WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain integrates information

  1. Postnatal experiences influence how the brain integrates information from different senses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Rowland

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD is characterized by anomalous reactions to, and integration of, sensory cues. Although the underlying etiology of SPD is unknown, one brain region likely to reflect these sensory and behavioral anomalies is the Superior Colliculus (SC; a structure involved in the synthesis of information from multiple sensory modalities and the control of overt orientation responses. In this review we describe normal functional properties of this structure, the manner in which its individual neurons integrate cues from different senses, and the overt SC-mediated behaviors that are believed to manifest this “multisensory integration.” Of particular interest here is how SC neurons develop their capacity to engage in multisensory integration during early postnatal life as a consequence of early sensory experience, and that it is the intimate communication between cortex and the midbrain makes this developmental process possible.

  2. Integrated modeling of PET and DTI information based on conformal brain mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guangyu; Xi, Yongjian; Heckenburg, Greg; Duan, Ye; Hua, Jing; Gu, Xiangfeng

    2006-03-01

    Recent advances in imaging technologies, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) have accelerated brain research in many aspects. In order to better understand the synergy of the many processes involved in normal brain function, integrated modeling and analysis of MRI, PET, and DTI is highly desirable. Unfortunately, the current state-of-art computational tools fall short in offering a comprehensive computational framework that is accurate and mathematically rigorous. In this paper we present a framework which is based on conformal parameterization of a brain from high-resolution structural MRI data to a canonical spherical domain. This model allows natural integration of information from co-registered PET as well as DTI data and lays the foundation for a quantitative analysis of the relationship between diverse data sets. Consequently, the system can be designed to provide a software environment able to facilitate statistical detection of abnormal functional brain patterns in patients with a large number of neurological disorders.

  3. Adaptive integration of local region information to detect fine-scale brain activity patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, the spatial resolution of fMRI data is continuously growing. This pro- vides us the possibility to detect the fine-scale patterns of brain activities. The es- tablished univariate and multivariate methods to analyze fMRI data mostly focus on detecting the activation blobs without considering the distributed fine-scale pat- terns within the blobs. To improve the sensitivity of the activation detection, in this paper, multivariate statistical method and univariate statistical method are com- bined to discover the fine-grained activity patterns. For one voxel in the brain, a local homogenous region is constructed. Then, time courses from the local ho- mogenous region are integrated with multivariate statistical method. Univariate statistical method is finally used to construct the interests of statistic for that voxel. The approach has explicitly taken into account the structures of both activity pat- terns and existing noise of local brain regions. Therefore, it could highlight the fine-scale activity patterns of the local regions. Experiments with simulated and real fMRI data demonstrate that the proposed method dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection of fine-scale brain activity patterns which contain the subtle information about experimental conditions.

  4. Information Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation introduces the concept of Information Integrity, which is the detection and possible correction of information manipulation by any intermediary node in a communication system. As networks continue to grow in complexity, information theoretic security has failed to keep pace. As a result many parties whom want to communicate,…

  5. On-line integration of semantic information from speech and gesture: insights from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyürek, Asli; Willems, Roel M; Kita, Sotaro; Hagoort, Peter

    2007-04-01

    During language comprehension, listeners use the global semantic representation from previous sentence or discourse context to immediately integrate the meaning of each upcoming word into the unfolding message-level representation. Here we investigate whether communicative gestures that often spontaneously co-occur with speech are processed in a similar fashion and integrated to previous sentence context in the same way as lexical meaning. Event-related potentials were measured while subjects listened to spoken sentences with a critical verb (e.g., knock), which was accompanied by an iconic co-speech gesture (i.e., KNOCK). Verbal and/or gestural semantic content matched or mismatched the content of the preceding part of the sentence. Despite the difference in the modality and in the specificity of meaning conveyed by spoken words and gestures, the latency, amplitude, and topographical distribution of both word and gesture mismatches are found to be similar, indicating that the brain integrates both types of information simultaneously. This provides evidence for the claim that neural processing in language comprehension involves the simultaneous incorporation of information coming from a broader domain of cognition than only verbal semantics. The neural evidence for similar integration of information from speech and gesture emphasizes the tight interconnection between speech and co-speech gestures. PMID:17381252

  6. Brain Radiation Information Data Exchange (BRIDE): integration of experimental data from low-dose ionising radiation research for pathway discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Karapiperis, Christos; Kempf, Stefan J.; Quintens, Roel; Azimzadeh, Omid; Vidal, Victoria Linares; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Bazyka, Dimitry; Mastroberardino, Pier G.; Scouras, Zacharias G.; Tapio, Soile; BENOTMANE, MOHAMMED ABDERRAFI; Ouzounis, Christos A

    2016-01-01

    Background The underlying molecular processes representing stress responses to low-dose ionising radiation (LDIR) in mammals are just beginning to be understood. In particular, LDIR effects on the brain and their possible association with neurodegenerative disease are currently being explored using omics technologies. Results We describe a light-weight approach for the storage, analysis and distribution of relevant LDIR omics datasets. The data integration platform, called BRIDE, contains inf...

  7. Seamless Integration of Information

    CERN Document Server

    Van Lingen, Frank

    2000-01-01

    This document gives an overview of issues related to integration of information. Different aspects are discussed. Furthermore, several projects related to integration of information are described. Also several standards that relate to information integration are discussed. Finally, these issues are related to information integration within a high-energy physics environment. Keywords : heterogeneous databases, multidatabases, temporal databases, meta-model, meta-data, ontologies, mediator, data management.

  8. What constitutes information integrity?

    OpenAIRE

    S. Flowerday; R. von Solms

    2008-01-01

    This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information securit...

  9. What constitutes information integrity?

    OpenAIRE

    S. Flowerday; R. von Solms

    2007-01-01

    This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information securit...

  10. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  11. Measuring Integrated Information from the Decoding Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oizumi, Masafumi; Amari, Shun-ichi; Yanagawa, Toru; Fujii, Naotaka; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the capacity to integrate information in the brain is a prerequisite for consciousness. Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of consciousness provides a mathematical approach to quantifying the information integrated in a system, called integrated information, Φ. Integrated information is defined theoretically as the amount of information a system generates as a whole, above and beyond the amount of information its parts independently generate. IIT predicts that the amount of integrated information in the brain should reflect levels of consciousness. Empirical evaluation of this theory requires computing integrated information from neural data acquired from experiments, although difficulties with using the original measure Φ precludes such computations. Although some practical measures have been previously proposed, we found that these measures fail to satisfy the theoretical requirements as a measure of integrated information. Measures of integrated information should satisfy the lower and upper bounds as follows: The lower bound of integrated information should be 0 and is equal to 0 when the system does not generate information (no information) or when the system comprises independent parts (no integration). The upper bound of integrated information is the amount of information generated by the whole system. Here we derive the novel practical measure Φ* by introducing a concept of mismatched decoding developed from information theory. We show that Φ* is properly bounded from below and above, as required, as a measure of integrated information. We derive the analytical expression of Φ* under the Gaussian assumption, which makes it readily applicable to experimental data. Our novel measure Φ* can generally be used as a measure of integrated information in research on consciousness, and also as a tool for network analysis on diverse areas of biology. PMID:26796119

  12. Integrated information portal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Information Portal (IIP) is a web-based information portal to support the needs of decision-makers responsible for nuclear safeguards. The emphasis of IIP is to provide a seamless interface for accessing multi-source information in a timely and intuitive manner. With proper access control, open source information can be integrated with internal confidential databases, through an open-architecture design. The paper discusses the open architecture approach from an information technology perspective. To demonstrate the concept, a prototype was created using Microsoft Net, AJAX enabled technologies and a customized ESRI ArcIMS web mapping solution in an n-tier client/server architecture. The benefits of implementing and using a solution orientated in this manner are presented. (author)

  13. On-line integration of semantic information from speech and gesture: Insights from event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özyürek, A.; Willems, R.M.; Kita, S.; Hagoort, P.

    2007-01-01

    During language comprehension, listeners use the global semantic representation from previous sentence or discourse context to immediately integrate the meaning of each upcoming word into the unfolding message-level representation. Here we investigate whether communicative gestures that often sponta

  14. On-line integration of semantic information from speech and gesture: Insights from event-related brain potentials

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    During language comprehension, listeners use the global semantic representation from previous sentence or discourse context to immediately integrate the meaning of each upcoming word into the unfolding message-level representation. Here we investigate whether communicative gestures that often spontaneously co-occur with speech are processed in a similar fashion and integrated to previous sentence context in the same way as lexical meaning. Event-related potentials were measured while subjects...

  15. Markers for blood-brain barrier integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld;

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in brain barriers and various roles their intrinsic mechanisms may play in neurological disorders. Such studies require suitable models and markers to demonstrate integrity and functional changes at the interfaces between blood, brain, and...... cerebrospinal fluid. Studies of brain barrier mechanisms and measurements of plasma volume using dyes have a long-standing history, dating back to the late nineteenth-century. Their use in blood-brain barrier studies continues in spite of their known serious limitations in in vivo applications. These were well...... known when first introduced, but seem to have been forgotten since. Understanding these limitations is important because Evans blue is still the most commonly used marker of brain barrier integrity and those using it seem oblivious to problems arising from its in vivo application. The introduction of...

  16. Information processing in miniature brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, L; Skorupski, P

    2011-03-22

    Since a comprehensive understanding of brain function and evolution in vertebrates is often hobbled by the sheer size of the nervous system, as well as ethical concerns, major research efforts have been made to understand the neural circuitry underpinning behaviour and cognition in invertebrates, and its costs and benefits under natural conditions. This special feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B contains an idiosyncratic range of current research perspectives on neural underpinnings and adaptive benefits (and costs) of such diverse phenomena as spatial memory, colour vision, attention, spontaneous behaviour initiation, memory dynamics, relational rule learning and sleep, in a range of animals from marine invertebrates with exquisitely simple nervous systems to social insects forming societies with many thousands of individuals working together as a 'superorganism'. This introduction provides context and history to tie the various approaches together, and concludes that there is an urgent need to understand the full neuron-to-neuron circuitry underlying various forms of information processing-not just to explore brain function comprehensively, but also to understand how (and how easily) cognitive capacities might evolve in the face of pertinent selection pressures. In the invertebrates, reaching these goals is becoming increasingly realistic. PMID:21227971

  17. Brain functional integration decreases during propofol-induced loss of consciousness.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrouff, Jessica; Perlbarg, Vincent; Boly, Mélanie; Marrelec, Guillaume; Boveroux, Pierre; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Laureys, Steven; Phillips, Christophe; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Maquet, Pierre; Benali, Habib

    2011-01-01

    Consciousness has been related to the amount of integrated information that the brain is able to generate. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the loss of consciousness caused by propofol anesthesia is associated with a significant reduction in the capacity of the brain to integrate information. To assess the functional structure of the whole brain, functional integration and partial correlations were computed from fMRI data acquired from 18 healthy volunteers during resting wakefuln...

  18. Integrated Information Portal (IIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information portal will provide IAEA staff with a computer interface to access data world wide based on queries for information by geographic areas, such as a country or location in a country. Internal IAEA sources could also be accessed. An open architecture is proposed that could utilise existing and future applications and tools. The proposed approach also would be able to integrate with the IAEA ISIS Re-engineering Project (IRP). The first phase of the 'Integrated Information Portal' (IIP) was presented at the last INMM meeting in Phoenix. The system utilizes state-of-the-art geospatial tools, ESRI ArcIMS Web Services and GeoTango GlobeView for the development of the IIP. The user requirements, system design, and the initial prototype were presented. This project is one of the initiatives sponsored by Canadian Safeguards Support Program in support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The goal is to develop an easy-to-use, effective on-line tool to support timely decision making. This paper presents the development of a prototype of the IIP concept using ArcIMS/ArcGIS/ArcWeb Services. The prototype includes several case studies using open-source information readily available from the Web to illustrate the simplicity in navigational tools which would be useful for decision makers. It has been envisaged that available open-source information on the Web could be a valuable source of information for the IAEA as many of the data sources are generally reliable, up-to-date, public, and cost-free or at nominal cost. The IIP is designed as a global and web-based information portal to support timely and informed decisions by using multi-source information access; however, with proper access control, link to protected confidential databases including those of the IAEA can be readily incorporated in its open-architecture design. In this prototype, GIS users would search for geographic information and connect to the portal for information access. The search

  19. Integrated clinical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousseau, G

    1995-01-01

    SIDOCI (Système Informatisé de DOnnées Cliniques Intégrées) is a Canadian joint venture introducing newly-operating paradigms into hospitals. The main goal of SIDOCI is to maintain the quality of care in todayUs tightening economy. SIDOCI is a fully integrated paperless patient-care system which automates and links all information about a patient. Data is available on-line and instantaneously to doctors, nurses, and support staff in the format that best suits their specific requirements. SIDOCI provides a factual and chronological summary of the patient's progress by drawing together clinical information provided by all professionals working with the patient, regardless of their discipline, level of experience, or physical location. It also allows for direct entry of the patient's information at the bedside. Laboratory results, progress notes, patient history and graphs are available instantaneously on screen, eliminating the need for physical file transfers. The system, incorporating a sophisticated clinical information database, an intuitive graphical user interface, and customized screens for each medical discipline, guides the user through standard procedures. Unlike most information systems created for the health care industry, SIDOCI is longitudinal, covering all aspects of the health care process through its link to various vertical systems already in place. A multidisciplinary team has created a clinical dictionary that provides the user with most of the information she would normally use: symptoms, signs, diagnoses, allergies, medications, interventions, etc. This information is structured and displayed in such a manner that health care professionals can document the clinical situation at the touch of a finger. The data is then encoded into the patient's file. Once encoded, the structured data is accessible for research, statistics, education, and quality assurance. This dictionary complies with national and international nomenclatures. It also

  20. Rule-based information integration

    OpenAIRE

    Keijzer, de, S.; Keulen, van, H.

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we show the process of information integration. We specifically discuss the language used for integration. We show that integration consists of two phases, the schema mapping phase and the data integration phase. We formally define transformation rules, conversion, evolution and versioning. We further discuss the integration process from a data point of view.

  1. Integrating Retinoic Acid Signaling with Brain Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tuanlian; Wagner, Elisabeth; Drager, Ursula C.

    2009-01-01

    The vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) regulates the transcription of about a 6th of the human genome. Compelling evidence indicates a role of RA in cognitive activities, but its integration with the molecular mechanisms of higher brain functions is not known. Here we describe the properties of RA signaling in the mouse, which point to…

  2. Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The purpose of ICIS is to meet evolving Enforcement and Compliance business needs for EPA and State users by integrating information into a single integrated data...

  3. Information technology of database integration

    OpenAIRE

    Черненко, Николай Владимирович

    2012-01-01

    The article considers the problem that has developed in the course of decentralized organization automation, and its possible solutions. To eliminate the defects it was suggested to integrate the databases of heterogeneous information systems into a single database of organization. A study of existing methodologies, approaches and practices of the integration of databases took place. The article suggests the formal description of the information technology of database integration, which allow...

  4. Pain: a distributed brain information network?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Mano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how pain is processed in the brain has been an enduring puzzle, because there doesn't appear to be a single "pain cortex" that directly codes the subjective perception of pain. An emerging concept is that, instead, pain might emerge from the coordinated activity of an integrated brain network. In support of this view, Woo and colleagues present evidence that distinct brain networks support the subjective changes in pain that result from nociceptive input and self-directed cognitive modulation. This evidence for the sensitivity of distinct neural subsystems to different aspects of pain opens up the way to more formal computational network theories of pain.

  5. Information processing in miniature brains

    OpenAIRE

    Chittka, L.; Skorupski, P.

    2011-01-01

    Since a comprehensive understanding of brain function and evolution in vertebrates is often hobbled by the sheer size of the nervous system, as well as ethical concerns, major research efforts have been made to understand the neural circuitry underpinning behaviour and cognition in invertebrates, and its costs and benefits under natural conditions. This special feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B contains an idiosyncratic range of current research perspectives on neural underpinning...

  6. Concept of Information as a Bridge between Mind and Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin J. Schroeder

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the special role of the concept of information understood in terms of the one-many categorical opposition in building a bridge between mind and brain. This particular choice of the definition of information allows unification of the main two manifestations of information implicitly present in literature, the selective and the structural. It is shown that the concept of information formulated this way together with the concept of information integration can be used to explain the unity of conscious experience, and furthermore to resolve several fundamental problems such as understanding the experiential aspect of consciousness without getting into homunculus fallacy, defending free will from mechanistic determinism, and explaining symbolic representation and aesthetical experience. The dual character of selective and structural manifestations opens the way between the orthodox information scientific description of the brain in terms of the former, and description of mind in terms of the latter.

  7. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA?s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is a compilation of electronic reports on specific substances found in the environment and their potential to cause...

  8. Moving Past the Minimum Information Partition: How To Quickly and Accurately Calculate Integrated Information

    OpenAIRE

    Toker, Daniel; Sommer, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    An outstanding challenge with the Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness (IIT) is to find a way of rapidly and accurately calculating integrated information from neural data. A number of measures of integrated information based on time series data have been proposed, but most measures require finding the Minimum Information Partition of a network, which is computationally expensive and not practical for real brain data. Here, we introduce a novel partition, the Maximum Modularity Part...

  9. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain. PMID:26982717

  10. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain. PMID:26982717

  11. Cyberinfrastructure for the digital brain: spatial standards for integrating rodent brain atlases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya eZaslavsky

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical research entails capture and analysis of massive data volumes and new discoveries arise from data-integration and mining. This is only possible if data can be mapped onto a common framework such as the genome for genomic data. In neuroscience, the framework is intrinsically spatial and based on a number of paper atlases. This cannot meet today’s data-intensive analysis and integration challenges. A scalable and extensible software infrastructure that is standards based but open for novel data and resources, is required for integrating information such as signal distributions, gene-expression, neuronal connectivity, electrophysiology, anatomy, and developmental processes. Therefore, the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF initiated the development of a spatial framework for neuroscience data integration with an associated Digital Atlasing Infrastructure (DAI. A prototype implementation of this infrastructure for the rodent brain is reported here. The infrastructure is based on a collection of reference spaces to which data is mapped at the required resolution, such as the Waxholm Space (WHS, a 3D reconstruction of the brain generated using high-resolution, multi-channel microMRI. The core standards of the digital atlasing service-oriented infrastructure include Waxholm Markup Language (WaxML: XML schema expressing a uniform information model for key elements such as coordinate systems, transformations, points of interest (POIs, labels, and annotations; and Atlas Web Services: interfaces for querying and updating atlas data. The services return WaxML-encoded documents with information about capabilities, spatial reference systems and structures, and execute coordinate transformations and POI-based requests. Key elements of INCF-DAI cyberinfrastructure have been prototyped for both mouse and rat brain atlas sources, including the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, UCSD Cell-Centered Database, and Edinburgh Mouse Atlas

  12. Semantic Integration of Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lisa Guido

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous years Information System manage only information inside the company, today a companymay search and manage information of the other companies. In this scenario the problem ofcommunication between Information Systems is of the highest importance. Up to the present moment,several types of integration have been used but all were founded on the agreement (about data to shareand the exchange format between the interested Information Systems. Today, thanks to the newtechnologies, it is possible that an Information System uses data of another Information System without aprevious agreement. The problem is that, often, the Information System may refer to the same data butwith different names. In this paper we present a methodology that, using ontology, and thus the intrinsicsemantic of each data of the Information System, allow to create a global ontology useful to enable asemantic communication between Information Systems.

  13. Natural brain-information interfaces: Recommending information by relevance inferred from human brain signals

    OpenAIRE

    Eugster, Manuel J. A.; Ruotsalo, Tuukka; Spapé, Michiel M.; Barral, Oswald; Ravaja, Niklas; Jacucci, Giulio; Kaski, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Finding relevant information from large document collections such as the World Wide Web is a common task in our daily lives. Estimation of a user's interest or search intention is necessary to recommend and retrieve relevant information from these collections. We introduce a brain-information interface used for recommending information by relevance inferred directly from brain signals. In experiments, participants were asked to read Wikipedia documents about a selection of topics while their ...

  14. INFORMATION BASED METAPHORS: FROM BRAIN TO NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cortez Campomar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Metaphoric language has grown in popularity over the last years. Once simple figure of speech, metaphors were transformed into a respectable approach for organizational analysis. The brain metaphor constitutes an attractive system of ideas for studying organizational phenomena. In this paper, it is used the brain metaphor as a point of departure in developing another informational metaphor: the network metaphor. It is suggested that the latter might provide a better perspective for studying contemporary organizations in this age of information and telecommunications.

  15. Ontology-Driven Information Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, Florence; Menzel, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Ontology-driven information integration (ODII) is a method of computerized, automated sharing of information among specialists who have expertise in different domains and who are members of subdivisions of a large, complex enterprise (e.g., an engineering project, a government agency, or a business). In ODII, one uses rigorous mathematical techniques to develop computational models of engineering and/or business information and processes. These models are then used to develop software tools that support the reliable processing and exchange of information among the subdivisions of this enterprise or between this enterprise and other enterprises.

  16. Integrated risk information system (IRIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuxen, L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is an electronic information system developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) containing information related to health risk assessment. IRIS is the Agency`s primary vehicle for communication of chronic health hazard information that represents Agency consensus following comprehensive review by intra-Agency work groups. The original purpose for developing IRIS was to provide guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This original purpose for developing IRIS was to guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This role has expanded and evolved with wider access and use of the system. IRIS contains chemical-specific information in summary format for approximately 500 chemicals. IRIS is available to the general public on the National Library of Medicine`s Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) and on diskettes through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

  17. Academic Integrity and Informational Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Travis S.

    2000-01-01

    Considers the impact of information technology on academic integrity. Highlights include machines versus man; honor codes and student cheating; copyrights for digital data; authoring versus writing; intuitive software; and an example and analysis of the use of AutoSummary in Microsoft Word 97 to create a summary of a published article. (Contains…

  18. Theoretical information reuse and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Information Reuse and Integration addresses the efficient extension and creation of knowledge through the exploitation of Kolmogorov complexity in the extraction and application of domain symmetry. Knowledge, which seems to be novel, can more often than not be recast as the image of a sequence of transformations, which yield symmetric knowledge. When the size of those transformations and/or the length of that sequence of transforms exceeds the size of the image, then that image is said to be novel or random. It may also be that the new knowledge is random in that no such sequence of transforms, which produces it exists, or is at least known. The nine chapters comprising this volume incorporate symmetry, reuse, and integration as overt operational procedures or as operations built into the formal representations of data and operators employed. Either way, the aforementioned theoretical underpinnings of information reuse and integration are supported.

  19. An information integration theory of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tononi Giulio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consciousness poses two main problems. The first is understanding the conditions that determine to what extent a system has conscious experience. For instance, why is our consciousness generated by certain parts of our brain, such as the thalamocortical system, and not by other parts, such as the cerebellum? And why are we conscious during wakefulness and much less so during dreamless sleep? The second problem is understanding the conditions that determine what kind of consciousness a system has. For example, why do specific parts of the brain contribute specific qualities to our conscious experience, such as vision and audition? Presentation of the hypothesis This paper presents a theory about what consciousness is and how it can be measured. According to the theory, consciousness corresponds to the capacity of a system to integrate information. This claim is motivated by two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: differentiation – the availability of a very large number of conscious experiences; and integration – the unity of each such experience. The theory states that the quantity of consciousness available to a system can be measured as the Φ value of a complex of elements. Φ is the amount of causally effective information that can be integrated across the informational weakest link of a subset of elements. A complex is a subset of elements with Φ>0 that is not part of a subset of higher Φ. The theory also claims that the quality of consciousness is determined by the informational relationships among the elements of a complex, which are specified by the values of effective information among them. Finally, each particular conscious experience is specified by the value, at any given time, of the variables mediating informational interactions among the elements of a complex. Testing the hypothesis The information integration theory accounts, in a principled manner, for several neurobiological observations

  20. Information integration for data fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, O.H.

    1997-01-01

    Data fusion has been identified by the Department of Defense as a critical technology for the U.S. defense industry. Data fusion requires combining expertise in two areas - sensors and information integration. Although data fusion is a rapidly growing area, there is little synergy and use of common, reusable, and/or tailorable objects and models, especially across different disciplines. The Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project had two purposes: to see if a natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used for data fusion problems, and if so, to determine whether this methodology would help identify commonalities across areas and achieve greater synergy. The project confirmed both of the initial hypotheses: that the natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used effectively in data fusion areas and that commonalities could be found that would allow synergy across various data fusion areas. The project found five common objects that are the basis for all of the data fusion areas examined: targets, behaviors, environments, signatures, and sensors. Many of the objects and the specific facts related to these objects were common across several areas and could easily be reused. In some cases, even the terminology remained the same. In other cases, different areas had their own terminology, but the concepts were the same. This commonality is important with the growing use of multisensor data fusion. Data fusion is much more difficult if each type of sensor uses its own objects and models rather than building on a common set. This report introduces data fusion, discusses how the synergy generated by this LDRD would have benefited an earlier successful project and contains a summary information model from that project, describes a preliminary management information model, and explains how information integration can facilitate cross-treaty synergy for various arms control treaties.

  1. Brain functional integration decreases during propofol-induced loss of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrouff, Jessica; Perlbarg, Vincent; Boly, Mélanie; Marrelec, Guillaume; Boveroux, Pierre; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Laureys, Steven; Phillips, Christophe; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Maquet, Pierre; Benali, Habib

    2011-07-01

    Consciousness has been related to the amount of integrated information that the brain is able to generate. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the loss of consciousness caused by propofol anesthesia is associated with a significant reduction in the capacity of the brain to integrate information. To assess the functional structure of the whole brain, functional integration and partial correlations were computed from fMRI data acquired from 18 healthy volunteers during resting wakefulness and propofol-induced deep sedation. Total integration was significantly reduced from wakefulness to deep sedation in the whole brain as well as within and between its constituent networks (or systems). Integration was systematically reduced within each system (i.e., brain or networks), as well as between networks. However, the ventral attentional network maintained interactions with most other networks during deep sedation. Partial correlations further suggested that functional connectivity was particularly affected between parietal areas and frontal or temporal regions during deep sedation. Our findings suggest that the breakdown in brain integration is the neural correlate of the loss of consciousness induced by propofol. They stress the important role played by parietal and frontal areas in the generation of consciousness. PMID:21524704

  2. CORBA Based Information Integration Platform for CIMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new information integration platform for computer integrated manufacturing system(CIMS) is presented, which is based on agent and CORBA. CORBA enhances the system integration be-cause it is an industry-standard for interoperable, distributed objects across heterogeneous hardware andsoftware platform. Agent technology is used to improve intelligence of integration system. In order to im-plement the information integration platform, we use network integration server to integrate network, de-sign a generic database agent to integrate database, adopt multi-agent based architecture to integrate appli-cation, and utilize wrapper as CORBA object to integrate legacy code.

  3. Work-up times in an integrated brain cancer pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Laursen, Emilie; Rasmussen, Birthe Krogh

    2012-01-01

    The integrated brain cancer pathway (IBCP) aims to ensure fast-track diagnostics and treatment for brain cancers in Denmark. This paper focuses on the referral pattern and the time frame of key pathway elements during the first two years following implementation of the IBCP in a regional neurolog...

  4. Information Security and Integrity Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs from the Information Security and Integrity Systems seminar held at the University of Houston-Clear Lake on May 15-16, 1990 are presented. A tutorial on computer security is presented. The goals of this tutorial are the following: to review security requirements imposed by government and by common sense; to examine risk analysis methods to help keep sight of forest while in trees; to discuss the current hot topic of viruses (which will stay hot); to examine network security, now and in the next year to 30 years; to give a brief overview of encryption; to review protection methods in operating systems; to review database security problems; to review the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (Orange Book); to comment on formal verification methods; to consider new approaches (like intrusion detection and biometrics); to review the old, low tech, and still good solutions; and to give pointers to the literature and to where to get help. Other topics covered include security in software applications and development; risk management; trust: formal methods and associated techniques; secure distributed operating system and verification; trusted Ada; a conceptual model for supporting a B3+ dynamic multilevel security and integrity in the Ada runtime environment; and information intelligence sciences.

  5. Information Integration - the process of integration, evolution and versioning

    OpenAIRE

    Keijzer, de, Bart; Keulen, van, H.

    2005-01-01

    At present, many information sources are available wherever you are. Most of the time, the information needed is spread across several of those information sources. Gathering this information is a tedious and time consuming job. Automating this process would assist the user in its task. Integration of the information sources provides a global information source with all information needed present. All of these information sources also change over time. With each change of the information sour...

  6. What Brain Sciences Reveal about Integrating Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    2014-01-01

    Theory and practice are integrated in the human brain. Situation recognition and response are key to this integration. Scholars of decision making and expertise have found that people with great expertise are more adept at situational recognition and intentional about their decision-making processes. Several interdisciplinary fields of inquiry…

  7. Integration of language and sensor information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid I.; Weijers, Bertus

    2003-04-01

    The talk describes the development of basic technologies of intelligent systems fusing data from multiple domains and leading to automated computational techniques for understanding data contents. Understanding involves inferring appropriate decisions and recommending proper actions, which in turn requires fusion of data and knowledge about objects, situations, and actions. Data might include sensory data, verbal reports, intelligence intercepts, or public records, whereas knowledge ought to encompass the whole range of objects, situations, people and their behavior, and knowledge of languages. In the past, a fundamental difficulty in combining knowledge with data was the combinatorial complexity of computations, too many combinations of data and knowledge pieces had to be evaluated. Recent progress in understanding of natural intelligent systems, including the human mind, leads to the development of neurophysiologically motivated architectures for solving these challenging problems, in particular the role of emotional neural signals in overcoming combinatorial complexity of old logic-based approaches. Whereas past approaches based on logic tended to identify logic with language and thinking, recent studies in cognitive linguistics have led to appreciation of more complicated nature of linguistic models. Little is known about the details of the brain mechanisms integrating language and thinking. Understanding and fusion of linguistic information with sensory data represent a novel challenging aspect of the development of integrated fusion systems. The presentation will describe a non-combinatorial approach to this problem and outline techniques that can be used for fusing diverse and uncertain knowledge with sensory and linguistic data.

  8. Neo-classical principles for information integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaanse, R.; Hulstijn, J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: For inter-organizational systems, integrity of information is crucial: how to make sure that the information represented in a system will continue to faithfully represent business reality? In this paper we present a neo-classical approach to information integrity. We apply „classic‟ princi

  9. Integrated Access to Hybrid Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Sadeh

    2003-01-01

    This paper is entitled "Integrated access to hybrid information resources", but integrated access is just a means to reach an end. Our challenge is to create an integrated environment in a heterogeneous world. Users are not aware, and do not want to be aware, of the differences between the various information resources that their institution provides. All they want is to be able to attain the information they are looking for, in the simplest and most straightforward way possible.

  10. Brain Tumor Detection Based On Mathematical Analysis and Symmetry Information

    OpenAIRE

    G., Narkhede Sachin; Khairnar, Vaishali; Kadu, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Image segmentation some of the challenging issues on brain magnetic resonance image tumor segmentation caused by the weak correlation between magnetic resonance imaging intensity and anatomical meaning.With the objective of utilizing more meaningful information to improve brain tumor segmentation,an approach which employs bilateral symmetry information as an additional feature for segmentation is proposed.This is motivated by potential performance improvement in the general automatic brain tu...

  11. The modular and integrative functional architecture of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolero, Maxwell A; Yeo, B T Thomas; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Network-based analyses of brain imaging data consistently reveal distinct modules and connector nodes with diverse global connectivity across the modules. How discrete the functions of modules are, how dependent the computational load of each module is to the other modules' processing, and what the precise role of connector nodes is for between-module communication remains underspecified. Here, we use a network model of the brain derived from resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data and investigate the modular functional architecture of the human brain by analyzing activity at different types of nodes in the network across 9,208 experiments of 77 cognitive tasks in the BrainMap database. Using an author-topic model of cognitive functions, we find a strong spatial correspondence between the cognitive functions and the network's modules, suggesting that each module performs a discrete cognitive function. Crucially, activity at local nodes within the modules does not increase in tasks that require more cognitive functions, demonstrating the autonomy of modules' functions. However, connector nodes do exhibit increased activity when more cognitive functions are engaged in a task. Moreover, connector nodes are located where brain activity is associated with many different cognitive functions. Connector nodes potentially play a role in between-module communication that maintains the modular function of the brain. Together, these findings provide a network account of the brain's modular yet integrated implementation of cognitive functions. PMID:26598686

  12. Information systems integration in radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Honeyman, Janice C.

    1999-01-01

    Advances in information systems and technology in conjunction with outside forces requiring improved reporting are driving sweeping changes in the practice of radiology. In most academic radiology departments, there can be at least five separate information systems in daily use, a clinical picture archiving and communication system (PACS), a hospital information system (HIS), a radiology information system (RIS), a voice-recognition dictation system, and an electronic teaching/research file s...

  13. NF-κB and epigenetic mechanisms as integrative regulators of brain resilience to anoxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnico, Ilenia; Branca, Caterina; Lanzillotta, Annamaria; Porrini, Vanessa; Benarese, Marina; Spano, Pier Franco; Pizzi, Marina

    2012-10-01

    Brain cells display an amazing ability to respond to several different types of environmental stimuli and integrate this response physiologically. Some of these responses can outlive the original stimulus by days, weeks or even longer. Long-lasting changes in both physiological and pathological conditions occurring in response to external stimuli are almost always mediated by changes in gene expression. To effect these changes, cells have developed an impressive repertoire of signaling systems designed to modulate the activity of numerous transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms affecting the chromatin structure. Since its initial characterization in the nervous system, NF-κB has shown to respond to multiple signals and elicit pleiotropic activities suggesting that it may play a pivotal role in integration of different types of information within the brain. Ample evidence demonstrates that NF-κB factors are engaged in and necessary for neuronal development and synaptic plasticity, but they also regulate brain response to environmental noxae. By focusing on the complexity of NF-κB transcriptional activity in neuronal cell death, it emerged that the composition of NF-κB active dimers finely tunes the neuronal vulnerability to brain ischemia. Even though we are only beginning to understand the contribution of distinct NF-κB family members to the regulation of gene transcription in the brain, an additional level of regulation of NF-κB activity has emerged as operated by the epigenetic mechanisms modulating histone acetylation. We will discuss NF-κB and epigenetic mechanisms as integrative regulators of brain resilience to anoxic stress and useful drug targets for restoration of brain function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Brain Integration. PMID:22575713

  14. IMIS: Integrated Maintenance Information System. A maintenance information delivery concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonholle, Joseph C.

    1987-01-01

    The Integrated Maintenance Information System (IMIS) will optimize the use of available manpower, enhance technical performance, improve training, and reduce the support equipment and documentation needed for deployment. It will serve as the technician's single, integrated source of all the technical information required to perform modern aircraft maintenance.

  15. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Membership Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    BTEC welcomes new members interested in the development of multi-center, inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes and prevention of all brain tumors.

  16. How Does the Brain Organize Information?

    OpenAIRE

    Kroger, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive processes in the brain, like learning, formation of memory, recovery of memorized images, classification of objects have two features: First, there is no supervisor in the brain who controls these processes. Second there is a hugh number of neurons (10^{6} to 10^{10}) involved in those cognitive tasks. For this reason, the search of understanding cognitive processes uses models built from a large number of neurons, but very much simplified neurons. The so-called neural networks have...

  17. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ITIS is an easily accessible database with reliable information on species names and their hierarchical classification that is publicly accessible with unlimited...

  18. How Cognitive Plasticity Resolves the Brain's Information Processing Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Diankun Gong; Weiyi Ma; Kendrick, Keith M.; Qingqing Hu; Dezhong Yao

    2013-01-01

    A key unresolved question in cognitive science is whether the brain uses asynchronous or synchronous patterns of information transmission. Using an auditory learning task combined with electrophysiological recordings, we reveal for the first time that cognitive plasticity during learning transforms an asynchronous into a synchronous transmission pattern to achieve rapid, error-free performance. We also present a new model showing how the brain may resolve its information processing and transm...

  19. Brain Tumor Detection Based On Mathematical Analysis and Symmetry Information

    OpenAIRE

    Narkhede Sachin G.,; Prof. Vaishali Khairnar

    2014-01-01

    Image segmentation some of the challenging issues on brain magnetic resonance (MR) image tumor segmentation caused by the weak correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) intensity and anatomical meaning. With the objective of utilizing more meaningful information to improve brain tumor segmentation, an approach which employs bilateral symmetry information as an additional feature for segmentation is proposed. This is motivated by potential performance improvement in ...

  20. Integrated Primary Care Information Database (IPCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Integrated Primary Care Information Database is a longitudinal observational database that was created specifically for pharmacoepidemiological and pharmacoeconomic studies, inlcuding data from computer-based patient records supplied voluntarily by general practitioners.

  1. Integrated Information-induced quantum collapse

    OpenAIRE

    Kremnizer, Kobi; Ranchin, André

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel spontaneous collapse model where size is no longer the property of a physical system which determines its rate of collapse. Instead, we argue that the rate of spontaneous localization should depend on a system's quantum Integrated Information (QII), a novel physical property which describes a system's capacity to act like a quantum observer. We introduce quantum Integrated Information, present our QII collapse model and briefly explain how it may be experimentally tested ag...

  2. Integrated Information-Induced Quantum Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremnizer, Kobi; Ranchin, André

    2015-08-01

    We present a novel spontaneous collapse model where size is no longer the property of a physical system which determines its rate of collapse. Instead, we argue that the rate of spontaneous localization should depend on a system's quantum Integrated Information (QII), a novel physical property which describes a system's capacity to act like a quantum observer. We introduce quantum Integrated Information, present our QII collapse model and briefly explain how it may be experimentally tested against quantum theory.

  3. Neurocomputational approaches to modelling multisensory integration in the brain: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursino, Mauro; Cuppini, Cristiano; Magosso, Elisa

    2014-12-01

    The Brain's ability to integrate information from different modalities (multisensory integration) is fundamental for accurate sensory experience and efficient interaction with the environment: it enhances detection of external stimuli, disambiguates conflict situations, speeds up responsiveness, facilitates processes of memory retrieval and object recognition. Multisensory integration operates at several brain levels: in subcortical structures (especially the Superior Colliculus), in higher-level associative cortices (e.g., posterior parietal regions), and even in early cortical areas (such as primary cortices) traditionally considered to be purely unisensory. Because of complex non-linear mechanisms of brain integrative phenomena, a key tool for their understanding is represented by neurocomputational models. This review examines different modelling principles and architectures, distinguishing the models on the basis of their aims: (i) Bayesian models based on probabilities and realizing optimal estimator of external cues; (ii) biologically inspired models of multisensory integration in the Superior Colliculus and in the Cortex, both at level of single neuron and network of neurons, with emphasis on physiological mechanisms and architectural schemes; among the latter, some models exhibit synaptic plasticity and reproduce development of integrative capabilities via Hebbian-learning rules or self-organizing maps; (iii) models of semantic memory that implement object meaning as a fusion between sensory-motor features (embodied cognition). This overview paves the way to future challenges, such as reconciling neurophysiological and Bayesian models into a unifying theory, and stimulates upcoming research in both theoretical and applicative domains. PMID:25218929

  4. The Romanian SME and the Information Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA FOTACHE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME increasingly consider information as an important resource. The challenge consists in using all the integration techniques of the day – whether they are information, data, application systems or even business-process integration – to build an Information Technology platform that can meet the demands of real-time businesses. Over the last few years, new fundamental technologies have provided the basis for clearly improved functionality and quality of enterprise-wide information management. The fundamental nature of work is changing in the e-business era. The information integration offers SME tremendous benefits, such as streamlined business processes and increased efficiency. This paper draws on the reality of SME in Romania.

  5. Brain Tumor Detection Based On Symmetry Information

    OpenAIRE

    G., Narkhede Sachin; Khairnar, Vaishali

    2013-01-01

    Advances in computing technology have allowed researchers across many fields of endeavor to collect and maintain vast amounts of observational statistical data such as clinical data, biological patient data, data regarding access of web sites, financial data, and the like. This paper addresses some of the challenging issues on brain magnetic resonance (MR) image tumor segmentation caused by the weak correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) intensity and anatomical meaning. With th...

  6. Guest editorial. Integrated healthcare information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Ge, Ri-Li; Zhou, Shang-Ming; Valerdi, Ricardo

    2012-07-01

    The use of integrated information systems for healthcare has been started more than a decade ago. In recent years, rapid advances in information integration methods have spurred tremendous growth in the use of integrated information systems in healthcare delivery. Various techniques have been used for probing such integrated systems. These techniques include service-oriented architecture (SOA), EAI, workflow management, grid computing, and others. Many applications require a combination of these techniques, which gives rise to the emergence of enterprise systems in healthcare. Development of the techniques originated from different disciplines has the potential to significantly improve the performance of enterprise systems in healthcare. This editorial paper briefly introduces the enterprise systems in the perspective of healthcare informatics. PMID:22760931

  7. Unveiling the mystery of visual information processing in human brain

    CERN Document Server

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human vision is an extremely powerful information processing system that facilitates our interaction with the surrounding world. However, despite extended and extensive research efforts, which encompass many exploration fields, the underlying fundamentals and operational principles of visual information processing in human brain remain unknown. We still are unable to figure out where and how along the path from eyes to the cortex the sensory input perceived by the retina is converted into a meaningful object representation, which can be consciously manipulated by the brain. Studying the vast literature considering the various aspects of brain information processing, I was surprised to learn that the respected scholarly discussion is totally indifferent to the basic keynote question: "What is information?" in general or "What is visual information?" in particular. In the old days, it was assumed that any scientific research approach has first to define its basic departure points. ...

  8. Integrating Information & Communications Technologies into the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, Lawrence, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Integrating Information & Communications Technologies Into the Classroom" examines topics critical to business, computer science, and information technology education, such as: school improvement and reform, standards-based technology education programs, data-driven decision making, and strategic technology education planning. This book also…

  9. Whole Brain Radiotherapy With Hippocampal Avoidance and Simultaneously Integrated Brain Metastases Boost: A Planning Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using tomotherapy to deliver whole brain radiotherapy with hippocampal avoidance, hypothesized to reduce the risk of memory function decline, and simultaneously integrated boost to brain metastases to improve intracranial tumor control. Methods and Materials: Ten patients treated with radiosurgery and whole brain radiotherapy underwent repeat planning using tomotherapy with the original computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging-computed tomography fusion-defined target and normal structure contours. The individually contoured hippocampus was used as a dose-limiting structure (2 and 5.8 ± 1.9 Gy2 for 2.5- and 1.0-cm FW, respectively. The mean treatment delivery time for the 2.5- and 1.0-cm FW plans was 10.2 ± 1.0 and 21.8 ± 1.8 min, respectively. Conclusion: Composite tomotherapy plans achieved three objectives: homogeneous whole brain dose distribution equivalent to conventional whole brain radiotherapy; conformal hippocampal avoidance; and radiosurgically equivalent dose distributions to individual metastases

  10. Integration of retinal and extraretinal information across eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ostendorf

    Full Text Available Visual perception is burdened with a highly discontinuous input stream arising from saccadic eye movements. For successful integration into a coherent representation, the visuomotor system needs to deal with these self-induced perceptual changes and distinguish them from external motion. Forward models are one way to solve this problem where the brain uses internal monitoring signals associated with oculomotor commands to predict the visual consequences of corresponding eye movements during active exploration. Visual scenes typically contain a rich structure of spatial relational information, providing additional cues that may help disambiguate self-induced from external changes of perceptual input. We reasoned that a weighted integration of these two inherently noisy sources of information should lead to better perceptual estimates. Volunteer subjects performed a simple perceptual decision on the apparent displacement of a visual target, jumping unpredictably in sync with a saccadic eye movement. In a critical test condition, the target was presented together with a flanker object, where perceptual decisions could take into account the spatial distance between target and flanker object. Here, precision was better compared to control conditions in which target displacements could only be estimated from either extraretinal or visual relational information alone. Our findings suggest that under natural conditions, integration of visual space across eye movements is based upon close to optimal integration of both retinal and extraretinal pieces of information.

  11. Efficient multilevel brain tumor segmentation with integrated bayesian model classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, J J; Sharon, E; Dube, S; El-Saden, S; Sinha, U; Yuille, A

    2008-05-01

    We present a new method for automatic segmentation of heterogeneous image data that takes a step toward bridging the gap between bottom-up affinity-based segmentation methods and top-down generative model based approaches. The main contribution of the paper is a Bayesian formulation for incorporating soft model assignments into the calculation of affinities, which are conventionally model free. We integrate the resulting model-aware affinities into the multilevel segmentation by weighted aggregation algorithm, and apply the technique to the task of detecting and segmenting brain tumor and edema in multichannel magnetic resonance (MR) volumes. The computationally efficient method runs orders of magnitude faster than current state-of-the-art techniques giving comparable or improved results. Our quantitative results indicate the benefit of incorporating model-aware affinities into the segmentation process for the difficult case of glioblastoma multiforme brain tumor. PMID:18450536

  12. Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information (CINDI) is a research and operational facility that explores methods for collecting, integrating, and communicating information about the risks posed by natural hazards and the effects of natural disasters. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is mandated by the Robert Stafford Act to warn citizens of impending landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes. The USGS also coordinates with other Federal, State, and local disaster agencies to monitor threats to communities from floods, coastal storms, wildfires, geomagnetic storms, drought, and outbreaks of disease in wildlife populations.

  13. Whole brain helical Tomotherapy with integrated boost for brain metastases in patients with malignant melanoma–a randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with malignant melanoma may develop brain metastases during the course of the disease, requiring radiotherapeutic treatment. In patients with 1–3 brain metastases, radiosurgery has been established as a treatment option besides surgery. For patients with 4 or more brain metastases, whole brain radiotherapy is considered the standard treatment. In certain patients with brain metastases, radiation treatment using whole brain helical Tomotherapy with integrated boost and hippocampal-sparing may improve prognosis of these patients. The present prospective, randomized two-armed trial aims to exploratory investigate the treatment response to conventional whole brain radiotherapy applying 30 Gy in 10 fractions versus whole brain helical Tomotherapy applying 30 Gy in 10 fractions with an integrated boost of 50 Gy to the brain metastases as well as hippocampal-sparing in patients with brain metastases from malignant melanoma. The main inclusion criteria include magnetic resonance imaging confirmed brain metastases from a histopathologically confirmed malignant melanoma in patients with a minimum age of 18 years. The main exclusion criteria include a previous radiotherapy of the brain and not having recovered from acute high-grade toxicities of prior therapies. The primary endpoint is treatment-related toxicity. Secondary endpoints include imaging response, local and loco-regional progression-free survival, overall survival and quality of life

  14. Brain Tumor Detection Based On Mathematical Analysis and Symmetry Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narkhede Sachin G.,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation some of the challenging issues on brain magnetic resonance (MR image tumor segmentation caused by the weak correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI intensity and anatomical meaning. With the objective of utilizing more meaningful information to improve brain tumor segmentation, an approach which employs bilateral symmetry information as an additional feature for segmentation is proposed. This is motivated by potential performance improvement in the general automatic brain tumor segmentation systems which are important for many medical and scientific applications. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI segmentation is a complex problem in the field of medical imaging despite various presented methods. MR image of human brain can be divided into several sub-regions especially soft tissues such as gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid. Although edge information is the main clue in image segmentation, it can’t get a better result in analysis the content of images without combining other information. Our goal is to detect the position and boundary of tumors automatically. Experiments were conducted on real pictures, and the results show that the algorithm is flexible and convenient.

  15. Assessing Extinction Risk: Integrating Genetic Information

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Vinyard; Jennifer Nielsen; C. Richard Tracy; Mary Peacock; Jason Dunham

    1999-01-01

    Risks of population extinction have been estimated using a variety of methods incorporating information from different spatial and temporal scales. We briefly consider how several broad classes of extinction risk assessments, including population viability analysis, incidence functions, and ranking methods integrate information on different temporal and spatial scales. In many circumstances, data from surveys of neutral genetic variability within, and among, populations can provide informatio...

  16. Inconsistency Problems in the Information Systems Integration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štuller, Július

    Sofia : DATECS Publ, 1995 - (Candev, M.), s. 67-71 ISBN 954-613-006-2. [BIOMATH'95. International Symposium and Young Scientists School on Mathematical Modelling and Information Systems in the Biology, Ecology and Medicine. Sofia (BG), 23.08.1995-27.08.1995] Grant ostatní: COPERNICUS(XE) MUM-10053 Keywords : integration of databases * inconsistency resolution

  17. Inconsistency Problems in the Information Systems Integration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štuller, Július

    Sofia : DATECS Publ, 1995 - (Popova, E.; Markov, S.; Ullrich, C.). s. 77 ISBN 954-613-005-2. [BIOMATH'95. International Symposium and Young Scientists School on Mathematical Modelling and Information Systems in the Biology, Ecology and Medicine. 23.08.1995-27.08.1995, Sofia] Grant ostatní: COPERNICUS(XE) MUM-10053 Keywords : integration of databases * inconsistency resolution

  18. Integrated plant information technology design support functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report was written as a result of Integrated Plant Information System (IPIS) feasibility study on CANDU 9 project which had been carried out from January, 1994 to March, 1994 at AECL (Atomic Energy Canada Limited) in Canada. From 1987, AECL had done endeavour to change engineering work process from paper based work process to computer based work process through CANDU 3 project. Even though AECL had a lot of good results form computerizing the Process Engineering, Instrumentation Control and Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Computer Aided Design and Drafting, and Document Management System, but there remains the problem of information isolation and integration. On this feasibility study, IPIS design support functionality guideline was suggested by evaluating current AECL CAE tools, analyzing computer aided engineering task and work flow, investigating request for implementing integrated computer aided engineering and describing Korean request for future CANDU design including CANDU 9. 6 figs. (Author)

  19. Neurodynamics analysis of brain information transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-bin WANG; Zhi-kang ZHANG; Chi K. Tse

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a model of neural networks consisting of populations of perceptive neurons, inter-neurons, and motor neurons according to the theory of stochastic phase resetting dynamics. According to this model, the dynamical characteristics of neural networks are studied in three coupling cases, namely, series and parallel coupling, series coupling, and unilateral coupling. The results show that the indentified structure of neural networks enables the basic characteristics of neural information processing to be described in terms of the actions of both the optional motor and the reflected motor. The excitation of local neural networks is caused by the action of the optional motor. In particular, the excitation of the neural population caused by the action of the optional motor in the motor cortex is larger than that caused by the action of the reflected motor. This phenomenon indicates that there are more neurons participating in the neural information processing and the excited synchronization motion under the action of the optional motor.

  20. The brain and somatic integration: insights into the standard biological rationale for equating "brain death" with death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewmon, A D

    2001-10-01

    The mainstream rationale for equating "brain death" (BD) with death is that the brain confers integrative unity upon the body, transforming it from a mere collection of organs and tissues to an "organism as a whole." In support of this conclusion, the impressive list of the brain's myriad integrative functions is often cited. Upon closer examination, and after operational definition of terms, however, one discovers that most integrative functions of the brain are actually not somatically integrating, and, conversely, most integrative functions of the body are not brain-mediated. With respect to organism-level vitality, the brain's role is more modulatory than constitutive, enhancing the quality and survival potential of a presupposedly living organism. Integrative unity of a complex organism is an inherently nonlocalizable, holistic feature involving the mutual interaction among all the parts, not a top-down coordination imposed by one part upon a passive multiplicity of other parts. Loss of somatic integrative unity is not a physiologically tenable rationale for equating BD with death of the organism as a whole. PMID:11588655

  1. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes through Integrated Study of Alzheimer’s Disease Affected Brain Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in older adults that damages the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behaviour. The identification of differentially expressed genes and related pathways among affected brain regions can provide more information on the mechanisms of AD. In the past decade, several studies have reported many genes that are associated with AD. This wealth of information has become difficult to follow and interpret as most of the results are conflicting. In that case, it is worth doing an integrated study of multiple datasets that helps to increase the total number of samples and the statistical power in detecting biomarkers. In this study, we present an integrated analysis of five different brain region datasets and introduce new genes that warrant further investigation. Methods The aim of our study is to apply a novel combinatorial optimisation based meta-analysis approach to identify differentially expressed genes that are associated to AD across brain regions. In this study, microarray gene expression data from 161 samples (74 non-demented controls, 87 AD) from the Entorhinal Cortex (EC), Hippocampus (HIP), Middle temporal gyrus (MTG), Posterior cingulate cortex (PC), Superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and visual cortex (VCX) brain regions were integrated and analysed using our method. The results are then compared to two popular meta-analysis methods, RankProd and GeneMeta, and to what can be obtained by analysing the individual datasets. Results We find genes related with AD that are consistent with existing studies, and new candidate genes not previously related with AD. Our study confirms the up-regualtion of INFAR2 and PTMA along with the down regulation of GPHN, RAB2A, PSMD14 and FGF. Novel genes PSMB2, WNK1, RPL15, SEMA4C, RWDD2A and LARGE are found to be differentially expressed across all brain regions. Further investigation on these genes may provide new insights into the development of AD

  2. Read My Lips: Brain Dynamics Associated with Audiovisual Integration and Deviance Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chun-Yu; Gratton, Gabriele; Garnsey, Susan M; Novak, Michael A; Fabiani, Monica

    2015-09-01

    Information from different modalities is initially processed in different brain areas, yet real-world perception often requires the integration of multisensory signals into a single percept. An example is the McGurk effect, in which people viewing a speaker whose lip movements do not match the utterance perceive the spoken sounds incorrectly, hearing them as more similar to those signaled by the visual rather than the auditory input. This indicates that audiovisual integration is important for generating the phoneme percept. Here we asked when and where the audiovisual integration process occurs, providing spatial and temporal boundaries for the processes generating phoneme perception. Specifically, we wanted to separate audiovisual integration from other processes, such as simple deviance detection. Building on previous work employing ERPs, we used an oddball paradigm in which task-irrelevant audiovisually deviant stimuli were embedded in strings of non-deviant stimuli. We also recorded the event-related optical signal, an imaging method combining spatial and temporal resolution, to investigate the time course and neuroanatomical substrate of audiovisual integration. We found that audiovisual deviants elicit a short duration response in the middle/superior temporal gyrus, whereas audiovisual integration elicits a more extended response involving also inferior frontal and occipital regions. Interactions between audiovisual integration and deviance detection processes were observed in the posterior/superior temporal gyrus. These data suggest that dynamic interactions between inferior frontal cortex and sensory regions play a significant role in multimodal integration. PMID:25848682

  3. Dyslipidemia and Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene L. Bowman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blood-brain barrier (BBB dysfunction may have a significant role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Modifiable factors associated with BBB function may have therapeutic implication. This study tested the hypothesis that dyslipidemia is associated with BBB impairment in mild-to-moderate AD. Methods. Thirty-six subjects with AD were followed for 1 year. Fasting CSF and plasma were collected with clinical assessments at baseline and 12 months. BBB impairment was defined as CSF albumin index ≥9. Independent t-tests and linear regression assessed the relationship between plasma lipoproteins and BBB integrity. Results. Dyslipidemia was prevalent in 47% of the population, and in 75% of those with BBB impairment. Subjects with BBB impairment had significantly higher mean plasma triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol (TG, P=0.007; HDL, P=0.043. Plasma triglycerides explained 22% of the variance in BBB integrity and remained significant after controlling for age, gender, ApoE-4 genotype, blood pressure, and statin use. Conclusion. Dyslipidemia is more prevalent in AD subjects with BBB impairment. Plasma triglyceride and HDL cholesterol may have a role in maintaining BBB integrity in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Integrating information literacy across a BSN curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Lisa Sue; Gasiewicz, Nanci; Delpier, Terry

    2010-02-01

    Although research regarding effective informatics teaching strategies is sparse and informatics competencies have not yet been finalized, nurse educators have been challenged to include informatics throughout the curriculum. Nurse educators are confronted with how best to incorporate informatics into an already burgeoning curriculum. This article offers a systematic approach to incorporating information literacy, a vital component of informatics, across a baccalaureate of science in nursing curriculum. Motivated by the Institute of Medicine report, guided by the initial Technology Informatics Guiding Education Reform competency framework, and using the specific Quality and Safety Education for Nurses informatics competencies, the proposed integrated approach emphasizes clinical applications. The five assignments are designed to incrementally increase students' abilities to recognize the need for information (i.e., knowledge); advance students' abilities to locate, evaluate, and use information (i.e., skills); and foster a positive appreciation for information literacy (i.e., attitudes) when planning safe, effective patient care. PMID:19877568

  5. Integrated image information management: research issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Rajiv; Pierson, William E., Jr.

    1995-06-01

    A vast number of applications including defense, medical, manufacturing, law enforcement, digital library, education, space exploration, weather forecasting, and entertainment require efficient management of huge collections of nonalphanumeric data. The most common and important nonalphanumeric data in most of these applications is image data. Owing to the availability of a variety of visual sensors, several large collections of images and related anciliary data exists and are rapidly growing. Examples of such collections include LANDSAT, weather, medical, and DoD target signature images. Unfortunately, in most cases only a fraction of the collected data is ever utilized to its full potential. The primary reason for this under-utilization is the lack of pictorial data management techniques/systems. Conventional data management systems are not designed to handle pictorial data in an integrated fashion, i.e., images and alphanumeric data are not treated equally. In such systems, an image is stored as a tag field in the description of some entity. Images are not entities and they cannot be key fields. Furthermore, content-based retrieval of images and related data is not possible. Therefore, new data management technologies need to be developed for an integrated management of textual and imagery data. This requires a clear understanding of the requirements and desireable characteristics of a pictorial data management system. In almost all image information management (or integrated image database) applications, image information modeling, content-based image information retrieval, and memeory management are the most important issues to be resolved. In this paper, the requirements of an integrated image information management system and the challenges posed by image data from the data modeling, the content-based retrieval, and the memory management viewpoints are discussed.

  6. The Integrated Burn Information System - Microbiology Module

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, A T; Henderson, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Infection is the most common serious complication occurring in hospitalized burn patients. Since this institute was established more than 35 years ago, the Microbiology section has provided direct clinical microbiology support and has collected epidemiological and historical data concerning the identification, incidence and treatment of infections in burn patients. With the availability of a centralized computer facility, microbiology data were added to the integrated burn information system,...

  7. Integrated Engineering Information Technology, FY93 accommplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.N.; Miller, D.K.; Neugebauer, G.L.; Orona, J.R.; Partridge, R.A.; Herman, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Engineering Information Technology (IEIT) project is providing a comprehensive, easy-to-use computer network solution or communicating with coworkers both inside and outside Sandia National Laboratories. IEIT capabilities include computer networking, electronic mail, mechanical design, and data management. These network-based tools have one fundamental purpose: to help create a concurrent engineering environment that will enable Sandia organizations to excel in today`s increasingly competitive business environment.

  8. Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Hava Karsenty Avraham; Shalom Avraham; Christopher Sy; Lili Wang; Farheen Arshad

    2011-01-01

    Brain metastasis, an important cause of cancer morbidity and mortality, occurs in at least 30% of patients with breast cancer. A key event of brain metastasis is the migration of cancer cells through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although preventing brain metastasis is immensely important for survival, very little is known about the early stage of transmigration and the molecular mechanisms of breast tumor cells penetrating the BBB. The brain endothelium plays an important role in brain meta...

  9. Brain Tumor Detection Based on Bilateral Symmetry Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narkhede Sachin,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Advances in computing technology have allowed researchers across many fields of endeavor to collect and maintain vast amounts of observational statistical data such as clinical data, biological patient data, data regarding access of web sites , financial data, and the like. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI segmentation is a complex problem in the field of medical imaging despite various presented methods. MR image of human brain can be divided into several sub-regions especially soft tissues such as gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid. Although edge information is the main clue in image segmentation, it can’t get a better result in analysis the content of images without combining other information. The segmentation of brain tissue in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is very important for detecting the existence and outlines of tumors. In this thesis , an algorithm about segmentation based on the symmetry character of brain MRI image is presented. Our goal is to detect the position and boundary of tumors automatically. Experiments were conducted on real pictures, and the results show that the algorithm is flexible and convenient.

  10. Integrated Information System for Higher Education Qualifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Ionut SILVESTRU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we aim to study thoroughly and detail aspects related to architectures specific for e-learning and management of human resources training interconnected to management of qualifications. In addition, we take into consideration combining e-learning architectures with software in an e-learning system interconnected with the National Registry of Qualifications of Higher Education, in view of developing and information system that correlates educational supply from higher education from Romania with labor market demands through qualifications. The scientific endeavor consists of original architectural solutions to integrate data, systems, processes, services from various sources and to use them in the proposed system. The practical result of the scientific endeavor is represented by design of architectures required for developing an e-learning system interconnected with the National Registry of Qualifications from Romania, which involve in first stage the qualifications provided by higher education. The proposed innovative solution consists in the fact that the proposed information system combines the advantages of content management system (CMS with learning content management system (LCMS and with reusable learning objects (RLO. Thus, the architecture proposed in the research ensures the integration of a content management system with a portal for information, guidance and support in making a professional project. The integration enables correlation of competences with content areas and specific items from various teaching subjects, thus evaluating the usefulness for this registry from learning/educational perspective. Using the proposed information system in enables correlation among qualifications, content of educational program and continuous self-evaluation opportunities, which facilitate monitoring of progress and adjustment of learning content.

  11. Information flow and work productivity through integrated information technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigand, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    The work environment surrounding integrated office systems is reviewed. The known effects of automated office technologies is synthesized and their known impact on work efficiency is reviewed. These effects are explored with regard to their impact on networks, work flow/processes, as well as organizational structure and power. Particular emphasis is given to structural changes due to the introduction of newer information technologies in organizations. The new information technologies have restructed the average organization's middle banks and, as a consequence, they have shrunk drastically. Organizational pyramids have flattened with fewer levels since executives have realized that they can get ahold of the needed information via the new technologies quicker and directly and do not have to rely on middle-level managers. Power shifts are typically accompanied with the introduction of these technologies resulting in the generation of a new form of organizational power.

  12. The BRAIN Initiative Provides a Unifying Context for Integrating Core STEM Competencies into a Neurobiology Course

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    The Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative introduced by the Obama Administration in 2013 presents a context for integrating many STEM competencies into undergraduate neuroscience coursework. The BRAIN Initiative core principles overlap with core STEM competencies identified by the AAAS Vision and Change report and other entities. This neurobiology course utilizes the BRAIN Initiative to serve as the unifying theme that facilitates a primary emphasis ...

  13. Cognitive information processing and learning mechanisms of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majovski, L V; Jacques, S

    1982-05-01

    The view that the two cerebral hemispheres of the human brain are characterized by different cognitive processing modes that handle information received in various forms is commonly accepted by neurobehavioral scientists and neuropsychologists. Selected neuroanatomical, electrophysiological, neurochemical, biochemical, and neuropsychological data that bear on a cognitive information-processing model of the brain are presented. Processes involved in memory functions are discussed in regard to the nature of thought and the characteristics of mental life, e.g., internalization of thought, perception, arousal, attention, cognitive development, problem solving, the development of cognitive encoding, and selective recall. We present a position that argues for the brain as being flexible vs. fixed in its characteristics and limitations, drawing from various theories and viewpoints. We also present a review of selected mechanisms believed to be involved in brain-behavior processes, e.g., learning, cognition, pain, emotion, reward, cognitive development, and memory formation. A major theme addressed in terms of human information processing is that cognitive functioning, in a variety of instances, comprises subsets of more general processes, e.g., selective recall, cueing that is capable of addressing schemas, notions of inhibition and disinhibition, and the modulation of excitatory properties of certain neural transmitter substances. Questions such as "how is information stored in memory in the first place?" and "how do elements of motivation (i.e., goal orientation) get connected and then send their messages to appropriate inbound behaviors?" are addressed from the point of view that learning, although not understood completely, is somehow involved. Another unresolved question of theoretical and practical significance that we address is "how does learning result in neural connections?" Such questions are discussed in light of their implications for human memory, thought

  14. Integrated environmental monitoring and information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of the environmental monitoring within the territory of the Slovak Republic and the concept of the integrated environmental information system of the Slovak Republic were accepted and confirmed by the Government Order No. 449/1992. The state monitoring system covering the whole territory of Slovakia is the most important and consists of 13 Partial Monitoring Systems (PMSs). List of PMSs is included. The listed PMSs are managed according to the concept of the Sectoral Information System (SIS) of the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic (MESR) which was established by the National Council Act No. 261/1995 Coll. on the SIS. The SIS consists of 18 subsystems which are listed. The overviews of budget of PMSs as well as of environmental publications and periodicals of the MESR are included

  15. ASPECTS REGARDING THE INTEGRATION OF THE MODERN INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Botezatu Cornelia Paulina; Carutasu George; Botezatu Cezar

    2010-01-01

    Developing an information system integration strategy, at enterprise level is one of the most difficult issues that the information systems managers must solve, within the present conditions. When settling the integration strategy, two aspects must mainly be taken into account: assuring a complete integration solution of the information systems and building an integration infrastructure of the applications. The present paper aims at presenting few aspects regarding the integration of the info...

  16. The digital bee brain: integrating and managing neurons in a common 3D reference system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rybak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The honeybee standard brain (HSB serves as an interactive tool for relating morphologies of bee brain neurons and provides a reference system for functional and bibliographical properties (http://www.neurobiologie.fu-berlin.de/beebrain/. The ultimate goal is to document not only the morphological network properties of neurons collected from separate brains, but also to establish a graphical user interface for a neuron-related data base. Here, we review the current methods and protocols used to incorporate neuronal reconstructions into the HSB. Our registration protocol consists of two separate steps applied to imaging data from two-channel confocal microscopy scans: (1 The reconstruction of the neuron, facilitated by an automatic extraction of the neuron’s skeleton based on threshold segmentation, and (2 the semi-automatic 3D segmentation of the neuropils and their registration with the HSB. The integration of neurons in the HSB is performed by applying the transformation computed in step (2 to the reconstructed neurons of step (1. The most critical issue of this protocol in terms of user interaction time – the segmentation process – is drastically improved by the use of a model-based segmentation process. Furthermore, the underlying statistical shape models (SSM allow the visualization and analysis of characteristic variations in large sets of bee brain data. The anatomy of neural networks composed of multiple neurons that are registered into the HSB are visualized by depicting the 3D reconstructions together with semantic information with the objective to integrate data from multiple sources (electrophysiology, imaging, immunocytochemistry, molecular biology. Ultimately, this will allow the user to specify cell types and retrieve their morphologies along with physiological characterizations.

  17. Exploiting temporal information in functional magnetic resonance imaging brain data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Samaras, Dimitris; Tomasi, Dardo; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Cottone, Lisa; Leskovjan, Andreana; Volkow, Nora; Goldstein, Rita

    2005-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging(fMRI) has enabled scientists to look into the active human brain, leading to a flood of new data, thus encouraging the development of new data analysis methods. In this paper, we contribute a comprehensive framework for spatial and temporal exploration of fMRI data, and apply it to a challenging case study: separating drug addicted subjects from healthy non-drug-using controls. To our knowledge, this is the first time that learning on fMRI data is performed explicitly on temporal information for classification in such applications. Experimental results demonstrate that, by selecting discriminative features, group classification can be successfully performed on our case study although training data are exceptionally high dimensional, sparse and noisy fMRI sequences. The classification performance can be significantly improved by incorporating temporal information into machine learning. Both statistical and neuroscientific validation of the method's generalization ability are provided. We demonstrate that incorporation of computer science principles into functional neuroimaging clinical studies, facilitates deduction about the behavioral probes from the brain activation data, thus providing a valid tool that incorporates objective brain imaging data into clinical classification of psychopathologies and identification of genetic vulnerabilities. PMID:16685905

  18. The Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Gitte M; Jensen, Peter S; Erritzoe, David; Baaré, William F C; Ettrup, Anders; Fisher, Patrick M; Gillings, Nic; Hansen, Hanne D; Hansen, Lars Kai; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Henningsson, Susanne; Herth, Matthias M; Holst, Klaus K; Iversen, Pernille; Kessing, Lars V; Macoveanu, Julian; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Mortensen, Erik L; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Paulson, Olaf B; Siebner, Hartwig R; Stenbæk, Dea S; Svarer, Claus; Jernigan, Terry L; Strother, Stephen C; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2016-01-01

    We here describe a multimodality neuroimaging containing data from healthy volunteers and patients, acquired within the Lundbeck Foundation Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) in Copenhagen, Denmark. The data is of particular relevance for neurobiological research questions related to the serotonergic transmitter system with its normative data on the serotonergic subtype receptors 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4 and the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), but can easily serve other purposes. The Cimbi database and Cimbi biobank were formally established in 2008 with the purpose to store the wealth of Cimbi-acquired data in a highly structured and standardized manner in accordance with the regulations issued by the Danish Data Protection Agency as well as to provide a quality-controlled resource for future hypothesis-generating and hypothesis-driven studies. The Cimbi database currently comprises a total of 1100 PET and 1000 structural and functional MRI scans and it holds a multitude of additional data, such as genetic and biochemical data, and scores from 17 self-reported questionnaires and from 11 neuropsychological paper/computer tests. The database associated Cimbi biobank currently contains blood and in some instances saliva samples from about 500 healthy volunteers and 300 patients with e.g., major depression, dementia, substance abuse, obesity, and impulsive aggression. Data continue to be added to the Cimbi database and biobank. PMID:25891375

  19. Phenotypic integration of brain size and head morphology in Lake Tanganyika Cichlids

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuboi, Masahito; González-Voyer, Alejandro; Kolm, N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Phenotypic integration among different anatomical parts of the head is a common phenomenon across vertebrates. Interestingly, despite centuries of research into the factors that contribute to the existing variation in brain size among vertebrates, little is known about the role of phenotypic integration in brain size diversification. Here we used geometric morphometrics on the morphologically diverse Tanganyikan cichlids to investigate phenotypic integration across key mor...

  20. Reduced Predictable Information in Brain Signals in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eGomez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a common developmental disorder characterized by communication difficulties and impaired social interaction. Recent results suggest altered brain dynamics as a potential cause of symptoms in ASD. Here, we aim to describe potential information-processing consequences of these alterations by measuring active information storage (AIS – a key quantity in the theory of distributed computation in biological networks. AIS is defined as the mutual information between the semi-infinite past of a process and its next state. It measures the amount of stored information that is used for computation of the next time step of a process. AIS is high for rich but predictable dynamics. We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG signals in 13 ASD patients and 14 matched control subjects in a visual task. After a beamformer source analysis, twelve task-relevant sources were obtained. For these sources, stationary baseline activity was analyzed using AIS. Our results showed a decrease of AIS values in the hippocampus of ASD patients in comparison with controls, meaning that brain signals in ASD were either less predictable, reduced in their dynamic richness or both. Our study suggests the usefulness of AIS to detect an abnormal type of dynamics in ASD. The observed changes in AIS are compatible with Bayesian theories of reduced use or precision of priors in ASD.

  1. An integrative view on sex differences in brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tao; Plutynski, Anya; Ward, Stacey; Rubin, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in human health and disease can range from undetectable to profound. Differences in brain tumor rates and outcome are evident in males and females throughout the world and regardless of age. These observations indicate that fundamental aspects of sex determination can impact the biology of brain tumors. It is likely that optimal personalized approaches to the treatment of male and female brain tumor patients will require recognizing and understanding the ways in which the biol...

  2. Androgen modulation of social decision making mechanisms in the brain: an integrative and embodied perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Apart from their role in reproduction androgens also respond to social challenges and this response has been seen as a way to regulate the expression of behaviour according to the perceived social environment (Challenge hypothesis, Wingfield et al. 1990. This hypothesis implies that social decision-making mechanisms localized in the central nervous system (CNS are open to the influence of peripheral hormones that ultimately are under the control of the CNS through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Therefore, two puzzling questions emerge at two different levels of biological analysis: (1 Why does the brain, which perceives the social environment and regulates androgen production in the gonad, need feedback information from the gonad to adjust its social decision-making processes? (2 How does the brain regulate gonadal androgen responses to social challenges and how do these feedback into the brain? In this paper, we will address these two questions using the integrative approach proposed by Niko Tinbergen, who proposed that a full understanding of behaviour requires its analysis at both proximate (physiology, ontogeny and ultimate (ecology, evolution levels.

  3. Three-dimensional visualization of functional brain tissue and functional magnetic resonance imaging-integrated neuronavigation in the resection of brain tumor adjacent to motor cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the value of three -dimensional visualization of functional brain tissue and the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-integrated neuronavigation in the resection of brain tumor adjacent to motor cortex. Method: Sixty patients with tumor located in the central sulcus were enrolled. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to function group and 30 to control group. Patients in function group underwent fMRI to localize the functional brain tissues. Then the function information was transferred to the neurosurgical navigator. The patients in control group underwent surgery with navigation without function information. The therapeutic effect, excision rate. improvement of motor function, and survival quality during follow-up were analyzed. Result: All patients in function group were accomplished visualization of functional brain tissues and fMRI-integrated neuronavigation. The locations of tumors, central sulcus and motor cortex were marked during the operation. The fMRI -integrated information played a great role in both pre- and post-operation. Pre-operation: designing the location of the skin flap and window bone, determining the relationship between the tumor and motor cortex, and designing the pathway for the resection. Post- operation: real-time navigation of relationship between the tumor and motor cortex, assisting to localize the motor cortex using interoperation ultra-sound for correcting the displacement by the CSF outflow and collapsing tumor. The patients in the function group had better results than the patients in the control group in therapeutic effect (u=2.646, P=0.008), excision rate (χ=7.200, P<0.01), improvement of motor function (u=2.231, P=0.026), and survival quality (KPS uc= 2.664, P=0.008; Zubrod -ECOG -WHO uc=2.135, P=0.033). Conclusions: Using preoperative three -dimensional visualization of cerebral function tissue and the fMRI-integrated neuronavigation technology, combining intraoperative accurate positioning

  4. Information retrieval for intelligent information integration in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed at investigating functional requirements for information retrieval method to develop integrated information management for nuclear power plant and also aimed at developing a prototype system based on the extracted requirements. Among several requirements for supporting intelligent activities of plant operators, the focus has been set on the support function for effective retrieval from stored database, which is consistent with the cognitive process of operators. The functions of the quick wave form search based on partial similarity and of the data search based on hierarchically defined attributes have been realized with the man-machine interface for practical use. As for the quick wave form search based on partial similarity, the validity of this method has been evaluated through the numerical experiments for searching artificially induced wave form simulating signal anomalies. As for the data search based on hierarchically defined attributes, the validity of the proposed system has been shown through the process of possible user and system interaction for anomaly detection and retrospective analysis when some anomalies arise in terms of frequency characteristics in a specific frequency band. (author)

  5. SUPPLY CHAIN INFORMATION INTEGRATION THROUGH SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Milanovic; Miladin Stefanovic; Zora Arsovski; Dragana Rejman Petrovic; Vladimir Rankovic; Zoran Kalinic

    2013-01-01

    In recent years information integration became significant problem for both natural and legal persons in everyday operations. Huge amount of information are available, but insufficiently processed in order to have useful value. Choosing the right combination of tools and technologies for integration is prerequisite for requiring information from multiple heterogeneous sources and their qualitative and simple using after.In this paper, we have focused on information integration within companie...

  6. Allostasis and the Human Brain: Integrating Models of Stress from the Social and Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzel, Barbara L.; Morris, Pamela A.; Wethington, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    We draw on the theory of allostasis to develop an integrative model of the current stress process that highlights the brain as a dynamically adapting interface between the changing environment and the biological self. We review evidence that the core emotional regions of the brain constitute the primary mediator of the well-established association…

  7. Concurrent Engineering Oriented CAx/DFx Information Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The information integration, especially in CAD/CAPP/CAM, is a basis for realizing the integrated and concurrent product development in Concurrent Engineering (CE) environment. The integration technology based on STEP application protocol gives an effective way for the CAx/DFx information integration. This paper discusses the characteristics of concurrent product development, analyzes the methodology and technology of STEP, proposes an information integration approach based on STEP AP214, and presents the strategy of product data integration and an integration system implementation architecture. The integration technology based on STEP application protocol and the ST-Developer tools is realized in a prototype system to support product data integration between CAD and its follow-up systems through STEP physical file and STEP information exchange interface.

  8. A Model for Information Integration Using Service Oriented Architectur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Punitha Devi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Business agility remains to be the keyword that drives the business into different directions and enabling a 360 degree shift in the business process. To achieve agility the organization should work on real time information and data. The need to have instant access to information appears to be ever shine requirement of all organizations or enterprise. Access to information does not come directly with a single query but a complex process termed Information integration. Information integration has been in existence for the past two decades and has been progressive up to now. The challenges and issues keep on persisting as information integration problem evolves by itself. This paper addresses the issues in the approaches, techniques and models pertaining to information integration and identifies the problem for a need for a complete model. As SOA is the architectural style that is changing the business patterns today, this paper proposes a service oriented model for information integration. The model mainly focuses on giving a complete structure for information integration that is adaptable to any environment and open in nature. Here information is converted into service and then the information services are integrated through service oriented integration to provide the integrated information also as service.

  9. Effects of visual working memory on brain information processing of irrelevant auditory stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiagui Qu

    Full Text Available Selective attention has traditionally been viewed as a sensory processing modulator that promotes cognitive processing efficiency by favoring relevant stimuli while inhibiting irrelevant stimuli. However, the cross-modal processing of irrelevant information during working memory (WM has been rarely investigated. In this study, the modulation of irrelevant auditory information by the brain during a visual WM task was investigated. The N100 auditory evoked potential (N100-AEP following an auditory click was used to evaluate the selective attention to auditory stimulus during WM processing and at rest. N100-AEP amplitudes were found to be significantly affected in the left-prefrontal, mid-prefrontal, right-prefrontal, left-frontal, and mid-frontal regions while performing a high WM load task. In contrast, no significant differences were found between N100-AEP amplitudes in WM states and rest states under a low WM load task in all recorded brain regions. Furthermore, no differences were found between the time latencies of N100-AEP troughs in WM states and rest states while performing either the high or low WM load task. These findings suggested that the prefrontal cortex (PFC may integrate information from different sensory channels to protect perceptual integrity during cognitive processing.

  10. Integration of ultra-high field MRI and histology for connectome based research of brain disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan eYang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI became increasingly relevant for in vivo neuroscientific research because of improved spatial resolutions. However, this is still the unchallenged domain of histological studies, which long played an important role in the investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders. While the field of biological psychiatry strongly advanced on macroscopic levels, current developments are rediscovering the richness of immunohistological information when attempting a multi-level systematic approach to brain function and dysfunction. For most studies, histology sections lost information on three-dimensional reconstructions. Translating histological sections to 3D-volumes would thus not only allow for multi-stain and multi-subject alignment in post mortem data, but also provide a crucial step in big data initiatives involving the network analyses currently performed with in vivo MRI. We therefore investigated potential pitfalls during integration of MR and histological information where no additional blockface information is available. We demonstrated that strengths and requirements from both methods seem to be ideally merged at a spatial resolution of 200 μm. However, the success of this approach is heavily dependent on choices of hardware, sequence and reconstruction. We provide a fully automated pipeline that optimizes histological 3D reconstructions, providing a potentially powerful solution not only for primary human post mortem research institutions in neuropsychiatric research, but also to help alleviate the massive workloads in neuroanatomical atlas initiatives. We further demonstrate (for the first time the feasibility and quality of ultra-high spatial resolution (150 µm isotopic imaging of the entire human brain MRI at 7T, offering new opportunities for analyses on MR-derived information.

  11. Integration of GIS and multimedia information based on ORDBMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quanbing HE; Fei WANG; Chao CHEN

    2008-01-01

    GIS not includes only spatial data and attribute data, but also multimedia information. How to integrate and manage these data effectively is very important. With the development of the technology of Object-Relation DBMS (ORDBMS), it improved the capability of managing complicated information. With ORDBMS, GIS and multimedia information can be integrated together and can speed accessing files by using "buffer".

  12. The Information Dimension of Inter-organizational Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Semeijn, M.; Heng, S.H.; Derksen, F.E.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    An important question in business partnership is the issue of information - the gathering, supply and use of information and what kind of information in order to promote a successful partnership. This paper examines the problems that arise in a major form of partnership, namely integration, and the use of information to cope with the problems. We examine the types of information needed in inter-organizational integration, based on unstructured interviews. The problems identified by the interv...

  13. LINKED DATA PARADIGM FOR ENTERPRISES: INFORMATION INTEGRATION AND VALUE CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Hladky, D.; Maltseva, S.

    2013-01-01

    Data integration in enterprises is a crucial but at the same time costly and challenging problem. While business-critical information is stored in ERP, CRM, SCM and in Content Management systems the integration of such becomes even more critical when integrating with the growing information space on the Web. The IT industry has developed over the last decade integration solutions based on Master Data Management, Business Intelligence and the Service Oriented Architecture. However, we become i...

  14. Integration of Hospital Information Systems, Operative and Peri-operative Information Systems, and Operative Equipment into a Single Information Display

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Mark; Levine, Wilton C.; Brzezinski, Philip; Robbins, Jeffrey; Lai, Fuji; Spitz, Gabriel; Sandberg, Warren S.

    2005-01-01

    The integration of disparate information systems in the operative environment allows access to information that is typically unseen or unused. Through a collaborative effort, a variety of information systems and surgical equipment are being integrated. This provides improved context-sensitive information display and decision support and improved access to information to improve workflow, safety and visualization of information that was previously unattainable.

  15. Is functional integration of resting state brain networks an unspecific biomarker for working memory performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavash, Mohsen; Doebler, Philipp; Holling, Heinz; Thiel, Christiane M; Gießing, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Is there one optimal topology of functional brain networks at rest from which our cognitive performance would profit? Previous studies suggest that functional integration of resting state brain networks is an important biomarker for cognitive performance. However, it is still unknown whether higher network integration is an unspecific predictor for good cognitive performance or, alternatively, whether specific network organization during rest predicts only specific cognitive abilities. Here, we investigated the relationship between network integration at rest and cognitive performance using two tasks that measured different aspects of working memory; one task assessed visual-spatial and the other numerical working memory. Network clustering, modularity and efficiency were computed to capture network integration on different levels of network organization, and to statistically compare their correlations with the performance in each working memory test. The results revealed that each working memory aspect profits from a different resting state topology, and the tests showed significantly different correlations with each of the measures of network integration. While higher global network integration and modularity predicted significantly better performance in visual-spatial working memory, both measures showed no significant correlation with numerical working memory performance. In contrast, numerical working memory was superior in subjects with highly clustered brain networks, predominantly in the intraparietal sulcus, a core brain region of the working memory network. Our findings suggest that a specific balance between local and global functional integration of resting state brain networks facilitates special aspects of cognitive performance. In the context of working memory, while visual-spatial performance is facilitated by globally integrated functional resting state brain networks, numerical working memory profits from increased capacities for local processing

  16. Novel theory of the human brain: information-commutation basis of architecture and principles of operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhovetskiy AS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Andrey S Bryukhovetskiy Center for Biomedical Technologies, Federal Research and Clinical Center for Specialized Types of Medical Assistance and Medical Technologies of the Federal Medical Biological Agency, NeuroVita Clinic of Interventional and Restorative Neurology and Therapy, Moscow, Russia Abstract: Based on the methodology of the informational approach and research of the genome, proteome, and complete transcriptome profiles of different cells in the nervous tissue of the human brain, the author proposes a new theory of information-commutation organization and architecture of the human brain which is an alternative to the conventional systemic connective morphofunctional paradigm of the brain framework. Informational principles of brain operation are defined: the modular principle, holographic principle, principle of systematicity of vertical commutative connection and complexity of horizontal commutative connection, regulatory principle, relay principle, modulation principle, “illumination” principle, principle of personalized memory and intellect, and principle of low energy consumption. The author demonstrates that the cortex functions only as a switchboard and router of information, while information is processed outside the nervous tissue of the brain in the intermeningeal space. The main structural element of information-commutation in the brain is not the neuron, but information-commutation modules that are subdivided into receiver modules, transmitter modules, and subscriber modules, forming a vertical architecture of nervous tissue in the brain as information lines and information channels, and a horizontal architecture as central, intermediate, and peripheral information-commutation platforms. Information in information-commutation modules is transferred by means of the carriers that are characteristic to the specific information level from inductome to genome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, secretome, and magnetome

  17. Integration of Neuropsychology in Educational Planning Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinoha, Peter L.

    2005-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) have the potential to significantly disrupt a student's cognitive, academic, social, emotional, behavioral, and physical functioning. It is important for educators to appreciate the array of difficulties students with TBI may experience in order to appropriately assess needs and create an educational plan that…

  18. Brain Wave Biofeedback: Benefits of Integrating Neurofeedback in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jane E.; Young, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with the "2009 Standards" of the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, counselors must understand neurobiological behavior in individuals of all developmental levels. This requires understanding the brain and strategies for applying neurobiological concepts in counseling practice, training, and…

  19. Environment, safety, and health information technology systems integration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, David A.; Bayer, Gregory W.

    2006-02-01

    The ES&H Information Systems department, motivated by the numerous isolated information technology systems under its control, undertook a significant integration effort. This effort was planned and executed over the course of several years and parts of it still continue today. The effect was to help move the ES&H Information Systems department toward integration with the corporate Information Solutions and Services center.

  20. A strategy for curriculum integration of information skills instruction.

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, S; Ginn, D S; Love, N; Williams, T L

    1989-01-01

    The ever increasing need of health professionals for information and the inclusion of active learning experiences in the medical school curriculum require that students learn the effective use of health information tools. Curriculum integration is gaining acceptance as an effective approach to teaching information skills in this setting. At the University of Miami School of Medicine, information skills components taught by library faculty are integrated into the Freshman Orientation Program a...

  1. SUPPLY CHAIN INFORMATION INTEGRATION THROUGH SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Milanovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years information integration became significant problem for both natural and legal persons in everyday operations. Huge amount of information are available, but insufficiently processed in order to have useful value. Choosing the right combination of tools and technologies for integration is prerequisite for requiring information from multiple heterogeneous sources and their qualitative and simple using after.In this paper, we have focused on information integration within companies which are parts of supply chain or network. This environment typically includes a various mix of sources, structured (such as relational or other databases, and unstructured (such as document repositories, spreadsheets, documents, web pages, emails and others. Effective information integration and sharing significantly enhances supply chain practices. Service oriented architecture (SOA is an architectural style for building software applications that use services available in a network such as the web. The use of SOA to achieve inter-enterprise supply network information integration has many advantages.

  2. Automatic segmentation of meningioma from non-contrasted brain MRI integrating fuzzy clustering and region growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Chun-Chih

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has become important in brain tumor diagnosis. Using this modality, physicians can locate specific pathologies by analyzing differences in tissue character presented in different types of MR images. This paper uses an algorithm integrating fuzzy-c-mean (FCM and region growing techniques for automated tumor image segmentation from patients with menigioma. Only non-contrasted T1 and T2 -weighted MR images are included in the analysis. The study's aims are to correctly locate tumors in the images, and to detect those situated in the midline position of the brain. Methods The study used non-contrasted T1- and T2-weighted MR images from 29 patients with menigioma. After FCM clustering, 32 groups of images from each patient group were put through the region-growing procedure for pixels aggregation. Later, using knowledge-based information, the system selected tumor-containing images from these groups and merged them into one tumor image. An alternative semi-supervised method was added at this stage for comparison with the automatic method. Finally, the tumor image was optimized by a morphology operator. Results from automatic segmentation were compared to the "ground truth" (GT on a pixel level. Overall data were then evaluated using a quantified system. Results The quantified parameters, including the "percent match" (PM and "correlation ratio" (CR, suggested a high match between GT and the present study's system, as well as a fair level of correspondence. The results were compatible with those from other related studies. The system successfully detected all of the tumors situated at the midline of brain. Six cases failed in the automatic group. One also failed in the semi-supervised alternative. The remaining five cases presented noticeable edema inside the brain. In the 23 successful cases, the PM and CR values in the two groups were highly related. Conclusions Results indicated

  3. Perspectives on Integrated Academic Information Management Systems (IAIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunin, Lois F. (Ed.); Ball, Marion J. (Ed.)

    1988-01-01

    Various aspects of the Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS) initiative sponsored by the National Library of Medicine are explored in 10 articles. An overview of the program, the technologies involved, examples of implementation, approaches to integrated information systems, and the future of the program are discussed. (CLB)

  4. LinkRbrain: Multi-scale data integrator of the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Mesmoudi, Salma; Rodic, Mathieu; Cioli, Claudia; Cointet, Jean-Philippe; Yarkoni, Tal; Burnod, Yves

    2015-01-01

    International audience BackgroundLinkRbrain is an open-access web platform for multi-scale data integration and visualization of human brain data. This platform integrates anatomical, functional, and genetic knowledge produced by the scientific community.New methodThe linkRbrain platform has two major components: (1) a data aggregation component that integrates multiple open databases into a single platform with a unified representation; and (2) a website that provides fast multi-scale int...

  5. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  6. Brain fingerprinting classification concealed information test detects US Navy military medical information with P300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence A. Farwell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A classification concealed information test (CIT used the brain fingerprinting method of applying P300 event-related potential (ERP in detecting information that is 1 acquired in real life and 2 unique to US Navy experts in military medicine. Military medicine experts and non-experts were asked to push buttons in response to 3 types of text stimuli. Targets contain known information relevant to military medicine, are identified to subjects as relevant, and require pushing one button. Subjects are told to push another button to all other stimuli. Probes contain concealed information relevant to military medicine, and are not identified to subjects. Irrelevants contain equally plausible, but incorrect/irrelevant information. Error rate was 0%. Median and mean statistical confidences for individual determinations were 99.9% with no indeterminates (results lacking sufficiently high statistical confidence to be classified. We compared error rate and statistical confidence for determinations of both information present and information absent produced by classification CIT (Is a probe ERP more similar to a target or to an irrelevant ERP? versus comparison CIT (Does a probe produce a larger ERP than an irrelevant? using P300 plus the late negative component (LNP; together, P300-MERMER. Comparison CIT produced a significantly higher error rate (20% and lower statistical confidences -- mean 67%; information-absent mean was 28.9%, less than chance (50%. We compared analysis using P300 alone with the P300 + LNP. P300 alone produced the same 0% error rate but significantly lower statistical confidences. These findings add to the evidence that the brain fingerprinting methods as described here provide sufficient conditions to produce less than 1% error rate and greater than 95% median statistical confidence in a CIT on information obtained in the course of real life that is characteristic of individuals with specific training, expertise, or organizational

  7. Integrating some mind and brain views of transference: the phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, F M

    1997-01-01

    Because understanding the underpinnings of transferential learning allows the analyst to more effectively exploit transference in the clinical situation, as well as to advance psychoanalytic theory, the functions and mechanisms of transference phenomena in learning are subjected to an interdisciplinary analysis. Through transference the brain creates hierarchical databases that make emotional sense of the world, especially the world of human relationships. Transference plays a role in defense and resistance clinically; less explored but equally important is the adaptive potential of transference and its effect on an individual's readiness for structural change through the activation of working memory. Most investigators within psychoanalysis have not considered the importance of similarity judgments and memory priming, especially as these help to explain why transference and its proper handling are effective in treatment. Yet there are complex relationships among transference, similarity judgment, and memory priming that tie together psychoanalysis, cognitive psychology, and neurophysiology. Evidence increasingly suggests a relationship between transference and the transfer of knowledge between various content domains (databases) of mind and brain, which is essential to cognitive and emotional learning. There are indications as well that transference decisively facilitates learning readiness ("windows") in general by means of two of its components: free association and spontaneous (self-initiated) activity. The important question of which mind/brain mechanisms motivate transference is not yet understood comprehensively. However, Vygotsky's work on the zone of proximal development (ZPD), M.Stern's teleonomic theory, schema theory, and neural network theory offer further insights into what motivates transference. PMID:9474574

  8. Integration of Information Technologies in Enterprise Application Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia SURUGIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare enterprises are disconnected. In the era of integrated information systems and Internet explosion, the necessity of information systems integration reside from business process evolution, on the one hand, and from information technology tendencies, on the other hand. In order to become more efficient and adaptive to change, healthcare organizations are tremendously preoccupied of business process automation, flexibility and complexity. The need of information systems integration arise from these goals, explaining, at the same time, the special interest in EAI. Extensible software integration architectures and business orientation of process modeling and information systems functionalities, the same as open-connectivity, accessibility and virtualization lead to most suitable integration solutions: SOA and BPM architectural styles in a cloud computing environment.

  9. Brain white matter integrity and cortisol in older men:the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Simon R.; Bastin, Mark E; Ferguson, Karen J.; Munoz-Maniega, Susana; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; MacLullich, Alasdair M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid (GC) levels are hypothesized to be deleterious to some brain regions, including white matter (WM). Older age is accompanied by increased between-participant variation in GC levels, yet relationships between WM integrity and cortisol levels in older humans are underexplored. Moreover, it is unclear whether GC-WM associations might be general or pathway specific. We analyzed relationships between salivary cortisol (diurnal and reactive) and general measures of brain WM h...

  10. INEL Waste and Environmental Information Integration Project approach and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering, Laboratory (INEL) Waste and Environmental Information integration Project (IWEIIP) was established in December 1993 to address issues related to INEL waste and environmental information including: Data quality; Data redundancy; Data accessibility; Data integration. This effort includes existing information, new development, and acquisition activities. Existing information may not be a database record; it may be an entire document (electronic, scanned, or hard-copy), a video clip, or a file cabinet of information. The IWEIIP will implement an effective integrated information framework to manage INEL waste and environmental information as an asset. This will improve data quality, resolve data redundancy, and increase data accessibility; therefore, providing more effective utilization of the dollars spent on waste and environmental information

  11. Legal Issues for an Integrated Information Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Warren; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The ability to collect, store, retrieve, and combine information in computerized databases has magnified the potential for misuse of information. Laws have begun to deal with these new threats by expanding rights of privacy, copyright, misrepresentation, products liability, and defamation. Laws regarding computerized databases are certain to…

  12. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M Hotaling

    Full Text Available In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that lead to differences in the nature of processing. Stimuli that require controlled integration of information, such as the quantitative or linguistic information (commonly found in judgment studies, may lead to suboptimal performance. In contrast, perceptual stimuli may lend themselves to automatic processing, resulting in integration that is closer to optimal. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in which participants categorized faces based on resemblance to a family patriarch. The amount of evidence contained in the top and bottom halves of each test face was independently manipulated. These data allow us to investigate a canonical example of sub-optimal information integration from the judgment and decision making literature, the dilution effect. Splitting the top and bottom halves of a face, a manipulation meant to encourage controlled integration of information, produced farther from optimal behavior and larger dilution effects. The Multi-component Information Accumulation model, a hybrid optimal/averaging model of information integration, successfully accounts for key accuracy, response time, and dilution effects.

  13. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotaling, Jared M; Cohen, Andrew L; Shiffrin, Richard M; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2015-01-01

    In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that lead to differences in the nature of processing. Stimuli that require controlled integration of information, such as the quantitative or linguistic information (commonly found in judgment studies), may lead to suboptimal performance. In contrast, perceptual stimuli may lend themselves to automatic processing, resulting in integration that is closer to optimal. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in which participants categorized faces based on resemblance to a family patriarch. The amount of evidence contained in the top and bottom halves of each test face was independently manipulated. These data allow us to investigate a canonical example of sub-optimal information integration from the judgment and decision making literature, the dilution effect. Splitting the top and bottom halves of a face, a manipulation meant to encourage controlled integration of information, produced farther from optimal behavior and larger dilution effects. The Multi-component Information Accumulation model, a hybrid optimal/averaging model of information integration, successfully accounts for key accuracy, response time, and dilution effects. PMID:26406323

  14. Information Technologies and Supply Chain Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemoine, W; Mortensen, Ole

    The goal of the Supply Chain Management process is to create value for customers, stakeholders and all supply chain members, through the integration of different processes like manufacturing flow management, customer service and order fulfillment. However, many firms fail in the path of achieving...

  15. Role-based Integration Method of Enterprise Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ming-hui; FEI Qi; CHEN Xue-guang

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the current situation of enterprise information system and methods of system integration at first. Then a role-based analyzing method is proposed. It can help confirm the keystone of the construction of information system and the direction of system integration. At last, a case study on theintegration of material dispatching information system in a large-scale project is presented briefly. It shows that this new method is more effective than the others are.

  16. Academic Support through Information System : Srinivas Integrated Model

    OpenAIRE

    Aithal, Sreeramana; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    As part of imparting quality higher education for undergraduate and postgraduate students, Srinivas Institute of Management Studies (SIMS) developed an education service model for integrated academic support known as Srinivas Integrated Model. Backed by the presumption that knowledge is power and information is fundamental to knowledge building and knowledge sharing, this model is aimed to provide information support to students for improved academic performance. Information on the college...

  17. The informational mind and the information integration theory of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Gamez, David

    2014-01-01

    According to Aleksander and Morton’s informational mind hypothesis, conscious minds are state structures that are created through iconic learning. Distributed representations of colors, edges, objects, etc. are linked with proprioceptive and motor information to generate the awareness of an out-there world. The uniqueness and indivisibility of these iconically learnt states reflect the uniqueness and indivisibility of the world. This article summarizes the key claims of the informational mind...

  18. Hearing facial identities: brain correlates of face--voice integration in person identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Kloth, Nadine; Robertson, David M C

    2011-10-01

    Audiovisual integration (AVI) is a well-known aspect of speech perception, but integration of facial and vocal information is also important for speaker recognition. We recently demonstrated AVI in the recognition of familiar (but not unfamiliar) speakers. Specifically, systematic behavioural benefits and costs in recognizing a familiar voice occur when the voice is combined with a time-synchronised articulating face of corresponding or noncorresponding speaker identity, respectively (Schweinberger et al., 2007; Robertson and Schweinberger, 2010). Here we report an experiment assessing event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in this novel paradigm, while participants recognized familiar speakers presented in (1) Voice only, (2) voice with identity-corresponding and (3) noncorresponding time-synchronised speaking faces, as well as (4) Face only conditions. Audiovisual speaker identity correspondence influenced only later ERPs around 250-600 msec, with increased negativity for noncorresponding identities at central electrodes. Strikingly, when compared with the ERPs from both unimodal conditions, both audiovisual conditions led to a much earlier onset of frontocentral negativity, with maximal differences around 50-80 msec. Moreover, audiovisual stimuli elicited larger N170 responses than Face only stimuli. These findings suggest that the perception of a voice and a time-synchronised articulating face triggers remarkably early and mandatory mechanisms of audiovisual processing, although the correspondence or discrepancy in audiovisual speaker identity may only be computed ∼200msec later. PMID:21208611

  19. Information Security Management - Part Of The Integrated Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Constantin Adrian

    2015-07-01

    The international management standards allow their integrated approach, thereby combining aspects of particular importance to the activity of any organization, from the quality management systems or the environmental management of the information security systems or the business continuity management systems. Although there is no national or international regulation, nor a defined standard for the Integrated Management System, the need to implement an integrated system occurs within the organization, which feels the opportunity to integrate the management components into a cohesive system, in agreement with the purpose and mission publicly stated. The issues relating to information security in the organization, from the perspective of the management system, raise serious questions to any organization in the current context of electronic information, reason for which we consider not only appropriate but necessary to promote and implement an Integrated Management System Quality - Environment - Health and Operational Security - Information Security

  20. Ontologies in information integration within multimedia presentation generation

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Enrech, J.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays an enormous quantity of heterogeneous and distributed information is stored in the current World Wide Web. Sharing of different information sources is needed. Recently the word Semantic Web has become very popular. The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and re-used through ontologies. Ontologies make information explicit and can be used in the integration information task. The relation of an ontology with information sources or other ontologies pla...

  1. Integrated Brain Circuits: Astrocytic Networks Modulate Neuronal Activity and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halassa, Michael M.; Haydon, Philip G.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion of research on roles of neuron-astrocyte interactions in the control of brain function. We highlight recent studies performed on the tripartite synapse, the structure consisting of pre- and postsynaptic elements of the synapse and an associated astrocytic process. Astrocytes respond to neuronal activity and neuro-transmitters, through the activation of metabotropic receptors, and can release the gliotransmitters ATP, D-serine, and glutamate, which act on neurons. Astrocyte-derived ATP modulates synaptic transmission, either directly or through its metabolic product adenosine. D-serine modulates NMDA receptor function, whereas glia-derived glutamate can play important roles in relapse following withdrawal from drugs of abuse. Cell type–specific molecular genetics has allowed a new level of examination of the function of astrocytes in brain function and has revealed an important role of these glial cells that is mediated by adenosine accumulation in the control of sleep and in cognitive impairments that follow sleep deprivation. PMID:20148679

  2. Semantics of interdisciplinary data and information integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P.; Raskin, R.; Sinha, A. K.

    2009-05-01

    We have developed an application of semantic web methods and technologies to address the integration of interdisciplinary earth-science datasets. The specific use case addresses seeking and using atmospheric chemistry and volcano geochemistry datasets. We have developed an integration framework based on semantic descriptions (ontologies) of the linking relations between the application domains. In doing this, we have extensively leveraged and existing ontology frameworks such as SWEET, VSTO and GEON as well as included extentions of them when needed. We present the components of this application, including the ontologies, the registration of datasets with ontologies at several levels of granularity, the data sources, and application results from the use case. We will also present the cur rent and near-future capabilities we are developing. This work arises from the Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project, which is an NASA/ESTO/ACCESS-funded project performed in part by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), McGuinness Associates, NASA/JPL and Virginia Polytechnic University.

  3. An Integrated Nursing Management Information System: From Concept to Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkley, Connie L.; Sommer, Patricia K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses the transition from the conceptualization of a Nursing Management Information System (NMIS) integrated and interdependent with the Hospital Information System (HIS) to its realization. Concepts of input, throughout, and output are presented to illustrate developmental strategies used to achieve nursing information products. Essential processing capabilities include: 1) ability to interact with multiple data sources; 2) database management, statistical, and graphics softwa...

  4. Circadian period integrates network information through activation of the BMP signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban J Beckwith

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms use biological clocks to maintain their internal temporal order and anticipate daily environmental changes. In Drosophila, circadian regulation of locomotor behavior is controlled by ∼150 neurons; among them, neurons expressing the PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF set the period of locomotor behavior under free-running conditions. To date, it remains unclear how individual circadian clusters integrate their activity to assemble a distinctive behavioral output. Here we show that the BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN (BMP signaling pathway plays a crucial role in setting the circadian period in PDF neurons in the adult brain. Acute deregulation of BMP signaling causes period lengthening through regulation of dClock transcription, providing evidence for a novel function of this pathway in the adult brain. We propose that coherence in the circadian network arises from integration in PDF neurons of both the pace of the cell-autonomous molecular clock and information derived from circadian-relevant neurons through release of BMP ligands.

  5. Circadian Period Integrates Network Information Through Activation of the BMP Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Esteban J.; Gorostiza, E. Axel; Berni, Jimena; Rezával, Carolina; Pérez-Santángelo, Agustín; Nadra, Alejandro D.; Ceriani, María Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Living organisms use biological clocks to maintain their internal temporal order and anticipate daily environmental changes. In Drosophila, circadian regulation of locomotor behavior is controlled by ∼150 neurons; among them, neurons expressing the PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) set the period of locomotor behavior under free-running conditions. To date, it remains unclear how individual circadian clusters integrate their activity to assemble a distinctive behavioral output. Here we show that the BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN (BMP) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in setting the circadian period in PDF neurons in the adult brain. Acute deregulation of BMP signaling causes period lengthening through regulation of dClock transcription, providing evidence for a novel function of this pathway in the adult brain. We propose that coherence in the circadian network arises from integration in PDF neurons of both the pace of the cell-autonomous molecular clock and information derived from circadian-relevant neurons through release of BMP ligands. PMID:24339749

  6. Ontology Based Resolution of Semantic Conflicts in Information Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Han; LI Qing-zhong

    2004-01-01

    Semantic conflict is the conflict caused by using different ways in heterogeneous systems to express the same entity in reality.This prevents information integration from accomplishing semantic coherence.Since ontology helps to solve semantic problems, this area has become a hot topic in information integration.In this paper, we introduce semantic conflict into information integration of heterogeneous applications.We discuss the origins and categories of the conflict, and present an ontology-based schema mapping approach to eliminate semantic conflicts.

  7. Automatic integration of confidence in the brain valuation signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Maël; Abitbol, Raphaëlle; Daunizeau, Jean; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2015-08-01

    A key process in decision-making is estimating the value of possible outcomes. Growing evidence suggests that different types of values are automatically encoded in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Here we extend this idea by suggesting that any overt judgment is accompanied by a second-order valuation (a confidence estimate), which is also automatically incorporated in VMPFC activity. In accordance with the predictions of our normative model of rating tasks, two behavioral experiments showed that confidence levels were quadratically related to first-order judgments (age, value or probability ratings). The analysis of three functional magnetic resonance imaging data sets using similar rating tasks confirmed that the quadratic extension of first-order ratings (our proxy for confidence) was encoded in VMPFC activity, even if no confidence judgment was required of the participants. Such an automatic aggregation of value and confidence in a same brain region might provide insight into many distortions of judgment and choice. PMID:26192748

  8. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regulate Blood Brain Barrier Integrity in Traumatic Brain Injury Through Production of the Soluble Factor TIMP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menge, Tyler; Zhao, Yuhai; Zhao, Jing; Wataha, Kathryn; Geber, Michael; Zhang, Jianhu; Letourneau, Phillip; Redell, John; Shen, Li; Wang, Jing; Peng, Zhalong; Xue, Hasen; Kozar, Rosemary; Cox, Charles S.; Khakoo, Aarif Y.; Holcomb, John B.; Dash, Pramod K.; Pati, Shibani

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MCSs) have been shown to have therapeutic potential in multiple disease states associated with vascular instability including traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) is identified as the soluble factor produced by MSCs that can recapitulate the beneficial effects of MSCs on endothelial function and blood brain barrier (BBB) compromise in TBI. Attenuation of TIMP3 expression in MSCs completely abrogates the effect of MSCs on BBB permeability and stability, while intravenous administration of rTIMP3 alone can inhibit BBB permeability in TBI. Our results demonstrate that MSCs increase circulating levels of soluble TIMP3, which inhibits VEGF-A induced breakdown of endothelial AJs in vitro and in vivo. These findings elucidate a clear molecular mechanism for the effects of MSCs on the BBB in TBI, and directly demonstrate a role for TIMP3 in regulation of BBB integrity. PMID:23175708

  9. Information Systems Integration and Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) Adoption: A Case from Financial Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wing

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, organizations find that they need to integrate large number of information systems in order to support enterprise-wide business initiatives such as e-business, supply chain management and customer relationship management. To date, organizations have largely tended to address information systems (IS) integration in an ad-hoc manner.…

  10. Integranting prosodic information into a speech recogniser

    OpenAIRE

    López Soto, María Teresa

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade there has been an increasing tendency to incorporate language engineering strategies into speech technology. This technique combines linguistic and mathematical information in different applications: machine translation, natural language processing, speech synthesis and automatic speech recognition (ASR). In the field of speech synthesis, this hybrid approach (linguistic and mathematical/statistical) has led to the design of efficient models for reproducin...

  11. Curriculum integrated information literacy: a challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Mette; Kobow, Else; Kristensen, Anne-Kirstine Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    when it is linked to assignments, timed right, prepared, systematic and continuous. Support is needed to help students understand the meaning of seeking information, to focus their problem and to make them reflect on their search and its results. Feedback on materials used is also asked for. The...

  12. Brain networks engaged in audiovisual integration during speech perception revealed by persistent homology-based network filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejung; Hahm, Jarang; Lee, Hyekyoung; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-05-01

    The human brain naturally integrates audiovisual information to improve speech perception. However, in noisy environments, understanding speech is difficult and may require much effort. Although the brain network is supposed to be engaged in speech perception, it is unclear how speech-related brain regions are connected during natural bimodal audiovisual or unimodal speech perception with counterpart irrelevant noise. To investigate the topological changes of speech-related brain networks at all possible thresholds, we used a persistent homological framework through hierarchical clustering, such as single linkage distance, to analyze the connected component of the functional network during speech perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging. For speech perception, bimodal (audio-visual speech cue) or unimodal speech cues with counterpart irrelevant noise (auditory white-noise or visual gum-chewing) were delivered to 15 subjects. In terms of positive relationship, similar connected components were observed in bimodal and unimodal speech conditions during filtration. However, during speech perception by congruent audiovisual stimuli, the tighter couplings of left anterior temporal gyrus-anterior insula component and right premotor-visual components were observed than auditory or visual speech cue conditions, respectively. Interestingly, visual speech is perceived under white noise by tight negative coupling in the left inferior frontal region-right anterior cingulate, left anterior insula, and bilateral visual regions, including right middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform components. In conclusion, the speech brain network is tightly positively or negatively connected, and can reflect efficient or effortful processes during natural audiovisual integration or lip-reading, respectively, in speech perception. PMID:25495216

  13. GABA regulates synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shaoyu; Goh, Eyleen L. K.; Sailor, Kurt A.; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun

    2006-02-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the birth and integration of new neurons from adult neural stem cells, is a striking form of structural plasticity and highlights the regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal activity regulates adult neurogenesis and that new neurons contribute to specific brain functions. The mechanism that regulates the integration of newly generated neurons into the pre-existing functional circuitry in the adult brain is unknown. Here we show that newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus are tonically activated by ambient GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) before being sequentially innervated by GABA- and glutamate-mediated synaptic inputs. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, initially exerts an excitatory action on newborn neurons owing to their high cytoplasmic chloride ion content. Conversion of GABA-induced depolarization (excitation) into hyperpolarization (inhibition) in newborn neurons leads to marked defects in their synapse formation and dendritic development in vivo. Our study identifies an essential role for GABA in the synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain, and suggests an unexpected mechanism for activity-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis, in which newborn neurons may sense neuronal network activity through tonic and phasic GABA activation.

  14. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T; Humphreys, G W;

    2002-01-01

    involvement of re-entrant activation from stored structural knowledge. Evidence in favor of this interpretation comes from the additional finding that activation of the anterior part of the left fusiform gyrus and a more anterior part of the right inferior temporal gyrus, areas previously associated with......We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform and...... perceptual and memorial processes can be dissociated on both functional and anatomical grounds. No evidence was obtained for the involvement of the parietal lobes in the integration of single objects....

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  16. Using integrated information systems in supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez-Gallego, Nicolás; Molina-Castillo, Francisco-Jose; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Varajao, Joao; Trigo, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to empirically test not only the direct effects of information and communication technology (ICT) capabilities and integrated information systems (IS) on firm performance, but also the moderating role of IS integration along the supply chain in the relationship between ICT external and capabilities and business performance. Data collected from 102 large Iberian firms from Spain and Portugal are used to test the research model. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis is employed to test the direct effects and the moderating relationships proposed. Results show that external and internal ICT capabilities are important drivers of firm performance, while merely having integrated IS do not lead to better firm performance. In addition, a moderating effect of IS integration in the relationship between ICT capabilities and business performance is found, although this integration only contributes to firm performance when it is directed to connect with suppliers or customers rather than when integrating the whole supply chain.

  17. Full feature data model for spatial information network integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Ji-qiu; BAO Guang-shu

    2006-01-01

    In allusion to the difficulty of integrating data with different models in integrating spatial information,the characteristics of raster structure, vector structure and mixed model were analyzed, and a hierarchical vectorraster integrative full feature model was put forward by integrating the advantage of vector and raster model and using the object-oriented method. The data structures of the four basic features, i.e. point, line, surface and solid,were described. An application was analyzed and described, and the characteristics of this model were described. In this model, all objects in the real world are divided into and described as features with hierarchy, and all the data are organized in vector. This model can describe data based on feature, field, network and other models, and avoid the disadvantage of inability to integrate data based on different models and perform spatial analysis on them in spatial information integration.

  18. Web Information Integration Tool: Data Structure Modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řimnáč, Martin

    Las Vegas: CSREA Press, 2005 - (Arabnia, H.; Scime, A.), s. 37-40 ISBN 1-932415-79-3. [DMIN'05. International Conference on Data Mining . Las Vegas (US), 20.06.2005-23.06.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : data structure model * information retrieval Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  19. The Action Team Integrated Information System (ATIIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Throughout a decade of verification activities in Iraq, the IAEA Iraq Action Team has developed an extensive information system in order to support inspection activities and the associated analytical efforts. Original documents, declarations, inspection results, analytical data, etc. are available through a unique system combining the flexibility of raw data and the efficiency of structured databases. Examples of specific tools will be presented. (author)

  20. Integrating the Supervised Information into Unsupervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Ling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assembling unsupervised learning framework that adopts the information coming from the supervised learning process and gives the corresponding implementation algorithm. The algorithm consists of two phases: extracting and clustering data representatives (DRs firstly to obtain labeled training data and then classifying non-DRs based on labeled DRs. The implementation algorithm is called SDSN since it employs the tuning-scaled Support vector domain description to collect DRs, uses spectrum-based method to cluster DRs, and adopts the nearest neighbor classifier to label non-DRs. The validation of the clustering procedure of the first-phase is analyzed theoretically. A new metric is defined data dependently in the second phase to allow the nearest neighbor classifier to work with the informed information. A fast training approach for DRs’ extraction is provided to bring more efficiency. Experimental results on synthetic and real datasets verify that the proposed idea is of correctness and performance and SDSN exhibits higher popularity in practice over the traditional pure clustering procedure.

  1. Interpreting Anaphoric Relations: The Integration of Semantic Information while Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, Simon; Sanford, Anthony

    1977-01-01

    Four experiments dealt with integration of semantic information while reading. Reading and comprehension time of two related sentences in a text was analyzed according to their proximity and relation within the text. A model of textual comprehension is proposed. (CHK)

  2. Integrating information systems in support of configuration management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many nuclear power plants are reconstructing, validating, and documenting their plant design basis using configuration management and configuration control processes. Successful implementation of configuration management requires an up-to-date, accurate, and accessible information base. The quantity of information and complexity of its interrelationships makes development of an integrated, multifunctional, computer-based information system important, if not necessary, to meeting configuration management objectives. This paper discusses the approach applied at Texas Utilities (TU) Electrics Comanche Peak steam electric station to integrate and computerize the information base in support of configuration management

  3. Theory of Dynamic Diagnosis Based on Integrated Maintenance Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the concept of an integrated maintenance information system and related information environment, this paper discusses the process of troubleshooting in modern maintenance in detail, and gives a model of dynamic diagnosis of faults, in which a reasoning program is designed through taking advantage of information fusion and time analysis. In the end, the authors present the logic process of dynamic diagnosis through a typical example, and proposes a dynamic diagnostic system based on information fusion.

  4. Integration of Surgery Management and Clinical Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Paul D.; Delaplaine, Kathy H.; Jensen, Ronald D.; Bird, Bruce; Evans, R. Scott; Cannon, Clawson Y.

    1987-01-01

    We describe a computer-based management system used in the Surgery deaprtment at LSD Hospital. In addition to the traditional management functions which are found in systems developed by others, our system was designed to collect and display clinical information about the surgical patient as part of a larger comprehensive clinical information system. The information derived from the surgery sub-system is integrated with information from other sources in the hospital for use in automated medic...

  5. Towards an integrated information system for retail management

    OpenAIRE

    J R Beaumont

    1989-01-01

    Retail management recognise the competitive edge that can be provided by actionable information. In moving towards an integrated retail management information system, it is recognised that a general driving force behind investments in information technology (IT) is the need for more detailed information about customers. Marketing (and distribution and service) can apply IT to increase their efficiency, and, more importantly, to promote their effectiveness in the increasingly competitive envir...

  6. Information delivery manuals to integrate building product information into design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berard, Ole Bengt; Karlshøj, Jan

    2011-01-01

    . Traditional business process modeling languages often fail to completely cover all four perspectives. BuildingSMART has proposed Information Delivery Manuals (IDMs) to model and re-engineer processes that address the four perspectives through a collaborative methodology in order to standardize and implement...

  7. Information delivery manuals to integrate building product information into design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berard, Ole Bengt; Karlshøj, Jan

    2013-01-01

    . Traditional business process modeling languages often fail to completely cover all four perspectives. BuildingSMART has proposed Information Delivery Manuals (IDMs) to model and re-engineer processes that address the four perspectives through a collaborative methodology in order to standardize and implement...

  8. HERMES: towards an integrated toolbox to characterize functional and effective brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niso, Guiomar; Bruña, Ricardo; Pereda, Ernesto; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Bajo, Ricardo; Maestú, Fernando; del-Pozo, Francisco

    2013-10-01

    The analysis of the interdependence between time series has become an important field of research in the last years, mainly as a result of advances in the characterization of dynamical systems from the signals they produce, the introduction of concepts such as generalized and phase synchronization and the application of information theory to time series analysis. In neurophysiology, different analytical tools stemming from these concepts have added to the 'traditional' set of linear methods, which includes the cross-correlation and the coherency function in the time and frequency domain, respectively, or more elaborated tools such as Granger Causality.This increase in the number of approaches to tackle the existence of functional (FC) or effective connectivity (EC) between two (or among many) neural networks, along with the mathematical complexity of the corresponding time series analysis tools, makes it desirable to arrange them into a unified-easy-to-use software package. The goal is to allow neuroscientists, neurophysiologists and researchers from related fields to easily access and make use of these analysis methods from a single integrated toolbox.Here we present HERMES ( http://hermes.ctb.upm.es ), a toolbox for the Matlab® environment (The Mathworks, Inc), which is designed to study functional and effective brain connectivity from neurophysiological data such as multivariate EEG and/or MEG records. It includes also visualization tools and statistical methods to address the problem of multiple comparisons. We believe that this toolbox will be very helpful to all the researchers working in the emerging field of brain connectivity analysis. PMID:23812847

  9. Integrating histology and MRI in the first digital brain of common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peizhen; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G.; Gao, Yurui; Janve, Vaibhav; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    This effort is a continuation of development of a digital brain atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. Here, we present the integration of histology with multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. The central concept of this work is to use block face photography to establish an intermediate common space in coordinate system which preserves the high resolution in-plane resolution of histology while enabling 3-D correspondence with MRI. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging (300 μm isotropic) and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging (600 um isotropic). Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (both 300 μm isotropic). Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections in-plane. We describe mapping of histology and MRI based data of the common squirrel monkey and construction of a viewing tool that enable online viewing of these datasets. The previously descried atlas MRI is used for its deformation to provide accurate conformation to the MRI, thus adding information at the histological level to the MRI volume. This paper presents the mapping of single 2D image slice in block face as a proof of concept and this can be extended to map the atlas space in 3D coordinate system as part of the future work and can be loaded to an XNAT system for further use.

  10. Effects of Yishendaluo decoction on blood-brain barrier integrity in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqing Wu; Ying Gao; Lingqun Zhu; Yonghong Gao; Dongmei Zhang; Lixia Lou; Yanfang Yan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Yishendaluo decoction on the loss of blood-brain barrier integrity in mice exhibiting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.To this end,we used real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR to measure the levels of mRNAs specific to the T cell markers CD4 and CD8,and the monocyte marker CD11b.In addition,we used Evans blue dye extravasation in the spinal cord and brain tissues to assess blood-brain barrier permeability.The results indicated that an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability was associated with an increase in CD4,CD8 and CD11b mRNA expression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.Yishendaluo decoction administration significantly reversed inflammatory cell accumulation in cerebral tissues of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.

  11. Towards an Ontology-based Integration of Federated Information Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Brisaboa, Nieves R.

    2005-01-01

    Integrating data from a Federated System is a very complex process that involves a series of tasks. Characteristics such as autonomy of the information sources, their geographical distribution and heterogeneity are some of the main problems we face to perform the integration. In this paper we focus on the problem of heterogeneity, more specifically on semantic heterogeneity. The semantic heterogeneity makes the integration difficult because of its bearing problems on synonymous, generaliza...

  12. Integration of Information Retrieval and Database Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deogun, Jitender S.; Raghavan, Vijay V.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the motivation for integrating information retrieval and database management systems, and proposes a probabilistic retrieval model in which records in a file may be composed of attributes (formatted data items) and descriptors (content indicators). The details and resolutions of difficulties involved in integrating such systems are…

  13. Integrating an Information Literacy Quiz into the Learning Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, M. Sara; Booth, Char; Tagge, Natalie; Stone, Sean

    2014-01-01

    The Claremont Colleges Library Instruction Services Department developed a quiz that could be integrated into the consortial learning management software to accompany a local online, open-source information literacy tutorial. The quiz is integrated into individual course pages, allowing students to receive a grade for completion and improving…

  14. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Jared M Hotaling; Cohen, Andrew L.; Richard M Shiffrin; BUSEMEYER, JEROME R.

    2015-01-01

    In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that l...

  15. Brain Tumor Detection Based on Bilateral Symmetry Information

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin, Narkhede; Shah, Deven; Khairnar, Vaishali; Kadu, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Advances in computing technology have allowed researchers across many fields of endeavor to collect and maintain vast amounts of observational statistical data such as clinical data,biological patient data,data regarding access of web sites,financial data,and the like.Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI)segmentation is a complex problem in the field of medical imaging despite various presented methods.MR image of human brain can be divided into several sub regions especially soft tissues suc...

  16. Response processes in information-integration category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Brian J; Ashby, F Gregory

    2008-09-01

    Much recent evidence suggests that human category learning is mediated by multiple systems. Evidence suggests that at least one of these depends on procedural learning within the basal ganglia. Information-integration categorization tasks are thought to load heavily on this procedural-learning system. The results of several previous studies were interpreted to suggest that response positions are learned in information-integration tasks. This hypothesis was tested in two experiments. Experiment 1 showed that information-integration category learning was slowed but not disrupted when the spatial location of the responses varied randomly across trials. Experiment 2 showed that information-integration learning was impaired if category membership was signaled by responding to a Yes/No question and the category label had no consistent spatial location. These results suggest that information-integration category learning does not require consistent response locations. In these experiments, a consistent association between a category and a response feature was sufficient. The implication of these results for the neurobiology of information-integration category learning is discussed. PMID:18550397

  17. A Framework for Understanding Post-Merger Information Systems Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alaranta, Maria; Kautz, Karlheinz

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical framework for the integration of information systems (IS) after a merger or an acquisition. The framework integrates three perspectives: a structuralist, an individualist, and an interactive process perspective to analyze and understand such integrations. The...... framework is applied to a longitudinal case study of a manufacturing company that grew through an acquisition. The management decided to integrate the production control IS via tailoring a new system that blends together features of existing IS. The application of the framework in the case study confirms...... several known impediments to IS integrations. It also identifies a number of new inhibitors, as well as known and new facilitators that can bring post-merger IS integration to a success. Our findings provide relevant insights to researching and managing post-merger IS integrations. They emphasize that...

  18. Brain response during the M170 time interval is sensitive to socially relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arviv, Oshrit; Goldstein, Abraham; Weeting, Janine C; Becker, Eni S; Lange, Wolf-Gero; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Deciphering the social meaning of facial displays is a highly complex neurological process. The M170, an event related field component of MEG recording, like its EEG counterpart N170, was repeatedly shown to be associated with structural encoding of faces. However, the scope of information encoded during the M170 time window is still being debated. We investigated the neuronal origin of facial processing of integrated social rank cues (SRCs) and emotional facial expressions (EFEs) during the M170 time interval. Participants viewed integrated facial displays of emotion (happy, angry, neutral) and SRCs (indicated by upward, downward, or straight head tilts). We found that the activity during the M170 time window is sensitive to both EFEs and SRCs. Specifically, highly prominent activation was observed in response to SRC connoting dominance as compared to submissive or egalitarian head cues. Interestingly, the processing of EFEs and SRCs appeared to rely on different circuitry. Our findings suggest that vertical head tilts are processed not only for their sheer structural variance, but as social information. Exploring the temporal unfolding and brain localization of non-verbal cues processing may assist in understanding the functioning of the social rank biobehavioral system. PMID:26423664

  19. Alteration of blood-brain barrier integrity by retroviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe V Afonso

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB, which forms the interface between the blood and the cerebral parenchyma, has been shown to be disrupted during retroviral-associated neuromyelopathies. Human T Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with BBB breakdown. The BBB is composed of three cell types: endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes. Although astrocytes have been shown to be infected by HTLV-1, until now, little was known about the susceptibility of BBB endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection and the impact of such an infection on BBB function. We first demonstrated that human cerebral endothelial cells express the receptors for HTLV-1 (GLUT-1, Neuropilin-1 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, both in vitro, in a human cerebral endothelial cell line, and ex vivo, on spinal cord autopsy sections from HAM/TSP and non-infected control cases. In situ hybridization revealed HTLV-1 transcripts associated with the vasculature in HAM/TSP. We were able to confirm that the endothelial cells could be productively infected in vitro by HTLV-1 and that blocking of either HSPGs, Neuropilin 1 or Glut1 inhibits this process. The expression of the tight-junction proteins within the HTLV-1 infected endothelial cells was altered. These cells were no longer able to form a functional barrier, since BBB permeability and lymphocyte passage through the monolayer of endothelial cells were increased. This work constitutes the first report of susceptibility of human cerebral endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection, with implications for HTLV-1 passage through the BBB and subsequent deregulation of the central nervous system homeostasis. We propose that the susceptibility of cerebral endothelial cells to retroviral infection and subsequent BBB dysfunction is an important aspect of HAM/TSP pathogenesis and should be considered in the design of future therapeutics strategies.

  20. Early Shifts of Brain Metabolism by Caloric Restriction Preserve White Matter Integrity and Long-Term Memory in Aging Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Janet eGuo; Vikas eBakshi; Ai-Ling eLin

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of brain integrity with age is highly associated with lifespan determination. Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase longevity and healthspan in various species; however, its effects on preserving living brain functions in aging remain largely unexplored. In the study, we used multimodal, non-invasive neuroimaging (PET/MRI/MRS) to determine in vivo brain glucose metabolism, energy metabolites, and white matter structural integrity in young and old mice fed with eithe...

  1. Integrated Information System of Monitoring and Management for Heart Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Brezulianu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The integrated information system presented in this paper is focused on increasing the quality of the medical services offered to the patients by rendering the activities more efficient and by corroborating the family doctors and the cardiologists’ efforts. In order to accomplish the mentioned objectives we propose implementing an integrated information system by means of which the integrated management of the medical data will be done. In addition, it has been offered a collaborative instrument, patient oriented, that it will be used both by the family doctor and by the specialist doctor.

  2. Bryostatin-1 Restores Blood Brain Barrier Integrity following Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Logsdon, Aric F; Smith, Kelly E; Turner, Ryan C; Alkon, Daniel L; Tan, Zhenjun; Naser, Zachary J; Knotts, Chelsea M; Huber, Jason D; Rosen, Charles L

    2015-12-01

    Recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have accounted for an estimated 270,000 blast exposures among military personnel. Blast traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the 'signature injury' of modern warfare. Blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption following blast TBI can lead to long-term and diffuse neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigate for the first time the role of bryostatin-1, a specific protein kinase C (PKC) modulator, in ameliorating BBB breakdown. Thirty seven Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this study. We utilized a clinically relevant and validated blast model to expose animals to moderate blast exposure. Groups included: control, single blast exposure, and single blast exposure + bryostatin-1. Bryostatin-1 was administered i.p. 2.5 mg/kg after blast exposure. Evan's blue, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analysis were performed to assess injury. Evan's blue binds to albumin and is a marker for BBB disruption. The single blast exposure caused an increase in permeability compared to control (t = 4.808, p < 0.05), and a reduction back toward control levels when bryostatin-1 was administered (t = 5.113, p < 0.01). Three important PKC isozymes, PKCα, PKCδ, and PKCε, were co-localized primarily with endothelial cells but not astrocytes. Bryostatin-1 administration reduced toxic PKCα levels back toward control levels (t = 4.559, p < 0.01) and increased the neuroprotective isozyme PKCε (t = 6.102, p < 0.01). Bryostatin-1 caused a significant increase in the tight junction proteins VE-cadherin, ZO-1, and occludin through modulation of PKC activity. Bryostatin-1 ultimately decreased BBB breakdown potentially due to modulation of PKC isozymes. Future work will examine the role of bryostatin-1 in preventing chronic neurodegeneration following repetitive neurotrauma. PMID:25301233

  3. Integration technology research on marine geographical information system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Cunjin; SU Fenzhen; DU Yunyan; YANG Xiaomei

    2008-01-01

    It is urgent and necessary to integrate a marine geographical information system (MGIS) with marine remote sensing detection modules.On the basis of the current technology and features of applications,an open three-layer integration framework is de-signed.At the data layer,a two-level three-base integration mechanism based on the plug-in technology is applied;At the func-tion layer,an integration mode based on API,DLL,EXE and COM is discussed;and at the application layer,a sharing mecha-nism based on the clients/service is adopted.As an example,the remote sensing integrated application information system of Chinas coastal zone and offshore (MaXplorer1.0) with multiecology remote sensing fusion and assimilation module,surge detec-tion module as well as eight other thematic application modules is integrated,and the key technology of integration is discussed at different layers and in different modules.The result shows that it is possible to realize the conformity of technology and resources and to provide the incorporate technology platform for marine information operational functioning after applying the integration framework.

  4. An Integrated Model of Information Literacy, Based upon Domain Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gary B.; Lathey, Johnathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Grounded in Alexander's model of domain learning, this study presents an integrated micro-model of information literacy. It is predicated upon the central importance of domain learning for the development of the requisite research skills by students. Method. The authors reviewed previous models of information literacy and…

  5. Method and system of integrating information from multiple sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alford, Francine A. (Livermore, CA); Brinkerhoff, David L. (Antioch, CA)

    2006-08-15

    A system and method of integrating information from multiple sources in a document centric application system. A plurality of application systems are connected through an object request broker to a central repository. The information may then be posted on a webpage. An example of an implementation of the method and system is an online procurement system.

  6. Misconceptions and Misattributions About Traumatic Brain Injury: An Integrated Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Cady K; West, Sarah E; Goldin, Yelena

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present narrative review was to provide a conceptual framework to address common misconceptions in the field of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and enhance clinical and research practices. This framework is based on review of the literature on TBI knowledge and beliefs. The comprehensive search of the literature included seminal and current texts as well as relevant articles on TBI knowledge and education, misconceptions, and misattributions. Reviewed materials ranged from 1970 to 2013 and were obtained from PubMed and PubMed Central online research databases. Research findings from the reviewed literature were integrated with existing social and cognitive psychological concepts to develop a framework that includes: (1) the identification antecedents of TBI-related misconceptions and misattribution; (2) understanding of how inaccurate beliefs form and persist as the result of pre- and postinjury cognitive operations such as informational cascades and attribution biases; and (3) a discussion of ways in which these beliefs can result in consequences in all domains of a survivor's life, including physical and mental health, stigma, and discrimination. This framework is intended to serve as a first stage of development of a model that will improve treatment endeavors and service delivery to individuals with TBI and their families. PMID:26054960

  7. The Application of Integrated Knowledge-based Systems for the Biomedical Risk Assessment Intelligent Network (BRAIN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Karin C.; Ly, Bebe; Webster, Laurie; Verlander, James; Taylor, Gerald R.; Riley, Gary; Culbert, Chris; Holden, Tina; Rudisill, Marianne

    1993-01-01

    One of NASA's goals for long duration space flight is to maintain acceptable levels of crew health, safety, and performance. One way of meeting this goal is through the Biomedical Risk Assessment Intelligent Network (BRAIN), an integrated network of both human and computer elements. The BRAIN will function as an advisor to flight surgeons by assessing the risk of in-flight biomedical problems and recommending appropriate countermeasures. This paper describes the joint effort among various NASA elements to develop BRAIN and an Infectious Disease Risk Assessment (IDRA) prototype. The implementation of this effort addresses the technological aspects of the following: (1) knowledge acquisition; (2) integration of IDRA components; (3) use of expert systems to automate the biomedical prediction process; (4) development of a user-friendly interface; and (5) integration of the IDRA prototype and Exercise Countermeasures Intelligent System (ExerCISys). Because the C Language, CLIPS (the C Language Integrated Production System), and the X-Window System were portable and easily integrated, they were chosen as the tools for the initial IDRA prototype. The feasibility was tested by developing an IDRA prototype that predicts the individual risk of influenza. The application of knowledge-based systems to risk assessment is of great market value to the medical technology industry.

  8. Efficient physical embedding of topologically complex information processing networks in brains and computer circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S Bassett

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nervous systems are information processing networks that evolved by natural selection, whereas very large scale integrated (VLSI computer circuits have evolved by commercially driven technology development. Here we follow historic intuition that all physical information processing systems will share key organizational properties, such as modularity, that generally confer adaptivity of function. It has long been observed that modular VLSI circuits demonstrate an isometric scaling relationship between the number of processing elements and the number of connections, known as Rent's rule, which is related to the dimensionality of the circuit's interconnect topology and its logical capacity. We show that human brain structural networks, and the nervous system of the nematode C. elegans, also obey Rent's rule, and exhibit some degree of hierarchical modularity. We further show that the estimated Rent exponent of human brain networks, derived from MRI data, can explain the allometric scaling relations between gray and white matter volumes across a wide range of mammalian species, again suggesting that these principles of nervous system design are highly conserved. For each of these fractal modular networks, the dimensionality of the interconnect topology was greater than the 2 or 3 Euclidean dimensions of the space in which it was embedded. This relatively high complexity entailed extra cost in physical wiring: although all networks were economically or cost-efficiently wired they did not strictly minimize wiring costs. Artificial and biological information processing systems both may evolve to optimize a trade-off between physical cost and topological complexity, resulting in the emergence of homologous principles of economical, fractal and modular design across many different kinds of nervous and computational networks.

  9. [Information systems in health and health indicators: an integrating perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela-Soler, Jaume; Elvira-Martínez, David; Labordena-Barceló, María Jesús; Loyola-Elizondo, Enrique

    2010-02-01

    Health Information Systems (HIS) are the core support to decision-making in health organizations. Within HIS, health indicators (HI) reflect, numerically, events measured in the health-illness continuum. The integrated health information system is intended to standardize, integrate and organize all the information available in health information systems through an accessible and secure repository, and to conveniently distribute information for decision-making. To standardize information it is necessary to define standards and semantic information to enable us to identify concepts and relate them uniquely to each other. The definition of a catalog of entities (DEA) with concepts, attributes and domains will enable the configuration of the information system, so there will be a catalog of entities (concepts of information and domains). Based on operational systems, analytical systems enabling management and strategy in the management of organizations will be built. The maximum level of analysis is the Balanced Score Card (BSC), which is established as the strategic tool for managers. It is necessary for the organization an integrated information system to plan, manage, evaluate and therefore provide managers with a decision tool for strategic and tactical decision-making in short and medium term. PMID:20211346

  10. Practical measures of integrated information for time-series data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B Barrett

    Full Text Available A recent measure of 'integrated information', Φ(DM, quantifies the extent to which a system generates more information than the sum of its parts as it transitions between states, possibly reflecting levels of consciousness generated by neural systems. However, Φ(DM is defined only for discrete Markov systems, which are unusual in biology; as a result, Φ(DM can rarely be measured in practice. Here, we describe two new measures, Φ(E and Φ(AR, that overcome these limitations and are easy to apply to time-series data. We use simulations to demonstrate the in-practice applicability of our measures, and to explore their properties. Our results provide new opportunities for examining information integration in real and model systems and carry implications for relations between integrated information, consciousness, and other neurocognitive processes. However, our findings pose challenges for theories that ascribe physical meaning to the measured quantities.

  11. Information integrity and privacy for computerized medical patient records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, J.; Hamilton, V.; Gaylor, T.; McCurley, K.; Meeks, T.

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Oceania, Inc. entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) in November 1993 to provide ``Information Integrity and Privacy for Computerized Medical Patient Records`` (CRADA No. SC93/01183). The main objective of the project was to develop information protection methods that are appropriate for databases of patient records in health information systems. This document describes the findings and alternative solutions that resulted from this CRADA.

  12. Leading research on brain functional information processing; No kino joho shori no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This research aims at searching the concept of an information processing device with a fully different architecture from a previous ones based on the study on human brain function, sense and perception, and developing the basic fabrication technology for such system, and realizing the human-like information processing mechanism of memorization, learning, association, perception, intuition and value judgement. As an approach deriving biological and technological models from experimental brain studies, the model was derived from the brain functional information processing based on brain development/differentiation mechanism, the control mechanism/material of brain activities, and the knowledge obtained from brain measurement and study. In addition, for understanding a brain oscillation phenomenon by computational neuroscience, the cerebral cortex neural network model composed of realistic neuron models was proposed. Evaluation of the previous large-scale neural network chip system showed its ability of learning and fast processing, however, the next-generation brain computer requires further R and D of some novel architecture, device and system. 184 refs., 41 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Mathematical Models of Visual Information Processing in the Human Brain and Applications to Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    In this lecture I give a survey of joint works of Hitoshi Arai and Shinobu Arai. The main purpose of our study is to construct mathematical models of visual information processing in the brain, and to give applications to image processing. On the past few decades, several studies have been made on mathematical models of visual information processing in the human brain. Our new models are constructed by using simple pinwheel framelets ([4]) and pinwheel framelets ([6]), which are a new class o...

  14. A Measure for Brain Complexity: Relating Functional Segregation and Integration in the Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tononi, Giulio; Sporns, Olaf; Edelman, Gerald M.

    1994-05-01

    In brains of higher vertebrates, the functional segregation of local areas that differ in their anatomy and physiology contrasts sharply with their global integration during perception and behavior. In this paper, we introduce a measure, called neural complexity (C_N), that captures the interplay between these two fundamental aspects of brain organization. We express functional segregation within a neural system in terms of the relative statistical independence of small subsets of the system and functional integration in terms of significant deviations from independence of large subsets. C_N is then obtained from estimates of the average deviation from statistical independence for subsets of increasing size. C_N is shown to be high when functional segregation coexists with integration and to be low when the components of a system are either completely independent (segregated) or completely dependent (integrated). We apply this complexity measure in computer simulations of cortical areas to examine how some basic principles of neuroanatomical organization constrain brain dynamics. We show that the connectivity patterns of the cerebral cortex, such as a high density of connections, strong local connectivity organizing cells into neuronal groups, patchiness in the connectivity among neuronal groups, and prevalent reciprocal connections, are associated with high values of C_N. The approach outlined here may prove useful in analyzing complexity in other biological domains such as gene regulation and embryogenesis.

  15. Integrated Data and Information Management for Social Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Barca

    2015-01-01

    "In recent years there has been great focus on coordinating and harmonising systems for social protection. This has led to growing interest in exploring ways to integrate data and better handle information management across multiple programmes. The most cited example of such integration is Brazils celebrated Cadastro Único (Single Registry, the term we will be using to describe such poverty databases), yet several other countries have been recently adopting innovative solutions and defining b...

  16. Integrating Stress Information in Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Ludusan, Bogdan; Ziegler, Stefan; Gravier, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel method for integrating stress information in the decoding step of a speech recognizer. A multiscale rhythm model was used to determine the stress scores for each syllable, which are further used to reinforce paths during search. Two strategies for integrating the stress were employed: the first one reinforces paths through all the syllables with a value proportional to the their stress score, while the second one enhances paths passing only through stressed sy...

  17. Integrating federated information sources through the use of ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Penabad, Miguel R.; Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Brisaboa, Nieves R.

    2004-01-01

    Ontologies serve as a mean to establish a conceptually concise basis for communicating knowledge for many purposes. Within the information integration area, ontologies are useful to solve heterogeneity problems. They provide a set of knowledge terms, including the vocabulary, the semantic interconnections and some simple rules of inference and logic. In this paper we present a helpful method to integrate a new data source into a federated system taking advance of the use of ontologies.

  18. Concept bases: A support to information systems integration

    OpenAIRE

    Falquet, Gilles; Bonjour, Michel

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a technique for integrating heterogeneous information systems using concept bases. A concept base is build on top of each system to integrate, in order to semantically enrich its description. Each concept is described at three different levels: terminological definition, formal characterization, and representation in the underlying system. The different concept bases are then used to compare the concepts represented in the different systems and to establish correspo...

  19. Integrated computational and conceptual solutions for complex environmental information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückemann, Claus-Peter

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the recent results of the integration of computational and conceptual solutions for the complex case of environmental information management. The solution for the major goal of creating and developing long-term multi-disciplinary knowledge resources and conceptual and computational support was achieved by implementing and integrating key components. The key components are long-term knowledge resources providing required structures for universal knowledge creation, documentation, and preservation, universal multi-disciplinary and multi-lingual conceptual knowledge and classification, especially, references to Universal Decimal Classification (UDC), sustainable workflows for environmental information management, and computational support for dynamical use, processing, and advanced scientific computing with Integrated Information and Computing System (IICS) components and High End Computing (HEC) resources.

  20. Optimal Perceived Timing: Integrating Sensory Information with Dynamically Updated Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luca, Massimiliano; Rhodes, Darren

    2016-01-01

    The environment has a temporal structure, and knowing when a stimulus will appear translates into increased perceptual performance. Here we investigated how the human brain exploits temporal regularity in stimulus sequences for perception. We find that the timing of stimuli that occasionally deviate from a regularly paced sequence is perceptually distorted. Stimuli presented earlier than expected are perceptually delayed, whereas stimuli presented on time and later than expected are perceptually accelerated. This result suggests that the brain regularizes slightly deviant stimuli with an asymmetry that leads to the perceptual acceleration of expected stimuli. We present a Bayesian model for the combination of dynamically-updated expectations, in the form of a priori probability of encountering future stimuli, with incoming sensory information. The asymmetries in the results are accounted for by the asymmetries in the distributions involved in the computational process. PMID:27385184

  1. Optimal Perceived Timing: Integrating Sensory Information with Dynamically Updated Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luca, Massimiliano; Rhodes, Darren

    2016-01-01

    The environment has a temporal structure, and knowing when a stimulus will appear translates into increased perceptual performance. Here we investigated how the human brain exploits temporal regularity in stimulus sequences for perception. We find that the timing of stimuli that occasionally deviate from a regularly paced sequence is perceptually distorted. Stimuli presented earlier than expected are perceptually delayed, whereas stimuli presented on time and later than expected are perceptually accelerated. This result suggests that the brain regularizes slightly deviant stimuli with an asymmetry that leads to the perceptual acceleration of expected stimuli. We present a Bayesian model for the combination of dynamically-updated expectations, in the form of a priori probability of encountering future stimuli, with incoming sensory information. The asymmetries in the results are accounted for by the asymmetries in the distributions involved in the computational process. PMID:27385184

  2. International seminar on integrated information systems. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information available to the IAEA under comprehensive safeguards agreement with an Additional protocol is intended to provide for as complete a picture as practicable of a State's current or planned nuclear programme. The central components of the strengthened safeguards system are: increased IAEA access to and evaluation of information about States' nuclear and nuclear-related activities and increased physical access to relevant locations for verification of the exclusively peaceful content of a States' nuclear programme. Strengthening measures implemented under the existing legal authority of the Agency have contributed to increased information and physical access. Thus the role of integrated information systems for safeguards relevant data acquisition became more significant

  3. Integrating hospital information systems in healthcare institutions: a mediation architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Azami, Ikram; Cherkaoui Malki, Mohammed Ouçamah; Tahon, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Many studies have examined the integration of information systems into healthcare institutions, leading to several standards in the healthcare domain (CORBAmed: Common Object Request Broker Architecture in Medicine; HL7: Health Level Seven International; DICOM: Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine; and IHE: Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise). Due to the existence of a wide diversity of heterogeneous systems, three essential factors are necessary to fully integrate a system: data, functions and workflow. However, most of the previous studies have dealt with only one or two of these factors and this makes the system integration unsatisfactory. In this paper, we propose a flexible, scalable architecture for Hospital Information Systems (HIS). Our main purpose is to provide a practical solution to insure HIS interoperability so that healthcare institutions can communicate without being obliged to change their local information systems and without altering the tasks of the healthcare professionals. Our architecture is a mediation architecture with 3 levels: 1) a database level, 2) a middleware level and 3) a user interface level. The mediation is based on two central components: the Mediator and the Adapter. Using the XML format allows us to establish a structured, secured exchange of healthcare data. The notion of medical ontology is introduced to solve semantic conflicts and to unify the language used for the exchange. Our mediation architecture provides an effective, promising model that promotes the integration of hospital information systems that are autonomous, heterogeneous, semantically interoperable and platform-independent. PMID:22086739

  4. Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, E F; Miller, D G; Burns, H J

    1978-01-01

    A total of 1,242 subjects, in five experiments plus a pilot study, saw a series of slides depicting a single auto-pedestrian accident. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate how information supplied after an event influences a witness's memory for that event. Subjects were exposed to either consistent, misleading, or irrelevant information after the accident event. Misleading information produced less accurate responding on both a yes-no and a two-alternative forced-choice recognition test. Further, misleading information had a larger impact if introduced just prior to a final test rather than immediately after the initial event. The effects of misleading information cannot be accounted for by a simple demand-characteristics explanation. Overall, the results suggest that information to which a witness is exposed after an event, whether that information is consistent or misleading, is integrated into the witness's memory of the event. PMID:621467

  5. Technical development of integrated radwaste management information system in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.; Tsai, C.M.; Chang, P.L.

    1994-12-31

    Radioactive waste poses very complex problems from its generation, processing, shipping in-transit and interim storage, to its final destination and is carefully planned in Taiwan. The objectives of this plan are to use technical management skills and integrated computer technology to provide an Electronic Information Service Environment. We use a relational data structure to establish a computerized management of the radioactive waste. It combines methodologies in technical management, data processing, data base, hierarchical tree structure, multi-media user interface, decision analysis, and artificial intelligence, etc., to accomplish the integration of radioactive waste information and to effectively utilize resources in order to raise the overall management level and efficiency in Taiwan.

  6. Modulation of semantic integration as a function of syntactic expectations: event-related brain potential evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isel, Frédéric; Shen, Weilin

    2011-03-30

    This study investigated syntax-semantics interactions during spoken sentence comprehension. We showed that expectations of phrase-structure incongruencies, which were induced by the experimental instructions, although not actually present in the sentences, were able to block the process of semantic integration. Although this process is usually associated with an N400 event-related brain potential component, here we found a P600, that is, an event-related brain potential component that is thought to reflect syntactic revision. This finding lends support to neurophysiological models of sentence interpretation, which postulates that the lexical-semantic integration of a given word can take place only when syntactic analysis has been successfully completed. PMID:21358555

  7. Integrated Information Systems Across the Weather-Climate Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Higgins, W.; Nierenberg, C.; Trtanj, J.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing demand for well-organized (integrated) end-to-end research-based information has been highlighted in several National Academy studies, in IPCC Reports (such as the SREX and Fifth Assessment) and by public and private constituents. Such information constitutes a significant component of the "environmental intelligence" needed to address myriad societal needs for early warning and resilience across the weather-climate continuum. The next generation of climate research in service to the nation requires an even more visible, authoritative and robust commitment to scientific integration in support of adaptive information systems that address emergent risks and inform longer-term resilience strategies. A proven mechanism for resourcing such requirements is to demonstrate vision, purpose, support, connection to constituencies, and prototypes of desired capabilities. In this presentation we will discuss efforts at NOAA, and elsewhere, that: Improve information on how changes in extremes in key phenomena such as drought, floods, and heat stress impact management decisions for resource planning and disaster risk reduction Develop regional integrated information systems to address these emergent challenges, that integrate observations, monitoring and prediction, impacts assessments and scenarios, preparedness and adaptation, and coordination and capacity-building. Such systems, as illustrated through efforts such as NIDIS, have strengthened the integration across the foundational research enterprise (through for instance, RISAs, Modeling Analysis Predictions and Projections) by increasing agility for responding to emergent risks. The recently- initiated Climate Services Information System, in support of the WMO Global Framework for Climate Services draws on the above models and will be introduced during the presentation.

  8. Integrated information in discrete dynamical systems: motivation and theoretical framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Balduzzi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a time- and state-dependent measure of integrated information, phi, which captures the repertoire of causal states available to a system as a whole. Specifically, phi quantifies how much information is generated (uncertainty is reduced when a system enters a particular state through causal interactions among its elements, above and beyond the information generated independently by its parts. Such mathematical characterization is motivated by the observation that integrated information captures two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: (i there is a large repertoire of conscious experiences so that, when one particular experience occurs, it generates a large amount of information by ruling out all the others; and (ii this information is integrated, in that each experience appears as a whole that cannot be decomposed into independent parts. This paper extends previous work on stationary systems and applies integrated information to discrete networks as a function of their dynamics and causal architecture. An analysis of basic examples indicates the following: (i phi varies depending on the state entered by a network, being higher if active and inactive elements are balanced and lower if the network is inactive or hyperactive. (ii phi varies for systems with identical or similar surface dynamics depending on the underlying causal architecture, being low for systems that merely copy or replay activity states. (iii phi varies as a function of network architecture. High phi values can be obtained by architectures that conjoin functional specialization with functional integration. Strictly modular and homogeneous systems cannot generate high phi because the former lack integration, whereas the latter lack information. Feedforward and lattice architectures are capable of generating high phi but are inefficient. (iv In Hopfield networks, phi is low for attractor states and neutral states, but increases if the networks

  9. Modeling community integration in workers with delayed recovery from mild traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mollayeva, Tatyana; Shapiro, Colin M; Mollayeva, Shirin; Cassidy, J David; Colantonio, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Background Delayed recovery in persons after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is poorly understood. Community integration (CI) is endorsed by persons with neurological disorders as an important outcome. We aimed to describe CI and its associated factors in insured Ontario workers with delayed recovery following mTBI. Methods A cross-sectional study of insured workers in the chronic phase following mTBI was performed at a rehabilitation hospital in Ontario, Canada. Sociodemographic, occupati...

  10. Integration of Multidisciplinary Sensory Data:: A Pilot Model of the Human Brain Project Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Perry L.; Nadkarni, Prakash; Singer, Michael; Marenco, Luis; Hines, Michael; Shepherd, Gordon

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of neuroinformatics research at Yale University being performed as part of the national Human Brain Project. This research is exploring the integration of multidisciplinary sensory data, using the olfactory system as a model domain. The neuroinformatics activities fall into three main areas: 1) building databases and related tools that support experimental olfactory research at Yale and can also serve as resources for the field as a whole, 2) using computer mode...

  11. Integrated Semiconductor Optical Sensors for Chronic, Minimally-Invasive Imaging of Brain Function

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Thomas T.; Levi, Ofer; Cang, Jianhua; Kaneko, Megumi; Stryker, Michael P.; Smith, Stephen J; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Harris, James S.

    2006-01-01

    Intrinsic Optical Signal (IOS) imaging is a widely accepted technique for imaging brain activity. We propose an integrated device consisting of interleaved arrays of gallium arsenide (GaAs) based semiconductor light sources and detectors operating at telecommunications wavelengths in the near-infrared. Such a device will allow for long-term, minimally invasive monitoring of neural activity in freely behaving subjects, and will enable the use of structured illumination patterns to improve syst...

  12. Modeling dynamic functional information flows on large-scale brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Peili; Guo, Lei; Hu, Xintao; Li, Xiang; Jin, Changfeng; Han, Junwei; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Tianming

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence from the functional neuroimaging field suggests that human brain functions are realized via dynamic functional interactions on large-scale structural networks. Even in resting state, functional brain networks exhibit remarkable temporal dynamics. However, it has been rarely explored to computationally model such dynamic functional information flows on large-scale brain networks. In this paper, we present a novel computational framework to explore this problem using multimodal resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. Basically, recent literature reports including our own studies have demonstrated that the resting state brain networks dynamically undergo a set of distinct brain states. Within each quasi-stable state, functional information flows from one set of structural brain nodes to other sets of nodes, which is analogous to the message package routing on the Internet from the source node to the destination. Therefore, based on the large-scale structural brain networks constructed from DTI data, we employ a dynamic programming strategy to infer functional information transition routines on structural networks, based on which hub routers that most frequently participate in these routines are identified. It is interesting that a majority of those hub routers are located within the default mode network (DMN), revealing a possible mechanism of the critical functional hub roles played by the DMN in resting state. Also, application of this framework on a post trauma stress disorder (PTSD) dataset demonstrated interesting difference in hub router distributions between PTSD patients and healthy controls. PMID:24579202

  13. Integrating medical and research information: a big data approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilve Álvarez, Carlos M; Ayora Pais, Alberto; Ruíz Romero, Cristina; Llamas Gómez, Daniel; Carrajo García, Lino; Blanco García, Francisco J; Vázquez González, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Most of the information collected in different fields by Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de A Coruña (INIBIC) is classified as unstructured due to its high volume and heterogeneity. This situation, linked to the recent requirement of integrating it to the medical information, makes it necessary to implant specific architectures to collect and organize it before it can be analysed. The purpose of this article is to present the Hadoop framework as a solution to the problem of integrating research information in the Business Intelligence field. This framework can collect, explore, process and structure the aforementioned information, which allow us to develop an equivalent function to a data mart in an Intelligence Business system. PMID:25991244

  14. Integrated content presentation for multilingual and multimedia information access

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gareth J.F.; WADE, VINCENT

    2006-01-01

    For multilingual and multimedia information retrieval from multiple potentially distributed collections generating the output in the form of standard ranked lists may often mean that a user has to explore the contents of many lists before finding sufficient relevant or linguistically accessible material to satisfy their information need. In some situations delivering an integrated multilingual multimedia presentation could enable the user to explore a topic allowing them to select...

  15. Brain network analysis: separating cost from topology using cost-integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric E Ginestet

    Full Text Available A statistically principled way of conducting brain network analysis is still lacking. Comparison of different populations of brain networks is hard because topology is inherently dependent on wiring cost, where cost is defined as the number of edges in an unweighted graph. In this paper, we evaluate the benefits and limitations associated with using cost-integrated topological metrics. Our focus is on comparing populations of weighted undirected graphs that differ in mean association weight, using global efficiency. Our key result shows that integrating over cost is equivalent to controlling for any monotonic transformation of the weight set of a weighted graph. That is, when integrating over cost, we eliminate the differences in topology that may be due to a monotonic transformation of the weight set. Our result holds for any unweighted topological measure, and for any choice of distribution over cost levels. Cost-integration is therefore helpful in disentangling differences in cost from differences in topology. By contrast, we show that the use of the weighted version of a topological metric is generally not a valid approach to this problem. Indeed, we prove that, under weak conditions, the use of the weighted version of global efficiency is equivalent to simply comparing weighted costs. Thus, we recommend the reporting of (i differences in weighted costs and (ii differences in cost-integrated topological measures with respect to different distributions over the cost domain. We demonstrate the application of these techniques in a re-analysis of an fMRI working memory task. We also provide a Monte Carlo method for approximating cost-integrated topological measures. Finally, we discuss the limitations of integrating topology over cost, which may pose problems when some weights are zero, when multiplicities exist in the ranks of the weights, and when one expects subtle cost-dependent topological differences, which could be masked by cost-integration.

  16. Geographic information processing in the Integrated Measuring and Information System (IMIS). An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As most public administrations the Federal Office for Radiation Protection faces various tasks and requirements with geographic information playing an important role. All the more this is true for the Department of Emergency Protection with its Integrated Measuring and Information System (IMIS) and the tasks of information provision for the public. Crucial part in geographic information extraction and provision is cartographic representation. In BfS the different requirements shall be met by a common software architecture, based on web services.

  17. THE INFORMATION SUPPLY OF THE EVALUATION OF INTEGRATION DEALINGS’ STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandrov I. N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Strategically significant dealings of bussines entities’ amalgamation and absorption are revised in the article. It presents the methods and information supply of the evaluation the business entity’s potential and the evaluation of potential increment of a business entity as a result of integration

  18. THE INFORMATION SUPPLY OF THE EVALUATION OF INTEGRATION DEALINGS’ STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandrov I. N.; Fedorova M. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Strategically significant dealings of bussines entities’ amalgamation and absorption are revised in the article. It presents the methods and information supply of the evaluation the business entity’s potential and the evaluation of potential increment of a business entity as a result of integration

  19. Conducting Institutional Research Using an Integrated Student Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Michael

    The use of an integrated student information system (ISIS) to conduct institutional research at Trinity University is discussed. The types of data contained in the system, which has 59 files, include: student characteristics, recruitment, financial aid, registration, faculty load, and class scheduling. The data for students, faculty, departments,…

  20. Integration of Informal Music Technologies in Secondary School Music Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Dan; Dixon, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Technologies such as YouTube, mobile phones and MP3 players are increasingly integrated into secondary school music in the UK. At the same time, the gap between formal and informal music learning is being bridged by the incorporation of students' preferred music into class activities. We conducted an ethnographic study in two secondary…

  1. Integration of Heterogeneous Bibliographic Information through Data Abstractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breazeal, Juliette Ow

    This study examines the integration of heterogeneous bibliographic information resources from geographically distributed locations in an automated, unified, and controlled way using abstract data types called "classes" through the Message-Object Model defined in Smalltalk-80 software. The concept of achieving data consistency by developing classes…

  2. Economic integration in North America: Formal, Informal and Spatial Aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Proulx, P.P.

    1996-01-01

    An exemination of a series of indicators of economic integration in the western hemisphere (Canada-USA-Latin America) indicates that it is proceeding under the influence of formal trade agreements and informal forces including technological change, multinational firm rationalization and location strategies, etc.

  3. Measuring Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Curriculum Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Romina M. J.; Watson, Glenice; Finger, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    There is currently a trend toward the development of methodologies to measure Information and Communication Technology (ICT) curriculum integration and its resultant impact on student learning outcomes. Simplistic, negative correlations between numbers of classroom computers and standardized literacy and numeracy test results provide headlines for…

  4. Disruption of White Matter Integrity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors: Correlates with Long-Term Intellectual Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    King, Tricia Z.; Liya Wang; Hui Mao

    2015-01-01

    Background Although chemotherapy and radiation treatment have contributed to increased survivorship, treatment-induced brain injury has been a concern when examining long-term intellectual outcomes of survivors. Specifically, disruption of brain white matter integrity and its relationship to intellectual outcomes in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors needs to be better understood. Methods Fifty-four participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging in addition to structural MRI and an in...

  5. Systems Information Therapy and the central role of the brain in allostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work arose from the necessity to up date and clarify some basic concepts in contemporary medical practice such as those of health, disease, therapy and prevention. According to this perspective the work starts with a general epistemological review and goes on with an epistemological revision of biology and medicine. The concept of adaptation and the central role of the brain is then analysed and stated as the base to next consideration and deepening from a biophysical perspective. Physio-pathology of adaptation is assumed as a key concept in the definition and in the understanding of health and disease. A huge amount of endogenous and external stimuli has to be processed and response to them may lead to increase, stability or decrease of coherence in agreement with Frohlich's pioneering ideas. In this framework, the concept of stress, allostasis and allostatic load are outlined. Allostasis is defined as the capability of keeping stability through dynamic changes. A particular attention is paid to the emerging paradigms in biology and medicine especially those of system biology and system medicine trying to integrate the concept of complexity and hierarchical organization of the information flow in living organisms and in humans. In this framework biophysical signalling could play a significant role in modulating endogenous dynamics and in mediating external interactions. Additionally biophysical mechanisms could be involved in biological systems inner communication and could be responsible for the maintenance of systems inner coherence. The integration of the biophysical paradigm into contemporary medical practice is leading from one side to a better understanding of many pathways in physiopathology and from the other side to some new effective clinical applications. System Information Therapy is, for instance, is rising as a suitable and coherent tool in the application of thise concept being able to restore the self regulation and self regeneration

  6. Information flow between interacting human brains: Identification, validation, and relationship to social expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Edda; Ruf, Matthias; Schäfer, Axel; Akdeniz, Ceren; Calhoun, Vince D; Schmahl, Christian; Demanuele, Charmaine; Tost, Heike; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-04-21

    Social interactions are fundamental for human behavior, but the quantification of their neural underpinnings remains challenging. Here, we used hyperscanning functional MRI (fMRI) to study information flow between brains of human dyads during real-time social interaction in a joint attention paradigm. In a hardware setup enabling immersive audiovisual interaction of subjects in linked fMRI scanners, we characterize cross-brain connectivity components that are unique to interacting individuals, identifying information flow between the sender's and receiver's temporoparietal junction. We replicate these findings in an independent sample and validate our methods by demonstrating that cross-brain connectivity relates to a key real-world measure of social behavior. Together, our findings support a central role of human-specific cortical areas in the brain dynamics of dyadic interactions and provide an approach for the noninvasive examination of the neural basis of healthy and disturbed human social behavior with minimal a priori assumptions. PMID:25848050

  7. A Methodology to Extract Information from the Brain Waves in a Multi-Core Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnakumar Venkatasubramanian; M. Rajasekhara Babu

    2013-01-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is one of the most dynamic fields in the world of Artificial Intelligence. It involves a direct neural interface between the subject and the machine, and the information is extracted from the brain in the form of waves. This raw brain-wave needs to be classified, de-noised, translated and suitably stored. These steps involve the use of a number of techniques like, thede-noising involves the use of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) [1] or Recurrent Quantum Neural ...

  8. Information flow between interacting human brains: Identification, validation, and relationship to social expertise

    OpenAIRE

    Bilek, Edda; Ruf, Matthias; Schäfer, Axel; Akdeniz, Ceren; Calhoun, Vince D.; Schmahl, Christian; Demanuele, Charmaine; Tost, Heike; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Social interaction is the likely driver of human brain evolution, critical for health, and underlies phenomena as varied as childhood development, stock market behavior, and much of what is studied in the humanities. However, appropriate experimental methods to study the underlying brain processes are still developing and technically challenging. Here, we extend previous pioneering approaches in neuroimaging [functional MRI (fMRI) hyperscanning] to provide a method for studying information fl...

  9. Sharing self-related information is associated with intrinsic functional connectivity of cortical midline brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshi, Dar; Mamerow, Loreen; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Morawetz, Carmen; Margulies, Daniel S; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are social animals and they vary in the degree to which they share information about themselves with others. Although brain networks involved in self-related cognition have been identified, especially via the use of resting-state experiments, the neural circuitry underlying individual differences in the sharing of self-related information is currently unknown. Therefore, we investigated the intrinsic functional organization of the brain with respect to participants' degree of self-related information sharing using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and self-reported social media use. We conducted seed-based correlation analyses in cortical midline regions previously shown in meta-analyses to be involved in self-referential cognition: the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), central precuneus (CP), and caudal anterior cingulate cortex (CACC). We examined whether and how functional connectivity between these regions and the rest of the brain was associated with participants' degree of self-related information sharing. Analyses revealed associations between the MPFC and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the CP with the right DLPFC, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and left anterior temporal pole. These findings extend our present knowledge of functional brain connectivity, specifically demonstrating how the brain's intrinsic functional organization relates to individual differences in the sharing of self-related information. PMID:26948055

  10. Separate Brain Circuits Support Integrative and Semantic Priming in the Human Language System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gangyi; Chen, Qi; Zhu, Zude; Wang, Suiping

    2016-07-01

    Semantic priming is a crucial phenomenon to study the organization of semantic memory. A novel type of priming effect, integrative priming, has been identified behaviorally, whereby a prime word facilitates recognition of a target word when the 2 concepts can be combined to form a unitary representation. We used both functional and anatomical imaging approaches to investigate the neural substrates supporting such integrative priming, and compare them with those in semantic priming. Similar behavioral priming effects for both semantic (Bread-Cake) and integrative conditions (Cherry-Cake) were observed when compared with an unrelated condition. However, a clearly dissociated brain response was observed between these 2 types of priming. The semantic-priming effect was localized to the posterior superior temporal and middle temporal gyrus. In contrast, the integrative-priming effect localized to the left anterior inferior frontal gyrus and left anterior temporal cortices. Furthermore, fiber tractography showed that the integrative-priming regions were connected via uncinate fasciculus fiber bundle forming an integrative circuit, whereas the semantic-priming regions connected to the posterior frontal cortex via separated pathways. The results point to dissociable neural pathways underlying the 2 distinct types of priming, illuminating the neural circuitry organization of semantic representation and integration. PMID:26209843

  11. The Human Brain and Information Science: Lessons from Popular Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sturges

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Insights from the recent wealth of popular books on neuroscience are offered to suggest a strengthening of theory in information science. Information theory has traditionally neglected the human dimension in favour of 'scientific' theory often derived from the Shannon-Weaver model. Neuroscientists argue in excitingly fresh ways from the evidence of case studies, non-intrusive experimentation and the measurements that can be obtained from technologies that include electroencephalography, positron emission tomography (PET, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and magnetoencephalography (MEG. The way in which the findings of neuroscience intersect with ideas such as those of Kahneman on fast and slow thinking and Csikszentmihalyi on flow, is tentatively explored as lines of connection with information science. It is argued that the beginnings of a theoretical underpinning for current web-based information searching in relation to established information retrieval methods can be drawn from this.

  12. Melatonin Preserves Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and Permeability via Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluri, Himakarnika; Wilson, Rickesha L.; Anasooya Shaji, Chinchusha; Wiggins-Dohlvik, Katie; Patel, Savan; Liu, Yang; Peng, Xu; Beeram, Madhava R.; Davis, Matthew L.; Huang, Jason H.; Tharakan, Binu

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular hyperpermeability that occurs at the level of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) often leads to vasogenic brain edema and elevated intracranial pressure following traumatic brain injury (TBI). At a cellular level, tight junction proteins (TJPs) between neighboring endothelial cells maintain the integrity of the BBB via TJ associated proteins particularly, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) that binds to the transmembrane TJPs and actin cytoskeleton intracellularly. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) as well as the proteolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are key mediators of trauma-associated brain edema. Recent studies indicate that melatonin a pineal hormone directly binds to MMP-9 and also might act as its endogenous inhibitor. We hypothesized that melatonin treatment will provide protection against TBI-induced BBB hyperpermeability via MMP-9 inhibition. Rat brain microvascular endothelial cells grown as monolayers were used as an in vitro model of the BBB and a mouse model of TBI using a controlled cortical impactor was used for all in vivo studies. IL-1β (10 ng/mL; 2 hours)-induced endothelial monolayer hyperpermeability was significantly attenuated by melatonin (10 μg/mL; 1 hour), GM6001 (broad spectrum MMP inhibitor; 10 μM; 1 hour), MMP-9 inhibitor-1 (MMP-9 specific inhibitor; 5 nM; 1 hour) or MMP-9 siRNA transfection (48 hours) in vitro. Melatonin and MMP-9 inhibitor-1 pretreatment attenuated IL-1β-induced MMP-9 activity, loss of ZO-1 junctional integrity and f-actin stress fiber formation. IL-1β treatment neither affected ZO-1 protein or mRNA expression or cell viability. Acute melatonin treatment attenuated BBB hyperpermeability in a mouse controlled cortical impact model of TBI in vivo. In conclusion, one of the protective effects of melatonin against BBB hyperpermeability occurs due to enhanced BBB integrity via MMP-9 inhibition. In addition, acute melatonin treatment provides protection against BBB

  13. An Integrated Information Retrieval Support System for Campus Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new integrated information retrieval support system (IIRSS) which can help Web search engines retrieve cross-lingual information from heterogeneous resources stored in multi-databases in Intranet. The IIRSS, with a three-layer architecture, can cooperate with other application servers running in Intranet. By using intelligent agents to collect information and to create indexes on-the-fly, using an access control strategy to confine a user to browsing those accessible documents for him/her through a single portal, and using a new cross-lingual translation tool to help the search engine retrieve documents, the new system provides controllable information access with different authorizations, personalized services, and real-time information retrieval.

  14. Comparative Evaluation for Brain Structural Connectivity Approaches: Towards Integrative Neuroinformatics Tool for Epilepsy Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Ghosh, Kaushik; Lacuey-Lecumberri, Nuria; Lhatoo, Samden D; Sahoo, Satya S

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in brain fiber tractography algorithms and diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data collection techniques are providing new approaches to study brain white matter connectivity, which play an important role in complex neurological disorders such as epilepsy. Epilepsy affects approximately 50 million persons worldwide and it is often described as a disorder of the cortical network organization. There is growing recognition of the need to better understand the role of brain structural networks in the onset and propagation of seizures in epilepsy using high resolution non-invasive imaging technologies. In this paper, we perform a comparative evaluation of two techniques to compute structural connectivity, namely probabilistic fiber tractography and statistics derived from fractional anisotropy (FA), using diffusion MRI data from a patient with rare case of medically intractable insular epilepsy. The results of our evaluation demonstrate that probabilistic fiber tractography provides a more accurate map of structural connectivity and may help address inherent complexities of neural fiber layout in the brain, such as fiber crossings. This work provides an initial result towards building an integrative informatics tool for neuroscience that can be used to accurately characterize the role of fiber tract connectivity in neurological disorders such as epilepsy. PMID:27570685

  15. The cumulative effect of genetic polymorphisms on depression and brain structural integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Milutin; Canu, Elisa; Agosta, Federica; Munjiza, Ana; Novakovic, Ivana; Dobricic, Valerija; Maria Ferraro, Pilar; Miler Jerkovic, Vera; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Lecic Tosevski, Dusica; Filippi, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    In major depressive disorder (MDD), the need to study multiple-gene effect on brain structure is emerging. Our aim was to assess the effect of accumulation of specific SERT, BDNF and COMT gene functional polymorphisms on brain structure in MDD patients. Seventy-seven MDD patients and 66 controls underwent a clinical assessment, genetic testing and MRI scan. Compared with controls, patients were more BDNF-Val homozygotes, COMT-Met carriers and SERT-L' carriers. Thus, subjects were split into three groups: 1. High-frequency susceptibility polymorphism group (hfSP, subjects with all three SPs); 2. Intermediate-frequency SP group (ifSP, two SPs); and 3. Low-frequency SP group (lfSP, one/none SP). Cortical thickness, volumetry of hippocampus, amygdala and subcortical structures, and white matter (WM) tract integrity were assessed. Compared to controls, hfSP patients showed thinning of the middle frontal cortex bilaterally, left frontal pole, and right lateral occipital cortex, and smaller hippocampal volume bilaterally; and both hfSP and lfSP patient groups showed thinning of the left inferior parietal cortex and reduced WM integrity of the corpus callosum. Compared to patients, hfSP controls showed greater integrity of the fronto-occipital cortices and corpus callosum. We showed that cortical prefrontal and occipital damage of MDD patients is modulated by the SP accumulation, while damage to the parietal cortex and corpus callosum seem to be independent of genetic accumulation. HfSP controls may experience protective mechanisms leading to a preserved integrity of critical cortical and WM regions. Investigating the effect of multiple genes is promising to understand the pathological mechanisms underlying MDD. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2173-2184, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26956059

  16. Hermes, the Information Messenger, Integrating Information Services and Delivering Them to the End User.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello-Coutino, Gerardo; Ainsworth, Shirley; Escalante-Gonzalbo, Ana Marie

    2002-01-01

    Describes Hermes, a research tool that uses specially designed acquisition, parsing and presentation methods to integrate information resources on the Internet, from searching in disparate bibliographic databases, to accessing full text articles online, and developing a web of information associated with each reference via one common interface.…

  17. A prospective study to evaluate a new residential community reintegration programme for severe chronic brain injury: the Brain Integration Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurtsen, G.J.; Martina, J.D.; Heugten, C.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of a residential community reintegration programme for participants with chronic sequelae of severe acquired brain injury that hamper community functioning. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: Twenty-four participants with acquired brain injury (traumatic

  18. Mobile Restaurant Information System Integrating Reservation Navigating and Parking Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yao Lo,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the pace of technological development, people have become more and more demanding in terms of quality of life. At the same time the restaurant industry has become one of the largest industries in the world. To follow international trends and development in the restaurant business in Taiwan, various types of theme restaurants and cafes have emerged. Needless to saycompetition is intense. In such an environment, raising service quality and management performance are the foremost goals; informatization is the key to these goals. A restaurant information system is the digital nervous system of restaurant management, containing all the relevant processes. Management can understand operational conditions through a restaurant information system and respond to them. They can become aware of competitor challenges or customer needs and then formulate strategies accordingly. A restaurant information system combines software and hardware; it provides restaurant management with precise, direct, and abundant information, which can enhance insight and productivity.This study developed a restaurant information system aimed at online restaurant services and information management. Combined with a parking management system and GPS navigating technology, this powerful system applies object-oriented techniques; the extensibility of object-oriented systems allows integration with different information system cores, providing diversified management and new informational services. Functions can be easily extended, increasing the flexibility of the system. This information system can enhance competition, create overall advantage, and increase operationalefficiency and performance.

  19. High-accuracy brain-machine interfaces using feedback information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Gi Yeom

    Full Text Available Sensory feedback is very important for movement control. However, feedback information has not been directly used to update movement prediction model in the previous BMI studies, although the closed-loop BMI system provides the visual feedback to users. Here, we propose a BMI framework combining image processing as the feedback information with a novel prediction method. The feedback-prediction algorithm (FPA generates feedback information from the positions of objects and modifies movement prediction according to the information. The FPA predicts a target among objects based on the movement direction predicted from the neural activity. After the target selection, the FPA modifies the predicted direction toward the target and modulates the magnitude of the predicted vector to easily reach the target. The FPA repeats the modification in every prediction time points. To evaluate the improvements of prediction accuracy provided by the feedback, we compared the prediction performances with feedback (FPA and without feedback. We demonstrated that accuracy of movement prediction can be considerably improved by the FPA combining feedback information. The accuracy of the movement prediction was significantly improved for all subjects (P<0.001 and 32.1% of the mean error was reduced. The BMI performance will be improved by combining feedback information and it will promote the development of a practical BMI system.

  20. Fusing in vivo and ex vivo NMR sources of information for brain tumor classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we classify short echo-time brain magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) data by applying a model-based canonical correlation analyses algorithm and by using, as prior knowledge, multimodal sources of information coming from high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS), MRSI and magnetic resonance imaging. The potential and limitations of fusing in vivo and ex vivo nuclear magnetic resonance sources to detect brain tumors is investigated. We present various modalities for multimodal data fusion, study the effect and the impact of using multimodal information for classifying MRSI brain glial tumors data and analyze which parameters influence the classification results by means of extensive simulation and in vivo studies. Special attention is drawn to the possibility of considering HR-MAS data as a complementary dataset when dealing with a lack of MRSI data needed to build a classifier. Results show that HR-MAS information can have added value in the process of classifying MRSI data

  1. Spatial smoothing hurts localization but not information: pitfalls for brain mappers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Sawahata, Yasuhito

    2010-02-01

    Op de Beeck (Op de Beeck, H., 2009. Against hyperacuity in brain reading: Spatial smoothing does not hurt multivariate fMRI analyses? Neuroimage) challenges the possibility of extracting information from subvoxel representations via random biases associated with voxel sampling, the hypothesis proposed by Kamitani and Tong (Kamitani, Y., Tong, F., 2005. Decoding the visual and subjective contents of the human brain. Nat. Neurosci. 8, 679-685). Here, we show that his results provide no evidence against the possibility, being consistent with both of the subvoxel and supravoxel representation models. Classification of spatially smoothed fMRI data is not an effective means to probe into information sources for multivoxel decoding, since smoothing does not hurt the information contents of multivoxel patterns. We point out the danger of interpreting multivoxel decoding results based on intuitions guided by the conventional brain mapping paradigm. PMID:19559797

  2. On the variability of the McGurk effect : Audiovisual integration depends on prestimulus brain states

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Julian; Müller, Nadia; Ihssen, Niklas; Weisz, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The McGurk effect demonstrates the influence of visual cues on auditory perception. Mismatching information from both sensory modalities can fuse to a novel percept that matches neither the 10 auditory nor the visual stimulus. This illusion is reported in 60--80% of trials. We were interested in the impact of ongoing brain oscillations—indexed by fluctuating local excitability and interareal synchronization—on upcoming perception of identical stimuli. The perception of the McGurk effect is pr...

  3. Demystifying the hospital information system/radiology information system integration process

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Neil D.; Garofolo, Gregory; Geers, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Most organizations planning to implement picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) are aware of the need to integrate the hospital information system (HIS) and radiology information system (RIS) with the PACS, yet few are acutely aware of the challenges associated with this requirement. This report highlights the results of collaborative efforts between Children’s Hospital Medical Center-Cincinnati (CHMC) applications specialists with expertise in the HIS and CHMC information system...

  4. Report of traumatic brain injury information sources among OIF/OEF Veterans undergoing polytrauma evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Spencer, PhD; Adam P. McGuire; Heather A. Tree, PhD; Brigid Waldron-Perrine, PhD; ­Percival H. Pangilinan, MD; Linas A. Bieliauskas, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Servicemembers returning from recent conflicts frequently report symptoms associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and are subsequently assessed within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical system. Information on potential cognitive and behavioral correlates of TBI is available from multiple sources. A Veteran’s symptom presentation may be significantly influenced by the information he or she has received. Despite knowledge of the relationship between information source and symp...

  5. A secure web-based approach for accessing transitional health information for people with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, E D; Deforge, D; Marshall, S; Curran, D

    2006-03-01

    A web-based transitional health record was created to provide regional healthcare professionals with ubiquitous access to information on people with brain injuries as they move through the healthcare system. Participants included public, private, and community healthcare organizations/providers in Eastern Ontario (Canada). One hundred and nineteen service providers and 39 brain injury survivors registered over 6 months. Fifty-eight percent received English and 42% received bilingual services (English-French). Public health providers contacted the regional service coordinator more than private providers (52% urban centres, 26% rural service providers, and 22% both areas). Thirty-five percent of contacts were for technical difficulties, 32% registration inquiries, 21% forms and processes, 6% resources, and 6% education. Seventeen technical enquiries required action by technical support personnel: 41% digital certificates, 29% web forms, and 12% log-in. This web-based approach to clinical information sharing provided access to relevant data as clients moved through or re-entered the health system. Improvements include automated digital certificate management, institutional health records system integration, and more referral tracking tools. More sensitive test data could be accessed on-line with increasing consumer/clinician confidence. In addition to a strong technical infrastructure, human resource issues are a major information security component and require continuing attention to ensure a viable on-line information environment. PMID:16469409

  6. Transit light curves with finite integration time: Fisher information analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepler has revolutionized the study of transiting planets with its unprecedented photometric precision on more than 150,000 target stars. Most of the transiting planet candidates detected by Kepler have been observed as long-cadence targets with 30 minute integration times, and the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite will record full frame images with a similar integration time. Integrations of 30 minutes affect the transit shape, particularly for small planets and in cases of low signal to noise. Using the Fisher information matrix technique, we derive analytic approximations for the variances and covariances on the transit parameters obtained from fitting light curve photometry collected with a finite integration time. We find that binning the light curve can significantly increase the uncertainties and covariances on the inferred parameters when comparing scenarios with constant total signal to noise (constant total integration time in the absence of read noise). Uncertainties on the transit ingress/egress time increase by a factor of 34 for Earth-size planets and 3.4 for Jupiter-size planets around Sun-like stars for integration times of 30 minutes compared to instantaneously sampled light curves. Similarly, uncertainties on the mid-transit time for Earth and Jupiter-size planets increase by factors of 3.9 and 1.4. Uncertainties on the transit depth are largely unaffected by finite integration times. While correlations among the transit depth, ingress duration, and transit duration all increase in magnitude with longer integration times, the mid-transit time remains uncorrelated with the other parameters. We provide code in Python and Mathematica for predicting the variances and covariances at www.its.caltech.edu/~eprice.

  7. Impaired Visual Integration in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsh Königs

    Full Text Available Axonal injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI may cause impaired sensory integration. We aim to determine the effects of childhood TBI on visual integration in relation to general neurocognitive functioning.We compared children aged 6-13 diagnosed with TBI (n = 103; M = 1.7 years post-injury to children with traumatic control (TC injury (n = 44. Three TBI severity groups were distinguished: mild TBI without risk factors for complicated TBI (mildRF- TBI, n = 22, mild TBI with ≥1 risk factor (mildRF+ TBI, n = 46 or moderate/severe TBI (n = 35. An experimental paradigm measured speed and accuracy of goal-directed behavior depending on: (1 visual identification; (2 visual localization; or (3 both, measuring visual integration. Group-differences on reaction time (RT or accuracy were tracked down to task strategy, visual processing efficiency and extra-decisional processes (e.g. response execution using diffusion model analysis. General neurocognitive functioning was measured by a Wechsler Intelligence Scale short form.The TBI group had poorer accuracy of visual identification and visual integration than the TC group (Ps ≤ .03; ds ≤ -0.40. Analyses differentiating TBI severity revealed that visual identification accuracy was impaired in the moderate/severe TBI group (P = .05, d = -0.50 and that visual integration accuracy was impaired in the mildRF+ TBI group and moderate/severe TBI group (Ps < .02, ds ≤ -0.56. Diffusion model analyses tracked impaired visual integration accuracy down to lower visual integration efficiency in the mildRF+ TBI group and moderate/severe TBI group (Ps < .001, ds ≤ -0.73. Importantly, intelligence impairments observed in the TBI group (P = .009, d = -0.48 were statistically explained by visual integration efficiency (P = .002.Children with mildRF+ TBI or moderate/severe TBI have impaired visual integration efficiency, which may contribute to poorer general neurocognitive functioning.

  8. Hypermedia integration of information resources for nuclear plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer hypermedia technologies offer significant possibilities for integrating data, information, and multifaceted knowledge resources abounding in existing and next-generation nuclear plant operations. A hypermedia system may be viewed as a set of nodes and links allowing nonlinear access to plant information residing in computers regardless of format. The process of accessing information in hypermedia systems is known as navigation. After a review of the state of the art, quantitative criteria are presented for the development of hypermedia databases and a fuzzy graph-based methodology for navigating the large information spaces involved in nuclear plant operations. In the developed methodology, membership functions embodying context-dependent criteria provide application-specific tools for navigation. The methodology is illustrated through numerical examples and a Hyper-Card-based prototypical system for monitoring special material in a next-generation nuclear reactor

  9. Methodology of Adaptive Integrated Accounting System in Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochulya Tetyana V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of logical and methodological justification of formation of the integrated system of accounting based on realities of the co-ordinated transformation of the society and economy and development of a new knowledge about formation and adjustment of the accounting system in it’s a priori new information competence with expansion of functionality for the justified idea of existence and development of business. Taking developments of the best representatives of the leading scientific society as a basis, the article offers a new vision of organisation of the accounting system, based on the modern projection of information competence and harmonisation of main processes of information service for adaptation of the system for multi-vector inquiries of consumers of information. Pursuant to results of the conducted study, the article makes an effort to change the established opinion about information and professional competences of the accounting system and attach a new qualitative significance to them. The article makes a proposal with respect to calculation of quality of the information system on the basis of key indicators of its information service. It lays the foundation of the prospective study of the problems of building the accounting system in such a projection, so that realities of internal and external processes were maximally co-ordinated based on the idea of their information development.

  10. Associations between brain white matter integrity and disease severity in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Sudhakar; Roy, Bhaswati; Park, Bumhee; Kang, Daniel W; Woo, Mary A; Harper, Ronald M; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent upper airway blockage, with continued diaphragmatic efforts to breathe during sleep. Brain structural changes in OSA appear in various regions, including white matter sites that mediate autonomic, mood, cognitive, and respiratory control. However, the relationships between brain white matter changes and disease severity in OSA are unclear. This study examines associations between an index of tissue integrity, magnetization transfer (MT) ratio values (which show MT between free and proton pools associated with tissue membranes and macromolecules), and disease severity (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]) in OSA subjects. We collected whole-brain MT imaging data from 19 newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve OSA subjects (50.4 ± 8.6 years of age, 13 males, AHI 39.7 ± 24.3 events/hr], using a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. With these data, whole-brain MT ratio maps were calculated, normalized to common space, smoothed, and correlated with AHI scores by using partial correlation analyses (covariates, age and gender; P brain sites in OSA subjects, including superior and inferior frontal regions, ventral medial prefrontal cortex and nearby white matter, midfrontal white matter, insula, cingulate and cingulum bundle, internal and external capsules, caudate nuclei and putamen, basal forebrain, hypothalamus, corpus callosum, and temporal regions, showed principally lateralized negative correlations (P < 0.005). These regions showed significant correlations even with correction for multiple comparisons (cluster-level, family-wise error, P < 0.05), except for a few superior frontal areas. Predominantly negative correlations emerged between local MT values and OSA disease severity, indicating potential usefulness of MT imaging for examining the OSA condition. These findings indicate that OSA severity plays a significant role in white matter injury. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27315771

  11. Has the Brain Maximized its Information Storage Capacity?

    CERN Document Server

    Stepanyants, A L

    2003-01-01

    Learning and memory may rely on the ability of neuronal circuits to reorganize by dendritic spine remodeling. We have looked for geometrical parameters of cortical circuits, which maximize information storage capacity associated with this mechanism. In particular, we calculated optimal volume fractions of various neuropil components. The optimal axonal and dendritic volume fractions are not significantly different from anatomical measurements in the mouse and rat neocortex, and the rat hippocampus. This has led us to propose that the maximization of information storage capacity associated with dendritic spine remodeling may have been an important driving force in the evolution of the cortex.

  12. Integration of geologic information in the WIPP safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) deep geologic repository for transuranic (TRU) waste. The repository was constructed 655 m below ground surface in bedded halite of the Permian Salado Formation in southeastern New Mexico. Site-characterisation activities began in 1974, and WIPP became a licensed, operating repository in March 1999. The WIPP safety case relies on integration of a diverse range of geologic information to demonstrate that the geosphere adequately contains radionuclides for the regulatory time period. Information is prioritized based on its use in numerical PA models and role in supporting conceptual models. Integration is now achieved by conducting all activities under an interrelated structure of Analysis and Test Plans. (author)

  13. Integrating Environmental and Information Systems Management: An Enterprise Architecture Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noran, Ovidiu

    Environmental responsibility is fast becoming an important aspect of strategic management as the reality of climate change settles in and relevant regulations are expected to tighten significantly in the near future. Many businesses react to this challenge by implementing environmental reporting and management systems. However, the environmental initiative is often not properly integrated in the overall business strategy and its information system (IS) and as a result the management does not have timely access to (appropriately aggregated) environmental information. This chapter argues for the benefit of integrating the environmental management (EM) project into the ongoing enterprise architecture (EA) initiative present in all successful companies. This is done by demonstrating how a reference architecture framework and a meta-methodology using EA artefacts can be used to co-design the EM system, the organisation and its IS in order to achieve a much needed synergy.

  14. Design Principles for Achieving Integrated Healthcare Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-01-01

    Achieving integrated healthcare information systems has become a common goal for many countries in their pursuit of obtaining coordinated and comprehensive healthcare services. This article focuses on how a small local project termed ‘Standardized pull of patient data’ expanded and is now used on a...... large scale providing a majority of hospitals, general practitioners and citizens across Denmark with the possibility of accessing healthcare data from different electronic patient record systems and other systems. I build on design theory for information infrastructures, as presented by Hanseth and...

  15. Creating integrated information management system for small and medium business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deinega Valentina Nikolaevna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises regardless of their size and ownership, focused on a long and successful work needed to create a system of integrated information systems. This is dictated by the fact that, firstly, it combines the financial data, and secondly provides a standardized manufacturing processes, thirdly, solves the problem of standardization of information in a frame. The main thing in your decision-making - the definition of the strategy of the business and the reflection of this strategy on goals and objectives. ERP-system help to maintain competitiveness and leadership in the market.

  16. 45 CFR 61.12 - Requesting information from the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION... Integrity and Protection Data Bank § 61.12 Requesting information from the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank. (a) Who may request information and what information may be available. Information...

  17. Information and Communication Technology: Dynamics, Integration and Economic Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Paul J.J. Welfens

    2006-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major driver of investment and growth in OECD countries. The analysis puts the focus on key developments in the ICT sector and international outsourcing dynamics as well as the specific role of ICT in the financial sector. One can show that the expansion of ICT is not only contributing to national and international outsourcing but to insourcing as well. Furthermore, ICT affects regional integration. In the context of a modified Dornb...

  18. Integrated Information System for reserving rooms in Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Safarini Osama

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is very important to build new and modern flexible dynamic effective compatible reusable information systems including database to help manipulate different processes and deal with many parts around it. One of these is managing the room reservations for groups and individual, to focus necessary needs in hotels and to be integrated with accounting system. This system provides many tools can be used in taking decision.

  19. Information Integration from Semantically Heterogeneous Biological Data Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Caragea, Doina; Bao, Jie; Pathak, Jyotishman; Silvescu, Adrian; Andorf, Carson; Dobbs, Drena; HONAVAR, VASANT

    2005-01-01

    We present the first prototype of INDUS (Intelligent Data Understanding System), a federated, query-centric system for information integration and knowledge acquisition from distributed, semantically heterogeneous data sources that can be viewed (conceptually) as tables. INDUS employs ontologies and inter-ontology mappings, to enable a user to view a collection of such data sources (regardless of location, internal structure and query interfaces) as though they were a collection of tables str...

  20. Towards A Topological Framework for Integrating Semantic Information Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Robinson, Michael

    2014-09-07

    In this position paper we argue for the role that topological modeling principles can play in providing a framework for sensor integration. While used successfully in standard (quantitative) sensors, we are developing this methodology in new directions to make it appropriate specifically for semantic information sources, including keyterms, ontology terms, and other general Boolean, categorical, ordinal, and partially-ordered data types. We illustrate the basics of the methodology in an extended use case/example, and discuss path forward.

  1. Personal Genomic Measurements: The Opportunity for Information Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Altman, RB

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput genomic measurements initially emerged for research purposes but are now entering the clinic. The challenge for clinicians is to integrate imperfect genomic measurements with other information sources so as to estimate as closely as possible the probabilities of clinical events (diagnoses, treatment responses, prognoses). Population-based data provide a priori probabilities that can be combined with individual measurements to compute a posteriori estimates using Bayes’ rule. T...

  2. Study on Integration of Physical Education and Informational Education

    OpenAIRE

    Linlin Li

    2013-01-01

    The physical education as an integral part of the school education in this stage, not only has a very important role in improving the ability of the student movement, but also an important means to develop quality education. With the information technology development and mature, greatly promoted the development of sports teaching, it is not only from the teaching mode realize reform and innovation, but also enhance the students' own sports literacy and hea...

  3. Integration of information and communication technologies in special relativity teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integration of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in special relativity teaching may bring multiple and complementary methods for introducing either difficult or abstract counterintuitive concepts. This paper describes multimedia content developed at Lyon University to enhance the learning process of undergraduate students. Two categories of animated scenarios have been identified: real experiments and thought experiments. Both typical examples of these scenarios and their impacts on the teaching process are discussed

  4. Integrating phrasing and intonation modelling using syntactic and morphosyntactic information

    OpenAIRE

    Dı'Az, Francisco Campillo; Van Santen, Jan; Banga, Eduardo Rodrı'Guez

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper focuses on the relationship between intonation and syntactic and morphosyntactic information. Although intonation and syntax are both related to dependencies between the different parts of a sentence, and are therefore related to meaning, the precise influence of grammar on intonation is not clear. We describe a novel method that uses syntactic and part-of-speech features in the framework of corpus-based intonation modelling, and which integrates part of the phr...

  5. Diablo Canyon plant information management system and integrated communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of a comprehensive maintenance system called the plant information management system (PIMS) at the Diablo Canyon plant, together with its associated integrated communication system (ICS), is widely regarded as the most comprehensive undertaking of its kind in the nuclear industry. This paper provides an overview of the program at Diablo Canyon, an evaluation of system benefits, and highlights the future course of PIMS

  6. Benefits and problems in implementation for integrated medical information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once the decision has been made to adopt an integrated medical information system (IMIS), there are a number of tissues to overcome. Users need to be aware of the impact the change will make on end users and be prepared to address issues that arise before they become problems. The purpose of this study is to investigate the benefits and unexpected problems encountered in the implementation of IMIS and to determine a useful framework for IMIS. The Yonsei University Dental Hospital is steadily constructing an IMIS. The vendor's PACS software, Piview STAR, supports transactions between workstations that are approved to integrating the health care enterprise (IHE) with security function. It is necessary to develop an excellent framework that is good for the patient, health care provider and information system vendors, in an expert, efficient, and cost-effective manner. The problems encountered with IMIS implementation were high initial investments, delay of EMR enforcement, underdevelopment of digital radiographic appliances and software and insufficient educational training for users. The clinical environments of dental IMIS is some different from the medical situation. The best way to overcome these differences is to establish a gold standard of dental IMIS integration, which estimates the cost payback. The IHE and its technical framework are good for the patient, the health care provider and all information systems vendors.

  7. Integrated information communication technology (ICT) tool for inspectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the implementation of the measures pursuant to the additional protocol, inspectors in the field collect various types of data from diverse sources. To perform this task efficiently and effectively, they need software tools associated with a highly automated and integrated information communication technology (ICT) framework. The CIR-Mobile is an initial step in this direction. Through the secure communication of data between the field and IAEA headquarters, it provides users with remote access to inspection reports, inspection plans and seals data. In addition, users can run quality control checks against CIR data both at their workstations and on the server at headquarters. As a result, inspectors' paper work is eliminated or reduced and inspection report completion time is significantly reduced. The next steps will be to integrate under a common umbrella all in-field activities such as inspection preparation and scheduling, containment and surveillance management, environmental sampling, nuclear material accountancy and design information verification and verification reporting, thereby providing a unique, consistent, and user-friendly interface. This paper describes the work of the Division of Safeguards Information Technology (SGIT) to develop a new integrated software tool to support the work of inspectors in the field. (author)

  8. Earth science information: Planning for the integration and use of global change information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousma, Jack R.

    1992-01-01

    Activities and accomplishments of the first six months of the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN's) 1992 technical program have focused on four main missions: (1) the development and implementation of plans for initiation of the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) as part of the EOSDIS Program; (2) the pursuit and development of a broad-based global change information cooperative by providing systems analysis and integration between natural science and social science data bases held by numerous federal agencies and other sources; (3) the fostering of scientific research into the human dimensions of global change and providing integration between natural science and social science data and information; and (4) the serving of CIESIN as a gateway for global change data and information distribution through development of the Global Change Research Information Office and other comprehensive knowledge sharing systems.

  9. A comment on Farwell : brain fingerprinting: a comprehensive tutorial review of detection of concealed information with event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H. Meijer; G. Ben-Shakhar; B. Verschuere; E. Donchin

    2013-01-01

    In a recent issue of Cognitive Neurodynamics Farwell (Cogn Neurodyn 6:115-154, 2012) published a comprehensive tutorial review of the use of Event Related Brain Potentials (ERP) in the detection of concealed information. Farwell’s review covered much of his own work employing his ‘‘brain fingerprint

  10. IMIS (Integrated Measurement and Information System) - the German integrated radioactivity information and decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IMIS is being set up as part of the German Government's National Response Plan for dealing with the consequences of a large scale radioactive contamination of the environment. The IMIS system has three operational action levels. Level 3 covers the collection of radiological data from state-of-the-art monitoring networks and measurement laboratories. Level 2 involves computerised data processing and quality control, based on standardised procedures for the collection and presentation of measurements. This level also includes the use of transport and dose assessment models. Level 1 includes evaluation of the data, management of the consequences of a given situation, legal enforcement of protective measures and provision of information to the public. In its final form the IMIS system will consist of a total of 75 RISC computers linked together by an efficient packet-switched Wide Area Network. Owing to various demands of the individual users, three different types of RISC computers are used. The system software includes ULTRIX, TCP/IP and X windows. The relational database management system ORACLE is used together with the query language SQL-Plus. Statistical analyses are carried out with the standard product SAS. The geographical information system TERRA provides all the tools necessary for a detailed geographic presentation of the data. (author)

  11. A DICOM-RT based ePR radiation therapy information system for managing brain tumor patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Brent J.; Law, Maria; Huang, H. K.; Zee, C. S.; Chan, Lawrence

    2005-04-01

    The need for comprehensive clinical image data and relevant information in image-guided Radiation Therapy (RT) is becoming steadily apparent. Multiple standalone systems utilizing the most technological advancements in imaging, therapeutic radiation, and computerized treatment planning systems acquire key data during the RT treatment course of a patient. One example are patients treated for brain tumors of greater sizes and irregular shapes that utilize state-of-the-art RT technology to deliver pinpoint accurate radiation doses. One such system, the Cyberknife, is a radiation treatment system that utilizes image-guided information to control a multi-jointed, six degrees of freedom, robotic arm to deliver precise and required radiation dose to the tumor site of a cancer patient. The image-guided system is capable of tracking the lesion orientations with respect to the patient"s position throughout the treatment process. This is done by correlating live radiographic images with pre-operative, CT and MR imaging information to determine relative patient and tumor position repeatedly over the course of the treatment. The disparate and complex data generated by the Cyberknife system along with related data is scattered throughout the RT department compromising an efficient clinical workflow since the data crucial for a clinical decision may be time-consuming to retrieve, temporarily missing, or even lost. To address these shortcomings, the ACR-NEMA Standards Committee extended its DICOM (Digital Imaging & Communications in Medicine) Standard from Radiology to RT by ratifying seven DICOM RT objects starting in 1997. However, they are rarely used by the RT community in daily clinical operations. In the past, the research focus of an RT department has primarily been developing new protocols and devices to improve treatment process and outcomes of cancer patients with minimal effort dedicated to integration of imaging and information systems. Our research, tightly

  12. Optimization of the German integrated information and measurement system (IMIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident led to a widespread contamination of the environment in most European countries. In Germany, like in all other countries, it took some time to evaluate the radiological situation, time which is extremely valuable in the early phases of an accident when decisions on countermeasures like sheltering, iodine prophylaxis or evacuation have to be taken. For a better emergency preparedness the Integrated Information and Measurement System (IMIS) has been developed and established in Germany. In case of a widespread contamination of the environment, the system will provide the decision makers with all information necessary to evaluate the radiological situation and to decide on countermeasures. Presently this system is upgraded due to the adoption of the European decision supporting system RODOS and by the improvement of the national information exchange. For this purpose the web based information system ELAN has been developed. The national systems have to be integrated into the European and international communication systems. In this presentation the IMIS system is briefly described and the new features and modules of the system are discussed in greater detail

  13. Investigating dynamical information transfer in the brain following a TMS pulse: Insights from structural architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Enrico; Van Mierlo, Pieter; Marinazzo, Daniele; Laureys, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used for more than 20 years to investigate connectivity and plasticity in the human cortex. By combining TMS with high-density electroencephalography (hd-EEG), one can stimulate any cortical area and measure the effects produced by this perturbation in the rest of the cerebral cortex. The purpose of this paper is to investigate changes of information flow in the brain after TMS from a functional and structural perspective, using multimodal modeling of source reconstructed TMS/hd-EEG recordings and DTI tractography. We prove how brain dynamics induced by TMS is constrained and driven by its structure, at different spatial and temporal scales, especially when considering cross-frequency interactions. These results shed light on the function-structure organization of the brain network at the global level, and on the huge variety of information contained in it. PMID:26737511

  14. Matching spatial with ontological brain regions using Java tools for visualization, database access, and integrated data analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezgin, G.; Reid, A.T.; Schubert, D.; Kotter, R.

    2009-01-01

    Brain atlases are widely used in experimental neuroscience as tools for locating and targeting specific brain structures. Delineated structures in a given atlas, however, are often difficult to interpret and to interface with database systems that supply additional information using hierarchically o

  15. An integrative dynamic model of brain energy metabolism using in vivo neurochemical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Mathieu; Bolger, Fiachra B; Lowry, John P; Wellstead, Peter

    2009-12-01

    An integrative, systems approach to the modelling of brain energy metabolism is presented. Mechanisms such as glutamate cycling between neurons and astrocytes and glycogen storage in astrocytes have been implemented. A unique feature of the model is its calibration using in vivo data of brain glucose and lactate from freely moving rats under various stimuli. The model has been used to perform simulated perturbation experiments that show that glycogen breakdown in astrocytes is significantly activated during sensory (tail pinch) stimulation. This mechanism provides an additional input of energy substrate during high consumption phases. By way of validation, data from the perfusion of 50 microM propranolol in the rat brain was compared with the model outputs. Propranolol affects the glucose dynamics during stimulation, and this was accurately reproduced in the model by a reduction in the glycogen breakdown in astrocytes. The model's predictive capacity was verified by using data from a sensory stimulation (restraint) that was not used for model calibration. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model parameters, this showed that the control of energy metabolism and transport processes are critical in the metabolic behaviour of cerebral tissue. PMID:19396534

  16. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ravi kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalograph y (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain

  17. Integrating robotic action with biologic perception: A brain-machine symbiosis theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Babak

    In patients with motor disability the natural cyclic flow of information between the brain and external environment is disrupted by their limb impairment. Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) aim to provide new communication channels between the brain and environment by direct translation of brain's internal states into actions. For enabling the user in a wide range of daily life activities, the challenge is designing neural decoders that autonomously adapt to different tasks, environments, and to changes in the pattern of neural activity. In this dissertation, a novel decoding framework for BMIs is developed in which a computational agent autonomously learns how to translate neural states into action based on maximization of a measure of shared goal between user and the agent. Since the agent and brain share the same goal, a symbiotic relationship between them will evolve therefore this decoding paradigm is called a Brain-Machine Symbiosis (BMS) framework. A decoding agent was implemented within the BMS framework based on the Actor-Critic method of Reinforcement Learning. The rule of the Actor as a neural decoder was to find mapping between the neural representation of motor states in the primary motor cortex (MI) and robot actions in order to solve reaching tasks. The Actor learned the optimal control policy using an evaluative feedback that was estimated by the Critic directly from the user's neural activity of the Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc). Through a series of computational neuroscience studies in a cohort of rats it was demonstrated that NAcc could provide a useful evaluative feedback by predicting the increase or decrease in the probability of earning reward based on the environmental conditions. Using a closed-loop BMI simulator it was demonstrated the Actor-Critic decoding architecture was able to adapt to different tasks as well as changes in the pattern of neural activity. The custom design of a dual micro-wire array enabled simultaneous implantation of MI and

  18. Information space models for data integration, and entity resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Reid; Collins, Linn; Powell, James; Rivenburgh, Reid

    2012-06-01

    Geospatial information systems provide a unique frame of reference to bring together a large and diverse set of data from a variety of sources. However, automating this process remains a challenge since: 1) data (particularly from sensors) is error prone and ambiguous, 2) analysis and visualization tools typically expect clean (or exact) data, and 3) it is difficult to describe how different data types and modalities relate to each other. In this paper we describe a data integration approach that can help address some of these challenges. Specifically we propose a light weight ontology for an Information Space Model (ISM). The ISM is designed to support functionality that lies between data catalogues and domain ontologies. Similar to data catalogues, the ISM provides metadata for data discovery across multiple, heterogeneous (often legacy) data sources e.g. maps servers, satellite images, social networks, geospatial blogs. Similar to domain ontologies, the ISM describes the functional relationship between these systems with respect to entities relevant to an application e.g. venues, actors and activities. We suggest a minimal set of ISM objects, and attributes for describing data sources and sensors relevant to data integration. We present a number of statistical relational learning techniques to represent and leverage the combination of deterministic and probabilistic dependencies found within the ISM. We demonstrate how the ISM provides a flexible language for data integration where unknown or ambiguous relationships can be mitigated.

  19. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells support blood-brain barrier integrity via TGF-β signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hae Seo

    Full Text Available Trophic coupling between cerebral endothelium and their neighboring cells is required for the development and maintenance of blood-brain barrier (BBB function. Here we report that oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs secrete soluble factor TGF-β1 to support BBB integrity. Firstly, we prepared conditioned media from OPC cultures and added them to cerebral endothelial cultures. Our pharmacological experiments showed that OPC-conditioned media increased expressions of tight-junction proteins and decreased in vitro BBB permeability by activating TGB-β-receptor-MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Secondly, our immuno-electron microscopic observation revealed that in neonatal mouse brains, OPCs attach to cerebral endothelial cells via basal lamina. And finally, we developed a novel transgenic mouse line that TGF-β1 is knocked down specifically in OPCs. Neonates of these OPC-specific TGF-β1 deficient mice (OPC-specific TGF-β1 partial KO mice: PdgfraCre/Tgfb1flox/wt mice or OPC-specific TGF-β1 total KO mice: PdgfraCre/Tgfb1flox/flox mice exhibited cerebral hemorrhage and loss of BBB function. Taken together, our current study demonstrates that OPCs increase BBB tightness by upregulating tight junction proteins via TGF-β signaling. Although astrocytes and pericytes are well-known regulators of BBB maturation and maintenance, these findings indicate that OPCs also play a pivotal role in promoting BBB integrity.

  20. Integrating Data-Mining Support into a Brain-Image Database Using Open-Source Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Previously, we described our implementation of a brain-image database (braid), based on the proprietary object-relational database-management system (ORDBMS). In conjunction with our collaborators, we have used this database to manage and analyze image and clinical data from what we call image-based clinical trials (IBCTs). Herein we describe the results of redesigning braid using open-source components, and integrating support for mining image and clinical data from braids user interface. Material and Methods: We re-designed and re-implemented BRAID using open-source components, including PostgreSQL, gcc, and PHP. We integrated data-mining algorithms into braid, based on PL/R, a PostgreSQL package to support efficient communication between R and PostgreSQL. Results: We present a sample clinical study to demonstrate how clinicians can perform queries for visualization, statistical analysis, and data mining, using a web-based interface. Conclusion: We have developed a database system with data-mining capabilities for managing, querying, analyzing and visualizing brain-MR images. We implemented this system using open-source components, with the express goal of wide dissemination throughout the neuroimaging research community. (authors)

  1. Associations between insulin action and integrity of brain microstructure differ with familial longevity and with age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola A. Akintola

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes have been associated with cognitive decline, dementia, and with structural and functional brain features. However, it is unclear whether these associations differ in individuals that differ in familial longevity or age. Here, we investigated the association between parameters of glucose metabolism and microstructural brain integrity in offspring of long-lived families (offspring and controls; and age categories thereof. From the Leiden Longevity Study, 132 participants underwent oral glucose tolerance test to assess glycemia (fasted glucose and glucose area-under-the-curve (AUC, insulin resistance (fasted insulin, AUCinsulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and pancreatic Beta cell secretory capacity (insulinogenic index. 3Tesla MRI and Magnetization Transfer (MT imaging MT-ratio peak-height was used to quantify differences in microstructural brain parenchymal tissue homogeneity that remain invisible on conventional MRI. Analyses were performed in offspring and age-matched controls, with and without stratification for age.In the full offspring group only, reduced peak-height in grey and white matter was inversely associated with AUCinsulin, fasted insulin, HOMA-IR and insulinogenic-index (all p65 years: in younger controls, significantly stronger inverse associations were observed between peak-height and fasted glucose, AUCglucose, fasted insulin, AUCinsulin and HOMA-IR in grey matter; and for AUCglucose, fasted insulin and HOMA-IR in white matter (all P-interaction<0.05. Although the strength of the associations tended to attenuate with age in the offspring group, the difference between age groups was not statistically significant. Thus, associations between impaired insulin action and reduced microstructural brain parenchymal tissue homogeneity were stronger in offspring compared to controls, and seemed to diminish with age.

  2. Information-geometric measures estimate neural interactions during oscillatory brain states

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Marc Fellous; Masami Tatsuno

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of functional network structures among multiple neurons is essential to understanding neural information processing. Information geometry (IG), a theory developed for investigating a space of probability distributions has recently been applied to spike-train analysis and has provided robust estimations of neural interactions. Although neural firing in the equilibrium state is often assumed in these studies, in reality, neural activity is non-stationary. The brain exhibits...

  3. An Integrative Behavioral Model of Information Security Policy Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members’ compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members’ attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1 the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members’ compliance with the information security policy, (2 the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3 the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training

  4. Integrated information system for analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performing complicated engineering analyses of a nuclear power plant requires storage and manipulation of a large amount of information, both data and knowledge. This information is characterized by its multidisciplinary nature, complexity, and diversity. The problems caused by inefficient and lengthy manual operations involving the data flow management within the frame-work of the safety-related analysis of a power plant can be solved by applying the computer aided engineering principles. These principles are the basis of the design of an integrated information storage system (IRIS). The basic idea is to create a computerized environment, which includes both database and functional capabilities. Consideration and analysis of the data types and required data manipulation capabilities as well as operational requirements, resulted in the choice of an object-oriented data-base management system (OODBMS) as a development platform for solving the software engineering problems. Several advantages of OODBMSs over conventional relations database systems were found of crucial importance, especially providing the necessary flexibility for different data types and extensibility potential. A detailed design of a data model is produced for the plant technical data and for the storage of analysis results. The overall system architecture was designed to assure the feasibility of integrating database capabilities with procedures and functions written in conventional algorithmic programming languages

  5. Integrated radiation information system in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outline and organizational structure of radiation monitoring network (RMN) in the Czech Republic is conformable with similar networks abroad integrated system of a number of components serve for continuous monitoring of radiation situation on the territory of the Czech Republic, detecting an abnormal radiological situation due to domestic source, detecting a non notified accident abroad with consequences on the territory of the Czech Republic, monitoring the evolution, determining the components of any radioactivity discharge, first estimation of accident extent, forecasting of accident development and of dispersion of radionuclides in the vicinity of source, acquisition of base for decision upon evaluation and other countermeasures and remedial actions, assessment and forecast of contamination for regulation of food and water consumption, review of enforced countermeasures based on actual monitoring data and refined forecast. For model calculations and decision making in case of a nuclear accident an integrated comprehensive computer based information system is now being set up in Czech Republic. (R.P.)

  6. Learning to integrate versus inhibiting information is modulated by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Pikkat, Helen; Upstill, Emily; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Walsh, Vincent

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive training aiming at improving learning is often successful, but what exactly underlies the observed improvements and how these differ across the age spectrum are currently unknown. Here we asked whether learning in young and older people may reflect enhanced ability to integrate information required to perform a cognitive task or whether it may instead reflect the ability to inhibit task-irrelevant information for successful task performance. We trained 30 young and 30 aging human participants on a numerosity discrimination task known to engage the parietal cortex and in which cue-integration and inhibitory abilities can be distinguished. We coupled training with parietal, motor, or sham transcranial random noise stimulation, known for modulating neural activity. Numerosity discrimination improved after training and was maintained long term, especially in the training + parietal stimulation group, regardless of age. Despite the quantitatively similar improvement in the two age groups, the content of learning differed remarkably: aging participants improved more in inhibitory abilities, whereas younger subjects improved in cue-integration abilities. Moreover, differences in the content of learning were reflected in different transfer effects to untrained but related abilities: in the younger group, improvements in cue integration paralleled improvements in continuous quantity (time and space), whereas in the elderly group, improvements in numerosity-based inhibitory abilities generalized to other measures of inhibition and corresponded to a decline in space discrimination, possibly because conflicting learning resources are used in numerosity and continuous quantity processing. These results indicate that training can enhance different, age-dependent cognitive processes and highlight the importance of identifying the exact processes underlying learning for effective training programs. PMID:25653376

  7. System architecture and information model for integrated access to distributed biomedical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongkyu; Alaoui, Adil; Levine, Betty; Leondaridis, Leonidas; Shields, Peter; Byers, Steve; Cleary, Kevin

    2009-02-01

    The current trend towards systems medicine will rely heavily on computational and bioinformatics capabilities to collect, integrate, and analyze massive amounts of data from disparate sources. The objective is to use this information to make medical decisions that improve patient care. At Georgetown University Medical Center, we are developing an informatics capability to integrate several research and clinical databases. Our long term goal is to provide researchers at Georgetown's Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center better access to aggregated molecular and clinical information facilitating the investigation of new hypotheses that impact patient care. We also recognize the need for data mining tools and intelligent agents to help researchers in these efforts. This paper describes our initial work to create a flexible platform for researchers and physicians that provides access to information sources including clinical records, medical images, genomic, epigenomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. This paper describes the data sources selected for this pilot project and possible approaches to integrating these databases. We present the different database integration models that we considered. We conclude by outlining the proposed Information Model for the project.

  8. Information Integration from Semantically Heterogeneous Biological Data Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragea, Doina; Bao, Jie; Pathak, Jyotishman; Silvescu, Adrian; Andorf, Carson; Dobbs, Drena; Honavar, Vasant

    2005-08-26

    We present the first prototype of INDUS (Intelligent Data Understanding System), a federated, query-centric system for information integration and knowledge acquisition from distributed, semantically heterogeneous data sources that can be viewed (conceptually) as tables. INDUS employs ontologies and inter-ontology mappings, to enable a user to view a collection of such data sources (regardless of location, internal structure and query interfaces) as though they were a collection of tables structured according to an ontology supplied by the user. This allows INDUS to answer user queries against distributed, semantically heterogeneous data sources without the need for a centralized data warehouse or a common global ontology. PMID:20802821

  9. Study on Service Level Management in Integrated Satellite Information Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Rui-qiang; ZHAO Jian-li; WANG Guang-xing

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Satellite Information Network (ISIN) includes those nodes in space and those on ground. It is the way to realize the fusion of satellite communication and traditional network technology. A satellite network management system based on Multiplex Network Management Protocol (MNMP) has accomplished traditional management, such as configuration, performance and fault management. An architecture of Service Level Management (SLM) in ISIN is proposed, and a service topology management and Service Level Agreement (SLA) are deeply researched. At last, service security and fault management are briefly discussed, and a simulation system is accomplished.

  10. Informal barriers and agricultural trade: does monetary integration matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Huchet-Bourdon, Marilyne; Cheptea, Angela

    2011-01-01

    EU enlargement and the recent sovereign-debt crisis of Euro zone countries have revived the debate around the (European Monetary Union) EMU. In this article we ask how informal barriers to agricultural and food trade have changed since the introduction of the common European currency, and whether this evolution can be attributed to monetary integration. We focus on the foreign trade of the 11 EMU founder countries over a nine-year period covering the creation of the EMU and find a diminishing...

  11. Social anxiety and information processing biases: An integrated theoretical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschard, Virginie; Philippot, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Models of anxiety disorders posit that information processing biases towards threat may result from an imbalance between top-down attentional control processes and bottom-up attentional processes, such that anxiety could reduce the influence of the former and increase the influence of the latter. However, researchers have recently pointed to limitations of the top-down/bottom-up terminology and outlined the additional contribution of memory processes to attention guidance. The goal of this paper is to provide bridges between recent findings from cognitive psychology and anxiety disorders research. We first provide an integrative overview of the processes influencing the content of working memory, including the availability of attentional control, and the strengths of task goals, stimulus salience, selection history and long-term memory. We then illustrate the interest of this formulation to the study of information processing biases in anxiety disorders, with a specific focus on social anxiety. PMID:25864371

  12. Research on information fusion for engineering system integrated health management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhanbao; Li, Xingshan; Sun, Cong; Liu, Qi

    2006-11-01

    Integrated Health Management technology is the emerging paradigm in system supervision and maintenance area, and it is the key to achieving true condition-based maintenance. But this task is complicated by the extremely large amount of the data available, the existence of uncertainties, and interactive engineering system operational conditions. Therefore, it is reasonable to research the health information fusion technology to achieve better performance and a higher level of autonomy for IHM system. This paper analyses the requirements of the information fusion in an IHM system, describes the fusion application areas, proposes the Health Sensing Unit (HSU) concept, and designs the distributed hierarchical fusion architecture. Using the confidence distance matrix as the measure of HSU's performance, this paper proposes a fusion algorithm to fuse multiple HSUs' output, and figure out the system health index according to the maximum likelihood principle. The simulation result yields conclusive evidence that fusion can be very valuable in the IHM technology for the system supervision and maintenance.

  13. Developing Integrated Decommissioning Information Management System (IDIMS) of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Taiwan, the Taiwan Research Reactor (TRR) was shut down in January 1988, and a few nuclear facilities were accompanied to stop operation within Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER). For public health and safety reasons, INER dismantled step by step its expired nuclear facilities. Integrated Decommissioning Information Management System (IDIMS) was developed to ensure safety of dismantling and to record all activity data during the decommissioning project. These recorded activity data range from data of planning, licensing, post-operation to those of radioactive waste management and storage. In addition, IDIMS was expected to preserve decommissioning knowledge using information technology from practical data and problem solving. It also is anticipated that IDIMS will be an important knowledge repository and design base for decommissioning projects of nuclear power plants in Taiwan. (author)

  14. Brain white matter structure and information processing speed in healthy older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Ksenia A; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Ritchie, Stuart J; Cox, Simon R; Storkey, Amos J; Starr, John M; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J; Bastin, Mark E

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive decline, especially the slowing of information processing speed, is associated with normal ageing. This decline may be due to brain cortico-cortical disconnection caused by age-related white matter deterioration. We present results from a large, narrow age range cohort of generally healthy, community-dwelling subjects in their seventies who also had their cognitive ability tested in youth (age 11 years). We investigate associations between older age brain white matter structure, several measures of information processing speed and childhood cognitive ability in 581 subjects. Analysis of diffusion tensor MRI data using Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) showed that all measures of information processing speed, as well as a general speed factor composed from these tests (g speed), were significantly associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) across the white matter skeleton rather than in specific tracts. Cognitive ability measured at age 11 years was not associated with older age white matter FA, except for the g speed-independent components of several individual processing speed tests. These results indicate that quicker and more efficient information processing requires global connectivity in older age, and that associations between white matter FA and information processing speed (both individual test scores and g speed), unlike some other aspects of later life brain structure, are generally not accounted for by cognitive ability measured in youth. PMID:26254904

  15. A DICOM-RT Based ePR radiation therapy information system for decision-support of brain tumor patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B. J.; Law, M.; Huang, H. K.; Zee, C. S.; Chan, L.

    2006-03-01

    The need for comprehensive clinical image data and relevant information in image-guided Radiation Therapy (RT) is becoming steadily apparent. Multiple standalone systems utilizing the most technological advancements in imaging, therapeutic radiation, and computerized treatment planning systems acquire key data during the RT treatment course of a patient. One example are patients treated for brain tumors of greater sizes and irregular shapes that utilize state-of-the-art RT technology to deliver pinpoint accurate radiation doses. Various treatment options are available to the patient from Radiation Therapy to Stereotactic Radiosurgery and utilize different RT modalities. The disparate and complex data generated by the RT modalities along with related data scattered throughout the RT department in RT Information/Management systems, Record & Verify systems, and Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) compromise an efficient clinical workflow since the data crucial for a clinical decision may be time-consuming to retrieve, temporarily missing, or even lost. To address these shortcomings, the ACR-NEMA Standards Committee extended its DICOM (Digital Imaging & Communications in Medicine) Standard from Radiology to RT by ratifying seven DICOM RT objects starting in 1997. However, they are rarely used by the RT community in daily clinical operations. In the past, the research focus of an RT department has primarily been developing new protocols and devices to improve treatment process and outcomes of cancer patients with minimal effort dedicated to integration of imaging and information systems. By combining our past experience in medical imaging informatics research, DICOM-RT expertise, and system integration, our research involves using a brain tumor case model to show proof-of-concept that a DICOM-Standard electronic patient record (ePR) system can be developed as a foundation to perform medical imaging informatics research in developing decision-support tools and knowledge

  16. An integrated healthcare enterprise information portal and healthcare information system framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, S L; Lai, Feipei; Cheng, P H; Chen, J L; Lee, H H; Tsai, W N; Weng, Y C; Hsieh, S H; Hsu, K P; Ko, L F; Yang, T H; Chen, C H

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated, distributed Healthcare Enterprise Information Portal (HEIP) and Hospital Information Systems (HIS) framework over wireless/wired infrastructure at National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). A single sign-on solution for the hospital customer relationship management (CRM) in HEIP has been established. The outcomes of the newly developed Outpatient Information Systems (OIS) in HIS are discussed. The future HEIP blueprints with CRM oriented features: e-Learning, Remote Consultation and Diagnosis (RCD), as well as on-Line Vaccination Services are addressed. Finally, the integrated HEIP and HIS architectures based on the middleware technologies are proposed along with the feasible approaches. The preliminary performance of multi-media, time-based data exchanges over the wireless HEIP side is collected to evaluate the efficiency of the architecture. PMID:17946647

  17. Uncovering brain-heart information through advanced signal and image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Toschi, Nicola; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2016-05-13

    Through their dynamical interplay, the brain and the heart ensure fundamental homeostasis and mediate a number of physiological functions as well as their disease-related aberrations. Although a vast number of ad hoc analytical and computational tools have been recently applied to the non-invasive characterization of brain and heart dynamic functioning, little attention has been devoted to combining information to unveil the interactions between these two physiological systems. This theme issue collects contributions from leading experts dealing with the development of advanced analytical and computational tools in the field of biomedical signal and image processing. It includes perspectives on recent advances in 7 T magnetic resonance imaging as well as electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram and cerebrovascular flow processing, with the specific aim of elucidating methods to uncover novel biological and physiological correlates of brain-heart physiology and physiopathology. PMID:27044995

  18. The integration of cartographic information into a content management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnari, Mario M.; Noviello, Carmine

    2006-01-01

    A corporate information system needs to be as accessible as library content, which implies to organize the content in a logical structure, categorizing it, and using the categories to add metadata to the information. Content Management System (CMS) are an emerging kind software component that manages content, usually making a large use of the web technologies, whose main goals are to allow easy creation, publishing and retrieval of content to fit business needs. The focus of this paper is to describe how we integrated "map" metaphor into a CMS. Where maps are symbolic information and rely on the use of a graphic sign language. A characteristic feature of maps is that their design has traditionally been constrained by the need to create one model of reality for a variety of purposes. The map's primary role as a communication medium involves the application of processes such as selection, classification, displacement, symbolization and graphic exaggeration. A model of the infrastructure is presented and the current prototype of the model is briefly discussed together the currently deployed environment for the cultural heritage information dissemination.

  19. Ensemble-type numerical uncertainty information from single model integrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauser, Florian, E-mail: florian.rauser@mpimet.mpg.de; Marotzke, Jochem; Korn, Peter

    2015-07-01

    We suggest an algorithm that quantifies the discretization error of time-dependent physical quantities of interest (goals) for numerical models of geophysical fluid dynamics. The goal discretization error is estimated using a sum of weighted local discretization errors. The key feature of our algorithm is that these local discretization errors are interpreted as realizations of a random process. The random process is determined by the model and the flow state. From a class of local error random processes we select a suitable specific random process by integrating the model over a short time interval at different resolutions. The weights of the influences of the local discretization errors on the goal are modeled as goal sensitivities, which are calculated via automatic differentiation. The integration of the weighted realizations of local error random processes yields a posterior ensemble of goal approximations from a single run of the numerical model. From the posterior ensemble we derive the uncertainty information of the goal discretization error. This algorithm bypasses the requirement of detailed knowledge about the models discretization to generate numerical error estimates. The algorithm is evaluated for the spherical shallow-water equations. For two standard test cases we successfully estimate the error of regional potential energy, track its evolution, and compare it to standard ensemble techniques. The posterior ensemble shares linear-error-growth properties with ensembles of multiple model integrations when comparably perturbed. The posterior ensemble numerical error estimates are of comparable size as those of a stochastic physics ensemble.

  20. Fingerprints of a message: integrating positional information on the transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ErikDassi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent explosion of high-throughput sequencing methods applied to RNA molecules is allowing us to go beyond the description of sequence variants and their relative abundances, as measured by RNA-seq. We can now probe for RNA engagement in polysomes, for ribosomes, RNA binding proteins and microRNAs binding sites, for RNA secondary structure and for RNA methylation. These descriptors produce a steadily growing multidimensional array of positional information on RNA sequences, whose effective integration only would bring to decipher the regulatory interplay occurring between proteins, RNAs and their modifications on the transcriptome. This interplay ultimately dictates the degree of mRNA availability to translation, and thus the occurrence of cell phenotypes. However, several issues in data presentation are slowing down effective integration. A standardization effort for new dataset types produced should be urgently undertaken to solve these issues. Providing uniformed experimental details along with datasets processed to be directly usable and employing shared formats would greatly simplify integration efforts, strengthening hypotheses stemming from correlative observations and eventually bringing to mechanistic understanding.

  1. Broadcasting GPS integrity information using Loran-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Sherman Chih

    The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will adopt the Global Positioning System (GPS) as its primary navigation systems for aviation as stated by the Federal Radionavigation Plans (FRP) of 1996 and 1999. The FRP also proposes the reduction or termination of some existing radionavigation system in favor of GPS and satellite navigation. It may be beneficial to retain some of these existing terrestrial navigation systems if they can provide increased safety and redundancy to the GPS based architecture. One manner in which this can be done is by using or creating a data link on these existing radionavigation systems. These systems thus can provide both navigation and an additional broadcast of GPS integrity information. This thesis examines the use of terrestrial data links to provide Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) based GPS integrity information for aviation. The thesis focuses on using Loran-C to broadcast WAAS data. Analysis and experimental results demonstrating the capabilities of these designs are also discussed. Using Loran for this purpose requires increasing its data capacity. Many Loran modulation schemes are developed and analyzed. The data rates developed significantly increased the Loran data capacity. However, retaining compatibility with Loran legacy users resulted in data rates below the WARS data rate of 250 bps. As a result, this thesis also examines means of reducing the data requirements for WAAS information. While higher data rates offer improved performance and compatibility with WAAS, this thesis demonstrates that higher rates incur greater interference. Therefore, this work develops and considers a 108 bps and 167 bps Loran GPS integrity channel (LOGIC) design. The performance of the two designs illustrates some of the advantages and disadvantages of using a higher data rate. Analysis demonstrated means of maintaining integrity with these low data rate systems and determined the theoretical capabilities of the systems. The

  2. Integrated information communication technology (ICT) tool for inspectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: With the introduction of the additional protocol, the inspectors in the field need to collect data of different types and from diversified sources. The paper aims to explain how the information and communication technology (ICT) can support safeguards personnel working in the field under the comprehensive safeguards regime with additional protocols and integrated safeguards to be more effective and efficient. It is becoming increasingly important for safeguards personnel performing verification activities to have a tool allowing them, using a user-friendly interface, to collect data from sources like monitoring systems installed in the field, data provided by the facilities operators, data coming from measurement equipment and sensors of different type, and more. It is also essential for the inspectors to integrate those data with other information, to be accessed on demand, derived from previous inspections and other sources, including historical data, in order to perform a first evaluation on the spot. In order to improve efficiency and effectiveness, there should be also the possibility to comply with the reporting obligations eliminating, or at least reducing to the bare minimum, all manual input and duplication of data, as well as the capability to transmit as soon as possible in a secure manner the relevant data to the central database repository, where it can be used, if deemed necessary, for further analysis. This approach will also substantially shorten the elapsed time between the completion of the operations on the site and the drafting of the 90(a) statement. The ideal tool should also integrate under this common umbrella all in-field activities like preparation, scheduling, verification, containment and surveillance management, environmental sampling, book verification, design verification and reporting, and determination of the sampling plan, providing a unique, consistent, and user-friendly interface. The paper will consider the status and

  3. Brain Stroke Detection by Microwaves Using Prior Information from Clinical Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Irishina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave tomographic imaging is an inexpensive, noninvasive modality of media dielectric properties reconstruction which can be utilized as a screening method in clinical applications such as breast cancer and brain stroke detection. For breast cancer detection, the iterative algorithm of structural inversion with level sets provides well-defined boundaries and incorporates an intrinsic regularization, which permits to discover small lesions. However, in case of brain lesion, the inverse problem is much more difficult due to the skull, which causes low microwave penetration and highly noisy data. In addition, cerebral liquid has dielectric properties similar to those of blood, which makes the inversion more complicated. Nevertheless, the contrast in the conductivity and permittivity values in this situation is significant due to blood high dielectric values compared to those of surrounding grey and white matter tissues. We show that using brain MRI images as prior information about brain's configuration, along with known brain dielectric properties, and the intrinsic regularization by structural inversion, allows successful and rapid stroke detection even in difficult cases. The method has been applied to 2D slices created from a database of 3D real MRI phantom images to effectively detect lesions larger than 2.5 × 10−2 m diameter.

  4. An Integrated Information System for Supporting Quality Management Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, N.; Helmreich, W.

    2004-08-01

    In a competitive environment, well defined processes become the strategic advantage of a company. Hence, targeted Quality Management ensures efficiency, trans- parency and, ultimately, customer satisfaction. In the particular context of a Space Test Centre, a num- ber of specific Quality Management standards have to be applied. According to the revision of ISO 9001 dur- ing 2000, and due to the adaptation of ECSS-Q20-07, process orientation and data analysis are key tasks for ensuring and evaluating the efficiency of a company's processes. In line with these requirements, an integrated management system for accessing the necessary infor- mation to support Quality Management and other proc- esses has been established. Some of its test-related fea- tures are presented here. Easy access to the integrated management system from any work place at IABG's Space Test Centre is ensured by means of an intranet portal. It comprises a full set of quality-related process descriptions, information on test facilities, emergency procedures, and other relevant in- formation. The portal's web interface provides direct access to a couple of external applications. Moreover, easy updating of all information and low cost mainte- nance are features of this integrated information system. The timely and transparent management of non- conformances is covered by a dedicated NCR database which incorporates full documentation capability, elec- tronic signature and e-mail notification of concerned staff. A search interface allows for queries across all documented non-conformances. Furthermore, print ver- sions can be generated at any stage in the process, e.g. for distribution to customers. Feedback on customer satisfaction is sought through a web-based questionnaire. The process is initiated by the responsible test manager through submission of an e- mail that contains a hyperlink to a secure website, ask- ing the customer to complete the brief online form, which is directly fed to a database

  5. Unifying Kohlberg with Information Integration: The Moral Algebra of Recompense and of Kohlbergian Moral Informers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Hommers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to unify two major theories of moral judgment, a novel task is employed which combines elements of Kohlberg's stage theory and of the theory of information integration. In contrast to the format of Kohlberg's moral judgment interview, a nonverbal and quantitative response which makes low demands on verbal facility was used . Moral informers differing in value, i.e. high and low, are presented. The differences in effect of those two pieces of information should be substantial for a person at that specific moral stage, but small for a person at a different stage. Hence, these differences may diagnose the person's moral stage in the simplest possible way as the two levels of each of the thoughts were about typical content of the four Kohlbergian preconventional and conventional stages. The novel task allowed additionally to measure the influence of another moral concept which was about the non-Kohlbergian moral concept of recompense. After a training phase, pairs of those thoughts were presented to allow for the study of integration and individual differences. German and Korean children, 8, 10, and 12 years in age, judged deserved punishment. The patterns of means, correlations and factor loadings showed that elements of both theories can be unified, but produced unexpected results also. Additive integration of each of the two pairs of moral informers appeared, either with two Kohlbergian moral informers or with another Kohlbergian moral informer in combination with information about recompense. Also cultural independence as well as dependence, developmental changes between 8 and 10 years, and an outstanding moral impact of recompense in size and distinctiveness were observed.

  6. Functional brain networks contributing to the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory of Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhtin, Andrei A; Ryman, Sephira G; Flores, Ranee A; Jung, Rex E

    2014-12-01

    The refinement of localization of intelligence in the human brain is converging onto a distributed network that broadly conforms to the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory (P-FIT). While this theory has received support in the neuroimaging literature, no functional magnetic resonance imaging study to date has conducted a whole-brain network-wise examination of the changes during engagement in tasks that are reliable measures of general intelligence (e.g., Raven's Progressive Matrices Test; RPM). Seventy-nine healthy subjects were scanned while solving RPM problems and during rest. Functional networks were extracted from the RPM and resting state data using Independent Component Analysis. Twenty-nine networks were identified, 26 of which were detected in both conditions. Fourteen networks were significantly correlated with the RPM task. The networks' spatial maps and functional connectivity measures at 3 frequency levels (low, medium, & high) were compared between the RPM and rest conditions. The regions involved in the networks that were found to be task related were consistent with the P-FIT, localizing to the bilateral medial frontal and parietal regions, right superior frontal lobule, and the right cingulate gyrus. Functional connectivity in multiple component pairs was differentially affected across all frequency levels during the RPM task. Our findings demonstrate that functional brain networks are more stable than previously thought, and maintain their general features across resting state and engagement in a complex cognitive task. The described spatial and functional connectivity alterations that such components undergo during fluid reasoning provide a network-wise framework of the P-FIT that can be valuable for further, network based, neuroimaging inquiries regarding the neural underpinnings of intelligence. PMID:25284305

  7. Towards a Unified Approach to Information Integration - A review paper on data/information fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Lei, Xingye C.

    2005-10-14

    Information or data fusion of data from different sources are ubiquitous in many applications, from epidemiology, medical, biological, political, and intelligence to military applications. Data fusion involves integration of spectral, imaging, text, and many other sensor data. For example, in epidemiology, information is often obtained based on many studies conducted by different researchers at different regions with different protocols. In the medical field, the diagnosis of a disease is often based on imaging (MRI, X-Ray, CT), clinical examination, and lab results. In the biological field, information is obtained based on studies conducted on many different species. In military field, information is obtained based on data from radar sensors, text messages, chemical biological sensor, acoustic sensor, optical warning and many other sources. Many methodologies are used in the data integration process, from classical, Bayesian, to evidence based expert systems. The implementation of the data integration ranges from pure software design to a mixture of software and hardware. In this review we summarize the methodologies and implementations of data fusion process, and illustrate in more detail the methodologies involved in three examples. We propose a unified multi-stage and multi-path mapping approach to the data fusion process, and point out future prospects and challenges.

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... others live with symptoms of mental illness every day. They can be moderate, or serious and cause ...

  9. Brain Death and Human Organismal Integration: A Symposium on the Definition of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschella, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    Does the ability of some brain dead bodies to maintain homeostasis with the help of artificial life support actually imply that those bodies are living human organisms? Or might it be possible that a brain dead body on life support is a mere collection of still-living cells, organs and tissues which can coordinate with one another, but which lack the genuine integration that is the hallmark of a unified human organism as a whole? To foster further study of these difficult and timely questions, a Symposium on the Definition of Death was held at The Catholic University of America in June 2014. The Symposium brought together scholars from a variety of disciplines-law, medicine, biology, philosophy and theology-who all share a commitment to the dead donor rule and to a biological definition of death, but who have differing opinions regarding the validity of neurological criteria for human death. The papers found in this special issue are among the fruits of this Symposium. PMID:27107428

  10. Brain systems for probabilistic and dynamic prediction: computational specificity and integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill X O'Reilly

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A computational approach to functional specialization suggests that brain systems can be characterized in terms of the types of computations they perform, rather than their sensory or behavioral domains. We contrasted the neural systems associated with two computationally distinct forms of predictive model: a reinforcement-learning model of the environment obtained through experience with discrete events, and continuous dynamic forward modeling. By manipulating the precision with which each type of prediction could be used, we caused participants to shift computational strategies within a single spatial prediction task. Hence (using fMRI we showed that activity in two brain systems (typically associated with reward learning and motor control could be dissociated in terms of the forms of computations that were performed there, even when both systems were used to make parallel predictions of the same event. A region in parietal cortex, which was sensitive to the divergence between the predictions of the models and anatomically connected to both computational networks, is proposed to mediate integration of the two predictive modes to produce a single behavioral output.

  11. Sixty minutes of what? A developing brain perspective for activating children with an integrative exercise approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Edwards, Nicholas M; Clark, Joseph F; Best, Thomas M; Sallis, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    Current recommendations for physical activity in children overlook the critical importance of motor skill acquisition early in life. Instead, they focus on the quantitative aspects of physical activity (eg, accumulate 60 min of daily moderate to vigorous physical activity) and selected health-related components of physical fitness (eg, aerobic fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition). This focus on exercise quantity in youth may limit considerations of qualitative aspects of programme design which include (1) skill development, (2) socialisation and (3) enjoyment of exercise. The timing of brain development and associated neuroplasticity for motor skill learning makes the preadolescence period a critical time to develop and reinforce fundamental movement skills in boys and girls. Children who do not participate regularly in structured motor skill-enriched activities during physical education classes or diverse youth sports programmes may never reach their genetic potential for motor skill control which underlies sustainable physical fitness later in life. The goals of this review are twofold: (1) challenge current dogma that is currently focused on the quantitative rather than qualitative aspects of physical activity recommendations for youth and (2) synthesise the latest evidence regarding the brain and motor control that will provide the foundation for integrative exercise programming that provide a framework sustainable activity for life. PMID:25617423

  12. A Fuzzy Integral Ensemble Method in Visual P300 Brain-Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavrini, Francesco; Quitadamo, Lucia Rita; Saggio, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the possibility of application of combination of classifiers using fuzzy measures and integrals to Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) based on electroencephalography. In particular, we present an ensemble method that can be applied to a variety of systems and evaluate it in the context of a visual P300-based BCI. Offline analysis of data relative to 5 subjects lets us argue that the proposed classification strategy is suitable for BCI. Indeed, the achieved performance is significantly greater than the average of the base classifiers and, broadly speaking, similar to that of the best one. Thus the proposed methodology allows realizing systems that can be used by different subjects without the need for a preliminary configuration phase in which the best classifier for each user has to be identified. Moreover, the ensemble is often capable of detecting uncertain situations and turning them from misclassifications into abstentions, thereby improving the level of safety in BCI for environmental or device control. PMID:26819595

  13. Effects of Informative and Confirmatory Feedback on Brain Activation During Negative Feedback Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Kyoung Woo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study compared the effects of informative and confirmatory feedback on brain activation during negative feedback processing. For confirmatory feedback trials, participants were informed that they had failed the task, whereas informative feedback trials presented task relevant information along with the notification of their failure. Fourteen male undergraduates performed a series of spatial-perceptual tasks and received feedback while their brain activity was recorded. During confirmatory feedback trials, greater activations in the amygdala, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and the thalamus (including the habenular were observed in response to incorrect responses. These results suggest that confirmatory feedback induces negative emotional reactions to failure. In contrast, informative feedback trials elicited greater activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC when participants experienced failure. Further psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis revealed a negative coupling between the DLPFC and the amygdala during informative feedback relative to confirmatory feedback trials. These findings suggest that providing task-relevant information could facilitate implicit down-regulation of negative emotions following failure.

  14. 48 CFR 9.104-6 - Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Performance and Integrity Information System. 9.104-6 Section 9.104-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Contractors 9.104-6 Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System. (a) Before awarding a... Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS), (available at www.ppirs.gov,...

  15. Telematics and smart cards in integrated health information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicurello, F; Nicolosi, A

    1997-01-01

    Telematics and information technology are the base on which it will be possible to build an integrated health information system to support population and improve their quality of life. This system should be based on record linkage of all data based on the interactions of the patients with the health structures, such as general practitioners, specialists, health institutes and hospitals, pharmacies, etc. The record linkage can provide the connection and integration of various records, thanks to the use of telematic technology (either urban or geographical local networks, such as the Internet) and electronic data cards. Particular emphasis should be placed on the introduction of smart cards, such as portable health cards, which will contain a standardized data set and will be sufficient to access different databases found in various health services. The inter-operability of the social-health records (including multimedia types) and the smart cards (which are one of the most important prerequisites for the homogenization and wide diffusion of these cards at an European level) should be strongly taken into consideration. In this framework a project is going to be developed aiming towards the integration of various data bases distributed territorially, from the reading of the software and the updating of the smart cards to the complete management of the patients' evaluation records, to the quality of the services offered and to the health planning. The applications developed will support epidemiological investigation software and data analysis. The inter-connection of all the databases of the various structures involved will take place through a coordination center, the most important system of which we will call "record linkage" or "integrated database". Smart cards will be distributed to a sample group of possible users and the necessary smart card management tools will be installed in all the structures involved. All the final users (the patients) in the whole

  16. Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with developing the Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS) with the sponsorship of NA-125.3 and the concurrence of DOE/NNSA field and area offices. The purpose of IIIMS was to modernize nuclear materials management information systems at the enterprise level. Projects over the course of several years attempted to spearhead this modernization. The scope of IIIMS was broken into broad enterprise-oriented materials management and materials forecasting. The IIIMS prototype was developed to allow multiple participating user groups to explore nuclear material requirements and needs in detail. The purpose of material forecasting was to determine nuclear material availability over a 10 to 15 year period in light of the dynamic nature of nuclear materials management. Formal DOE Directives (requirements) were needed to direct IIIMS efforts but were never issued and the project has been halted. When restarted, duplicating or re-engineering the activities from 1999 to 2003 is unnecessary, and in fact future initiatives can build on previous work. IIIMS requirements should be structured to provide high confidence that discrepancies are detected, and classified information is not divulged. Enterprise-wide materials management systems maintained by the military can be used as overall models to base IIIMS implementation concepts upon.

  17. How chimpanzees integrate sensory information to select figs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakel, Justin D.; Bhat, Uttam; Ramsden, Lawrence; Wrangham, Richard W.; Lucas, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Figs are keystone resources that sustain chimpanzees when preferred fruits are scarce. Many figs retain a green(ish) colour throughout development, a pattern that causes chimpanzees to evaluate edibility on the basis of achromatic accessory cues. Such behaviour is conspicuous because it entails a succession of discrete sensory assessments, including the deliberate palpation of individual figs, a task that requires advanced visuomotor control. These actions are strongly suggestive of domain-specific information processing and decision-making, and they call attention to a potential selective force on the origin of advanced manual prehension and digital dexterity during primate evolution. To explore this concept, we report on the foraging behaviours of chimpanzees and the spectral, chemical and mechanical properties of figs, with cutting tests revealing ease of fracture in the mouth. By integrating the ability of different sensory cues to predict fructose content in a Bayesian updating framework, we quantified the amount of information gained when a chimpanzee successively observes, palpates and bites the green figs of Ficus sansibarica. We found that the cue eliciting ingestion was not colour or size, but fig mechanics (including toughness estimates from wedge tests), which relays higher-quality information on fructose concentrations than colour vision. This result explains why chimpanzees evaluate green figs by palpation and dental incision, actions that could explain the adaptive origins of advanced manual prehension. PMID:27274803

  18. An Integrated Test Design for Information Processing System of MMIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power plant or research reactor facility is furnished with Information Processing System (IPS) conducting the role of information layer between control layer and operation layer of MMIS. The IPS is connected with other control systems, monitoring systems, and protection systems. The system collects thousands of interface signals through the Ethernet-based connections. Test cases for the IPS in the MMIS integration test (i.e., factory acceptance test) should include functional tests of the system interface, alarm processing, data management, network management, and primary information monitoring. This paper proposes an efficient method planning the test procedure of the system by considering the test coverage in the final test activity, factory acceptance test (FAT). The IPS system has thousands of signal interfaces and the interface test using real signals can be only conducted in the MMIS FAT. This paper recommends that the interface test is designed as full interface test and the test steps are arranged based on the signal. It helps that data processing, recording, and display functions are easily verified. There was a FAT for the IPS of MMIS for a research reactor at Feb. 2015. We applied our test method to the FAT. As result, we found tens of abnormal results in the test and corrected all the faults

  19. How chimpanzees integrate sensory information to select figs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominy, Nathaniel J; Yeakel, Justin D; Bhat, Uttam; Ramsden, Lawrence; Wrangham, Richard W; Lucas, Peter W

    2016-06-01

    Figs are keystone resources that sustain chimpanzees when preferred fruits are scarce. Many figs retain a green(ish) colour throughout development, a pattern that causes chimpanzees to evaluate edibility on the basis of achromatic accessory cues. Such behaviour is conspicuous because it entails a succession of discrete sensory assessments, including the deliberate palpation of individual figs, a task that requires advanced visuomotor control. These actions are strongly suggestive of domain-specific information processing and decision-making, and they call attention to a potential selective force on the origin of advanced manual prehension and digital dexterity during primate evolution. To explore this concept, we report on the foraging behaviours of chimpanzees and the spectral, chemical and mechanical properties of figs, with cutting tests revealing ease of fracture in the mouth. By integrating the ability of different sensory cues to predict fructose content in a Bayesian updating framework, we quantified the amount of information gained when a chimpanzee successively observes, palpates and bites the green figs of Ficus sansibarica. We found that the cue eliciting ingestion was not colour or size, but fig mechanics (including toughness estimates from wedge tests), which relays higher-quality information on fructose concentrations than colour vision. This result explains why chimpanzees evaluate green figs by palpation and dental incision, actions that could explain the adaptive origins of advanced manual prehension. PMID:27274803

  20. Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aas, Christopher A.; Lenhart, James E.; Bray, Olin H.; Witcher, Christina Jenkin

    2004-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with developing the Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS) with the sponsorship of NA-125.3 and the concurrence of DOE/NNSA field and area offices. The purpose of IIIMS was to modernize nuclear materials management information systems at the enterprise level. Projects over the course of several years attempted to spearhead this modernization. The scope of IIIMS was broken into broad enterprise-oriented materials management and materials forecasting. The IIIMS prototype was developed to allow multiple participating user groups to explore nuclear material requirements and needs in detail. The purpose of material forecasting was to determine nuclear material availability over a 10 to 15 year period in light of the dynamic nature of nuclear materials management. Formal DOE Directives (requirements) were needed to direct IIIMS efforts but were never issued and the project has been halted. When restarted, duplicating or re-engineering the activities from 1999 to 2003 is unnecessary, and in fact future initiatives can build on previous work. IIIMS requirements should be structured to provide high confidence that discrepancies are detected, and classified information is not divulged. Enterprise-wide materials management systems maintained by the military can be used as overall models to base IIIMS implementation concepts upon.

  1. Brain functional network connectivity based on a visual task: visual information processing-related brain regions are significantly activated in the task state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-li Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not clear whether the method used in functional brain-network related research can be applied to explore the feature binding mechanism of visual perception. In this study, we investigated feature binding of color and shape in visual perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 38 healthy volunteers at rest and while performing a visual perception task to construct brain networks active during resting and task states. Results showed that brain regions involved in visual information processing were obviously activated during the task. The components were partitioned using a greedy algorithm, indicating the visual network existed during the resting state. Z-values in the vision-related brain regions were calculated, confirming the dynamic balance of the brain network. Connectivity between brain regions was determined, and the result showed that occipital and lingual gyri were stable brain regions in the visual system network, the parietal lobe played a very important role in the binding process of color features and shape features, and the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were crucial for processing color and shape information. Experimental findings indicate that understanding visual feature binding and cognitive processes will help establish computational models of vision, improve image recognition technology, and provide a new theoretical mechanism for feature binding in visual perception.

  2. [Service Middleware of Medical Information Integration and Exchange Based on HL7 and DICOM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mian; Liu, Lijun; Xiong, Xin; Fan, Hongbo; Jia, Lianyin; Tang, Shouguo

    2015-08-01

    Medical information exchange and integration is the effective method to solve the interoperability and medical information island, and is the basis of medical information sharing. In this paper, we take medical texts and medical images as the basic integrated objects, DICOM, HL7 messages and datasets as the integrated units, efficient DI-COM, HL7 message construction and parsing methods as basis, design and realize a universal medical information integration and exchange service middleware. Experimental results show that the prototype system could perform medical information integration and exchange among relational database, HL7 and DICOM message, provide a feasible scheme to solve the medical information island and lay a good foundation for establishing the unified medical information integration and sharing platform. The middleware has been applied in the project named "development and demonstration of opened medical information integration system". PMID:26710453

  3. Novel theory of the human brain: information-commutation basis of architecture and principles of operation

    OpenAIRE

    Bryukhovetskiy AS

    2015-01-01

    Andrey S Bryukhovetskiy Center for Biomedical Technologies, Federal Research and Clinical Center for Specialized Types of Medical Assistance and Medical Technologies of the Federal Medical Biological Agency, NeuroVita Clinic of Interventional and Restorative Neurology and Therapy, Moscow, Russia Abstract: Based on the methodology of the informational approach and research of the genome, proteome, and complete transcriptome profiles of different cells in the nervous tissue of the human brain,...

  4. MIMI: multimodality, multiresource, information integration environment for biomedical core facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Jacek; Wilson, David L; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2009-10-01

    The rapid expansion of biomedical research has brought substantial scientific and administrative data management challenges to modern core facilities. Scientifically, a core facility must be able to manage experimental workflow and the corresponding set of large and complex scientific data. It must also disseminate experimental data to relevant researchers in a secure and expedient manner that facilitates collaboration and provides support for data interpretation and analysis. Administratively, a core facility must be able to manage the scheduling of its equipment and to maintain a flexible and effective billing system to track material, resource, and personnel costs and charge for services to sustain its operation. It must also have the ability to regularly monitor the usage and performance of its equipment and to provide summary statistics on resources spent on different categories of research. To address these informatics challenges, we introduce a comprehensive system called MIMI (multimodality, multiresource, information integration environment) that integrates the administrative and scientific support of a core facility into a single web-based environment. We report the design, development, and deployment experience of a baseline MIMI system at an imaging core facility and discuss the general applicability of such a system in other types of core facilities. These initial results suggest that MIMI will be a unique, cost-effective approach to addressing the informatics infrastructure needs of core facilities and similar research laboratories. PMID:17999114

  5. Annotating novel genes by integrating synthetic lethals and genomic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faty Mahamadou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large scale screening for synthetic lethality serves as a common tool in yeast genetics to systematically search for genes that play a role in specific biological processes. Often the amounts of data resulting from a single large scale screen far exceed the capacities of experimental characterization of every identified target. Thus, there is need for computational tools that select promising candidate genes in order to reduce the number of follow-up experiments to a manageable size. Results We analyze synthetic lethality data for arp1 and jnm1, two spindle migration genes, in order to identify novel members in this process. To this end, we use an unsupervised statistical method that integrates additional information from biological data sources, such as gene expression, phenotypic profiling, RNA degradation and sequence similarity. Different from existing methods that require large amounts of synthetic lethal data, our method merely relies on synthetic lethality information from two single screens. Using a Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Model, we determine the best subset of features that assign the target genes to two groups. The approach identifies a small group of genes as candidates involved in spindle migration. Experimental testing confirms the majority of our candidates and we present she1 (YBL031W as a novel gene involved in spindle migration. We applied the statistical methodology also to TOR2 signaling as another example. Conclusion We demonstrate the general use of Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Modeling for selecting candidate genes for experimental characterization from synthetic lethality data sets. For the given example, integration of different data sources contributes to the identification of genetic interaction partners of arp1 and jnm1 that play a role in the same biological process.

  6. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Sagl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing. In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the

  7. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today's technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  8. Peculiarities of integral brain activity under compromised thyroid gland function of children and adolescent from radionuclide contaminated territories of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    80 children with thyroid gland hypertrophy (50 girls + 30 boys, 10 - 17 years old) from Luninets town, the Brest region, were investigated for integral brain activity. Quantitative determination of thyrotropic hormone level in blood serum was made by using enzyme immunodetection. Mentation, attention and memory were tested by questionnaire design. Results of experiments are given

  9. Integrating Numerical Groundwater Modeling Results With Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, M. S.; Robinson, B. A.; Linger, S. P.

    2001-12-01

    Many different types of data are used to create numerical models of flow and transport of groundwater in the vadose zone. Results from water balance studies, infiltration models, hydrologic properties, and digital elevation models (DEMs) are examples of such data. Because input data comes in a variety of formats, for consistency the data need to be assembled in a coherent fashion on a single platform. Through the use of a geographic information system (GIS), all data sources can effectively be integrated on one platform to store, retrieve, query, and display data. In our vadoze zone modeling studies in support of Los Alamos National Laboratory's Environmental Restoration Project, we employ a GIS comprised of a Raid storage device, an Oracle database, ESRI's spatial database engine (SDE), ArcView GIS, and custom GIS tools for three-dimensional (3D) analysis. We store traditional GIS data, such as, contours, historical building footprints, and study area locations, as points, lines, and polygons with attributes. Numerical flow and transport model results from the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer Code (FEHM) are stored as points with attributes, such as fluid saturation, or pressure, or contaminant concentration at a given location. We overlay traditional types of GIS data with numerical model results, thereby allowing us to better build conceptual models and perform spatial analyses. We have also developed specialized analysis tools to assist in the data and model analysis process. This approach provides an integrated framework for performing tasks such as comparing the model to data and understanding the relationship of model predictions to existing contaminant source locations and water supply wells. Our process of integrating GIS and numerical modeling results allows us to answer a wide variety of questions about our conceptual model design: - Which set of locations should be identified as contaminant sources based on known historical building operations

  10. Report of traumatic brain injury information sources among OIF/OEF Veterans undergoing polytrauma evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Spencer, PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Servicemembers returning from recent conflicts frequently report symptoms associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI and are subsequently assessed within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA medical system. Information on potential cognitive and behavioral correlates of TBI is available from multiple sources. A Veteran’s symptom presentation may be significantly influenced by the information he or she has received. Despite knowledge of the relationship between information source and symptom presentation, little work has focused on a characterization of where Veterans receive their information. The present study aims to fill this gap in the literature. We asked 152 Veterans who screened positive for possible TBI within the VA healthcare system about the sources of information they have encountered regarding TBI and its sequelae. “Friends in the military” was the most frequently cited source of information, followed by the Internet, medical professionals, and informational pamphlets. The results of this survey indicate that Veterans are being exposed to information about TBI prior to a formal evaluation and that this information comes from multiple sources of varying reliability. Future research should focus on evaluating and ultimately improving the reliability of this information in order to positively influence the treatment of Veterans.

  11. Disruption of White Matter Integrity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors: Correlates with Long-Term Intellectual Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Z King

    Full Text Available Although chemotherapy and radiation treatment have contributed to increased survivorship, treatment-induced brain injury has been a concern when examining long-term intellectual outcomes of survivors. Specifically, disruption of brain white matter integrity and its relationship to intellectual outcomes in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors needs to be better understood.Fifty-four participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging in addition to structural MRI and an intelligence test (IQ. Voxel-wise group comparisons of fractional anisotropy calculated from DTI data were performed using Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS on 27 survivors (14 treated with radiation with and without chemotherapy and 13 treated without radiation treatment on average over 13 years since diagnosis and 27 healthy comparison participants. Whole brain white matter fractional anisotropy (FA differences were explored between each group. The relationships between IQ and FA in the regions where statistically lower FA values were found in survivors were examined, as well as the role of cumulative neurological factors.The group of survivors treated with radiation with and without chemotherapy had lower IQ relative to the group of survivors without radiation treatment and the healthy comparison group. TBSS identified white matter regions with significantly different mean fractional anisotropy between the three different groups. A lower level of white matter integrity was found in the radiation with or without chemotherapy treated group compared to the group without radiation treatment and also the healthy control group. The group without radiation treatment had a lower mean FA relative to healthy controls. The white matter disruption of the radiation with or without chemotherapy treated survivors was positively correlated with IQ and cumulative neurological factors.Lower long-term intellectual outcomes of childhood brain tumor survivors are associated with lower white

  12. "Neuro-semeiotics" and "free-energy minimization" suggest a unified perspective for integrative brain actions: focus on receptor heteromers and Roamer type of volume transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnati, Luigi F; Guidolin, Diego; Marcoli, Manuela; Genedani, Susanna; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel; Maura, Guido; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Two far-reaching theoretical approaches, namely "Neuro-semeiotics" (NS) and "Free-energy Minimization" (FEM), have been recently proposed as frames within which to put forward heuristic hypotheses on integrative brain actions. In the present paper these two theoretical approaches are briefly discussed in the perspective of a recent model of brain architecture and information handling based on what we suggest calling Jacob's tinkering principle, whereby "to create is to recombine!". The NS and FEM theoretical approaches will be discussed from the perspective both of the Roamer-Type Volume Transmission (especially exosome-mediated) of intercellular communication and of the impact of receptor oligomers and Receptor-Receptor Interactions (RRIs) on signal recognition/decoding processes. In particular, the Bio-semeiotics concept of "adaptor" will be used to analyze RRIs as an important feature of NS. Furthermore, the concept of phenotypic plasticity of cells will be introduced in view of the demonstration of the possible transfer of receptors (i.e., adaptors) into a computational network via exosomes (see also Appendix). Thus, Jacob's tinkering principle will be proposed as a theoretical basis for some learning processes both at the network level (Turing-like type of machine) and at the molecular level as a consequence of both the plastic changes in the adaptors caused by the allosteric interactions in the receptor oligomers and the intercellular transfer of receptors. Finally, on the basis of NS and FEM theories, a unified perspective for integrative brain actions will be proposed. PMID:25175453

  13. From false integration of viewers on informative TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felisbela Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available New media fast-paced technologies are constantly feeding the contemporary (telespectator with the promise of "empowerment". In the last decades, an "empowered user" notion is being built around the mythical narrative of 'omnipotence', that becomes the verb and the active complement to the modern promise of 'omnividence": the one who sees everything, can do everything. However, what we actually find when we scan the news and information broadcasts of portuguese TV, is that we don't find many traces of this supposedly "empowered" spectator. Broadcasts scarcely consider a structural participation of their public,or they only include spectators in euphemistical terms, letting them in just for the sake of having them in, thus treating the public not as citizens but as audiences and revealing a false "empowerment". In this article we analyze the integration of TV spectators on a total of 1673 news and information broadcasts in 6 Portuguese channels (RTP1, SIC, TVI, SICN, RTPN, TVI 24. This work is part of a research project called "Television journalism and citizenship".

  14. Intrinsic activity in the fly brain gates visual information during behavioral choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiming Tang

    Full Text Available The small insect brain is often described as an input/output system that executes reflex-like behaviors. It can also initiate neural activity and behaviors intrinsically, seen as spontaneous behaviors, different arousal states and sleep. However, less is known about how intrinsic activity in neural circuits affects sensory information processing in the insect brain and variability in behavior. Here, by simultaneously monitoring Drosophila's behavioral choices and brain activity in a flight simulator system, we identify intrinsic activity that is associated with the act of selecting between visual stimuli. We recorded neural output (multiunit action potentials and local field potentials in the left and right optic lobes of a tethered flying Drosophila, while its attempts to follow visual motion (yaw torque were measured by a torque meter. We show that when facing competing motion stimuli on its left and right, Drosophila typically generate large torque responses that flip from side to side. The delayed onset (0.1-1 s and spontaneous switch-like dynamics of these responses, and the fact that the flies sometimes oppose the stimuli by flying straight, make this behavior different from the classic steering reflexes. Drosophila, thus, seem to choose one stimulus at a time and attempt to rotate toward its direction. With this behavior, the neural output of the optic lobes alternates; being augmented on the side chosen for body rotation and suppressed on the opposite side, even though the visual input to the fly eyes stays the same. Thus, the flow of information from the fly eyes is gated intrinsically. Such modulation can be noise-induced or intentional; with one possibility being that the fly brain highlights chosen information while ignoring the irrelevant, similar to what we know to occur in higher animals.

  15. Voxel-wise information theoretic EEG-fMRI feature integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostwald, Dirk; Porcaro, Camillo; Bagshaw, Andrew P

    2011-04-01

    We have recently proposed the evaluation of a set of information theoretic quantities (ITQs) for the integration of simultaneously acquired EEG-fMRI data (Ostwald, D., Porcaro, C., Bagshaw, A.P., 2010. An information theoretic approach to EEG-fMRI integration of visually evoked responses. Neuroimage. 49, 498-516). In our previous experimental evaluation of the information theoretic framework, we defined the data subsets from which to calculate the ITQs using a priori constraints. In the case of EEG, this meant that data were extracted from a single electrode, while for fMRI the analysed data came from voxels contained within a sphere surrounding the most responsive voxel of visual cortex. While this approach was a natural starting point for the evaluation of the framework in the application to combined EEG-fMRI data sets, a more principled approach to data selection is desirable. Here, we propose to combine standard fMRI data pre-processing and low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) for the evaluation of ITQs across the entire three-dimensional brain space. We apply the proposed method to a simultaneous EEG-fMRI data set acquired during checkerboard stimulation and assess the topographical informativeness of EEG (time and frequency domain) and fMRI features with respect to the stimulus and each other. The resulting information theoretic effect size maps are supplemented with a statistical evaluation based on Gaussian null model simulations using a false-discovery rate procedure. Given the contamination of EEG recordings by artefacts induced by the MR scanning environment we further assessed the influence of different advanced EEG pre-processing methods (independent component analysis and functional source separation) on the information topography. The results of this analysis provide evidence for the topographically focussed informativeness of both EEG and fMRI features with respect to the stimulus, but for the current feature selection do not detect

  16. Semi-automatic segmentation of brain tumors using population and individual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Yang, Wei; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shuanqian; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2013-08-01

    Efficient segmentation of tumors in medical images is of great practical importance in early diagnosis and radiation plan. This paper proposes a novel semi-automatic segmentation method based on population and individual statistical information to segment brain tumors in magnetic resonance (MR) images. First, high-dimensional image features are extracted. Neighborhood components analysis is proposed to learn two optimal distance metrics, which contain population and patient-specific information, respectively. The probability of each pixel belonging to the foreground (tumor) and the background is estimated by the k-nearest neighborhood classifier under the learned optimal distance metrics. A cost function for segmentation is constructed through these probabilities and is optimized using graph cuts. Finally, some morphological operations are performed to improve the achieved segmentation results. Our dataset consists of 137 brain MR images, including 68 for training and 69 for testing. The proposed method overcomes segmentation difficulties caused by the uneven gray level distribution of the tumors and even can get satisfactory results if the tumors have fuzzy edges. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust to brain tumor segmentation. PMID:23319111

  17. Integrating Climate Information and Decision Processes for Regional Climate Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buizer, James; Goddard, Lisa; Guido, Zackry

    2015-04-01

    An integrated multi-disciplinary team of researchers from the University of Arizona and the International Research Institute for Climate and Society at Columbia University have joined forces with communities and institutions in the Caribbean, South Asia and West Africa to develop relevant, usable climate information and connect it to real decisions and development challenges. The overall objective of the "Integrating Climate Information and Decision Processes for Regional Climate Resilience" program is to build community resilience to negative impacts of climate variability and change. We produce and provide science-based climate tools and information to vulnerable peoples and the public, private, and civil society organizations that serve them. We face significant institutional challenges because of the geographical and cultural distance between the locale of climate tool-makers and the locale of climate tool-users and because of the complicated, often-inefficient networks that link them. To use an accepted metaphor, there is great institutional difficulty in coordinating the supply of and the demand for useful climate products that can be put to the task of building local resilience and reducing climate vulnerability. Our program is designed to reduce the information constraint and to initiate a linkage that is more demand driven, and which provides a set of priorities for further climate tool generation. A demand-driven approach to the co-production of appropriate and relevant climate tools seeks to meet the direct needs of vulnerable peoples as these needs have been canvassed empirically and as the benefits of application have been adequately evaluated. We first investigate how climate variability and climate change affect the livelihoods of vulnerable peoples. In so doing we assess the complex institutional web within which these peoples live -- the public agencies that serve them, their forms of access to necessary information, the structural constraints

  18. Information Portal for the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miville, B.; Soeding, E.; Larsen, H.

    2005-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) is preparing for the challenge of managing data from three scientific drilling platforms, operated by US, Japanese and European science operators, each using different data management systems. This includes organizing and distributing data to clients outside the program, developing interfaces with external global data and metadata catalogues, and making IODP data effectively searchable for data mining and visualization applications. To meet the needs of integrating data from a web of distributed operator databases and providing easy and seamless top-down access from the larger cyberspace infrastructure, IODP will develop an Information Portal for IODP (IPI), that will be a unique entry point for discovery of all IODP data, as well as legacy data from previous scientific ocean drilling programs (ODP, DSDP). It will consist of a central metadata catalogue based on the ISO 19115 standard, which will allow for easy construction of interfaces to access the IODP metadata and data sources. This requires that each contributor to the IPI provide metadata structured according to a common schema currently being devised by an IODP task force. The IPI will use the Open Archive Initiative Protocol to allow Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) to gather the metadata from the different contributors. Initially the portal will allow multiple IODP contributors and in the future external providers to harvest data. Other metadata catalog services could also participate in this system, by either making their metadata available and/or by harvesting the IPI metadata. IODP Management International Inc. is supported by NSF OCE 0432224.

  19. Discovering transnosological molecular basis of human brain diseases using biclustering analysis of integrated gene expression data

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Kihoon; Hwang, Taeho; Oh, Kimin; Yi, Gwan-Su

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been reported that several brain diseases can be treated as transnosological manner implicating possible common molecular basis under those diseases. However, molecular level commonality among those brain diseases has been largely unexplored. Gene expression analyses of human brain have been used to find genes associated with brain diseases but most of those studies were restricted either to an individual disease or to a couple of diseases. In addition, identifying significa...

  20. On the transmission of partial information: inferences from movement-related brain potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, A.; Bashore, T. R.; Coles, M. G.; Donchin, E.; Meyer, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Results are reported from a new paradigm that uses movement-related brain potentials to detect response preparation based on partial information. The paradigm uses a hybrid choice-reaction go/nogo procedure in which decisions about response hand and whether to respond are based on separate stimulus attributes. A lateral asymmetry in the movement-related brain potential was found on nogo trials without overt movement. The direction of this asymmetry depended primarily on the signaled response hand rather than on properties of the stimulus. When the asymmetry first appeared was influenced by the time required to select the signaled hand, and when it began to differ on go and nogo trials was influenced by the time to decide whether to respond. These findings indicate that both stimulus attributes were processed in parallel and that the asymmetry reflected preparation of the response hand that began before the go/nogo decision was completed.

  1. 45 CFR 61.14 - Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS, SUPPLIERS AND PRACTITIONERS Disclosure of Information by the Healthcare Integrity... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity...

  2. Heterogeneous Databases Integration in a Hospital Information Systems Environment: A Bottom-Up Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kamel, Madji; Zviran, Moshe

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the problem of heterogeneous databases, discusses the need for an integrated hospital information system and provides a five-step method for integrating heterogeneous databases in the hospital environment. The scope of this method facilitates the integration of medical, administrative and fiscal information elements of a hospital into a unified environment.

  3. Integration of egocentric and allocentric information during memory-guided reaching to images of a natural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFiehler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available When interacting with our environment we generally make use of egocentric and allocentric object information by coding object positions relative to the observer or relative to the environment, respectively. Bayesian theories suggest that the brain integrates both sources of information optimally for perception and action. However, experimental evidence for egocentric and allocentric integration is sparse and has only been studied using abstract stimuli lacking ecological relevance. Here, we investigated the use of egocentric and allocentric information during memory-guided reaching to images of naturalistic scenes. Participants encoded a breakfast scene containing six objects on a table (local objects and three objects in the environment (global objects. After a 2s delay, a visual test scene reappeared for 1s in which one local object was missing (=target and of the remaining, one, three or five local objects or one of the global objects were shifted to the left or to the right. The offset of the test scene prompted participants to reach to the target as precisely as possible. Only local objects served as potential reach targets and thus were task-relevant. When shifting objects we predicted accurate reaching if participants only used egocentric coding of object position and systematic shifts of reach endpoints if allocentric information were used for movement planning. We found that reaching movements were largely affected by allocentric shifts showing an increase in endpoint errors in the direction of object shifts with the number of local objects shifted. No effect occurred when one local or one global object was shifted. Our findings suggest that allocentric cues are indeed used by the brain for memory-guided reaching towards targets in naturalistic visual scenes. Moreover, the integration of egocentric and allocentric object information seems to depend on the extent of changes in the scene.

  4. The human brain on a computer, the design neuromorphic chips aims to process information as does the mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Develop chips that mimic the brain processes It will help create computers capable of interpreting information from image, sound and touch so that it may offer answers intelligent-not programmed before- according to these sensory data. chips neuromorphic may mimic the electrical activity neurons and brain synapses, and will be key to intelligence systems artificial (ia) that require interaction with the environment being able to extract information cognitive of what surrounds them. (Author)

  5. Brain mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Blaž Koritnik

    2004-01-01

    Cartography of the brain ("brain mapping") aims to represent the complexities of the working brain in an understandable and usable way. There are four crucial steps in brain mapping: (1) acquiring data about brain structure and function, (2) transformation of data into a common reference, (3) visualization and interpretation of results, and (4) databasing and archiving. Electrophysiological and functional imaging methods provide information about function of the human brain. A prere...

  6. Integrated System Technologies for Modular Trapped Ion Quantum Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen G.

    Although trapped ion technology is well-suited for quantum information science, scalability of the system remains one of the main challenges. One of the challenges associated with scaling the ion trap quantum computer is the ability to individually manipulate the increasing number of qubits. Using micro-mirrors fabricated with micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, laser beams are focused on individual ions in a linear chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. Multiple single qubit gates are demonstrated on trapped 171Yb+ qubits and the gate performance is characterized using quantum state tomography. The system features negligible crosstalk to neighboring ions (detectors (SNSPD), which provide a higher detector efficiency (69%) compared to traditional photomultiplier tubes (35%). The total system photon collection efficiency is increased from 2.2% to 3.4%, which allows for fast state detection of the qubit. For a detection beam intensity of 11 mW/cm 2, the average detection time is 23.7 mus with 99.885(7)% detection fidelity. The technologies demonstrated in this thesis can be integrated to form a single quantum register with all of the necessary resources to perform local gates as well as high fidelity readout and provide a photon link to other systems.

  7. Ontology-driven geographic information integration: A survey of current approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Fillottrani, Pablo

    2009-04-01

    Integrating different information sources is a growing research area within different application domains. This is particularly true for the geographic information domain which is facing new challenges because newer and better technologies are capturing large amounts of information about the Earth. This trend can be combined with increases in the distribution of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) on the Web, which is leading to the proliferation of different geospatial information repositories and the subsequent need to integrate information across repositories to get consistent information. To overcome this situation, many proposals use ontologies in the integration process. In this paper we analyze and compare the most widely referred proposals of geographic information integration, focusing on those using ontologies as semantic tools to represent the sources, and to facilitate the integration process.

  8. A Pilot Project of Early Integrated Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Kwaon Lui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Document acute neurosurgical and rehabilitation parameters of patients of all traumatic brain injury (TBI severities and determine whether early screening along with very early integrated TBI rehabilitation changes functional outcomes. Methods. Prospective study involving all patients with TBI admitted to a neurosurgical department of a tertiary hospital. They were assessed within 72 hours of admission by the rehabilitation team and received twice weekly rehabilitation reviews. Patients with further rehabilitation needs were then transferred to the attached acute inpatient TBI rehabilitation unit (TREATS and their functional outcomes were compared against a historical group of patients. Demographic variables, acute neurosurgical characteristics, medical complications, and rehabilitation outcomes were recorded. Results. There were 298 patients screened with an average age of 61.8±19.1 years. The most common etiology was falls (77.5%. Most patients were discharged home directly (67.4% and 22.8% of patients were in TREATS. The TREATS group functionally improved (P<0.001. Regression analysis showed by the intervention of TREATS, that there was a statistically significant FIM functional gain of 18.445 points (95% CI −30.388 to −0.6502, P=0.03. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated important epidemiological data on an unselected cohort of patients with TBI in Singapore and functional improvement in patients who further received inpatient rehabilitation.

  9. A Fuzzy Integral Ensemble Method in Visual P300 Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cavrini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the possibility of application of combination of classifiers using fuzzy measures and integrals to Brain-Computer Interface (BCI based on electroencephalography. In particular, we present an ensemble method that can be applied to a variety of systems and evaluate it in the context of a visual P300-based BCI. Offline analysis of data relative to 5 subjects lets us argue that the proposed classification strategy is suitable for BCI. Indeed, the achieved performance is significantly greater than the average of the base classifiers and, broadly speaking, similar to that of the best one. Thus the proposed methodology allows realizing systems that can be used by different subjects without the need for a preliminary configuration phase in which the best classifier for each user has to be identified. Moreover, the ensemble is often capable of detecting uncertain situations and turning them from misclassifications into abstentions, thereby improving the level of safety in BCI for environmental or device control.

  10. Loss of Microstructural Integrity in the Limbic-Subcortical Networks for Acute Symptomatic Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported discrepant white matter diffusivity in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI on the base of Glasgow Coma Scale, which are unreliable for some TBI severity indicators and the frequency of missing documentation in the medical record. In the present study, we adopted the Mayo classification system for TBI severity. In this system, the mTBI is also divided into two groups as “probable and symptomatic” TBI. We aimed to investigate altered microstructural integrity in symptomatic acute TBI (<1 week by using tract-based spatial statics (TBSS approach. A total of 12 patients and 13 healthy volunteers were involved and underwent MRI scans including conventional scan, and SWI and DTI. All the patients had no visible lesions by using conventional and SWI neuroimaging techniques, while showing widespread declines in the fractional anisotropy (FA of gray matter and white matter throughout the TBSS skeleton, particularly in the limbic-subcortical structures. By contrast, symptomatic TBI patients showed no significant enhanced changes in FA compared to the healthy controls. A better understanding of the acute changes occurring following symptomatic TBI may increase our understanding of neuroplasticity and continuing degenerative change, which, in turn, may facilitate advances in management and intervention.

  11. Brain-wave Dynamics Related to Cognitive Tasks and Neurofeedback Information Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Pop-Jordanov, Jordan; Dimitrovski, Darko; Markovska, Natasa

    2003-08-01

    Synchronization of oscillating neuronal discharges has been recently correlated to the moment of perception and the ensuing motor response, with transition between these two cognitive acts "through cellular mechanisms that remain to be established"[1]. Last year, using genetic strategies, it was found that the switching off persistent electric activity in the brain blocks memory recall [2]. On the other hand, analyzing mental-neural information flow, the nobelist Eccles has formulated a fundamental hypotheses that mental events may change the probability of quantum vesicular emissions of transmitters analogously to probability functions of quantum mechanics [3]. Applying the advanced quantum modeling to molecular rotational states exposed to electric activity in brain cells, we found that the probability of transitions does not depend on the field amplitude, suggesting the electric field frequency as the possible information-bearing physical quantity [4]. In this paper, an attempt is made to inter-correlate the above results on frequency aspects of neural transitions induced by cognitive tasks. Furthermore, considering the consecutive steps of mental-neural information flow during the biofeedback training to normalize EEG frequencies, the rationales for neurofeedback efficiency have been deduced.

  12. Multisensory causal inference in the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Kayser; Ladan Shams

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Kayser, Shams. At any given moment, our brain processes multiple inputs from its different sensory modalities (vision, hearing, touch, etc.). In deciphering this array of sensory information, the brain has to solve two problems: (1) which of the inputs originate from the same object and should be integrated and (2) for the sensations originating from the same object, how best to integrate them. Recent behavioural studies suggest that the human brain solves these problems using optimal ...

  13. Down syndrome screening information in midwifery practices in the Netherlands: Strategies to integrate biomedical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Sophia

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to analyse counselling with regard to prenatal screening in midwifery consultations in the Netherlands where a national prenatal screening programme has only existed since 2007, after years of social and political debates. The methodology is based on in situ observations of 25 counselling consultations in four midwifery practices in two main cities in the Netherlands. The results of this study show that, since midwives are obliged to offer information on Down syndrome screening to all pregnant women (2007), they have to deal with the communication of medical screening information using biostatistical concepts to explain risks, calculations, probabilities and chromosomal anomalies. In order to avoid the risk of medicalization of their consultation, midwives develop strategies that allow them to integrate this new biomedical discourse while maintaining their low medicalized approach of midwife-led care. One of their main strategies is to switch from 'alarming' biomedical messages to 'reassuring words' in order to manage the anxiety induced by the information and to keep the control over their low medicalized consultation. They also tend to distance themselves from the obligation to talk about screening. The way midwives handle these counselling consultations allows them to respect their obligation to propose information, and to remain faithful to their struggle to protect the natural process of pregnancy as well as their professional autonomy. PMID:25504473

  14. Melatonin promotes blood-brain barrier integrity in methamphetamine-induced inflammation in primary rat brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumnongprakhon, Pichaya; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Tocharus, Chainarong; Tocharus, Jiraporn

    2016-09-01

    Melatonin is a neurohormone and has high potent of antioxidant that is widely reported to be active against methamphetamine (METH)-induced toxicity to neuron, glial cells, and brain endothelial cells. However, the role of melatonin on the inflammatory responses which are mostly caused by blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment by METH administration has not been investigated. This study used the primary rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) to determine the protective mechanism of melatonin on METH-induced inflammatory responses in the BBB via nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling. Herein, we demonstrated that melatonin reduced the level of the inflammatory mediators, including intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecules (VCAM)-1, matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) caused by METH. These responses were related to the decrease of the expression and translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit and the activity of NADPH oxidase (NOX)-2. In addition, melatonin promoted the antioxidant processes, modulated the expression and translocation of Nrf2, and also increased the level of heme oxygenase (HO)-1, NAD (P) H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO)-1, γ-glutamylcysteine synthase (γ-GCLC), and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) through NOX2 mechanism. In addition, we found that the protective role of melatonin in METH-induced inflammatory responses in the BBB was mediated through melatonin receptors (MT1/2). We concluded that the interaction of melatonin with its receptor prevented METH-induced inflammatory responses by suppressing the NF-κB signaling and promoting the Nrf2 signaling before BBB impairment. PMID:27268413

  15. A Template-driven Approach for Maintainable Service-oriented Information Systems Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Pahl, Claus; Zhu, Yaoling; Gacitua-Decar, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    peer-reviewed Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is currently the predominant software integration framework. Web services provide the predominant platform for SOA. SOA as an integration architecture solution supports a range of application scenarios. We present a solution for the integration of business information systems based on SOA and Web services. We discuss maintainability requirements in relation to information-specific integration and architecture aspects. A template-based appro...

  16. Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known

  17. Organization Networks as Information Integration System: Case study on Environment and Health in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Lajaunie; Pierre Mazzega

    2016-01-01

    We present a method for evaluating the capacity of a network of organizations to function as Information Integration System (IIS) as required in the performance of complex common objectives such as the design of inter-sectoral policies in "Health and Environment". Inspired by the information integration theory issued from the modeling of consciousness, the method poses that the information integration is limited by the partition of the set of organizations that presents major difficulties to ...

  18. Application of integrative information system improves the quality and effectiveness of cancer case management

    OpenAIRE

    Lee PY; Chang TR

    2015-01-01

    Pei-Yi Lee,1,2 Tsue-Rung Chang11Department of Nursing, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department of Nursing, MacKay Medical College, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: Cancer case management provides consecutive care during the entire process through diagnosis to treatment and follow-up. We established an integrative information system with integration of the health information system. This integrative information system shortened the time spent on case screening, follow-up data management, ...

  19. Neurodegeneration from mitochondrial insufficiency: nutrients, stem cells, growth factors, and prospects for brain rebuilding using integrative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Parris M

    2005-12-01

    Degenerative brain disorders (neurodegeneration) can be frustrating for both conventional and alternative practitioners. A more comprehensive, integrative approach is urgently needed. One emerging focus for intervention is brain energetics. Specifically, mitochondrial insufficiency contributes to the etiopathology of many such disorders. Electron leakages inherent to mitochondrial energetics generate reactive oxygen free radical species that may place the ultimate limit on lifespan. Exogenous toxins, such as mercury and other environmental contaminants, exacerbate mitochondrial electron leakage, hastening their demise and that of their host cells. Studies of the brain in Alzheimer's and other dementias, Down syndrome, stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Friedreich's ataxia, aging, and constitutive disorders demonstrate impairments of the mitochondrial citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes. Imaging or metabolic assays frequently reveal energetic insufficiency and depleted energy reserve in brain tissue in situ. Orthomolecular nutrients involved in mitochondrial metabolism provide clinical benefit. Among these are the essential minerals and the B vitamin group; vitamins E and K; and the antioxidant and energetic cofactors alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10; CoQ10), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced (NADH). Recent advances in the area of stem cells and growth factors encourage optimism regarding brain regeneration. The trophic nutrients acetyl L-carnitine (ALCAR), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), and phosphatidylserine (PS) provide mitochondrial support and conserve growth factor receptors; all three improved cognition in double-blind trials. The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is enzymatically combined with GPC and PS to form membrane phospholipids for nerve cell expansion. Practical recommendations are presented for integrating these

  20. Approaches to cancer assessment in EPA's Integrated Risk Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Program develops assessments of health effects that may result from chronic exposure to chemicals in the environment. The IRIS database contains more than 540 assessments. When supported by available data, IRIS assessments provide quantitative analyses of carcinogenic effects. Since publication of EPA's 2005 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, IRIS cancer assessments have implemented new approaches recommended in these guidelines and expanded the use of complex scientific methods to perform quantitative dose-response assessments. Two case studies of the application of the mode of action framework from the 2005 Cancer Guidelines are presented in this paper. The first is a case study of 1,2,3-trichloropropane, as an example of a chemical with a mutagenic mode of carcinogenic action thus warranting the application of age-dependent adjustment factors for early-life exposure; the second is a case study of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, as an example of a chemical with a carcinogenic action consistent with a nonlinear extrapolation approach. The use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to quantify interindividual variability and account for human parameter uncertainty as part of a quantitative cancer assessment is illustrated using a case study involving probabilistic PBPK modeling for dichloromethane. We also discuss statistical issues in assessing trends and model fit for tumor dose-response data, analysis of the combined risk from multiple types of tumors, and application of life-table methods for using human data to derive cancer risk estimates. These issues reflect the complexity and challenges faced in assessing the carcinogenic risks from exposure to environmental chemicals, and provide a view of the current trends in IRIS carcinogenicity risk assessment.

  1. Executive control of language in the bilingual brain: integrating the evidence from neuroimaging to neuropsychology.

    OpenAIRE

    AlexisGeorgesHervais-Adelman; BarbaraMoser-Mercer

    2011-01-01

    In this review we will focus on delineating the neural substrates of the executive control of language in the bilingual brain, based on the existing neuroimaging, intracranial, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and neuropsychological evidence. We will also offer insights from ongoing brain-imaging studies into the development of expertise in multilingual language control. We will concentrate specifically on evidence regarding how the brain selects and controls languages for comprehension and...

  2. Brain Structural Integrity and Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Forecast 6 Year Longitudinal Growth in Children's Numerical Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Tanya M.; Kochalka, John; Ngoon, Tricia J.; Wu, Sarah S.; Qin, Shaozheng; Battista, Christian; Menon, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Early numerical proficiency lays the foundation for acquiring quantitative skills essential in today's technological society. Identification of cognitive and brain markers associated with long-term growth of children's basic numerical computation abilities is therefore of utmost importance. Previous attempts to relate brain structure and function to numerical competency have focused on behavioral measures from a single time point. Thus, little is known about the brain predictors of individual...

  3. Acute Sleep Deprivation Induces a Local Brain Transfer Information Increase in the Frontal Cortex in a Widespread Decrease Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan F. Alonso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD has adverse effects on mental and physical health, affecting the cognitive abilities and emotional states. Specifically, cognitive functions and alertness are known to decrease after SD. The aim of this work was to identify the directional information transfer after SD on scalp EEG signals using transfer entropy (TE. Using a robust methodology based on EEG recordings of 18 volunteers deprived from sleep for 36 h, TE and spectral analysis were performed to characterize EEG data acquired every 2 h. Correlation between connectivity measures and subjective somnolence was assessed. In general, TE showed medium- and long-range significant decreases originated at the occipital areas and directed towards different regions, which could be interpreted as the transfer of predictive information from parieto-occipital activity to the rest of the head. Simultaneously, short-range increases were obtained for the frontal areas, following a consistent and robust time course with significant maps after 20 h of sleep deprivation. Changes during sleep deprivation in brain network were measured effectively by TE, which showed increased local connectivity and diminished global integration. TE is an objective measure that could be used as a potential measure of sleep pressure and somnolence with the additional property of directed relationships.

  4. Acute Sleep Deprivation Induces a Local Brain Transfer Information Increase in the Frontal Cortex in a Widespread Decrease Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Joan F; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miguel A; Alcalá, Marta; Antonijoan, Rosa M; Giménez, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has adverse effects on mental and physical health, affecting the cognitive abilities and emotional states. Specifically, cognitive functions and alertness are known to decrease after SD. The aim of this work was to identify the directional information transfer after SD on scalp EEG signals using transfer entropy (TE). Using a robust methodology based on EEG recordings of 18 volunteers deprived from sleep for 36 h, TE and spectral analysis were performed to characterize EEG data acquired every 2 h. Correlation between connectivity measures and subjective somnolence was assessed. In general, TE showed medium- and long-range significant decreases originated at the occipital areas and directed towards different regions, which could be interpreted as the transfer of predictive information from parieto-occipital activity to the rest of the head. Simultaneously, short-range increases were obtained for the frontal areas, following a consistent and robust time course with significant maps after 20 h of sleep deprivation. Changes during sleep deprivation in brain network were measured effectively by TE, which showed increased local connectivity and diminished global integration. TE is an objective measure that could be used as a potential measure of sleep pressure and somnolence with the additional property of directed relationships. PMID:27089346

  5. Acute Sleep Deprivation Induces a Local Brain Transfer Information Increase in the Frontal Cortex in a Widespread Decrease Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Joan F.; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miguel A.; Alcalá, Marta; Antonijoan, Rosa M.; Giménez, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has adverse effects on mental and physical health, affecting the cognitive abilities and emotional states. Specifically, cognitive functions and alertness are known to decrease after SD. The aim of this work was to identify the directional information transfer after SD on scalp EEG signals using transfer entropy (TE). Using a robust methodology based on EEG recordings of 18 volunteers deprived from sleep for 36 h, TE and spectral analysis were performed to characterize EEG data acquired every 2 h. Correlation between connectivity measures and subjective somnolence was assessed. In general, TE showed medium- and long-range significant decreases originated at the occipital areas and directed towards different regions, which could be interpreted as the transfer of predictive information from parieto-occipital activity to the rest of the head. Simultaneously, short-range increases were obtained for the frontal areas, following a consistent and robust time course with significant maps after 20 h of sleep deprivation. Changes during sleep deprivation in brain network were measured effectively by TE, which showed increased local connectivity and diminished global integration. TE is an objective measure that could be used as a potential measure of sleep pressure and somnolence with the additional property of directed relationships. PMID:27089346

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  7. Intracerebroventricular transplantation of ex vivo expanded endothelial colony-forming cells restores blood-brain barrier integrity and promotes angiogenesis of mice with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin-Tao; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Li, Sheng-Jie; Li, Sheng-Hui; Tang, Qing; Wang, Zhi-Tao; Dong, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Ning

    2013-12-15

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a key role in tissue repair and regeneration. Previous studies have shown a positive correlation between the number of circulating EPCs and clinical outcomes of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). A recent study has further shown that intravenous infusion of human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) improves outcomes of mice subjected to experimental TBI. This follow-up study was designed to determine whether intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of ECFCs, which may reduce systemic effects of these cells, could repair the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and promote angiogenesis of mice with TBI. Adult nude mice were exposed to fluid percussion injury and transplanted i.c.v. with ECFCs on day 1 post-TBI. These ECFCs were detected at the TBI zone 3 days after transplantation by SP-DiIC18(3) and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Mice with ECFCs transplant had reduced Evans blue extravasation and brain water content, increased expression of ZO-1 and claudin-5, and showed a higher expression of angiopoietin 1. Consistent with the previous report, mice with ECFCs transplant had also increased microvascular density. Modified neurological severity score and Morris water maze test indicated significant improvements in motor ability, spatial acquisition and reference memory in mice receiving ECFCs, compared to those receiving saline. These data demonstrate the beneficial effects of ECFC transplant on BBB integrity and angiogenesis in mice with TBI. PMID:23957220

  8. Current preclinical studies on neuroinflammation and changes in blood-brain barrier integrity by MDMA and methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Esther; Urrutia, Andrés; Green, A Richard; Colado, M Isabel

    2014-12-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is essential in the maintenance of brain homeostasis both by preserving normal brain functioning and also by protecting the brain from exposure to a range of potentially harmful substances. This review presents some of the evidence of BBB disruption following exposure to the substituted amphetamines 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and methamphetamine (METH), two drugs of abuse which are widely consumed recreationally by younger sectors of the population. Both MDMA and METH have been shown to produce disruption of the BBB as reflected by IgG extravasation and Evans Blue leakage. In particular, METH decreases the expression of basal lamina proteins associated with an increase in matrix metalloproteinase activity. These changes in BBB integrity appear to be related to MDMA-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) JNK1/2. The consequences of the disruption in the BBB by these two drugs remain to be established, but there is evidence in the literature that, at least in the case of METH, increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity may be related to increased behavioural sensitization and reward perhaps because of the modification of the passage of the drug into the CNS. In addition, the high incidence of AIDS-related neurologic disease in METH users may also be related to increased entry into the brain of virally derived neurotoxic products. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. PMID:24594477

  9. Network information security in a phase III Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, S.; Sengupta, S.; Crosswell, A.; Clayton, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    The developing Integrated Academic Information System (IAIMS) at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center provides data sharing links between two separate corporate entities, namely Columbia University Medical School and The Presbyterian Hospital, using a network-based architecture. Multiple database servers with heterogeneous user authentication protocols are linked to this network. "One-stop information shopping" implies one log-on procedure per session, not separate log-on and log-off procedures for each server or application used during a session. These circumstances provide challenges at the policy and technical levels to data security at the network level and insuring smooth information access for end users of these network-based services. Five activities being conducted as part of our security project are described: (1) policy development; (2) an authentication server for the network; (3) Kerberos as a tool for providing mutual authentication, encryption, and time stamping of authentication messages; (4) a prototype interface using Kerberos services to authenticate users accessing a network database server; and (5) a Kerberized electronic signature. PMID:1336414

  10. Integrating Structure to Protein-Protein Interaction Networks That Drive Metastasis to Brain and Lung in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    H Billur Engin; Emre Guney; Ozlem Keskin; Baldo Oliva; Attila Gursoy

    2013-01-01

    Integrating Structure to Protein-Protein Interaction Networks That Drive Metastasis to Brain and Lung in Breast Cancer H. Billur Engin1, Emre Guney2, Ozlem Keskin1, Baldo Oliva2, Attila Gursoy1* 1 Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics and College of Engineering, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey, 2 Structural Bioinformatics Group (GRIB), Universitat Pompeu Fabra Abstract Blocking specific protein interactions can lead to human diseases. Accordingly, protein i...

  11. White matter integrity in veterans with mild traumatic brain injury: Associations with executive function and loss of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Sorg, SF; DELANO-WOOD, L.; Luc, N; Schiehser, DM; Hanson, KL; Nation, DA; Lanni, E; Jak, AJ; Lu, K.; Meloy, MJ; Frank, LR; Lohr, JB; Bondi, MW

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the association between white matter integrity and executive function (EF) performance in postacute mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). In addition, we examined whether injury severity, as measured by loss of consciousness (LOC) versus alterations in consciousness (AOC), is related to white matter microstructural alterations and neuropsychological outcome. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty Iraq and Afghanistan War era veterans with a hist...

  12. Integrating structure to protein-protein interaction networks that drive metastasis to brain and lung in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Engin, H Billur; G??ney, Emre, 1983-; Keskin, Ozlem; Oliva Miguel, Baldomero; Gursoy, Attila

    2013-01-01

    Integrating Structure to Protein-Protein Interaction Networks That Drive Metastasis to Brain and Lung in Breast Cancer H. Billur Engin1, Emre Guney2, Ozlem Keskin1, Baldo Oliva2, Attila Gursoy1* 1 Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics and College of Engineering, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey, 2 Structural Bioinformatics Group (GRIB), Universitat Pompeu Fabra Abstract Blocking specific protein interactions can lead to human diseases. Accordingly, protein i...

  13. Using geographical information systems mapping to identify areas presenting high risk for traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colantonio Angela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to show how geographical information systems (GIS can be used to track and compare hospitalization rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI over time and across a large geographical area using population based data. Results & Discussion Data on TBI hospitalizations, and geographic and demographic variables, came from the Ontario Trauma Registry Minimum Data Set for the fiscal years 1993-1994 and 2001-2002. Various visualization techniques, exploratory data analysis and spatial analysis were employed to map and analyze these data. Both the raw and standardized rates by age/gender of the geographical unit were studied. Data analyses revealed persistent high rates of hospitalization for TBI resulting from any injury mechanism between two time periods in specific geographic locations. Conclusions This study shows how geographic information systems can be successfully used to investigate hospitalizaton rates for traumatic brain injury using a range of tools and techniques; findings can be used for local planning of both injury prevention and post discharge services, including rehabilitation.

  14. Information-geometric measures estimate neural interactions during oscillatory brain states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin eNie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of functional network structures among multiple neurons is essential to understanding neural information processing. Information geometry (IG, a theory developed for investigating a space of probability distributions has recently been applied to spike-train analysis and has provided robust estimations of neural interactions. Although neural firing in the equilibrium state is often assumed in these studies, in reality, neural activity is non-stationary. The brain exhibits various oscillations depending on cognitive demands or when an animal is asleep. Therefore, the investigation of the IG measures during oscillatory network states is important for testing how the IG method can be applied to real neural data. Using model networks of binary neurons or more realistic spiking neurons, we studied how the single- and pairwise-IG measures were influenced by oscillatory neural activity. Two general oscillatory mechanisms, externally driven oscillations and internally induced oscillations, were considered. In both mechanisms, we found that the single-IG measure was linearly related to the magnitude of the external input, and that the pairwise-IG measure was linearly related to the sum of connection strengths between two neurons. We also observed that the pairwise-IG measure was not dependent on the oscillation frequency. These results are consistent with the previous findings that were obtained under the equilibrium conditions. Therefore, we demonstrate that the IG method provides useful insights into neural interactions under the oscillatory condition that can often be observed in the real brain.

  15. Integrated scheduling and resource management. [for Space Station Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M. T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of integrated scheduling during the Space Station era. Scheduling for Space Station entails coordinating the support of many distributed users who are sharing common resources and pursuing individual and sometimes conflicting objectives. This paper compares the scheduling integration problems of current missions with those anticipated for the Space Station era. It examines the facilities and the proposed operations environment for Space Station. It concludes that the pattern of interdependecies among the users and facilities, which are the source of the integration problem is well structured, allowing a dividing of the larger problem into smaller problems. It proposes an architecture to support integrated scheduling by scheduling efficiently at local facilities as a function of dependencies with other facilities of the program. A prototype is described that is being developed to demonstrate this integration concept.

  16. 75 FR 76982 - Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... AGENCY Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches for... literature searches for IRIS assessments; request for information. SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing the availability of literature searches for four IRIS...

  17. 77 FR 42339 - Improving Contracting Officers' Access to Relevant Integrity Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... information about contractor business ethics in the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS). FAPIIS is designed to facilitate the Government's ability to evaluate the business ethics of prospective contractors and protect the Government from awarding contracts to contractors...

  18. 脑控:基于脑-机接口的人机融合控制%Brain Control: Human-computer Integration Control Based on Brain-computer Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王行愚; 金晶; 张宇; 王蓓

    2013-01-01

    近年来,一类被称之为脑控的新型控制系统发展迅速,这是一种基于脑-机接口(Brain-computer interface,BCI)的人机融合控制系统,也是一种基于人的意念和思维的控制系统.脑控系统己被成功应用于残疾人的生活辅助、中风病人和损伤肢体的康复训练、操作员状态的实时监控、游戏娱乐和智能家居等广泛的领域.本文在简要介绍了脑控的研究背景、基本原理、系统结构和发展概况的基础上,着重对脑电信号(Electroencephalogram,EEG)模式、控制信号转换算法和应用系统研究等主要问题的研究现状,进行了较为详细的论述和分析,并探讨了进一步研究的方向和思路.最后对脑控的未来发展方向和应用前景进行了分析和展望.%Recently, a new system called brain control system has been developed rapidly. Brain control system is a human-computer integration control system based on brain-computer interface (BCI), which relies on human's ideas and thinking. Brain control system has been successfully applied in wide fields, assisting disabled patients daily life, training patients with stroke or limb injury, monitoring the status of human operator, as well as entertainment and smart house etc. In this paper, the background, basic principle, system structure and developments are firstly introduced briefly. The current research status focusing on the problems of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal pattern, control signal transfer algorithm and system application is summarized and analyzed in detail. The further research direction and thoughts are discussed. Finally, the future development of brain control is analyzed and prospects are given.

  19. Information gathering and integration as sources of error in diagnostic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, L D; Wolf, F M; Billi, J E

    1991-01-01

    This research examined the relative importance of information gathering versus information utilization in accounting for errors in diagnostic decision making. Two experiments compared physicians' performances under two conditions: one in which they gathered a limited amount of diagnostic information and then integrated it before making a decision, and the other in which they were given all the diagnostic information and needed only to integrate it. The physicians: 1) frequently failed to select normatively optimal information in both experimental conditions; 2) were more confident about the correctness of their information selection when their task was limited to information integration than when it also included information gathering; and 3) made diagnoses in substantial agreement with those indicated by applying normative procedures to the same data. Physicians appear to have difficulties recognizing the diagnosticity of information, which often results in decisions that are pseudodiagnostic or based on diagnostically worthless information. PMID:1766327

  20. Risk Information Management Resource (RIMR): modeling an approach to defending against military medical information assurance brain drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Willie E.

    2003-05-01

    As Military Medical Information Assurance organizations face off with modern pressures to downsize and outsource, they battle with losing knowledgeable people who leave and take with them what they know. This knowledge is increasingly being recognized as an important resource and organizations are now taking steps to manage it. In addition, as the pressures for globalization (Castells, 1998) increase, collaboration and cooperation are becoming more distributed and international. Knowledge sharing in a distributed international environment is becoming an essential part of Knowledge Management. This is a major shortfall in the current approach to capturing and sharing knowledge in Military Medical Information Assurance. This paper addresses this challenge by exploring Risk Information Management Resource (RIMR) as a tool for sharing knowledge using the concept of Communities of Practice. RIMR is based no the framework of sharing and using knowledge. This concept is done through three major components - people, process and technology. The people aspect enables remote collaboration, support communities of practice, reward and recognize knowledge sharing while encouraging storytelling. The process aspect enhances knowledge capture and manages information. While the technology aspect enhance system integration and data mining, it also utilizes intelligent agents and exploits expert systems. These coupled with supporting activities of education and training, technology infrastructure and information security enables effective information assurance collaboration.

  1. A RuleML Study on Integrating Geographical and Health Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Boley, Harold;

    2008-01-01

    as an interchangeable RuleML knowledge base, consisting of facts and rules. Rules are also used for integrating geographical and health information. The implemented eHealthGeo system uses the OO jDREW reasoning engine to deduce implicit information such as spatial relationships. The system combines this with spatial...... operations and supports health information roll-up and visualization. The eHealthGeo study demonstrates a RuleML approach to supporting semantic health information integration and management....

  2. Integrating Functional Brain Neuroimaging and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience in Child Psychiatry Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of cognitive neuroscience and functional brain neuroimaging to understand brain dysfunction in pediatric psychiatric disorders is discussed. Results show that bipolar youths demonstrate impairment in affective and cognitive neural systems and in these two circuits' interface. Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric…

  3. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE RESTRUCTURING AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION PROCESS OF ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steliac Nela

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many of the organizations that are part of the public and private domain in Romania have reached the stage in which the existing information systems can no longer comply with the requests of users. Therefore, we are compelled by necessity to use integrated information systems which should be able to control all kinds of data and to allow access to them, to ensure the coherence and consistency of the stored information. Managers must be aware of the importance of the implementation of integrated information systems in the background restructuring of the organization, which can thus become consistent and competitive with the European Union one, so the integration process becomes a real and possible one.

  4. Integration of chemotherapy into current treatment strategies for brain metastases from solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with brain metastases represent a heterogeneous group where selection of the most appropriate treatment depends on many patient- and disease-related factors. Eventually, a considerable proportion of patients are treated with palliative approaches such as whole-brain radiotherapy. Whole-brain radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy has recently gained increasing attention and is hoped to augment the palliative effect of whole-brain radiotherapy alone and to extend survival in certain subsets of patients with controlled extracranial disease and good performance status. The randomized trials of whole-brain radiotherapy vs. whole-brain radiotherapy plus chemotherapy suggest that this concept deserves further study, although they failed to improve survival. However, survival might not be the most relevant endpoint in a condition, where most patients die from extracranial progression. Sometimes, the question arises whether patients with newly detected brain metastases and the indication for systemic treatment of extracranial disease can undergo standard systemic chemotherapy with the option of deferred rather than immediate radiotherapy to the brain. The literature contains numerous small reports on this issue, mainly in malignant melanoma, breast cancer, lung cancer and ovarian cancer, but very few sufficiently powered randomized trials. With chemotherapy alone, response rates were mostly in the order of 20–40%. The choice of chemotherapy regimen is often complicated by previous systemic treatment and takes into account the activity of the drugs in extracranial metastatic disease. Because the blood-brain barrier is partially disrupted in most macroscopic metastases, systemically administered agents can gain access to such tumor sites. Our systematic literature review suggests that both chemotherapy and radiochemotherapy for newly diagnosed brain metastases need further critical evaluation before standard clinical implementation. A potential chemotherapy

  5. Integration of chemotherapy into current treatment strategies for brain metastases from solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamm Reinhard

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients with brain metastases represent a heterogeneous group where selection of the most appropriate treatment depends on many patient- and disease-related factors. Eventually, a considerable proportion of patients are treated with palliative approaches such as whole-brain radiotherapy. Whole-brain radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy has recently gained increasing attention and is hoped to augment the palliative effect of whole-brain radiotherapy alone and to extend survival in certain subsets of patients with controlled extracranial disease and good performance status. The randomized trials of whole-brain radiotherapy vs. whole-brain radiotherapy plus chemotherapy suggest that this concept deserves further study, although they failed to improve survival. However, survival might not be the most relevant endpoint in a condition, where most patients die from extracranial progression. Sometimes, the question arises whether patients with newly detected brain metastases and the indication for systemic treatment of extracranial disease can undergo standard systemic chemotherapy with the option of deferred rather than immediate radiotherapy to the brain. The literature contains numerous small reports on this issue, mainly in malignant melanoma, breast cancer, lung cancer and ovarian cancer, but very few sufficiently powered randomized trials. With chemotherapy alone, response rates were mostly in the order of 20–40%. The choice of chemotherapy regimen is often complicated by previous systemic treatment and takes into account the activity of the drugs in extracranial metastatic disease. Because the blood-brain barrier is partially disrupted in most macroscopic metastases, systemically administered agents can gain access to such tumor sites. Our systematic literature review suggests that both chemotherapy and radiochemotherapy for newly diagnosed brain metastases need further critical evaluation before standard clinical

  6. The Impact of Information Technology Integrated Into Decision Making Process

    OpenAIRE

    Codreanu Diana Elena; Rãduþ Carmen; Parpandel Denisa-Elena

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, all studies have shown that information, based on modern information technologies, have gained particular importance is seen as a strategic resource necessary for the development of the resource, which is sometimes considered more important than raw materials or energy. The impact of information technology on various areas of human and economic life is so great that it speaks of a new phase in the evolution of society, namely: information society. Field studies show that in...

  7. Management information systems : emerging tools for integrated forest planning

    OpenAIRE

    Rondeux, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    Reliable information is necessary for effective management planning. To some extent a data base management system (DBMS) often provides the underlying structure of a management information system (MIS). Many computerized systems can be grouped under the MIS umbrella. This is the case of GIS(Geographic Information System) that is optimized to store, retrieve and update geographic information. Such developing technologies that are being used more and more for the planning, monitoring and ev...

  8. Management information systems : emerging tools for integrated forest planning

    OpenAIRE

    Rondeux, Jacques

    1993-01-01

    Reliable information is necessary for effective management planning. To some extent a data base management system (DBMS) often provides the underlying structure of a management information system (MIS). Many computerized systems can be grouped under the MIS umbrella. This is the case of GIS (geographic information system) that is optimized to store, retrieve and update geographic information. Such developing technologies that are being used more and more for the planning, monitoring and e...

  9. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE RESTRUCTURING AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION PROCESS OF ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Steliac Nela; Moisuc Diana - Aderina

    2010-01-01

    Many of the organizations that are part of the public and private domain in Romania have reached the stage in which the existing information systems can no longer comply with the requests of users. Therefore, we are compelled by necessity to use integrated information systems which should be able to control all kinds of data and to allow access to them, to ensure the coherence and consistency of the stored information. Managers must be aware of the importance of the implementation of integrat...

  10. Integrating Information Literacy into Teacher Education: A Successful Grant Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Information literacy has gained importance over the last few decades, not only among librarians, but also with higher education faculty. Information literacy instruction is important for all college-level students. However, it is essential for teacher education students who must not only be information literate themselves, but also be able to…

  11. Risk Informed Design Using Integrated Vehicle Rapid Assessment Tools Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A successful proof of concept was performed in FY 2012 integrating the Envision tool for parametric estimates of vehicle mass and the Rapid Response Risk Assessment...

  12. The integrated web service and genome database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, ChangKug; Park, DongSuk; Seol, YoungJoo; Hahn, JangHo

    2011-01-01

    The National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) constructed an agricultural biology-based infrastructure and developed a Web based relational database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information. The NABIC has concentrated on functional genomics of major agricultural plants, building an integrated biotechnology database for agro-biotech information that focuses on genomics of major agricultural resources. This genome database provides annotated genome information...

  13. Ethics and information technology: how nurses balance when integrity and trust are at stake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Roy L

    2006-01-01

    When we think about ethics in nursing, such things as "Do Not Resuscitate" (DNR) orders and euthanasia come to mind. However, in the information age, there are some often-overlooked ethical issues surrounding information and information systems. This article examines several information technology influences and their impact on the issues of ethics, integrity, and trust. PMID:16449888

  14. SOLUTION OF INTEGRATION TASKS IN ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    VAHRUSHEV VALERIJ YU.; BOGOMOLOVA ELENA V.; LANSKIH ANNA M.; LANSKIH YURIJ V.; LUPPOV ANDREJ V.; MALYSHEVA ANNA V.; SHMAKOVA NATALYA A.

    2016-01-01

    The authors consider the problems of constructing systems of accounting, management and analysis of a company. One of the most cost-effective ways to build such systems is the integration of legacy, acquired and developed components on a middleware base, which can be characterized as a technological platform for integration. Consideration is given to the formalization of principles for creation of such platform software. These principles are formed similarly to the principles of forming a mic...

  15. Enhanced integration of motion information in children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Catherine; Tibber, Marc S.; Charman, Tony; Dakin, Steven C.; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    To judge the overall direction of a shoal of fish or a crowd of people, observers must integrate motion signals across space and time. The limits on our ability to pool motion have largely been established using the motion coherence paradigm, in which observers report the direction of coherently moving dots amid randomly moving noise dots. Poor performance by autistic individuals on this task has widely been interpreted as evidence of disrupted integrative processes. Critically, however, moti...

  16. Conceptualization and Integration of Information Systems in Educational Business Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Salah Alkhafaji; B. Sriram

    2013-01-01

    The business activities are highly incorporated with the technology development and need to be updated periodically. Business activities have made the technology to be more creative and innovative. The organizations need to integrate their business activities into a single system to achieve their aims and objectives successfully. Various studies are already conducted in integrating such business activities as Business Process Management System. In particular, various management systems are av...

  17. Management of information in development projects – a proposed integrated model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bester

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The first section of the article focuses on the need for development in Africa and the specific challenges of development operations. It describes the need for a holistic and integrated information management model as part of the project management body of knowledge aimed at managing the information flow between communities and development project teams. It is argued that information, and access to information, is crucial in development projects and can therefore be seen as a critical success factor in any development project. In the second section of the article, the three information areas of the holistic and integrated information management model are described. In the section thereafter we suggest roles and actions for information managers to facilitate information processes integral to the model. These processes seek to create a developing information community that aligns itself with the development project, and supports and sustains it.

  18. The Integration of the Information and Communication Functions, and the Marketing of the Resulting Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Susan C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical basis for integration of information functions and communication functions, the relevance of this integration in the scientific information cycle, and its positive effect on commodity research networks. The application of this theory is described using three commodity programs of the Centro Internacional de Agricultura…

  19. Integration of IT-Security Aspects into Information Demand Analysis and Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Sandkuhl, Kurt; Matulevicius, Raimundas; Kirikova, Marite; Ahmed, Naved

    2015-01-01

    Information logistics in general addresses demand-oriented information supply in organizations. IT-security has not received much attention in information logistics research. However, integration of security aspects into information logistics methods could be useful for application contexts with strong security requirements. As a contribution to this aspect, the paper investigates the possibility to extend information demand patterns (IDP) and information demand analysis (IDA) with security e...

  20. Towards a Brain-inspired Information Processing System: Modelling and Analysis of Synaptic Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    El-Laithy, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Biological neural systems (BNS) in general and the central nervous system (CNS) specifically exhibit a strikingly efficient computational power along with an extreme flexible and adaptive basis for acquiring and integrating new knowledge. Acquiring more insights into the actual mechanisms of information processing within the BNS and their computational capabilities is a core objective of modern computer science, computational sciences and neuroscience. Among the main reasons of...

  1. Measurement of human blood brain barrier integrity using 11C-inulin and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 11C-inulin was demonstrated to be applicable to the clinical measurement of blood brain barrier permeability and cerebral interstitial fluid volume. Kinetic data were analyzed by application of a two compartment model, in which blood plasma and interstitial fluid spaces constitute the compartments. The blood activity contribution was subtracted from the PET count with the aid of the 11CO inhalation technique. The values we estimated in a human brain were in agreement with the reported values obtained for animal brains by the use of 14C-inulin. (orig.)

  2. Integrated management of information inside maintenance processes. From the building registry to BIM systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Talamo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents objec- tives, methods and results of two researches dealing with the improvement of integrated information management within maintenance processes. Focusing on information needs regarding the last phases of the building process, the two researches draft approaches characterizing a path of progressive improve- ment of strategies for integration: from a building registry, unique for the whole construction process, to an integrated management of the building process with the support of BIM systems.

  3. Integration of library and information activities: The INIST challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A presentation of the INIST (Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique) of CNRS (France) as a complete information factory which combines all the activities involved in managing an important collection and a large-scale document delivery center with the production and operation of databases, online services, publication of current bibliographies and reference tools, production of CD-ROMs, and research activities in the field of information science and technology, is given

  4. Information systems development course : integrating business, IT and IS competencies

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, João Álvaro; Sousa, Rui Dinis; Sá, Jorge Vaz de Oliveira e

    2010-01-01

    Information systems development (ISD) is a capstone course in the Information Systems and Technology undergraduate program at School of Engineering, University of Minho, Portugal. ISD is viewed as an organizational change project that aims at improving an organization through the adoption of IT applications. The course is designed following a project led approach. The project involves describing an organization as a system, describing its information handling activities and proposing a set of...

  5. Informal barriers and agricultural trade: does the integration matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Huchet-Bourdon, Marilyne; Cheptea, Angela

    2009-01-01

    EU enlargement revives the debate around the participation to the EMU. We use a gravity model to see whether informal barriers have changed over a ten-year period covering the creation of the EMU, and whether their impact on European member countries’ agriculturaland food trade has been modified. We find that it has led to lower information costs. We observe a diminishing marginal trade impact of both information and institutional barriers: the lower the level of these barriers, the lower the...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the flow of information to the front of the brain, ... the neuron will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain cells required for normal function and ...

  7. Evaluation of Research Project on Integrated Management and Services of Urban Development Records, Archives, and Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the project "Research in integrated management and services of urban development records, archives, and information" in progress, this paper analyzes "why", "what", and "how" issues of relevant integration research about integrated management and services of urban development records, archives, and information based on a survey of literature at home and abroad. By a comparative study of current integration research status and features, the author gives a critical analysis of the strengths and weakness of the project and provides recommendations for future research.Cross disciplinary studies indicate that ideals of integration can add values to collaboration, innovation,and optimum in managing evidence, information, memory, and knowledge of built environment cross-culture, cross-discipline, cross-domain, and cross institution for enhancing competitiveness and productivity of business. Cross cultural studies indicate that integrated records, archives, and information management as a whole into capital construction project management process, organizational information resources management systems, and the construction of digital urban development archival repository through service-control, process-control, and product-control are fundamental to guarantee the characteristics and quality of records and records system to support evidence-based e-government,e-business, and the sustainability development of digital city. Present studies on integrated management and services of urban development records, archives, and information have limitations on too much emphasis on integration for collaboration and optimum but not enough studies on integration for innovation and broader use.

  8. Restructuring Consciousness –the Psychedelic State in Light of Integrated Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Robert Gallimore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The psychological state elicited by the classic psychedelics drugs, such as LSD and psilocybin, is one of the most fascinating and yet least understood states of consciousness. However, with the advent of modern functional neuroimaging techniques, the effect of these drugs on neural activity is now being revealed, although many of the varied phenomenological features of the psychedelic state remain challenging to explain. Integrated information theory (IIT is one of the foremost contemporary theories of consciousness, providing a mathematical formalization of both the quantity and quality of conscious experience. This theory can be applied to all known states of consciousness, including the psychedelic state. Using the results of functional neuroimaging data on the psychedelic state, the effects of psychedelic drugs on both the level and structure of consciousness can be explained in terms of the conceptual framework of IIT. This new IIT-based model of the psychedelic state provides an explanation for many of its phenomenological features, including unconstrained cognition, alterations in the structure and meaning of concepts and a sense of expanded awareness. This model also suggests that whilst cognitive flexibility, creativity, and imagination are enhanced during the psychedelic state, this occurs at the expense of cause-effect information, as well as degrading the brain’s ability to organize, categorize, and differentiate the constituents of conscious experience. Furthermore, the model generates specific predictions that can be tested using a combination of functional imaging techniques, as has been applied to the study of levels of consciousness during anesthesia and following brain injury.

  9. Building Better Biology Undergraduates through Information Literacy Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterman, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Biology undergraduates at Indiana University have often been expected to find information for course exercises or written reports, but the skills necessary to do so are not taught consistently in the curriculum. Other efforts described in the literature have been successful in teaching information literacy skills, but not always in a way that is…

  10. Semantic Integration of Verbal Information Into a Visual Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    1,242 subjects, in five experiments plus a pilot study, saw a series of slides depicting a single auto-pedestrian accident. These experiments investigate how information supplied after an event influences a witness's memory for that event. Results suggest that information supplied a witness after an event, whether inconsistent or misleading, is…

  11. Integrating Geo-information Models with Participatory Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nidumolu, U.B.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we demonstrate some methods to integrate biophysical data with socio-economic variables with applications in agricultural land use analysis. Part of Nizamabad District of Andhra Pradesh State in India is considered for developing and testing the methods developed. First the study area

  12. Vertical integration and information sharing — an empirical investigation in the German apparel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Goebel, Christoph; Krasnova, Hanna; Syllwasschy, Henning; Günther, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Despite the astounding success of the fast fashion retailers, the management practices leading to these results have not been subject to extensive research so far. Given this background, we analyze the impact of information sharing and vertical integration on the performance of 51 German apparel companies. We find that the positive impact of vertical integration is mediated by information sharing, i.e. that the ability to improve the information flow is a key success factor of vertically inte...

  13. Information Logistics Service Router. An ESB for integrating enterprise services

    OpenAIRE

    Lundblad, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter System Partner is currently working on a product idea called Information Logistics. The product focuses on collecting information via modules from several services in an enterprise system. The product will be based upon financial systems which can be customized via modules. Specifically, the product will be based upon their existing system called eSecretary which extends the economy system with a document storage where invoices, packaging documents and signatures can be stored. O...

  14. Experimental and causal view on information integration in autonomous agents

    OpenAIRE

    Geiger, Philipp; Hofmann, Katja; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The amount of digitally available but heterogeneous information about the world is remarkable, and new technologies such as self-driving cars, smart homes or the "internet of things" will further increase it. In this paper we examine certain aspects of the problem of how such heterogeneous information can be harnessed by intelligent agents. We first discuss potentials and limitations of some existing approaches, followed by two investigations. The focus of the first investigation is on using ...

  15. Integrating methods from IR and QA for geographic information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    LEVELING, JOHANNES; Hartrumpf, Sven

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the participation of GIRSA at Geo- CLEF 2008, the geographic information retrieval task at CLEF. GIRSA combines information retrieval (IR) on geographically annotated data and question answering (QA) employing query decomposition. For the monolingual German experiments, several parameter settings were varied: using a single index or separate indexes for content and geographic annotation, using complex term weighting, adding location names from the topic narrative, a...

  16. Integrating Information Services for Managing Regulations in International Maritime Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Chlomoudis, Constantine; Kostagiolas, Petros A.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, decision making in maritime transportation includes information for obligatory or not regulations related to quality, safety and security. Decisions of this nature have a significant effect on the actual cost of quality, safety and security in maritime transport. Although regulatory information is important, it is rather fragmented due to the internationalized nature of maritime operations as well as because it involves various private and public sector standardization agencies. In ...

  17. On Integrity Constraints for a Waste Management Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, D. (Dominik)

    1994-01-01

    There is a waste problem in nearly every country. A model of a waste generating system and an efficient waste management information system are the first steps to control this problem. Some countries have already enacted laws which force communities and enterprises to report annually the amounts of wastes produced. For example, the German federal state, Lower Saxony, enacted such a law in 1992. This YSSP-Project deals with a case study on the development of a waste management information syst...

  18. Organization Networks as Information Integration System: Case study on Environment and Health in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Lajaunie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for evaluating the capacity of a network of organizations to function as Information Integration System (IIS as required in the performance of complex common objectives such as the design of inter-sectoral policies in "Health and Environment". Inspired by the information integration theory issued from the modeling of consciousness, the method poses that the information integration is limited by the partition of the set of organizations that presents major difficulties to share information. It proceeds in two steps: a the establishment of a network where vertices are organizations and links are induced by the average mutual information between organizations, information assessed on the basis of textual corpora associated with each organization; b the assessment of the ability to function as IIS, defined as the minimum of the average mutual information between components of a partition, minimum found among all partitions of the set of the organizations.

  19. 建立Web信息集成系统%Building Web Information Integration Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡俊杰; 孙建伶; 董金祥

    2001-01-01

    The Web is based on a browsing paradigm that makes it difficult to retrieve compositive information from multiple sites. Web information integration systems,as a sophisticated solution to this problem,enable easy retrieval for comprehensive information from the Web. Based on a prototype we have implemented a Web information integration system,which is called Aoede. This paper introduces the design and implementation of the systems by analyaing many of its main issues,including architecture ,information resources ,wrapper,mediator ,query optimization and execution. Difficult problems are highlighted and respective possible solutions to them are also given.

  20. Art Therapy for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury: A Comprehensive Neurorehabilitation-Informed Approach to Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Tori

    2016-01-01

    I describe an approach to art therapy treatment for survivors of traumatic brain injury developed at a rehabilitation facility for adults that serves inpatient, outpatient, and long-term residential clients. This approach is based on a review of the literature on traumatic brain injury, comprehensive neurorehabilitation, brain plasticity, and art…

  1. Study on advanced systematic function of the JNC geological disposal technical information integration system. Research document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, while attaining systematization about the technical know-how mutually utilized between geology environmental field, disposal technology (design) field and safety assessment field, the share function of general information in which the formation of an information share and the use promotion between the technical information management databases built for every field were aimed at as an advancement of the function of JNC Geological Disposal Technical Information Integration System considered, and the system function for realizing considered in integration of technical information. (1) Since the concrete information about geology environment which is gradually updated with progress of stratum disposal research, or increases in reflected suitable for research of design and safety assessment. After arranging the form suitable for systematizing technical information, while arranging the technical information in both the fields of design and safety assessment with the form of two classes based on tasks/works, it systematized planning adjustment about delivery of technical information with geology environmental field. (2) In order to aim at integration of 3-fields technical information of geological disposal, based on the examination result of systematization of technical information, the function of mutual use of the information managed in two or more databases was considered. Moreover, while considering system functions, such as management of the use history of technical information, connection of information use, and a notice of common information, the system operation windows in consideration of the ease of operation was examined. (author)

  2. Predicting ramps by integrating different sorts of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2016-05-01

    Although predicting sudden rapid changes of renewable energy outputs is useful for maintaining the stability of power grids with many renewable energy resources, the prediction is difficult so far. Here we list causes for the uncertainty for our prediction, quantify them, and forecast whether such sudden rapid changes are likely to happen or not by integrating their quantifications with a method of machine learning. We test the proposed forecast using a toy model and real datasets of solar irradiance and wind speed.

  3. Integrating Geo-information Models with Participatory Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Nidumolu, U.B.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we demonstrate some methods to integrate biophysical data with socio-economic variables with applications in agricultural land use analysis. Part of Nizamabad District of Andhra Pradesh State in India is considered for developing and testing the methods developed. First the study area is stratified as a pre-field work exercise for a focused land use analysis. Stratification of the land into categories on the basis of land use analysis objectives, such as crop management improve...

  4. Whole brain diffeomorphic metric mapping via integration of sulcal and gyral curves, cortical surfaces, and images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jia; Younes, Laurent; Qiu, Anqi

    2011-05-01

    This paper introduces a novel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm for whole brain registration where sulcal and gyral curves, cortical surfaces, and intensity images are simultaneously carried from one subject to another through a flow of diffeomorphisms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the diffeomorphic metric from one brain to another is derived in a shape space of intensity images and point sets (such as curves and surfaces) in a unified manner. We describe the Euler-Lagrange equation associated with this algorithm with respect to momentum, a linear transformation of the velocity vector field of the diffeomorphic flow. The numerical implementation for solving this variational problem, which involves large-scale kernel convolution in an irregular grid, is made feasible by introducing a class of computationally friendly kernels. We apply this algorithm to align magnetic resonance brain data. Our whole brain mapping results show that our algorithm outperforms the image-based LDDMM algorithm in terms of the mapping accuracy of gyral/sulcal curves, sulcal regions, and cortical and subcortical segmentation. Moreover, our algorithm provides better whole brain alignment than combined volumetric and surface registration (Postelnicu et al., 2009) and hierarchical attribute matching mechanism for elastic registration (HAMMER) (Shen and Davatzikos, 2002) in terms of cortical and subcortical volume segmentation. PMID:21281722

  5. BGI-RIS: an integrated information resource and comparative analysis workbench for rice genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Wenming; Wang, Jing; He, Ximiao;

    2004-01-01

    the application of the rice genomic information and to provide a foundation for functional and evolutionary studies of other important cereal crops, we implemented our Rice Information System (BGI-RIS), the most up-to-date integrated information resource as well as a workbench for comparative genomic...

  6. A Study on Information Technology Integrated Guided Iscovery Instruction towards Students' Learning Achievement and Learning Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Chich-Jen; Yu, Lean

    2016-01-01

    In the information explosion era with constant changes of information, educators have promoted various effective learning strategies for students adapting to the complex modern society. The impact and influence of traditional teaching method have information technology integrated modern instruction and science concept learning play an important…

  7. The path integral of Feynman and "information modelling" of processes and systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shro, O. I.

    2009-01-01

    The given article example of physical analogies to be entered information space-time. The opportunity of Poincare group use is shown for transition from one frame in another, for this purpose is entered invariant velocity of transition of the information. For calculation of information processes probability amplitudes is offered using path integral of Feynman.

  8. 75 FR 63827 - Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Request for Chemical Substance Nominations for 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... AGENCY Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Request for Chemical Substance Nominations for 2011... quantitative and qualitative risk information on effects that may result from exposure to specific chemical... delivery/courier. Please follow the detailed instructions provided in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...

  9. Multi-fields' coordination information integrated platform for nuclear power plant operation preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To realize the coordination in multi-fields' work and information sharing, by applying the method of Enterprise Architecture (EA), the business architecture, functional flow and application architecture of Nuclear Power Plant's operation preparation information integrated platform are designed, which can realize the information sharing and coordination of multi fields. (authors)

  10. Integrating Instructional Technology with Information Technology and Its Implications for Designing Electronic Learning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelraheem, Ahmed Yousif

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the concepts of technology, instructional technology, and information technology are presented. The integration of instructional technology, and information technology is established and its implications for electronic learning systems design are discussed. One can say that: information and instructional designers can design…

  11. Hippocampus-Sparing Whole-Brain Radiotherapy and Simultaneous Integrated Boost for Multiple Brain Metastases From Lung Adenocarcinoma: Early Response and Dosimetric Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Cho, Byoung Chul; Lee, Chang Geol; Kim, Hye Ryun; Suh, Yang Gun; Kim, Jun Won; Choi, Chihwan; Baek, Jong Geal; Cho, Jaeho

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the volume response and treatment outcome after hippocampus-sparing whole-brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) using tomotherapy were evaluated. Patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma and multiple brain metastases who had a Karnofsky performance status ≥ 70 and exhibited well-controlled extracranial disease were treated. The prescribed dose was administered in 10 to 14 fractions as 25 to 28 Gy to whole-brain parenchyma, as 40 to 48 Gy to the gross metastatic lesion, and as 30 to 42 Gy to a 5-mm margin to the metastatic lesion. Double-dose gadolinium contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging at 1-mm slice thickness was performed before treatment and at 1, 4, and 7 months post-treatment. The tumor volume reduction ratio was calculated for each follow-up. Between July 2011 and September 2012, 11 patients with 70 lesions were included in this analysis. The median number of lesions per patient was 4 (range, 2-15). The median initial tumor volume was 0.235 cm(3) (range, 0.020-10.140 cm(3)). The treatment plans were evaluated regarding conformation number (CN), target coverage (TC), and homogeneity index (HI). The median follow-up duration was 14 months (range, 3-25 months) and the 1-year intracranial control rate was 67%. The tumor volume reduction was most prominent during the first month with a median reduction rate of 0.717 (range, -0.190 to 1.000). Complete remission was seen in 22 (33%) lesions, and 45 (64%) lesions showed more than 65% reduction in tumor volume. The CN, TC, and HI values were comparable to that of previous studies, and the mean hippocampal dose was 13.65 Gy. No treatment breaks or ≥ G3 acute toxicities were observed during or after treatment. The HS-WBRT with SIB in patients with multiple brain metastases was effective and feasible for volume reduction and showed excellent intracranial control. PMID:25601853

  12. Turning Data into Information: Assessing and Reporting GIS Metadata Integrity Using Integrated Computing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulrooney, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    A Geographic Information System (GIS) serves as the tangible and intangible means by which spatially related phenomena can be created, analyzed and rendered. GIS metadata serves as the formal framework to catalog information about a GIS data set. Metadata is independent of the encoded spatial and attribute information. GIS metadata is a subset of…

  13. Brain mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Koritnik

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Cartography of the brain ("brain mapping" aims to represent the complexities of the working brain in an understandable and usable way. There are four crucial steps in brain mapping: (1 acquiring data about brain structure and function, (2 transformation of data into a common reference, (3 visualization and interpretation of results, and (4 databasing and archiving. Electrophysiological and functional imaging methods provide information about function of the human brain. A prerequisite for multisubject, multidimensional and multimodal mapping is transformation of individual images to match a standard brain template. To produce brain maps, color, contours, and other visual cues are used to differentiate metabolic rates, electrical field potentials, receptor densities, and other attributes of structure or function. Databases are used to organize and archive data records. By relating the maps to cognitive functions and psychological models, brain mapping offers a prerequisite for the understanding of organizational principles of the human brain.

  14. Multimodal imaging utilising integrated MR-PET for human brain tumour assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuner, Irene [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Aachen (Germany); JARA-BRAIN-Translational Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Kaffanke, Joachim B. [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); MR-Transfer e.K., Wuppertal (Germany); Langen, Karl-Josef; Kops, Elena Rota; Tellmann, Lutz; Stoffels, Gabriele; Weirich, Christoph; Filss, Christian; Scheins, Juergen; Herzog, Hans [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); Shah, N. Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University, Department of Neurology, Aachen (Germany); JARA-BRAIN-Translational Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The development of integrated magnetic resonance (MR)-positron emission tomography (PET) hybrid imaging opens up new horizons for imaging in neuro-oncology. In cerebral gliomas the definition of tumour extent may be difficult to ascertain using standard MR imaging (MRI) only. The differentiation of post-therapeutic scar tissue, tumour rests and tumour recurrence is challenging. The relationship to structures such as the pyramidal tract to the tumour mass influences the therapeutic neurosurgical approach. The diagnostic information may be enriched by sophisticated MR techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), multiple-volume proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and functional MRI (fMRI). Metabolic imaging with PET, especially using amino acid tracers such as {sup 18}F-fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine (FET) or {sup 11}C-l-methionine (MET) will indicate tumour extent and response to treatment. The new technologies comprising MR-PET hybrid systems have the advantage of providing comprehensive answers by a one-stop-job of 40-50 min. The combined approach provides data of different modalities using the same iso-centre, resulting in optimal spatial and temporal realignment. All images are acquired exactly under the same physiological conditions. We describe the imaging protocol in detail and provide patient examples for the different imaging modalities such as FET-PET, standard structural imaging (T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T1-weighted contrast agent enhanced), DTI, MRSI and fMRI. (orig.)

  15. Multimodal imaging utilising integrated MR-PET for human brain tumour assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of integrated magnetic resonance (MR)-positron emission tomography (PET) hybrid imaging opens up new horizons for imaging in neuro-oncology. In cerebral gliomas the definition of tumour extent may be difficult to ascertain using standard MR imaging (MRI) only. The differentiation of post-therapeutic scar tissue, tumour rests and tumour recurrence is challenging. The relationship to structures such as the pyramidal tract to the tumour mass influences the therapeutic neurosurgical approach. The diagnostic information may be enriched by sophisticated MR techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), multiple-volume proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and functional MRI (fMRI). Metabolic imaging with PET, especially using amino acid tracers such as 18F-fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine (FET) or 11C-l-methionine (MET) will indicate tumour extent and response to treatment. The new technologies comprising MR-PET hybrid systems have the advantage of providing comprehensive answers by a one-stop-job of 40-50 min. The combined approach provides data of different modalities using the same iso-centre, resulting in optimal spatial and temporal realignment. All images are acquired exactly under the same physiological conditions. We describe the imaging protocol in detail and provide patient examples for the different imaging modalities such as FET-PET, standard structural imaging (T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T1-weighted contrast agent enhanced), DTI, MRSI and fMRI. (orig.)

  16. A Role for Astrocytes in Sensing the Brain Microenvironment and Neuro-Metabolic Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschemacher, A G; Gourine, A V; Kasparov, S

    2015-12-01

    Astrocytes occupy a strategic position in the brain where they can act as an interface between neurones and blood vessels, and neurones and the cerebro-spinal fluid. This location is ideal for functioning as interoceptors, as they may sense changes in brain microenvironment and contribute to the adaptive homeostatic responses coordinated by neuronal networks. Here we briefly review some of the recent evidence, which implicates the involvement of astrocytes in the central nervous control of breathing, sympathetic tone and blood glucose levels. L-lactate appears a potentially crucial signaling molecule in the communication between astrocytes and neurones. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that astrocytes contribute to the homeostasis by playing a significant role in the brain's interoceptive mechanisms. PMID:25837670

  17. Executive control of language in the bilingual brain: Integrating the evidence from neuroimaging to neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlexisGeorgesHervais-Adelman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review we will focus on delineating the neural substrates of the executive control of language in the bilingual brain, based on the existing neuroimaging, intracranial, transcranial magnetic stimulation and neuropsychological evidence. We will also offer insights from ongoing brain imaging studies into the development of expertise in multilingual language control. We will concentrate specifically on evidence regarding how the brain selects and controls languages for comprehension and production. This question has been addressed in a number of ways and using various tasks, including language switching during production or perception, translation and interpretation. We will attempt to synthesise existing evidence in order to bring to light the neural substrates that are crucial to executive control of language.

  18. Integrating Health Information Technology to Achieve Seamless Care Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Leah; Kirtane, Janhavi; Lynn, Joanne; McKethan, Aaron

    2015-12-01

    Improving care transitions, or "handoffs" as patients migrate from one care setting to another, is a priority across stakeholder groups and health-care settings and additionally is included in national health-care goals set forth in the National Quality Strategy. Although many demonstrations of improved care transitions have succeeded, particularly for hospital discharges, ensuring consistent, high-quality, and safe transitions of care remains challenging. This paper highlights the potential for health information technology to become an increasing part of effective transitional care interventions, with the potential to reduce the resource burden currently associated with effective care transitions, the ability to spread improved practices to larger numbers of patients and providers efficiently and at scale, and, as health technology interoperability increases, the potential to facilitate critical information flow and feedback loops to clinicians, patients, and caregivers across disparate information systems and care settings. PMID:24522208

  19. Demystifying "free will": the role of contextual information and evidence accumulation for predictive brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Stefan; Murawski, Carsten; Soon, Chun Siong; Bode, Philipp; Stahl, Jutta; Smith, Philip L

    2014-11-01

    Novel multivariate pattern classification analyses have enabled the prediction of decision outcomes from brain activity prior to decision-makers' reported awareness. These findings are often discussed in relation to the philosophical concept of "free will". We argue that these studies demonstrate the role of unconscious processes in simple free choices, but they do not inform the philosophical debate. Moreover, these findings are difficult to relate to cognitive decision-making models, due to misleading assumptions about random choices. We review evidence suggesting that sequential-sampling models, which assume accumulation of evidence towards a decision threshold, can also be applied to free decisions. If external evidence is eliminated by the task instructions, decision-makers might use alternative, subtle contextual information as evidence, such as their choice history, that is not consciously monitored and usually concealed by the experimental design. We conclude that the investigation of neural activity patterns associated with free decisions should aim to investigate how decisions are jointly a function of internal and external contexts, rather than to resolve the philosophical "free will" debate. PMID:25452111

  20. Deterministic multivalued logic scheme for information processing and routing in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezrukov, Sergey M. [Laboratory of Physical and Structural Biology, Program in Physical Biology, NICHD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Kish, Laszlo B., E-mail: laszlo.kish@ece.tamu.ed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, Mailstop 3128, College Station, 77843-3128 TX (United States)

    2009-06-22

    Driven by analogies with state vectors of quantum informatics and noise-based logic, we propose a general scheme and elements of neural circuitry for processing and addressing information in the brain. Specifically, we consider random (e.g., Poissonian) trains of finite-duration spikes, and, using the idealized concepts of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, offer a procedure for generating 2{sup N}-1 orthogonal vectors out of N partially overlapping trains ('neuro-bits'). We then show that these vectors can be used to construct 2{sup 2N-1}-1 different superpositions which represent the same number of logic values when carrying or routing information. In quantum informatics the above numbers are the same, however, the present logic scheme is more advantageous because it is deterministic in the sense that the presence of a vector in the spike train is detected by an appropriate coincidence circuit. For this reason it does not require time averaging or repeated measurements of the kind used in standard cross-correlation analysis or in quantum computing.

  1. Deterministic multivalued logic scheme for information processing and routing in the brain

    CERN Document Server

    Bezrukov, S M

    2009-01-01

    Driven by analogies with state vectors of quantum informatics and noise-based logic, we propose a general scheme and elements of neural circuitry for processing and addressing information in the brain. Specifically, we consider random (e.g., Poissonian) trains of finite-duration spikes, and, using the idealized concept of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, offer a procedure for generating 2^N-1 orthogonal vectors out of N partially overlapping trains (neuro-bits). We then show that these vectors can be used to construct 2^(2^N-1)-1 different superpositions which represent the same number of logic values when carrying or routing information. In quantum informatics the above numbers are the same, however, the present logic scheme is more advantageous because it is deterministic in the sense that the presence of a vector in the spike train is detected by an appropriate coincidence circuit. For this reason it does not require time averaging or repeated measurements of the kind used in standard cross-correlation ...

  2. Integrating information seeking and information structuring: spatial hypertext as an interface to the digital library.

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, George

    2004-01-01

    Information seeking is the task of finding documents that satisfy the information needs of a person or organisation. Digital Libraries are one means of providing documents to meet the information needs of their users - i.e. as a resource to support information seeking. Therefore, research into the activity of information seeking is key to the development and understanding of digital libraries. Information structuring is the activity of organising documents found in the process of informat...

  3. Information Technology Integration in Higher Education: A Novel Approach for Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkareem Al-Alwani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current technological world of Information services, academic systems are also in the process of adapting information technology solutions. Information systems vary for different applications and specifically in academia domain, a range of information systems are available for different institutions worldwide. Integration of e-learning can optimize implementation of computer-based and computer-assisted educational processes at all levels. Therefore it is imperative to assess and evaluate integration of these information systems because they have serious impact on e-learning processes. In this study an instrument survey is presented for evaluating integration of information technology systems and practices in an educational environment. Survey is constructed using descriptive questions related to information technology tools to assess qualitative impact and usage of such tools. Critical feedback, analysis and suggestions from 25 educationists played a pivotal role in finalizing proposed survey questionnaire. A subsequent test evaluation by teachers and students is also carried out to assess adequate utilization of information systems in Yanbu University College. The results showed that feedback using this survey can help in identifying technological gaps and facilitate effective integration of information technology in an educational environment. Survey instrument proposed in this research can greatly enhance integration of IT tools as it can identify shortcomings by collecting statistical data from feedback of both faculty and students. Solution to these problems is deterministic and can be easily implemented to optimize overall performance of e-learning systems.

  4. Integrated processing of ECG's in a hospital information system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, J.C.; Schram, P.H.; Verwey, H.; Meijler, F.L.; Robles de Medina, E.O.

    1979-01-01

    The ECG handling in the University Hospital of Utrecht is composed by a system consisting of acquisition and storage of ECG signals, computer analysis, data management, and storage of readings in a patient data base. The last two modules are part of a Hospital Information System (HIS). The modular s

  5. Integrated information management applying successful industrial concepts in IT

    CERN Document Server

    Zarnekow, Rüdiger; Pilgram, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    Addresses the challenges facing information management (IM) and presents practical solution propositions. Divided into three parts, this book addresses IT managers. It also presents results of real pilot projects, which were implemented at collaborating companies of the Competence Center for IIM at the University of St Gallen.

  6. Operation and maintenance integrated information platform for CEFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper carries out effective study on information resources such as MIS, SIS and EAM, and constructs CEFR operation resources management system; it also promotes the establishment of management model for the standardized operation of CEFR by taking informationization as the basis. (authors)

  7. Exploitation of Unintentional Information Leakage from Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, William E.

    2011-01-01

    The information leakage of electronic devices, especially those used in cryptographic or other vital applications, represents a serious practical threat to secure systems. While physical implementation attacks have evolved rapidly over the last decade, relatively little work has been done to allow system designers to effectively counter the…

  8. Integrating climatic information in water resources modelling and optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelati, Emiliano

    Metoder til integering af klimatisk information i vandressource-modellering -optimering er udviklet og demonstreret i to eksempelvise anvendelser. I modelanvendelserne er variationen af de lokale hydrologiske variable betinget af værdierne af klimatiske variable på stor skala, svarende til klimab...

  9. Program-Integrated Information Literacy Instruction for Online Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Swapna; Ochoa, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Academic librarians often provide information literacy support for specific courses or topics in the form of research guides, one-shot training sessions, library orientations, or by embedding library content into online courses. Less frequently, they provide continuous program-level support on-campus or online. This paper highlights the value of…

  10. Integrating radiology information systems with healthcare delivery environments using DICOM and HL7 standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazona, Bojan; Koncar, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Integration based on open standards, in order to achieve communication and information interoperability, is one of the key aspects of modern health care information systems. Interoperability presents data and communication layer interchange. In this context we identified the HL7 standard as the world's leading medical Information and communication technology (ICT) standard for the business layer in healthcare information systems and we tried to explore the ability to exchange clinical documents with minimal integrated healthcare information systems (IHCIS) change. We explored HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) abilities to achieve radiology information system integration (DICOM) to IHCIS (HL7). We introduced the use of WADO service interconnection to IHCIS and finally CDA rendering in widely used Internet explorers. PMID:17108539

  11. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words: temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schie, H.T. van; Wijers, A.A.; Mars, R.B.; Benjamins, J.S.; Stowe, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that inv

  12. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer…

  13. Child, Adolescent, and Young Adult Community Integration after a Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Barbara; Brouwers, Lynn; Ruoff, Janis; Trudel, Tina M.; Valnes, Betsy; Elias, Eileen; Pines, Hayley

    2010-01-01

    "Rehabilitation," as a term in and of itself, implies a goal of bringing something back to its original state of being. However, for many people living with traumatic brain injury (TBI), rehabilitation means learning to live all over again. Through means of education and employment, this article explores the quest for inclusive community…

  14. Understanding and Exploiting Information Spreading and Integrating Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Petter Holme; Mikael Huss

    2011-01-01

    Our daily life leaves an increasing amount of digital traces,footprints that are improving our lives.Data-mining tools,like recommender systems,convert these traces to information for aiding decisions in an ever-increasing number of areas in our lives.The feedback loop from what we do,to the information this produces,to decisions what to do next,will likely be an increasingly important factor in human behavior on all levels from individuals to societies.In this essay,we review some effects of this feedback and discuss how to understand and exploit them beyond mapping them on more well-understood phenomena.We take examples from models of spreading phenomena in social media to argue that analogies can be deceptive,instead we need to fresh approaches to the new types of data,something we exemplify with promising applications in medicine.

  15. Multi-study integration of brain cancer transcriptomes reveals organ-level molecular signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyun Sung

    Full Text Available We utilized abundant transcriptomic data for the primary classes of brain cancers to study the feasibility of separating all of these diseases simultaneously based on molecular data alone. These signatures were based on a new method reported herein--Identification of Structured Signatures and Classifiers (ISSAC--that resulted in a brain cancer marker panel of 44 unique genes. Many of these genes have established relevance to the brain cancers examined herein, with others having known roles in cancer biology. Analyses on large-scale data from multiple sources must deal with significant challenges associated with heterogeneity between different published studies, for it was observed that the variation among individual studies often had a larger effect on the transcriptome than did phenotype differences, as is typical. For this reason, we restricted ourselves to studying only cases where we had at least two independent studies performed for each phenotype, and also reprocessed all the raw data from the studies using a unified pre-processing pipeline. We found that learning signatures across multiple datasets greatly enhanced reproducibility and accuracy in predictive performance on truly independent validation sets, even when keeping the size of the training set the same. This was most likely due to the meta-signature encompassing more of the heterogeneity across different sources and conditions, while amplifying signal from the repeated global characteristics of the phenotype. When molecular signatures of brain cancers were constructed from all currently available microarray data, 90% phenotype prediction accuracy, or the accuracy of identifying a particular brain cancer from the background of all phenotypes, was found. Looking forward, we discuss our approach in the context of the eventual development of organ-specific molecular signatures from peripheral fluids such as the blood.

  16. Development of JNC geological disposal technical information integration system - an approach to integrate and share technical information among performance assessment, repository design and site investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a current status of development of 'JNC Geological Disposal Technical Information Integration System (JGIS)' which aims to facilitate integration and sharing of technical information among Site Investigation (SI), Repository Design (RD) and Performance Assessment (PA) teams. SI, RD and PA are inter-independent and should strongly interact to optimize each activity. SI, in particular, needs to provide basic information for all activities. However, it is not always easy to strongly interact because geological disposal requires the integration of disciplines that are highly complicated and wide-ranging. It is also difficult to understand the entire scope of activities and to correlate one's own work with the needs of other disciplines. This difficulty increases as the site investigation proceeds and more information becomes available. JNC is developing two underground research laboratories, one in crystalline rock and the other in Tertiary sedimentary rock. RD methods and PA methods will be developed and demonstrated using these two URLs. Starting in 2001, JNC initiated the development of JGIS to activate interaction within and among each team. JGIS is an archive system of technical information in which a relational database is constructed to record, catalogue, and manage technical information in the structure of a flow chart, which systematically represents ST activities, RD activities and PA activities. JGIS facilitates the sharing of information between users and provides for up-to-date checks on the status of each activity. It also helps RD and PA to maintain traceability and consistency as well as assure quality. Thus, the system supports the integration of these three teams and facilitates the iterative SI, RD and PA processes. JNC is planning to complete the development of the initial version of the system by March 2004 and to start using it for the JNC project thereafter. (author)

  17. Managing Emerging Information Security Risks during Transitions to Integrated Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Qian; Yulin, Fang; Jaatun, Martin Gilje; Johnsen, Stig Ole; Jose J Gonzalez

    2010-01-01

    The Norwegian Oil and Gas Industry is adopting new information communication technology to connect its offshore platforms, onshore control centers and the suppliers. The management of the oil companies is generally aware of the increasing risks associated with the transition, but so far, investment in incident response (IR) capability has not been highly prioritized because of uncertainty related to risks and the present reactive mental model for security risk management. In this paper, we ex...

  18. Information technology adoption in SMEs: an integrated framework

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thuyuyen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this research is to gain a clearer understanding of information technology (IT) adoption in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by analysing and contrasting the current literature. Whilst describing how and why SMEs acquire IT, the paper also seeks to highlight the enablers as well as the inhibitors that influence the adoption process. Design/methodology/approach – The method was a review of literature including empirical research and case studies related to IT...

  19. Integrating "Free" Word Order Syntax and Information Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Beryl

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a combinatory categorial formalism called Multiset-CCG that can capture the syntax and interpretation of ``free'' word order in languages such as Turkish. The formalism compositionally derives the predicate-argument structure and the information structure (e.g. topic, focus) of a sentence in parallel, and uniformly handles word order variation among the arguments and adjuncts within a clause, as well as in complex clauses and across clause boundaries.

  20. Rationale for indicator quality of integrated information security system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. P. Stashevskiy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The justification of index of functional quality of the system of informational security in structural departments of Government service of emergency situations of Ukraine is carried out. Basic parameters which can influence on qualitative work of SSI are determined. These parameters assess the cost of its projecting and allow making such its variant of realization which will better for constant functioning of is of rescue service.

  1. Neurochemostat: A Neural Interface SoC With Integrated Chemometrics for Closed-Loop Regulation of Brain Dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgzadeh, Bardia; Schuweiler, Douglas R; Bobak, Martin J; Garris, Paul A; Mohseni, Pedram

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a 3.3×3.2 mm(2) system-on-chip (SoC) fabricated in AMS 0.35 μm 2P/4M CMOS for closed-loop regulation of brain dopamine. The SoC uniquely integrates neurochemical sensing, on-the-fly chemometrics, and feedback-controlled electrical stimulation to realize a "neurochemostat" by maintaining brain levels of electrically evoked dopamine between two user-set thresholds. The SoC incorporates a 90 μW, custom-designed, digital signal processing (DSP) unit for real-time processing of neurochemical data obtained by 400 V/s fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) with a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM). Specifically, the DSP unit executes a chemometrics algorithm based upon principal component regression (PCR) to resolve in real time electrically evoked brain dopamine levels from pH change and CFM background-current drift, two common interferents encountered using FSCV with a CFM in vivo. Further, the DSP unit directly links the chemically resolved dopamine levels to the activation of the electrical microstimulator in on-off-keying (OOK) fashion. Measured results from benchtop testing, flow injection analysis (FIA), and biological experiments with an anesthetized rat are presented. PMID:26390501

  2. Integrated information storage and transfer with a coherent magnetic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ning; Banchi, Leonardo; Bayat, Abolfazl; Dong, Guangjiong; Bose, Sougato

    2015-01-01

    Quantum systems are inherently dissipation-less, making them excellent candidates even for classical information processing. We propose to use an array of large-spin quantum magnets for realizing a device which has two modes of operation: memory and data-bus. While the weakly interacting low-energy levels are used as memory to store classical information (bits), the high-energy levels strongly interact with neighboring magnets and mediate the spatial movement of information through quantum dynamics. Despite the fact that memory and data-bus require different features, which are usually prerogative of different physical systems--well isolation for the memory cells, and strong interactions for the transmission--our proposal avoids the notorious complexity of hybrid structures. The proposed mechanism can be realized with different setups. We specifically show that molecular magnets, as the most promising technology, can implement hundreds of operations within their coherence time, while adatoms on surfaces probed by a scanning tunneling microscope is a future possibility. PMID:26347152

  3. EVA: An integrated information system for living PSA management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the operating life of a nuclear power plant, many changes occur in components, systems, and operating procedures which continuously modify the configuration of the power plant. Performance of a PSA requires an updated model of plant configuration at a given time, and due to the dynamic nature of plant operation this model becomes quickly obsolete. This issue, together with the big amount of information involved, make of capital importance the use of a computer software tool in order to obtain an immediate revision of a PSA. In this context, UITESA has developed a PC software tool to be used on living PSA projects (EVA), which allows an easy query and update of PSA evaluation. EVA has been built as a relational data base core and several independent modules sharing this data base information. Main characteristics and functionality of this tool are discussed on this paper: Relational data base core, which includes information about systems, components, allocations, segments, basic events, fault trees, initiating events, sequences, tests and maintenance procedures on components, etc.; menu based interface to data base updating and queries; automatic quantification procedure; automatic data based updating as result of modifications on components test and maintenance procedures, failure rates, etc.; sensibility, importance and uncertainty analysis of quantified models; automatic document edition tool; automatic modular fault tree generation in basis of simplified system diagrams. (author)

  4. Integration of Heterogeneous Information Sources into a Knowledge Resource Management System for Lifelong Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demidova, Elena; Ternier, Stefaan; Olmedilla, Daniel; Duval, Erik; Dicerto, Michele; Stefanov, Krassen; Sacristán, Naiara

    2007-01-01

    Demidova, E., Ternier, S., Olmedilla, D., Duval, E., Dicerto, M., Stefanov, K., et al. (2007). Integration of Heterogeneous Information Sources into a Knowledge Resource Management System for Lifelong. TENCompetence Workshop on Service Oriented Approaches and Lifelong Competence Development Infrastr

  5. Integrated flood disaster management and spatial information: Case studies of Netherlands and India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanova, S.; Ghawana, T.; Kaur, A.; Neuvel, J.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial Information is an integral part of flood management practices which include risk management & emergency response processes. Although risk & emergency management activities have their own characteristics, for example, related to the time scales, time pressure, activities & actors involved, it

  6. Wiki-Based Data and Information Integration (WikiDI2) System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is: A data and information integration (DI2) system built from the methods and tools used to create Wiki websites. Wiki (Hawaiian for...

  7. Permit Compliance System (PCS) and Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) Widget

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Permit Compliance System (PCS) and Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) widget allows users to enter a specific geography and retrieve companies that...

  8. An Inspection Information Integration System of CAD and CMM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Junying; WANG Jianmei

    2006-01-01

    Manual definition of inspection feature in Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) is time-consuming and error-potential. Since CAD model contains all design data, an integration system of CAD/CMM is constructed to automate above process. First, tolerance feature and its attributes, including tolerance type, value and tag of related geometry, are extracted from CAD model and written to QDAS file, based on feature technology. The tags are then added as attribute to related geometry in CAD model. Thereby they can be automatically remarked in the parameter list of their corresponding geometric item when exporting STEP file. At last, both STEP and QDAS file are imported to CMM system. Based on the mapping between geometric and tolerance feature in neutral files, inspection features can be recognized by CMM without manual interruption. The system has been implemented on Unigraphics platform, and proved to applicable for all types of tolerance and geometry.

  9. Geographic Information Systems for the Regional Integration of Renewable Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is based on the project: The GIS in the regional integration of Renewable Energies for decentralised electricity production; developed by CIEMAT (Spanish Energy Research Centre) and UPM (Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain) since 1997. The objective of this project is to analyse, evaluate and improve the GIS methodologies for application in RE and how GIS can aid in the evaluation and simulation of influence of technical, socio economical and geographical parameters. This project begin with the review of SOLARGIS methodology. SOLARGIS was developed by an european research team (included CIEMAT) in the frame of JOULE II Programme. In the first place this report described the state of the art in the application of GIS to Renewable Energies. In second place, the SOLARGIS review tasks and the application of this new product to Lorca (Murcia Region in Spain). Finally, the report describes the methodology for the spatial sensibility analysis. (Author) 24 refs

  10. Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study - Data Information Management System (DIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James

    2004-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Integrated Science Study is an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that combines the expertise of federal, state and local partners to address some of the most pressing ecological problems of the Tampa Bay estuary. This project serves as a template for the application of integrated research projects in other estuaries in the Gulf of Mexico. Efficient information and data distribution for the Tampa Bay Study has required the development of a Data Information Management System (DIMS). This information system is being used as an outreach management tool, providing information to scientists, decision makers and the public on the coastal resources of the Gulf of Mexico.

  11. Information security architecture an integrated approach to security in the organization

    CERN Document Server

    Killmeyer, Jan

    2000-01-01

    An information security architecture is made up of several components. Each component in the architecture focuses on establishing acceptable levels of control. These controls are then applied to the operating environment of an organization. Functionally, information security architecture combines technical, practical, and cost-effective solutions to provide an adequate and appropriate level of security.Information Security Architecture: An Integrated Approach to Security in the Organization details the five key components of an information security architecture. It provides C-level executives

  12. A UMLS-based method for integrating information databases into an Intranet.

    OpenAIRE

    Volot, F.; M. Joubert; Fieschi, M.; Fieschi, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Internet and the World Wide Web provide today end-users with capabilities to access universally to information in various and heterogeneous databases. The biomedical domain benefits from this new technology, specially for information retrieval by searching and browsing various sites. Nevertheless, end-users may be disoriented by specific ways to access information on different servers. In the framework of an Intranet design and development, we present a method for integrating information ...

  13. Integration of Auditory and Visual Communication Information in the Primate Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Sugihara, T.; Diltz, M. D.; Averbeck, B. B.; Romanski, L. M.

    2006-01-01

    The integration of auditory and visual stimuli is crucial for recognizing objects, communicating effectively, and navigating through our complex world. Although the frontal lobes are involved in memory, communication, and language, there has been no evidence that the integration of communication information occurs at the single-cell level in the frontal lobes. Here, we show that neurons in the macaque ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) integrate audiovisual communication stimuli. The mul...

  14. Reflection on Integrative Project-Based Learning in Business and Information Technology Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Hogue, Andrew; Percival, Jennifer; El-Khatib, Khalil; Hayes, Garrett

    2015-01-01

    Recently there has been an increase in demand for interdisciplinary programs that enable graduates to demonstrate a blend of technical and ‘soft skills’. As a result, many higher education organizations are developing programs that integrate areas such as management and information technology or entrepreneurship and engineering. The wide range of topics covered in these programs and the need for graduate to be able to integrate and apply of core concepts. Since 2010 we have used integrative p...

  15. Integrating Security-Critical Intranet Information Systems to Internet Consumer Services

    OpenAIRE

    Yrjölä, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Evolving business needs in an organization can require information systems to be integrated with each other, allowing business processes to be streamlined and optimized. However, system integrations can also increase security risks, as the interaction mechanisms can be vulnerable to exploitation. Security is especially important when a system in an intranet is integrated with the outside world, as the intranet often contains very sensitive data. The goal of this thesis was to determine how an...

  16. Integrated security administration in a global information system : From Research to Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Mwakalinga, Jeffy; Yngström, Louise

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated security administration for global organizations and electronic government systems. It integrates certification systems, authorization systems, registration systems and smart card systems. Many organizations today are having departments all over the world. Employees, employers and customers have to access information located in different countries. This complicates management of security systems for the organizations. The challenges that the organization fac...

  17. Entropy in Postmerger and Acquisition Integration from an Information Technology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gloria S.

    2012-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions have historically experienced failure rates from 50% to more than 80%. Successful integration of information technology (IT) systems can be the difference between postmerger success or failure. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the entropy phenomenon during postmerger IT integration. To that end, a…

  18. Issues in Integrating Information Technology in Learning and Teaching EFL: The Saudi Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maini, Yousef Hamad

    2013-01-01

    The Saudi education system is facing a climate of change characterized by an interest in integrating new technology and educational approaches to improve teaching and learning. In this climate, the present paper explores the issues in integrating information technology in learning and teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in government…

  19. Measuring Integration of Information and Communication Technology in Education: An Item Response Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeraer, Jef; Van Petegem, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This research describes the development and validation of an instrument to measure integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education. After literature research on definitions of integration of ICT in education, a comparison is made between the classical test theory and the item response modeling approach for the…

  20. Post-error slowing predicts rule-based but not information-integration category learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Helen; Maddox, W. Todd; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether error monitoring, operationalized as the degree to which individuals slow down after committing an error (i.e, post-error slowing), is differentially important in the learning of rule-based vs. information-integration category structures. Rule-based categories are most efficiently solved through the application of an explicit verbal strategy (e.g. sort by color). In contrast, information-integration categories are believed to be learned in a trial-by-trial associative manne...

  1. Web-Based Integrated Public Healthcare Information System of Korea: Development and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Seewon; Park, Minsu; Lee, Jaegook; Kim, Sung-Soo; Han, Bum Soo; Mo, Kyoung Chun; Lee, Hyung Seok

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The Web-based integrated public healthcare information system (PHIS) of Korea was planned and developed from 2005 to 2010, and it is being used in 3,501 regional health organizations. This paper introduces and discusses development and performance of the system. Methods We reviewed and examined documents about the development process and performance of the newly integrated PHIS. The resources we analyzed the national plan for public healthcare, information strategy for PHIS, usage ...

  2. Rule-Based and Information-Integration Category Learning in Normal Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, W. Todd; Pacheco, Jennifer; Reeves, Maia; Zhu, Bo; Schnyer, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex play critical roles in category learning. Both regions evidence age-related structural and functional declines. The current study examined rule-based and information-integration category learning in a group of older and younger adults. Rule-based learning is thought to involve explicit, frontally mediated processes, whereas information-integration is thought to involve implicit, striatally mediated processes. As a group, older adults showed rule-based a...

  3. Research on Product Information Integrating and Sharing for Dynamic Colla boration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic Collaboration emerges as the new trend of n et working and collaborating work in manufacturing industry, in which product infor mation sharing among allied enterprises plays very important roles in collaborat ing product development. This thesis aims at studying the integrating, contr olling and sharing mode of product information among the heterogeneous and dispe rsed environments through Internet, and proposes the information integrating/sha ring architecture based on the Product Master Model (P...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 717 - Interagency Guidelines Concerning the Accuracy and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to consumer reporting agencies; and whether new, additional, or different methods (including... and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer Reporting Agencies E Appendix E to Part 717 Banks... Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer Reporting Agencies The NCUA encourages voluntary...

  5. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 41 - Interagency Guidelines Concerning the Accuracy and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accuracy and integrity of information furnished to consumer reporting agencies; consider whether new... consumer reporting agencies; and whether new, additional, or different methods (including technological... and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer Reporting Agencies E Appendix E to Part 41...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 334 - Interagency Guidelines Concerning the Accuracy and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to consumer reporting agencies; and whether new, additional, or different methods (including... and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer Reporting Agencies E Appendix E to Part 334 Banks... and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer Reporting Agencies The FDIC encourages...

  7. Database and applications security integrating information security and data management

    CERN Document Server

    Thuraisingham, Bhavani

    2005-01-01

    This is the first book to provide an in-depth coverage of all the developments, issues and challenges in secure databases and applications. It provides directions for data and application security, including securing emerging applications such as bioinformatics, stream information processing and peer-to-peer computing. Divided into eight sections, each of which focuses on a key concept of secure databases and applications, this book deals with all aspects of technology, including secure relational databases, inference problems, secure object databases, secure distributed databases and emerging

  8. Integrated proteomic platforms for the comparative characterization of medulloblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma pediatric brain tumors: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Claudia; Iavarone, Federica; D'Angelo, Luca; Arba, Morena; Vincenzoni, Federica; Inserra, Ilaria; Delfino, Daniela; Rossetti, Diana Valeria; Caretto, Marta; Massimi, Luca; Tamburrini, Gianpiero; Di Rocco, Concezio; Caldarelli, Massimo; Messana, Irene; Castagnola, Massimo; Sanna, Maria Teresa; Desiderio, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    A top-down/bottom-up integrated proteomic approach based on LC-MS and 2-DE analysis was applied for comparative characterization of medulloblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma posterior cranial fossa pediatric brain tumor tissues. Although rare, primary brain tumors are the most frequent solid tumors in the pediatric age. Among them the medulloblastoma is the prevalent malignant tumor in childhood while pilocytic astrocytoma is the most common, rarely showing a malignant progression. Due to the limited availability of this kind of sample, the study was applied to pooled tumor tissues for a preliminary investigation. The results showed different proteomic profiles of the two tumors and evidenced interesting differential expression of several proteins and peptides. Top-down proteomics of acid-soluble fractions of brain tumor homogenates ascribed a potential biomarker role of malignancy to β- and α-thymosins and their truncated proteoforms and to C-terminal truncated (des-GG) ubiquitin, resulting exclusively detected or over-expressed in the highly malignant medulloblastoma. The bottom-up proteomics of the acid-soluble fraction identified several proteins, some of them in common with 2-DE analysis of acid-insoluble pellets. Peroxiredoxin-1, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A, triosephosphate isomerase, pyruvate kinase PKM, tubulin beta and alpha chains, heat shock protein HSP-90-beta and different histones characterized the medulloblastoma while the Ig kappa chain C region, serotransferrin, tubulin beta 2A chain and vimentin the pilocytic astrocytoma. The two proteomic strategies, with their pros and cons, well complemented each other in characterizing the proteome of brain tumor tissues and in disclosing potential disease biomarkers to be validated in a future study on individual samples of both tumor histotypes. PMID:25909245

  9. Improving IMES Localization Accuracy by Integrating Dead Reckoning Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Kenjiro; Arie, Hiroaki; Wang, Wei; Kaneko, Yuto; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Schmitz, Alexander; Sugano, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Indoor positioning remains an open problem, because it is difficult to achieve satisfactory accuracy within an indoor environment using current radio-based localization technology. In this study, we investigate the use of Indoor Messaging System (IMES) radio for high-accuracy indoor positioning. A hybrid positioning method combining IMES radio strength information and pedestrian dead reckoning information is proposed in order to improve IMES localization accuracy. For understanding the carrier noise ratio versus distance relation for IMES radio, the signal propagation of IMES radio is modeled and identified. Then, trilateration and extended Kalman filtering methods using the radio propagation model are developed for position estimation. These methods are evaluated through robot localization and pedestrian localization experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid positioning method achieved average estimation errors of 217 and 1846 mm in robot localization and pedestrian localization, respectively. In addition, in order to examine the reason for the positioning accuracy of pedestrian localization being much lower than that of robot localization, the influence of the human body on the radio propagation is experimentally evaluated. The result suggests that the influence of the human body can be modeled. PMID:26828492

  10. Integrating brain, behavior, and phylogeny to understand the evolution of sensory systems in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Wylie, Douglas R.; Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristian; Iwaniuk, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    The comparative anatomy of sensory systems has played a major role in developing theories and principles central to evolutionary neuroscience. This includes the central tenet of many comparative studies, the principle of proper mass, which states that the size of a neural structure reflects its processing capacity. The size of structures within the sensory system is not, however, the only salient variable in sensory evolution. Further, the evolution of the brain and behavior are intimately ti...

  11. Integration of Proteomics, Bioinformatics, and Systems Biology in Traumatic Brain Injury Biomarker Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Guingab-Cagmat, J.D.; Cagmat, E.B.; Hayes, R. L.; Anagli, J.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major medical crisis without any FDA-approved pharmacological therapies that have been demonstrated to improve functional outcomes. It has been argued that discovery of disease-relevant biomarkers might help to guide successful clinical trials for TBI. Major advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have revolutionized the field of proteomic biomarker discovery and facilitated the identification of several candidate markers that are being further evaluated for their...

  12. Integration of Proteomics, Bioinformatics and Systems biology in Brain Injury Biomarker Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    JoyGuingab-Cagmat

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major medical crisis without any FDA-approved pharmacological therapies that have been demonstrated to improve functional outcomes. It has been argued that discovery of disease-relevant biomarkers might help to guide successful clinical trials for TBI. Major advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have revolutionized the field of proteomic biomarker discovery and facilitated the identification of several candidate markers that are being further evaluated for thei...

  13. Functional gradients through the cortex, multisensory integration and scaling laws in brain dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo-Fonrodona, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    In the context of the increasing number of works on multisensory and cross-modal effects in cerebral processing, a review is made on the functional model of human brain proposed by Justo Gonzalo (1910-1986), in relation to what he called central syndrome (caused by unilateral lesion in the parieto-occipital cortex, equidistant from the visual, tactile and auditory projection areas). The syndrome is featured by a bilateral, symmetric and multisensory involvement, and by a functional depression...

  14. Direct action of gonadotropin in brain integrates behavioral and reproductive functions

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Nasipak, Brian T.; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2007-01-01

    Essential roles for gonadotropins in gonadal development and reproduction are well established. Over the past decade, however, the expression of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) has also been reported in the brain of various mammals and birds. Although suggestive, it has not yet been determined whether this expression pattern supports a novel function for gonadotropins. Here, we demonstrate a CNS-mediated role of gonadotropins in a reproductive behavior: the courtship songs of the South Afr...

  15. Deconstructing brain-derived neurotrophic factor actions in adult brain circuits to bridge an existing informational gap in neuro-cell biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heather Bowling; Aditi Bhattacharya; Eric Klann; Moses V Chao

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neurodevelopment, synaptic plas-ticity, learning and memory, and in preventing neurodegeneration. Despite decades of investigations into downstream signaling cascades and changes in cellular processes, the mechanisms of how BDNF reshapes circuitsin vivo remain unclear. This informational gap partly arises from the fact that the bulk of studies into the molecular actions of BDNF have been performed in dissociated neuronal cultures, while the ma-jority of studies on synaptic plasticity, learning and memory were performed in acute brain slices orin vivo. A recent study by Bowling-Bhattacharya et al., measured the proteomic changes in acute adult hippocampal slices following treatment and reported changes in proteins of neuronal and non-neuronal origin that may in concert modulate synaptic release and secretion in the slice. In this paper, we place these ifndings into the context of existing literature and discuss how they impact our understanding of how BDNF can reshape the brain.

  16. The TAM receptor Mertk protects against neuroinvasive viral infection by maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jonathan J; Daniels, Brian P; Shrestha, Bimmi; Proenca-Modena, Jose L; Lew, Erin D; Lazear, Helen M; Gorman, Matthew J; Lemke, Greg; Klein, Robyn S; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    The TAM receptors Tyro3, Axl and Mertk are receptor tyrosine kinases that dampen host innate immune responses following engagement with their ligands Gas6 and Protein S, which recognize phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells. In a form of apoptotic mimicry, many enveloped viruses display phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet of their membranes, enabling TAM receptor activation and downregulation of antiviral responses. Accordingly, we hypothesized that a deficiency of TAM receptors would enhance antiviral responses and protect against viral infection. Unexpectedly, mice lacking Mertk and/or Axl, but not Tyro3, exhibited greater vulnerability to infection with neuroinvasive West Nile and La Crosse encephalitis viruses. This phenotype was associated with increased blood-brain barrier permeability, which enhanced virus entry into and infection of the brain. Activation of Mertk synergized with interferon-β to tighten cell junctions and prevent virus transit across brain microvascular endothelial cells. Because TAM receptors restrict pathogenesis of neuroinvasive viruses, these findings have implications for TAM antagonists that are currently in clinical development. PMID:26523970

  17. An integrated information retrieval and document management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, L. Stephen; Alvarez, J. Fernando; Chen, James; Chen, William; Cheung, Lai-Mei; Clancy, Susan; Wong, Alexis

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements and prototype development for an intelligent document management and information retrieval system that will be capable of handling millions of pages of text or other data. Technologies for scanning, Optical Character Recognition (OCR), magneto-optical storage, and multiplatform retrieval using a Standard Query Language (SQL) will be discussed. The semantic ambiguity inherent in the English language is somewhat compensated-for through the use of coefficients or weighting factors for partial synonyms. Such coefficients are used both for defining structured query trees for routine queries and for establishing long-term interest profiles that can be used on a regular basis to alert individual users to the presence of relevant documents that may have just arrived from an external source, such as a news wire service. Although this attempt at evidential reasoning is limited in comparison with the latest developments in AI Expert Systems technology, it has the advantage of being commercially available.

  18. Activity-Based Information Integrating the operations strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto da Rocha de Araujo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized world, companies seek for new operations strategies to ensure world corporate success. This article analyzes how the cost management models – both traditional and activity-based, aid the planning and management of corporate globalized operations. The efficacy of the models application depends on their alignment with the competitive strategy. Companies must evaluate the nature of the competition and its competitive priorities; they should then define the necessary and sufficient dependence level on costs information. In this article, three dependence levels are presented: operational, decision support and strategic control. The result of the research shows the importance of alignment between the cost management model and the competitive strategy for corporate success, and confirms the adequacy of the activity-based costing model as a supporting tool for decision taking in a global strategy. Case studies in world class companies in Brazil are presented.

  19. Enhancing performances of SSVEP-based brain-computer interfaces via exploiting inter-subject information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Chen, Xiaogang; Wang, Yijun; Gao, Xiaorong; Gao, Shangkai

    2015-08-01

    Objective. A new training-free framework was proposed for target detection in steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) using joint frequency-phase coding. Approach. The key idea is to transfer SSVEP templates from the existing subjects to a new subject to enhance the detection of SSVEPs. Under this framework, transfer template-based canonical correlation analysis (tt-CCA) methods were developed for single-channel and multi-channel conditions respectively. In addition, an online transfer template-based CCA (ott-CCA) method was proposed to update EEG templates by online adaptation. Main results. The efficiency of the proposed framework was proved with a simulated BCI experiment. Compared with the standard CCA method, tt-CCA obtained an 18.78% increase of accuracy with a data length of 1.5 s. A simulated test of ott-CCA further received an accuracy increase of 2.99%. Significance. The proposed simple yet efficient framework significantly facilitates the use of SSVEP BCIs using joint frequency-phase coding. This study also sheds light on the benefits from exploring and exploiting inter-subject information to the electroencephalogram (EEG)-based BCIs.

  20. Global Integration of the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite Predicts Short Term Weight Loss in Older Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brielle M Paolini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a public health crisis in North America. While lifestyle interventions for weight loss (WL remain popular, the rate of success is highly variable. Clearly, self-regulation of eating behavior is a challenge and patterns of activity across the brain may be an important determinant of success. The current study prospectively examined whether integration across the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite (HBN-A predicts WL after 6-months of treatment in older adults. Our metric for network integration was global efficiency (GE. The present work is a sub-study (n = 56 of an ongoing randomized clinical trial involving WL. Imaging involved a baseline food-cue visualization functional MRI (fMRI scan following an overnight fast. Using graph theory to build functional brain networks, we demonstrated that regions of the HBN-A (insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, superior temporal pole, amygdala and the parahippocampal gyrus were highly integrated as evidenced by the results of a principal component analysis. After accounting for known correlates of WL (baseline weight, age, sex, and self-regulatory efficacy and treatment condition, which together contributed 36.9% of the variance in WL, greater GE in the HBN-A was associated with an additional 19% of the variance. The ACC of the HBN-A was the primary driver of this effect, accounting for 14.5% of the variance in WL when entered in a stepwise regression following the covariates, p = 0.0001. The HBN-A is comprised of limbic regions important in the processing of emotions and visceral sensations and the ACC is key for translating such processing into behavioral consequences. The improved integration of these regions may enhance awareness of body and emotional states leading to more successful self-regulation and to greater WL. This is the first study among older adults to prospectively demonstrate that, following an overnight fast, GE of the HBN-A during a food visualization task is predictive of