optical tracking and can efficiently acquire stereo image pairs from which a localized 3D profile of the exposed surface is reconstructed. This paper reports the first demonstration of intraoperative acquisition, reconstruction and visualization of 3D stereovision surface data in the context of an industry-standard image-guided surgery system. The integrated system is capable of computing and presenting a stereovision-based update of the exposed cortical surface in less than one minute. Alternative methods for visualization of high-resolution, texture-mapped stereovision surface data are also investigated with the objective of determining the technical feasibility of direct incorporation of intraoperative stereo imaging into future iterations of Medtronic's navigation platform.

  16. Gpr124 is essential for blood-brain barrier integrity in central nervous system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Junlei; Mancuso, Michael R; Maier, Carolina; Liang, Xibin; Yuki, Kanako; Yang, Lu; Kwong, Jeffrey W; Wang, Jing; Rao, Varsha; Vallon, Mario; Kosinski, Cynthia; Zhang, J J Haijing; Mah, Amanda T; Xu, Lijun; Li, Le; Gholamin, Sharareh; Reyes, Teresa F; Li, Rui; Kuhnert, Frank; Han, Xiaoyuan; Yuan, Jenny; Chiou, Shin-Heng; Brettman, Ari D; Daly, Lauren; Corney, David C; Cheshier, Samuel H; Shortliffe, Linda D; Wu, Xiwei; Snyder, Michael; Chan, Pak; Giffard, Rona G; Chang, Howard Y; Andreasson, Katrin; Kuo, Calvin J

    2017-04-01

    Although blood-brain barrier (BBB) compromise is central to the etiology of diverse central nervous system (CNS) disorders, endothelial receptor proteins that control BBB function are poorly defined. The endothelial G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Gpr124 has been reported to be required for normal forebrain angiogenesis and BBB function in mouse embryos, but the role of this receptor in adult animals is unknown. Here Gpr124 conditional knockout (CKO) in the endothelia of adult mice did not affect homeostatic BBB integrity, but resulted in BBB disruption and microvascular hemorrhage in mouse models of both ischemic stroke and glioblastoma, accompanied by reduced cerebrovascular canonical Wnt-β-catenin signaling. Constitutive activation of Wnt-β-catenin signaling fully corrected the BBB disruption and hemorrhage defects of Gpr124-CKO mice, with rescue of the endothelial gene tight junction, pericyte coverage and extracellular-matrix deficits. We thus identify Gpr124 as an endothelial GPCR specifically required for endothelial Wnt signaling and BBB integrity under pathological conditions in adult mice. This finding implicates Gpr124 as a potential therapeutic target for human CNS disorders characterized by BBB disruption.

  17. Integrating the Allen Brain Institute Cell Types Database into Automated Neuroscience Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, David B; Santamaria, Fidel

    2017-10-01

    We developed software tools to download, extract features, and organize the Cell Types Database from the Allen Brain Institute (ABI) in order to integrate its whole cell patch clamp characterization data into the automated modeling/data analysis cycle. To expand the potential user base we employed both Python and MATLAB. The basic set of tools downloads selected raw data and extracts cell, sweep, and spike features, using ABI's feature extraction code. To facilitate data manipulation we added a tool to build a local specialized database of raw data plus extracted features. Finally, to maximize automation, we extended our NeuroManager workflow automation suite to include these tools plus a separate investigation database. The extended suite allows the user to integrate ABI experimental and modeling data into an automated workflow deployed on heterogeneous computer infrastructures, from local servers, to high performance computing environments, to the cloud. Since our approach is focused on workflow procedures our tools can be modified to interact with the increasing number of neuroscience databases being developed to cover all scales and properties of the nervous system.

  18. An implantable integrated low-power amplifier-microelectrode array for Brain-Machine Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Erin; Sankar, Viswanath; Rowe, William; Sanchez, Justin C; Nishida, Toshikazu

    2010-01-01

    One of the important challenges in designing Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMI) is to build implantable systems that have the ability to reliably process the activity of large ensembles of cortical neurons. In this paper, we report the design, fabrication, and testing of a polyimide-based microelectrode array integrated with a low-power amplifier as part of the Florida Wireless Integrated Recording Electrode (FWIRE) project at the University of Florida developing a fully implantable neural recording system for BMI applications. The electrode array was fabricated using planar micromachining MEMS processes and hybrid packaged with the amplifier die using a flip-chip bonding technique. The system was tested both on bench and in-vivo. Acute and chronic neural recordings were obtained from a rodent for a period of 42 days. The electrode-amplifier performance was analyzed over the chronic recording period with the observation of a noise floor of 4.5 microVrms, and an average signal-to-noise ratio of 3.8.

  19. Quantifying white matter structural integrity with high-definition fiber tracking in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presson, Nora; Krishnaswamy, Deepa; Wagener, Lauren; Bird, William; Jarbo, Kevin; Pathak, Sudhir; Puccio, Ava M; Borasso, Allison; Benso, Steven; Okonkwo, David O; Schneider, Walter

    2015-03-01

    There is an urgent, unmet demand for definitive biological diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) to pinpoint the location and extent of damage. We have developed High-Definition Fiber Tracking, a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging-based diffusion spectrum imaging and tractography analysis protocol, to quantify axonal injury in military and civilian TBI patients. A novel analytical methodology quantified white matter integrity in patients with TBI and healthy controls. Forty-one subjects (23 TBI, 18 controls) were scanned with the High-Definition Fiber Tracking diffusion spectrum imaging protocol. After reconstruction, segmentation was used to isolate bilateral hemisphere homologues of eight major tracts. Integrity of segmented tracts was estimated by calculating homologue correlation and tract coverage. Both groups showed high correlations for all tracts. TBI patients showed reduced homologue correlation and tract spread and increased outlier count (correlations>2.32 SD below control mean). On average, 6.5% of tracts in the TBI group were outliers with substantial variability among patients. Number and summed deviation of outlying tracts correlated with initial Glasgow Coma Scale score and 6-month Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended score. The correlation metric used here can detect heterogeneous damage affecting a low proportion of tracts, presenting a potential mechanism for advancing TBI diagnosis. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  20. From the genome to the phenome and back: linking genes with human brain function and structure using genetically informed neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, H R; Callicott, J H; Sommer, T

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, an array of brain mapping techniques has been successfully employed to link individual differences in circuit function or structure in the living human brain with individual variations in the human genome. Several proof-of-principle studies provided converging evidence that brain...... imaging can establish important links between genes and behaviour. The overarching goal is to use genetically informed brain imaging to pinpoint neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to behavioural intermediate phenotypes or disease states. This special issue on "Linking Genes to Brain Function...... in Health and Disease" provides an overview over how the "imaging genetics" approach is currently applied in the various fields of systems neuroscience to reveal the genetic underpinnings of complex behaviours and brain diseases. While the rapidly emerging field of imaging genetics holds great promise...

  1. Information Integration and Communication in Plant Growth Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwanon, Juthamas; Wang, Wenfei; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Oh, Eunkyoo; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2016-03-10

    Plants are equipped with the capacity to respond to a large number of diverse signals, both internal ones and those emanating from the environment, that are critical to their survival and adaption as sessile organisms. These signals need to be integrated through highly structured intracellular networks to ensure coherent cellular responses, and in addition, spatiotemporal actions of hormones and peptides both orchestrate local cell differentiation and coordinate growth and physiology over long distances. Further, signal interactions and signaling outputs vary significantly with developmental context. This review discusses our current understanding of the integrated intracellular and intercellular signaling networks that control plant growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrating public information activities on a technical project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Sh. K.; Vecchiola, S.F.

    1984-01-01

    Through gradual evolution and successful performance, the WIPP Communications group has gained respect and recognition as a dual service organization that offers numerous benefits to a technical project. Westinghouse assembled a team that has successfully coordinated and encouraged an exchange of information not only with the public information realm but also as a project service and function. WIPP has combined educational services, external and employee communication and public information into one unit called ''Communications''

  3. Integrating Information Extraction Agents into a Tourism Recommender System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparcia, Sergio; Sánchez-Anguix, Víctor; Argente, Estefanía; García-Fornes, Ana; Julián, Vicente

    Recommender systems face some problems. On the one hand information needs to be maintained updated, which can result in a costly task if it is not performed automatically. On the other hand, it may be interesting to include third party services in the recommendation since they improve its quality. In this paper, we present an add-on for the Social-Net Tourism Recommender System that uses information extraction and natural language processing techniques in order to automatically extract and classify information from the Web. Its goal is to maintain the system updated and obtain information about third party services that are not offered by service providers inside the system.

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE RESTRUCTURING AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION PROCESS OF ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steliac Nela

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many of the organizations that are part of the public and private domain in Romania have reached the stage in which the existing information systems can no longer comply with the requests of users. Therefore, we are compelled by necessity to use integrated information systems which should be able to control all kinds of data and to allow access to them, to ensure the coherence and consistency of the stored information. Managers must be aware of the importance of the implementation of integrated information systems in the background restructuring of the organization, which can thus become consistent and competitive with the European Union one, so the integration process becomes a real and possible one.

  5. The human brain on a computer, the design neuromorphic chips aims to process information as does the mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajuelo, L.

    2015-01-01

    Develop chips that mimic the brain processes It will help create computers capable of interpreting information from image, sound and touch so that it may offer answers intelligent-not programmed before- according to these sensory data. chips neuromorphic may mimic the electrical activity neurons and brain synapses, and will be key to intelligence systems artificial (ia) that require interaction with the environment being able to extract information cognitive of what surrounds them. (Author)

  6. A system architecture for sharing de-identified, research-ready brain scans and health information across clinical imaging centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Ann L; van Erp, Theo G M; Kesselman, Carl; D'Arcy, Mike; Sobell, Janet; Keator, David; Dahm, Lisa; Murry, Jim; Law, Meng; Hasso, Anton; Ames, Joseph; Macciardi, Fabio; Potkin, Steven G

    2012-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of brain disorders increasingly relies on the costly collection of large standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Moreover, the clinical interpretation of brain scans benefits from compare and contrast analyses of scans from patients with similar, and sometimes rare, demographic, diagnostic, and treatment status. A solution to both needs is to acquire standardized, research-ready clinical brain scans and to build the information technology infrastructure to share such scans, along with other pertinent information, across hospitals. This paper describes the design, deployment, and operation of a federated imaging system that captures and shares standardized, de-identified clinical brain images in a federation across multiple institutions. In addition to describing innovative aspects of the system architecture and our initial testing of the deployed infrastructure, we also describe the Standardized Imaging Protocol (SIP) developed for the project and our interactions with the Institutional Review Board (IRB) regarding handling patient data in the federated environment.

  7. Stereovision-based integrated system for point cloud reconstruction and simulated brain shift validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Clements, Logan W; Luo, Ma; Narasimhan, Saramati; Thompson, Reid C; Dawant, Benoit M; Miga, Michael I

    2017-07-01

    Intraoperative soft tissue deformation, referred to as brain shift, compromises the application of current image-guided surgery navigation systems in neurosurgery. A computational model driven by sparse data has been proposed as a cost-effective method to compensate for cortical surface and volumetric displacements. We present a mock environment developed to acquire stereoimages from a tracked operating microscope and to reconstruct three-dimensional point clouds from these images. A reconstruction error of 1 mm is estimated by using a phantom with a known geometry and independently measured deformation extent. The microscope is tracked via an attached tracking rigid body that facilitates the recording of the position of the microscope via a commercial optical tracking system as it moves during the procedure. Point clouds, reconstructed under different microscope positions, are registered into the same space to compute the feature displacements. Using our mock craniotomy device, realistic cortical deformations are generated. When comparing our tracked microscope stereo-pair measure of mock vessel displacements to that of the measurement determined by the independent optically tracked stylus marking, the displacement error was [Formula: see text] on average. These results demonstrate the practicality of using tracked stereoscopic microscope as an alternative to laser range scanners to collect sufficient intraoperative information for brain shift correction.

  8. Stock market integration and the speed of information transmission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Alexandr

    -, č. 242 (2004), s. 1-25 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK8002119; GA ČR GA402/04/0270 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : stock market integration * market comovement * high-frequency data Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  9. Integration of information on climate, soil and cultivar to increase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BH660 shows higher water productivity (9.46 kgmm-1 of rainfall) under 2*MMP tillage than late plantings in experimental years. About 84 % of the variability in grain yield (BH660), 88% (Bolondie), 76% (A-511) and 70% (Limat) can be explained by the available soil water in crop root zone at planting. Hence, integration of ...

  10. Fast mapping rapidly integrates information into existing memory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutanche, Marc N; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2014-12-01

    Successful learning involves integrating new material into existing memory networks. A learning procedure known as fast mapping (FM), thought to simulate the word-learning environment of children, has recently been linked to distinct neuroanatomical substrates in adults. This idea has suggested the (never-before tested) hypothesis that FM may promote rapid incorporation into cortical memory networks. We test this hypothesis here in 2 experiments. In our 1st experiment, we introduced 50 participants to 16 unfamiliar animals and names through FM or explicit encoding (EE) and tested participants on the training day, and again after sleep. Learning through EE produced strong declarative memories, without immediate lexical competition, as expected from slow-consolidation models. Learning through FM, however, led to almost immediate lexical competition, which continued to the next day. Additionally, the learned words began to prime related concepts on the day following FM (but not EE) training. In a 2nd experiment, we replicated the lexical integration results and determined that presenting an already-known item during learning was crucial for rapid integration through FM. The findings presented here indicate that learned items can be integrated into cortical memory networks at an accelerated rate through fast mapping. The retrieval of a related known concept, in order to infer the target of the FM question, is critical for this effect. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. developing a one stop shop model for integrated land information

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    which will integrate the data on land ownership, land use and land value for all the land agen- ... services to the investor and other potential clients of land sector agencies involved in the land ..... account types such as a general user, re-.

  12. Assuring Integrity of Information Utility in Cyber-Learning Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James L.; Stein, Linda L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a cyber-learning project for the World Wide Web developed by faculty and librarians at the University of Delaware that combined discovery learning with problem-based learning to develop critical thinking and quality management for information. Undergraduates were to find, evaluate, and use information to generate an Internet marketing…

  13. Vertical Integration: Corporate Strategy in the Information Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Lizzie; Cronin, Blaise

    1986-01-01

    Profiles the corporate strategies of three sectors of the information industry and the trend toward consolidation in electronic publishing. Three companies' acquisitions are examined in detail using qualitative data from information industry columns and interpreting it on the basis of game theory. (EM)

  14. Design of the Hospital Integrated Information Management System Based on Cloud Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijing, L; Jin, Y

    2015-12-01

    At present, the outdated information management style cannot meet the needs of hospital management, and has become the bottleneck of hospital's management and development. In order to improve the integrated management of information, hospitals have increased their investment in integrated information management systems. On account of the lack of reasonable and scientific design, some hospital integrated information management systems have common problems, such as unfriendly interface, poor portability and maintainability, low security and efficiency, lack of interactivity and information sharing. To solve the problem, this paper carries out the research and design of a hospital information management system based on cloud platform, which can realize the optimized integration of hospital information resources and save money.

  15. 45 CFR 61.14 - Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank information. 61.14 Section 61.14 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON...

  16. 45 CFR 61.12 - Requesting information from the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requesting information from the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank. 61.12 Section 61.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION...

  17. Integrating information systems : linking global business goals to local database applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F.P.M.; Houben, G.J.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to design modern information systems that offer an integrated access to the data and knowledge that is available in local applications. By integrating the local data management activities into one transparent information distribution process, modern organizations

  18. The Integration of the Information and Communication Functions, and the Marketing of the Resulting Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Susan C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical basis for integration of information functions and communication functions, the relevance of this integration in the scientific information cycle, and its positive effect on commodity research networks. The application of this theory is described using three commodity programs of the Centro Internacional de Agricultura…

  19. A Critical Review of the Integration of Geographic Information System and Building Information Modelling at the Data Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiang Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The benefits brought by the integration of Building Information Modelling (BIM and Geographic Information Systems (GIS are being proved by more and more research. The integration of the two systems is difficult for many reasons. Among them, data incompatibility is the most significant, as BIM and GIS data are created, managed, analyzed, stored, and visualized in different ways in terms of coordinate systems, scope of interest, and data structures. The objective of this paper is to review the relevant research papers to (1 identify the most relevant data models used in BIM/GIS integration and understand their advantages and disadvantages; (2 consider the possibility of other data models that are available for data level integration; and (3 provide direction on the future of BIM/GIS data integration.

  20. Management of information in development projects – a proposed integrated model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bester

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The first section of the article focuses on the need for development in Africa and the specific challenges of development operations. It describes the need for a holistic and integrated information management model as part of the project management body of knowledge aimed at managing the information flow between communities and development project teams. It is argued that information, and access to information, is crucial in development projects and can therefore be seen as a critical success factor in any development project. In the second section of the article, the three information areas of the holistic and integrated information management model are described. In the section thereafter we suggest roles and actions for information managers to facilitate information processes integral to the model. These processes seek to create a developing information community that aligns itself with the development project, and supports and sustains it.

  1. Integrated management of information inside maintenance processes. From the building registry to BIM systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Talamo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents objec- tives, methods and results of two researches dealing with the improvement of integrated information management within maintenance processes. Focusing on information needs regarding the last phases of the building process, the two researches draft approaches characterizing a path of progressive improve- ment of strategies for integration: from a building registry, unique for the whole construction process, to an integrated management of the building process with the support of BIM systems.

  2. Cocaine impairs serial-feature negative learning and blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Terry L; Hargrave, Sara L; Kearns, David N; Clasen, Matthew M; Jones, Sabrina; Wakeford, Alison G P; Sample, Camille H; Riley, Anthony L

    2018-05-10

    Previous research has shown that diets high in fat and sugar [a.k.a., Western diets (WD)] can impair performance of rats on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory problems, an effect that is accompanied by selective increases in hippocampal blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Based on these types of findings, it has been proposed that overeating of a WD (and its resulting obesity) may be, in part, a consequence of impairments in these anatomical substrates and cognitive processes. Given that drug use (and addiction) represents another behavioral excess, the present experiments assessed if similar outcomes might occur with drug exposure by evaluating the effects of cocaine administration on hippocampal-dependent memory and on the integrity of the BBB. Experiment 1 of the present series of studies found that systemic cocaine administration in rats also appears to have disruptive effects on the same hippocampal-dependent learning and memory mechanism that has been proposed to underlie the inhibition of food intake. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the same regimen of cocaine exposure that produced disruptions in learning and memory in Experiment 1 also produced increased BBB permeability in the hippocampus, but not in the striatum. Although the predominant focus of previous research investigating the etiologies of substance use and abuse has been on the brain circuits that underlie the motivational properties of drugs, the current investigation implicates the possible involvement of hippocampal memory systems in such behaviors. It is important to note that these positions are not mutually exclusive and that neuroadaptations in these two circuits might occur in parallel that generate dysregulated drug use in a manner similar to that of excessive eating. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of Texture Analysis to Study Small Vessel Disease and Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del C. Valdés Hernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesWe evaluate the alternative use of texture analysis for evaluating the role of blood–brain barrier (BBB in small vessel disease (SVD.MethodsWe used brain magnetic resonance imaging from 204 stroke patients, acquired before and 20 min after intravenous gadolinium administration. We segmented tissues, white matter hyperintensities (WMH and applied validated visual scores. We measured textural features in all tissues pre- and post-contrast and used ANCOVA to evaluate the effect of SVD indicators on the pre-/post-contrast change, Kruskal–Wallis for significance between patient groups and linear mixed models for pre-/post-contrast variations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF with Fazekas scores.ResultsTextural “homogeneity” increase in normal tissues with higher presence of SVD indicators was consistently more overt than in abnormal tissues. Textural “homogeneity” increased with age, basal ganglia perivascular spaces scores (p < 0.01 and SVD scores (p < 0.05 and was significantly higher in hypertensive patients (p < 0.002 and lacunar stroke (p = 0.04. Hypertension (74% patients, WMH load (median = 1.5 ± 1.6% of intracranial volume, and age (mean = 65.6 years, SD = 11.3 predicted the pre/post-contrast change in normal white matter, WMH, and index stroke lesion. CSF signal increased with increasing SVD post-contrast.ConclusionA consistent general pattern of increasing textural “homogeneity” with increasing SVD and post-contrast change in CSF with increasing WMH suggest that texture analysis may be useful for the study of BBB integrity.

  4. Risk Information Management Resource (RIMR): modeling an approach to defending against military medical information assurance brain drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Willie E.

    2003-05-01

    As Military Medical Information Assurance organizations face off with modern pressures to downsize and outsource, they battle with losing knowledgeable people who leave and take with them what they know. This knowledge is increasingly being recognized as an important resource and organizations are now taking steps to manage it. In addition, as the pressures for globalization (Castells, 1998) increase, collaboration and cooperation are becoming more distributed and international. Knowledge sharing in a distributed international environment is becoming an essential part of Knowledge Management. This is a major shortfall in the current approach to capturing and sharing knowledge in Military Medical Information Assurance. This paper addresses this challenge by exploring Risk Information Management Resource (RIMR) as a tool for sharing knowledge using the concept of Communities of Practice. RIMR is based no the framework of sharing and using knowledge. This concept is done through three major components - people, process and technology. The people aspect enables remote collaboration, support communities of practice, reward and recognize knowledge sharing while encouraging storytelling. The process aspect enhances knowledge capture and manages information. While the technology aspect enhance system integration and data mining, it also utilizes intelligent agents and exploits expert systems. These coupled with supporting activities of education and training, technology infrastructure and information security enables effective information assurance collaboration.

  5. Integrating information technologies as tools for surgical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Scott R

    2005-10-01

    Surgical research is dependent upon information technologies. Selection of the computer, operating system, and software tool that best support the surgical investigator's needs requires careful planning before research commences. This manuscript presents a brief tutorial on how surgical investigators can best select these information technologies, with comparisons and recommendations between existing systems, software, and solutions. Privacy concerns, based upon HIPAA and other regulations, now require careful proactive attention to avoid legal penalties, civil litigation, and financial loss. Security issues are included as part of the discussions related to selection and application of information technology. This material was derived from a segment of the Association for Academic Surgery's Fundamentals of Surgical Research course.

  6. Stock market integration and the speed of information transmission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Alexandr; Koblas, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, 1-2 (2008), s. 2-20 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : stock market integration * market comovement * intra-day data Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2008 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1098_str_2_20_-_cerny-koblas.pdf

  7. Role of consciousness in temporal integration of semantic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yung-Hao; Tien, Yung-Hsuan; Yang, Pei-Ling; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies found that word meaning can be processed unconsciously. Yet it remains unknown whether temporally segregated words can be integrated into a holistic meaningful phrase without consciousness. The first four experiments were designed to examine this by sequentially presenting the first three words of Chinese four-word idioms as prime to one eye and dynamic Mondrians to the other (i.e., the continuous flash suppression paradigm; CFS). An unmasked target word followed the three masked words in a lexical decision task. Results from such invisible (CFS) condition were compared with the visible condition where the preceding words were superimposed on the Mondrians and presented to both eyes. Lower performance in behavioral experiments and larger N400 event-related potentials (ERP) component for incongruent- than congruent-ending words were found in the visible condition. However, no such congruency effect was found in the invisible condition, even with enhanced statistical power and top-down attention, and with several potential confounding factors (contrast-dependent processing, long interval, no conscious training) excluded. Experiment 5 demonstrated that familiarity of word orientation without temporal integration can be processed unconsciously, excluding the possibility of general insensitivity of our paradigm. The overall result pattern therefore suggests that consciousness plays an important role in semantic temporal integration in the conditions we tested.

  8. Integrating Programming Language and Operating System Information Security Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    suggestions for reducing the burden, to the Department of Defense, Executive Service Directorate (0704-0188). Respondents should be aware that...improve the precision of security enforcement, and to provide greater assurance of information security. This grant focuses on two key projects: language...based control of authority; and formal guarantees for the correctness of audit information. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  9. Extending Current Theories of Cross-Boundary Information Sharing and Integration: A Case Study of Taiwan e-Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tung-Mou

    2011-01-01

    Information sharing and integration has long been considered an important approach for increasing organizational efficiency and performance. With advancements in information and communication technologies, sharing and integrating information across organizations becomes more attractive and practical to organizations. However, achieving…

  10. Automated granularity to integrate digital information: the "Antarctic Treaty Searchable Database" case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arthur Berkman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Access to information is necessary, but not sufficient in our digital era. The challenge is to objectively integrate digital resources based on user-defined objectives for the purpose of discovering information relationships that facilitate interpretations and decision making. The Antarctic Treaty Searchable Database (http://aspire.nvi.net, which is in its sixth edition, provides an example of digital integration based on the automated generation of information granules that can be dynamically combined to reveal objective relationships within and between digital information resources. This case study further demonstrates that automated granularity and dynamic integration can be accomplished simply by utilizing the inherent structure of the digital information resources. Such information integration is relevant to library and archival programs that require long-term preservation of authentic digital resources.

  11. Acute Sleep Deprivation Induces a Local Brain Transfer Information Increase in the Frontal Cortex in a Widespread Decrease Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Joan F; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miguel A; Alcalá, Marta; Antonijoan, Rosa M; Giménez, Sandra

    2016-04-14

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has adverse effects on mental and physical health, affecting the cognitive abilities and emotional states. Specifically, cognitive functions and alertness are known to decrease after SD. The aim of this work was to identify the directional information transfer after SD on scalp EEG signals using transfer entropy (TE). Using a robust methodology based on EEG recordings of 18 volunteers deprived from sleep for 36 h, TE and spectral analysis were performed to characterize EEG data acquired every 2 h. Correlation between connectivity measures and subjective somnolence was assessed. In general, TE showed medium- and long-range significant decreases originated at the occipital areas and directed towards different regions, which could be interpreted as the transfer of predictive information from parieto-occipital activity to the rest of the head. Simultaneously, short-range increases were obtained for the frontal areas, following a consistent and robust time course with significant maps after 20 h of sleep deprivation. Changes during sleep deprivation in brain network were measured effectively by TE, which showed increased local connectivity and diminished global integration. TE is an objective measure that could be used as a potential measure of sleep pressure and somnolence with the additional property of directed relationships.

  12. Acute Sleep Deprivation Induces a Local Brain Transfer Information Increase in the Frontal Cortex in a Widespread Decrease Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan F. Alonso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD has adverse effects on mental and physical health, affecting the cognitive abilities and emotional states. Specifically, cognitive functions and alertness are known to decrease after SD. The aim of this work was to identify the directional information transfer after SD on scalp EEG signals using transfer entropy (TE. Using a robust methodology based on EEG recordings of 18 volunteers deprived from sleep for 36 h, TE and spectral analysis were performed to characterize EEG data acquired every 2 h. Correlation between connectivity measures and subjective somnolence was assessed. In general, TE showed medium- and long-range significant decreases originated at the occipital areas and directed towards different regions, which could be interpreted as the transfer of predictive information from parieto-occipital activity to the rest of the head. Simultaneously, short-range increases were obtained for the frontal areas, following a consistent and robust time course with significant maps after 20 h of sleep deprivation. Changes during sleep deprivation in brain network were measured effectively by TE, which showed increased local connectivity and diminished global integration. TE is an objective measure that could be used as a potential measure of sleep pressure and somnolence with the additional property of directed relationships.

  13. Alpha-Tocopherol Reduces Brain Edema and Protects Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity following Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghnejad Azar, Adel; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Bohlooli, Shahab; Panahpour, Hamdollah

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the neuroprotective effects of α-tocopherol against edema formation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 major groups (n = 32 in each), namely the sham, and control and α-tocopherol-treated (30 mg/kg) ischemic groups. Transient focal cerebral ischemia (90 min) was induced by occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. At the end of the 24-hour reperfusion period, the animals were randomly selected and used for 4 investigations (n = 8) in each of the 3 main groups: (a) assessment of neurological score and measurement of infarct size, (b) detection of brain edema formation by the wet/dry method, (c) evaluation of BBB permeability using the Evans blue (EB) extravasation technique, and (d) assessment of the malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Induction of cerebral ischemia in the control group produced extensive brain edema (brain water content 83.8 ± 0.11%) and EB leakage into brain parenchyma (14.58 ± 1.29 µg/g) in conjunction with reduced GSH and elevated MDA levels (5.86 ± 0.31 mmol/mg and 63.57 ± 5.42 nmol/mg, respectively). Treatment with α-tocopherol significantly lowered brain edema formation and reduced EB leakage compared with the control group (p < 0.001, 80.1 ± 0.32% and 6.66 ± 0.87 µg/g, respectively). Meanwhile, treatment with α-tocopherol retained tissue GSH levels and led to a lower MDA level (p < 0.01, 10.17 ± 0.83 mmol/mg, and p < 0.001, 26.84 ± 4.79 nmol/mg, respectively). Treatment with α-tocopherol reduced ischemic edema formation and produced protective effects on BBB function following ischemic stroke occurrence. This effect could be through increasing antioxidant activity. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. A State-of-the-Art Review on the Integration of Building Information Modeling (BIM and Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Building Information Modeling (BIM and Geographic Information System (GIS has been identified as a promising but challenging topic to transform information towards the generation of knowledge and intelligence. Achievement of integrating these two concepts and enabling technologies will have a significant impact on solving problems in the civil, building and infrastructure sectors. However, since GIS and BIM were originally developed for different purposes, numerous challenges are being encountered for the integration. To better understand these two different domains, this paper reviews the development and dissimilarities of GIS and BIM, the existing integration methods, and investigates their potential in various applications. This study shows that the integration methods are developed for various reasons and aim to solve different problems. The parameters influencing the choice can be summarized and named as “EEEF” criteria: effectiveness, extensibility, effort, and flexibility. Compared with other methods, semantic web technologies provide a promising and generalized integration solution. However, the biggest challenges of this method are the large efforts required at early stage and the isolated development of ontologies within one particular domain. The isolation problem also applies to other methods. Therefore, openness is the key of the success of BIM and GIS integration.

  15. Restructuring Consciousness –the Psychedelic State in Light of Integrated Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Robert Gallimore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The psychological state elicited by the classic psychedelics drugs, such as LSD and psilocybin, is one of the most fascinating and yet least understood states of consciousness. However, with the advent of modern functional neuroimaging techniques, the effect of these drugs on neural activity is now being revealed, although many of the varied phenomenological features of the psychedelic state remain challenging to explain. Integrated information theory (IIT is one of the foremost contemporary theories of consciousness, providing a mathematical formalization of both the quantity and quality of conscious experience. This theory can be applied to all known states of consciousness, including the psychedelic state. Using the results of functional neuroimaging data on the psychedelic state, the effects of psychedelic drugs on both the level and structure of consciousness can be explained in terms of the conceptual framework of IIT. This new IIT-based model of the psychedelic state provides an explanation for many of its phenomenological features, including unconstrained cognition, alterations in the structure and meaning of concepts and a sense of expanded awareness. This model also suggests that whilst cognitive flexibility, creativity, and imagination are enhanced during the psychedelic state, this occurs at the expense of cause-effect information, as well as degrading the brain’s ability to organize, categorize, and differentiate the constituents of conscious experience. Furthermore, the model generates specific predictions that can be tested using a combination of functional imaging techniques, as has been applied to the study of levels of consciousness during anesthesia and following brain injury.

  16. Spectral Transfer Learning using Information Geometry for a User-Independent Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Roy Waytowich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques have enabled the application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI technologies to fields such as medicine, industry and recreation. However, BCIs still suffer from the requirement of frequent calibration sessions due to the intra- and inter- individual variability of brain-signals, which makes calibration suppression through transfer learning an area of increasing interest for the development of practical BCI systems. In this paper, we present an unsupervised transfer method (spectral transfer using information geometry, STIG, which ranks and combines unlabeled predictions from an ensemble of information geometry classifiers built on data from individual training subjects. The STIG method is validated in both offline and real-time feedback analysis during a rapid serial visual presentation task (RSVP. For detection of single-trial, event-related potentials (ERPs, the proposed method can significantly outperform existing calibration-free techniques as well as outperform traditional within-subject calibration techniques when limited data is available. This method demonstrates that unsupervised transfer learning for single-trial detection in ERP-based BCIs can be achieved without the requirement of costly training data, representing a step-forward in the overall goal of achieving a practical user-independent BCI system.

  17. Information-geometric measures estimate neural interactions during oscillatory brain states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin eNie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of functional network structures among multiple neurons is essential to understanding neural information processing. Information geometry (IG, a theory developed for investigating a space of probability distributions has recently been applied to spike-train analysis and has provided robust estimations of neural interactions. Although neural firing in the equilibrium state is often assumed in these studies, in reality, neural activity is non-stationary. The brain exhibits various oscillations depending on cognitive demands or when an animal is asleep. Therefore, the investigation of the IG measures during oscillatory network states is important for testing how the IG method can be applied to real neural data. Using model networks of binary neurons or more realistic spiking neurons, we studied how the single- and pairwise-IG measures were influenced by oscillatory neural activity. Two general oscillatory mechanisms, externally driven oscillations and internally induced oscillations, were considered. In both mechanisms, we found that the single-IG measure was linearly related to the magnitude of the external input, and that the pairwise-IG measure was linearly related to the sum of connection strengths between two neurons. We also observed that the pairwise-IG measure was not dependent on the oscillation frequency. These results are consistent with the previous findings that were obtained under the equilibrium conditions. Therefore, we demonstrate that the IG method provides useful insights into neural interactions under the oscillatory condition that can often be observed in the real brain.

  18. Spectral Transfer Learning Using Information Geometry for a User-Independent Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waytowich, Nicholas R; Lawhern, Vernon J; Bohannon, Addison W; Ball, Kenneth R; Lance, Brent J

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques have enabled the application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technologies to fields such as medicine, industry, and recreation; however, BCIs still suffer from the requirement of frequent calibration sessions due to the intra- and inter-individual variability of brain-signals, which makes calibration suppression through transfer learning an area of increasing interest for the development of practical BCI systems. In this paper, we present an unsupervised transfer method (spectral transfer using information geometry, STIG), which ranks and combines unlabeled predictions from an ensemble of information geometry classifiers built on data from individual training subjects. The STIG method is validated in both off-line and real-time feedback analysis during a rapid serial visual presentation task (RSVP). For detection of single-trial, event-related potentials (ERPs), the proposed method can significantly outperform existing calibration-free techniques as well as outperform traditional within-subject calibration techniques when limited data is available. This method demonstrates that unsupervised transfer learning for single-trial detection in ERP-based BCIs can be achieved without the requirement of costly training data, representing a step-forward in the overall goal of achieving a practical user-independent BCI system.

  19. Population-averaged macaque brain atlas with high-resolution ex vivo DTI integrated into in vivo space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Jeon, Tina; Yu, Qiaowen; Ouyang, Minhui; Peng, Qinmu; Mishra, Virendra; Pletikos, Mihovil; Sestan, Nenad; Miller, Michael I; Mori, Susumu; Hsiao, Steven; Liu, Shuwei; Huang, Hao

    2017-12-01

    Animal models of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), the most widely used nonhuman primate, have been irreplaceable in neurobiological studies. However, a population-averaged macaque brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) atlas, including comprehensive gray and white matter labeling as well as bony and facial landmarks guiding invasive experimental procedures, is not available. The macaque white matter tract pathways and microstructures have been rarely recorded. Here, we established a population-averaged macaque brain atlas with high-resolution ex vivo DTI integrated into in vivo space incorporating bony and facial landmarks, and delineated microstructures and three-dimensional pathways of major white matter tracts in vivo MRI/DTI and ex vivo (postmortem) DTI of ten rhesus macaque brains were acquired. Single-subject macaque brain DTI template was obtained by transforming the postmortem high-resolution DTI data into in vivo space. Ex vivo DTI of ten macaque brains was then averaged in the in vivo single-subject template space to generate population-averaged macaque brain DTI atlas. The white matter tracts were traced with DTI-based tractography. One hundred and eighteen neural structures including all cortical gyri, white matter tracts and subcortical nuclei, were labeled manually on population-averaged DTI-derived maps. The in vivo microstructural metrics of fractional anisotropy, axial, radial and mean diffusivity of the traced white matter tracts were measured. Population-averaged digital atlas integrated into in vivo space can be used to label the experimental macaque brain automatically. Bony and facial landmarks will be available for guiding invasive procedures. The DTI metric measurements offer unique insights into heterogeneous microstructural profiles of different white matter tracts.

  20. Developing Integrated Taxonomies for a Tiered Information Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Jayne E.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of developing taxonomies for an information architecture. In order to assist people in accessing information required to access information and retrieval, including cross repository searching, a system of nested taxonomies is being developed. Another facet of this developmental project is collecting and documenting attributes about people, to allow for several uses: access management, i.e., who are you and what can you see?; targeted content delivery i.e., what content helps you get your work done?; w ork force planning i.e., what skill sets do you have that we can appl y to work?; and IT Services i.e., How can we provision you with the proper IT services?

  1. Toshiba integrated information system for design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yoko; Kawamura, Hirobumi; Sasaki, Norio; Takasaka, Kiyoshi

    1993-01-01

    TOSHIBA aims to secure safety, increase reliability and improve efficiency through the engineering for nuclear power plants and has been introducing Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). Up to the present, TOSHIBA has been developing computer systems which support each field of design and applying them to the design of nuclear power plants. The new design support system has been developed to integrate each of those systems in order to realize much greater improvement in accuracy and increase of reliability in design using state-of-the-art computer technology

  2. Computer-integrated design and information management for nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Martin-Guirado, L.; Nebrera, F.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past seven years, Empresarios Agrupados has been developing a comprehensive, computer-integrated system to perform the majority of the engineering, design, procurement and construction management activities in nuclear, fossil-fired as well as hydro power plant projects. This system, which is already in a production environment, comprises a large number of computer programs and data bases designed using a modular approach. Each software module, dedicated to meeting the needs of a particular design group or project discipline, facilitates the performance of functional tasks characteristic of the power plant engineering process

  3. Utility of the Croatian translation of the community integration questionnaire-revised in a sample of adults with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tršinski, Dubravko; Tadinac, Meri; Bakran, Žarko; Klepo, Ivana

    2018-02-23

    To examine the utility of the Community Integration Questionnaire-Revised, translated into Croatian, in a sample of adults with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. The Community Integration Questionnaire-Revised was administered to a sample of 88 adults with traumatic brain injury and to a control sample matched by gender, age and education. Participants with traumatic brain injury were divided into four subgroups according to injury severity. The internal consistency of the Community Integration Questionnaire-Revised was satisfactory. The differences between the group with traumatic brain injury and the control group were statistically significant for the overall Community Integration Questionnaire-Revised score, as well as for all the subscales apart from the Home Integration subscale. The community Integration Questionnaire-Revised score varied significantly for subgroups with different severity of traumatic brain injury. The results show that the Croatian translation of the Community Integration Questionnaire-Revised is useful in assessing participation in adults with traumatic brain injury and confirm previous findings that severity of injury predicts community integration. Results of the new Electronic Social Networking scale indicate that persons who are more active on electronic social networks report better results for other domains of community integration, especially social activities. Implications for rehabilitation The Croatian translation of the Community Integration Questionnaire-Revised is a valid tool for long-term assessment of participation in various domains in persons with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury Persons with traumatic brain injury who are more active in the use of electronic social networking are also more integrated into social and productivity domains. Targeted training in the use of new technologies could enhance participation after traumatic brain injury.

  4. Early brain development toward shaping of human mind: an integrative psychoneurodevelopmental model in prenatal and perinatal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Radovan; Maas, Lili M; Fedor-Freybergh, P G

    2013-01-01

    The article introduces an integrative psychoneurodevelopmental model of complex human brain and mind development based on the latest findings in prenatal and perinatal medicine in terms of integrative neuroscience. The human brain development is extraordinarily complex set of events and could be influenced by a lot of factors. It is supported by new insights into the early neuro-ontogenic processes with the help of structural 3D magnetic resonance imaging or diffusion tensor imaging of fetal human brain. Various factors and targets for neural development including birth weight variability, fetal and early-life programming, fetal neurobehavioral states and fetal behavioral responses to various stimuli and others are discussed. Molecular biology reveals increasing sets of genes families as well as transcription and neurotropic factors together with critical epigenetic mechanisms to be deeply employed in the crucial neurodevelopmental events. Another field of critical importance is psychoimmuno-neuroendocrinology. Various effects of glucocorticoids as well as other hormones, prenatal stress and fetal HPA axis modulation are thought to be of special importance for brain development. The early postnatal period is characterized by the next intense shaping of complex competences, induced mainly by the very unique mother - newborn´s interactions and bonding. All these mechanisms serve to shape individual human mind with complex abilities and neurobehavioral strategies. Continuous research elucidating these special competences of human fetus and newborn/child supports integrative neuroscientific approach to involve various scientific disciplines for the next progress in human brain and mind research, and opens new scientific challenges and philosophic attitudes. New findings and approaches in this field could establish new methods in science, in primary prevention and treatment strategies, and markedly contribute to the development of modern integrative and personalized

  5. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infects human brain microvascular endothelial cells without compromising blood-brain barrier integrity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palus, Martin; Vancová, Marie; Širmarová, J.; Elsterová, Jana; Perner, Jan; Růžek, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 507, JUL (2017), s. 110-122 ISSN 0042-6822 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-34238A; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * tick-borne encephalitis virus * blood- brain barrier * neuroinfection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 3.353, year: 2016

  6. Dynamics of processing invisible faces in the brain: automatic neural encoding of facial expression information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Shannon, Robert W; Vizueta, Nathalie; Bernat, Edward M; Patrick, Christopher J; He, Sheng

    2009-02-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) and the superior temporal sulcus (STS) are suggested to process facial identity and facial expression information respectively. We recently demonstrated a functional dissociation between the FFA and the STS as well as correlated sensitivity of the STS and the amygdala to facial expressions using an interocular suppression paradigm [Jiang, Y., He, S., 2006. Cortical responses to invisible faces: dissociating subsystems for facial-information processing. Curr. Biol. 16, 2023-2029.]. In the current event-related brain potential (ERP) study, we investigated the temporal dynamics of facial information processing. Observers viewed neutral, fearful, and scrambled face stimuli, either visibly or rendered invisible through interocular suppression. Relative to scrambled face stimuli, intact visible faces elicited larger positive P1 (110-130 ms) and larger negative N1 or N170 (160-180 ms) potentials at posterior occipital and bilateral occipito-temporal regions respectively, with the N170 amplitude significantly greater for fearful than neutral faces. Invisible intact faces generated a stronger signal than scrambled faces at 140-200 ms over posterior occipital areas whereas invisible fearful faces (compared to neutral and scrambled faces) elicited a significantly larger negative deflection starting at 220 ms along the STS. These results provide further evidence for cortical processing of facial information without awareness and elucidate the temporal sequence of automatic facial expression information extraction.

  7. Integrated processing of ECG's in a hospital information system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, J.C.; Schram, P.H.; Verwey, H.; Meijler, F.L.; Robles de Medina, E.O.

    The ECG handling in the University Hospital of Utrecht is composed by a system consisting of acquisition and storage of ECG signals, computer analysis, data management, and storage of readings in a patient data base. The last two modules are part of a Hospital Information System (HIS). The modular

  8. Empowerment of Cancer Survivors Through Information Technology : An Integrative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Wim G.; Kuijpers, Wilma; Oldenburg, Hester S.A.; Wouters, Michel W.J.M.; Aaronson, Neil K.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patient empowerment may be an effective approach to strengthen the role of cancer survivors and to reduce the burden on health care. However, it is not well conceptualized, notably in oncology. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent information technology (IT) services can contribute

  9. Empowerment of cancer survivors through information technology: an integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, W.G.; Kuijpers, W.; Oldenburg, H.S.A.; Wouters, M.W.J.M.; Aaronson, N.K.; van Harten, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patient empowerment may be an effective approach to strengthen the role of cancer survivors and to reduce the burden on health care. However, it is not well conceptualized, notably in oncology. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent information technology (IT) services can contribute

  10. Exploitation of Unintentional Information Leakage from Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, William E.

    2011-01-01

    The information leakage of electronic devices, especially those used in cryptographic or other vital applications, represents a serious practical threat to secure systems. While physical implementation attacks have evolved rapidly over the last decade, relatively little work has been done to allow system designers to effectively counter the…

  11. An Art Information System: From Integration to Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Patricia J.

    1988-01-01

    Explores the qualities of bibliographic and object entities that contribute to the similarities and differences in the data describing them and the possibility of cooperation between indexers of art objects and indexers of bibliographic information. The discussion covers the role of authority control as the linking component between bibliographic…

  12. Exploration into technical procedures for vertical integration. [information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, R. J.; Maw, K. D.

    1979-01-01

    Issues in the design and use of a digital geographic information system incorporating landuse, zoning, hazard, LANDSAT, and other data are discussed. An eleven layer database was generated. Issues in spatial resolution, registration, grid versus polygonal structures, and comparison of photointerpreted landuse to LANDSAT land cover are examined.

  13. Smart Libraries: Integrating Communications Channels and Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, T. D.; Jensen, E. A.

    Noting that the changing nature of information delivery has established immediacy as the new basis for modern library service, this paper describes the new facilities design and floor plan for the library of Kapiolani Community College of the University of Hawaii. The new library was carefully designed so that students can move progressively from…

  14. Toward an Information Integration Approach to Issue Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, William; And Others

    Issue advertising is intended to inform an audience--most commonly with the intent of changing unfavorable opinions or reinforcing favorable ones--to affect cognition (in contrast to the behavioral emphasis of product and service advertising, intended to stimulate trail and adoption). To explore public reactions to printed and televised issues…

  15. Intensive care unit nurses' information needs and recommendations for integrated displays to improve nurses' situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sven H; Weir, Charlene; Haar, Maral; Staggers, Nancy; Agutter, Jim; Görges, Matthias; Westenskow, Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    Fatal errors can occur in intensive care units (ICUs). Researchers claim that information integration at the bedside may improve nurses' situation awareness (SA) of patients and decrease errors. However, it is unclear which information should be integrated and in what form. Our research uses the theory of SA to analyze the type of tasks, and their associated information gaps. We aimed to provide recommendations for integrated, consolidated information displays to improve nurses' SA. Systematic observations methods were used to follow 19 ICU nurses for 38 hours in 3 clinical practice settings. Storyboard methods and concept mapping helped to categorize the observed tasks, the associated information needs, and the information gaps of the most frequent tasks by SA level. Consensus and discussion of the research team was used to propose recommendations to improve information displays at the bedside based on information deficits. Nurses performed 46 different tasks at a rate of 23.4 tasks per hour. The information needed to perform the most common tasks was often inaccessible, difficult to see at a distance or located on multiple monitoring devices. Current devices at the ICU bedside do not adequately support a nurse's information-gathering activities. Medication management was the most frequent category of tasks. Information gaps were present at all levels of SA and across most of the tasks. Using a theoretical model to understand information gaps can aid in designing functional requirements. Integrated information that enhances nurses' Situation Awareness may decrease errors and improve patient safety in the future.

  16. A Fuzzy Integral Ensemble Method in Visual P300 Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cavrini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the possibility of application of combination of classifiers using fuzzy measures and integrals to Brain-Computer Interface (BCI based on electroencephalography. In particular, we present an ensemble method that can be applied to a variety of systems and evaluate it in the context of a visual P300-based BCI. Offline analysis of data relative to 5 subjects lets us argue that the proposed classification strategy is suitable for BCI. Indeed, the achieved performance is significantly greater than the average of the base classifiers and, broadly speaking, similar to that of the best one. Thus the proposed methodology allows realizing systems that can be used by different subjects without the need for a preliminary configuration phase in which the best classifier for each user has to be identified. Moreover, the ensemble is often capable of detecting uncertain situations and turning them from misclassifications into abstentions, thereby improving the level of safety in BCI for environmental or device control.

  17. A Pilot Project of Early Integrated Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Kwaon Lui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Document acute neurosurgical and rehabilitation parameters of patients of all traumatic brain injury (TBI severities and determine whether early screening along with very early integrated TBI rehabilitation changes functional outcomes. Methods. Prospective study involving all patients with TBI admitted to a neurosurgical department of a tertiary hospital. They were assessed within 72 hours of admission by the rehabilitation team and received twice weekly rehabilitation reviews. Patients with further rehabilitation needs were then transferred to the attached acute inpatient TBI rehabilitation unit (TREATS and their functional outcomes were compared against a historical group of patients. Demographic variables, acute neurosurgical characteristics, medical complications, and rehabilitation outcomes were recorded. Results. There were 298 patients screened with an average age of 61.8±19.1 years. The most common etiology was falls (77.5%. Most patients were discharged home directly (67.4% and 22.8% of patients were in TREATS. The TREATS group functionally improved (P<0.001. Regression analysis showed by the intervention of TREATS, that there was a statistically significant FIM functional gain of 18.445 points (95% CI −30.388 to −0.6502, P=0.03. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated important epidemiological data on an unselected cohort of patients with TBI in Singapore and functional improvement in patients who further received inpatient rehabilitation.

  18. Implementation of integrated heterogeneous electronic electrocardiography data into Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumrin, Piyapong; Chumpoo, Pitupoom

    2016-03-01

    Electrocardiography is one of the most important non-invasive diagnostic tools for diagnosing coronary heart disease. The electrocardiography information system in Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital required a massive manual labor effort. In this article, we propose an approach toward the integration of heterogeneous electrocardiography data and the implementation of an integrated electrocardiography information system into the existing Hospital Information System. The system integrates different electrocardiography formats into a consistent electrocardiography rendering by using Java software. The interface acts as middleware to seamlessly integrate different electrocardiography formats. Instead of using a common electrocardiography protocol, we applied a central format based on Java classes for mapping different electrocardiography formats which contains a specific parser for each electrocardiography format to acquire the same information. Our observations showed that the new system improved the effectiveness of data management, work flow, and data quality; increased the availability of information; and finally improved quality of care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Geographic Information Systems for the Regional Integration of Renewable Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador Guerra, J.; Dominguez Bravo, J.

    2000-01-01

    This report is based on the project: The GIS in the regional integration of Renewable Energies for decentralised electricity production; developed by CIEMAT (Spanish Energy Research Centre) and UPM (Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain) since 1997. The objective of this project is to analyse, evaluate and improve the GIS methodologies for application in RE and how GIS can aid in the evaluation and simulation of influence of technical, socio economical and geographical parameters. This project begin with the review of SOLARGIS methodology. SOLARGIS was developed by an european research team (included CIEMAT) in the frame of JOULE II Programme. In the first place this report described the state of the art in the application of GIS to Renewable Energies. In second place, the SOLARGIS review tasks and the application of this new product to Lorca (Murcia Region in Spain). Finally, the report describes the methodology for the spatial sensibility analysis. (Author) 24 refs

  20. The posterior parietal cortex as integrative hub for whisker sensorimotor information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohan, Hemanth; de Haan, Roel; Mansvelder, Huibert D; de Kock, Christiaan P J

    2018-01-01

    Our daily life consists of a continuous interplay between incoming sensory information and outgoing motor plans. Particularly during goal-directed behavior and active exploration of the sensory environment, brain circuits are merging sensory and motor signals. This is referred to as sensorimotor

  1. On the integrity of functional brain networks in schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and advanced age: Evidence from connectivity-based single-subject classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pläschke, Rachel N; Cieslik, Edna C; Müller, Veronika I; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Plachti, Anna; Varikuti, Deepthi P; Goosses, Mareike; Latz, Anne; Caspers, Svenja; Jockwitz, Christiane; Moebus, Susanne; Gruber, Oliver; Eickhoff, Claudia R; Reetz, Kathrin; Heller, Julia; Südmeyer, Martin; Mathys, Christian; Caspers, Julian; Grefkes, Christian; Kalenscher, Tobias; Langner, Robert; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2017-12-01

    Previous whole-brain functional connectivity studies achieved successful classifications of patients and healthy controls but only offered limited specificity as to affected brain systems. Here, we examined whether the connectivity patterns of functional systems affected in schizophrenia (SCZ), Parkinson's disease (PD), or normal aging equally translate into high classification accuracies for these conditions. We compared classification performance between pre-defined networks for each group and, for any given network, between groups. Separate support vector machine classifications of 86 SCZ patients, 80 PD patients, and 95 older adults relative to their matched healthy/young controls, respectively, were performed on functional connectivity in 12 task-based, meta-analytically defined networks using 25 replications of a nested 10-fold cross-validation scheme. Classification performance of the various networks clearly differed between conditions, as those networks that best classified one disease were usually non-informative for the other. For SCZ, but not PD, emotion-processing, empathy, and cognitive action control networks distinguished patients most accurately from controls. For PD, but not SCZ, networks subserving autobiographical or semantic memory, motor execution, and theory-of-mind cognition yielded the best classifications. In contrast, young-old classification was excellent based on all networks and outperformed both clinical classifications. Our pattern-classification approach captured associations between clinical and developmental conditions and functional network integrity with a higher level of specificity than did previous whole-brain analyses. Taken together, our results support resting-state connectivity as a marker of functional dysregulation in specific networks known to be affected by SCZ and PD, while suggesting that aging affects network integrity in a more global way. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5845-5858, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017

  2. Smoother Sailing Ahead: Integrating Information Technology into the Surface Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    foreign competition, Ford Motor Company examined many areas of its operations. In its supply procurement division Ford employed over 500 personnel...generating reams of paperwork that contained many inventory discrepancies and billing errors. Mazda Motors in Japan performed the same function better...with five employees. (Schnitt, 1993, p. 19) The competition forced Ford to adopt new methods using modem information technology. Instead of pieces of

  3. Integration of Heterogeneous Bibliographic Information through Data Abstractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    11-12 [COMPENDEX] a) Electronics v 56 n 7 Apr 7 1983 p 155-157. b) IEEE Trans Magn v Mag-14 n 5 Sep 1978, INTERMAG (lnt Magn) Conf, I Florence, Italy ...developed a g0eograph.Cally distributed information systems as DOE/ PECaN . DOD/OROLS. NASA/RECON. CAS On-Line. OARC (France) and DECHEMA (West Germany

  4. Study on advanced systematic function of the JNC geological disposal technical information integration system. Research document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Yoshinao; Fukui, Hiroshi; Sagawa, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Ito Takaya

    2004-02-01

    In this study, while attaining systematization about the technical know-how mutually utilized between geology environmental field, disposal technology (design) field and safety assessment field, the share function of general information in which the formation of an information share and the use promotion between the technical information management databases built for every field were aimed at as an advancement of the function of JNC Geological Disposal Technical Information Integration System considered, and the system function for realizing considered in integration of technical information. (1) Since the concrete information about geology environment which is gradually updated with progress of stratum disposal research, or increases in reflected suitable for research of design and safety assessment. After arranging the form suitable for systematizing technical information, while arranging the technical information in both the fields of design and safety assessment with the form of two classes based on tasks/works, it systematized planning adjustment about delivery of technical information with geology environmental field. (2) In order to aim at integration of 3-fields technical information of geological disposal, based on the examination result of systematization of technical information, the function of mutual use of the information managed in two or more databases was considered. Moreover, while considering system functions, such as management of the use history of technical information, connection of information use, and a notice of common information, the system operation windows in consideration of the ease of operation was examined. (author)

  5. A Study on Information Technology Integrated Guided Iscovery Instruction towards Students' Learning Achievement and Learning Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Chich-Jen; Yu, Lean

    2016-01-01

    In the information explosion era with constant changes of information, educators have promoted various effective learning strategies for students adapting to the complex modern society. The impact and influence of traditional teaching method have information technology integrated modern instruction and science concept learning play an important…

  6. Integrated care: an Information Model for Patient Safety and Vigilance Reporting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jean-Marie; Schulz, Stefan; Souvignet, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Quality management information systems for safety as a whole or for specific vigilances share the same information types but are not interoperable. An international initiative tries to develop an integrated information model for patient safety and vigilance reporting to support a global approach of heath care quality.

  7. Effects of Brief Integrated Information Literacy Education Sessions on Undergraduate Engineering Students' Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talikka, Marja; Soukka, Risto; Eskelinen, Harri

    2018-01-01

    Engineering students often conduct information searches without sufficient consideration of the context of their research topic. This article discusses how development of a new information literacy (IL) mindset through instruction in integrated IL education affects students' understanding of research problems and formulation of information search…

  8. Multi-fields' coordination information integrated platform for nuclear power plant operation preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Chang; Li Yong; Ye Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    To realize the coordination in multi-fields' work and information sharing, by applying the method of Enterprise Architecture (EA), the business architecture, functional flow and application architecture of Nuclear Power Plant's operation preparation information integrated platform are designed, which can realize the information sharing and coordination of multi fields. (authors)

  9. Nutritional status-dependent endocannabinoid signalling regulates the integration of rat visceral information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlaifia, Abdessattar; Matias, Isabelle; Cota, Daniela; Tell, Fabien

    2017-06-01

    Vagal sensory inputs transmit information from the viscera to brainstem neurones located in the nucleus tractus solitarii to set physiological parameters. These excitatory synapses exhibit a CB1 endocannabinoid-induced long-term depression (LTD) triggered by vagal fibre stimulation. We investigated the impact of nutritional status on long-term changes in this long-term synaptic plasticity. Food deprivation prevents LTD induction by disrupting CB1 receptor signalling. Short-term refeeding restores the capacity of vagal synapses to express LTD. Ghrelin and cholecystokinin, respectively released during fasting and refeeding, play a key role in the control of LTD via the activation of energy sensing pathways such as AMPK and the mTOR and ERK pathways. Communication form the viscera to the brain is essential to set physiological homoeostatic parameters but also to drive more complex behaviours such as mood, memory and emotional states. Here we investigated the impact of the nutritional status on long-term changes in excitatory synaptic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii, a neural hub integrating visceral signals. These excitatory synapses exhibit a CB1 endocannabinoid (eCB)-induced long-term depression (LTD) triggered by vagal fibre stimulation. Since eCB signalling is known to be an important component of homoeostatic regulation of the body and is regulated during various stressful conditions, we tested the hypothesis that food deprivation alters eCB signalling in central visceral afferent fibres. Food deprivation prevents eCB-LTD induction due to the absence of eCB signalling. This loss was reversed by blockade of ghrelin receptors. Activation of the cellular fuel sensor AMP-activated protein kinase or inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway abolished eCB-LTD in free-fed rats. Signals associated with energy surfeit, such as short-term refeeding, restore eCB-LTD induction, which in turn requires activation of cholecystokinin receptors and

  10. Efficacy of integrating information literacy education into a women's health course on information literacy for RN-BSN students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Ya-Lie; Sheu, Sheila; Kuo, Shih-Ming

    2007-03-01

    Information literacy, essential to evidences-based nursing, can promote nurses' capability for life-long learning. Nursing education should strive to employ information literacy education in nursing curricula to improve information literacy abilities among nursing students. This study explored the effectiveness of information literacy education by comparing information literacy skills among a group of RN-BSN (Registered Nurse to Bachelors of Science in Nursing) students who received information literacy education with a group that did not. This quasi-experimental study was conducted during a women's health issues course taught between March and June 2004. Content was presented to the 32 RN-BSN students enrolled in this course, which also taught skills on searching and screening, integrating, analyzing, applying, and presenting information. At the beginning and end of the program, 75 RN-BSN student self-evaluated on a 10 point Likert scale their attained skills in searching and screening, integrating, analyzing, applying, and presenting information. Results identified no significant differences between the experimental (n = 32) and control groups (n = 43) in terms of age, marital status, job title, work unit, years of work experience, and information literacy skills as measured at the beginning of the semester. At the end of the semester during which content was taught, the information literacy of the experimental group in all categories, with the exception of information presentation, was significantly improved as compared to that of the control group. Results were especially significant in terms of integrating, analyzing, and applying skill categories. It is hoped that in the future nursing students will apply enhanced information literacy to address and resolve patients' health problems in clinical settings.

  11. Three-tiered integration of PACS and HIS toward next generation total hospital information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Lee, D H; Choi, J W; Cho, H I; Kang, H S; Yeon, K M; Han, M C

    1998-01-01

    The Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) started a project to innovate the hospital information facilities. This project includes installation of high speed hospital network, development of new HIS, OCS (order communication system), RIS and PACS. This project aims at the implementation of the first total hospital information system by seamlessly integrating these systems together. To achieve this goal, we took three-tiered systems integration approach: network level, database level, and workstation level integration. There are 3 loops of networks in SNUH: proprietary star network for host computer based HIS, Ethernet based hospital LAN for OCS and RIS, and ATM based network for PACS. They are linked together at the backbone level to allow high speed communication between these systems. We have developed special communication modules for each system that allow data interchange between different databases and computer platforms. We have also developed an integrated workstation in which both the OCS and PACS application programs run on a single computer in an integrated manner allowing the clinical users to access and display radiological images as well as textual clinical information within a single user environment. A study is in progress toward a total hospital information system in SNUH by seamlessly integrating the main hospital information resources such as HIS, OCS, and PACS. With the three-tiered systems integration approach, we could successfully integrate the systems from the network level to the user application level.

  12. Sticking with the nice guy: trait warmth information impairs learning and modulates person perception brain network activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victoria K; Harris, Lasana T

    2014-12-01

    Social learning requires inferring social information about another person, as well as evaluating outcomes. Previous research shows that prior social information biases decision making and reduces reliance on striatal activity during learning (Delgado, Frank, & Phelps, Nature Neuroscience 8 (11): 1611-1618, 2005). A rich literature in social psychology on person perception demonstrates that people spontaneously infer social information when viewing another person (Fiske & Taylor, 2013) and engage a network of brain regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, temporal parietal junction, superior temporal sulcus, and precuneus (Amodio & Frith, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7(4), 268-277, 2006; Haxby, Gobbini, & Montgomery, 2004; van Overwalle Human Brain Mapping, 30, 829-858, 2009). We investigate the role of these brain regions during social learning about well-established dimensions of person perception-trait warmth and trait competence. We test the hypothesis that activity in person perception brain regions interacts with learning structures during social learning. Participants play an investment game where they must choose an agent to invest on their behalf. This choice is guided by cues signaling trait warmth or trait competence based on framing of monetary returns. Trait warmth information impairs learning about human but not computer agents, while trait competence information produces similar learning rates for human and computer agents. We see increased activation to warmth information about human agents in person perception brain regions. Interestingly, activity in person perception brain regions during the decision phase negatively predicts activity in the striatum during feedback for trait competence inferences about humans. These results suggest that social learning may engage additional processing within person perception brain regions that hampers learning in economic contexts.

  13. An 'integrative neuroscience' perspective on ADHD: linking cognition, emotion, brain and genetic measures with implications for clinical support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Leanne M; Tsang, Tracey W; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael

    2010-10-01

    There remains a translational gap between research findings and their implementation in clinical practice that applies to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as to other major disorders of brain health in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Research studies have identified potential 'markers' to support diagnostic, functional assessment and treatment decisions, but there is little consensus about these markers. Of these potential markers, cognitive measures of thinking functions, such as sustaining attention and associated electrical brain activity, show promise in complementing the clinical management process. Emerging evidence highlights the relevance of emotional, as well as thinking, functions to ADHD. Here, we outline an integrative neuroscience framework for ADHD that offers one means to bring together cognitive measures of thinking functions with measures of emotion, and their brain and genetic correlates. Understanding these measures and the relationships between them is a first step towards the development of tools that will help to assess the heterogeneity of ADHD, and aid in tailoring treatment choices.

  14. Specification of an integrated information architecture for a mobile teleoperated robot for home telecare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannuzzi, David; Grant, Andrew; Corriveau, Hélène; Boissy, Patrick; Michaud, Francois

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to design effectively integrated information architecture for a mobile teleoperated robot in remote assistance to the delivery of home health care. Three role classes were identified related to the deployment of a telerobot, namely, engineer, technology integrator, and health professional. Patients and natural caregivers were indirectly considered, this being a component of future field studies. Interviewing representatives of each class provided the functions, and information content and flows for each function. Interview transcripts enabled the formulation of UML (Universal Modeling Language) diagrams for feedback from participants. The proposed information architecture was validated with a use-case scenario. The integrated information architecture incorporates progressive design, ergonomic integration, and the home care needs from medical specialist, nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and social worker care perspectives. The integrated architecture iterative process promoted insight among participants. The use-case scenario evaluation showed the design's robustness. Complex innovation such as a telerobot must coherently mesh with health-care service delivery needs. The deployment of integrated information architecture bridging development, with specialist and home care applications, is necessary for home care technology innovation. It enables continuing evolution of robot and novel health information design in the same integrated architecture, while accounting for patient ecological need.

  15. Integrating resource selection information with spatial capture--recapture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Chandler, Richard B.; Sun, Catherine C.; Fuller, Angela K.

    2013-01-01

    1. Understanding space usage and resource selection is a primary focus of many studies of animal populations. Usually, such studies are based on location data obtained from telemetry, and resource selection functions (RSFs) are used for inference. Another important focus of wildlife research is estimation and modeling population size and density. Recently developed spatial capture–recapture (SCR) models accomplish this objective using individual encounter history data with auxiliary spatial information on location of capture. SCR models include encounter probability functions that are intuitively related to RSFs, but to date, no one has extended SCR models to allow for explicit inference about space usage and resource selection.

  16. Workstations for the wellsite; An integrated information management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, A.R. (Exlog Inc. (US))

    1991-03-01

    This paper describes and innovative management system designed to assist well drilling, engineering, and geological decision makers. The problem of providing powerful and flexible applications without creating complexity has been solved by an intuitive graphical user interface. Through the adoption of petroleum industry standards, an open system was designed to facilitate information input and output. Careful attention to emerging computer standards has resulted in a system that is portable across a wide range of current hardware from multiple vendors and that will be easily movable to new hardware platforms as they become available.

  17. Database and applications security integrating information security and data management

    CERN Document Server

    Thuraisingham, Bhavani

    2005-01-01

    This is the first book to provide an in-depth coverage of all the developments, issues and challenges in secure databases and applications. It provides directions for data and application security, including securing emerging applications such as bioinformatics, stream information processing and peer-to-peer computing. Divided into eight sections, each of which focuses on a key concept of secure databases and applications, this book deals with all aspects of technology, including secure relational databases, inference problems, secure object databases, secure distributed databases and emerging

  18. Information Technology Integration in Higher Education: A Novel Approach for Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkareem Al-Alwani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current technological world of Information services, academic systems are also in the process of adapting information technology solutions. Information systems vary for different applications and specifically in academia domain, a range of information systems are available for different institutions worldwide. Integration of e-learning can optimize implementation of computer-based and computer-assisted educational processes at all levels. Therefore it is imperative to assess and evaluate integration of these information systems because they have serious impact on e-learning processes. In this study an instrument survey is presented for evaluating integration of information technology systems and practices in an educational environment. Survey is constructed using descriptive questions related to information technology tools to assess qualitative impact and usage of such tools. Critical feedback, analysis and suggestions from 25 educationists played a pivotal role in finalizing proposed survey questionnaire. A subsequent test evaluation by teachers and students is also carried out to assess adequate utilization of information systems in Yanbu University College. The results showed that feedback using this survey can help in identifying technological gaps and facilitate effective integration of information technology in an educational environment. Survey instrument proposed in this research can greatly enhance integration of IT tools as it can identify shortcomings by collecting statistical data from feedback of both faculty and students. Solution to these problems is deterministic and can be easily implemented to optimize overall performance of e-learning systems.

  19. Move to learn: Integrating spatial information from multiple viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Corinne A; Newcombe, Nora S; Shipley, Thomas F

    2018-05-11

    Recalling a spatial layout from multiple orientations - spatial flexibility - is challenging, even when the global configuration can be viewed from a single vantage point, but more so when it must be viewed piecemeal. In the current study, we examined whether experiencing the transition between multiple viewpoints enhances spatial memory and flexible recall for a spatial configuration viewed simultaneously (Exp. 1) and sequentially (Exp. 2), whether the type of transition matters, and whether action provides an additional advantage over passive experience. In Experiment 1, participants viewed an array of dollhouse furniture from four viewpoints, but with all furniture simultaneously visible. In Experiment 2, participants viewed the same array piecemeal, from four partitioned viewpoints that allowed for viewing only a segment at a time. The transition between viewpoints involved rotation of the array or participant movement around it. Rotation and participant movement were passively experienced or actively generated. The control condition presented the dollhouse as a series of static views. Across both experiments, participant movement significantly enhanced spatial memory relative to array rotation or static views. However, in Exp. 2, there was a further advantage for actively walking around the array compared to being passively pushed. These findings suggest that movement around a stable environment is key to spatial memory and flexible recall, with action providing an additional boost to the integration of temporally segmented spatial events. Thus, spatial memory may be more flexible than prior data indicate, when studied under more natural acquisition conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrated Tokamak modeling: When physics informs engineering and research planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Francesca Maria

    2018-05-01

    Modeling tokamaks enables a deeper understanding of how to run and control our experiments and how to design stable and reliable reactors. We model tokamaks to understand the nonlinear dynamics of plasmas embedded in magnetic fields and contained by finite size, conducting structures, and the interplay between turbulence, magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities, and wave propagation. This tutorial guides through the components of a tokamak simulator, highlighting how high-fidelity simulations can guide the development of reduced models that can be used to understand how the dynamics at a small scale and short time scales affects macroscopic transport and global stability of plasmas. It discusses the important role that reduced models have in the modeling of an entire plasma discharge from startup to termination, the limits of these models, and how they can be improved. It discusses the important role that efficient workflows have in the coupling between codes, in the validation of models against experiments and in the verification of theoretical models. Finally, it reviews the status of integrated modeling and addresses the gaps and needs towards predictions of future devices and fusion reactors.

  1. Sharing Service Resource Information for Application Integration in a Virtual Enterprise - Modeling the Communication Protocol for Exchanging Service Resource Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Akira

    Grid computing and web service technologies enable us to use networked resources in a coordinated manner. An integrated service is made of individual services running on coordinated resources. In order to achieve such coordinated services autonomously, the initiator of a coordinated service needs to know detailed service resource information. This information ranges from static attributes like the IP address of the application server to highly dynamic ones like the CPU load. The most famous wide-area service discovery mechanism based on names is DNS. Its hierarchical tree organization and caching methods take advantage of the static information managed. However, in order to integrate business applications in a virtual enterprise, we need a discovery mechanism to search for the optimal resources based on the given a set of criteria (search keys). In this paper, we propose a communication protocol for exchanging service resource information among wide-area systems. We introduce the concept of the service domain that consists of service providers managed under the same management policy. This concept of the service domain is similar to that for autonomous systems (ASs). In each service domain, the service information provider manages the service resource information of service providers that exist in this service domain. The service resource information provider exchanges this information with other service resource information providers that belong to the different service domains. We also verified the protocol's behavior and effectiveness using a simulation model developed for proposed protocol.

  2. Activity-Based Information Integrating the operations strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto da Rocha de Araujo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized world, companies seek for new operations strategies to ensure world corporate success. This article analyzes how the cost management models – both traditional and activity-based, aid the planning and management of corporate globalized operations. The efficacy of the models application depends on their alignment with the competitive strategy. Companies must evaluate the nature of the competition and its competitive priorities; they should then define the necessary and sufficient dependence level on costs information. In this article, three dependence levels are presented: operational, decision support and strategic control. The result of the research shows the importance of alignment between the cost management model and the competitive strategy for corporate success, and confirms the adequacy of the activity-based costing model as a supporting tool for decision taking in a global strategy. Case studies in world class companies in Brazil are presented.

  3. An integrated information retrieval and document management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, L. Stephen; Alvarez, J. Fernando; Chen, James; Chen, William; Cheung, Lai-Mei; Clancy, Susan; Wong, Alexis

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements and prototype development for an intelligent document management and information retrieval system that will be capable of handling millions of pages of text or other data. Technologies for scanning, Optical Character Recognition (OCR), magneto-optical storage, and multiplatform retrieval using a Standard Query Language (SQL) will be discussed. The semantic ambiguity inherent in the English language is somewhat compensated-for through the use of coefficients or weighting factors for partial synonyms. Such coefficients are used both for defining structured query trees for routine queries and for establishing long-term interest profiles that can be used on a regular basis to alert individual users to the presence of relevant documents that may have just arrived from an external source, such as a news wire service. Although this attempt at evidential reasoning is limited in comparison with the latest developments in AI Expert Systems technology, it has the advantage of being commercially available.

  4. Wiki-Based Data and Information Integration (WikiDI2) System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is: A data and information integration (DI2) system built from the methods and tools used to create Wiki websites. Wiki (Hawaiian for...

  5. Resource Information and Forecasting Group; Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (ERBSI) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-01

    Researchers in the Resource Information and Forecasting group at NREL provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help characterize renewable energy resources and facilitate the integration of these clean energy sources into the electricity grid.

  6. Integration of weather information in transportation management center operations : self-evaluation and planning guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-30

    The Federal Highway Administrations Road Weather Management Program is helping to reduce the adverse impacts of weather on the transportation system by assisting agencies in integrating weather information and technologies into their daily Transpo...

  7. The right to physical integrity and informed refusal: Just how far does ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Provided that the patient makes an informed refusal while of sound mind, generally ... At all times the right to bodily integrity is pivotal in any health-related context and should ... choices regarding the body in an autonomous and independent.

  8. Promoting better integration of health information systems: best practices and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelsen, K.; Brand, H.; Achterberg, P.; Wilkinson, J.

    2015-01-01

    Health Evidence Network Synthesis Report [Promoting better integration of health information systems: best practices and challenges K Michelsen, H Brand, P Achterberg, J Wilkinson - 2015 ... Authors Kai Michelsen Department of International Health, Maastricht University Maastricht,

  9. Integration of Heterogeneous Information Sources into a Knowledge Resource Management System for Lifelong Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demidova, Elena; Ternier, Stefaan; Olmedilla, Daniel; Duval, Erik; Dicerto, Michele; Stefanov, Krassen; Sacristán, Naiara

    2007-01-01

    Demidova, E., Ternier, S., Olmedilla, D., Duval, E., Dicerto, M., Stefanov, K., et al. (2007). Integration of Heterogeneous Information Sources into a Knowledge Resource Management System for Lifelong. TENCompetence Workshop on Service Oriented Approaches and Lifelong Competence Development

  10. Integrated flood disaster management and spatial information : Case studies of Netherlands and India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanova, S.; Ghawana, T.; Kaur, A.; Neuvel, J.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial Information is an integral part of flood management practices which include risk management & emergency response processes. Although risk & emergency management activities have their own characteristics, for example, related to the time scales, time pressure, activities & actors involved, it

  11. 76 FR 63941 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Business Transformation-Automated Integrated Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Activities: Business Transformation--Automated Integrated Operating Environment (IOE), New Information... Internet by federal agencies through efforts like USCIS' Business Transformation initiative. The USCIS ELIS... the USCIS Business Transformation initiative and wizard technology. The supporting statement can be...

  12. I-123 iomazenil single photon emission computed tomography for detecting loss of neuronal integrity in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Kagari; Ikoma, Katsunori; Shiga, Tohru; Katoh, Chietsugu; Hirata, Kenji; Kuge, Yuji; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Tamaki, Nagara

    2017-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes brain dysfunction in many patients. Using C-11 flumazenil (FMZ) positron emission tomography (PET), we have detected and reported the loss of neuronal integrity, leading to brain dysfunction in TBI patients. Similarly to FMZ PET, I-123 iomazenil (IMZ) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is widely used to determine the distribution of the benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) in the brain cortex. The purpose of this study is to examine whether IMZ SPECT is as useful as FMZ PET for evaluating the loss of neuronal integrity in TBI patients. The subjects of this study were seven patients who suffered from neurobehavioral disability. They underwent IMZ SPECT and FMZ PET. Nondisplaceable binding potential (BP ND ) was calculated from FMZ PET images. The uptake of IMZ was evaluated on the basis of lesion-to-pons ratio (LPR). The locations of low uptake levels were visually evaluated both in IMZ SPECT and FMZ PET images. We compared FMZ BP ND and (LPR-1) of IMZ SPECT. In the visual assessment, FMZ BP ND decreased in 11 regions. In IMZ SPECT, low uptake levels were observed in eight of the 11 regions. The rate of concordance between FMZ PET and IMZ SPECT was 72.7%. The mean values IMZ (LPR-1) (1.95 ± 1.01) was significantly lower than that of FMZ BP ND (2.95 ± 0.80 mL/mL). There was good correlation between FMZ BP ND and IMZ (LPR-1) (r = 0.80). IMZ SPECT findings were almost the same as FMZ PET findings in TBI patients. The results indicated that IMZ SPECT is useful for evaluating the loss of neuronal integrity. Because IMZ SPECT can be performed in various facilities, IMZ SPECT may become widely adopted for evaluating the loss of neuronal integrity.

  13. Whatever the cost? Information integration in memory-based inferences depends on cognitive effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Michalkiewicz, Martha; Castela, Marta; Pohl, Rüdiger F; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2015-05-01

    One of the most prominent models of probabilistic inferences from memory is the simple recognition heuristic (RH). The RH theory assumes that judgments are based on recognition in isolation, such that other information is ignored. However, some prior research has shown that available knowledge is not generally ignored. In line with the notion of adaptive strategy selection--and, thus, a trade-off between accuracy and effort--we hypothesized that information integration crucially depends on how easily accessible information beyond recognition is, how much confidence decision makers have in this information, and how (cognitively) costly it is to acquire it. In three experiments, we thus manipulated (a) the availability of information beyond recognition, (b) the subjective usefulness of this information, and (c) the cognitive costs associated with acquiring this information. In line with the predictions, we found that RH use decreased substantially, the more easily and confidently information beyond recognition could be integrated, and increased substantially with increasing cognitive costs.

  14. Spatial Mapping of Protein Abundances in the Mouse Brain by Voxelation Integrated with High-Throughput Liquid Chromatography ? Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Qian, Weijun; Chin, Mark H.; Wang, Haixing H.; Livesay, Eric A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Anderson, David J.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Desmond J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Temporally and spatially resolved mapping of protein abundance patterns within the mammalian brain is of significant interest for understanding brain function and molecular etiologies of neurodegenerative diseases; however, such imaging efforts have been greatly challenged by complexity of the proteome, throughput and sensitivity of applied analytical methodologies, and accurate quantitation of protein abundances across the brain. Here, we describe a methodology for comprehensive spatial proteome mapping that addresses these challenges by employing voxelation integrated with automated microscale sample processing, high-throughput LC system coupled with high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometer and a ''universal'' stable isotope labeled reference sample approach for robust quantitation. We applied this methodology as a proof-of-concept trial for the analysis of protein distribution within a single coronal slice of a C57BL/6J mouse brain. For relative quantitation of the protein abundances across the slice, an 18O-isotopically labeled reference sample, derived from a whole control coronal slice from another mouse, was spiked into each voxel sample and stable isotopic intensity ratios were used to obtain measures of relative protein abundances. In total, we generated maps of protein abundance patterns for 1,028 proteins. The significant agreement of the protein distributions with previously reported data supports the validity of this methodology, which opens new opportunities for studying the spatial brain proteome and its dynamics during the course of disease progression and other important biological and associated health aspects in a discovery-driven fashion

  15. Information Technology Integration in Teacher Education: Supporting the Paradigm Shift in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kar Tin

    2001-01-01

    Examines the integration of information technology (IT) at the Hong Kong Institute of Education, presenting the rationale for this move, characteristics of IT integration, and program development issues for making IT application a critical component of contemporary teacher education. The paper presents a framework for program development and…

  16. The Next Step in Educational Program Budgets and Information Resource Management: Integrated Data Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, Edward M.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the role that information resource management (IRM) plays in educational program-oriented budgeting (POB), and presents a theoretical IRM model. Highlights include design considerations for integrated data systems; database management systems (DBMS); and how POB data can be integrated to enhance its value and use within an educational…

  17. Entropy in Postmerger and Acquisition Integration from an Information Technology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gloria S.

    2012-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions have historically experienced failure rates from 50% to more than 80%. Successful integration of information technology (IT) systems can be the difference between postmerger success or failure. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the entropy phenomenon during postmerger IT integration. To that end, a…

  18. 16 CFR 312.8 - Confidentiality, security, and integrity of personal information collected from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality, security, and integrity of... COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION RULE § 312.8 Confidentiality, security, and integrity of personal information collected from children. The operator must...

  19. Measuring Integration of Information and Communication Technology in Education: An Item Response Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeraer, Jef; Van Petegem, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This research describes the development and validation of an instrument to measure integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education. After literature research on definitions of integration of ICT in education, a comparison is made between the classical test theory and the item response modeling approach for the…

  20. Integrated information and logistics management, quality management and firm performance of pork processing industry in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to discuss the interactions amongst integrated information technology (IT), integrated logistics management, quality management practices and firm performance of pork processors in China. Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual framework was developed by examining the