Golan, Jeff Dror; Marcoux, Judith; Golan, Eyal; Schapiro, Robert; Johnston, Karen M; Maleki, Mahammed; Khetarpal, Suneel; Jacques, Line
We sought to evaluate the effect alcohol intoxication may have had in nonsurgically treated patients with severe traumatic brain injury. The Montreal General Hospital Traumatic Brain Injury Registry was used to identify all adult patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score toxic blood alcohol levels (BAL > or =21.7 mmol/L), 24 were alcohol negative (BAL Coma Scale score < or =8. Intoxicated patients had a mean delay of 151 minutes more in the insertion time of an intracranial pressure monitoring device, compared with alcohol-negative patients. Alcohol was a confounding factor in the treatment of some of our patients.
Hendricks, H.T.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Ginneken, B.C. van; Heeren, A.J.; Vos, P.E.
OBJECTIVE: To assess brain injury severity, autonomic dysregulation and systemic infection as risk factors for the occurrence of heterotopic ossification in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. DESIGN: Historic cohort study. SETTING: Radboud University Medical Centre. SUBJECTS: All
Norup, Anne; Petersen, Janne; Lykke Mortensen, Erik
relatives of patients with severe brain injury. METHODS: The relatives were assessed on the anxiety and depression scales from the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and latent variable growth curve models were used to model the trajectories. The effects of patient's age, patient's Glasgow Coma Score, level...... improvement. Higher initial level of symptoms of depression was seen in female relatives. Higher initial level of anxiety was associated with younger patient age, lower level of function and consciousness in the patient and the relative being female or the spouse. CONCLUSION: Future research and interventions......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate trajectories and predictors of trajectories of anxiety and depression in relatives of patients with a severe brain injury during the first year after injury. RESEARCH DESIGN: A prospective longitudinal study with four repeated measurements. SUBJECTS: Ninety...
Objective. Secondary insults of hypotension and hypoxia significantly impact on outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). More than 4 hours' delay in evacuation of intracranial haematomas has been demonstrated to have an additional impact on outcome. The objective of this study was to document the ...
Objective. Secondary insults of hypotension and hypoxia significantly impact on outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). More than 4 hours' delay in evacuation of intracranial haematomas has been demonstrated to have an additional impact on outcome. The objective of this study was to document the ...
Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss the basic forms of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI. More broadly, we discussed cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT which constitutes a fundamental component in therapeutic interaction at many centres worldwide. Equally presented is a comprehensive model of rehabilitation, the fundamental component of which is CRT. It should be noted that the principles of this approach first arose in Poland in the 1970s, in other words, several decades before their appearance in other programmemes. Taken into consideration are four factors conditioning the effectiveness of such a process: comprehensiveness, earlier interaction, universality and its individualized character. A comprehensive programmeme of rehabilitation covers: cognitive rehabilitation, individual and group rehabilitation with the application of a therapeutic environment, specialist vocational rehabilitation, as well as family psychotherapy. These training programmemes are conducted within the scope of the ‘Academy of Life,’ which provides support for the patients in their efforts and shows them the means by which they can overcome existing difficulties. Equally emphasized is the close cooperation of the whole team of specialists, as well as the active participation of the family as an essential condition for the effectiveness of rehabilitation and, in effect, a return of the patient to a relatively normal life. Also presented are newly developing neurothechnologies and the neuromarkers of brain injuries. This enables a correct diagnosis to be made and, as a result, the selection of appropriate methods for neuropsychological rehabilitation, including neurotherapy.
injuries. Convincing evidence has emerged that TBI patients with moderate or severe injuries will have their hospital stay reduced by approximately 30% and the re-acquisition of personal independence increased by the provision of a formal specialised inpatient rehabilitation programme. (3). •. Severe traumatic brain injury ...
Navarro-Main, Blanca; Castaño-León, Ana M; Munarriz, Pablo M; Gómez, Pedro A; Rios-Lago, Marcos; Lagares, Alfonso
Several studies have shown misconceptions about brain injury in different populations. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and perceptions about brain injury of family members of neurosurgical patients in our hospital. The participants (n=81) were relatives of patients admitted to the neurosurgery department between February and August 2016. They voluntarily completed a 19-item true-false format survey about brain injury based on a translation of other questionnaires used in previous studies from other countries (USA, Canada, UK, Ireland and New Zealand). Also, some sociodemographic data were collected (age, sex, education level and the patient's pathology). Data analysis was developed through graphical modelling with a regularisation parameter plotted on a network representing the association of the items of the questionnaire from the response pattern of participants. Data analysis showed two conceptual areas with a high rate of wrong answers: behaviour and management of patients, and expectations about acquired brain injury recovery. The results obtained in this study would enable us to objectify misconceptions about acquired brain injury in patients' relatives attended in the neurosurgery department. This lack of knowledge could be a great obstacle in patients' recovery process. Therefore, we suggest placing the emphasis on the provision of information on brain injury to patients' families, especially with regard to its symptoms and course of development. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Formisano, Rita; Azicnuda, Eva; Sefid, Maryam Khan; Zampolini, Mauro; Scarponi, Federico; Avesani, Renato
Establish the best time to start rehabilitation by means of scientific evidence. Observational study in patients with a diagnosis of Severe Brain Injury who received intensive inpatient rehabilitation after acute care. 1470 subjects enrolled: 651 with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and 819 with Non-TBI. Male gender was prevalent in the population study, but sex distribution was not different among groups, with a prevalence of male gender in both populations. This project involved 29 rehabilitation facilities for Severe ABI. The registry was an electronic database, remained active only during the period of data collection. The patients were divided into three different categories according to the time interval from brain injury to inpatient rehabilitation admission and demographic and clinical data were collected. Etiology, time interval from injury to inpatient rehabilitation, disability severity, the presence of tracheostomy at admission to the rehabilitation facility, rehabilitation length of stay and transfer back to acute care wards because of medical, surgical or neurosurgical complications. The interval from brain injury to rehabilitation facilities admission increases along with age, brain injury severity according to DRS scores, the presence of a tracheal tube and the percentage of transfers back to acute care wards from rehabilitation facilities, because of medical, surgical or neurosurgical complications. The better recovery and more positive outcomes, reported as resulting from early rehabilitation, may be due more to less severity of brain injury and fewer complications in the acute and post-acute phase than to when the rehabilitation starts.
currently valid 0MB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 12. REPORT TYPE 30-0 6-201 6... hypotension independently increases morbidity and mortality after traumatic brain injury. The goal of all treatments is avoid hypotension and maintain cerebral...perfusion pressure management in· patients with severe traumatic brain injury: preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial. J Trauma Acute Care
Full Text Available Wellingson Silva Paiva, Douglas Alexandre França Bezerra, Robson Luis Oliveira Amorim, Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo, Wagner Malago Tavares, Almir Ferreira De Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen TeixeiraIntensive Care Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital Das Clinicas, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Sodium disorders are the most common and most poorly understood electrolyte disorders in neurological patients. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of sodium disorders and its association with different traumatic brain injuries. This prospective study was conducted in 80 patients diagnosed with moderate and severe traumatic brain injuries. All patients underwent cerebral computed tomography. Incidence of sodium disorders, presence of injuries in the first computed tomography after traumatic brain injury, and level of consciousness were analyzed. Patients that presented other potential causes of sodium disorders and systemic trauma were excluded from the study. The incidence of sodium disturbances was 45%: 20 patients presented hypernatremia and 16 hyponatremia. Refers to all patients with sodium disturbances 53% were detected in the first sample. We recorded at least one measurement <125 mEq/L in 50% of the patients with hyponatremia. A greater incidence of sodium disorders was found in patients with subdural, intracerebral hematoma and with diffuse axonal injury. The incidence of sodium disorders among the patients with diffuse lesions was greater than in the group of patients with brain contusion (P = 0.022. The incidence of sodium disorders is higher in patients with diffuse traumatic brain injuries. No association was found between focal lesions and proportion of sodium disorders.Keywords: brain trauma, hypernatremia, hyponatremia
Yang, W-J; Chen, W; Chen, L; Guo, Y-J; Zeng, J-S; Li, G-Y; Tong, W-S
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world. In TBI patients suffering cognitive, emotional, and behavioral deficits, the leading cause derives from the physical injury to the central nervous system (CNS) that impairs brain function. Here, we applied a targeted approach to understand the potential mechanisms of neuron damage after TBI. Tau protein phosphorylation was compared in the brain tissues collected from patients underwent brain surgery based on the assessment of brain injury extent by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The results indicated that the levels of phosphorylated tau were significantly higher in the severe and extremely severe TBI groups, compared to the moderate group of patients. Phosphorylated, but not the total tau protein was uniquely correlated with the GCS score (R2 =.7849, P<.01) in 142 TBI patients. Consistently, the activities of key players associated with tau hyperphosphorylation GSK-3β and PP2A showed parallel correlations with the severity of TBI as well. These data suggest that the enhanced tau protein phosphorylation occurs upon severe neuron injures and may contribute to the pathological structural changes of CNS leading to brain damage of TBI. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhang, Ji; Mu, Jiao; Lin, Wei; Dong, Hongmei
Endogenous lipoid pneumonia (EnLP) is an uncommon non-life-threatening inflammatory lung disease that usually occurs in patients with conditions such as lung cancers, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and undifferentiated connective tissue disease. Here we report a case of EnLP in a paralytic and cachectic patient with bronchopneumonia after brain injury. A 40-year-old man experienced a severe brain injury in an automobile accident. He was treated for 1 month and his status plateaued. However, he became paralyzed and developed cachexia and ultimately died 145 days after the accident. Macroscopically, multifocal yellowish firm nodules were visible on scattered gross lesions throughout the lungs. Histologically, many foam cells had accumulated within the alveoli and alveolar walls accompanied by a surrounding interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes. The findings were in accordance with a diagnosis of EnLP. Bronchopneumonia was also noted. To our knowledge, there have been few reports of EnLP associated with bronchopneumonia and cachexia after brain injury. This uncommon pathogenesis should be well recognized by clinicians and forensic pathologists. The case reported here should prompt medical staff to increase the nutritional status and fight pulmonary infections in patients with brain injury to prevent the development of EnLP.
Boelen, Danielle H. E.; Allain, Philippe; Spikman, Jacoba M.; Fasotti, Luciano
Objective: The authors investigated whether patients with brain injury suffering from dysexecutive symptoms had difficulties with script generation. Method: Forty-eight patients with brain injury of various etiology with complaints of executive dysfunctioning and deficient scores on executive tests
Rafiq, Mirza Faisal Ahmed; Ahmed, Noor; Khan, Adil Aziz
Electrolyte derangements are common sequel of traumatic brain injury. Use of intravenous fluids, diuretics, syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion and cerebral salt washing are some of the factors responsible for this. Proper in time detection followed by appropriate treatment not only improves neurological status but also decrease morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to know serum derangements of different electrolytes in patients with traumatic brain injury. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences. Islamabad, Pakistan from Feb 2009 to Feb 2010. All adult patients with traumatic brain injury who presented to Neurosurgical department with severe head injury (GCS < 8) and who need monitoring in high dependency unit, were included in this study. Initially twice daily serum electrolyte monitoring for one week then once daily for remaining period of hospital stay was carried out. All samples were sent to Pathology department of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. Patients who need corrective measures for imbalance had repetition of sampling after giving appropriate therapy. Statistical analysis was performed on SPSS-16. Total 215 patients presented with severe head injury that were managed in high dependency unit. Out of which 127 (59.1%) were male and 88 (40.9%) were females. Most of them were adults between 21-40) years of age (21.4%; 24.7%). Sodium was the main electrolyte that underwent change & out of which hyper-natremia was major abnormality that occurred in 140 (65.1%) of patients. This is followed by hypo-kalemia that occurred in 79 (36.7%) of patients. Serum calcium & magnesium levels show little derangements. Electrolyte imbalance following traumatic head injury is an important cause to look for in patient monitoring. Sodium is the chief electrolytes of concern. Serum potassium and calcium levels also under goes notable changes.
Ahmed, Nasim; Bialowas, Christie; Kuo, Yen-Hong; Zawodniak, Leonard
This study was undertaken to examine the impact of various anticoagulation agents in head injury patients. The medical records and trauma registry were used to analyze the data. All adult trauma patients using aspirin, clopidogrel bisulfate (Plavix), warfarin (Coumadin), or heparin and admitted to the hospital with computed tomography (CT) scan evidence of brain injuries were included in the study. Patients were classified into three groups based on medication used. From July 2004 through December 2006, 29 patients admitted to the trauma center were found to be on anticoagulation or antiplatelet agents. The control group consisted of 63 patients with CT evidence of head injury not on antiplatelet or anticoagulant medications. There were no significant differences among the groups regarding age, gender, Glasgow Coma Scale, Injury Severity Score, mortality (P = 0.65), ventilator days (P = 0.69), intensive care unit (ICU) days (P = 0.65), total hospital days (P = 0.41) or discharge disposition (P = 0.65). Pre-head injury anticoagulation did not have any significant impact on outcomes.
Neuropsychological literature suggests that body representation is a multidimensional concept consisting of various types of representations. Previous studies have demonstrated dissociations between three types of body representation specified by the kind of data and processes, i.e. body schema, body structural description, and body semantics. The aim of the study was to describe the state of body representation in patients after vascular brain injuries and to provide evidence for the differe...
Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To sum up our experience in percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT in ICU patient with severe brain injury. Methods: Between November 2011 and April 2014, PDTs were performed on 32 severe brain injury patients in ICU by a team of physicians and intensivists. The success rate, effi cacy, safety, and complications including stomal infection and bleeding, paratracheal insertion, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, tracheal laceration, as well as clinically significant tracheal stenosis were carefully monitored and recorded respectively. Results: The operations took 4-15 minutes (mean 9.1 minutes±4.2 minutes. Totally 4 cases suffered from complications in the operations: 3 cases of stomal bleeding, and 1 case of intratracheal bloody secretion, but none required intervention. Paratracheal insertion, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, tracheal laceration, or clinically signifi cant tracheal stenosis were not found in PDT patients. There was no procedure-related death occurring during or after PDT. Conclusion: Our study demonstrats that PDT is a safe, highly effective, and minimally invasive procedure. The appropriate sedation and airway management perioperatively help to reduce complication rates. PDT should be performed or supervised by a team of physicians with extensive experience in this procedure, and also an intensivist with experience in diffi cult airway management. Key words: Brain injuries; Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy; ICU
Lundqvist, Anna; Samuelsson, Kersti
To study significant factors supporting vocational rehabilitation after acquired brain injury from a patient perspective. Two focus group interviews were accomplished with former patients. One focus group interview with professional rehabilitation personnel was performed to review the correspondence between patients' and professionals' opinion. Fourteen informants with acquired brain injury (ABI) were interviewed. All were working at the time of the focus group interviews. Three occupational therapists and two psychologists participated in the professional group. Two themes were identified as significant for returning to work: Personal and Society factors. Identified meaningful units could be categorized into sub-categories, which were grouped into six main- and 14 sub-categories. The main categories were: Self-continuity, Coping, Social factors, Rehabilitation intervention, Professionalism and Health insurance. Length of treatment time was described as crucial for the rehabilitation process and for utilizing individual resources. The effects of various synergies and processes form the basis for a successful return to work, which are dependent on, influence and reinforce each other. Society factors support personal factors to be used for returning to work after acquired brain injury. The impact of individual resources and rehabilitation highlights that vocational rehabilitation is inseparable from the individual's capacity, society and the context in which the individual lives.
Full Text Available It remains unknown whether spinal cord injury (SCI could indirectly impair or reshape the white matter (WM of human brain and whether these changes are correlated with injury severity, duration, or clinical performance. We choose tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS to investigate the possible changes in whole-brain white matter integrity and their associations with clinical variables in fifteen patients with SCI. Compared with the healthy controls, the patients exhibited significant decreases in WM fractional anisotropy (FA in the left angular gyrus (AG, right cerebellum (CB, left precentral gyrus (PreCG, left lateral occipital region (LOC, left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF, left supramarginal gyrus (SMG, and left postcentral gyrus (PostCG (p<0.01, TFCE corrected. No significant differences were found in all diffusion indices between the complete and incomplete SCI. However, significantly negative correlation was shown between the increased radial diffusivity (RD of left AG and total motor scores (uncorrected p<0.05. Our findings provide evidence that SCI can cause not only direct degeneration but also transneuronal degeneration of brain WM, and these changes may be irrespective of the injury severity. The affection of left AG on rehabilitation therapies need to be further researched in the future.
Backhaus, Samantha L; Ibarra, Summer L; Klyce, Daniel; Trexler, Lance E; Malec, James F
To determine whether training in coping strategies will improve psychologic functioning and self-efficacy in survivors of brain injury (BI) and caregivers. Randomized controlled pilot study with measurements at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up. Postacute rehabilitation clinic. Survivors of BI (n=20) and caregivers (n=20). The Brain Injury Coping Skills Group is a 12-session, manualized, cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) group providing psychoeducation, support, and coping skills training. Effects of this preventative intervention were examined on emotional functioning and perceived self-efficacy (PSE). Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) and Brain Injury Coping Skills Questionnaire. Analyses revealed that the Brain Injury Coping Skills group showed significantly improved PSE compared with the control group immediately posttreatment (F=14.16; P=.001) and maintained this over time. PSE assessed posttreatment predicted global distress at 3-month follow-up across groups (rho=-.46). No differences between treatment and control groups were apparent on the BSI-18 posttreatment. However, the control group showed increased emotional distress at 3-month follow-up while the Brain Injury Coping Skills group remained stable over time. Few CBT studies have included survivors of BI and caregivers together in group treatment or included a control group. No prior studies have examined the role of PSE specifically. Prior intervention studies show inconsistent effects on emotional functioning, raising questions regarding the role of intervening variables. This study offers a new conceptualization that PSE may moderate longer-term emotional adjustment after brain injury. Results indicate that PSE is an important and modifiable factor in helping persons better adjust to BI. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oddo, Mauro; Crippa, Ilaria Alice; Mehta, Sangeeta; Menon, David; Payen, Jean-Francois; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Citerio, Giuseppe
Daily interruption of sedative therapy and limitation of deep sedation have been shown in several randomized trials to reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay, and to improve the outcome of critically ill patients. However, patients with severe acute brain injury (ABI; including subjects with coma after traumatic brain injury, ischaemic/haemorrhagic stroke, cardiac arrest, status epilepticus) were excluded from these studies. Therefore, whether the new paradigm of minimal sedation can be translated to the neuro-ICU (NICU) is unclear. In patients with ABI, sedation has 'general' indications (control of anxiety, pain, discomfort, agitation, facilitation of mechanical ventilation) and 'neuro-specific' indications (reduction of cerebral metabolic demand, improved brain tolerance to ischaemia). Sedation also is an essential therapeutic component of intracranial pressure therapy, targeted temperature management and seizure control. Given the lack of large trials which have evaluated clinically relevant endpoints, sedative selection depends on the effect of each agent on cerebral and systemic haemodynamics. Titration and withdrawal of sedation in the NICU setting has to be balanced between the risk that interrupting sedation might exacerbate brain injury (e.g. intracranial pressure elevation) and the potential benefits of enhanced neurological function and reduced complications. In this review, we provide a concise summary of cerebral physiologic effects of sedatives and analgesics, the advantages/disadvantages of each agent, the comparative effects of standard sedatives (propofol and midazolam) and the emerging role of alternative drugs (ketamine). We suggest a pragmatic approach for the use of sedation-analgesia in the NICU, focusing on some practical aspects, including optimal titration and management of sedation withdrawal according to ABI severity.
Neuropsychological literature suggests that body representation is a multidimensional concept consisting of various types of representations. Previous studies have demonstrated dissociations between three types of body representation specified by the kind of data and processes, i.e. body schema, body structural description, and body semantics. The aim of the study was to describe the state of body representation in patients after vascular brain injuries and to provide evidence for the different types of body representation. The question about correlations between body representation deficits and neuropsychological dysfunctions was also investigated. Fifty patients after strokes and 50 control individuals participated in the study. They were examined with tasks referring to dynamic representation of body parts positions, topological body map, and lexical and semantic knowledge about the body. Data analysis showed that vascular brain injuries result in deficits of body representation, which may co-occur with cognitive dysfunctions, but the latter are a possible risk factor for body representation deficits rather than sufficient or imperative requisites for them. The study suggests that types of body representation may be separated on the basis not only of their content, but also of their relation with self. Principal component analysis revealed three factors, which explained over 66% of results variance. The factors, which may be interpreted as types or dimensions of mental model of a body, represent different degrees of connection with self. The results indicate another possibility of body representation types classification, which should be verified in future research.
Tazoe, Jun; Yamada, Kei; Akazawa, Kentaro [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto City, Kyoto (Japan); Sakai, Koji [Kyoto University, Department of Human Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Mineura, Katsuyoshi [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto City, Kyoto (Japan)
The aim of this study was to assess the brain core temperature of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using a noninvasive temperature measurement technique based on the diffusion coefficient of the cerebrospinal fluid. This retrospective study used the data collected from April 2008 to June 2011. The patient group comprised 20 patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 14 or 15 who underwent magnetic resonance imaging within 30 days after head trauma. The normal control group comprised 14 subjects who volunteered for a brain checkup (known in Japan as ''brain dock''). We compared lateral ventricular (LV) temperature between patient and control groups. Follow-up studies were performed for four patients. LV temperature measurements were successfully performed for both patients and controls. Mean (±standard deviation) measured LV temperature was 36.9 ± 1.5 C in patients, 38.7 ± 1.8 C in follow-ups, and 37.9 ± 1.2 C in controls, showing a significant difference between patients and controls (P = 0.017). However, no significant difference was evident between patients and follow-ups (P = 0.595) or between follow-ups and controls (P = 0.465). A reduction in brain core temperature was observed in patients with mTBI, possibly due to a global decrease in metabolism. (orig.)
Lund, Anton; Damholt, Mette B; Strange, Ditte G
Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is a serious neurological complication of hemodialysis, and patients with acute brain injury are at increased risk. We report a case of DDS leading to intracranial hypertension in a patient with anoxic brain injury and discuss the subsequent dialysis strateg...
Chabok, Shahrokh Yousefzade; Kapourchali, Sara Ramezani; Saberi, Alia; Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra
Linguistic function is one of vulnerable aspects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) which may have destructive effects on patients' communicative activities and daily life, years following trauma. This paper attempts to answer the controversy whether surgery affects increase and decrease of linguistic impairment or not. Two hundred forty-one TBI patients aged 18-65 with abnormal CT findings and at least 20 minute post-trauma amnesia (PTA), who were conscious at discharge, participated in this study. Based on operative intervention, the samples were divided into two groups: operative and nonoperative. Cognitive and aphasic deficits were inspected formally and pragmatic disorder was informally appraised at discharge. The groups had no significant differences in aphasia incidence and language pragmatic impairment, though they were significantly distinctive in aphasia subcategories and cognitive deficit after trauma. Fluent aphasia was more common in both groups alike. In aphasia subcategories, however, transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA) in operative and anomia in nonoperative group were the most prevalent. Several variables appeared strikingly related to higher aphasia in operative groups as follows: moderate to severe injury, 18-35 and over 50 years of age, more than 1 week PTA, intracranial surgery of multiple lesions in left or bilateral hemisphere fronto-temporal cortex plus post-trauma cognitive and pragmatic impairments, and diffuse axonal injuries. Almost certainly, meaningful drop of cognitive function post surgery roots back in significant loss of initial consciousness level. Related factors to postoperative aphasia suggest taking policies through surgery intervention. Discerning the indispensable contributions of neurosurgeons, neurolinguists, and neuroscientists, results inspire more clinical future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent
Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury.
Kjaersgaard, Annette; Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Borg, Tove
Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore and interpret how persons with acquired brain injury (ABI) experience and adapt to reduced abilities to swallowing and eating - and clinical implications. Method: Explorative multiple-case study with qualitative interviews of six persons following ABI ...
Hansen, Trine S; Engberg, Aase W; Larsen, Klaus
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the status of functional oral intake for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and time to return to unrestricted dieting; and to investigate whether severity of brain injury is a predictor for unrestricted dieting. DESIGN: Observational retrospective cohort...
Pappu, Suguna; Lerma, Jesus; Khraishi, Tariq
Morphologic features of computed tomography (CT) scans of the brain can be used to estimate intracranial pressure (ICP) via an image-processing algorithm. Clinically, such estimations can be used to prognosticate outcomes and avoid placement of invasive intracranial monitors in certain patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Features on a CT scan that may correlate with measurements of low ICP are sought. A measure is proposed that is a function of the distribution of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in and around the brain. In our method, we present an algorithm that semiautomatically segments brain parenchyma from CSF, and apply standard image processing calculations. The ratio of CSF volume to the size of the intracranial vault (ICV) or volume inside the skull, csf(v) /icv(v) is calculated and then plotted against the actual recorded ICP, yielding a relationship between the image features and ICP. We analyzed a total of 45 scans from 20 patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We showed that a ratio csf(v)/icv(v) > .034 correlates with an ICP < 20 mmHg (P = .0046). For csf(v)/icv(v) ≤ .034, a distinction between low and high ICP cannot be effectively estimated by this univariate measure. This method permits a noninvasive means of identifying patients who are low risk for having elevated ICP; by following Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines strictly such a patient may be subjected to an unnecessary, invasive procedure. This work is a promising pilot study that will need to be analyzed for a larger population. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.
Bodack, Marie I
Although pediatric patients are sometimes included in studies about visual problems in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), few studies deal solely with children. Unlike studies dealing with adult patients, in which mechanisms of brain injury are divided into cerebral vascular accident (CVA) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), studies on pediatric patients deal almost exclusively with traumatic brain injury, specifically caused by accidents. Here we report on the vision problems of 4 pediatric patients, ages 3 to 18 years, who were examined in the ophthalmology/optometry clinic at a children's hospital. All patients had an internally caused brain injury and after the initial insult manifested problems in at least one of the following areas: acuity, binocularity, motility (tracking or saccades), accommodation, visual fields, and visual perceptual skills. Pediatric patients can suffer from a variety of oculo-visual problems after the onset of head injury. These patients may or may not be symptomatic and can benefit from optometric intervention. Copyright © 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Skrifvars, Markus B; Bailey, Michael; French, Craig; Presneill, Jeffrey; Nichol, Alistair; Little, Lorraine; Duranteau, Jacques; Huet, Olivier; Haddad, Samir; Arabi, Yaseen; McArthur, Colin; Cooper, D James; Bellomo, Rinaldo
Erythropoietin (EPO) may reduce mortality after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Secondary brain injury is exacerbated by multiple trauma, and possibly modifiable by EPO. We hypothesized that EPO decreases mortality more in TBI patients with multiple trauma, than in patients with TBI alone. A post hoc analysis of the EPO-TBI randomized controlled trial conducted in 2009 to 2014. To evaluate the impact of injuries outside the brain, we calculated an extracranial Injury Severity Score (ISS) that included the same components of the ISS, excluding head and face components. We defined multiple trauma as two injured body regions with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 3 or higher. Cox regression analyses, allowing for potential differential responses per the presence or absence of extracranial injury defined by these injury scores, were used to assess the effect of EPO on time to mortality. Of 603 included patients, the median extracranial ISS was 6 (interquartile range, 1-13) and 258 (43%) had an AIS score of 3 or higher in at least two body regions. On Cox regression, EPO was associated with decreased mortality in patients with greater extracranial ISS (interaction p = 0.048) and weakly associated with differential mortality with multiple trauma (AIS score > 3 or in two regions, interaction p = 0.17). At 6 months in patients with extracranial ISS higher than 6, 10 (6.8%) of 147 EPO-treated patients compared with 26 (17%) of 154 placebo-treated patients died (risk reduction, 10%; 95% confidence interval, 2.9-17%; p = 0.007). In this post hoc analysis, EPO administration was associated with a potential differential improvement in 6-month mortality in TBI patients with more severe extracranial injury. These findings need confirmation in future clinical and experimental studies. Therapeutic study, level III.
Full Text Available Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocognition with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, respectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most significant positive correlations were found between mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most significant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positively associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental findings suggest that mismatch negativity might efficiently reflect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...
Jared F Benge
Full Text Available Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of acquired epilepsy. Prophylaxis for seizures is the standard of care for individuals with moderate to severe injuries at risk for developing seizures, though relatively limited comparative data is available to guide clinicians in their choice of agents. There have however been experimental studies which demonstrate potential neuroprotective qualities of levetiracetam after TBI, and in turn there is hope that eventually such agents may improve neurobehavioral outcomes post-TBI. This mini-review summarizes the available studies and suggests areas for future studies.
van der Horn, Harm J.; Liemburg, Edith J.; Scheenen, Myrthe E.; de Koning, Myrthe E.; Spikman, Jacoba M.; van der Naalt, Joukje
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide. Posttraumatic complaints are frequently reported, interfering with outcome. However, a consistent neural substrate has not yet been found. We used graph analysis to further unravel the complex interactions between functional brain networks, complaints, anxiety and depression in the sub-acute stage after mTBI. This study included 54 patients with uncomplicated mTBI and 20 matched healthy controls. Posttraumatic complaints, anxiety and depression were measured at two weeks post-injury. Patients were selected based on presence (n = 34) or absence (n = 20) of complaints. Resting-state fMRI scans were made approximately four weeks post-injury. High order independent component analysis resulted in 89 neural components that were included in subsequent graph analyses. No differences in graph measures were found between patients with mTBI and healthy controls. Regarding the two patient subgroups, degree, strength, local efficiency and eigenvector centrality of the bilateral posterior cingulate/precuneus and bilateral parahippocampal gyrus were higher, and eigenvector centrality of the frontal pole/ bilateral middle & superior frontal gyrus was lower in patients with complaints compared to patients without complaints. In patients with mTBI, higher degree, strength and eigenvector centrality of default mode network components were related to higher depression scores, and higher degree and eigenvector centrality of executive network components were related to lower depression scores. In patients without complaints, one extra module was found compared to patients with complaints and healthy controls, consisting of the cingulate areas. In conclusion, this research extends the knowledge of functional network connectivity after mTBI. Specifically, our results suggest that an imbalance in the function of the default mode- and executive network plays a central role in the interaction
Harm J van der Horn
Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide. Posttraumatic complaints are frequently reported, interfering with outcome. However, a consistent neural substrate has not yet been found. We used graph analysis to further unravel the complex interactions between functional brain networks, complaints, anxiety and depression in the sub-acute stage after mTBI. This study included 54 patients with uncomplicated mTBI and 20 matched healthy controls. Posttraumatic complaints, anxiety and depression were measured at two weeks post-injury. Patients were selected based on presence (n = 34 or absence (n = 20 of complaints. Resting-state fMRI scans were made approximately four weeks post-injury. High order independent component analysis resulted in 89 neural components that were included in subsequent graph analyses. No differences in graph measures were found between patients with mTBI and healthy controls. Regarding the two patient subgroups, degree, strength, local efficiency and eigenvector centrality of the bilateral posterior cingulate/precuneus and bilateral parahippocampal gyrus were higher, and eigenvector centrality of the frontal pole/ bilateral middle & superior frontal gyrus was lower in patients with complaints compared to patients without complaints. In patients with mTBI, higher degree, strength and eigenvector centrality of default mode network components were related to higher depression scores, and higher degree and eigenvector centrality of executive network components were related to lower depression scores. In patients without complaints, one extra module was found compared to patients with complaints and healthy controls, consisting of the cingulate areas. In conclusion, this research extends the knowledge of functional network connectivity after mTBI. Specifically, our results suggest that an imbalance in the function of the default mode- and executive network plays a central role in the
van der Horn, Harm J; Liemburg, Edith J; Scheenen, Myrthe E; de Koning, Myrthe E; Spikman, Jacoba M; van der Naalt, Joukje
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide. Posttraumatic complaints are frequently reported, interfering with outcome. However, a consistent neural substrate has not yet been found. We used graph analysis to further unravel the complex interactions between functional brain networks, complaints, anxiety and depression in the sub-acute stage after mTBI. This study included 54 patients with uncomplicated mTBI and 20 matched healthy controls. Posttraumatic complaints, anxiety and depression were measured at two weeks post-injury. Patients were selected based on presence (n = 34) or absence (n = 20) of complaints. Resting-state fMRI scans were made approximately four weeks post-injury. High order independent component analysis resulted in 89 neural components that were included in subsequent graph analyses. No differences in graph measures were found between patients with mTBI and healthy controls. Regarding the two patient subgroups, degree, strength, local efficiency and eigenvector centrality of the bilateral posterior cingulate/precuneus and bilateral parahippocampal gyrus were higher, and eigenvector centrality of the frontal pole/ bilateral middle & superior frontal gyrus was lower in patients with complaints compared to patients without complaints. In patients with mTBI, higher degree, strength and eigenvector centrality of default mode network components were related to higher depression scores, and higher degree and eigenvector centrality of executive network components were related to lower depression scores. In patients without complaints, one extra module was found compared to patients with complaints and healthy controls, consisting of the cingulate areas. In conclusion, this research extends the knowledge of functional network connectivity after mTBI. Specifically, our results suggest that an imbalance in the function of the default mode- and executive network plays a central role in the interaction
Sala, Nathalie; Suys, Tamarah; Zerlauth, Jean-Baptiste; Bouzat, Pierre; Messerer, Mahmoud; Bloch, Jocelyne; Levivier, Marc; Magistretti, Pierre J; Meuli, Reto; Oddo, Mauro
Growing evidence suggests that endogenous lactate is an important substrate for neurons. This study aimed to examine cerebral lactate metabolism and its relationship with brain perfusion in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). A prospective cohort of 24 patients with severe TBI monitored with cerebral microdialysis (CMD) and brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) was studied. Brain lactate metabolism was assessed by quantification of elevated CMD lactate samples (>4 mmol/L); these ...
Riberholt, Christian Gunge; Olesen, Niels Damkjær; Thing, Mira
mean velocity and estimated cerebral perfusion pressure. Patients with acquired brain injury presented an increase in mean flow index during head-up tilt indicating impaired autoregulation (P frequency domain revealed lower magnitudes of ∼0.......1 Hz spectral power in patients compared to healthy controls suggesting baroreflex dysfunction. In conclusion, patients with severe acquired brain injury and orthostatic intolerance during head-up tilt have impaired cerebral autoregulation more than one month after brain injury.......Early mobilization is of importance for improving long-term outcome for patients after severe acquired brain injury. A limiting factor for early mobilization by head-up tilt is orthostatic intolerance. The purpose of the present study was to examine cerebral autoregulation in patients with severe...
Boniface Respicious; Lugazia Edwin Rwebugisa; Ntungi Abel Mussa; Kiloloma Othman
.... However, access to neurosurgical care is poor in low income countries like Tanzania. The aim of this study was to assess the management and outcome of Traumatic brain injury patients at a tertiary level health facility in Tanzania...
Jang, Sung Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Gyu
Abstract Background: Little is known about delay in regaining gait ability at a chronic stage after brain injury. In this study, we report on a single patient who regained the gait ability during 2 months of intensive rehabilitation starting 2 years after a brain injury. Methods and results: A 40-year-old male patient diagnosed with viral encephalitis underwent comprehensive rehabilitation until 2 years after onset. However, he could not even sit independently and presented with severe physic...
Simonsen, Louise Lau; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Krasheninnikoff, Michael
The incidence of heterotopic ossification (HO) among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) varies in the literature from 11 to 73.3%. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HO among patients with very severe TBI treated in a new established intensive rehabilitation Brain...
Christian Gunge Riberholt
Full Text Available Early mobilization is of importance for improving long-term outcome for patients after severe acquired brain injury. A limiting factor for early mobilization by head-up tilt is orthostatic intolerance. The purpose of the present study was to examine cerebral autoregulation in patients with severe acquired brain injury and a low level of consciousness. Fourteen patients with severe acquired brain injury and orthostatic intolerance and fifteen healthy volunteers were enrolled. Blood pressure was evaluated by pulse contour analysis, heart rate and RR-intervals were determined by electrocardiography, middle cerebral artery velocity was evaluated by transcranial Doppler, and near-infrared spectroscopy determined frontal lobe oxygenation in the supine position and during head-up tilt. Cerebral autoregulation was evaluated as the mean flow index calculated as the ratio between middle cerebral artery mean velocity and estimated cerebral perfusion pressure. Patients with acquired brain injury presented an increase in mean flow index during head-up tilt indicating impaired autoregulation (P < 0.001. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability in the frequency domain revealed lower magnitudes of ~0.1 Hz spectral power in patients compared to healthy controls suggesting baroreflex dysfunction. In conclusion, patients with severe acquired brain injury and orthostatic intolerance during head-up tilt have impaired cerebral autoregulation more than one month after brain injury.
Holm, Sara; Schönberger, Michael; Poulsen, Ingrid
was low compared to other studies using the EBIQ. Furthermore, the effects of injury severity and general level of functioning had limited impact on the subjective experience of difficulties. Implications of these findings, specifically as they pertain to the sub-acute stage are discussed Udgivelsesdato......The present study aimed to (1) identify the difficulties most frequently reported by individuals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) at the time of discharge from a sub-acute rehabilitation brain injury unit as well as difficulties reported by their relatives, (2) compare patients......' and relatives' reports of patient difficulties, and (3) explore the role of injury severity, disability and other factors on subjective experience of difficulties. The primary measure was the European Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ) administered to patients and to one of their close relatives at discharge...
Doser, Karoline; Norup, Anne
OBJECTIVE: To investigate caregiver burden and factors associated with caregiver burden among family members of patients with severe brain injury in the chronic phase. Additionally, the study aimed at investigating differences in burden between parents and spouses. METHODS: Forty-four Danish...... caregivers of patients with severe brain injury were contacted 3-6 years post-injury and asked to complete a measure of caregiver burden. RESULTS: Medium, high and low levels of burden were observed in 45%, 16% and 39% of family members, respectively. Higher burden was seen in caregivers of patients...... with more severe injuries, who spent more time on caregiving and reported more unmet needs. Overall, spouses spent significantly more time taking care of their family member than parents and reported higher levels of burden. CONCLUSIONS: The findings emphasized the continuing consequences of brain injury...
Schwark, James; Fields, Willa
The purpose of this article is to describe and recommend reading as a nursing intervention for agitated patients with anoxic brain injury. The design of this study is a case report of the results from reading to an agitated patient with anoxic brain injury. Observation of the effects of reading to an agitated patient. Fifteen minutes of reading to an agitated patient during the evening hours had a calming effect. Reading to agitated patients is an additional nursing intervention with little risk and represents efficient, patient-centered care. Reading is a successful nursing intervention that has a calming effect on agitated patients. © 2016 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.
Boosman, Hileen; van Heugten, Caroline M; Winkens, Ieke; Smeets, Sanne M J; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A
The Motivation for Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation Questionnaire (MOT-Q) evaluates motivation for rehabilitation in four subscales: Interest in rehabilitation, Lack of anger, Lack of denial, and Reliance on professional help. The objective of this study was to further validate the MOT-Q in 122 inpatients and 92 outpatients with acquired brain injury (ABI). The main measures were motivation for rehabilitation (MOT-Q), self-awareness (Patient Competency Rating Scale), and treatment motivation (Visual Analogue Scale). The MOT-Q showed adequate feasibility in terms of few items with missing responses and few undecided responses. We found no floor or ceiling effects, and significant item-total MOT-Q correlations for 29 of 31 items. Internal consistency was good for the MOT-Q total and acceptable to good for the subscales. The MOT-Q scores were significantly intercorrelated except for the subscales Lack of denial and Reliance on professional help in the inpatient group. The MOT-Q total and subscales were significantly associated with treatment motivation. The Lack of denial subscale showed no significant association with treatment motivation and no to moderate significant associations with self-awareness. In conclusion, the overall MOT-Q is a valid instrument to assess motivation for rehabilitation in patients with ABI. Further research is needed to examine the validity of the subscales.
Feng, Jun-Tao; Liu, Han-Qiu; Xu, Jian-Guang; Gu, Yu-Dong; Shen, Yun-Dong
Total brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI) results in the total functional loss of the affected limb and induces extensive brain functional reorganization. However, because the dominant hand is responsible for more cognitive-related tasks, injuries on this side induce more adaptive changes in brain function. In this article, we explored the differences in brain functional reorganization after injuries in unilateral BPAI patients. We applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning to 10 left and 10 right BPAI patients and 20 healthy control subjects. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), which is a resting-state index, was calculated for all patients as an indication of the functional activity level of the brain. Two-sample t-tests were performed between left BPAI patients and controls, right BPAI patients and controls, and between left and right BPAI patients. Two-sample t-tests of the ALFF values revealed that right BPAIs induced larger scale brain reorganization than did left BPAIs. Both left and right BPAIs elicited a decreased ALFF value in the right precuneus (P right BPAI patients exhibited increased ALFF values in a greater number of brain regions than left BPAI patients, including the inferior temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, calcarine sulcus, and fusiform gyrus. Our results revealed that right BPAIs induced greater extents of brain functional reorganization than left BPAIs, which reflected the relatively more extensive adaptive process that followed injuries of the dominant hand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Simonsen, Louise Lau; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Krasheninnikoff, Michael
The incidence of heterotopic ossification (HO) among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) varies in the literature from 11 to 73.3%. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HO among patients with very severe TBI treated in a new established intensive rehabilitation Brain...... as well as data about trauma severity and hospital stay of these patients have been registered prospectively in a database (Danish National Head Injury database) at the Brain Injury Unit where the sub acute rehabilitation took place. The present study was based retrospectively on this database, combined...... with X-rays obtained for symptoms of HO and/or as fracture control. Clinically significant HO was found in 7.9% of the patients. Logistic regression showed an independent significant positive correlation between HO, the female gender and a high Injury Severity Score. The low incidence of HO might...
Bock, J.; Christoffersen, J.K.; Hedegaard, M.
We investigated the files of the Danish Patient Insurance Association for newborns suffering from hypoxic brain injuries. From 1992 to 2004, a total of 127 approved claims concerning peripartum hypoxic injury were registered. Thirty-eight newborns died and the majority of the 89 surviving children...
Scheenen, Myrthe E.; de Koning, Myrthe E.; van der Horn, Harm; Roks, Gerwin; Yilmaz, Tansel; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba M.
A substantial number of patients (30% to 50%) sustains a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) while they are under the influence of alcohol. An acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) at the time of injury has been subject of research in severe TBI, but little is known about the relation between AAI and
Gesch, Janelle M; Low Choy, Nancy L; Weeks, Benjamin K; Nascimento, Margarida; Steele, Michael; Kuys, Suzanne S
The Acute Brain Injury Physiotherapy Assessment (ABIPA) is a new outcome measure with face validity and sensitivity to change in the early stages of neuromotor recovery after acquired brain injury (ABI). Reliability of physiotherapists using the tool has not been established. Determine inter- and intra-tester reliability of physiotherapists using the ABIPA. An observational study using video-recorded assessments of patient performance (n = 7) was undertaken with two cohorts of physiotherapists: those receiving training (n = 23) and those provided with guidelines only (n = 7) to administer the ABIPA. Across all physiotherapists (n = 30), inter-tester reliability was excellent (α ≥ 0.9) for total ABIPA score. All individual items, except trunk alignment in supine (α = 0.5), showed excellent or good internal consistency (α ≥ 0.7). For intra-tester reliability, substantial or perfect agreement was achieved for eight items (weighted Kappa Kw ≥ 0.6), moderate agreement for four items (Kw = 0.4-0.6) and three items achieved fair agreement (alignment head supine: Kw = 0.289; alignment trunk supine: Kw = 0.387 and tone left upper limb: Kw = 0.366). Physiotherapists are highly consistent using the ABIPA but several items may need revision to improve intra-tester reliability.
de Koning, M.E.; Gareb, Barzi; El Moumni, M.; Scheenen, M. E.; van der Horn, H. J.; Timmerman, M. E.; Spikman, J. M.; van der Naalt, J.
Objective: To identify the frequency, nature and profile of complaints for trauma patients with and without mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and to assess their relation to anxiety and depression. Methods: A prospective cohort study in a level-one trauma centre was conducted. Mild traumatic brain
Yoon, Young Kwon; Lee, Kil Chan; Cho, Han Eol; Chae, Minji; Chang, Jin Woo; Chang, Won Seok; Cho, Sung-Rae
Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) has been known to reduce spasticity which did not respond to oral medications and botulinum toxin treatment. However, few results have been reported comparing the effects of ITB therapy in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and acquired brain injury. This study aimed to investigate beneficial and adverse effects of ITB bolus injection and pump therapy in patients with CP and to compare outcomes to patients with acquired brain injury such as traumatic brain injury and hypoxic brain injury. ITB test trials were performed in 37 patients (19 CP and 18 acquired brain injury). Based on ambulatory function, CP patients were divided into 2 groups: 11 patients with nonambulatory CP and 8 patients with ambulatory CP. Change of spasticity was evaluated using the Modified Ashworth Scale. Additional positive or negative effects were also evaluated after ITB bolus injection. In patients who received ITB pump implantation, outcomes of spasticity, subjective satisfaction and adverse events were evaluated until 12 months post-treatment. After ITB bolus injection, 32 patients (86.5%) (CP 84.2% versus acquired brain injury 88.9%) showed a positive response of reducing spasticity. However, 8 patients with CP had negative adverse effects. Particularly, 3 ambulatory CP patients showed standing impairment and 1 ambulatory CP patient showed impaired gait pattern such as foot drop because of excessive reduction of lower extremity muscle tone. Ambulatory CP patients received ITB pump implantation less than patients with acquired brain injury after ITB test trials (P = .003 by a chi-squared test). After the pump implantation, spasticity was significantly reduced within 1 month and the effect maintained for 12 months. Seventeen patients or their caregivers (73.9%) were very satisfied, whereas 5 patients (21.7%) suffered from adverse events showed no subjective satisfaction. In conclusion, ITB therapy was effective in reducing spasticity in patients with CP and
Schow, Trine; Larsen, Klaus; Engberg, Aase Worså
identified patients at highest risk of pneumonia: Glasgow Coma score (GCS) ...Abstract Objective(s): This study investigates the incidence and onset time of pneumonia for patients with severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in the early phase of rehabilitation, and identifies parameters associated with the risk of pneumonia. Design: Observational retrospective cohort study....... Setting: A subacute rehabilitation department, university hospital, Denmark. Participants: One-hundred and seventy-three patients aged 16-65 years with severe TBI admitted over a 5-year period. Patients are transferred to the Brain Injury Unit (BIU) as soon as they ventilate spontaneously. Intervention...
Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of insulin resistance with the cerebral injury and stress reaction in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI. Methods: 78 patients who were diagnosed with acute traumatic brain injury in our hospital between May 2014 and August 2016 were selected as the TBI group, and 90 healthy volunteers who received physical examination during the same period were selected as the control group. The peripheral blood was collected to detect glucose, insulin and nerve injury marker molecules, stress hormones as well as oxidative stress reaction products, and the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR was calculated. Results: The HOMA-IR index of TBI group was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05; serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1, S100β, myelin basic protein (MBP, glucagon, growth hormone, cortisol, malondialdehyde (MDA and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdGlevels of TBI group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05; serum NSE, UCH-L1, S100β, MBP, glucagon, growth hormone, cortisol, MDA and 8-OHdG levels of patients with high HOMA-IR were significantly higher than those of patients with low HOMA-IR (P<0.05. Conclusion: The insulin resistance increases significantly in patients with traumatic brain injury, and is closely related to the degree of cerebral injury and stress reaction.
Capitani, Erminio; Rosci, Chiara; Saetti, Maria Cristina; Laiacona, Marcella
In this study we contrasted the Category fluency and Letter fluency performance of 198 normal subjects, 57 Alzheimer's patients and 57 patients affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim was to check whether, besides the prevalence of Category fluency deficit often reported among Alzheimer's patients, the TBI group presented the opposite…
Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Lykke Mortensen, Erik
31 primary relatives of patients with severe brain injury. The participants were recruited at admission to Traumatic Brain Injury Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup. All relatives completed the depression and anxiety scales from SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist) and the Role Emotional, Social...... of life and symptoms of anxiety and depression at the time of admission. Future research should focus on developing and evaluating interventions in the acute phase....... Function, Mental Health and Vitality scale of the SF-36 approximately 36 days after injury. Data concerning severity of injury, the patients' level of consciousness and function was also collected. MAIN OUTCOME AND RESULTS: The participants had significantly lower scores on all quality of life scales (p...
Aadal, Lena; Kirkevold, Marit
During intensive neurorehabilitation, it is a professional challenge that patients with severe traumatic brain injury may have changed abilities to learn. To develop, initially test, and evaluate a model for neurorehabilitation aimed at systematizing and facilitating professionals' efforts of promoting patients' participation and learning. Qualitative study inspired by action research. Empirical data were analyzed by a theoretical framework of "didactic relation model," "situated learning theory," and neurophysiologic/neuropsychological categories of learning premises. Our findings indicate that the model for neurorehabilitation expands and systematizes the professional's reflections and interventions aimed at facilitating learning among patients with traumatic brain injury.
Mammi, P; Zaccaria, B; Dazzi, F; Saccavini, M
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) has recently become a usual procedure for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness after brain injuries. Despite a high rate of success and a very low procedure-related mortality, morbidity associated to PEG placement reaches 9.4% in a recent large meta-analysis. This case report describes an uncommon complication of PEG placement in a patient with vegetative state after traumatic brain injury: the development of prolonged duodenal paralysis. This patient was treated by placement of a transient jejunostomy until recovery of duodenal functional activity, to permit adequate nutrition. This procedure-related complication is previously unreported in scientific literature.
Boniface, Respicious; Lugazia, Edwin Rwebugisa; Ntungi, Abel Mussa; Kiloloma, Othman
Introduction Traumatic brain Injuries represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and road traffic crashes accounts for a significant proportion of these injuries. However, access to neurosurgical care is poor in low income countries like Tanzania. The aim of this study was to assess the management and outcome of Traumatic brain injury patients at a tertiary level health facility in Tanzania. Methods A retrospective observational study of Traumatic brain injury patients attended at Muhimbili Orthopedic Institute between January 2014 and June 2014. Results A total of 627 Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients were seen, 86% were males. Majority (73%) were between 15 - 45 years age group. Road traffic crashes were the leading cause of injury (59.3%). Majority 401/627 (64%) sustained mild TBI, 114/627 (18.2%) moderate TBI and 112/627 (17.8%) severe TBI. All mild TBI patients had good recovery. Among patients with moderate and severe TBI; 19.1% had good recovery, 50.2% recovered with disabilities and 30.7% died. Independent factors associated with mortality were: Severe TBI (Odds Ratio (OR) 3.16. 95%CI 3.42-10.52) and Systolic blood pressure at referring hospital of more than 90mmHg (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.13, 95%CI 0.04-0.49). Conclusion Traumatic brain injury is a public health problem in Tanzania, mostly due to road traffic crashes. It is therefore important to reinforce preventive measures for road traffic crashes. There is also a need to develop and implement protocols for pre-hospital as well as in-hospital management of brain trauma in Tanzania. PMID:28533863
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000163.htm Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...
... Post-Traumatic Stress Physical Injury Families & Friendships Military Sexual Trauma Depression mild Traumatic Brain Injury Life Stress Health & ... Traumatic Stress Physical Injury Anxiety Health & Wellness Military Sexual Trauma Tobacco Community About Depression Life Stress Alcohol & Drugs ...
Karanjia, Navaz; Nordquist, Diana; Stevens, Robert; Nyquist, Paul
Patients with acute brain injury but normal lung function are often intubated for airway protection, but extubation often fails. Currently, no clinical data exist that describe the events leading to extubation failure in this population. We examined the extubation failure rate, reintubation rate, and clinical characteristics of patients whose reason for intubation was a primary neurological injury. We then identified the clinical characteristics of those patients with primary brain injury who were reintubated. We conducted a retrospective review of patients admitted to the neurocritical care unit of a tertiary care hospital from January 2002 to March 2007. Of 1,265 patients who were intubated because of primary neurological injury of brain, spinal cord, or peripheral nerve, 25 (2%) died before extubation and 767 (61%) were successfully extubated. Tracheostomies were placed in 181 (14%) patients, of which, 77 (6.1%) were completed before a trial of extubation and 104 (8.2%) after extubation failure. A total of 129 (10%) patients were reintubated; 77 (6.1%) were reintubated within 72 h, meeting the definition of extubation failure. The other 52 (4.1%) were intubated after 72 h usually in the setting of pneumonia or decreased mental status. Ninety-nine of the patients reintubated had primary brain injury and resulting encephalopathy. All were successfully reintubated. Most patients intubated as a result of a primary brain injury (981) were successfully extubated. The most common clinical scenario leading to reintubation in these encephalopathic patients was respiratory distress associated with altered mental status [59 patients (59%)]. These patients usually had atelectasis and decreased minute ventilation, independent of fever, pneumonia, aspiration, and increased work of breathing [39 patients (39%)]. The extubation failure rate in our neurocritical care unit is low. In patients with encephalopathy and primary brain injury who were reintubated, respiratory distress
Allain, P.; Fasotti, L.; Roy, A.; Chauvire, V.; Etcharry-Bouyx, F.; Gall, D. le
The aim of the present study was to examine the syntactic and semantic dimensions of script representation in patients with structural damage within the cerebral cortex following a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Forty TBI patients and 38 healthy control subjects (HC) were asked to sort cards
Hansen, T.S.; Larsen, K.; Engberg, Anders
rehabilitation department in a university hospital in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=173) aged 16 to 65 years with severe TBI who were admitted during a 5-year period. Patients are transferred to the brain injury unit as soon as they ventilate spontaneously. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME...
Hansen, T.S.; Engberg, Anders; Larsen, K.
study. SETTING: Subacute rehabilitation department, university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients age 16 to 65 years (N=173) with severe TBI (posttraumatic amnesia from 7d to >6 mo) admitted over a 5-year period. Patients are transferred to the brain injury unit as soon as they ventilate spontaneously...
Riberholt, Christian Gunge; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Mehlsen, Jesper
Patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) are often mobilised using a tilt-table. Complications such as orthostatic intolerance have been reported. The primary objective of this study was to investigate if using a tilt-table was feasible for mobilising patients with severe ABI admitted...
Mioni, G.; Mattalia, G.; Stablum, F.
In this study, we investigated time perception in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Fifteen TBI patients and 15 matched healthy controls participated in the study. Participants were tested with durations above and below 1s on three different temporal tasks that involved time reproduction, production, and discrimination tasks. Data…
P. Poorna Chandrika
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Millions of people are affected by Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI worldwide and a significant number of affected persons live with disability. Early mortality has considerably improved as a result of advances in the management of the early acute stages. The long-term psychiatric consequences of traumatic brain injury are numerous and have enormous impact on rehabilitation, quality of life and outcomes such as return to work. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty patients with history of head injury fulfilling the inclusion criteria and 50 attenders of other patients without history of head injury attending same clinic were taken. They were matched for age, sex and socioeconomic background. Patients and controls were administered Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and Mini Mental State Examination Scale. A clinical interview was done for assessing personality disorder based on DSM IV criteria. Chi-square test was used with one degree of freedom and Yates correction wherever necessary. RESULTS Among cases 62% qualified for psychiatric diagnosis and among controls 12% qualified for psychiatric diagnosis. Among the psychiatric diagnosis of cases majority consisted of depression (24.0% 12 persons. Statistically, depression and personality disorder have correlation with traumatic head injury (P <0.05. CONCLUSION Psychiatric sequelae are more in head injury patients. Depression and personality disorder are significantly more in head injury population. Injury to frontal region has significant association with personality disorder.
Perrin, Paul B; Norup, Anne; Caracuel, Alfonso
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to use actor-partner interdependence modeling (APIM) to examine the simultaneous effects of both acquired brain injury (ABI) patient and caregiver ratings of patient impairments on both patient and caregiver ratings of caregiver psychosocial dysfunction. M...... are patients' views of their own impairments, pointing to caregivers' interpretations of their patients' impairments as a primary target for cognitive behavioral interventions....
Houston, Kevin E; Barrett, A M
Patching for double vision is a common palliative treatment for head-trauma patients with acquired strabismus when prisms are not feasible. We review literature on spatial neglect and discuss possible effects of monocular occlusion on spatial attention. Patching the left eye has been shown to worsen spatial judgments in some brain-injured patients with left neglect by inhibiting the right superior colliculus further impairing contralateral leftward orienting (the Sprague Effect). Because more peripheral parts of the visual field increasingly project to the contralateral superior colliculus with the temporal crescent being entirely contralateral, avoiding patching of the temporal crescent was advised, and in most cases can be achieved by taping off the spectacle lens and avoiding an elastic eye patch.
Badenes, Rafael; Oddo, Mauro; Suarez, José I; Antonelli, Massimo; Lipman, Jeffrey; Citerio, Giuseppe; Taccone, Fabio Silvio
The optimal hemoglobin (Hb) threshold at which to initiate red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in patients with acute brain injury is unknown. The aim of this survey was to investigate RBC transfusion practices used with these patients. We conducted a web-based survey within various societies of critical care medicine for intensive care unit (ICU) physicians who currently manage patients with primary acute brain injury. A total of 868 responses were obtained from around the world, half of which (n = 485) were from European centers; 204 (24%) respondents had a specific certificate in neurocritical care, and most were specialists in anesthesiology or intensive care and had less than 15 years of practice experience. Four hundred sixty-six respondents (54%) said they used an Hb threshold of 7-8 g/dl to initiate RBC transfusion after acute brain injury, although half of these respondents used a different threshold (closer to 9 g/dl) in patients with traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or ischemic stroke. Systemic and cerebral factors were reported as influencing the need for higher Hb thresholds. Most respondents agreed that a randomized clinical trial was needed to compare two different Hb thresholds for RBC transfusion, particularly in patients with traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and ischemic stroke. The Hb threshold used for RBC transfusion after acute brain injury was less than 8 g/dl in half of the ICU clinicians who responded to our survey. However, more than 50% of these physicians used higher Hb thresholds in certain conditions.
Boosman, Hileen; van Heugten, Caroline M.; Winkens, Ieke; Smeets, Sanne M J; Visser-Meily, Anne
The Motivation for Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation Questionnaire (MOT-Q) evaluates motivation for rehabilitation in four subscales: Interest in rehabilitation, Lack of anger, Lack of denial, and Reliance on professional help. The objective of this study was to further validate the MOT-Q in 122
Östberg, Anna; Virta, Jere; Rinne, Juha O
subjects for more than 1 year after at least moderate traumatic brain injury. Ten of the subjects were respondents and 7 nonrespondents to cholinergic medication. DESIGN:: Cholinergic function was assessed with [methyl-C] N-methylpiperidyl-4-acetate-PET (C-MP4A-PET), which reflects the activity...
van der Horn, Harm J.; Liemburg, Edith J.; Scheenen, Myrthe E.; de Koning, Myrthe E.; Spikman, Jacoba M.; van der Naalt, Joukje
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide. Posttraumatic complaints are frequently reported, interfering with outcome. However, a consistent neural substrate has not yet been found. We used graph analysis to further unravel the complex interactions
O. V. Oliynyk
Full Text Available Background. Respiratory support is a vital method for temporary compensation of external breathing function in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. However, it is not always possible to deal with severe respiratory dysfunction even with the usage of up-to-date respiratory technologies. This work is aimed to find an answer how different pattern of mechanical ventilation influence on a treatment of patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Objective. The influence of respiratory support, as a main method for temporary compensation of external breathing function, on treatment result for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Methods. Treatment results of 253 patients with severe traumatic brain injury of Ternopil University Hospital were evaluated due to the type of respiratory support used. The results were separately evaluated in alive and dead patients. Results. Mortality rate of patients depended on the type of mechanical ventilation that was used. The highest mortality (58.69 % was in the group, when a patient was transferred to forced ventilation a volume control. The mortality rate was decreasing by 51.78% in case of adding PEEP. The strategy of using accessory lung ventilation patterns CPAP and BiPAP caused significant (in 1.48 times decrease of mortality in this group of patients. Conclusion The survival of patients with severe traumatic brain injury, who were ventilated by the method of consistent combination of forced ventilation with pressure control (CРV and 2 patterns of accessory lung ventilation: Constant Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP and Biphasic positive airway pressure (BiPAP, is reliably higher than in the case of forced ventilation with volume control with Positive end-expiratory pressure.
Graff, Heidi J.; Christensen, Ulla; Poulsen, Ingrid
Purpose: This study aimed to provide an understanding of the lived experience of rehabilitation in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) from hospital discharge up to four years post-injury. Materials and methods: We used a qualitative explorative design with semi-structured in-depth interview...... systematic follow-up programs • Age-appropriate rehabilitation facilities • Inclusion of patient and family in the planning of long-term rehabilitation...
BATOOL F. KIRMANI
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI can cause seizures and the development of epilepsy. The incidence of seizures varies from 21% in patients with severe brain injuries to 50% in patients with war-related penetrating TBI. In the acute and sub-acute periods following injury, seizures can lead to increased intracranial pressure and cerebral edema, further complicating TBI management. Anticonvulsants should be used for seizure prophylaxis and treatment. Phenytoin is the most widely prescribed anticonvulsant in these patients. Intravenous levetiracetam, made available in 2006, is now being considered as an alternative to phenytoin in acute care settings. When compared with phenytoin, levetiracetam has fewer side-effects and drug-drug interactions. In the following, the role of levetiracetam in TBI care and the supporting evidence is discussed.
Scheenen, Myrthe; de Koning, Myrthe; van der Horn, Harm; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba
Objectives. To investigate the incidence of acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) at the time of sustaining mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), describe the characteristics of this intoxicated subgroup, and evaluate recovery and outcome in comparison to sober mTBI patients. Methods. Multicenter cohort
Kox, M.; Pompe, J.C.; Pickkers, P.; Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Vugt, A.B. van; Hoeven, J.G. van der
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability, especially in the younger population. In the acute phase after TBI, patients are more vulnerable to infection, associated with a decreased immune response in vitro. The cause of this immune paralysis is poorly understood. Apart
Boonstra, Anne M.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Stewart, Roy E.; Balk, Gerlof A.
The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and discriminant validity of the Dutch version of the life satisfaction questionnaire (Lisat-9 DV) to assess patients with an acquired brain injury. The reliability study used a test-retest design, and the validity study used a cross-sectional design. The setting was the general rehabilitation…
Hansen, Trine Schow; Larsen, Klaus; Engberg, Aase Worså
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence and onset time of pneumonia for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the early phase of rehabilitation and to identify parameters associated with the risk of pneumonia. DESIGN: Observational retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Subacute reh...
Syam Syahrull Hi-Fi
Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG associated with motor task have been comprehensively investigated and it can also describe the brain activities while spinal cord injury (SCI patient with para/tetraplegia performing movement with their limbs. This paper reviews on conducted research regarding application of brain computer interface (BCI that offer alternative for neural impairments community such as spinal cord injury patient (SCI which include the experimental design, signal analysis of EEG band signal and data processing methods. The findings claim that the EEG signals of SCI patients associated with movement tasks can be stimulated through mental and motor task. Other than that EEG signal component such as alpha and beta frequency bands indicate significance for analysing the brain activity of subjects with SCI during movements.
Okumura, Yuka; Asano, Yoshitaka; Takenaka, Shunsuke; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Yonezawa, Shingo; Kasuya, Yukinori; Shinoda, Jun
The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the brain activity potential of patients with impaired consciousness in a chronic stage of diffuse brain injury (DBI) using functional MRI (fMRI) following music stimulation (MS). Two patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) and five patients in a vegetative state (VS) due to severe DBI were enrolled along with 21 healthy adults. This study examined the brain regions activated by music and assessed topographical differences of the MS-activated brain among healthy adults and these patients. MS was shown to activate the bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG) of both healthy adults and patients in an MCS. In four of five patients in a VS, however, no significant activation in STG could be induced by the same MS. The remaining patient in a VS displayed the same MS-induced brain activation in STG as healthy adults and patients in an MCS and this patient's status also improved to an MCS 4 months after the study. The presence of STG activation by MS may predict a possible improvement of patients in a VS to MCS and fMRI employing MS may be a useful modality to objectively evaluate consciousness in these patients.
Kampen, P.J. van; Martina, J.D.; Vos, P.E.; Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Hendricks, H.T.
BACKGROUND: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current preliminary study is intended to provide additional data on the potential roles that brain injury severity, concomitant orthopaedic trauma, and specific intensive care complicating
Segev, Einav; Levinger, Miriam; Hochman, Yael
This qualitative research focused on the relationships between family members of patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). The aim was to explore the dynamics between caregivers of the family member with a brain injury during rehabilitation hospitalization, and the relationships between them and the rest of the extended family. Twenty semistructured interviews were conducted with family members. In each family, the spouse of the patient and another family member involved in caregiving were interviewed. The importance of the relationships between family members during rehabilitation hospitalization justifies the examination undertaken in this research. Findings point at the change that took place in the relationships between family members because of the need to cope with a relative's injury. It is possible that direct intervention in the dynamics of the relationship, especially between the family of origin and the nuclear family of the injured person, can benefit extended families in coping with the crisis.
Norup, Anne; Welling, Karen-Lise; Qvist, Jesper
Primary objective: To investigate the emotional well-being of relatives of patients with a severe brain injury in the acute setting, as well as risk factors associated with high anxiety and depression scores and impaired quality-of-life. Research design: Clinical convenience sample. Methods and p....... Conclusions: The majority of the relatives had severely impaired quality-of-life and symptoms of anxiety and depression during the patient's NICU stay. Future research is required to explore stressors and evaluate effects of psychological intervention in the acute setting.......Primary objective: To investigate the emotional well-being of relatives of patients with a severe brain injury in the acute setting, as well as risk factors associated with high anxiety and depression scores and impaired quality-of-life. Research design: Clinical convenience sample. Methods...... and procedures: Participants included 45 relatives of patients with severe brain injury recruited at a NICU. All relatives completed selected scales from the SCL-90-R and SF-36 ~ 14 days after injury. Data concerning the condition of the patient were also collected. Main outcome and results: Of the relatives, 51...
Department of Veterans Affairs — As the number of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) patients has grown, so has the need to track and monitor...
Min, Yu-Sun; Chang, Yongmin; Park, Jang Woo; Lee, Jong-Min; Cha, Jungho; Yang, Jin-Ju; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Hwang, Jong-Moon; Yoo, Ji-Na; Jung, Tae-Du
To investigate the global functional reorganization of the brain following spinal cord injury with graph theory based approach by creating whole brain functional connectivity networks from resting state-functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), characterizing the reorganization of these networks using graph theoretical metrics and to compare these metrics between patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and age-matched controls. Twenty patients with incomplete cervical SCI (14 males, 6 females; age, 55±14.1 years) and 20 healthy subjects (10 males, 10 females; age, 52.9±13.6 years) participated in this study. To analyze the characteristics of the whole brain network constructed with functional connectivity using rs-fMRI, graph theoretical measures were calculated including clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, global efficiency and small-worldness. Clustering coefficient, global efficiency and small-worldness did not show any difference between controls and SCIs in all density ranges. The normalized characteristic path length to random network was higher in SCI patients than in controls and reached statistical significance at 12%-13% of density (pgraph theoretical approach in brain functional connectivity might be helpful to reveal the information processing after SCI. These findings imply that patients with SCI can build on preserved competent brain control. Further analyses, such as topological rearrangement and hub region identification, will be needed for better understanding of neuroplasticity in patients with SCI.
Masha'al, Dina A.
There is a high prevalence in malnutrition among traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to the hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism which develop post injury. Traumatic brain injury patients are different, even among themselves, in their energy requirements and response to nutritional therapy. This implies that there are other factors that affect the energy intake of these patients and enhance the incidence of malnutrition. This dissertation study examines the nutritional status of TBI patients upon admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and during their hospital stay to describe baseline status, detect changes in nutritional status over 7 days, and identify the factors affecting the adequacy of energy intake and the change in nutritional status as a consequence. Anthropometric measurements, biomedical measurements, measures of severity of illness, daily health status, level of brain injury severity, and other data were collected from the medical records of 50 patients, who were ≥ 18 years old, mechanically ventilated in the first 24 hours of ICU admission, and had a Glasgow Coma Scale score between 3-12. These data were used to examine the previous relationships. Although there was no statistically significant change found in body mass index and weight, there was a significant change detected in other nutritional markers, including hemoglobin, albumin, and total lymphocyte levels over the 7 days of ICU and hospital stay. No significant relationship was found between the adequacy of energy intake and total prescribed energy, severity of illness, level of brain injury severity, daily health status, patient age, intracranial pressure, or time of feeding initiation. Findings may be used to develop and test interventions to improve nutritional status during the acute phase of TBI. This will lay a foundation for health care providers, including nurses, to establish standards for practice and nutrition protocols to assure optimal nutrition assessment and intervention in a
Tripovic, Y.; Marchese, A.; Carratelli, D.; Naranjo, F.J. Romero
After the acute phase of hospitalization, patients with severe brain injury, requiring interventions in health and social care in the long term: the work of rehabilitators is to facilitate the recovery of several disorders caused by trauma and involves all possible areas to return the patient to full functionality within the autonomy and satisfaction of basic needs, and psychological support they need.The recent use of body percussion through BAPNE method in neurorehabilitation offers the pos...
Maggiore, Umberto; Picetti, Edoardo; Antonucci, Elio; Parenti, Elisabetta; Regolisti, Giuseppe; Mergoni, Mario; Vezzani, Antonella; Cabassi, Aderville; Fiaccadori, Enrico
Introduction The study was aimed at verifying whether the occurrence of hypernatremia during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay increases the risk of death in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We performed a retrospective study on a prospectively collected database including all patients consecutively admitted over a 3-year period with a diagnosis of TBI (post-resuscitation Glasgow Coma Score ? 8) to a general/neurotrauma ICU of a university hospital, providing critical care ...
Sung, Eun Jung; Chun, Min Ho; Hong, Ja Young; Do, Kyung Hee
Objective To assess the effectiveness of the resting foot splint to prevent ankle contracture. Methods We performed a randomized controlled trial in 33 patients with brain injury with ankle dorsiflexor weakness (muscle power ?grade 2). Both groups continued conventional customized physical therapy, but the patients in the foot splint group were advised to wear a resting foot splint for more than 12 hours per day for 3 weeks. The data were assessed before and 3 weeks after the study. The prima...
Riberholt, Christian G; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Mehlsen, Jesper
Patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) are often mobilised using a tilt-table. Complications such as orthostatic intolerance have been reported. The primary objective of this study was to investigate if using a tilt-table was feasible for mobilising patients with severe ABI admitted for...... for sub-acute rehabilitation. We also investigated change in arousal, treatment duration before termination due to orthostatic reactions and change in muscle tone....
Riberholt, Christian Gunge; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Mehlsen, Jesper
Patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) are often mobilised using a tilt-table. Complications such as orthostatic intolerance have been reported. The primary objective of this study was to investigate if using a tilt-table was feasible for mobilising patients with severe ABI admitted...... for sub-acute rehabilitation. We also investigated change in arousal, treatment duration before termination due to orthostatic reactions and change in muscle tone....
Full Text Available Head injuries are very common in children. All over the world, the most common mechanism is fall. These injuries are more prevalent in developing countries due to lack of education, poverty, lack of standard and scientific ways to child upbringing. Penetrating injuries in pediatric patients is extremely uncommon and usually occur due to sharp objects like knife, screw driver, drills, nails. We are reporting a rare case of a child with penetrating head injury due to tea cup, very commonly used crockery in every house hold. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has ever been reported in world literature. Our case also emphasized the need for educating people about child care.
Sauter, Thomas C.; Ziegenhorn, Stephan; Ahmad, Sufian S.; Hautz, Wolf E.; Ricklin, Meret E.; Leichtle, Alexander Benedikt; Fiedler, Georg-Martin; Haider, Dominik G.; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.
BACKGROUND Patients admitted to emergency departments with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are commonly being treated with oral anticoagulants. In contrast to patients without anticoagulant medication, no guidelines, scores or recommendations exist for the management of mild traumatic brain injury in these patients. We therefore tested whether age as one of the high risk factors of the Canadian head CT rule is applicable to a patient population on oral anticoagulants. METHODS This cr...
Jang, Sung Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Gyu
Abstract Background: Little is known about delay in regaining gait ability at a chronic stage after brain injury. In this study, we report on a single patient who regained the gait ability during 2 months of intensive rehabilitation starting 2 years after a brain injury. Methods and results: A 40-year-old male patient diagnosed with viral encephalitis underwent comprehensive rehabilitation until 2 years after onset. However, he could not even sit independently and presented with severe physical deconditioning and severe ataxia. To understand his neurological state, 4 neural tracts related to gait function were reconstructed, and based on the state of these neural tracts, we decided that the patient had the neurological potential to walk independently. Therefore, we assumed that the main reasons for gait inability in this patient were severe physical deconditioning and truncal ataxia. Consequently, the patient underwent the following intensive rehabilitative therapy: administration of drugs for control of ataxia (topiramate, clonazepam, and propranolol) and movement therapy for physical conditioning and gait training. As a result, after 2 months of rehabilitation, he was able to walk independently on an even floor, with improvement of severe physical deconditioning and truncal ataxia. Conclusion: We described the rehabilitation program in a single patient who regained the gait ability during 2 months of intensive rehabilitation starting 2 years after a brain injury. PMID:27661035
Sala, Nathalie; Suys, Tamarah; Zerlauth, Jean-Baptiste; Bouzat, Pierre; Messerer, Mahmoud; Bloch, Jocelyne; Levivier, Marc; Magistretti, Pierre J; Meuli, Reto; Oddo, Mauro
Growing evidence suggests that endogenous lactate is an important substrate for neurons. This study aimed to examine cerebral lactate metabolism and its relationship with brain perfusion in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). A prospective cohort of 24 patients with severe TBI monitored with cerebral microdialysis (CMD) and brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) was studied. Brain lactate metabolism was assessed by quantification of elevated CMD lactate samples (>4 mmol/L); these were matched to CMD pyruvate and PbtO2 values and dichotomized as glycolytic (CMD pyruvate >119 μmol/L vs. low pyruvate) and hypoxic (PbtO2 <20 mm Hg vs. nonhypoxic). Using perfusion computed tomography (CT), brain perfusion was categorized as oligemic, normal, or hyperemic, and was compared with CMD and PbtO2 data. Samples with elevated CMD lactate were frequently observed (41±8%), and we found that brain lactate elevations were predominantly associated with glycolysis and normal PbtO2 (73±8%) rather than brain hypoxia (14±6%). Furthermore, glycolytic lactate was always associated with normal or hyperemic brain perfusion, whereas all episodes with hypoxic lactate were associated with diffuse oligemia. Our findings suggest predominant nonischemic cerebral extracellular lactate release after TBI and support the concept that lactate may be used as an energy substrate by the injured human brain.
Sung, Eun Jung; Chun, Min Ho; Hong, Ja Young; Do, Kyung Hee
To assess the effectiveness of the resting foot splint to prevent ankle contracture. We performed a randomized controlled trial in 33 patients with brain injury with ankle dorsiflexor weakness (muscle power ≤grade 2). Both groups continued conventional customized physical therapy, but the patients in the foot splint group were advised to wear a resting foot splint for more than 12 hours per day for 3 weeks. The data were assessed before and 3 weeks after the study. The primary outcome was the change in ankle dorsiflexion angle after 3 weeks. Before the study, there were no differences between groups in gender, age, time post-injury, brain injury type, initial edema, spasticity, passive range of ankle dorsiflexion, Fugl-Meyer score (FMS), or Functional Ambulation Classification. A significant improvement in ankle dorsiflexion angle, and FMS was found after 3 weeks in both groups. The splint group showed more spasticity than the control group after 3 weeks (p=0.04). The change of ankle dorsiflexion angle, foot circumference, spasticity, and FMS after adjusting initial value and spasticity were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Wearing a resting foot splint for 3 weeks did not affect joint mobility in patients with subacute brain injury regularly attending personalized rehabilitation programs. Further studies of larger sample sizes with well controlled in spasticity are required to evaluate the effects of the resting foot splint.
Blennow, Kaj; Brody, David L; Kochanek, Patrick M; Levin, Harvey; McKee, Ann; Ribbers, Gerard M; Yaffe, Kristine; Zetterberg, Henrik
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are clinically grouped by severity: mild, moderate and severe. Mild TBI (the least severe form) is synonymous with concussion and is typically caused by blunt non-penetrating head trauma. The trauma causes stretching and tearing of axons, which leads to diffuse axonal injury - the best-studied pathogenetic mechanism of this disorder. However, mild TBI is defined on clinical grounds and no well-validated imaging or fluid biomarkers to determine the presence of neuronal damage in patients with mild TBI is available. Most patients with mild TBI will recover quickly, but others report persistent symptoms, called post-concussive syndrome, the underlying pathophysiology of which is largely unknown. Repeated concussive and subconcussive head injuries have been linked to the neurodegenerative condition chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), which has been reported post-mortem in contact sports athletes and soldiers exposed to blasts. Insights from severe injuries and CTE plausibly shed light on the underlying cellular and molecular processes involved in mild TBI. MRI techniques and blood tests for axonal proteins to identify and grade axonal injury, in addition to PET for tau pathology, show promise as tools to explore CTE pathophysiology in longitudinal clinical studies, and might be developed into diagnostic tools for CTE. Given that CTE is attributed to repeated head trauma, prevention might be possible through rule changes by sports organizations and legislators.
Hansen, Christian Riberholt; Olesen, Niels; Thing, Mira
) and the CBFV were lower in the patients (p increase in the Mxc index during head-up tilt pointing at impaired autoregulation (p = 0.001). Spectral analysis of HR variability in the frequency domain revealed significant lower magnitudes of ~ 0.1 Hz spectral power......Objectives: Upright tilt is an important tool for early mobilization of patients after severe acquired brain injury (ABI). Early mobilization is considered to be of importance for increasing awareness, in the prevention of contractures and pulmonary infections and to improve long-term outcome....... A challenge for early mobilization is orthostatic instability that is often observed during heap-up tilt, which could lead to decreased cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and decreased long-term outcome. We examined cerebral blood flow autoregulation in patients with severe brain injury and impaired...
Van Aken, Hugo K; Kampmeier, Tim G; Ertmer, Christian; Westphal, Martin
In patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), dysfunction of the neurovascular unit ('blood-brain barrier') is a common finding, resulting in maldistribution of water and osmoles within the brain. The purpose of the present article is to review the underlying physiology of osmolality and fluid therapy in TBI. The findings of the 'Saline versus Albumin Fluid Evaluation' study suggest that infusion of colloidal solutions is associated with adverse outcomes as compared with sole crystalloid infusion in patients suffering from TBI. Comparison of calculated osmolarity and measured in-vitro osmolality suggests that human albumin solutions, Hartmann's solution, and, to a lesser extent, gelatine preparations are hypo-osmolar, and may, therefore, increase brain volume and intracranial pressure. In the context of the published literature on this topic, it appears that the osmolality of an infusion solution rather than the colloid osmotic pressure per se represents the key determinant in the pathogenesis of cerebral edema formation.
Chmura, Jon; Presson, Nora; Benso, Steven; Puccio, Ava M; Fissel, Katherine; Hachey, Rebecca; Braun, Emily; Okonkwo, David O; Schneider, Walter
We have developed a tablet-based application, the High-Definition Fiber Tracking Report App, to enable clinicians and patients in research studies to see and understand damage from Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) by viewing 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional images of their brain, with a focus on white matter tracts with quantitative metrics. The goal is to visualize white matter fiber tract injury like bone fractures; that is, to make the "invisible wounds of TBI" understandable for patients. Using mobile computing technology (iPad), imaging data for individual patients can be downloaded remotely within hours of a magnetic resonance imaging brain scan. Clinicians and patients can view the data in the form of images of each tract, rotating animations of the tracts, 3-dimensional models, and graphics. A growing number of tracts can be examined for asymmetry, gaps in streamline coverage, reduced arborization (branching), streamline volume, and standard quantitative metrics (e.g., Fractional Anisotropy (FA)). Novice users can learn to effectively navigate and interact with the application (explain the figures and graphs representing normal and injured brain tracts) within 15 minutes of simple orientation with high accuracy (96%). The architecture supports extensive graphics, configurable reports, provides an easy-to-use, attractive interface with a smooth user experience, and allows for securely serving cases from a database. Patients and clinicians have described the application as providing dramatic benefits in understanding their TBI and improving their lives. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Daradkeh, Ghazi; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Adawi, S Samir; Subash, Selvaraju; Mahmood, Lubna; Kumar, Parvathy R
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) has been considered as a serious public health problem. Each year, traumatic brain injuries are contributing to a substantial number of cases of permanent disability and deaths and it can be classified according to the severity into penetrating and closed head injury. Symptoms, beside to be unconscious can be defined as vomiting, nausea, headache, dizziness, lack of motor coordination, difficulty in balancing, blurred vision and lightheadedness, bad taste in the mouth, ringing in the ears, fatigue and lethargy as well as changes in sleep patterns. The brain is known to be the functional regulator for all the metabolic activities inside the body and TBI patients mostly have a complex metabolic alterations including aberrant cellular metabolism, abnormal metabolic processes, changes in hormones functions and inflammatory cascade. The TBI patient's status needed to be assessed medically and nutritionally since the medical status of the patients can affect the nutrition part. Data from the four assessment tools are needed to be correctly used and interpreted in order to make a proper nutritional diagnosis, clinical assessment, biochemistry as well as anthropometric measurements. Regardless the methods used for assessing TBI patients, having adequate intake and medical care can lead to a reduction in hospital costs, numbers of day hospitalized, numbers of hours of mechanical ventilation and in the overall infection rates.
V. V. Unzhakov
Full Text Available Objective: to study the impact of various sedation methods on lipid peroxidation in patients with acute severe brain injury. Subjects and methods. For this, 44 victims with this condition were examined. According the option of posttraumatic sedation therapy, the victims were divided into 3 groups: 1 12 patients in whom sodium oxybutyrate was used for sedation; 2 12 received thiopental sodium; 3 20 patients were given propofol. The lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system were judged from the serum levels of fatty acid hydroperoxides and secondary lipid peroxidation products (malonic dialdehyde and from the content of the endogenous antioxidant a-tocopherol. Results. The study performed indicated that the highest concentrations of fatty acid hydroperoxides were observed in Groups 1 and 2 within the first 24 posttraumatic hours. In Group 3 where propofol was used for sedation, the concentration of the hydroperoxides remained in the normal range although there was a tendency for their rise. Conclusion. Thus, propofol is the agent of choice for sedation that prevents the activation of lipid peroxidation and stabilizes some indices of the antioxidant system in patients with acute severe brain injury. Key words: brain injury, lipid peroxidation, sedation, sodium oxybutyrate, thiopental sodium, propofol.
Damholt, Mette B.; Strange, Ditte G.; Kelsen, Jesper; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Møller, Kirsten
Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is a serious neurological complication of hemodialysis, and patients with acute brain injury are at increased risk. We report a case of DDS leading to intracranial hypertension in a patient with anoxic brain injury and discuss the subsequent dialysis strategy. A 13-year-old girl was admitted after prolonged resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an inferior vena cava aneurysm and multiple pulmonary emboli as the likely cause. An intracranial pressure (ICP) monitor was inserted, and, on day 3, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was initiated due to acute kidney injury, during which the patient developed severe intracranial hypertension. CT of the brain showed diffuse cerebral edema. CRRT was discontinued, sedation was increased, and hypertonic saline was administered, upon which ICP normalized. Due to persistent hyperkalemia and overhydration, ultrafiltration and intermittent hemodialysis were performed separately on day 4 with a small dialyzer, low blood and dialysate flow, and high dialysate sodium content. During subsequent treatments, isolated ultrafiltration was well tolerated, whereas hemodialysis was associated with increased ICP necessitating frequent pauses or early cessation of dialysis. In patients at risk of DDS, hemodialysis should be performed with utmost care and continuous monitoring of ICP should be considered. PMID:28409034
Lund, Anton; Damholt, Mette B; Strange, Ditte G; Kelsen, Jesper; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Møller, Kirsten
Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is a serious neurological complication of hemodialysis, and patients with acute brain injury are at increased risk. We report a case of DDS leading to intracranial hypertension in a patient with anoxic brain injury and discuss the subsequent dialysis strategy. A 13-year-old girl was admitted after prolonged resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an inferior vena cava aneurysm and multiple pulmonary emboli as the likely cause. An intracranial pressure (ICP) monitor was inserted, and, on day 3, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was initiated due to acute kidney injury, during which the patient developed severe intracranial hypertension. CT of the brain showed diffuse cerebral edema. CRRT was discontinued, sedation was increased, and hypertonic saline was administered, upon which ICP normalized. Due to persistent hyperkalemia and overhydration, ultrafiltration and intermittent hemodialysis were performed separately on day 4 with a small dialyzer, low blood and dialysate flow, and high dialysate sodium content. During subsequent treatments, isolated ultrafiltration was well tolerated, whereas hemodialysis was associated with increased ICP necessitating frequent pauses or early cessation of dialysis. In patients at risk of DDS, hemodialysis should be performed with utmost care and continuous monitoring of ICP should be considered.
Full Text Available Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS is a serious neurological complication of hemodialysis, and patients with acute brain injury are at increased risk. We report a case of DDS leading to intracranial hypertension in a patient with anoxic brain injury and discuss the subsequent dialysis strategy. A 13-year-old girl was admitted after prolonged resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Computed tomography (CT revealed an inferior vena cava aneurysm and multiple pulmonary emboli as the likely cause. An intracranial pressure (ICP monitor was inserted, and, on day 3, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT was initiated due to acute kidney injury, during which the patient developed severe intracranial hypertension. CT of the brain showed diffuse cerebral edema. CRRT was discontinued, sedation was increased, and hypertonic saline was administered, upon which ICP normalized. Due to persistent hyperkalemia and overhydration, ultrafiltration and intermittent hemodialysis were performed separately on day 4 with a small dialyzer, low blood and dialysate flow, and high dialysate sodium content. During subsequent treatments, isolated ultrafiltration was well tolerated, whereas hemodialysis was associated with increased ICP necessitating frequent pauses or early cessation of dialysis. In patients at risk of DDS, hemodialysis should be performed with utmost care and continuous monitoring of ICP should be considered.
brain injury in OIF/OEF burn patients 1 Douglas B. Coopera,∗, Janyna M. Mercado -Couchb, Edan Critchfieldb, Jan Kennedyc, Rodney D. Vanderploegc,d,e...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Cooper D. B., Mercado -Couch J. M., Critchfield E., Kennedy J., Vanderploeg R. D., DeVillibis C., Gaylord K. M...Factors influencing cognitive dysfunction after burn injuries  B.S. Atiyeh, W. Gunn and S.N. Hayek, State of the Art in Burn Treatment World
Janus, Todd J; Smith, Hayden L; Chigazola, Angela; Wortman, Mikelle R; Sidwell, Richard A; Piper, John G
To examine hospital discharge destinations for Hispanic and non-Hispanic white patients treated for traumatic brain injury. Retrospective cohort study with patient matching. Ethnicity status not determined a significant predictor of discharge destination (P = .2150). Patient hospital length of stay determined a significant predictor of discharge destination (P = .0072), with every 1 day increase in length of stay, resulting in a 12% increase in odds of being discharged to care facility. Study data suggest that length of stay can predict discharge destination for both Hispanic and non-Hispanic white patients in a medium-sized trauma center in the Midwest.
Kolmodin, Leif; Sekhon, Mypinder S; Henderson, William R.; Turgeon, Alexis F.; Griesdale, Donald EG
Background Hypernatremia is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and occurs from a variety of mechanisms, including hyperosmotic fluids, limitation of free water, or diabetes insipidus. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the relationship between hypernatremia and mortality in patients with TBI. Methods We searched the following databases up to November 2012: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL. Using a combination of MeSH and text terms, we developed search filters for the ...
To present a systematic overview of published literature regarding nystagmus in patients with TBI. Methods. Nine databases and platforms were searched during October 2016 for articles published between 1996 and 2016. Studies of any research design and published in English that focused on nystagmus in patients with ...
Zhang, C-C; Mou, L; Wang, X; Guo, D
The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility and prospective success associated with implementing and evaluating a six-week live music intervention on an inpatient neurorehabilitation ward. In total 26 patients were included in this study. Out of which, 15 were patients and 11 were staff members. Staff participants completed wellbeing measures at before and after music. Patients completed an assortment of validated measures at five consecutive time points from baseline to follow-up. Staff participants experienced a minor decrease in wellbeing over time. The majority of the data collected from patients illustrated positive trends, with improvements in wellbeing, pain, cognition functioning, independent functioning, and mobility. The feasibility indicates that with modifications that this project is a viable venture. We found that live music appears to be promising new addition to neurorehabilitation.
Full Text Available Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the main reasons of death and disabilities globally, mainly in kids and adolescence and is still being considered as an enduring issue in ICUs. There are no definite rehabilitation methods for traumatic brain injury patients. The frequent techniques administered by physiotherapists in ICU are positioning, mobilization, manual hyperinflation technique (MHT, percussion, vibrations, suction, cough, and breathing exercises. Case Summary: This study was done in the Medical ICU at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan. The chief complaints of the patient was gunshot injury to the right temporal region. The patient was diagnosed with right front parietal contusion with a fracture of the right temporal bone, subarachnoid edema, and midline shift. The physiotherapy interventions given to the patient were Chest Physical Therapy (CPT with Zero-pressure Manual Hyperinflation and percussions. Once the ICP issues were controlled, manual hyperinflation with 30 cm of H2O, modified postural drainage, minimal–handling saline suctioning were applied. After extubation, CPT included Active Cycle of Breathing Techniques (ACBTs, volume oriented incentive spirometry, motor relearning program, and mobilization. The outcome measures were secretion status, modified rancho los amigos level of cognitive functioning scale, and arterial blood gas analysis. Results: The patient’s secretions status improved from P1 to M1, FiO2 was improved from 40% to 21%, chest wall volume was increased from 200 cc/sec to 600 cc/sec, and RLA level increased from I to VIII. Conclusion: The case study presents that physiotherapy interventions used in intensive care units may prevent pulmonary complications in sufferers with traumatic brain injuries. It also suggests that early mobilization should be done to improve cognitive functioning and behavior. This study may also indicate that the earlier the patient is
Joseph, Bellal; Pandit, Viraj; Aziz, Hassan; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Hashmi, Ammar; Tang, Andrew; O'Keeffe, Terence; Wynne, Julie; Vercruysse, Gary; Friese, Randall S; Rhee, Peter
Patients receiving antiplatelet medications are considered to be at an increased risk for traumatic intracranial hemorrhage after blunt head trauma. However, most studies have categorized all antiplatelet drugs into one category. The aim of our study was to evaluate clinical outcomes and the requirement of a repeat head computed tomography (RHCT) in patients on preinjury clopidogrel therapy. Patients with traumatic brain injury with intracranial hemorrhage on initial head CT were prospectively enrolled. Patients on preinjury clopidogrel were matched with patients exclusive of antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy using a propensity score in a 1:1 ratio for age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), head Abbreviated Injury Scale (h-AIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), neurologic examination, and platelet transfusion. Outcome measures were progression on RHCT scan and need for neurosurgical intervention. A total of 142 patients with intracranial hemorrhage on initial head CT scan (clopidogrel, 71; no clopidogrel, 71) were enrolled. The mean (SD) age was 70.5 (15.1) years, 66% were male, median GCS score was 14 (range, 3-15), and median h-AIS (ISS) was 3 (range, 2-5). The mean (SD) platelet count was 210 (101), and 61% (n = 86) of the patients received platelet transfusion. Patients on preinjury clopidogrel were more likely to have progression on RHCT (odds ratio [OR], 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1-7.1) and RHCT as a result of clinical deterioration (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8-3.5). The overall rate of neurosurgical intervention was 4.2% (n = 6). Patients on clopidogrel therapy were more likely to require a neurosurgical intervention (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-3.1). Preinjury clopidogrel therapy is associated with progression of initial insult on RHCT scan and need for neurosurgical intervention. Preinjury clopidogrel therapy as an independent variable should warrant the need for a routine RHCT scan in patients with traumatic brain injury. Prognostic study, level I; therapeutic
Zaninotto, Ana Luiza; de Paula Guirado, Vinícius Monteiro; Baldivia, Beatriz; Núñes, Monica Domiano; Amorim, Robson Luis Oliveira; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; de Lucia, Mara Cristina Souza; de Andrade, Almir Ferreira; Paiva, Wellingson Silva
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI), a common cause of neurological sequelae in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), is considered one of the most prevalent forms of primary neuronal injury in patients with severe TBI. Cognitive deficits induced by DAI can persist over time, especially following moderate or severe injuries. The aim of the present study was to compare verbal fluency (VF) performance at 6 and 12 months after the trauma in a same group of patients with DAI. Eighteen patients with moderate to severe DAI and 17 healthy volunteers were enrolled. All DAI participants had sustained a TBI at least 6 months prior to the start of the study, were between 18 and 50 years of age, and had at least 4 years of education. The VF test was administered within an extensive neuropsychological test battery. We evaluated the same patients at 6 months (DAI1 group) and 12 months (DAI2 group) and compared the results of neuropsychological tests with a control group of healthy volunteers who were matched to patients for sex, age, and educational level. In comparison to controls, the DAI1 group produced significantly fewer words. The DAI2 group produced significantly more semantic words than DAI1 (Pplan for long-term TBI rehabilitation that considers the trauma of each patient. Further, our results suggest the VF test is a suitable instrument for the assessment of cognitive difficulties following TBI.
Feuerstein, Delphine; Manning, Andrew; Hashemi, Parastoo
Spreading depolarizations (SDs) occur spontaneously with high incidence in patients with acute brain injury. They can be detected by subdural electrocorticographic recordings. We here characterize the dynamic metabolic response to these events. A microdialysis catheter was inserted into perilesio...
Geurtsen, G.J.; Heugten, C.M. van; Martina, J.D.; Rietveld, A.C.; Meijer, R.; Geurts, A.C.H.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcomes of a residential community reintegration program 3 years after treatment on independent living, societal participation, emotional well-being, and quality of life in patients with chronic acquired brain injury and psychosocial problems hampering societal participation.
Gaetani, P; Revay, M; Sciacca, S; Pessina, F; Aimar, E; Levi, D; Morenghi, E
Mortality and morbidity due to brain injury in the elderly population is a growing clinical problem: among older patients, those >70 years have a considerably higher risk both in terms of mortality and morbidity. Thereafter, the reasons influencing outcome have not been clearly examined: in the present study we addressed these questions considering the main clinical characteristics exerting a significant impact on the outcome of patients aged > 70, with emphasis for the severity of brain injury and anticoagulant (CAW) treatments. We performed a retrospective analysis of 103 consecutive isolated head injury patients older than 70, admitted at our Department in the period November 2004-November 2009. The clinical variables considered were as follow: age, sex, type of TBI, GCS, pre-TBI use of anti-coagulants (aspirin, warfarin, clopidogrel), INR at admission (INR values were subdivided in values >1.25 as at risk for hemorrhagic events and injury was recorded due to a sincopal event (arterial hypotension, atrial fibrillation); in the older patients an accidental fall is significantly related to the TBI, while in the patients aged 70-75 years, TBI is related to a traffic accident (P=0.002). Moreover the cause of TBI correlates with the CAW treatment, the accidental fall being significantly more frequent in patients in CAW treatment (P=0.003). Overall mortality rate is significantly related to an elevated INR class, to presence of t-SAH (16/50 patients) and subdural hematoma (26/46). The results of the present study show that in a population of patients aged > 70, TBI is a high risk event if patient has concurrent treatment with CAW therapies and if an accidental fall is the cause of TBI. In these cases the finding of t-SAH represents a high-risk parameter for mortality but not for morbidity.
Grandhi, Ramesh; Harrison, Gillian; Voronovich, Zoya; Bauer, Joshua; Chen, Stephanie H; Nicholas, Dederia; Alarcon, Louis H; Okonkwo, David O
Previous studies of traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcomes in elderly patients on oral antithrombotic (OAT) therapies have yielded conflicting results. Our objective was to examine the effect of premorbid OAT medications on outcomes among elderly TBI patients with intracranial hemorrhage. We performed a retrospective analysis of elderly TBI patients (≥65 years) with closed head injury and evidence of brain hemorrhage on computed tomography scan from 2006 to 2010. Patient demographics, injury severity, clinical course, hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, and disposition were collected. Comparison of patients stratified by premorbid OAT use was performed using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher's exact tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare groups and identify predictors of primary outcomes, including mortality, neurosurgical intervention, hemorrhage progression, complications, and infection. A total of 1,552 patients were identified: 543 on aspirin only, 97 on clopidogrel only, 218 on warfarin only, 193 on clopidogrel and aspirin, and 501 on no antithrombotic agent. Blood products were administered to reverse coagulopathy in 77.3% of patients on antithrombotic medications. After adjusting for covariates, including medication reversal, OAT use was associated with increased mortality (p = 0.04). Warfarin use was identified as a key predictor (odds ratio, 2.27; p = 0.05), in contrast to the preinjury use of antiplatelet medications, which was not associated with increased risk of in-hospital death. Rates of neurosurgical intervention differed between groups, with patients on warfarin undergoing intervention more frequently. Survivor subset analysis demonstrated that hemorrhage progression was not associated with preinjury antithrombotic therapy, nor were rates of complication or infection, hospital and intensive care unit lengths of stay, or ventilator days. Preinjury use of warfarin, but not antiplatelet medications, influences
Holzmacher, Jeremy L; Reynolds, Cassandra; Patel, Mayur; Maluso, Patrick; Holland, Seth; Gamsky, Nathaniel; Moore, Henry; Acquista, Elizabeth; Carrick, Matthew; Amdur, Richard; Hancock, Heather; Metzler, Michael; Dunn, Julie; Sarani, Babak
Platelet dysfunction following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with worse outcomes. The efficacy of platelet transfusion to reverse antiplatelet medication (APM) remains unknown. Thrombelastography platelet mapping (TEG-PM) assesses platelet function. We hypothesize that platelet transfusion can reverse the effects of APM but does not improve outcomes following TBI. An observational study at six US trauma centres was performed. Adult patients on APM with CT evident TBI after blunt injury were enrolled. Demographics, brain CT and TEG-PM results before/after platelet transfusion, length of stay (LOS), and injury severity score (ISS) were abstracted. Sixty six patients were enrolled (89% aspirin, 50% clopidogrel, 23% dual APM) with 23 patients undergoing platelet transfusion. Transfused patients had significantly higher ISS and admission CT scores. Platelet transfusion significantly reduced platelet inhibition due to aspirin (76.0 ± 30.2% to 52.7 ± 31.5%, p clopidogrel-associated inhibition (p = 0.07). Platelet transfusion was associated with longer length of stay (7.8 vs. 3.5 days, p < 0.01), but there were no differences in mortality. Platelet transfusion significantly decreases platelet inhibition due to aspirin but is not associated with change in outcomes in patients on APM following TBI.
Kothari, Mohit; Pillai, Rajath; Futarmal Kothari, Simple
Med, Embase, and Scopus electronic databases until January 2016 to identify studies presenting the assessment of the oral health status of patients afflicted with any kind of ABI. The search strategy was restricted to English-language publications, enrolling patients above 18 years. Studies on the association...... and higher colonization of Candida albicans in saliva, all of which significantly reduced after intervention. Oral health related quality (OHrQoL) of life was poorer in patients compared to the population. Conclusion: Stroke was the most predominant brain injury condition studied in the literature with few...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe traumatic stressors such as war, rape, or life-threatening accidents can result in a debilitating psychopathological development conceptualised as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Pathological memory formation during an alarm response may set the precondition for PTSD to occur. If true, a lack of memory formation by extended unconsciousness in the course of the traumatic experience should preclude PTSD. Methods 46 patients from a neurological rehabilitation clinic were examined by means of questionnaires and structured clinical interviews. All patients had suffered a TBI due to an accident, but varied with respect to falling unconscious during the traumatic event. Results 27% of the sub-sample who were not unconscious for an extended period but only 3% (1 of 31 patients who were unconscious for more than 12 hours as a result of the accident were diagnosed as having current PTSD (P Conclusion TBI and PTSD are not mutually exclusive. However, victims of accidents are unlikely to develop a PTSD if the impact to the head had resulted in an extended period of unconsciousness.
McCarthy, Matthew T; Kosofsky, Barry E
There has been increasing awareness of the incidence and potential long-term consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in children and young adults. While parents, school systems, and athletic programs are clamoring for evidence-based guidelines, the field remains primitive in understanding the factors resulting in a spectrum of individual outcomes, most of which are complete, but some of which are not. In this article, we discuss the definition, epidemiology, clinical presentation, course, and outcomes of mTBI, with a focus on the pediatric population as the context for reviewing the mechanisms and pathophysiology mediating, and biomarkers reflective of, more significant concussion-induced brain injury. Our goal is to present a general overview of the features of mTBI in the pediatric population in order to provide a conceptual model for pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists. This model emphasizes the importance of establishing actionable, noninvasive biomarkers that are reflective of brain injury and that may identify those pediatric patients who can benefit from earlier and more aggressive interventions. We will focus on the specific features of mTBI in pediatric patients; although given the relative lack of research in the pediatric population, we will also extrapolate from research on adults. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To correlate Computed Tomography (CT findings with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS in patients with acute traumatic brain injury attending in Chitwan Medical College teaching hospital Chitwan, Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed among 50 patients of acute (less than24 hours cases of craniocerebral trauma over a period of four months. The patient’s level of consciousness (GCS was determined and a brain CT scan without contrast media was performed. A sixth generation General Electric (GE CT scan was utilized and 5mm and 10mm sections were obtained for infratentorial and supratentorial parts respectively. RESULT The age range of the patients was 1 to 75 years (mean age 35.6± 21.516 years and male: female ratio was 3.1:1. The most common causes of head injury were road traffic accident (RTA (60%, fall injury (20%, physical assault (12% and pedestrian injuries (8%. The distribution of patients in accordance with consciousness level was found to be 54% with mild TBI (GCS score 12 to 14, 28% with moderate TBI (GCS score 11 to 8 and 18% with severe TBI (GCS score less than 7. The presence of mixed lesions and midline shift regardless of the underlying lesion on CT scan was accompanied by lower GCS. CONCLUSION The presence of mixed lesions and midline shift regardless of the underlying lesion on CT scan were accompanied with lower GCS. Patients having single lesion had more GCS level than mixed level and mid line shift type of injury.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i2.12947 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(2; 4-9
Vikane, Eirik; Hellstrøm, Torgeir; Røe, Cecilie; Bautz-Holter, Erik; Aßmus, Jörg; Skouen, Jan Sture
To evaluate the efficacy of a multidisciplinary outpatient follow-up programme compared to follow-up by a general practitioner for patients being at-risk or sick-listed with persistent post-concussion symptoms two months after a mild traumatic brain injury. Randomised controlled trial. One hundred fifty-one patients, 16-56 years. Multidisciplinary outpatient rehabilitation with individual contacts and a psycho-educational group intervention at two outpatient rehabilitation clinics compared to follow-up by a general practitioner after the multidisciplinary examination. Primary outcome was sustainable return-to-work first year post-injury. Secondary outcomes were post-concussion symptoms, disability, the patient's impressions of change and psychological distress. Days to sustainable return-to-work was 90 in the intervention and 71 in the control group (p = 0.375). The number of post-concussion symptoms were fewer in the intervention (6) compared to the control group (8) at 12 months (p = 0.041). No group differences were observed for disability (p = 0.193), patients impression of change (p = 0.285) or psychological distress (p = 0.716). The multidisciplinary outpatient follow-up programme focusing on better understanding and reassurance of favourable outcome for mild traumatic brain injury did not improve return-to-work, but may have reduced the development of post-concussion symptoms. Additional studies should focus on which factors exhibit a direct impact on return-to-work.
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, especially in children and young adults. TBI is an example of a medical condition where there are still major lacks in diagnostics and outcome prediction. Here we apply comprehensive metabolic profiling of serum samples from TBI patients and controls in two independent cohorts. The discovery study included 144 TBI patients, with the samples taken at the time of hospitalization. The patients were diagnosed as severe (sTBI; n = 22, moderate (moTBI; n = 14 or mild TBI (mTBI; n = 108 according to Glasgow Coma Scale. The control group (n = 28 comprised of acute orthopedic non-brain injuries. The validation study included sTBI (n = 23, moTBI (n = 7, mTBI (n = 37 patients and controls (n = 27. We show that two medium-chain fatty acids (decanoic and octanoic acids and sugar derivatives including 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid are strongly associated with severity of TBI, and most of them are also detected at high concentrations in brain microdialysates of TBI patients. Based on metabolite concentrations from TBI patients at the time of hospitalization, an algorithm was developed that accurately predicted the patient outcomes (AUC = 0.84 in validation cohort. Addition of the metabolites to the established clinical model (CRASH, comprising clinical and computed tomography data, significantly improved prediction of patient outcomes. The identified ‘TBI metabotype’ in serum, that may be indicative of disrupted blood-brain barrier, of protective physiological response and altered metabolism due to head trauma, offers a new avenue for the development of diagnostic and prognostic markers of broad spectrum of TBIs.
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is an important cause of death and disability in young adults ,and may lead to physical disabilities and long-term cognitive, behavioral psychological and social defects. There is a lack of definite result about the effect of thyroid hormones after traumatic brain injury in the severity and no data about their effect on mortality of the injury. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of thyroid hormones after traumatic brain injury in the severity and mortality and gain a clue in brain injury prognosis. In a longitudinal prospective study from February 2010 until February 2011, we checked serum levels of T3, T4, TSH and TBG of severely brain injured patients and compared the relationship of them with primary Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score and mortality of patients. Statistical analysis used SPSS 11.5 software with using chi-square and Fisher exact test. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were decreased after brain trauma but not TSH and TBG. Mortality rates were higher in patients with lower T4 serum levels. The head injury was more severe in whom with low T3 and T4. Follow a severe brain injury a secondary hypothyroidism is happened due to pituitary dysfunction. Also, serum level of T3 and T4 on the first day admission affect on primary GCS score of patients which is an indicator of severity of brain injury. In addition, mortality rates of severely brain injured patients have a high correlation with the serum level of T4 in the first day admission.
Rajandram, Rama Krsna; Syed Omar, Syed Nabil; Rashdi, Muhd Fazly Nizam; Abdul Jabar, Mohd Nazimi
Maxillofacial injuries comprising hard tissue as well as soft tissue injuries can be associated with traumatic brain injuries due to the impact of forces transmitted through the head and neck. To date, the role of maxillofacial injury on brain injury has not been properly documented with some saying it has a protective function on the brain while others opposing this idea. This cross-sectional retrospective study evaluated all patients with maxillofacial injuries. The aim of the study was to analyze the occurrence and relationship of maxillofacial injuries with traumatic brain injuries. We retrospectively studied the hospital charts of all trauma patients seen at the accident and emergency department of UKM Medical Centre from November 2010 until November 2011. A detail analysis was then carried out on all patients who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 11294 patients were classified as trauma patients in which 176 patients had facial fractures and 292 did not have facial fractures. Middle face fractures was the most common pattern of facial fracture seen. Traumatic brain injury was present in 36.7% of maxillofacial cases. A significant association was found between facial fractures and traumatic brain injury (P maxillofacial injuries with or without facial fractures are at risk of acute or delayed traumatic brain injury. All patients should always have proper radiological investigations together with a proper observation and follow-up schedule. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ryta E. Rzheutskaya
Full Text Available Purpose. To define specific features of central hemodynamic parameter changes in patients with isolated severe traumatic brain injury (STBI and in patients with clinically established brain death and to determine the required course of treatment for their correction. Data and Research Methods. A close study of central hemodynamic parameters was undertaken. The study involved 13 patients with isolated STBI (group STBI and 15 patients with isolated STBI and clinically established brain death (group STBI-BD. The parameters of central hemodynamics were researched applying transpulmonary thermodilution. Results. In the present study, various types of hemodynamic reaction (normodynamic, hyperdynamic, and hypodynamic were identified in patients with isolated STBI in an acute period of traumatic disease. Hyperdynamic type of blood circulation was not observed in patients with isolated STBI and clinically established brain death. Detected hemodynamic disorders led to the correction of the ongoing therapy under the control of central hemodynamic parameters. Conclusions. Monitoring of parameters of central hemodynamics allows to detect the cause of disorders, to timely carry out the required correction, and to coordinate infusion, inotropic, and vasopressor therapy.
Batty, Rachel; Francis, Andrew; Thomas, Neil; Hopwood, Malcolm; Ponsford, Jennie; Johnston, Lisa; Rossell, Susan
Verbal fluency in patients with psychosis following traumatic brain injury (PFTBI) has been reported as comparable to healthy participants. This finding is counterintuitive given the prominent fluency impairments demonstrated post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) and in psychotic disorders, e.g. schizophrenia. We investigated phonemic (executive) fluency (3 letters: 'F' 'A' and 'S'), and semantic fluency (1 category: fruits and/or vegetables) in four matched groups; PFTBI (N=10), TBI (N=10), schizophrenia (N=23), and healthy controls (N=23). Words produced (minus perseverations and errors), and clustering and switching scores were compared for the two fluency types across the groups. The results confirmed that PFTBI patients do show impaired fluency, aligned with existing evidence in TBI and schizophrenia. PFTBI patients produced the least amount of words on the phonemic fluency ('A') trial and total score, and demonstrated reduced switching on both phonemic and semantic tasks. No significant differences in clustering performance were found. Importantly, the pattern of results suggested that PFTBI patients share deficits with their brain-injured (primarily executive), and psychotic (executive and semantic), counterparts, and that these are exacerbated by their dual-diagnosis. These findings add to a very limited literature by providing novel evidence of the nature of fluency impairments in dually-diagnosed PFTBI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Despite an increasing amount of specific correlation studies between structural and functional connectivity, there is still a need for combined studies, especially in pathological conditions. Impairments of brain white matter and diffuse axonal injuries are commonly suspected to be responsible for the disconnection hypothesis in traumatic brain injury (TBI patients. Moreover, our previous research on TBI patients shows a strong relationship between abnormalities in topological organization of brain networks and behavioral deficits. In this study, we combined task-related functional connectivity (using event-related fMRI with structural connectivity (derived from fiber tractography using diffusion MRI data estimates in the same participants (17 adults with TBI and 16 controls, allowing for direct comparison between graph metrics of the different imaging modalities. Connectivity matrices were computed covering the switching motor network, which includes the basal ganglia, anterior cingulate cortex/supplementary motor area, and anterior insula/inferior frontal gyrus. The edges constituting this network consisted of the partial correlations between the fMRI time series from each node of the switching motor network. The interregional anatomical connections between the switching-related areas were determined using the fiber tractography results. We found that graph metrics and hubs obtained showed no agreement in both groups. The topological properties of brain functional networks could not be solely accounted for the properties of the underlying structural networks. However, combining complementary information from both different imaging modalities could improve accuracy in prediction of switching performance. Direct comparison between functional task-related and anatomical structural connectivity, presented here for the first time in TBI patients, links two powerful approaches to map the patterns of brain connectivity that may underlie behavioral
Zhang, Feng; Zhao-peng MENG
This paper aims to compare the effect on early prognosis of post-traumatic early enteral nutrition therapy and central venous catheterization parenteral nutrition therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). The results showed that on 7 and 14 d, serum total protein [(62.04 ± 2.09) and 66.04 ± 2.27) g/L], albumin [(37.75 ± 2.86) and (43.43 ± 2.37) g/L] and prealbumin [(177.87 ± 13.89) and (199.43 ± 11.01) mg/L] in patients treated with early enteral nutrition were all ...
Full Text Available Background: Recent clinical studies in stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI victims suffering chronic neurological injury present evidence that hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT can induce neuroplasticity.Objective: To assess the neurotherapeutic effect of HBOT on prolonged post-concussion syndrome (PPCS due to TBI, using brain microstructure imaging.Methods: Fifteen patients afflicted with PPCS were treated with 60 daily HBOT sessions. Imaging evaluation was performed using Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast-Enhanced (DSC and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI MR sequences. Cognitive evaluation was performed by an objective computerized battery (NeuroTrax.Results: HBOT was initiated 6 months to 27 years (10.3 ± 3.2 years from injury. After HBOT, DTI analysis showed significantly increased fractional anisotropy values and decreased mean diffusivity in both white and gray matter structures. In addition, the cerebral blood flow and volume were increased significantly. Clinically, HBOT induced significant improvement in the memory, executive functions, information processing speed and global cognitive scores.Conclusions: The mechanisms by which HBOT induces brain neuroplasticity can be demonstrated by highly sensitive MRI techniques of DSC and DTI. HBOT can induce cerebral angiogenesis and improve both white and gray microstructures indicating regeneration of nerve fibers. The micro structural changes correlate with the neurocognitive improvements.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intracranial bleeding (IB is a common and serious consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI. IB can be classified according to the location into: epidural haemorrhage (EDH subdural haemorrhage (SDH intraparenchymal haemorrhage (IPH and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH. Studies involving repeated CT scanning of TBI patients have found that IB can develop or expand in the 48 hours after injury. If IB enlarges after hospital admission and larger bleeds have a worse prognosis, this would provide a therapeutic rationale for treatments to prevent increase in the extent of bleeding. We analysed data from the Trauma Audit & Research Network (TARN, a large European trauma registry, to evaluate the association between the size of IB and mortality in patients with TBI. Methods We analysed 13,962 patients presenting to TARN participating hospitals between 2001 and 2008 with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS less than 15 at presentation or any head injury with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS severity code 3 and above. The extent of intracranial bleeding was determined by the AIS code. Potential confounders were age, presenting Glasgow Coma Score, mechanism of injury, presence and nature of other brain injuries, and presence of extra-cranial injuries. The outcomes were in-hospital mortality and haematoma evacuation. We conducted a multivariable logistic regression analysis to evaluate the independent effect of large and small size of IB, in comparison with no bleeding, on patient outcomes. We also conducted a multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess the independent effect on mortality of large IB in comparison with small IB. Results Almost 46% of patients had at some type of IB. Subdural haemorrhages were present in 30% of the patients, with epidural and intraparenchymal present in approximately 22% each. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found that large IB, wherever located, was associated with increased mortality in
Salentijn, Erik G; Peerdeman, Saskia M; Boffano, Paolo; van den Bergh, Bart; Forouzanfar, Tymour
In the literature it is questioned if the presence of maxillofacial trauma is associated with the presence of brain injury. The aim of this study is to present a 10-year retrospective study of the incidence and aetiology of maxillofacial trauma associated with brain injury that required both oral and maxillofacial and neurosurgical intervention during the same hospital stay. Forty-seven patients from a population of 579 trauma patients undergoing maxillofacial surgery were identified. The main cause of injury was road traffic collision, followed by falls. Interpersonal violence correlated less well with traumatic brain injury. Most of the patients were males, aged 20-39 years. Frontal sinus fractures were the most common maxillofacial fractures (21.9%) associated with neurosurgical input, followed by mandibular fractures and zygomatic complex fractures. In the general maxillofacial trauma population, frontal sinus fractures were only found in 2.2% of the cases. At presentation to the Emergency Department the majority of the patients were diagnosed with severe traumatic brain injury and a Marshall CT class 2. Intracranial pressure monitoring was the most common neurosurgical intervention, followed by reconstruction of a bone defect and haematoma evacuation. Although it is a small population, our data suggest that maxillofacial trauma does have an association with traumatic brain injury that requires neurosurgical intervention (8.1%). In comparison with the overall maxillofacial trauma population, our results demonstrate that frontal sinus fractures are more commonly diagnosed in association with brain injury, most likely owing to the location of the impact of the trauma. In these cases the frontal sinus seems not specifically to act as a barrier to protect the brain. This report provides useful data concerning the joint management of oral and maxillofacial surgeons and neurosurgeons for the treatment of cranio-maxillofacial trauma and brain injury patients in
This podcast describes how to talk to your patients and provide health information about mild traumatic brain injury (mild TBI) that may help ease their concerns and can give them tools to help speed their recovery. Created: 10/5/2010 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC). Date Released: 10/5/2010.
Full Text Available Ana Luiza Zaninotto,1 Vinícius Monteiro de Paula Guirado,2 Beatriz Baldivia,1 Monica Domiano Núñes,1 Robson Luis Oliveira Amorim,2 Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira,2 Mara Cristina Souza de Lucia,1 Almir Ferreira de Andrade,2 Wellingson Silva Paiva2 1Division of Psychology, Hospital das Clínicas, 2Division of Neurosurgery, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Diffuse axonal injury (DAI, a common cause of neurological sequelae in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI, is considered one of the most prevalent forms of primary neuronal injury in patients with severe TBI. Cognitive deficits induced by DAI can persist over time, especially following moderate or severe injuries. The aim of the present study was to compare verbal fluency (VF performance at 6 and 12 months after the trauma in a same group of patients with DAI. Methods: Eighteen patients with moderate to severe DAI and 17 healthy volunteers were enrolled. All DAI participants had sustained a TBI at least 6 months prior to the start of the study, were between 18 and 50 years of age, and had at least 4 years of education. The VF test was administered within an extensive neuropsychological test battery. We evaluated the same patients at 6 months (DAI1 group and 12 months (DAI2 group and compared the results of neuropsychological tests with a control group of healthy volunteers who were matched to patients for sex, age, and educational level. Results: In comparison to controls, the DAI1 group produced significantly fewer words. The DAI2 group produced significantly more semantic words than DAI1 (P<0.05 and demonstrated a trend towards the production of more clusters for letter A (P=0.09 and total words generated in a phonemic test (P=0.09. No significant differences were observed between DAI2 and the control group in the total number of words generated in phonetic FAS or semantic fluency scores. Conclusion: The present findings may
Morgan, Dr Jacinta
Objective : Awareness of errors is an important prerequisite in rehabilitation. Few studies have investigated rehabilitation of error awareness following acquired brain injury. Pilot research has shown that receiving feedback about errors during a computerised task of sustained attention improves performance in patients who have sustained a traumatic brain injury. In this study, a computer-based intervention training programme aimed at improving error awareness was developed. \\r\
Finset, A; Andersson, S
Coping strategies in individuals suffering severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), or hypoxic brain injury (HBI) were investigated in relation to apathy, depression, and lesion location. Seventy patients (27 with TBI, 30 with CVA, and 13 with HBI) filled in a coping questionnaire (COPE) and were evaluated with respect to apathy and depression. A comparison sample of 71 students also filled in COPE. Patients coping strategies were similar to the comparison group, but patients tended to display less differentiated coping styles. A factor analysis indicated two dimensions of coping in the patient sample; approach oriented and avoidance oriented coping. Approach and avoidance coping sum scores, based on subscales from the two factors, were positively correlated in the patient sample, but not in the comparison group. Lack of active approach oriented coping was associated with apathy, whereas avoidant coping was associated with depression. Coping styles were not related to lesion location. Apathy was related to subcortical and right hemisphere lesions. In bivariate analyses, depression was unrelated to lesion location, but, in a MANCOVA, avoidant coping, apathy and lesion location (left hemisphere lesions) contributed to the variance in positive depressive symptoms. The consistent relationships between coping strategies and neuropsychiatric symptoms were interpreted as two dimensions of adaptational behaviour: an active vs. passive dimension and a depression--distress-avoidance dimension.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI usually have mood and anxiety symptoms secondary to their brain injury. Exercise may be a cost-effective intervention for the regulation of the affective responses of this population. However, there are no studies evaluating the effects of exercise or the optimal intensity of exercise for this clinical group. METHODS: Twelve male patients with moderate or severe TBI [mean age of 31.83 and SD of 9.53] and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers [mean age of 30.58 and SD of 9.53] participated in two sessions of exercise of high and moderate intensity. Anxiety and mood was evaluated, and subjective assessment of experience pre- and post-exercise was assessed. A mixed between and within-subjects GLM analysis was conducted to compare groups [TBI, control] over condition [baseline, session 1, session 2] allowing for group by condition interaction to be determined. Planned comparisons were also conducted to test study hypotheses.RESULTS: Although no group by condition interaction was observed, planned comparisons indicated that baseline differences between patients and controls in anxiety (Cohens’ d=1.80, tension (d=1.31, depression (d=1.18, anger (d=1.08, confusion (d=1.70, psychological distress (d=1.28 and physical symptoms (d=1.42 disappear after one session of exercise, independently of the intensity of exercise. CONCLUSIONS: A single-section of exercise, regardless of exercise intensity, had a positive effect on the affective responses of patients with TBI both by increasing positive valence feelings and decreasing negative ones. Exercise can be an easily accessible intervention that may alleviate depressive symptoms related to brain injury.
Rzezak, Patricia; Caxa, Luciana; Santolia, Patricia; Antunes, Hanna K M; Suriano, Italo; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco T
Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) usually have mood and anxiety symptoms secondary to their brain injury. Exercise may be a cost-effective intervention for the regulation of the affective responses of this population. However, there are no studies evaluating the effects of exercise or the optimal intensity of exercise for this clinical group. Twelve male patients with moderate or severe TBI [mean age of 31.83 and SD of 9.53] and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers [mean age of 30.58 and SD of 9.53] participated in two sessions of exercise of high and moderate-intensity. Anxiety and mood was evaluated, and subjective assessment of experience pre- and post-exercise was assessed. A mixed between and within-subjects general linear model (GLM) analysis was conducted to compare groups [TBI, control] over condition [baseline, session 1, session 2] allowing for group by condition interaction to be determined. Planned comparisons were also conducted to test study hypotheses. Although no group by condition interaction was observed, planned comparisons indicated that baseline differences between patients and controls in anxiety (Cohens' d = 1.80), tension (d = 1.31), depression (d = 1.18), anger (d = 1.08), confusion (d = 1.70), psychological distress (d = 1.28), and physical symptoms (d = 1.42) disappear after one session of exercise, independently of the intensity of exercise. A single-section of exercise, regardless of exercise intensity, had a positive effect on the affective responses of patients with TBI both by increasing positive valence feelings and decreasing negative ones. Exercise can be an easily accessible intervention that may alleviate depressive symptoms related to brain injury.
Hugentobler, Jason A; Vegh, Meredith; Janiszewski, Barbara; Quatman-Yates, Catherine
Although most patients recover from a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) within 7-14 days, 10-30% of people will experience prolonged mTBI symptoms. Currently, there are no standardized treatment protocols to guide physical therapy interventions for this population. The purpose of this case series was to describe the unique, multimodal evaluation and treatment approaches for each of the patients with post-concussion syndrome (PCS). Six pediatric athletes with PCS who had participated in physical therapy and fit the inclusion criteria for review were retrospectively chosen for analysis. Patients received a cervical evaluation, an aerobic activity assessment, an oculomotor screen, and postural control assessment. Each patient participated in an individualized physical therapy treatment plan-of-care based on their presentation during the evaluation. Patients were treated for a mean of 6.8 treatment sessions over 9.8 weeks. Four of six patients returned to their pre-injury level of activity while two returned to modified activity upon completion of physical therapy. Improvements were observed in symptom scores, gaze stability, balance and postural control measures, and patient self-management of symptoms. All patients demonstrated adequate self-management of symptoms upon discharge from physical therapy. Physical therapy interventions for pediatric athletes with PCS may facilitate recovery and improve function. Further research is needed to validate effective tools for assessment of patients who experience prolonged concussion symptoms as well as to establish support for specific post-mTBI physical therapy interventions. Level 4.
Smeets, Sanne M J; Vink, Martie; Ponds, Rudolf W H M; Winkens, Ieke; van Heugten, Caroline M
The objective of this study was to investigate changes in self-awareness impairments in outpatients with acquired brain injury (ABI) and the effects these changes have on rehabilitation. Participants were 78 patients with ABI (8.3 years post-injury) who followed an intensive outpatient neuropsychological rehabilitation programme. This longitudinal study comprised pre (T1) and post (T2) measurements and a one-year follow-up (T3). Thirty-eight patients completed the study. The main outcome domains were self-awareness, depressive symptoms, psychological and physical dysfunction, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patients were divided into three awareness groups: underestimation, accurate estimation, and overestimation of competencies. Most patients who underestimated their competencies at the start of treatment accurately estimated their competencies directly after treatment (9 out of 11 patients). These patients also exhibited the largest treatment effects regarding depressive symptoms, psychological and physical dysfunction, and HRQoL. Most patients with impaired self-awareness (i.e., overestimation of competencies) at the start of treatment continued to overestimate their competencies after treatment (10 out of 14 patients). These patients exhibited a significant decrease in depressive symptoms but no other treatment effects. The results indicate that changes in outcome are related to changes in awareness, which underline the importance of taking into account different awareness groups with respect to treatment effects.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is known that the risk of dementia in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI is higher. However, the relationship between mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI and dementia has never been established. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the incidences of dementia among patients with mTBI in Taiwan to evaluate if there is higher risk compared with general population. METHODS: We utilized a sampled National Health Insurance (NHI claims data containing one million beneficiaries. We followed all adult beneficiaries from January 1, 2005 till December 31, 2009 to see if they had been diagnosed with dementia. We further identify patients with mTBI and compared their risk of dementia with the general population. RESULTS: We identified 28551 patients with mTBI and 692382 without. After controlled for age, gender, urbanization level, socioeconomic status, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, history of alcohol intoxication, history of ischemic stroke, history of intracranial hemorrhage and Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, the adjusted hazard ratio is 3.26 (95% Confidence interval, 2.69-3.94. CONCLUSIONS: TBI is an independent significant risk factor of developing dementia even in the mild type.
Belavić, M; Jančić, E; Mišković, P; Brozović-Krijan, A; Bakota, B; Žunić, J
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is divided into primary and secondary brain injury. Primary brain injury occurs at the time of injury and is the direct consequence of kinetic energy acting on the brain tissue. Secondary brain injury occurs several hours or days after primary brain injury and is the result of factors including shock, systemic hypotension, hypoxia, hypothermia or hyperthermia, intracranial hypertension, cerebral oedema, intracranial bleeding or inflammation. The aim of this retrospective analysis of a prospective database was to determine the prevalence of secondary stroke and stroke-related mortality, causes of secondary stroke, treatment and length of stay in the ICU and hospital. This study included patients with TBI with or without other injuries who were hospitalised in a general ICU over a five-year period. The following parameters were assessed: demographics (age, sex), scores (Glasgow Coma Score, APACHE II, SOFA), secondary stroke (prevalence, time of occurrence after primary brain injury, causes of stroke and associated mortality), length of stay in the ICU and hospital, vital parameters (state of consciousness, cardiac function, respiration, circulation, thermoregulation, diuresis) and laboratory values (leukocytes, C-reactive protein [CRP], blood glucose, blood gas analysis, urea, creatinine). Medical data were analysed for 306 patients with TBI (median age 56 years, range 18-93 years) who were treated in the general ICU. Secondary stroke occurred in 23 patients (7.5%), 10 of whom died, which gives a mortality rate of 43.4%. Three patients were excluded as the cause of the injury was missile trauma. The study data indicate that inflammation is the most important cause of secondary insults. Levels of CRP were elevated in 65% of patients with secondary brain injury; leukocytosis was present in 87% of these patients, and blood glucose was elevated in 73%. The lungs and urinary tract were the most common sites of infection. In conclusion
Joseph, Bellal; Pandit, Viraj; Meyer, David; Butvidas, Lynn; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Khalil, Mazhar; Tang, Andrew; Zangbar, Bardiya; O'Keeffe, Terence; Gries, Lynn; Friese, Randall S; Rhee, Peter
Platelet dysfunction has been attributed to progression of initial intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) on repeat head computed tomographic (RHCT) scans in patients on prehospital antiplatelet therapy. However, there is little emphasis on the effect of platelet count and progression of ICH in patients with traumatic brain injury. The aim of this study was to determine the platelet count cutoff for progression on RHCT and neurosurgical intervention in patients on antiplatelet therapy. We performed a prospective cohort analysis of all traumatic brain injury patients with an ICH on prehospital antiplatelet therapy. Antiplatelet therapy was defined as aspirin, clopidogrel, or a combination of both. Admission platelet count was recorded and used for analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted to identify the optimal platelet count for progression on RHCT scan and neurosurgical intervention in patients on antiplatelet therapy. A total of 264 patients were enrolled. Platelet count of 135,000/µL or less (area under the curve, 0.80) and platelet count of 95,000/µL or less (area under the curve, 0.92) were the optimal threshold points for progression on RHCT scan and neurosurgical intervention, respectively. Patients with platelet count of 135,000/µL or less were 12.4 times (95% confidence interval, 7.1-18.4) more likely to have progression on RHCT scan and patients with platelet count 95,000/µL or less were 31.5 times (95% confidence interval, 19.7-96.2) more likely to require neurosurgical intervention. A platelet count of less than 135,000/µL in patients on antiplatelet therapy is predictive of both radiographic and clinical worsening. This is a clinically relevant target intended to help tailor and improve management in patients on antiplatelet therapy. Therapeutic study, level III.
The therapeutic rehabilitation of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) has a limited evidence-based foundation. The current rehabilitation approaches have been developed mainly through clinical practice. They often consist of many components that are defined in incomplete ways, making...... with severe TBI admitted for subacute rehabilitation (93%), pneumonia was found in 12%. The many components of FOTT are defined in a treatment manual; we developed and tested a method that can measure whether therapist uses FOTT appropriately. In addition, we developed and validated a FOTT clinical evaluation...
Full Text Available This paper aims to compare the effect on early prognosis of post-traumatic early enteral nutrition therapy and central venous catheterization parenteral nutrition therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI. The results showed that on 7 and 14 d, serum total protein [(62.04 ± 2.09 and 66.04 ± 2.27 g/L], albumin [(37.75 ± 2.86 and (43.43 ± 2.37 g/L] and prealbumin [(177.87 ± 13.89 and (199.43 ± 11.01 mg/L] in patients treated with early enteral nutrition were all higher than patients treated with parenteral nutrition (P = 0.000, for all. On 7 d the stomach bleeding rate of patients treated with enteral nutrition (14.29%, 4/28 was lower than patients treated with parenteral nutrition (39.29%, 11/28, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2 = 4.462, P = 0.035. On 14 d, no one case of stomach bleeding occured in patients with enteral therapy, while 4 cases of stomach bleeding (14.29% occured in patients with parenteral therapy, and the difference was not significant ( χ2 = 2.423, P = 0.120. The difference of lung infection rate between different treated patients was not statistically significant ( χ2 = 0.287, P = 0.592. Early enteral nutrition therapy for severe traumatic brain injury patients can provide adequate nutritional support and reduce the incidence of stomach bleeding. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.04.016
Pallesen, Hanne; Buhl, Inge
: A qualitative study was chosen. The field study involved five patients (aged 39–64) and included: participant observation and video recordings of 41 rehabilitation situations, five individual interviews and one focus group interview with multidisciplinary rehabilitation experts; together with document review......ABSTRACT Aim: The purpose of the study was to shed light on the participatory aspect of early rehabilitation, when contact, communication and interaction between the patients and the professionals is minimal, because of the patients’ severe brain injury and complex conditions. Methodology...... by a combination of the clinicians’ professional skills, their ability to create a rehabilitation environment in which patients can perform activities, the right framework for the meeting, and a suitable approach, to facilitate fruitful interaction with the patients....
Shah, Jayun M.; Shah, Kairav S.; Kumar, Jinendra; Sundaram, Ponraj K.
Background: Computed tomography (CT) has become the primary investigative modality for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and there are established guidelines for the initial CT (CT-1). There are no specific guidelines for scheduling repeat CT in TBI. This study was carried out to compare the usefulness of unscheduled repeat CT (UCT-2) with scheduled repeat CT (SCT-2) in the presence or absence of neurological deterioration and to identify risk factors associated with radiological worsening (RW). Methods: This prospective study comprised admitted patients with mild and moderate TBI between February and May, 2014 and all patients were subjected to repeat CT brain. Patients with penetrating brain injuries and surgical conditions after CT-1, and age < 5 years were excluded. Positive yield after the second CT (SCT-2 and UCT-2) leading to modification of management were compared between the two groups. Results: In this study, 214 patients (214/222) underwent SCT-2 and 8 underwent UCT-2 (8/222). Surgery was required in 2 (0.9%) from the first group and 7 (87.5%) in the latter. UCT-2 was more likely to show RW warranting surgery as compared to SCT-2 (P < 0.05). In the SCT-2 group, CT-1 had been done within 2 h after trauma in 30 patients and 8 (8/30; 26.7%) showed RW and; after 2 h in the remaining 184 (184/214) with RW seen in 23 (23/184; 12.5%). RW was more common when the CT-1 was within 2 h from trauma (P < 0.05). In our study, the age of the patient and admission Glasgow Coma Scores did not significantly affect the findings in repeat CT. Conclusion: Repeating CT brain is costly besides needing significant logistical support to shift an injured and often unstable patient. SCT-2 is more likely to show RW when CT-1 is done within 2 h after trauma. UCT-2 is more likely to show RW and findings warranting surgery as compared to SCT-2. Hence, a repeat CT may be preferred only in the presence of clinical worsening and when CT-1 is done within 2 h after trauma. PMID:28761517
Lloyd, John; Conidi, Frank
Helmets are used for sports, military, and transportation to protect against impact forces and associated injuries. The common belief among end users is that the helmet protects the whole head, including the brain. However, current consensus among biomechanists and sports neurologists indicates that helmets do not provide significant protection against concussion and brain injuries. In this paper the authors present existing scientific evidence on the mechanisms underlying traumatic head and brain injuries, along with a biomechanical evaluation of 21 current and retired football helmets. The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) standard test apparatus was modified and validated for impact testing of protective headwear to include the measurement of both linear and angular kinematics. From a drop height of 2.0 m onto a flat steel anvil, each football helmet was impacted 5 times in the occipital area. Skull fracture risk was determined for each of the current varsity football helmets by calculating the percentage reduction in linear acceleration relative to a 140-g skull fracture threshold. Risk of subdural hematoma was determined by calculating the percentage reduction in angular acceleration relative to the bridging vein failure threshold, computed as a function of impact duration. Ranking the helmets according to their performance under these criteria, the authors determined that the Schutt Vengeance performed the best overall. The study findings demonstrated that not all football helmets provide equal or adequate protection against either focal head injuries or traumatic brain injuries. In fact, some of the most popular helmets on the field ranked among the worst. While protection is improving, none of the current or retired varsity football helmets can provide absolute protection against brain injuries, including concussions and subdural hematomas. To maximize protection against head and brain injuries for football players of
Eric G. Johnson
Full Text Available Vertigo, was provoked and right torsional up-beat nystagmus was observed in a 47-year-old patient when she was placed into the right Hallpike-Dix test position using infrared goggle technology. The clinical diagnosis was benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, specifically right posterior canalithiasis, resulting from a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI suffered approximately six-months earlier. Previous medical consultations did not include vestibular system examination, and Meclizine was prescribed to suppress her chief complaint of vertigo. Ultimately, the patient was successfully managed by performing two canalith repositioning maneuvers during a single clinical session. The patient reported 100% resolution of symptoms upon reexamination the following day, and the Hallpike-Dix test was negative. Continued symptom resolution was subjectively reported 10 days postintervention via telephone consultation. This case report supports previous publications concerning the presence of BPPV following TBI and the need for inclusion of vestibular system examination during medical consultation.
Full Text Available Shiho Ubukata,1,2 Rumi Tanemura,2 Miho Yoshizumi,1 Genichi Sugihara,1 Toshiya Murai,1 Keita Ueda1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 2Department of Rehabilitation Science, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan Abstract: Deficits in social cognition are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, little is known about how such deficits affect functional outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social cognition and functional outcomes in patients with TBI. We studied this relationship in 20 patients with TBI over the course of 1 year post-injury. Patients completed neurocognitive assessments and social cognition tasks. The social cognition tasks included an emotion-perception task and three theory of mind tasks: the Faux Pas test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes (Eyes test, and the Moving-Shapes paradigm. The Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique was used to assess functional outcomes. Compared with our database of normal subjects, patients showed impairments in all social cognition tasks. Multiple regression analysis revealed that theory of mind ability as measured by the Eyes test was the best predictor of the cognitive aspects of functional outcomes. The findings of this pilot study suggest that the degree to which a patient can predict what others are thinking is an important measure that can estimate functional outcomes over 1 year following TBI. Keywords: Eyes test, social emotion perception, social function, social participation, theory of mind
Min, Zhi Gang; Niu, Chen; Zhang, Qiu Li; Zhang, Ming [Dept. of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Qian, Yu Cheng [Dept. of Medical Imaging, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China)
To identify the optimal factors in diffusion tensor imaging for predicting corticospinal tract (CST) injury caused by brain tumors. This prospective study included 33 patients with motor weakness and 64 patients with normal motor function. The movement of the CST, minimum distance between the CST and the tumor, and relative fractional anisotropy (rFA) of the CST on diffusion tensor imaging, were compared between patients with motor weakness and normal function. Logistic regression analysis was used to obtain the optimal factor predicting motor weakness. In patients with motor weakness, the displacement (8.44 ± 6.64 mm) of the CST (p = 0.009), minimum distance (3.98 ± 7.49 mm) between the CST and tumor (p < 0.001), and rFA (0.83 ± 0.11) of the CST (p < 0.001) were significantly different from those of the normal group (4.64 ± 6.65 mm, 14.87 ± 12.04 mm, and 0.98 ± 0.05, respectively) (p = 0.009, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001). The frequencies of patients with the CST passing through the tumor (6%, p = 0.002), CST close to the tumor (23%, p < 0.001), CST close to a malignant tumor (high grade glioma, metastasis, or lymphoma) (19%, p < 0.001), and CST passing through infiltrating edema (19%, p < 0.001) in the motor weakness group, were significantly different from those of the patients with normal motor function (0, 8, 1, and 10%, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that decreased rFA and CST close to a malignant tumor were effective variables related to motor weakness. Decreased fractional anisotropy, combined with closeness of a malignant tumor to the CST, is the optimal factor in predicting CST injury caused by a brain tumor.
Edlow, Brian L; Chatelle, Camille; Spencer, Camille A; Chu, Catherine J; Bodien, Yelena G; O'Connor, Kathryn L; Hirschberg, Ronald E; Hochberg, Leigh R; Giacino, Joseph T; Rosenthal, Eric S; Wu, Ona
See Schiff (doi:10.1093/awx209) for a scientific commentary on this article. Patients with acute severe traumatic brain injury may recover consciousness before self-expression. Without behavioural evidence of consciousness at the bedside, clinicians may render an inaccurate prognosis, increasing the likelihood of withholding life-sustaining therapies or denying rehabilitative services. Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography techniques have revealed covert consciousness in the chronic setting, but these techniques have not been tested in the intensive care unit. We prospectively enrolled 16 patients admitted to the intensive care unit for acute severe traumatic brain injury to test two hypotheses: (i) in patients who lack behavioural evidence of language expression and comprehension, functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography detect command-following during a motor imagery task (i.e. cognitive motor dissociation) and association cortex responses during language and music stimuli (i.e. higher-order cortex motor dissociation); and (ii) early responses to these paradigms are associated with better 6-month outcomes on the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended. Patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging on post-injury Day 9.2 ± 5.0 and electroencephalography on Day 9.8 ± 4.6. At the time of imaging, behavioural evaluation with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised indicated coma (n = 2), vegetative state (n = 3), minimally conscious state without language (n = 3), minimally conscious state with language (n = 4) or post-traumatic confusional state (n = 4). Cognitive motor dissociation was identified in four patients, including three whose behavioural diagnosis suggested a vegetative state. Higher-order cortex motor dissociation was identified in two additional patients. Complete absence of responses to language, music and motor imagery was only observed in coma patients. In patients with behavioural evidence
Smidt, Helle Rønn; Pallesen, Hanne; Buhl, Inge
Early neurorehabilitation is an interdisciplinary field. Thus, in order to eliminate unnecessary barriers for individuals with severe acquired brain injury in early rehabilitation, we need rehabilitation science that supports both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Participation can...
Lansom, Joshua D; Curtis, Kate; Goldsmith, Helen; Tzannes, Alex
This study examines whether, in patients requiring intubation with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), prehospital intubation compared with emergency department intubation leads to a reduction in treatment times and time to a computed tomographic (CT) scan. A retrospective cohort study compared adult patients with a Glasgow Coma Score of less than 14 with a suspected TBI who underwent intubation, either prehospital or on arrival to the emergency department. Prehospital intubation was associated with a decreased time from emergency department arrival to CT scan compared with emergency department intubation (43 vs. 54 minutes, P prehospital intubation group had a longer median scene time (42 vs. 17 minutes, P ≤ .001), longer median transport times (32 vs. 14 minutes, P ≤ .001), and longer total treatment times (90 vs. 73 minutes, P = .007). Patients intubated in the prehospital setting spend a longer time at the scene but a shorter amount of time in the emergency department before brain imaging. Prehospital intubation may lead to earlier control of airway and ventilation. The minority of intubated TBI patients required urgent neurosurgical intervention. Overall prehospital intubation shows no significant survival advantage for the patients when compared with emergency department intubation. Copyright © 2016 Air Medical Journal Associates. All rights reserved.
Oshorov, A V; Savin, I A; Goriachev, A S; Popugaev, K A; Polupan, A A; Sychev, A A; Gavrilov, A G; Kravchuk, A D; Zakharova, N E; Danilov, G V; Potapov, A A
The goal of the study was to assess frequency of plato waves, their influence on outcomes and define factors leading to plato waves. Ninety eight patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) were included. Blood pressure (BP), intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and pressure reactivity index (Prx) were registered. Age was 34 +/- 13.6. There were 73 male and 25 female. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was 6 +/- 1.4. Plato waves developed in 24 patients (group 1), 74 patients (group 2) did not have plato waves. Median of plato waves in the 1st group was 7[3.5; 7]. They developed on 3rd [2;4.5] day. Maximum level of ICP during plato waves was 47.5 [40;53] mmHg, its duration was 8.5 [7;27] minutes. In the group 1 Prx was significantly lower during first day, than in the group 2. Duration of ICP monitoring was longer in the group I due to presence of plato waves in these patients. CPP did not differ in groups, because CPP was strictly controlled. Patients of the group I had preserved autoregulation and less severe trauma (predominance of closed trauma and Marshall I, II type of brain damage). Plato waves did not predict bad outcomes.
... Hits since January 2003 RADIATION INJURY TO THE BRAIN Radiation treatments affect all cells that are targeted. ... fractions, duration of therapy, and volume of [healthy brain] nervous tissue irradiated influence the likelihood of injury. ...
LeBlanc, Joanne; de Guise, Elaine; Lamoureux, Julie; Meyer, Kim; Duplantie, Jennifer; Thomas, Harle; Abouassaly, Michel; Champoux, Marie-Claude; Couturier, Céline; Lin, Howell; Lu, Lucy; Robinson, Cathlyn; Roger, Eric; Maleki, Mohammed; Feyz, Mitra
To verify criterion validity of measures from a functional cognitive task (FCT) carried out with patients with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) at 2-5 years post-injury. Forty-six patients with sTBI took part in a long-term outcome study where the FCT and the Neurobehavioural Rating Scale-Revised (NBRS-R) were administered and the FIM™ instrument was rated. The FCT is a telephone information gathering task for evaluating functional cognitive skills. Ten of 16 measures of the FCT were significantly correlated with similar or related concepts from the NBRS-R. The FIM™ cognitive score and the individual items of this score were significantly correlated with 13 of the FCT measures and with the percentage of amount of information gathered. Internal consistency was good for 13 of 16 measures. Overall, patients generally had mild difficulty on the FCT concepts. The FCT can be used with patients with sTBI to evaluate certain aspects of functional cognition. It has good criterion validity and internal consistency, but additional research is required to further measure reliability and its applicability to other severity of TBI and to other phases of recovery.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess plastic changes of the sensorimotor cortex (SMC in patients with traumatic brachial plexus injury (BPI using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Twenty patients with traumatic BPI underwent fMRI using blood oxygen level-dependent technique with echo-planar imaging before the operation. Sixteen patients underwent their second fMRI at approximately one year after injury. The subjects performed two tasks: a flexion-extension task of the affected elbow and a task of the unaffected elbow. After activation, maps were generated, the number of significantly activated voxels in SMC contralateral to the elbow movement in the affected elbow task study (Naf and that in the unaffected task study (Nunaf were counted. An asymmetry index (AI was calculated, where AI=(Naf−Nunaf/(Naf+Nunaf. Ten healthy volunteers were also included in this fMRI study. The AI of the first fMRI of the patients with BPI was significantly lower than that of the healthy subjects (P=0.035. The AI of the second fMRI significantly decreased compared with that of the first fMRI (P=0.045. Brain reorganization associates with peripheral nervous changes after BPI and after operation for functional reconstruction.
Krhut, Jan; Tintera, Jaroslav; Bilkova, Karolina
OBJECTIVE: Patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI) may maintain some perception of bladder fullness. The aim of the study was to evaluate brain activation arising from anticipated extraspinal sensory pathways. METHODS: Fourteen patients ages 24-54 years were enrolled, all having experienc...
Hoeffding, Louise K; Nielsen, Maria Haahr; Rasmussen, Morten A
BACKGROUND: An acquired brain injury (ABI) is a complex injury often followed by a broad range of cognitive, physical, emotional, and behavioral disabilities. Because of these disabilities, vocational rehabilitation (VR) is a challenging task, however, of great importance, since approximately 75...
Omura, Jaclyn; Osorio, Marisa
We present a case of a 17-year-old girl who developed premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) after sustaining a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and we review the diagnosis of PMDD. The patient developed symptoms of severe depression surrounding her menses months after sustaining severe TBI and was diagnosed with PMDD by a psychiatrist. She ultimately required antipsychotics for optimal symptom resolution. PMDD is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome with symptoms including irritability, anxiety, and nonfatal suicidal behavior. We discuss other potential causes of mood disturbance that are important to screen for after TBI, including depression, anxiety, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis disorders. Rehabilitation medicine providers need to be aware of PMDD in postpubertal female patients with TBI because it can lead to nonfatal suicidal behaviors. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Matek, J; Vajtr, D; Krška, Z; Springer, D; Filip, M; Zima, T
Concussion cannot be differentiated from superficial scalp injury, especially in inebriated or uncooperative patients. This can have serious medical or forensic consequences. The aim of the study was to determine whether serum concentrations of S-100b in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients are significantly higher than those in patients with superficial scalp injury with scalp wound and alcohol intoxication. A total of 50 patients with head injury, 25 with mild concussion without scalp wound and alcohol intoxication, 25 superficial scalp injury patients with scalp wound and clinical signs of inebriety. Neurological status and cranial CT scan were evaluated 60-120 minutes after injury in all the 50 patients to exclude focal cerebral injury or skull fracture. The serum levels of S-100b were significantly increased in patients with concussion (median 0.36 ± 0.15 μg/l ) in comparison with the group of patients with scalp injury and alcohol intoxication (median 0.09 ± 0.002 μg/l). All 50 patients had a normal cranial CT finding and neurological status. In all superficial scalp injury patients alcohol intoxication was confirmed (0.96 - 3.11š). We proved significantly higher values of S-100b in patients with brain concussion. Diagnostically decisive value of S-100b concentration in the serum was set at 146 μg/l and higher (94% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Alcohol intoxication (up to 3.11 š) and scalp wound seem to have had no crucial impact on serum S-100b level.
Full Text Available Objective To investigate the pathological features and optimal operation of the patients with late intractable epilepsy after traumatic brain injuries(TBI.Methods Fresh specimens of temporal lobe were obtained during operation from 21 patients with late intractable epilepsy after TBI to investigate the cortical structure,cellular morphology,number and distribution,and analyze the structure of hippocampus and pathological features of other tissues.Results The pathological features of brain tissue in epilepsy after TBI were encephalomalacia and hypertrophic scar,and the marked pathological changes in resected temporal lobe were hippocampal sclerosis and dysplasia of temporal cortex cells(seen in 15 of 21 cases.The therapeutic effects were assessed by a 6-month to 2-year follow-up,and satisfactory effects were obtained in 14 out of 21 patients(66.7%(Grade Ⅰ,favorable effects were seen in 4 cases(19.0%(Grade Ⅱ,and poor outcomes were seen in 3 cases(14.3%(Grade Ⅲ.Conclusions Hippocampal sclerosis and construction abnormalities of temporal lobe cortex are the most common pathological features,and they always co-exist in patients with late intractable epilepsy.The resection of pathological lesion combined with standard anterior temporal lobectomy is currently the recommended operation choice for late intractable epilepsy after TBI.
Schafer, Amanda Y; Ustinova, Ksenia I
Although numerous virtual reality applications have been developed for sensorimotor retraining in neurologically impaired individuals, it is unclear whether the virtual environment (VE) changes motor performance, especially in patients with brain injuries. To address this question, the movement characteristics of forward arm reaches during standing were compared in physical and virtual environments, presented at different viewing angles. Fifteen patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy individuals performed virtual reaches in a computer-generated courtyard with a flower-topped hedge. The hedge was projected on a flat screen and viewed in 3D format in 1 of 3 angles: 10° above horizon (resembling a real-world viewing angle), 50° above horizon, or 90° above horizon (directly overhead). Participants were instructed to reach with their dominant hand avatar and to touch the farthest flower possible without losing their balance or stepping. Virtual reaches were compared with reaches-to-point to a target in an equivalent physical environment. A set of kinematic parameters was used. Reaches by patients with TBI were characterized by shorter distances, lower peak velocities, and smaller postural displacements than reaches by control individuals. All participants reached ~9% farther in the VE presented at a 50° angle than they did in the physical environment. Arm displacement in the more natural 10° angle VE was reduced by the same 9-10% compared to physical reaches. Virtual reaches had smaller velocity peaks and took longer than physical reaches. The results suggest that visual perception in the VE differs from real-world perception and the performance of functional tasks (e.g., reaching while standing) can be changed in TBI patients, depending on the viewing angle. Accordingly, the viewing angle is a critical parameter that should be adjusted carefully to achieve maximal therapeutic effect during practice in the VE.
Jang, Sung Ho; Lee, Ah Young; Shin, So Min
Little is known about injury of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). We investigated injury of the AF in the dominant hemisphere in patients with mild TBI, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). We recruited 25 patients with injury of the left AF among 64 right-handed consecutive patients with mild TBI and 20 normal control subjects. DTTs of the left AF were reconstructed, and fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fiber number of the AF were measured. Among 64 consecutive patients, 25 (39%) patients showed injury of the left AF. The patient group showed lower FA value and fiber number with higher ADC value than the control group (P 2 language symptoms in 6 (24.0%) patients. We found that a significant number (39%) of patients with mild TBI had injury of the AF in the dominant hemisphere and these patients had mild language deficit. These results suggest that DTT could provide useful information in detecting injury of the AF and evaluation of the AF using DTT would be necessary even in the case of a patient with mild TBI who complains of mild language deficit.
... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...
Wahls, Terry; Rubenstein, Linda; Hall, Michael; Snetselaar, Linda
To evaluate dietary adequacy of patients presenting for evaluation at an outpatient traumatic brain injury (TBI) clinic. We identified 14 key micronutrients with defined dietary intake reference ranges that are considered important for brain health. Adult patients completed the Brief NutritionQuest Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to calculate estimated nutrient intake. Medical records were abstracted for diagnoses, body mass index, and neurobehavioral subscale scores. Nutrients were assessed individually and were also summarized into a summary score. Associations between individual nutrients, summary nutrient intake, and neurobehavioral scores were assessed. A total of 39 FFQs were completed by subjects, and 25 (64%) had recorded neurobehavioral scores. No subjects met the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for all 14 micronutrients. Ten (26%) met the RDAs for 6 or fewer nutrients, and 10 met the RDAs for 11-12 nutrients. Of 12 nutrients with sufficient sample size for analysis, 11 (92%) were associated with worse mean somatic scores, 9 (75%) were associated with worse cognitive scores, and 8 (67%) were linked with worse affective scores for those with the lowest nutrient intake compared with those who had the highest intake. However, only four nutrients were statistically associated with the somatic mean score: folate (P = 0.010), magnesium (P = 0.082), vitamin C (P = 0.021), and vitamin K (P = 0.024). None were linked with cognitive or affective scores. Diets failing to meet RDAs for important brain nutrients were common in an outpatient TBI clinic, with the worst mean neurobehavioral scores for those patients not meeting the estimated average requirements.
Full Text Available Introduction: Although there are approximately 1.1 million case presentations of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI in the emergency department (ED each year, little data is available to clinicians to identify patients who are at risk for poor outcomes, including 72-hour ED return after discharge. An understanding of patients at risk for ED return visits during the hyperacute phase following head injury would allow ED providers to develop clinical interventions that reduce its occurrence and improve outcomes. Methods: This institutional review board-approved consecutive cohort study collected injury and outcome variables on adults with the purpose of identifying positive predictors for 72-hour ED return visits in mTBI patients. Results: Of 2,787 mTBI patients, 145 (5% returned unexpectedly to the ED within 72 hours of hospital discharge. Positive predictors for ED return visits included being male (p=0.0298, being black (p=0.0456, having a lower prehospital Glasgow Coma Score (p=0.0335, suffering the injury due to a motor vehicle collision (p=0.0065, or having a bleed on head computed tomography (CT (p=0.0334. ED return visits were not significantly associated with age, fracture on head CT, or symptomology following head trauma. Patients with return visits most commonly reported post-concussion syndrome (43.1%, pain (18.7%, and recall for further clinical evaluation (14.6% as the reason for return. Of the 124 patients who returned to the ED within 72 hours, one out of five were admitted to the hospital for further care, with five requiring intensive care unit stays and four undergoing neurosurgery. Conclusion: Approximately 5% of adult patients who present to the ED for mTBI will return within 72 hours of discharge for further care. Clinicians should identify at-risk individuals during their initial visits and attempt to provide anticipatory guidance when possible. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:481–485.
Paul E. Rapp
Full Text Available Psychophysiological investigations of traumatic brain injury (TBI are being conducted for several reasons, including the objective of learning more about the underlying physiological mechanisms of the pathological processes that can be initiated by a head injury. Additional goals include the development of objective physiologically based measures that can be used to monitor the response to treatment and to identify minimally symptomatic individuals who are at risk of delayed onset neuropsychiatric disorders following injury. Research programs studying TBI search for relationships between psychophysiological measures, particularly ERP component properties (e.g. timing, amplitude, scalp distribution, and a participant’s clinical condition. Moreover, the complex relationships between brain injury and psychiatric disorders are receiving increased research attention, and ERP technologies are making contributions to this effort. This review has two objectives supporting such research efforts. The first is to review evidence indicating that traumatic brain injury is a significant risk factor for post-injury neuropsychiatric disorders. The second objective is to introduce ERP researchers who are not familiar with neuropsychiatric assessment to the instruments that are available for characterizing traumatic brain injury, post-concussion syndrome, and psychiatric disorders. Specific recommendations within this very large literature are made. We have proceeded on the assumption that, as is typically the case in an ERP laboratory, the investigators are not clinically qualified and that they will not have access to participant medical records.
Wairagkar, Maitreyee; McCrindle, Rachel; Robson, Holly; Meteyard, Lotte; Sperrin, Malcom; Smith, Andy; Pugh, Moyra
The functional connectivity and structural proximity of elements of the language and motor systems result in frequent co-morbidity post brain injury. Although rehabilitation services are becoming increasingly multidisciplinary and "integrated", treatment for language and motor functions often occurs in isolation. Thus, behavioural therapies which promote neural reorganisation do not reflect the high intersystem connectivity of the neurologically intact brain. As such, there is a pressing need for rehabilitation tools which better reflect and target the impaired cognitive networks. The objective of this research is to develop a combined high dosage therapy tool for language and motor rehabilitation. The rehabilitation therapy tool developed, MaLT (Motor and Language Therapy), comprises a suite of computer games targeting both language and motor therapy that use the Kinect sensor as an interaction device. The games developed are intended for use in the home environment over prolonged periods of time. In order to track patients' engagement with the games and their rehabilitation progress, the game records patient performance data for the therapist to interrogate. MaLT incorporates Kinect-based games, a database of objects and language parameters, and a reporting tool for therapists. Games have been developed that target four major language therapy tasks involving single word comprehension, initial phoneme identification, rhyme identification and a naming task. These tasks have 8 levels each increasing in difficulty. A database of 750 objects is used to programmatically generate appropriate questions for the game, providing both targeted therapy and unique gameplay every time. The design of the games has been informed by therapists and by discussions with a Public Patient Involvement (PPI) group. Pilot MaLT trials have been conducted with three stroke survivors for the duration of 6 to 8 weeks. Patients' performance is monitored through MaLT's reporting facility
Langhorn, Leanne; Holdgaard, Dorte; Worning, Lene; Sørensen, Jens C; Pedersen, Preben U
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a systematic reality orientation program (RO) introduced in a neurointensive care unit on duration of posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) and outcomes of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study used a quasiexperimental, prospective design. Twenty-four patients (intervention) with a significant TBI classified as moderate-to-severe injuries as measured by scores of less than 12 on the Glasgow Coma Scale underwent an RO program compared with a similar group of 38 patients (control) who received a conventional rehabilitation program. The Rancho Los Amigos Score was used to assess the cognitive level 24 hours after the end of sedation, and the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test was used daily to assess orientation and duration of PTA. The Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended was then used as an indicator of clinical outcome after 12 months. The preliminary results indicated that patients who received the RO had a higher mean of the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (SD = 1.53) than those receiving the usual care (SD = 1.35) despite that the groups differed significantly (p = .01) in PTA duration. Patients with TBI may benefit from early assessment and systematic RO nursing intervention. The RO may facilitate patients with PTA to regain orientation and interact with their surroundings in the neurointensive care unit to optimize the recovery. However, further studies with focus on timing, intensity, and duration are needed to evaluate the influence of an early RO approach on PTA and outcomes in patients experiencing TBI.
Mikhael, Marco; Frost, Elizabeth; Cristancho, Maria
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) continues to be the leading cause of death and acquired disability in young children and adolescents, due to blunt or penetrating trauma, the latter being less common but more lethal. Penetrating brain injury (PBI) has not been studied extensively, mainly reported as case reports or case series, due to the assumption that both types of brain injury have common pathophysiology and consequently common management. However, recommendations and guidelines for the management of PBI differ from those of blunt TBI in regards to neuroimaging, intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, and surgical management including those pertaining to vascular injury. PBI was one of the exclusion criteria in the second edition of guidelines for the acute medical management of severe TBI in infants, children, and adolescents that was published in 2012 (it is referred to as "pediatric guidelines" in this review). Many reviews of TBI do not differentiate between the mechanisms of injury. We present an overview of PBI, its presenting features, epidemiology, and causes as well as an analysis of case series and the conclusions that may be drawn from those and other studies. More clinical trials specific to penetrating head injuries in children, focusing mainly on pathophysiology and management, are needed. The term PBI is specific to penetrating injury only, whereas TBI, a more inclusive term, describes mainly, but not only, blunt injury.
Vedantam, Aditya; Robertson, Claudia S; Gopinath, Shankar P
OBJECTIVE Hypernatremia is independently associated with increased mortality in critically ill patients. Few studies have evaluated the impact of hypernatremia on early mortality in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) treated in a neurocritical care unit. METHODS A retrospective review of patients with severe TBI (admission Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8) treated in a single neurocritical care unit between 1986 and 2012 was performed. Patients with at least 3 serum sodium values were selected for the study. Patients with diabetes insipidus and those with hypernatremia on admission were excluded. The highest serum sodium level during the hospital stay was recorded, and hypernatremia was classified as none (≤ 150 mEq/L), mild (151-155 mEq/L), moderate (156-160 mEq/L), and severe (> 160 mEq/L). Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to determine independent predictors of early mortality. RESULTS A total of 588 patients with severe TBI were studied. The median number of serum sodium measurements for patients in this study was 17 (range 3-190). No hypernatremia was seen in 371 patients (63.1%), mild hypernatremia in 77 patients (13.1%), moderate hypernatremia in 50 patients (8.5%), and severe hypernatremia in 90 patients (15.3%). Hypernatremia was detected within the 1st week of admission in 79.3% of patients (n = 172), with the majority of patients (46%) being diagnosed within 72 hours after admission. Acute kidney injury, defined as a rise in creatinine of ≥ 0.3 mg/dl, was observed in 162 patients (27.6%) and was significantly associated with the degree of hypernatremia (p Hypernatremia was a significant independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratios for mild: 3.4, moderate: 4.4, and severe: 8.4; p hypernatremia (log-rank test, p Hypernatremia after admission in patients with severe TBI was independently associated with greater risk of early mortality. In addition to severe hypernatremia, mild and moderate hypernatremia were
Castaño-Monsalve, Beatriz; Bernabeu-Guitart, Montserrat; López, Raquel; Bulbena-Vilarrasa, Antoni; Quemada, José Ignacio
To describe the prevalence of alcohol and drugs use in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to assess their relationship with neuropsychiatric disorders, functioning and caregiver burden. 156 patients with a history of moderate and severe TBI were evaluated. The use of alcohol and drugs was determined. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the Zarit questionnaire were applied to caregivers. The patients functioning were assessed with the Disability Rating Scale (DRS) and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). 36 patients (23%) were regular users of alcohol and other drugs before the TBI. Neuropsychiatric disorders were more frequent and severe in this group, especially irritability and agitation-aggressiveness. Their caregivers perceived a higher burden. After TBI, 16 patients (44.4%) relapsed in alcohol-drugs consumption. Having a higher age and living with a partner were associated with higher rates of abstinence. The history of alcohol and drugs abuse is common in patients with TBI and it is a risk factor for development of behavioral disorders. More active interventions are needed aimed to detect these cases and work for prevention of relapse after trauma.
Niechwiej-Szwedo, E; Inness, E L; Howe, J A; Jaglal, S; McIlroy, W E; Verrier, M C
Postural stability may be compromised in patients who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of the present study was to examine dynamic stability during gait by measuring spatial and temporal variability of foot placement, and to determine the effect of increased difficulty of the walking task on gait variability in patients with TBI. It was hypothesized that patients with TBI will show increased variability in step time, step length, and step width in comparison to healthy controls and that such differences would be accentuated by increased task difficulty. Participants (patients: n=20, controls: n=20) were asked to walk across a pressure sensitive mat at their preferred pace (PW), as fast as possible (FW), and with their eyes closed (EC). In accordance with the hypotheses, patients had significantly greater variability in step time and step length in comparison to healthy controls, and when the complexity of the gait task increased (FW and EC tasks). Although step width variability showed no significant difference between the groups, both control and patient groups had increased step width variability in the EC task. It is proposed that such increases in variability reflect greater challenges to maintaining dynamic stability during gait among individuals with TBI and when performing more difficult tasks.
Full Text Available Objective: Determine the association between the bone mineral density and traumatic brain injury (TBI. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two patients with TBI included to the study. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements which determines the femur neck and L1-4 vertebrate T scores in patients was performed via Lunar Prodigy DPX system. Clinical parameters such as types of involvements (plegia, upper-lower extremity spasticity values, presence of heterotypic ossification, ambulation levels were determined and their relations with femur neck and L1-4 vertebrate T scores were examined with Mann-Whitney U Test. Results: In the comparison of sub groups of type of plegia (tetraplegic/hemi-paraplegic, lower extremity spasticity values [Ascworth score 0/1-2-3-4, presence of heterotopic ossification no statistically significant (p>0.05 difference was found in the femur neck and L1-4 vertebrate T scores. On the other hand, in the subgroups determined according to ambulatory levels of the patients (confined to bed-wheelchair/ ambulated (orthesis-hand support-independent] significant difference was observed in the femur neck T scores (p=0.044. Femur neck T scores were significantly high in ambulated patients (p=0.044. Conclusion: In TBI cases ambulation level is a factor which significantly affect bone mineral density. It is necessary to ambulate patients with potential as soon as possible and to plan alternative approaches in patient could not be ambulated.
Introduction The study was aimed at verifying whether the occurrence of hypernatremia during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay increases the risk of death in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We performed a retrospective study on a prospectively collected database including all patients consecutively admitted over a 3-year period with a diagnosis of TBI (post-resuscitation Glasgow Coma Score ≤ 8) to a general/neurotrauma ICU of a university hospital, providing critical care services in a catchment area of about 1,200,000 inhabitants. Methods Demographic, clinical, and ICU laboratory data were prospectively collected; serum sodium was assessed an average of three times per day. Hypernatremia was defined as two daily values of serum sodium above 145 mmol/l. The major outcome was death in the ICU after 14 days. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used, with time-dependent variates designed to reflect exposure over time during the ICU stay: hypernatremia, desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) administration as a surrogate marker for the presence of central diabetes insipidus, and urinary output. The same models were adjusted for potential confounding factors. Results We included in the study 130 TBI patients (mean age 52 years (standard deviation 23); males 74%; median Glasgow Coma Score 3 (range 3 to 8); mean Simplified Acute Physiology Score II 50 (standard deviation 15)); all were mechanically ventilated; 35 (26.9%) died within 14 days after ICU admission. Hypernatremia was detected in 51.5% of the patients and in 15.9% of the 1,103 patient-day ICU follow-up. In most instances hypernatremia was mild (mean 150 mmol/l, interquartile range 148 to 152). The occurrence of hypernatremia was highest (P = 0.003) in patients with suspected central diabetes insipidus (25/130, 19.2%), a condition that was associated with increased severity of brain injury and ICU mortality. After adjustment for the baseline risk, the incidence of hypernatremia over the
Maggiore, Umberto; Picetti, Edoardo; Antonucci, Elio; Parenti, Elisabetta; Regolisti, Giuseppe; Mergoni, Mario; Vezzani, Antonella; Cabassi, Aderville; Fiaccadori, Enrico
The study was aimed at verifying whether the occurrence of hypernatremia during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay increases the risk of death in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We performed a retrospective study on a prospectively collected database including all patients consecutively admitted over a 3-year period with a diagnosis of TBI (post-resuscitation Glasgow Coma Score Hypernatremia was defined as two daily values of serum sodium above 145 mmol/l. The major outcome was death in the ICU after 14 days. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used, with time-dependent variates designed to reflect exposure over time during the ICU stay: hypernatremia, desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) administration as a surrogate marker for the presence of central diabetes insipidus, and urinary output. The same models were adjusted for potential confounding factors. We included in the study 130 TBI patients (mean age 52 years (standard deviation 23); males 74%; median Glasgow Coma Score 3 (range 3 to 8); mean Simplified Acute Physiology Score II 50 (standard deviation 15)); all were mechanically ventilated; 35 (26.9%) died within 14 days after ICU admission. Hypernatremia was detected in 51.5% of the patients and in 15.9% of the 1,103 patient-day ICU follow-up. In most instances hypernatremia was mild (mean 150 mmol/l, interquartile range 148 to 152). The occurrence of hypernatremia was highest (P = 0.003) in patients with suspected central diabetes insipidus (25/130, 19.2%), a condition that was associated with increased severity of brain injury and ICU mortality. After adjustment for the baseline risk, the incidence of hypernatremia over the course of the ICU stay was significantly related with increased mortality (hazard ratio 3.00 (95% confidence interval: 1.34 to 6.51; P = 0.003)). However, DDAVP use modified this relation (P = 0.06), hypernatremia providing no additional prognostic information in the instances of suspected central diabetes
Useros-Olmo, A I; Perianez, J A; Miangolarra-Page, J C
The use of dual task paradigms has revealed behavioural interactions between certain motor tasks, like standing or walking, and cognitive tasks when performed simultaneously. Despite the potential relevance of these findings accounting for certain neurological symptoms (i.e., falls), or for the design of new therapeutic interventions, there is few information available about such interaction effects in traumatic brain injury (TBI). To assess the presence of cognitive-motor interactions during dual tasking in TBI patients. Twenty TBI patients and 19 healthy matched controls performed two attentional and two working memory tasks (simple reaction times, complex reaction times, 1-back numeric, 1-back spatial) during dual task conditions, that is, at the same time than one motor task (standing and walking), and during single task conditions (without a motor task). Reaction times were recorded in response to all cognitive tasks. Patients exhibit slower performance than controls in all cognitive tasks (p cognitive-motor interactions during simultaneous execution of motor-working memory tasks in TBI patients are discussed, as well as the potential therapeutic value of dual task paradigms in the rehabilitation of these patients.
Boosman, H; Visser-Meily, J M A; Post, M W M; Lindeman, E; Van Heugten, C M
The way a patient prefers to approach or choose a learning situation represents the patient's learning style. The objective of this chart review study was to explore the relation between learning style and cognitive impairment in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). We used data from files of 92 adult patients with ABI referred to inpatient rehabilitation, who completed the Adapted Learning Style Inventory (A-LSI) and at least one of the following neuropsychological tests: Trail Making Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, WAIS-III Digit Span, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test-Copy, Stroop Color-Word Test, or the Brixton Spatial Anticipation Test. The A-LSI yielded the following distribution of learning styles: 4 doers, 48 observers, 2 deciders and 38 thinkers. No significant correlation coefficients were found between the neuropsychological tests and the A-LSI. Furthermore, Chi-square tests revealed no significant associations between learning style (observer, thinker) and cognitive impairment. The results of this exploratory study suggest that learning style and cognitive impairment are independent in patients with ABI.
Full Text Available Adequate temporal abilities are required for most daily activities. Traumatic brain injury (TBI patients often present with cognitive dysfunctions, but few studies have investigated temporal impairments associated with TBI. The aim of the present work is to review the existing literature on temporal abilities in TBI patients. Particular attention is given to the involvement of higher cognitive processes in temporal processing in order to determine if any temporal dysfunction observed in TBI patients is due to the disruption of an internal clock or to the dysfunction of general cognitive processes. The results showed that temporal dysfunctions in TBI patients are related to the deficits in cognitive functions involved in temporal processing rather than to a specific impairment of the internal clock. In fact, temporal dysfunctions are observed when the length of temporal intervals exceeds the working memory span or when the temporal tasks require high cognitive functions to be performed. The consistent higher temporal variability observed in TBI patients is a sign of impaired frontally mediated cognitive functions involved in time perception.
Spritzer, Scott D; Kinney, Carolyn L; Condie, John; Wellik, Kay E; Hoffman-Snyder, Charlene R; Wingerchuk, Dean M; Demaerschalk, Bart M
Research into traumatic brain injury (TBI) has increased significantly. Diagnostic testing and therapeutics for patients with severe TBI are 2 areas on which there is increasing focus. Amantadine hydrochloride is one treatment considered to have potential therapeutic value in this patient population. The objective was addressed through the development of a structured critically appraised topic. This included a clinical scenario, structured question, literature search strategy, critical appraisal, results, evidence summary, commentary, and bottom-line conclusions. Participants included consultant and resident neurologists, a medical librarian, clinical epidemiologists, and content experts in the disciplines of neurocritical care and physical medicine and rehabilitation. A multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was selected for review. The trial compared the rate of recovery, as determined by the overall Disability Rating Scale score, in a total of 184 patients with severe TBI. Patients were randomized to either receive amantadine (87) or visually identical placebo (97) over the 4-week study interval. The rate of recovery, as measured by the Disability Rating Scale, was found to be greater in the treatment arm as compared with the placebo arm (difference in slope -0.24 points/wk, P=0.007) over the 4-week treatment interval. The results from this study demonstrated that amantadine hydrochloride accelerates recovery in patients with severe TBI.
Ghawami, Heshmatollah; Sadeghi, Sadegh; Raghibi, Mahvash; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
Executive dysfunctions are among the most prevalent neurobehavioral sequelae of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Using culturally validated tests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS: Trail Making, Verbal Fluency, Design Fluency, Sorting, Twenty Questions, and Tower) and the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS: Rule Shift Cards, Key Search, and Modified Six Elements), the current study was the first to examine executive functioning in a group of Iranian TBI patients with focal frontal contusions. Compared with a demographically matched normative sample, the frontal contusion patients showed substantial impairments, with very large effect sizes (p ≤ .003, 1.56 executive measures. Controlling for respective lower-level/fundamental conditions, the differences on the highest-level executive (cognitive switching) conditions were still significant. The frontal patients also committed more errors. Patients with lateral prefrontal (LPFC) contusions were qualitatively worst. For example, only the LPFC patients committed perseverative repetition errors. Altogether, our results support the notion that the frontal lobes, specifically the lateral prefrontal regions, play a critical role in cognitive executive functioning, over and above the contributions of respective lower-level cognitive abilities. The results provide clinical evidence for validity of the cross-culturally adapted versions of the tests.
Wen, Hong-mei; Wang, Nan; Dou, Zu-lin; Chen, Ying-bei; Zheng, Ya-dan; Yang, Qiong
To explore the characteristics of time-based prospective memory (TBPM) and event-based prospective memory (EBPM) in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) during recovery stage. A total of 20 patients with severe TBI were recruited along with another 20 age, gender and education-matched healthy volunteers. The Chinese version of Cambridge Prospective Memory Test was used to assess the TBPM and EBPM characteristics. The TBPM score, EBPM score, time monitoring frequency, cue finding frequency, and whether or not the participants choose to take notes were recorded and compared between patients and controls. The TBPM and EBPM scores (9.05 ± 3.59, 11.35 ± 2.25 respectively) of TBI patients were lower than that of controls (14.95 ± 2.09, 16.45 ± 1.54, respectively) (P memory, the TBI patients have difficulty of finding time or event cue during interference and auxiliary memory strategy is rarely utilized to realize the prospective memory tasks.
Riberholt, Christian; Olesen, Niels; Hovind, Peter
Primary objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of intravenous saline administration on orthostatic hypotension (OH) during head up tilt (HUT) and the change in the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system before and after HUT in patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI). Researc...
Lorentzen, Jakob; Nielsen, Dorthe; Holm, Karl
Purpose: Neural tension technique (NTT) is a therapy believed to reduce spasticity and to increase range of motion (ROM). This study compared the ability of NTT and random passive movements (RPMs) to reduce spasticity in the knee flexors in 10 spastic patients with brain injury. Methods: An RCT...
Full Text Available Retimax Vision Trainer is a device that has the purpose to improve visual function by means of the detection of a visual evoked potential associated with a sound feedback. We evaluated the effectiveness of rehabilitative treatment in two patients with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI. Results, subjectively appreciated, are objectively confirmed by the improvement of visual function.
Allison, S. C.; And Others
This attempt to determine the reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale for assessing the severity of muscle spasticity for ankle plantarflexors in 30 patients with traumatic brain injury concluded that the reliability was minimally adequate to support the scale's continued use. Interrater reliability was less than that previously reported for…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM continues to increase in Taiwan. This study examined the use of CAM and beliefs about CAM as expressed by patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI in Taiwan. Methods TBI patients and their accompanying relatives were interviewed by using a structured questionnaire at an outpatient clinic in a medical center in northern Taiwan. Results A total of 101 patients with TBI participated in the study. Sixty-four (63% patients had used at least one form of CAM after sustaining TBI. CAM users had used an average of 2.72 forms of CAM after sustaining TBI. The most frequently used CAM category was traditional Chinese medicine (37; 57.8%, followed by folk and religious therapies (30; 46.9%, and dietary supplements (30; 46.9%. The majority of the patients (45; 70.3% did not report CAM use because they felt it was unnecessary to do so. Patients who used CAM had a significantly stronger positive belief in CAM than those who did not (t = −2.72; P = .008. After using CAM, most of the patients (54; 85% perceived moderate satisfaction (2.89 ± 0.44, according to a 4-point Likert scale. Conclusion Although the use of CAM is common for TBI patients receiving conventional medical health care in Taiwan, most patients did not inform health care personnel about their CAM use. TBI patients perceive combined use of CAM and conventional medicine as beneficial for their overall health.
Anghinah, Renato; Freire, Fabio Rios; Coelho, Fernanda; Lacerda, Juliana Rhein; Schmidt, Magali Taino; Calado, Vanessa Tomé Gonçalves; Ianof, Jéssica Natuline; Machado, Sergio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Basile, Luis Fernando Hindi; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Amorim, Robson Luis
Annually, 700,000 people are hospitalized with brain injury acquired after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Brazil. We aim to review the basic concepts related to TBI, and the most common Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) findings in moderate and severe TBI survivors. We also discussed our strategies used to manage such patients in the post-acute period. Fifteen TBI outpatients followed at the Center for Cognitive Rehabilitation Post-TBI of the Clinicas Hospital of the University of São Paulo were submitted to a neurological, neuropsychological, speech and occupational therapy evaluation, including the Mini-Mental State Examination. Rehabilitation strategies will then be developed, together with the interdisciplinary team, for each patient individually. Where necessary, the pharmacological approach will be adopted. Our study will discuss options of pharmacologic treatment choices for cognitive, behavioral, or affective disorders following TBI, providing relevant information related to a structured cognitive rehabilitation service and certainly will offer an alternative for patients and families afflicted by TBI. Traumatic brain injury can cause a variety of potentially disabling psychiatric symptoms and syndromes. Combined behavioral and pharmacological strategies, in the treatment of a set of highly challenging behavioral problems, appears to be essential for good patient recovery.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Annually, 700,000 people are hospitalized with brain injury acquired after traumatic brain injury (TBI in Brazil. Objective: We aim to review the basic concepts related to TBI, and the most common Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD findings in moderate and severe TBI survivors. We also discussed our strategies used to manage such patients in the post-acute period. Methods: Fifteen TBI outpatients followed at the Center for Cognitive Rehabilitation Post-TBI of the Clinicas Hospital of the University of São Paulo were submitted to a neurological, neuropsychological, speech and occupational therapy evaluation, including the Mini-Mental State Examination. Rehabilitation strategies will then be developed, together with the interdisciplinary team, for each patient individually. Where necessary, the pharmacological approach will be adopted. Results: Our study will discuss options of pharmacologic treatment choices for cognitive, behavioral, or affective disorders following TBI, providing relevant information related to a structured cognitive rehabilitation service and certainly will offer an alternative for patients and families afflicted by TBI. Conclusion: Traumatic brain injury can cause a variety of potentially disabling psychiatric symptoms and syndromes. Combined behavioral and pharmacological strategies, in the treatment of a set of highly challenging behavioral problems, appears to be essential for good patient recovery.
Sumritpradit, Preeda; Setthalikhit, Thitipong; Chumnanvej, Sorayouth
Background and Objective. To determine the value of repeated brain CT in TBI cases for risk-stratified care management (RSCM) and to identify predicting factors which will change the neurosurgical management after repeated brain CTs. Methods. A 5-year retrospective study from January 2009 to August 2013 was conducted. The primary outcome was the value of repeated brain CT in TBI cases. The secondary outcome is to identify predicting factors which will change the neurosurgical management after repeated brain CTs. Results. There were 145 consecutive patients with TBI and repeated brain CT after initial abnormal brain CT. Forty-two percent of all cases (N = 61) revealed the progression of intracranial hemorrhage after repeated brain CT. In all 145 consecutive patients, 67.6% of cases (N = 98) were categorized as mild TBI. For mild head injury, 8.2% of cases (N = 8) had undergone neurosurgical management after repeated brain CT. Only 1 from 74 mild TBI patients with repeated brain CT had neurosurgical intervention. Clopidogrel and midline shift more than 2 mm on initial brain CT were significant predicting factors to indicate the neurosurgical management in mild TBI cases. Conclusion. Routine repeated brain CT for RSCM had no clinical benefit in mild TBI cases.
Full Text Available Background and Objective. To determine the value of repeated brain CT in TBI cases for risk-stratified care management (RSCM and to identify predicting factors which will change the neurosurgical management after repeated brain CTs. Methods. A 5-year retrospective study from January 2009 to August 2013 was conducted. The primary outcome was the value of repeated brain CT in TBI cases. The secondary outcome is to identify predicting factors which will change the neurosurgical management after repeated brain CTs. Results. There were 145 consecutive patients with TBI and repeated brain CT after initial abnormal brain CT. Forty-two percent of all cases (N=61 revealed the progression of intracranial hemorrhage after repeated brain CT. In all 145 consecutive patients, 67.6% of cases (N=98 were categorized as mild TBI. For mild head injury, 8.2% of cases (N=8 had undergone neurosurgical management after repeated brain CT. Only 1 from 74 mild TBI patients with repeated brain CT had neurosurgical intervention. Clopidogrel and midline shift more than 2 mm on initial brain CT were significant predicting factors to indicate the neurosurgical management in mild TBI cases. Conclusion. Routine repeated brain CT for RSCM had no clinical benefit in mild TBI cases.
Shangkuan, Wei-Chuan; Lin, Hung-Che; Shih, Cheng-Ping; Cheng, Chun-An; Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Fu-Huang; Tsao, Chang-Huei; Chien, Wu-Chien
We investigated incidences of hearing loss among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to evaluate whether they had a higher risk of hearing loss than the general population. Cohort study. Inpatient data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010 were recorded. Patients with TBI and a retrospective comparison cohort were analyzed. Each subject was individually traced from their index date to identify subjects who subsequently received a diagnosis of hearing loss. Cox regression analyses were applied to determine the risk of TBI-related hearing loss. Follow-up data from the TBI and comparison cohorts were collected over 10 years for 553,286 and 1,106,572 patients, respectively. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that TBI significantly increased the risk of hearing loss (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.125, 95% confidence interval = 2.045-2.546, P = .027). In our subgroup analyses by type of injury, patients with TBI due to traffic injury had the highest associated risk of hearing loss compared with the risk of non-TBI traffic injury patients, followed by patients with crushing/cutting/piercing injuries and falls. Our study shows that TBI led to a higher risk of long-term hearing loss. Traffic injuries were the most common injury related to hearing loss. Prevention, rather than treatment, may be the best policy for preventing hearing loss. 2b. Laryngoscope, 127:2627-2635, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Allain, Philippe; Fasotti, Luciano; Roy, Arnaud; Chauviré, Valérie; Etcharry-Bouyx, Frédérique; Le Gall, Didier
The aim of the present study was to examine the syntactic and semantic dimensions of script representation in patients with structural damage within the cerebral cortex following a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Forty TBI patients and 38 healthy control subjects (HC) were asked to sort cards describing actions belonging to eight scripts according to the script to which they belonged and according to their order of execution. Each script included actions which were low in centrality and distinctiveness (NCA & NDA), and high in centrality (CA), distinctiveness (DA), and CA and DA. Actions were presented in three conditions. In the scripts with headers (SH) condition, the actions were given with each script header written on a separate card. In the scripts without headers condition (SwH) no script header was provided. In the scripts with distractor header (SDH) condition, the actions were given with each script header and a distractor header written on separate cards. The results showed that performance of TBI patients was significantly lower in all conditions. Overall, TBI patients made significantly more sequencing and sorting errors (for all types of actions) than HC subjects. These data are consistent with the view that TBI produces impairment of both the syntactic and semantic dimensions of script representation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.
Coco, Kirsi; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Turunen, Hannele
To examine nursing staff's perceptions about how often they provide interventions of emotional support and the level of competence needed on neurosurgical wards to support traumatic brain injury patients' family members. Traumatic brain injury in one individual affects the health of their whole family. Studying the emotional support provided by nursing staff is important because such support is crucial for the family members of a traumatic brain injury patient during the acute phase of treatment. Members of the nursing staff provide emotional support to family members by consoling them; this alleviates insecurity, anxiety, hopelessness and depression. A structured self-reported questionnaire presented to 172 nurses working on neurosurgical wards. The response rate was 67% (n = 115). Descriptive statistics were used to determine how often nurses provided emotional support to the traumatic brain injury patients family members and one-way anova to examine the relationships between the background variables and the respondents' evaluations of how often they gave emotional support to brain injury patients' family members. Thirty-seven percentage of nurses stated that they always took account of family members' individuality and 65% that they were always respectful. All registered nurses and staff members with long work experience (21 years or more) on a neurosurgical ward reported that they took family members' feelings of anger and guilt into consideration slightly more often than other nursing staff did. Most nurses considered these skills to represent basic competencies. Further service training on dealing with difficult emotions of traumatic brain injury patients' family members could help nurses to face these situations. Both education and work experience affected the frequency at which nursing staff provided emotional support to traumatic brain injury patients' family members. The results are relevant for example when planning specialised studies or in
Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies have provided evidence of structural and functional reorganization of brain in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI. However, it remains unknown whether the spontaneous brain activity changes in acute SCI. In this study, we investigated intrinsic brain activity in acute SCI patients using a regional homogeneity (ReHo analysis based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.A total of 15 patients with acute SCI and 16 healthy controls participated in the study. The ReHo value was used to evaluate spontaneous brain activity, and voxel-wise comparisons of ReHo were performed to identify brain regions with altered spontaneous brain activity between groups. We also assessed the associations between ReHo and the clinical scores in brain regions showing changed spontaneous brain activity.Compared with the controls, the acute SCI patients showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral primary motor cortex/primary somatosensory cortex, bilateral supplementary motor area/dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral caudate; and increased ReHo in bilateral precuneus, the left inferior parietal lobe, the left brainstem/hippocampus, the left cingulate motor area, bilateral insula, bilateral thalamus and bilateral cerebellum. The average ReHo values of the left thalamus and right insula were negatively correlated with the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury motor scores.Our findings indicate that acute distant neuronal damage has an immediate impact on spontaneous brain activity. In acute SCI patients, the ReHo was prominently altered in brain regions involved in motor execution and cognitive control, default mode network, and which are associated with sensorimotor compensatory reorganization. Abnormal ReHo values in the left thalamus and right insula could serve as potential biomarkers for
Baumann, Christian R
Post-traumatic sleep-wake disturbances are frequent and often chronic complications after traumatic brain injury. The most prevalent sleep-wake disturbances are insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and pleiosomnia, (i.e., increased sleep need). These disturbances are probably of multifactorial origin, but direct traumatic damage to key brain structures in sleep-wake regulation is likely to contribute. Diagnosis and treatment consist of standard approaches, but because of misperception of sleep-wake behavior in trauma patients, subjective testing alone may not always suffice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mosberg, A; Østen, P E; Schanke, A K
Little is known about driving fitness after brain damage. The present study describes 62 brain injured patients, 36 with cerebral vascular accidents, 15 with traumatic brain injuries, and 11 with other neurological diseases, mean age 50 years, who after thorough assessment had been found fit enough for driving a car. 15 months later they were sent a questionnaire about their driving behaviour and skills. A higher number of traffic incidents were found after brain injury, but the difference was not significant. Patients with traumatic brain injury had a significantly higher number of traffic incidents post-injury than patients with stroke. A majority of those involved in incidents were young males with traumatic brain injury, who had deficits in cognitive executive functions. Patients with traumatic brain injuries seem to need special attention when assessed for driving. Time to follow-up is too short for the results to be conclusive for the whole material of brain-injured patients. Further studies should be conducted.
Moore, Margaret M; Pasquale, Michael D; Badellino, Michael
Of the 500,000 brain injuries in the United States annually, 80% are considered mild (mild traumatic brain injury). Unfortunately, 2% to 3% of them will subsequently deteriorate and result in severe neurologic dysfunction. Intracerebral changes in the elderly, chronic oral anticoagulation, and platelet inhibition may contribute to the development of intracranial bleeding after minor head injury. We sought to investigate the association of age and the use of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy with neurologic deterioration and the need for neurosurgical intervention in patients presenting with mild traumatic brain injury. A retrospective review of all adult (>14 years) patients admitted to our Level I trauma service with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 14 to 15 who underwent neurosurgical intervention during their hospital stay was performed. Patients were stratified into two groups, age clopidogrel, or a combination. Mechanism of injury, prehospital complaints, admission GCS, type of neurosurgical intervention, intensive care unit length of stay, hospital length of stay, and discharge disposition were evaluated. Z test and logistic regression were used to compare proportions or percentages from different groups. Of the 7,678 patients evaluated during the study period, 101 (1.3%) required neurosurgical intervention. The ≥ 65 years population underwent significantly more interventions as did those patients on anticoagulants. All patients aged 65 years or older who present with a GCS score of >13 after head trauma should undergo a screening computed tomography of the head regardless of prehospital use of anticoagulation. Patients younger than 65 years can be selectively screened based on presenting complaints and mechanism of injury provided they are not on anticoagulation.
Vanessa Maciel Oliveira
Full Text Available Occupational Therapy comprises a broad field of action; as a result, specific assistance areas have been created where professionals generally specialize according to their interests. This study on the area of adult neurology was carried out based on the practice experienced in homecare with a patient who suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI. In this scenario, we present data on qualitative and descriptive research. This is a case study that illustrates the scientific and technical references required in the formulation of Occupational Therapy practice. The treatment was carried out to recover the necessary skills to enable self-maintenance performance. The patient was followed by occupational therapy service for one year. The sessions took place at the patient’s home twice a week. We used two approaches in the rehabilitation of the patient studied: roprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and motor relearning. This assistance aimed to regain or develop the skills used by the subject in his daily activities and tasks. The rehabilitation process was conducted from the perspective of disability as part of a health condition under the holistic standpoint. We reflect on the model and approaches taken, as well as on the link between the meaning of recovery of personal autonomy and social context, and on how these aspects are interrelated in occupational performance, health and adaptation to illness or disability.
Matérne, Marie; Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Strandberg, Thomas
Many people who suffer an acquired brain injury (ABI) are of working age. There are benefits, for the patient, the workplace, and society, to finding factors that facilitate successful return to work (RTW). The aim was to increase knowledge of opportunities and barriers for a successful RTW in patients with ABI. Five men and five women with ABI participated. All had successfully returned to work at least 20 hours a week. Their experiences were gathered by semi-structured interviews, which were subsequently subjected to qualitative content analysis. Three themes that influenced RTW were identified: individually adapted rehabilitation; motivation for RTW; and cognitive and social abilities. An individually adapted rehabilitation was judged important because the patients were involved in their own rehabilitation and required individually adapted support from rehabilitation specialists, employers, and colleagues. A moderate level of motivation for RTW was needed. Awareness of the person's cognitive and social abilities is essential, in finding compensatory strategies and adaptations. It seems that the vocational rehabilitation process is a balancing act in individualized planning and support, as a partnership with the employer needs to be developed, motivation needs to be generated, and awareness built of abilities that facilitate or hinder RTW.
M. Oresic (Matej); Posti, J.P. (Jussi P.); Kamstrup-Nielsen, M.H. (Maja H.); Takala, R.S.K. (Riikka S.K.); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); Mattila, I. (Ismo); Jäntti, S. (Sirkku); A. Katila (Ari); K.L.H. Carpenter (Keri L.H.); Ala-Seppälä, H. (Henna); Kyllönen, A. (Anna); Maanpää, H.-R. (Henna-Riikka); Tallus, J. (Jussi); J.P. Coles (Jonathan P.); Heino, I. (Iiro); J. Frantzén (Janek); P.J. Hutchinson (Peter J.); D.K. Menon (David ); O. Tenovuo (Olli); Hyötyläinen, T. (Tuulia)
textabstractTraumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, especially in children and young adults. TBI is an example of a medical condition where there are still major lacks in diagnostics and outcome prediction. Here we apply comprehensive metabolic profiling of
Quality-of-life (QoL) measures may be useful in quantifying the personal impact of an acquired brain injury and as an indicator of the effectiveness of service provision. This study investigated the validity of the patient generated index (PGI) as a measure of QoL with a sample of adults who had sustained a severe traumatic brain injury.
Bartolo, Michelangelo; Bargellesi, Stefano; Castioni, Carlo Alberto; Intiso, Domenico; Fontana, Andrea; Copetti, Massimiliano; Scarponi, Federico; Bonaiuti, Donatella
To determine whether early mobilization of patients with severe acquired brain injury, performed in the intensive/neurointensive care unit, influences functional outcome. Prospective observational study. Fourteen centres in Italy. A total of 103 consecutive patients with acquired brain injury. Clinical, neurological and functional data, including the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Disability Rating Scale (DRS), the Rancho Los Amigos Levels of Cognitive Functioning (LCF), Early Rehabilitation Barthel Index (ERBI), Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) were collected at admission and every 3?5 days until discharge from the intensive/neurointensive care unit. Patients were divided into mobilization and no mobilization groups, depending on whether they received mobilization. Data were analysed by intragroup and intergroup analysis using a multilevel regression model. Sixty-eight patients were included in the mobilization group. At discharge, both groups showed significant improvements in GCS, DRS, LCF and ERBI scores. The mobilization group showed significantly better improvements in FIM cognitive, GOS and ERBI. The patients in the mobilization group stayed longer in the intensive care unit (p=0.01) and were more likely to be discharged to intensive rehabilitation at a significantly higher rate (p=0.002) than patients in the no mobilization group. No adverse events were reported in either group. Early mobilization appears to favour the clinical and functional recovery of patients with severe acquired brain injury in the intensive care unit.
Conclusions: The association of the GOS score with CPP, CA impairment conditions, age and diffuse axonal injury (DAI grade showed that the outcomes of TBI patients were associated with patient-specific CPP management and better outcomes were obtained for younger patients, for patients having lower DAI grade and for patients whose CPP was kept within the range from the optimal CPP to the optimal CPP + 10 mmHg.
Department of Veterans Affairs — This Service provides access to Tramatic Brain injury patient data consult notes. The service also provides one write service method writeNote. The Service supports...
Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Siert, Lars
Many studies have reported emotional distress in relatives of patients with brain injury, but few studies have investigated neuropsychological interventions for relatives. The present study assessed the amount of neuropsychological support as well as the actual number of sessions...... as characteristics related to the patient: Glasgow Coma Scale, Injury Severity Score, Early Functional Abilities, Functional Independence Measure, Rancho Los Amigos; and to the relative: symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-90-R), quality of life (SF-36) and amount and number of sessions of neuropsychological...
Toledo, Cassia; Garrido, Cinthia; Troncoso, Eliane; Lobo, Suzana Margareth
After brain injury intracranial hypertension is the major cause of mortality, in addition to the possibility of functional, behavioral and cognitive sequels. Scarcity of studies on the effects of respiratory physiotherapy on these patients may lead to contradictory performances. This study aimed to assess the effects of customary respiratory physiotherapy maneuvers on intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures in patients with severe brain injury. Clinical, prospective trial with patients with severe traumatic brain injury, mechanically ventilated and with a continued measurement of intracranial pressure. The effects of manual vibrocompression maneuvers and intratracheal aspiration with or without saline infusion on the measurements of intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures, between the first and third day after cerebral injury were evaluated. Data were collected from 11 patients, 41 years of age (median) and APACHE II of 19.5 ± 5. The manual vibrocompression maneuver did not cause an increase of intracranial pressure on any of the days assessed. Intracranial pressure significantly increased after intratracheal aspiration maneuvers in relation to the basal measurement (day1, 9.5 ± 0.9 mm Hg vs 18.0 ± 3.2 mm Hg; day 2, 10.6 ± 1.7 mm Hg vs 21.4 ± 3.8 mm Hg; day 3, 14.4 ± 1.0 vs 24.9 ± 2.7 mm Hg; pmanual vibrocompression maneuver did not increase intracranial pressure or cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with severe brain injury. Intratracheal aspiration induced a significant and transient increase of the intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures.
nvt. Universiteit Hasselt & Universiteit Maastricht, Hersenstichting Nederland, Medtronic US traumatic brain injury; controlled cortical impact; animal models; motor impairment; motor cortex, motor cortex stimulation, motor recovery
Huang, Kevin T; Chavakula, Vamsidhar; Gormley, William B
In cases of severe traumatic brain injury, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion though an external ventricular drain (EVD) is a proven method to assist in the control of elevated intracranial pressure. Under normal circumstances, the EVD is placed in a frontal location. However, in cases of multifocal intracranial injury and swelling, collapse of the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles leads to frequent failure of frontal CSF drainage. In this series we describe the utility of the Keen's point EVD as a safe alternative to maintain continuous CSF diversion for patients in whom frontal drainage is not feasible. Three patients (ages 30-46 years) with diffuse intracranial injury following severe trauma were admitted to our neurointensive care unit. One of these patients had decompressive craniectomy before transfer, while the other 2 patients did not undergo any surgical procedures. Each of these patients had severe refractory elevation of intracranial pressure and significant frontal swelling, ultimately necessitating bedside placement of a Keen's point EVD. In all cases, we were able to reliably maintain continuous CSF diversion for an extended period of time. There was 1 mortality due to the severity of initial injuries. In the remaining 2 patients, intracranial pressure was able to be normalized following placement of the Keen point EVD. The Keen point EVD is a viable option to maintain continuous CSF drainage in patients with diffuse intracranial injury and should be considered in patients whom a frontal EVD cannot reliably maintain continuous drainage of CSF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Only a few studies have considered changes in brain structures other than sensory and motor cortex after spinal cord injury, although cognitive impairments have been reported in these patients. Spinal cord injury results in chronic brain neuroinflammation with consequent neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in rodents. Regarding the hippocampus, neurogenesis is reduced and reactive gliosis increased. These long-term abnormalities could explain behavioral impairments exhibited in humans patients suffering from spinal cord trauma.
Background Hypernatremia is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and occurs from a variety of mechanisms, including hyperosmotic fluids, limitation of free water, or diabetes insipidus. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the relationship between hypernatremia and mortality in patients with TBI. Methods We searched the following databases up to November 2012: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL. Using a combination of MeSH and text terms, we developed search filters for the concepts of hypernatremia and TBI and included studies that met the following criteria: (1) compared hypernatremia to normonatremia, (2) adult patients with TBI, (3) presented adjusted outcomes for mortality or complications. Results Bibliographic and conference search yielded 1,152 citations and 11 abstracts, respectively. Sixty-five articles were selected for full-text review with 5 being included in our study. All were retrospective cohort studies totaling 5,594 (range 100–4,296) patients. There was marked between-study heterogeneity. The incidence of hypernatremia ranged between 16% and 40%. Use of hyperosmolar therapy was presented in three studies (range 14-85% of patients). Hypernatremia was associated with increased mortality across all four studies that presented this outcome. Only one study considered diabetes insipidus (DI) in their analysis where hypernatremia was associated with increased mortality in patients who did not receive DDAVP. Conclusions Although hypernatremia was associated with increased mortality in the included studies, there was marked between-study heterogeneity. DI was a potential confounder in several studies. Considering these limitations, the clinical significance of hypernatremia in TBI is difficult to establish at this stage. PMID:24196399
Kolmodin, Leif; Sekhon, Mypinder S; Henderson, William R; Turgeon, Alexis F; Griesdale, Donald Eg
Hypernatremia is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and occurs from a variety of mechanisms, including hyperosmotic fluids, limitation of free water, or diabetes insipidus. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the relationship between hypernatremia and mortality in patients with TBI. We searched the following databases up to November 2012: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL. Using a combination of MeSH and text terms, we developed search filters for the concepts of hypernatremia and TBI and included studies that met the following criteria: (1) compared hypernatremia to normonatremia, (2) adult patients with TBI, (3) presented adjusted outcomes for mortality or complications. Bibliographic and conference search yielded 1,152 citations and 11 abstracts, respectively. Sixty-five articles were selected for full-text review with 5 being included in our study. All were retrospective cohort studies totaling 5,594 (range 100-4,296) patients. There was marked between-study heterogeneity. The incidence of hypernatremia ranged between 16% and 40%. Use of hyperosmolar therapy was presented in three studies (range 14-85% of patients). Hypernatremia was associated with increased mortality across all four studies that presented this outcome. Only one study considered diabetes insipidus (DI) in their analysis where hypernatremia was associated with increased mortality in patients who did not receive DDAVP. Although hypernatremia was associated with increased mortality in the included studies, there was marked between-study heterogeneity. DI was a potential confounder in several studies. Considering these limitations, the clinical significance of hypernatremia in TBI is difficult to establish at this stage.
Vaquero, Jesús; Zurita, Mercedes; Bonilla, Celia; Fernández, Cecilia; Rubio, Juan J; Mucientes, Jorge; Rodriguez, Begoña; Blanco, Edelio; Donis, Luis
Cell therapy in neurological disability after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is in its initial clinical stage. We describe our preliminary clinical experience with three patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) who were treated with intrathecal administration of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Three patients with established neurological sequelae due to DAI received intrathecally autologous MSCs. The total number of MSCs administered was 60 × 106 (one patient), 100 × 106 (one patient) and 300 × 106 (one patient). All three patients showed improvement after cell therapy, and subsequent studies with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) showed a diffuse and progressive increase in brain glucose metabolism. Our present results suggest benefit of intrathecal administration of MSCs in patients with DAI, as well as a relationship between this type of treatment and increase in brain glucose metabolism. These preliminary findings raise the question of convenience of assessing the potential benefit of intrathecal administration of MSCs for brain diseases in which a decrease in glucose metabolism represents a crucial pathophysiological finding, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carrick, Frederick R; McLellan, Kate; Brock, J Brandon; Randall, Cagan; Oggero, Elena
Blast-related head injuries are among the most prevalent injuries suffered by military personnel deployed in combat and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion on the battlefield in Iraq/Afghanistan has resulted in its designation as a "signature injury." Vestibular complaints are the most frequent sequelae of mTBI, and vestibular rehabilitation (VR) has been established as the most important treatment modality for this group of patients. We studied the effectiveness of a novel brain and VR treatment post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in subjects who had suffered combat-related traumatic brain injuries in terms of PTSD symptom reduction. The trial was registered as ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02003352. (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02003352?term=carrick&rank=6). We analyzed the difference in the Clinician Administered DSM-IV PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores pre- and post-treatment using our subjects as their own matched controls. The study population consisted of 98 combat veterans maintaining an alpha of VR with a potential decrease in suffering of patients, family, and society.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although international guideline recommended routine intracranial pressure (ICP monitoring for patients with severe traumatic brain injury(TBI, there were conflicting outcomes attributable to ICP monitoring according to the published studies. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ICP monitoring in patients with TBI. METHODS: Based on previous reviews, PubMed and two Chinese databases (Wangfang and VIP were further searched to identify eligible studies. The primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes included unfavourable outcome, adverse events, length of ICU stay and length of hospital stay. Weighted mean difference (WMD, odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated and pooled using fixed-effects or random-effects model. RESULTS: two randomized controlled trials (RCTs and seven cohort studies involving 11,038 patients met the inclusion criteria. ICP monitoring was not associated with a significant reduction in mortality (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.87-1.54, with substantial heterogeneity (I(2 = 80%, P<0.00001, which was verified by the sensitivity analyses. No significant difference was found in the occurrence of unfavourable outcome (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.99-1.98; I(2 = 4%, P = 0.35 and adverse events (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.64-1.70; I(2 = 78%, P = 0.03. However, we should be cautious to the result of adverse events because of the substantial heterogeneity in the comparison. Furthermore, longer ICU and hospital stay were the consistent tendency according to the pooled studies. CONCLUSIONS: No benefit was found in patients with TBI who underwent ICP monitoring. Considering substantial clinical heterogeneity, further large sample size RCTs are needed to confirm the current findings.
Poulsen, Ingrid; Norup, Anne; Liebach, Annette
-acute inpatient rehabilitation during a 12-year period followed an intensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme. Severity of injury was defined by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on rehabilitation admission and duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA). Patients were routinely measured...
Chapple, Lee-Anne S; Deane, Adam M; Heyland, Daren K; Lange, Kylie; Kranz, Amelia J; Williams, Lauren T; Chapman, Marianne J
Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience considerable energy and protein deficits in the intensive care unit (ICU) and these are associated with adverse outcomes. However, nutrition delivery after ICU discharge during ward-based care, particularly from oral diet, has not been measured. This study aimed to quantify energy and protein delivery and deficits over the entire hospitalization for critically ill TBI patients. Consecutively admitted adult patients with a moderate-severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale 3-12) over 12 months were eligible. Observational data on energy and protein delivered from all routes were collected until hospital discharge or day 90 and compared to dietician prescriptions. Oral intake was quantified using weighed food records on three pre-specified days each week. Data are mean (SD) unless indicated. Cumulative deficit is the mean absolute difference between intake and estimated requirements. Thirty-seven patients [45.3 (15.8) years; 87% male; median APACHE II 18 (IQR: 14-22)] were studied for 1512 days. Median duration of ICU and ward-based stay was 13.4 (IQR: 6.4-17.9) and 19.9 (9.6-32.0) days, respectively. Over the entire hospitalization patients had a cumulative deficit of 18,242 (16,642) kcal and 1315 (1028) g protein. Energy and protein intakes were less in ICU than the ward (1798 (800) vs 1980 (915) kcal/day, p = 0.015; 79 (47) vs 89 (41) g/day protein, p = 0.001). Energy deficits were almost two-fold greater in patients exclusively receiving nutrition orally than tube-fed (806 (616) vs 445 (567) kcal/day, p = 0.016) while protein deficits were similar (40 (5) vs 37 (6) g/day, p = 0.616). Primary reasons for interruptions to enteral and oral nutrition were fasting for surgery/procedures and patient-related reasons, respectively. Patients admitted to ICU with a TBI have energy and protein deficits that persist after ICU discharge, leading to considerable shortfalls over the entire hospitalization. Patients
T. S. Mukhina
Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the characteristics of the functional neuroanatomy of movements in severe traumatic brain injury (STBI patients with varying severity of motor defect versus that in healthy individuals for the study of brain neuroplasticity as a basis of compensation.Patients and methods. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, 3T was used to analyze cerebral hemodynamic changes in 28 patients with STBI during an active right-hand finger tapping task. A control group consisted of 17 healthy individuals. The percentage of representation of individual brain structures involved in movements and volume activation (Vox was determined in fMRI responses.Results. The patient group showed a tendency for an increased fMRI response diffusion with the emergence of activation zones (the left frontal and parietal regions, as well as the occiptal and temporal regions of the cerebral hemispheres that are atypical for healthy individuals during motor exercises. This trend is more evident in patients with right-sided hemiparesis.Conclusion. The results of the study clarify the existing ideas about the neurophysiological mechanisms of motor impairment and compensation in traumatic brain injury, which is important for the development and improvement of neurorehabilitation techniques. There is evidence for the hypothesis that the extrapyramidal system may be actively involved in the compensation for post-traumatic musculoskeletal defect, which was earlier proposed by E.V. Sharova et al. (2014.
Frederick Robert Carrick
Full Text Available Introduction: Blast-related head injuries are among the most prevalent injuries suffered by military personnel deployed in combat and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI or concussion on the battlefield in Iraq/Afghanistan has resulted in its designation as a signature injury. Vestibular complaints are the most frequent sequelae of mTBI and vestibular rehabilitation (VR has been established as the most important treatment modality for this group of patients. Material and Methods:We studied the effectiveness of a novel brain and VR treatment PTSD in subjects who had suffered combat related traumatic brain injuries in terms of PTSD symptom reduction. The trial was registered as ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02003352. (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02003352?term=carrick&rank=6. We analyzed the difference in the Clinician Administered DSM-IV PTSD Scale (CAPS scores pre and post treatment using our subjects as their own matched controls. The study population consisted of 98 combat veterans maintaining an alpha of <0.05 and power of 80%. Results:Prior to treatment, 75 subjects representing 76.53 % of the sample were classified in the 2 most severe categories of PTSD. 41 subjects, representing 41.80 % of the total sample, were classified in the extreme category of PTSD and 34 subjects, representing 34.70 % of the total sample, were classified in the severe category of PTSD. After treatment we observed a large reduction in CAPS severity scores with both statistical and substantive significance. Discussion:Treatment of PTSD as a physical injury rather than a psychiatric disorder is associated with strong statistical and substantive significant outcomes associated with a decrease of PTSD classification. The stigma associated with neuropsychiatric disorders may be lessened when PTSD is treated with brain and VR with a potential decrease in suffering of patients, family and society.
Sahuquillo, J; Munar, F; Baguena, M; Poca, M A; Pedraza, S; Rodríguez-Baeza, A
The present study was undertaken to elucidate the status of autoregulation and CO2-reactivity soon after injury in patients with a post-traumatic diffuse bilateral brain swelling. A prospective study was carried out in 31 consecutively admitted patients with a severe head injury and a Diffuse Brain Injury type III, following the definition stated by the Traumatic Coma Data Bank classification. To evaluate CO2-reactivity, AVDO2 was measured before and after ventilator manipulations. Assuming a constant CMRO2 during the test, changes in 1/AVDO2 reflect changes in CBF. Patients with changes in estimated CBF below or equal to 1% were included in the impaired/abolished CO2-reactivity group. To test autoregulation, hypertension was induced using phenylephrine. Arterial and jugular blood samples were taken to calculate AVDO2 before and after a steady state of MABP was obtained. Cerebrovascular response to CO2 was globally preserved in all but two cases (6.5%). In contrast, autoregulation was globally preserved in 10 (32.3%) and impaired/abolished in 21 cases (67.7%). Our data do not support the premise that increasing cerebral perfusion pressure by inducing arterial hypertension is beneficial in those patients with a diffuse brain swelling in whom autoregulation is impaired or abolished. Clinical implications for treatment are discussed.
Turgeon, Alexis F; Lauzier, François; Zarychanski, Ryan; Fergusson, Dean A; Léger, Caroline; McIntyre, Lauralyn A; Bernard, Francis; Rigamonti, Andrea; Burns, Karen; Griesdale, Donald E; Green, Robert; Scales, Damon C; Meade, Maureen O; Savard, Martin; Shemilt, Michèle; Paquet, Jérôme; Gariépy, Jean-Luc; Lavoie, André; Reddy, Kesh; Jichici, Draga; Pagliarello, Giuseppe; Zygun, David; Moore, Lynne
Severe traumatic brain injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in young adults. Assessing long-term neurological outcome after such injury is difficult and often characterised by uncertainty. The objective of this feasibility study was to establish the feasibility of conducting a large, multicentre prospective study to develop a prognostic model of long-term neurological outcome in critically ill patients with severe traumatic brain injury. A prospective cohort study. 9 Canadian intensive care units enrolled patients suffering from acute severe traumatic brain injury. Clinical, biological, radiological and electrophysiological data were systematically collected during the first week in the intensive care unit. Mortality and functional outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale extended) were assessed on hospital discharge, and then 3, 6 and 12 months following injury. The compliance to protocolised test procedures was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were enrolment rate and compliance to follow-up. We successfully enrolled 50 patients over a 12-month period. Most patients were male (80%), with a median age of 45 years (IQR 29.0-60.0), a median Injury Severity Score of 38 (IQR 25-50) and a Glasgow Coma Scale of 6 (IQR 3-7). Mortality was 38% (19/50) and most deaths occurred following a decision to withdraw life-sustaining therapies (18/19). The main reasons for non-enrolment were the time window for inclusion being after regular working hours (35%, n=23) and oversight (24%, n=16). Compliance with protocolised test procedures ranged from 92% to 100% and enrolment rate was 43%. No patients were lost to follow-up at 6 months and 2 were at 12 months. In this multicentre prospective feasibility study, we achieved feasibility objectives pertaining to compliance to test, enrolment and follow-up. We conclude that the TBI-Prognosis prospective multicentre study in severe traumatic brain injury patients in Canada is feasible. Published by the BMJ
Aadal, L; Kirkevold, M
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a major health problem throughout the world. Despite interdisciplinary efforts, patients reach varying outcomes in terms of every-day life functioning and quality-of-life. This paper suggests that a situated learning perspective supplemented with evidence from neurophysiologic and neuropsychological research provides a perspective to get a grasp of problems typically encountered in rehabilitation. Applying such a perspective may help to facilitate patient participation and learning during the rehabilitation process by taking their altered abilities into consideration. Qualitative study. Theoretical analysis and synthesis of 'situated learning theory', neuropsychological theory and empirical studies of cognitive and emotional functioning following a TBI collected through interviews with 11 interdisciplinary rehabilitation experts and a field study of two patients at a rehabilitation hospital. The data were analysed from a hermeneutic perspective using N-VIVO 8. Patients with severe TBI pose challenges in terms of being participants in the 'rehabilitation practice community'. Two levels of pedagogical challenges seem to exist: Helping the patient regain or compensate for changed learning abilities and supporting the patient in learning or compensating for lost abilities. This study highlighted six main categories of changed abilities that need to be considered in developing a practice which fosters re-learning: perception, attention, memory, language, physical competencies and emotion/model of behaviour.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the common causes of disability in physical, psychological, and social domains of functioning leading to poor quality of life. TBI leads to impairment in sensory, motor, language, and emotional processing, and also in cognitive functions such as attention, information processing, executive functions, and memory. Cognitive impairment plays a central role in functional recovery in TBI. Innovative methods such as music therapy to alleviate cognitive impairm...
McCammack, Kevin C.; Sadler, Charlotte; Guo, Yueyang; Ramaswamy, Raja S.; Farid, Nikdokht
Introduction: Evaluation recommendations for patients on anticoagulant and antiplatelet (ACAP) therapy that present after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) are controversial. At our institution, an initial noncontrast head computed tomography (HCT) is performed, with a subsequent HCT performed six hours later to exclude delayed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). This study was performed to evaluate the yield and advisability of this approach. Methods: We performed a retrospe...
persons, and leaves 99,000 persons permanently disabled . The total cost for treatment and rehabilitation of patients with brain injuries is...registry based or retrospective or include only secondary insults that occur in the intensive care unit ( ICU ) setting. Most prior investigations have...in the surgical and neurosurgical ICU diagnosed with a traumatic brain injury requiring a diagnostic procedure were eligible for the study. The study
An estimated 1.5 to 2 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year in the United States. Impairments in attention following TBI severely limit everyday functioning in a multifaceted manner. A precise assessment is critical in identifying the types of attention impairments and in recommending appropriate tasks to aid in attention rehabilitation. A Music-based Attention Assessment (MAA) was developed to fill this need and revised to reflect variations of attention ability that exist in the general population. The purpose of the study was to investigate the theoretically-based constructs of the Music-based Attention Assessment-Revised (MAA-R) using a factorial approach and to examine item properties and test reliability in relation to the exploratively-derived factor constructs. The MAA-R is a 54-item multiple-choice, melodic contour identification test, designed to assess three different types of auditory attention including sustained, selective, and divided attention. The psychometric validation of the MAA-R was conducted with healthy adults (n = 165) and patients diagnosed with a moderate to severe TBI (n = 22). Exploratory factor analysis identified five factor constructs, including Sustained-Short, Sustained-Med to Long, Selective-Noise, Selective & Divided, and Divided-Long. After item elimination, the final 45-item MAA-R provided evidence of high internal consistency as computed by split-half reliability coefficients (r = .836) and Cronbach's alpha (alpha = .940). The aggregate findings suggest that the MAA-R is a valid and reliable measure that provides assessment information in regards to the different types of auditory attention deficits frequently observed in patients with TBI. Development and revision issues as well as the use of melodic contours in auditory attention assessment are discussed along with suggestions for future research.
Strazzer, Sandra; Rocca, Maria A; Molteni, Erika; De Meo, Ermelinda; Recla, Monica; Valsasina, Paola; Arrigoni, Filippo; Galbiati, Susanna; Bardoni, Alessandra; Filippi, Massimo
We assessed abnormalities of brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity during a sustained attention task (Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT)) in 20 right-handed pediatric acquired brain injury (ABI) patients versus 7 right-handed age-matched healthy controls, and we estimated the correlation of such abnormalities with clinical and cognitive deficits. Patients underwent the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) evaluations. During fMRI, patients and controls activated regions of the attention network. Compared to controls, ABI patients experienced a decreased average fMRI recruitment of the left cerebellum and a decreased deactivation of the left anterior cingulate cortex. With increasing task demand, compared to controls, ABI patients had an impaired ability to increase the recruitment of several posterior regions of the attention network. They also experienced a greater activation of frontal regions, which was correlated with worse performance on FIM, WISC, and fMRI CCPT. Such abnormal brain recruitment was significantly influenced by the type of lesion (focal versus diffuse axonal injury) and time elapsed from the event. Pediatric ABI patients experienced an inability to optimize attention network recruitment, especially when task difficulty was increased, which likely contributes to their clinical and cognitive deficits.
Full Text Available We assessed abnormalities of brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI activity during a sustained attention task (Conners’ Continuous Performance Test (CCPT in 20 right-handed pediatric acquired brain injury (ABI patients versus 7 right-handed age-matched healthy controls, and we estimated the correlation of such abnormalities with clinical and cognitive deficits. Patients underwent the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM evaluations. During fMRI, patients and controls activated regions of the attention network. Compared to controls, ABI patients experienced a decreased average fMRI recruitment of the left cerebellum and a decreased deactivation of the left anterior cingulate cortex. With increasing task demand, compared to controls, ABI patients had an impaired ability to increase the recruitment of several posterior regions of the attention network. They also experienced a greater activation of frontal regions, which was correlated with worse performance on FIM, WISC, and fMRI CCPT. Such abnormal brain recruitment was significantly influenced by the type of lesion (focal versus diffuse axonal injury and time elapsed from the event. Pediatric ABI patients experienced an inability to optimize attention network recruitment, especially when task difficulty was increased, which likely contributes to their clinical and cognitive deficits.
Sachs, Marianne Brostrup; Wolffbrandt, Mia Moth; Poulsen, Ingrid
The aim of this study was to uncover efforts made by healthcare professionals to prevent pressure ulcers (PUs) in patients with severe brain injury undergoing treatment at a sub-acute rehabilitation department. PUs is a major burden for patients and also generate considerable healthcare costs. PUs are, nevertheless, prevalent in both secondary and primary care. In this qualitative study, we performed 24-hour observation on four patients undergoing rehabilitation for severe brain injury. An observation guide was developed inspired by the Braden Scale and Spradley's theory and methods. Observations were analysed using content analysis. Patricia Benner's aspects of clinical grasp were employed in the interpretation of the observations. One overarching theme was identified: "Professionalism expressed by preventing intervention, involving the patient, employing clinical grasp and professional pride". Seven subcategories were summed up into the following three categories: Organisation of clinical practice, Professional assessment and Interactions with the patient. The healthcare professionals' actions to prevent PUs consisted of attaining the necessary knowledge about PU care and performing the activities. However, our observations revealed one important additional aspect; a very distinct impression that the healthcare professionals were committed to learning about the patients' former life and actively used this knowledge in their planning and provision of daily patient care. We believe this commitment has a very positive effect on prevention of PUs. Professional knowledge about prevention of PU is a necessary requisite, but is not sufficient to ensure effective treatment. To transfer knowledge into practice, we recommend that patients' rehabilitation days be planned in such a manner that activities, mobilisation and training are conducted throughout the day and evening. We also recommend that professional staff are encouraged to seek information about the former life
Cadosch, Dieter; Thyer, Matthew; Gautschi, Oliver P; Lochnit, Günter; Frey, Sönke P; Zellweger, René; Filgueira, Luis; Skirving, Allan P
An enhanced fracture healing response has been reported in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). This has been attributed to circulating humoral factors that are thought to be proteins produced and released by the injured brain. However, these factors remain unknown. The aim of this study was to identify osteogenic factors in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from TBI patients. This was carried out using in vitro proliferation assays with the human foetal osteoblastic 1.19 cell line (hFOB) combined with a novel proteomic approach. Serum was collected from brain-injured (n = 12) and non-brain-injured (n = 9) patients with a comorbid femur shaft fracture. Similarly, CSF was obtained from TBI (n = 7) and non-TBI (n = 9) patients. The osteoinductive potential of these samples was determined by measuring the in vitro proliferation rate of hFOB cells. Highly osteogenic serum and CSF samples of TBI patients were chosen for protein analysis and were compared to those of non-brain-injured patients. A new hFOB cell-based method was used to enrich the proteins in these samples, which had a functional affinity for these osteoprogenitor cells. These enriched protein fractions were mapped using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and protein imaging methods displaying serum and CSF proteins of brain-injured and control subjects that had an affinity for human osteoprogenitor cells. Serum and CSF derived from brain-injured patients demonstrated a greater osteoinductive potential (P < 0.05) than their non-brain-injured counterparts. Clear-cut differences in the pattern of proteins in two-dimensional gels were detected between TBI and control patients. Fourteen proteins were exclusively present in the serum of TBI patients, while other proteins were either up- or downregulated in samples collected from TBI patients (P < 0.05). Osteoinductive factors are present in the serum and CSF of brain-injured patients. These may include one or more of those proteins identified as
Van Bost, Gunther; Van Damme, Stefaan; Crombez, Geert
An acquired brain injury (ABI) is a challenge for an individual's quality of life (QOL). In several chronic illnesses acceptance has been found to be associated with a better health-related quality of life. This study investigated whether this relationship is also found in patients with ABI. We also explored the impact of the perceived ability to live according to one's own values (life-values-match). A total of 68 individuals (18-65 years of age) with an acquired brain injury completed a battery of questionnaires. The relations between health-related QOL (SF-36) and disease specific QOL (EBIQ; European Brain Injury Questionnaire), and personal values (Schwartz Values Inventory) and acceptance (ICQ; Illness Cognitions Questionnaire) were investigated. An additional question measured the life-values-match. Rehabilitation professionals reported the extent of impairment involved. Acceptance was positively associated with mental aspects of health-related QOL and the EBIQ Core Scale, after demographic variables and the extent of impairment were introduced in the regression. In a post hoc analysis we found that the life-values-match mediated the relationship between acceptance and mental aspects of QOL. In patients with an ABI, promoting acceptance may be useful to protect QOL. Strengthening the life-values-match may be a way to accomplish this.
Muhammad R. Ahmad
Full Text Available Background: Brain relaxation and prevention from cerebral edema are essential in craniectomy. Osmotherapy with 20% mannitol are generally used to withdraw fluid from the brain parenchyma, however may cause hemodynamic fluctuation, due to increase diuresis. On the other hand 0.5 M hypertonic sodium lactate (HSL appeared as an alternative of osmotherapy. This study aimed to observe the effect of hypertonic sodium lactate (HSL on brain relaxation, blood glucose level and hemodynamic variables in craniectomy due to moderate brain injury.Methods: A randomized controlled study of 42 cases with moderate brain injury, aged 18 - 65 years, ASA 1 - 3, between September-November 2012, was carried out. The patients were divided into group M (n = 21 that received 2.5 mL/kg 20% mannitol and group HSL that received 2.5 mL/kg 0.5M HSL. Mean arterial pressures (MAP, central venous pressures (CVP and urine output were measured after induction, and at 15, 30, 45, 60 min after infusion. Brain relaxation was assessed at a four-point scale after opening the duramater. Blood glucose levels were measured before induction and at 60 min after the infusion. Appropriate statistical tests were used for comparison. Unpaired t-test was used to compare hemodynamic and blood glucose level, and chi-square was used to compare brain relaxation.Results: MAP at 60 minute was significantly higher in HSL group than M group (81.66 ± 7.85 vs 74.33 ± 6.18 mmHg; p = 0.002. There was no difference in brain relaxation (p = 0.988. A significant increase in blood glucose level was observed in group HSL (17.95 ± 11.46 mg/dL; p = 0.001.Conclusion: Half-molar HSL was as effective as 20% mannitol in producing brain relaxation, with better hemodynamic stability and gave significant increase in blood glucose level.Keywords: brain relaxation, hemodynamic, hypertonic sodium lactate, mannitol, traumatic brain injury
V. E. Avakov
Full Text Available Systemic therapeutic hypothermia has gained a negative reputation in treating multiple trauma patients and is regarded as one of the factors in the lethal triad of shock, acidosis, and hypothermia. This fact owes to no relationship between acidosis and hypothermia; the effects of the latter on coagulation are evident and complexly reversible in the presence of acidosis.Objective: to determine the impact of noninvasive local brain cooling on the metabolic and blood coagulation indicators of a patient with acute cerebral ischemia.Subjects and methods. The subjects of the study were 113 patients with severe brain injury, including that complicated by the involvement of stem structures, who underwent brain cooling in different modifications. In so doing, the val ues of acidbase balance and coagulation system in arterial and venous blood were investigated.Results. Local brain hypother mia was not found to affect coagulation while the baseline negative values of excess buffer bases showed positive values (a right shift by the end of cooling. Recommendations were given to prevent metabolic shifts.Conclusion. Patients at very high risk for bleeding may be safely cooled to a brain temperature of 32—34°C even in the presence of moderatetosevere acidosis. This is a great advantage of local hypothermia over systemic one.
Mollayeva, T.; Kendzerska, T.; Mollayeva, S.
Background: Fatigue is common after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Its risk factors, natural history and consequences are uncertain. Best-evidence synthesis was used to address the gaps. Methods: Five databases were searched for relevant peer-reviewed studies. Of the 33 articles appraised, 22...... the idea of fatigue in TBI as a nonhomogeneous entity, with different factors influencing the course of new onset or chronic fatigue. To decrease the heterogeneity, we emphasize the need for agreement on a core set of relevant fatigue predictors, definitions and outcome criteria. (C) 2014 The Authors...
Mu, Xuetao; Nie, Binbin; Wang, Hong; Duan, Shaofeng; Zhang, Zan; Dai, Guanghui; Ma, Qiaozhi; Shan, Baoci; Ma, Lin
Spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (SDCP) is a common type of cerebral palsy (CP), which presents as a group of motor-impairment syndromes. Previous conventional MRI studies have reported abnormal structural changes in SDCP, such as periventricular leucomalacia. However, there are roughly 27.8% SDCP patients presenting normal appearance in conventional MRI, which were considered as occult SDCP. In this study, sixteen patients with occult SDCP and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were collected and the data were acquired on a 3T MR system. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis to investigate whole brain grey and white matter injury in occult SDCP. By using VBM method, the grey matter volume reduction was revealed in the bilateral basal ganglia regions, thalamus, insula, and left cerebral peduncle, whereas the white matter atrophy was found to be located in the posterior part of corpus callosum and right posterior corona radiata in the occult SDCP patients. By using TBSS, reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) values were detected in multiple white matter regions, including bilateral white matter tracts in prefrontal lobe, temporal lobe, internal and external capsule, corpus callosum, cingulum, thalamus, brainstem and cerebellum. Additionally, several regions of white matter tracts injury were found to be significantly correlated with motor dysfunction. These results collectively revealed the spatial patterns of whole brain grey and white matter injury in occult SDCP.
Domínguez-Gil, B; Coll, E; Pont, T; Lebrón, M; Miñambres, E; Coronil, A; Quindós, B; Herrero, J E; Liébanas, C; Marcelo, B; Sanmartín, A M; Matesanz, R
To describe end-of-life care practices relevant to organ donation in patients with devastating brain injury in Spain. A multicenter prospective study of a retrospective cohort. 1 November 2014 to 30 April 2015. Sixty-eight hospitals authorized for organ procurement. Patients dying from devastating brain injury (possible donors). Age: 1 month-85 years. Type of care, donation after brain death, donation after circulatory death, intubation/ventilation, referral to the donor coordinator. A total of 1,970 possible donors were identified, of which half received active treatment in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) until brain death (27%), cardiac arrest (5%) or the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy (19%). Of the rest, 10% were admitted to the ICU to facilitate organ donation, while 39% were not admitted to the ICU. Of those patients who evolved to a brain death condition (n=695), most transitioned to actual donation (n=446; 64%). Of those who died following the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy (n=537), 45 (8%) were converted into actual donation after circulatory death donors. The lack of a dedicated donation after circulatory death program was the main reason for non-donation. Thirty-seven percent of the possible donors were not intubated/ventilated at death, mainly because the professional in charge did not consider donation alter discarding therapeutic intubation. Thirty-six percent of the possible donors were never referred to the donor coordinator. Although deceased donation is optimized in Spain, there are still opportunities for improvement in the identification of possible donors outside the ICU and in the consideration of donation after circulatory death in patients who die following the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Lustenberger, Thomas; Inaba, Kenji; Barmparas, Galinos; Talving, Peep; Plurad, David; Lam, Lydia; Konstantinidis, Agathoklis; Demetriades, Demetrios
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of ethanol (ETOH) on the incidence of severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI)-associated coagulopathy and to examine the effect of ETOH on in-hospital outcomes in patients sustaining sTBI. Patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit from June 2005 through December 2008 following sTBI, defined as a head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score ≥3, were retrospectively identified. Patients with a chest, abdomen, or extremity AIS score >3 were excluded to minimize the impact of extracranial injuries. Criteria for sTBI-associated coagulopathy included thrombocytopenia and/or elevated International Normalized Ratio (INR) and/or prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). The incidence of admission coagulopathy, in-hospital complications, and mortality were compared between patients who were ETOH positive [ETOH (+)] and ETOH negative [ETOH (-)]. During the study period, there were 439 patients with ETOH levels available for analysis. Overall, 46.5% (n=204) of these patients were ETOH (+), while 53.5% (n=235) were ETOH (-). Coagulopathy was significantly less frequent in the ETOH (+) patients compared to their ETOH (-) counterparts (5.4% versus 15.3%; adjusted pintoxication is associated with a significantly lower incidence of early coagulopathy and in-hospital mortality. Further research to establish the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying any potential beneficial effect of ETOH on the coagulation system following sTBI is warranted.
Xiao, Gui-zhen; Wang, Qin-xian; Qiu, Xiao-wen; Duan, Peng-kai; Huang, Ying; Su, Lei
To observe the energy expenditure in severe traumatic brain injury patients, and to assess the impact of cumulative energy balance on clinical outcomes. Using prospective self-controlled study, the change in energy expenditure of 42 patients with severe traumatic brain injury was measured by indirect calorimetry (IC). Daily energy intake was recorded. Afterwards, energy balance was calculated. The levels of nutritional biochemical indicators were compared. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation of cumulative energy balance with clinical outcomes. Mean practical energy intake of all patients was (6787 ± 1848) kJ/d, and mean negative energy balance was (913 ± 285) kJ/d. The negative energy balance was most crucial in first 3 days after admission. Meanwhile, practical energy intake was significantly lower than target energy intake (kJ: 2859 ± 1370 vs. 6027 ± 899, P energy intake was increased with time, and it was found that the first 14 days were crucial for development of negative energy balance. On 7th day after admission, albumin (g/L) level in plasma was lowest compared with that on 3rd day (29.5 ± 5.0 vs. 35.9 ± 3.8, P energy balance with infection and upper gastrointestinal bleeding [odds ratio (OR) of infection was 2.130, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.540 to 29.661, P = 0.023; OR of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was 0.083, 95%CI 0.013 to 0.542, P = 0.009]. Cumulative negative energy balance may be correlated with the occurrence of complications in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. On the basis of the measurements of changes in energy by IC, early supply of sufficient energy may improve the outcome of patients.
Jang, Sung Ho; Ha, Ji Wan; Kim, Hyun Young; Seo, You Sung
Recovery of injured AF in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been reported. In this study, we report on a patient with TBI who recovered from an injury to Broca's portion of AF in the dominant hemisphere, diagnosed by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). A 28-year-old right-handed male patient suffered head trauma resulting from sliding while riding a motorcycle. He was diagnosed with a traumatic contusional hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and subdural hemorrhage in the left fronto-temporal lobe. He underwent craniectomy on the left fronto-temporal area, and hematoma removal for the subdural hemorrhage in the neurosurgery department of a university hospital. Two weeks after the injury, he was transferred to the rehabilitation department of another university hospital. He showed severe aphasia and brain MRI showed leukomalactic lesion in the left frontal lobe. The result WAB for the patient showed severe aphasia, with an aphasia quotient of 45.3 percentile. However, his aphasia improved rapidly by 9 months with an aphasia quotient at the 100.0 percentile. 2-week DTT detected discontinuity in the subcortical white matter at the branch to Broca's area of left AF. By contrast, on 9-month DTT, the discontinued portion of left AF was elongated to the left Broca's area. Recovery of injured Broca's portion of AF in the dominant hemisphere along with excellent improvement of aphasia was demonstrated in a patient with TBI. This study has important implications in brain rehabilitation because the mechanism of recovery from aphasia following TBI has not been elucidated. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Zheng, Ping; He, Bin; Guo, Yijun; Zeng, Jingsong; Tong, Wusong
The relationship between microstructural abnormality in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hormone-secreting status remains unknown. In this study, the authors aimed to identify the role of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) using a diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) technique and to evaluate the association of such changes with hypopituitarism in patients with TBI. Diffusion-weighted images were obtained in 164 consecutive patients with TBI within 2 weeks after injury to generate the pituitary ADC as a measure of microstructural change. Patients with TBI were further grouped into those with and those without hypopituitarism based on the secretion status of pituitary hormones at 6 months postinjury. Thirty healthy individuals were enrolled in the study and underwent MRI examinations for comparison. Mean ADC values were compared between this control group, the patients with TBI and hypopituitarism, and the patients with TBI without hypopituitarism; correlational studies were also performed. Neurological outcome was assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) for all TBI patients 6 months postinjury. In the TBI group, 84 patients had hypopituitarism and 80 had normal pituitary function. The pituitary ADC in TBI patients was significantly less than that in controls (1.83 ± 0.16 vs 4.13 ± 0.33, p correlated with neurological outcome at 6 months following TBI (r = 0.602, p correlated with hormone-secreting status in TBI patients. The authors suggest that pituitary ADC may be a useful biomarker to predict pituitary function in patients with TBI.
Odgaard, Lene; Poulsen, Ingrid; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter
PURPOSE: To identify all hospitalized patients surviving severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Denmark and to compare these patients to TBI patients admitted to highly specialized rehabilitation (HS-rehabilitation). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients surviving severe TBI were identified from...... severe TBI were admitted to HS-rehabilitation. Female sex, older age, and non-working status pre-injury were independent predictors of no HS-rehabilitation among patients surviving severe TBI. CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of hospitalized patients surviving severe TBI was stable in Denmark...
Womack, Kyle B; Paliotta, Christopher; Strain, Jeremy F; Ho, Johnson S; Skolnick, Yosef; Lytton, William W; Turtzo, L Christine; McColl, Roderick; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Bergold, Peter J
This study examined whether peripheral vision reaction time (PVRT) in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) correlated with white matter abnormalities in centroaxial structures and impairments in neuropsychological testing. Within 24 h after mTBI, crossed reaction times (CRT), uncrossed reaction times (URT), and crossed-uncrossed difference (CUD) were measured in 23 patients using a laptop computer that displayed visual stimuli predominantly to either the left or the right visual field of the retina. The CUD is a surrogate marker of the interhemispheric transfer time (ITT). Within 7 days after the injury, patients received a diffusion tensor-MRI (DTI) scan and a battery of neuropsychological tests. Nine uninjured control subjects received similar testing. Patients 18-50 years of age were included if they had a post-resuscitation Glasgow Coma Scale >13 and an injury mechanism compatible with mTBI. Healthy controls were either age- and gender-matched family members of the TBI patients or healthy volunteers. CUD deficits >2 standard deviations (SD) were seen in 40.9% of patients. The CUD of injured patients correlated with mean diffusivity (MD) (p < 0.001, ρ = -0.811) in the posterior corpus callosum. Patients could be stratified on the basis of CUD on the Stroop 1, Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), and the obsessive-compulsive component of the Basic Symptom Inventory tests. These studies suggest that the PVRT indirectly measures white matter integrity in the posterior corpus callosum, a brain region frequently damaged by mTBI.
Smith, Karen; Weeks, Susan
The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize the best available evidence on the impact of pre-injury anticoagulation therapy in the older adult patient who experiences a traumatic brain injury. Trauma in the elderly remains one of the most challenging problems for healthcare providers in the 21 century. The most recent United States (U.S.) census estimates that by the year 2020 more than 52 million Americans will be age 65 years or older, and one million of those will live to be over 100 years of age. In the older adult population, classified as age 65 years or greater, the two leading causes of injury were reported as motor vehicle crashes (MVC) and falls. We have become increasingly aware of the unique physiologic changes in this population that make them more susceptible to succumb to traumatic injuries than their younger counterparts. This is especially true in the anticoagulated patient with a traumatic brain injury.Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as an injury occurring when an external force traumatizes the brain. It may also be known as an intracranial or head injury. TBI is classified depending on the mechanism of injury (blunt or penetrating), severity, and location of the assault. Damage to the brain, skull, and/or scalp transpires. TBI is the leading cause of death and disability in the U.S, and persons of all ages, races, ethnicities, and incomes are affected. In the past five to ten years, trauma services have recorded an increase in major trauma admissions of patients age 65 years and older. In review of the literature to date, it is recognized that outcomes following moderate to severe TBI in older adults are poor, with high rates of significant disability and mortality reported. A recent Australian study reported that 28% of older adults died in the hospital following a TBI and in Finland adults aged 75 years and older had the highest rates of TBI related hospitalizations and death. According to a systematic review of European
Song, Ho Chun; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National Univ. Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate alterations of regional cerbral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR), and correlation between these alternations and cognitive dysfunctin in patients with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI) and normal brain MRI findings. Thirty TBI patients and 19 healthy volunteers underwent rest/acetazolaminde brain SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO. Korean-Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale test was also performed in the patient group. Statistical analysis was performed with statistical parametric mapping software (SPM '97). CBF was diminished in the left hemisphere including Wernicke's area in all patients with lower verbal scale scores. In addition, a reduction in CBF in the right frontal, temporal and parietal cortices was related with depressed scores in information, digital span, arithmetic and similarities. In patients with lower performance scale scores, CBF was mainly diminished in the right hemisphere including superior temporal and supramarginal gyri, premotor, primary somatomotor and a part of prefrontal cortices, left frontal lobe and supramarginal gyrus. CVR was diminished in sixty-four Brodmann's areas compared to control. A reduction in CVR was demonstrated bilaterally in the frontal and temporal lobes in patients with lower scores in both verbal and performance tests, and in addition, both inferior parietal and occipital lobes in information subset. Alterations of CBF and CVR were demonstrated in the symptomatic TBI patients with normal MRI finding. These alterations were correlated with the change of intelligence, of which the complex functions are subserved by multiple interconnected cortical structures.
Aas, R.W.; Haveraaen, L.A.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Skarpaas, L.S.
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is known to be severely disabling. On average, 40% of employeesreturn to work (RTW) within two years after injury. There is, however, limited research on what might con-tribute to successful RTW. To examine factors that might impact the time-to first RTW for patients with
Salentijn, E.G.; Peerdeman, S.M.; Boffano, P.; van den Bergh, B.; Forouzanfar, T.
In the literature it is questioned if the presence of maxillofacial trauma is associated with the presence of brain injury. The aim of this study is to present a 10-year retrospective study of the incidence and aetiology of maxillofacial trauma associated with brain injury that required both oral
Salentijn, E.G.; Peerdeman, S.M.; Boffano, P.; van den Bergh, B.; Forouzanfar, T.
In the literature it is questioned if the presence of maxillofacial trauma is associated with the presence of brain injury. The aim of this study is to present a 10-year retrospective study of the incidence and aetiology of maxillofacial trauma associated with brain injury that required both oral
Salentijn, Erik G; Collin, John D; Boffano, Paolo; Forouzanfar, Tymour
Maxillofacial trauma is often associated with injuries to the cranium, especially in high-energy trauma. The management of such cases can be challenging and requires close cooperation between oral and maxillofacial surgery and neurosurgical teams. There are few reports in the current literature describing the complications that develop in patients with maxillofacial trauma and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Complications can be categorized as early or late and/or minor and major. The exact definition of complications and their categorization remains a matter of current debate. We present a 10 year retrospective study of complications and their subsequent management in patients receiving maxillofacial and neurosurgical treatment for maxillofacial trauma associated with TBI. The study population consisted of 47 people, excluded from a maxillofacial trauma population of 579 patients. The severity of the trauma was scored as mild, moderate or severe, using the Glasgow Coma Scale at presentation of the Emergency Department. In total 36 patients (76.6%) developed complications. Patients involved in road traffic collision were most likely to develop complications (92.3%). This was followed by falls (66.7%) as mechanism of the injury. Patients aged 60-69 years experienced the highest complication rate (5), followed by patients aged 20-29 years (4.1) and 30-39 years (3.5). The majority of complications were infection and inflammation (36.4%), followed by neurological deficit (24.0%), physiological dysregulation (11.6%) and facial bone deformity (8.3%). Patients who developed no complications, most often presented with mild TBI (72.7%). The most common treatment modality employed to manage complications was pharmacological, followed by antibiotic treatment, conservative treatment and decompression therapy. The mean hospital stay after the trauma for the patients with complications was 28 days. Thirteen patients (36.1%) were transferred to a rehabilitation centre, a nursing
Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2 has been proposed as a prognostic indicator in several pathological conditions, including cardiac diseases, sepsis, trauma. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated ScvO2 in polytraumatized patients with brain injury so far. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic role of ScvO2 monitoring during first 24 hours after trauma in this patients' population. Methods This prospective, non-controlled study, carried out between April 2006 and March 2008, was performed in a higher level Trauma Center in Florence (Italy. In the study period, 121 patients affected by major brain injury after major trauma were recruited. Inclusion criteria were: 1. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score ≤ 13; 2. an Injury Severity Score (ISS ≥ 15. Exclusion criteria included: 1. pregnancy; 2. age 2 monitoring within 2 hours from the trauma. Demographic and clinical data were collected, including Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS, Injury Severity Score (ISS, Simplified Acute Physiologic Score II (SAPS II, Marshall score. The worst values of lactate and ScvO2 within the first 24 hours from trauma, ICU length of stay (LOS, and 28-day mortality were recorded. Results Patients who deceased within 28 days showed higher age (53 ± 16.6 vs 43.8 ± 19.6, P = 0.043, ISS core (39.3 ± 14 vs 30.3 ± 10.1, P 2 resulted significantly lower (66.7% ± 11.9 vs 70.1% ± 8.9 vs, respectively; P = 0.046. Patients with ScvO2 values ≤ 65% also showed higher 28-days mortality rate (31.3% vs 13.5%, P = 0.034, ICU LOS (28.5 ± 15.2 vs 16.6 ± 13.8, P 2 > 65%. Conclusion ScvO2 value less than 65%, measured in the first 24 hours after admission in patients with major trauma and head injury, was associated with higher mortality and prolonged hospitalization.
Aadal, Lena; Mortensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbaek
Purpose: To describe the onset, duration, intensity, and nursing shift variation of agitated behavior in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) at a rehabilitation hospital. Design: Prospective descriptive study. Methods: A total of 11 patients with agitated behavior were included. Agitated...
Pletnetskaya, A. O.
Pletnetskaya A. O. Forensic estimation of medical aid rendered to the patients died with traumatic brain injury (on evidences of forensic expertise). Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(8):607-613. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.61022 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3791 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 755 (23.12.2015). 75...
Kim, Je Kyung; Kim, Na Young; Kim, Yong Wook
To identify predictors for depressive mood in geriatric patients after traumatic brain injury (TBI). A retrospective review of patients' medical charts was performed in TBI patients who were older than 60 years and referred to the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine at Severance Hospital in 2002-2016. The patients were classified into two groups based on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): non-depressive group (0≤GDS≤16) and depressive group (17≤GDS≤30). Data was collected on demographic, socioeconomic, comorbidities, and trauma-related factors, as well as the pathophysiology of TBI, localization of lesion, post-traumatic complications, functional level, and cognitive and linguistic function. Significant variables from univariate analysis were analyzed using logistic regression. Forty-two patients were included, of whom 64.3% displayed a depressive mood. Patients in the depressive group had higher comorbidity scores (p=0.03), lower Functional Independence Measure (FIM) totals (p=0.03) and FIM motor (p=0.03) scores, higher modified Rankin Scale scores (p=0.04), and frequently had a bilateral or left side brain lesion (p=0.002). Higher comorbidity scores (odds ratio [OR], 1.764; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.047-2.971), bilateral lesions (OR, 13.078; 95% CI, 1.786-95.780), and left side lesions (OR, 46.074; 95% CI, 3.175-668.502) were independently associated with a depressive mood in the multiple logistic regression analysis. The risk of depressive mood in geriatric patients after TBI is associated with comorbidity, functional limitation, and the horizontal distribution of brain lesions. The most significant determining factors were comorbidity and the horizontal distribution of brain lesions. Early detection of risk factors is important to prevent and manage depressive mood in geriatric patients after TBI.
Sauter, Thomas C; Ziegenhorn, Stephan; Ahmad, Sufian S; Hautz, Wolf E; Ricklin, Meret E; Leichtle, Alexander Benedikt; Fiedler, Georg-Martin; Haider, Dominik G; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K
Patients admitted to emergency departments with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are commonly being treated with oral anticoagulants. In contrast to patients without anticoagulant medication, no guidelines, scores or recommendations exist for the management of mild traumatic brain injury in these patients. We therefore tested whether age as one of the high risk factors of the Canadian head CT rule is applicable to a patient population on oral anticoagulants. This cross-sectional analysis included all patients with mild TBI and concomitant oral anticoagulant therapy admitted to the Emergency Department, Inselspital Bern, Switzerland, from November 2009 to October 2014 (n = 200). Using a logistic regression model, two groups of patients with mild TBI on oral anticoagulant therapy were compared - those with and those without intracranial haemorrhage. There was no significant difference in age between the patient groups with (n = 86) and without (n = 114) intracranial haemorrhage (p = 0.078). In univariate logistic regression, GCS (OR = 0.419 (0.258; 0.680)) and thromboembolic event as reason for anticoagulant therapy (OR = 0.486 (0.257; 0.918)) were significantly associated with intracranial haemorrhage in patients with mild TBI and anticoagulation (all p clopidogrel ((both p > 0.05; 0.552 (0.139; 2.202) and 0.256 (0.029; 2.237), respectively). Our study found no association between age and intracranial bleeding. Therefore, until further risk factors are identified, diagnostic imaging with CCT remains necessary for mild TBI patients on oral anticoagulation of all ages, especially those with therapeutic anticoagulation because of thromboembolic events.
Warden, D L; Salazar, A M; Martin, E M; Schwab, K A; Coyle, M; Walter, J
We have recently reported the results of a prospective controlled randomized trial comparing home versus inpatient cognitive rehabilitation for patients with moderate to severe head injury. That study showed no overall difference in outcomes between the two groups.(1) In this article, we provide further details of the home program arm of the study. All patients in the home program received medical treatment as needed, a multidisciplinary in-hospital evaluation, and TBI counseling before entering the eight-week home program, which then included guidance on home activities, as well as weekly telephone calls from a psychiatric nurse.
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children. The anatomical features, physiological response to injury, neuronal development, and low myelination in children cause different clinical features compared to the adult traumatic brain injury. Our aim is to study the incidence, predisposing factors, clinical presentations, and outcome in pediatric head injuries. The patients included in this retrospective study are under the age of 14 years admitted in the Neurosurgery Department of King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, which is a tertiary care centre. The study period is two years’ duration from 1.1.2013 to 31.12.2014. Data collected on the basis of history, physical examination, base line investigations, and the plain CT scan is all cases. The pediatric patients were 226 in total 1643 case of head injury cases. There were 64.6% (n=146 males and 35.4% (n=80 females. The age ranged from 12 days to 14 years. Fall from height was the commonest cause of head injury found in 48.6% (n=110 cases, road traffic accidents (RTA in 34.5% (n=78 and other causes 16.8% (n=38; 49 (21.68% patients had associated injuries. At 55.75% (n=126 cases mild head injury with GCS 13-15 was present and severe head injury with GCS less than 8 in 29 (12.8% patients. The 188 patients are treated conservatively, 38 patients underwent different neurosurgical procedures in which 5 patients died. CONCLUSION: Head injury in pediatric age group carries high risk of morbidity and mortality. Good outcome achieved by early diagnosis and referral from primary care centers to tertiary care centers.
The Erythropoietin in Traumatic Brain Injury (EPO-TBI) trial aims to determine whether the administration of erythropoietin to patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury improves patient-centred outcomes.
Rosmari A.R.A. Oliveira
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS at discharge (GOS-HD as a prognostic indicator in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI. METHOD: Retrospective data were collected of 45 patients, with Glasgow coma scale <8, age 25±10 years, 36 men, from medical records. Later, at home visit, two measures were scored: GOS-HD (according to information from family members and GOS LATE (12 months after TBI. RESULTS: At discharge, the ERG showed: vegetative state (VS in 2 (4%, severe disability (SD in 27 (60%, moderate disability (MD in 15 (33% and good recovery (GR in 1 (2%. After 12 months: death in 5 (11%, VS in 1 (2%, SD in 7 (16%, MD in 9 (20% and GR in 23 (51%. Variables associated with poor outcome were: worse GOS-HD (p=0.03, neurosurgical procedures (p=0.008 and the kind of brain injury (p=0.009. CONCLUSION: The GOS-HD was indicator of prognosis in patients with severe TBI.
Wang, Bo; Prastawa, Marcel; Irimia, Andrei; Chambers, Micah C.; Vespa, Paul M.; Van Horn, John D.; Gerig, Guido
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Robust, reproducible segmentations of MR images with TBI are crucial for quantitative analysis of recovery and treatment efficacy. However, this is a significant challenge due to severe anatomy changes caused by edema (swelling), bleeding, tissue deformation, skull fracture, and other effects related to head injury. In this paper, we introduce a multi-modal image segmentation framework for longitudinal TBI images. The framework is initialized through manual input of primary lesion sites at each time point, which are then refined by a joint approach composed of Bayesian segmentation and construction of a personalized atlas. The personalized atlas construction estimates the average of the posteriors of the Bayesian segmentation at each time point and warps the average back to each time point to provide the updated priors for Bayesian segmentation. The difference between our approach and segmenting longitudinal images independently is that we use the information from all time points to improve the segmentations. Given a manual initialization, our framework automatically segments healthy structures (white matter, grey matter, cerebrospinal fluid) as well as different lesions such as hemorrhagic lesions and edema. Our framework can handle different sets of modalities at each time point, which provides flexibility in analyzing clinical scans. We show results on three subjects with acute baseline scans and chronic follow-up scans. The results demonstrate that joint analysis of all the points yields improved segmentation compared to independent analysis of the two time points.
Scheenen, Myrthe E.; Spikman, Jacoba M.; de Koning, Myrthe E.; van der Horn, Harm J.; Roks, Gerwin; Hageman, Gerard; van der Naalt, Joukje
Although most patients recover fully following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), a minority (15-25%) of all patients develop persistent post-traumatic complaints (PTC) that interfere with the resumption of previous activities. An early identification of patients who are at risk for PTC is
Vik, Berit Marie Dykesteen; Skeie, Geir Olve; Vikane, Eirik; Specht, Karsten
We explored the effects of playing the piano on patients with cognitive impairment after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and, addressed the question if this approach would stimulate neural networks in re-routing neural connections and link up cortical circuits that had been functional inhibited due to disruption of brain tissue. Functional neuroimaging scans (fMRI) and neuropsychological tests were performed pre-post intervention. Three groups participated, one mTBI group (n = 7), two groups of healthy participants, one with music training (n = 11), one baseline group without music (n = 12). The music groups participated in 8 weeks music-supported intervention. The patient group revealed training-related neuroplasticity in the orbitofrontal cortex. fMRI results fit well with outcome from neuropsychological tests with significant enhancement of cognitive performance in the music groups. Ninety per cent of mTBI group returned to work post intervention. Here, for the first time, we demonstrated behavioural improvements and functional brain changes after 8 weeks of playing piano on patients with mTBI having attention, memory and social interaction problems. We present evidence for a causal relationship between musical training and reorganisation of neural networks promoting enhanced cognitive performance. These results add a novel music-supported intervention within rehabilitation of patients with cognitive deficits following mTBI.
Engberg, Aase Worså; Liebach, Annette; Nordenbo, Annette Mosbæk
OBJECTIVES: To present results from the first 3 years of centralized subacute rehabilitation after very severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to compare results of centralized versus decentralized rehabilitation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospectively, the most severely injured group of adults from...... an uptake area of 2.4 million in Denmark were included at admission to a regional brain injury unit (BIU), on average 19 days after injury. Patients in the retrospective study used for comparison were randomly chosen from the national hospital register. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Out of 117 patients...... post-trauma was 0.29, and at 1 year 0.055 per 100,000 population. By comparison of 39 patients from the centralized unit injured in 2000-2003 with 21 patients injured in 1982, 1987 or 1992 and with similar PTA- and age distributions and male/female ratio, Glasgow Outcome Scale score at discharge...
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the common causes of disability in physical, psychological and social domains of functioning leading to poor quality of life. TBI leads to impairment in sensory, motor, language and emotional processing, and also in cognitive functions such as attention, information processing, executive functions and memory. Cognitive impairment plays a central role in functional recovery in TBI. Innovative methods such as music therapy to alleviate cognitive impairments have been investigated recently. The role of music in cognitive rehabilitation is evolving, based on newer findings emerging from the fields of neuromusicology and music cognition. Research findings from these fields have contributed significantly to our understanding of music perception and cognition, and its neural underpinnings. From a neuroscientific perspective, indulging in music is considered as one of the best cognitive exercises. With ‘plasticity’ as its veritable nature, brain engages in producing music indulging an array of cognitive functions and the product, the music, in turn permits restoration and alter brain functions. With scientific findings as its basis, ‘Neurologic Music Therapy’ (NMT has been developed as a systematic treatment method to improve sensorimotor, language and cognitive domains of functioning via music. A preliminary study examining the effect of NMT in cognitive rehabilitation has reported promising results in improving executive functions along with improvement in emotional adjustment and decreasing depression and anxiety following TBI. The potential usage of music-based cognitive rehabilitation therapy in various clinical conditions including TBI is yet to be fully explored. There is a need for systematic research studies to bridge the gap between increasing theoretical understanding of usage of music in cognitive rehabilitation and application of the same in a heterogeneous condition such as TBI.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the common causes of disability in physical, psychological, and social domains of functioning leading to poor quality of life. TBI leads to impairment in sensory, motor, language, and emotional processing, and also in cognitive functions such as attention, information processing, executive functions, and memory. Cognitive impairment plays a central role in functional recovery in TBI. Innovative methods such as music therapy to alleviate cognitive impairments have been investigated recently. The role of music in cognitive rehabilitation is evolving, based on newer findings emerging from the fields of neuromusicology and music cognition. Research findings from these fields have contributed significantly to our understanding of music perception and cognition, and its neural underpinnings. From a neuroscientific perspective, indulging in music is considered as one of the best cognitive exercises. With "plasticity" as its veritable nature, brain engages in producing music indulging an array of cognitive functions and the product, the music, in turn permits restoration and alters brain functions. With scientific findings as its basis, "neurologic music therapy" (NMT) has been developed as a systematic treatment method to improve sensorimotor, language, and cognitive domains of functioning via music. A preliminary study examining the effect of NMT in cognitive rehabilitation has reported promising results in improving executive functions along with improvement in emotional adjustment and decreasing depression and anxiety following TBI. The potential usage of music-based cognitive rehabilitation therapy in various clinical conditions including TBI is yet to be fully explored. There is a need for systematic research studies to bridge the gap between increasing theoretical understanding of usage of music in cognitive rehabilitation and application of the same in a heterogeneous condition such as TBI.
Huang, Ming-Xiong; Nichols, Sharon; Baker, Dewleen G; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, Annemarie; Yurgil, Kate A; Drake, Angela; Levy, Michael; Song, Tao; McLay, Robert; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Diwakar, Mithun; Risbrough, Victoria B; Ji, Zhengwei; Huang, Charles W; Chang, Douglas G; Harrington, Deborah L; Muzzatti, Laura; Canive, Jose M; Christopher Edgar, J; Chen, Yu-Han; Lee, Roland R
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI) can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1-4 Hz) that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG). In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1-4 Hz) from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes), our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes), blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI.
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG. In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes, our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes, blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI.
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI occurs when a sudden trauma causes brain damage. Depending on the severity, outcome can be anything from complete recovery to permanent disability or death. Emergency medical services play a dominant role in provision of primary care at the site of injury. Since little can be done to reverse the initial brain damage due to trauma, attempts to prevent further brain damage and stabilize the patient before he can be brought to a specialized trauma care centre play a pivotal role in the final outcome. Recognition and early treatment of hypoten-sion, hypoxemia, and hypoglycemia, objective neurological assessment based on GCS and pupils, and safe transport to an optimal care centre are the key elements of prehospital care of a TBI patient.
Vázquez-Solís, María G; Villa-Manzano, Alberto I; Sánchez-Mosco, Dalia I; Vargas-Lares, José de Jesús; Plascencia-Fernández, Irma
traumatic brain injury is a main cause of hospital admission and death in children. Our objective was to identify prognostic factors of pediatric traumatic brain injury. this was a dynamic cohort study of traumatic brain injury with 6 months follow-up. The exposition was: mild or moderate/severe traumatic brain injury, searching for prognosis (morbidity-mortality and decreased Glasgow scale). Relative risk and logistic regression was estimated for prognostic factors. we evaluated 440 patients with mild traumatic brain injury and 98 with moderate/severe traumatic brain injury. Morbidity for mild traumatic brain injury was 1 %; for moderate/severe traumatic brain injury, 5 %. There were no deaths. Prognostic factors for moderate/severe traumatic brain injury were associated injuries (RR = 133), fractures (RR = 60), street accidents (RR = 17), night time accidents (RR = 2.3) and weekend accidents (RR = 2). Decreased Glasgow scale was found in 9 %, having as prognostic factors: visible injuries (RR = 3), grown-up supervision (RR = 2.5) and time of progress (RR = 1.6). there should be a prognosis established based on kinetic energy of the injury and not only with Glasgow Scale.
Carpenter, KLH; Young, AMH; Hutchinson, PJ
Purpose of review: Here, we review the present state-of-the-art of microdialysis for monitoring patients with severe traumatic brain injury, highlighting the newest developments. Microdialysis has evolved in neurocritical care to become an established bedside monitoring modality that can reveal unique information on brain chemistry. Recent findings: A major advance is recent consensus guidelines for microdialysis use and interpretation. Other advances include insight obtained from microdi...
Full Text Available Objective: to determine the effectiveness of the use of low-intensity helium-neon laser radiation in patients with post-traumatic cerebral arachnoiditis. Material and Methods. We observed 164 patients with the effects of closed craniocerebral injuries of a various severity. Methods of percutaneous laser irradiation of blood in the projection of the common carotid artery at the level of IV cervical vertebra was carried out underthe supervision of the clinical evaluation of hemodynamic data survey methods. Results. Positive results of hemodynamic parameters of examination methods indicate regression of cerebral vasospasm and improving brain vascular reserve, which led to a decrease in cerebral and focal neurological symptoms. Conclusion. The method allows the use of this technique in these patients both in the hospital and at the outpatient stage.
López-López, C; Murillo-Pérez, M A; Morales-Sánchez, C; Torrente-Vela, S; Orejana-Martín, M; García-Iglesias, M; Cuenca-Solanas, M; Alted-López, E
To assess pain response on patients with moderate to severe head injury before a common nursing procedure: tracheal suctioning. An observational longitudinal pilot study with consecutive sampling performed from September to December of 2012. Pain was assessed by a pain behavioral indicator scale 5 minutes before, meanwhile and 15 minutes after tracheal suctioning the days 1, 3 and 6 of their intensive care unit (ICU) stay, as well as a non-painful procedure: rubbing with gauze the forearm of the patient. Pseudo-analgesia and hemodynamic variables were also recorded. Descriptive analysis of the variables, inferential statistics with t-student and Anova with SPSS 17.0; statistical tests were considered significant if the critical level observed was less than 5% (P.05) were shown. Data for the painless procedure were significantly different on day 6 (P<.05) CONCLUSION: During tracheal suctioning in patients with head injury in the first 6 days in the ICU, objective mild-moderate pain according to ESCID scale has been detected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.
Albiol-Pérez, Sergio; Gil-Gómez, José-Antonio; Llorens, Roberto; Alcañiz, Mariano; Font, Carolina Colomer
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is one of the main problems of disability and death in the world. Its incidence and survival rate are increasing annually. Thus, the number of chronic ABI patients is gradually growing. Traditionally, rehabilitation programs are applied to postacute and acute patients, but recent publications determine that chronic patients may benefit from rehabilitation. Also, in the last few years, the potential of virtual rehabilitation (VR) systems has been demonstrated. However, until now, no previous studies have been carried out to compare the evolution of chronic patients with acute patients in a VR program. To perform this study, we developed a VR system for ABI patients. The system, vestibular virtual rehabilitation (V2R), was designed with clinical specialists. V2R has been tested with 21 people ranging in age from 18 to 80 years old that were classified in two groups: chronic patients and acute patients. The results demonstrate a similar recovery for chronic and acute patients during the intervention period. Also, the results showed that chronic patients stop their improvement when they finish their training. This conclusion encourages us to direct our developments toward VR systems that can be easily integrated at home, allowing chronic patients to have a permanent VR training program.
Guétin, S; Soua, B; Voiriot, G; Picot, M-C; Hérisson, C
A previous study (carried out in 2003-2004) had included 34 patients with traumatic brain injury in order to study the feasibility and usefulness of music therapy in patients with this type of injury. To evaluate the effect of music therapy on mood, anxiety and depression in institutionalised patients with traumatic brain injury. A prospective, observational study. Thirteen patients with traumatic brain injury were included in the present study and took part in individual, weekly, 1-hour music therapy sessions over a period of 20 weeks. Each session was divided into two 30-minute periods - one devoted to listening to music (receptive music therapy) and the other to playing an instrument (active music therapy). The assessment criteria (measured at weeks 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20) were mood (on the face scale) and anxiety-depression (on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression [HAD] Scale). Mood was assessed immediately before and after the first music therapy session and every fifth session. Music therapy enabled a significant improvement in mood, from the first session onwards. This short-term effect was confirmed by the immediate changes in the scores after music therapy sessions (from 4.6+/-3.2 to 2.6+/-2; pMusic therapy also led to a significant reduction in anxiety-depression (pmusic therapy in the treatment of anxiety-depression and mood in patients with traumatic brain injury. Music therapy could usefully form an integral part of the management programme for these patients.
Peck, Kimberly A; Calvo, Richard Y; Schechter, Mark S; Sise, C Beth; Kahl, Jessica E; Shackford, Meghan C; Shackford, Steven R; Sise, Michael J; Blaskiewicz, Donald J
Anticoagulants and prescription antiplatelet (ACAP) agents widely used by older adults have the potential to adversely affect traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcomes. We hypothesized that TBI patients on preinjury ACAP agents would have worse outcomes than non-ACAP patients. This was a 5.5-year retrospective review of patients 55 years and older admitted to a Level I trauma center with blunt force TBI. Patients were categorized as ACAP (warfarin, clopidogrel, dipyridamole/aspirin, enoxaparin, subcutaneous heparin, or multiple agents) or non-ACAP. ACAP patients were further stratified by class of agent (anticoagulant or antiplatelet). Initial and subsequent head computerized tomographic results were examined for type and progression of TBI. Patient preadmission living status and discharge destination were identified. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were progression of initial TBI, development of new intracranial hemorrhage (remote from initial), and the need for an increased level of care at discharge. A total of 353 patients met inclusion criteria: 273 non-ACAP (77%) and 80 ACAP (23%). Upon exclusion of three patients taking a combination of agents, 350 were available for advanced analyses. ACAP status was significantly related to in-hospital mortality. After adjustment for patient and injury characteristics, anticoagulant users were more likely than non-ACAP patients to show progression of initial hemorrhage and develop a new hemorrhagic focus. However, compared with non-ACAP users, antiplatelet users were more likely to die in the hospital. Among survivors to discharge, anticoagulant users were more likely to be discharged to a care facility, but this finding was not robust to adjustment. Older TBI patients on preinjury ACAP agents experience a comparatively higher rate of inpatient mortality and other adverse outcomes caused by the effects of antiplatelet agents. Our findings should inform decision making regarding prognosis and
Marina, Djordje; Klose, Marianne; Nordenbo, Annette
Independence Measure) and lower capability of normal life activities (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended) were related to both elevated stress hormones (p≤0.01) and reduced gonadal and/or thyroid hormones (p≤0.01) measured at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that brain injury-related endocrine...... alterations mimicking secondary hypogonadism and hypothyroidism and with elevated stress hormones most probably reflect a prolonged stress response 2 to 5 months after severe brain injury, rather than pituitary insufficiency per se. These endocrine alterations thus seem to reflect a more severe disease state......OBJECTIVE: Severe brain injury poses a risk of developing acute and chronic hypopituitarism. Pituitary hormone alterations developed in the early recovery phase after brain injury may have implications for long-term functional recovery. The objective was to assess the pattern and prevalence...
Full Text Available Preparing to manage weapons of mass destruction events challenges emergency services systems neighboring Syria every day. Understanding injury from explosives is essential for all providers of emergency care in both civilian and military settings. In this case, the authors present a 22-year-old man who was admitted to the emergency department with displaced skull fracture, epidural hemorrhage and cerebral contusion due to barrel bomb tertiary blast effect. A 22-year-old man who complained of pain in the right temporal head region after barrel bomb explosion was admitted in the emergency department. The patient could not remember the explosion and found himself on the ground. In his medical history, there was not a record of any diseases, operations or traumas. Examination of the head revealed scalp hematoma and slump in the skull on the right temporal region. Patients computed tomography (CT scan showed a displaced skull fracture, epidural hematoma and cerebral contusion.
Full Text Available Previous reports suggest that neuroendocrine disturbances in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI or aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH may still develop or resolve months or even years after the trauma. We investigated a cohort of n = 168 patients (81 patients after TBI and 87 patients after SAH in whom hormone levels had been determined at various time points to assess the course and pattern of hormonal insufficiencies. Data were analyzed using three different criteria: (1 patients with lowered basal laboratory values; (2 patients with lowered basal laboratory values or the need for hormone replacement therapy; (3 diagnosis of the treating physician. The first hormonal assessment after a median time of three months after the injury showed lowered hormone laboratory test results in 35% of cases. Lowered testosterone (23.1% of male patients, lowered estradiol (14.3% of female patients and lowered insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I values (12.1% were most common. Using Criterion 2, a higher prevalence rate of 55.6% of cases was determined, which correlated well with the prevalence rate of 54% of cases using the physicians’ diagnosis as the criterion. Intraindividual changes (new onset insufficiency or recovery were predominantly observed for the somatotropic axis (12.5%, the gonadotropic axis in women (11.1% and the corticotropic axis (10.6%. Patients after TBI showed more often lowered IGF-I values at first testing, but normal values at follow-up (p < 0.0004. In general, most patients remained stable. Stable hormone results at follow-up were obtained in 78% (free thyroxine (fT4 values to 94.6% (prolactin values.
Li, Min; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Kang-Song; Hu, Ying-Hong
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of continuous propofol sedation plus prolonged mechanical ventilation on adrenal insufficiency (AI) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Eighty-five adult patients diagnosed with moderate TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score 9-13) from October 2011 to October 2012 were included in this prospective study. The patients comprised three groups: no mechanical ventilation and sedation (n=27), mechanical ventilation alone (n=24) and mechanical ventilation plus sedation (n=34). The low-dose short Synacthen test was performed at 8:00 on the first, third, and fifth days after TBI. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors affecting the use of mechanical ventilation and sedation, and the incidence of AI. On the fifth day after injury, the mean baseline cortisol and simulated cortisol levels were significantly lower in the mechanical ventilation plus sedation group compared with the other two groups. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) score was independently associated with treatment with mechanical ventilation and sedation compared to mechanical ventilation alone. Furthermore, hypoxemia on admission and shock were associated with the development of AI. The findings showed that sedation is associated with an increased incidence of AI. Patients with TBI who are treated with continuous sedation should be monitored for AI carefully. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.
Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid
Objective: To investigate clinically significant change in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation. Methods: Participants were 62 pairs of relatives and patients. Relatives completed the anxiety and depression scales from...
Rose Dawn Bharath
Full Text Available Brains reveal amplified plasticity as they recover from an injury. We aimed to define time dependent plasticity changes in patients recovering from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. 25 subjects with mild head injury were longitudinally evaluated within 36 hours, 3 and 6 months using resting state functional connectivity (RSFC. Region of interest (ROI based connectivity differences over time within the patient group and in comparison with a healthy control group were analyzed at p<0.005. We found 33 distinct ROI pairs that revealed significant changes in their connectivity strength with time. Within three months, the majority of the ROI pairs had decreased connectivity in mTBI population, which increased and became comparable to healthy controls at 6 months. Initial imaging within 36 hours of injury revealed hyper connectivity predominantly involving the salience network and default mode network, which reduced at 3 months when lingual, inferior frontal and fronto-parietal networks revealed hyper connectivity. At six months all the evaluated networks revealed hyper connectivity and became comparable to the healthy controls. Our findings in a fairly homogenous group of patients with mTBI evaluated during the 6 month window of recovery defines time varying brain connectivity changes as the brain recovers from an injury. A majority of these changes were seen in the frontal and parietal lobes between 3-6 months after injury. Hyper connectivity of several networks supported normal recovery in the first six months and it remains to be seen in future studies whether this can predict an early and efficient recovery of brain function.
Shibahashi, Keita; Sugiyama, Kazuhiro; Hoda, Hidenori; Hamabe, Yuichi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in older patients is becoming an increasing problem, and methods that help predict outcomes in this population are needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate skeletal muscle mass as a predictive marker for TBI outcome in older patients. Older patients (age ≥60 years) with TBI were included in this study. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at 6 months postinjury. Patients were classified according to their GOS score as having a good outcome (GOS 3-5) or a poor outcome (GOS 1 OR 2). Skeletal muscle mass was estimated, and the relationship with outcome was analyzed. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to quantify the independent effects of sarcopenia on the risk of poor outcome. Seventy-four patients (median age, 74 years; 53 males) were included. Outcomes at 6 months postinjury were good in 38 patients and poor in 36 patients. The skeletal muscle area was significantly larger in the good outcome group compared with the poor outcome group (57.3 cm 2 vs. 47.6 cm 2 ; P muscle mass was associated with poorer outcome after TBI in our cohort of older patients. Our results suggest that identifying patients with low muscularity may contribute to better stratification in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Distortions of time perception are presented by a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we survey timing abilities in clinical populations with acquired brain injuries in key cerebral areas recently implicated in human studies of timing. We purposely analyzed the complex relationship between cognitive and contextual factors involved in time estimation, as to characterize the correlation between timed and other cognitive behaviors in each group. We assume that interval timing is a solid construct to study cognitive dysfunctions following brain injury, as timing performance is a sensitive metric of information processing, while temporal cognition has the potential of influencing a wide range of cognitive processes. Moreover, temporal performance is a sensitive assay of damage to the underlying neural substrate after a brain insult. Further research in neurological and psychiatric patients will definitively answer the question of whether time distortions are manifestations of cognitive and behavioral symptoms of brain damage and definitively clarify their mechanisms.
Forensic examiners generally agree that their contributions to the forensic process have to be based on scientific principles, high ethical values, and sound clinical skills and judgment. In part I, the challenges of maintaining high ethical standards as a scientist-practitioner are addressed. In part II, the scientific strengths and weaknesses of our neuropsychological assessments are explored within the context of the 4 articles published in this issue. Specifically, Wood points out that while most traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) compromise the prefrontal cortex (PFC), traditional neuropsychological examinations do not fully capture to what extent PFC damage disrupts cognitive, emotional, and social regulation. New advances in clinical neuroscience are presented to facilitate a more detailed understanding of PFC functioning. Schwarz et al examine how clinical neuropsychology services can adequately handle forensic consultations. Frederick and Bowden, meanwhile, identify the persistent weaknesses of various Symptom Validity Tests in reliably classifying poor effort and malingering. Bailey et al conclude that the findings from sport concussion studies cannot be generalized to clinical populations, who, as a rule, have more premorbid and comorbid vulnerabilities. Finally, part III provides guidelines based on the introductory article by Bigler and Brooks, as well as a synopsis of the main conclusions offered by the contributors in this journal issue. Guidelines for both the diagnosis of mild TBI and the diagnosis of postconcussional disorder are included.
Majidi, Shahram; Makke, Yamane; Ewida, Amr; Sianati, Bahareh; Qureshi, Adnan I; Koubeissi, Mohamad Z
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a well-known risk factor for seizures. We aimed to identify the frequency and risk factors for seizure occurrence during hospitalization for TBI. We used ICD-9-CM codes to identify patients 18 years of age or older from the National Trauma Data Bank who were admitted with TBI. We also used ICD-9-CM codes to identify the subset who had seizures during hospitalization. Patient demographics, comorbidities, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, Injury Severity Score Abbreviated Injury Scale (ISSAIS), in-hospital complications, and discharge disposition were compared in the seizure group (SG) and no-seizure group (NSG). A total of 1559 patients had in-hospital seizures, comprising 0.4% of all patients admitted with TBI. The mean age of SG was 3 years older than NSG [51 vs. 48; p < 0.0001]. African-American ethnicity (20 vs. 12%, p < 0.0001) and moderate TBI (8 vs. 4%, p < 0.0001) were more common in SG. History of alcohol dependence was more common in the SG (25 vs. 11%, p < 0.0001). Fall was the most common mechanism of injury in SG (56 vs. 36% in NSG; p < 0.0001). Subdural hematoma was more common in SG (31 vs. 21%, p < 0.0001). SG had higher rates of pneumonia, ARDS, acute kidney injury, and increased ICP. The average length of hospital stay was significantly higher in SG (10 vs. 6 days, p < 0.0001), and these patients had higher rate of discharge to nursing facility (32 vs. 25%, p < 0.0001). In-hospital seizures occur in 0.4% of all TBI patients. Although infrequent, seizure occurrence is associated with higher rates of hospital complications such as pneumonia and ARDS and is an independent predictor of longer hospital stay and worse hospital outcome.
Background: Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major challenge to the patient, the relatives, the care givers, and the society in general. The primary and secondary injuries, and the high metabolism are formidable stages of the injury, each capable of taking the life of the patient. The objectives were to determine the ...
Full Text Available Objectives: To review the evidence for the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI parameters in the human brain as a diagnostic tool for and predictor of post-concussion syndrome (PCS after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI.Design: Systematic review.Data Sources: All relevant studies in AMED, Embase, MEDLINE, Ovid, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science through 20 May 2016.Study Selection: Studies that analyze traditional DTI measures (fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity and the severity of PCS symptoms or the development of PCS in humans after an mTBI.Data Extraction: Population studied, patient source, mTBI diagnosis method, PCS diagnosis method, DTI values measured, significant findings, and correlation between DTI findings and PCS.Data Synthesis: 10 studies investigated correlations between DTI values and PCS symptom severity or between DTI values and the development of PCS in mTBI patients. Decreased fractional anisotropy and increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity were associated with the development and severity of PCS. Axial diffusivity was not found to change significantly. Brain regions found to have significant changes in DTI parameters varied from study to study, although the corpus callosum was most frequently cited as having abnormal DTI parameters in PCS patients.Conclusion: DTI abnormalities correlate with PCS incidence and symptom severity, as well as indicate an increased risk of developing PCS after mTBI. Abnormal DTI findings should prompt investigation of the syndrome to ensure optimal symptom management at the earliest stages. Currently, there is no consensus in the literature about the use of one DTI parameter in a specific region of the brain as a biomarker for PCS because no definite trends for DTI parameters in PCS subjects have been identified. Further research is required to establish a standard biomarker for PCS.
Du, Yanli; Li, Yu; Lan, Qing
Evaluation of the degree of severity of injury, coma duration, and prediction of outcome are integral parts of present-day management of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). To investigate whether evaluation and prediction of outcome in early phase after severe TBI is possible by means of single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Proton spectra were acquired from the posterior part of normal-appearing frontal lobes having predominantly white matter in 72 patients with severe TBI within a few days of trauma, mean 9.5 days and also in 30 controls. 1 H-MRS studies revealed lower ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/Choline (Cho) and NAA/ Creatine (Cr) and higher ratios of Cho/Cr in patients with TBI when compared to the control group. In patients with severe TBI, NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho and Cho/Cr ratios were significantly correlated with the initial Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS) (P=0.004, r =0.439, P=0.018, r =0.364, P=0.004, r = -0.762, respectively), and with the clinical outcome, Glasgow Outcome Scores (GOS) (P=0.006, r =0.414; P=0.007, r =0.412; P=0.016, r = -0.775, respectively). An equation including clinical and spectroscopic variables, which can predict coma duration fairly accurately, was also obtained. 1 H-MRS may be a novel method of assessing brain function, estimating coma duration, and predicting outcome in patients with severe TBI.
... or therapy. A surgeon can repair a skull fracture, remove blood clots, or relieve pressure. Occupational therapy helps you regain skills you forgot from your injury. This includes walking, eating, or dressing. Physical therapy consists of stretching, strengthening, and training exercises. ...
Stulemeijer, M.; Werf, S.P. van der; Jacobs, B.; Biert, J.; Vugt, A.B. van; Brauer, J.; Vos, P.E.
Many patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) concurrently sustain extracranial injuries; however, little is known about the impact of these additional injuries on outcome. We assessed the impact of additional injuries on the severity of postconcussional symptoms (PCS) and functional outcome
Okazaki, Tomoya; Hifumi, Toru; Kawakita, Kenya; Nakashima, Ryuta; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Shishido, Hajime; Ogawa, Daiske; Okauchi, Masanobu; Shindo, Atsushi; Kawanishi, Masahiko; Tamiya, Takashi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro
Several studies using trauma data banks and registers showed that age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Injury Severity Score, and intraventricular hemorrhage were independent factors for neurologic outcomes in geriatric patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, these analyses did not comprehensively evaluate factors particularly associated with geriatric patients. We aimed to identify factors particularly associated with geriatric patients that affect neurologic outcomes in TBI. Patients aged ≥65 years who were hospitalized consecutively in Kagawa University Hospital with severe TBI between 1 January 2008 and 31 October 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated background factors particularly associated with geriatric patients, including comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI]), nutritional status (serum albumin level), and presence/absence of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs, in addition to baseline characteristics. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of unfavorable neurologic outcomes (UO), as defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1-3 at discharge from hospital. The association between CCI and UO was evaluated in a subgroup analysis. UO occurred in 65.0% of 140 patients. Multivariate analyses showed that the CCI (odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-3.29; P = 0.011), age, and GCS were independent predictors of UO. In subgroup analyses of patients with an initial GCS score of 13-15, the rate of UO significantly increased with CCI score (CCI 0, 35.5%; CCI 1 or 2, 39.4%; CCI >2, 83.3%; P geriatric patients with severe TBI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Norup, Anne; Perrin, Paul B; Cuberos-Urbano, Gustavo
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore differences by country in the importance of family needs after traumatic brain injury (TBI), as well as differences in met/unmet needs. METHOD: Two hundred and seventy-one family members of an individual with TBI in Mexico, Colombia, Spain...
Rutherford, Mary; Allsop, Joanna [Imperial College, Robert Steiner MR Unit, Perinatal Imaging, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Martinez Biarge, Miriam [La Paz University Hospital, Dept of Neonatology, Madrid (Spain); Counsell, Serena [Imperial College, Robert Steiner MR Unit, Neonatal Medicine, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Cowan, Frances [Imperial College, Dept of Paediatrics, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)
MRI is invaluable in assessing the neonatal brain following suspected perinatal injury. Good quality imaging requires adaptations to both the hardware and the sequences used for adults or older children. The perinatal and postnatal details often predict the pattern of lesions sustained and should be available to aid interpretation of the imaging findings. Perinatal lesions, the pattern of which can predict neurodevelopmental outcome, are at their most obvious on conventional imaging between 1 and 2 weeks from birth. Very early imaging during the first week may be useful to make management decisions in ventilated neonates but brain abnormalities may still be subtle using conventional sequences. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is very useful for the early identification of ischaemic tissue in the neonatal brain but may underestimate the final extent of injury, particularly basal ganglia and thalamic lesions. MR imaging is an excellent predictor of outcome following perinatal brain injury and can therefore be used as a biomarker in interventional trials designed to reduce injury and improve neurodevelopmental outcome. (orig.)
Klose, Marianne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla
While hypopituitarism after traumatic brain injury (TBI) was previously considered rare, it is now thought to be a major cause of treatable morbidity among TBI survivors. Consequently, recommendations for assessment of pituitary function and replacement in TBI were recently introduced. Given...
Koutsoukou, Antonia; Katsiari, Maria; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Daganou, Maria; Kyriakopoulou, Magdalini; Koulouris, Nikolaos G; Rovina, Nikoletta
Several clinical and experimental studies have shown that lung injury occurs shortly after brain damage. The responsible mechanisms involve neurogenic pulmonary edema, inflammation, the harmful action of neurotransmitters, or autonomic system dysfunction. Mechanical ventilation, an essential component of life support in brain-damaged patients (BD), may be an additional traumatic factor to the already injured or susceptible to injury lungs of these patients thus worsening lung injury, in case that non lung protective ventilator settings are applied. Measurement of respiratory mechanics in BD patients, as well as assessment of their evolution during mechanical ventilation, may lead to preclinical lung injury detection early enough, allowing thus the selection of the appropriate ventilator settings to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury. The aim of this review is to explore the mechanical properties of the respiratory system in BD patients along with the underlying mechanisms, and to translate the evidence of animal and clinical studies into therapeutic implications regarding the mechanical ventilation of these critically ill patients.
Maguigan, Kelly L; Dennis, Bradley M; Hamblin, Susan E; Guillamondegui, Oscar D
Hypertonic saline (HTS) is an effective therapy for reducing intracranial pressure (ICP). The ideal method of administration is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the method of HTS infusion and time to goal osmolality. A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted in severe TBI patients with ICP monitoring in place who received 2 doses of HTS. Patients were divided into bolus versus continuous infusion HTS cohorts. The primary outcome was median time to goal osmolality. Secondary outcomes included percentage of patients reaching goal osmolality, percent time at goal osmolality, mean cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and ICP, ICU length of stay, and mortality. Safety outcomes included rates of hyperchloremia, hypernatremia, and acute kidney injury (AKI). 162 patients were included with similar baseline characteristics. Time to goal osmolality was similar between cohorts (bolus 9.78h vs. continuous 11.4h, p=0.817). A significant difference in the percentage of patients reaching goal osmolality favoring the continuous group was found (93.9% vs 73.3%, p=0.003). The continuous group was maintained at goal osmolality for a higher percentage of osmolality values after reaching goal (80% vs. 50%, p=0.032). No difference was seen in CPP, ICP, length of stay and mortality. Rates of hypernatremia were similar, but significant higher rates of hyperchloremia (0.77vs 1.58 events per HTS days, p<0.001) and AKI (0% vs 12.9%, p=0.025) were observed in the continuous cohort. Although no difference in time to goal osmolality was observed, continuous HTS was associated with a higher percentage of patients achieving goal osmolality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The most fundamental clinical monitoring tool in traumatic brain injury (TBI patients is the repeated clinical examination. In the severe TBI patient treated by continuous sedation in a neurocritical care (NCC unit, sedation interruption is required to enable a clinical evaluation (named the neurological wake-up test; NWT assessing the level of consciousness, pupillary diameter and reactivity to light, and presence of focal neurological deficits. There is a basic conflict regarding the NWT in the NCC setting; can the clinical information obtained by the NWT justify the risk of inducing a stress response in a severe TBI patient? Furthermore, in the presence of advanced multimodal monitoring and neuroimaging, is the NWT necessary to identify important clinical alterations? In studies of severe TBI patients, the NWT was consistently shown to induce a stress reaction including brief increases in intracranial pressure (ICP and changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP. However, it has not been established whether these short-lived ICP and CPP changes are detrimental to the injured brain. Daily interruption of sedation is associated with a reduced ventilator time, shorter hospital stay and reduced mortality in many studies of general intensive care unit patients, although such clinical benefits have not been firmly established in TBI. To date, there is no consensus on the use of the NWT among NCC units and systematic studies are scarce. Thus, additional studies evaluating the role of the NWT in clinical decision-making are needed. Multimodal NCC monitoring may be an adjunct in assessing in which TBI patients the NWT can be safely performed. At present, the NWT remains the golden standard for clinical monitoring and detection of neurological changes in NCC and could be considered in TBI patients with stable baseline ICP and CPP readings. The focus of the present review is an overview of the existing literature on the role of the NWT as a clinical
The most fundamental clinical monitoring tool in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients is the repeated clinical examination. In the severe TBI patient treated by continuous sedation in a neurocritical care (NCC) unit, sedation interruption is required to enable a clinical evaluation (named the neurological wake-up test; NWT) assessing the level of consciousness, pupillary diameter and reactivity to light, and presence of focal neurological deficits. There is a basic conflict regarding the NWT in the NCC setting; can the clinical information obtained by the NWT justify the risk of inducing a stress response in a severe TBI patient? Furthermore, in the presence of advanced multimodal monitoring and neuroimaging, is the NWT necessary to identify important clinical alterations? In studies of severe TBI patients, the NWT was consistently shown to induce a stress reaction including brief increases in intracranial pressure (ICP) and changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). However, it has not been established whether these short-lived ICP and CPP changes are detrimental to the injured brain. Daily interruption of sedation is associated with a reduced ventilator time, shorter hospital stay and reduced mortality in many studies of general intensive care unit patients, although such clinical benefits have not been firmly established in TBI. To date, there is no consensus on the use of the NWT among NCC units and systematic studies are scarce. Thus, additional studies evaluating the role of the NWT in clinical decision-making are needed. Multimodal NCC monitoring may be an adjunct in assessing in which TBI patients the NWT can be safely performed. At present, the NWT remains the golden standard for clinical monitoring and detection of neurological changes in NCC and could be considered in TBI patients with stable baseline ICP and CPP readings. The focus of the present review is an overview of the existing literature on the role of the NWT as a clinical monitoring tool
Chesire, David J.; Buckley, Valerie A.; Canto, Angela I.
The incidence of brain injuries, as well as their impact on individuals who sustain them, has received growing attention from American media in recent years. This attention is likely the result of high profile individuals suffering brain injuries. Greater public awareness of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) has also been promoted by sources such as…
Ernst, William J.; Gallo, Adrienne B.; Sellers, Amanda L.; Mulrine, Jessica; MacNamara, Luciana; Abrahamson, Allison; Kneavel, Meredith
The purpose of this study is to determine knowledge of traumatic brain injury among educators. Few studies have examined knowledge of traumatic brain injury in this population and fewer still have included a substantial proportion of general education teachers. Examining knowledge of traumatic brain injury in educators is important as the vast…
Senapathi, Tjokorda Gde Agung; Wiryana, Made; Sinardja, Ketut; Nada, Ketut Wibawa; Sutawan, Ida Bagus Krisna Jaya; Ryalino, Christopher; Alphonso, Aloysius
Maintaining brain oxygenation status is the main goal of treatment in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2) monitoring is a technique to estimate global balance between cerebral oxygen supply and its metabolic requirement. Full Outline of Responsiveness (FOUR) score, a new consciousness measurement scoring, is expected to become an alternative for Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in evaluating neurologic status of patients with severe traumatic head injury, especially for those under mechanical ventilation. A total of 63 patients with severe TBI admitted to emergency department (ED) were included in this study. SjvO2 sampling was taken every 24 hours, until 72 hours after arrival. The assessment of FOUR score was conducted directly after each blood sample for SjvO2 was taken. Spearman's rank correlation was used to determine the correlation between SjvO2 and FOUR score. Regression analysis was used to determine mortality predictors. From the 63 patients, a weak positive correlation between SjvO2 and FOUR score (r=0.246, p=0.052) was found upon admission. Meanwhile, strong and moderate negative correlation values were found in 48 hours (r=-0.751, p<0.001) and 72 hours (r=-0.49, p=0.002) after admission. Both FOUR score (p<0.001) and SjvO2 (p=0.04) were found to be independent mortality predictors in severe TBI. There was a negative correlation between the value of SjvO2 and FOUR score at 48 and 72 hours after admission. Both SjvO2 and FOUR score are independent mortality predictors in severe TBI.
Dundon, Neil M; Dockree, Suvi P; Buckley, Vanessa; Merriman, Niamh; Carton, Mary; Clarke, Sarah; Roche, Richard A P; Lalor, Edmund C; Robertson, Ian H; Dockree, Paul M
Patients who suffer traumatic brain injury frequently report difficulty concentrating on tasks and completing routine activities in noisy and distracting environments. Such impairments can have long-term negative psychosocial consequences. A cognitive control function that may underlie this impairment is the capacity to select a goal-relevant signal for further processing while safeguarding it from irrelevant noise. A paradigmatic investigation of this problem was undertaken using a dichotic listening task (study 1) in which comprehension of a stream of speech to one ear was measured in the context of increasing interference from a second stream of irrelevant speech to the other ear. Controls showed an initial decline in performance in the presence of competing speech but thereafter showed adaptation to increasing audibility of irrelevant speech, even at the highest levels of noise. By contrast, patients showed linear decline in performance with increasing noise. Subsequently attempts were made to ameliorate this deficit (study 2) using a cognitive training procedure based on attention process training (APT) that included graded exposure to irrelevant noise over the course of training. Patients were assigned to adaptive and non-adaptive training schedules or to a no-training control group. Results showed that both types of training drove improvements in the dichotic listening and in naturalistic tasks of performance in noise. Improvements were also seen on measures of selective attention in the visual domain suggesting transfer of training. We also observed augmentation of event-related potentials (ERPs) linked to target processing (P3b) but no change in ERPs evoked by distractor stimuli (P3a) suggesting that training heightened tuning of target signals, as opposed to gating irrelevant noise. No changes in any of the above measures were observed in a no-training control group. Together these findings present an ecologically valid approach to measure selective
Boselli, Mirella; Aquilani, Roberto; Baiardi, Paola; Dioguardi, Francesco Saverio; Guarnaschelli, Caterina; Achilli, Maria Pia; Arrigoni, Nadia; Iadarola, Paolo; Verri, Manuela; Viglio, Simona; Barbieri, Annalisa; Boschi, Federica
To investigate whether supplementation with oral essential amino acids (EAAs) may reduce the occurrence of nosocomial infection among patients with brain injury (BI: stroke, trauma, anoxic coma). Patients (n = 125; 77 men, 48 women; mean age 63 ± 15 years) with stroke (68.8%), subarachnoid hemorrhage (17.6%), traumatic BI (7.2%), and anoxic BI (6.4%) 88 ± 15 days after the index event. Patients were randomly assigned to 2 months of oral EAAs (n = 63; 8 g/d) or placebo (n = 62). Over the first month of rehabilitation, there were 60 infections in the whole population of 125 patients (48%); however, the rate was 23.2% lower in the EAA group (23 episodes/63 patients; 36.5%) than in the placebo group (37 episodes/62 patients; 59.7%) (P 0.3 mg/dL were the best predictors of future infection (prealbumin: odds ratio [OR] = 4.17, confidence interval [CI] 1.84-9.45, P < .001; CRP: OR = 3.8, CI 1.71-8.44, P < .001). Supplementary EAAs may reduce the occurrence of nosocomial infections in rehabilitation patients with BI. Prealbumin and CRP are the best predictors of future infections.
Hurt; Rice; McIntosh; Thaut
Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) was studied in a frequency entrainment design and as a therapeutic stimulus to facilitate gait patterns in 8 traumatically brain injured individuals (5 male/3 female; mean age 30 +/- 5 years) with persisting gait disorder, 4-24 months postinjury. During entrainment, with RAS frequency matched to baseline cadence, velocity and stride symmetry both increased by an average of 18%. Increases contributing to the velocity improvement were seen in both stride length (7%) and cadence (8%). With RAS accelerated 5% over the fast walking step rate of the patients, 5 patients could entrain to a higher step frequency. The 2 patients with the slowest baseline gait velocity could not entrain to faster RAS frequencies. After 5 weeks of daily RAS training, 5 patients' mean velocity increased significantly (p =.05) by 51% (38.8 m/min to 57.6 m/min; p =.43). Cadence (+16%) and stride length (+29%) also showed statistically significant improvement. Stride symmetry improved nonsignificantly by 12%.
Lee, Kangim; Oh, Hyunsoo; Suh, Yeonok; Seo, Whasook
This study was conducted to assess the patterns and clinical correlates of acute pain in brain injury patients during the critical care period using the Critical Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT). Data were collected from 31 brain-injury patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) at a university hospital located in Incheon, Republic of Korea. Glasgow Coma Scale and CPOT scores were assessed on days 1, 3, 6, 9, and 14 after ICU admission. Results showed that temporal changes in pain intensity displayed a consistent pattern in critical care patients with a brain injury during the first 14 days of ICU admission. Mean pain score was highest on day 1, decreased rapidly to reach a minimum on day 3 or 6, and then increased on day 9. In most patients, pain reduced slightly on day 14. Mean CPOT scores were significantly higher in the nonsurgery group than in the surgery group. There was also a nonsignificant trend of higher pain intensity scores among patients with moderate brain injury compared with those with severe injury. CPOT scores immediately after endotracheal suctioning were significantly higher than before endotracheal suctioning, but CPOT scores 20 minutes after suctioning were similar to those before suctioning. The present study may be meaningful in terms of presenting valid clinical information regarding the patterns and characteristics of acute pain in brain injury patients who are often unable to self-report on the presence and intensity of pain. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kos, Claire; van Tol, Marie-José; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André
Apathy can be described as a loss of goal-directed purposeful behavior and is common in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although previous studies investigated associations between abnormal brain functioning and apathy, it is unclear whether the neural basis of apathy is similar across different pathological conditions. The purpose of this systematic review was to provide an extensive overview of the neuroimaging literature on apathy including studies of various patient populations, and evaluate whether the current state of affairs suggest disorder specific or shared neural correlates of apathy. Results suggest that abnormalities within fronto-striatal circuits are most consistently associated with apathy across the different pathological conditions. Of note, abnormalities within the inferior parietal cortex were also linked to apathy, a region previously not included in neuroanatomical models of apathy. The variance in brain regions implicated in apathy may suggest that different routes towards apathy are possible. Future research should investigate possible alterations in different processes underlying goal-directed behavior, ranging from intention and goal-selection to action planning and execution. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Carpenter, Keri L H; Young, Adam M H; Hutchinson, Peter J
Here, we review the present state-of-the-art of microdialysis for monitoring patients with severe traumatic brain injury, highlighting the newest developments. Microdialysis has evolved in neurocritical care to become an established bedside monitoring modality that can reveal unique information on brain chemistry. A major advance is recent consensus guidelines for microdialysis use and interpretation. Other advances include insight obtained from microdialysis into the complex, interlinked traumatic brain injury disorders of electrophysiological changes, white matter injury, inflammation and metabolism. Microdialysis has matured into being a standard clinical monitoring modality that takes its place alongside intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygen tension measurement in specialist neurocritical care centres, as well as being a research tool able to shed light on brain metabolism, inflammation, therapeutic approaches, blood-brain barrier transit and drug effects on downstream targets. Recent consensus on microdialysis monitoring is paving the way for improved neurocritical care protocols. Furthermore, there is scope for future improvements both in terms of the catheters and microdialysate analyser technology, which may further enhance its applicability.
Vella, Michael A; Crandall, Marie L; Patel, Mayur B
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in patients with trauma. Management strategies must focus on preventing secondary injury by avoiding hypotension and hypoxia and maintaining appropriate cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), which is a surrogate for cerebral blood flow. CPP can be maintained by increasing mean arterial pressure, decreasing intracranial pressure, or both. The goal should be euvolemia and avoidance of hypotension. Other factors that deserve important consideration in the acute management of patients with TBI are venous thromboembolism, stress ulcer, and seizure prophylaxis, as well as nutritional and metabolic optimization. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Puopolo, Concetta; Martelli, Marialuisa; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi
Here we present a meta-analysis of studies that examined the reaction times (RT) of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) on decision tasks carried out under time pressure. To detect the presence of global components in the data describing the slowing of TBI patients, we used predictions of the difference engine model (DEM). According to this model, performance can be understood by referring to two separate and independent compartments, one cognitive and one sensory-motor. Results confirm previous observations that TBI patients are delayed with respect to matched controls by a multiplicative factor affecting performance over and above the specific characteristics of the tasks. This meta-analysis also shows that the global factor affecting TBI patients' performance is selective for the visual modality. No over-additivity was detected on tasks in the acoustic modality. Estimates of the time taken by the sensory-motor component of the task indicated substantial slowing in the TBI patients. This delay was particularly marked in patients with severe TBI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andrews, Hans; Rittenhouse, Katelyn; Gross, Brian; Rogers, Frederick B
The incidence of geriatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is increasing throughout the United States, with many of these patients taking anticoagulation (AC) medication. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of time to international normalized ratio (INR) reversal on intracranial hemorrhage evolution in TBI patients taking prehospital AC medication. We hypothesized that rapid reversal of INR improves outcomes of head-injured patients taking AC medication. Admissions to a Level II trauma center between February 2011 and December 2013 were reviewed. Patients presenting with an initial INR of 2.0 or more, computed tomographic scan positive for intracranial hemorrhage, and INR reversal to less than 1.5 in hospital were included. Patients with nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage were excluded. Reversal of INR was achieved using some combination of fresh frozen plasma, prothrombin complex concentrate, and vitamin K. A binary logistic regression model assessed the adjusted impact of rapid INR reversal on intracranial hemorrhage evolution. Significance was defined as p hr was not associated with intracranial hemorrhage evolution; however, reversal of less than 10 hr was found to be associated with a decreased odds ratio for intracranial hemorrhage evolution (p = .043). Rapid reversal of elevated INR levels (hr) may decrease intracranial hemorrhage evolution in TBI patients taking prehospital AC medication.
Eide, P.K.; Tysnes, O.B. (Haukeland Hospital, Bergen (Norway))
The early and late outcome was evaluated in head injury patients who presented brain contusion(s) on the cranial CT scan and in patients hospitalized for concussion. There was a high degree of concurrence between mortality and CT findings. Late complaints were common among cases of concussion of the brain. However, the frequency of impaired memory and concentration, speech problems, paresis and epileptic seizures was increased in cases where the CT scan showed brain contusion. Adaptive and social functioning was most impaired in cases with multifocal contusions in both hemispheres. 16 refs., 5 tabs.
To assess the safety of various products, equipment, and vehicles during traumatic events injury risk curves have been developed correlate measurable parameters with risk of injury. The first risk curves to predict head injuries focused on severe head injuries such as skull fractures. These curves were generated by impacting cadaver heads. To understand the biomechanics of mild traumatic brain injuries, cadaver heads have also been used to monitor pressure and strain in the brain during impac...
Warren, Ann Marie; Rainey, Evan Elizabeth; Weddle, Rebecca Joanne; Bennett, Monica; Roden-Foreman, Kenleigh; Foreman, Michael L
The intensive care unit (ICU) has been identified as a possible contributor to emotional distress. This study seeks to identify whether families of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients in the ICU experience psychological differences as compared with non-TBI patients' family members. Eighty-two family members in a trauma/critical care ICU were assessed at baseline and again at 3 months. The Patient Health Questionnaire 8-Item measured depression, the Primary Care PTSD Screen measured symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS). Forty of these individuals were the family members of ICU patients who had sustained a TBI; 42 of the individuals were the family members of non-TBI patients in the ICU. At baseline, 39% (33% non-TBI, 45% TBI, p = .28) of the total sample screened positive for depressive symptoms and 24.3% (26% non-TBI, 23% TBI, p = .69) screened positive for PTS symptoms. However, differences emerged between the groups at 3 months, with family members in the non-TBI group showing a significant decrease in both baseline depression and PTS symptoms. This study, to our knowledge, is the first of its kind to examine psychological differences in the ICU in those whose family members either have or do not have a TBI. Results suggest the TBI group endorsed more symptoms of depression and PTS symptoms at 3 months. Although it is unclear whether symptoms were directly related to the ICU experience or the injury itself, future research should explore the possible additive effect of postintensive care syndrome-family symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Lorenz, Laura; Katz, Gabrielle
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a major public health problem in Massachusetts (Hackman et al, 2014) and includes traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, ABI-related infectious diseases, metabolic disorders affecting the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and brain tumor. Advances in emergency medical care and neurosurgery mean that more people are surviving severe traumatic brain injury (Trexler et al, 2014). Yet many patients with severe TBI in particular, are not receiving inpatient services after initial treatment (Hackman et al, 2014; CDC, 2014) or later that are known to be effective (Malec & Kean, 2015; Lewis & Horn, 2015; BI Commission, 2011; Kolakowsky-Hayner et al, 2000; Interviews). These services include post-acute rehabilitation, case management, and brain injury-specific community programming (CDC, 2014; BI Commission, 2011; Interviews). Governance and data for decision-making are also major gaps in the continuum of care for severe brain injury in MA (Interviews; NASHIA, 2005). The last two decades saw a surge in interest in the brain, with advances in neuroscience, diagnosis and measurement of brain injury, rehabilitation services, and brain theory (Boyle, 2001). Severe brain injury however is the new "hidden epidemic" in our society. For many, an injury to the brain is not a short-term event that can be "cured" but the beginning of a life-long disability (CDC, 2014; Langlois et al, 2006). Fortunately, even after a severe brain injury, when the right rehabilitation is provided at the right time, the "rest of life" journey can be a positive one for many (Marquez de la Plata, 2015; Langlois et al, 2006). Severe brain injury can lead to a "new normal" as patients regain skills, find new meaning and in life, and take on new family, volunteer, and work roles. Throughout this brief, the term "severe brain injury" refers to "severe acquired brain injury," or any injury to the brain that occurs after birth. This definition does not include
Geurtsen, Gert J.; van Heugten, Caroline M.; Meijer, Ron; Martina, Juan D.; Geurts, Alexander C. H.
Objective: To examine the effects of a residential community reintegration programme for patients with psychosocial problems due to acquired chronic brain injury on caregivers' emotional burden and family functioning. Design: A prospective cohort study with waiting list control and 1-year follow-up.
Jin, P. H. Ping Fung Kon; Penning, Niels; Joosse, Pieter; Hijdra, Albert H. J.; Bouma, Gert Joan; Ponsen, Kees Jan; Goslings, J. Carel
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the introduction of an all-in workflow concept that included direct computed tomography (CT) scanning in the trauma room on mortality and functional outcome of trauma patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) admitted to a level-1 trauma
Suehiro, Eiichi; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Fujisawa, Hirosuke; Fujita, Motoki; Kaneko, Tadashi; Oda, Yasutaka; Yamashita, Susumu; Tsuruta, Ryosuke; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Michiyasu
A multicenter randomized controlled trial of patients with severe traumatic brain injury who received therapeutic hypothermia or fever control was performed from 2002 to 2008 in Japan (BHYPO). There was no difference in the therapeutic effect on traumatic brain injury between the two groups. The efficacy of hypothermia treatment and the objective of the treatment were reexamined based on a secondary analysis of the BHYPO trial in 135 patients (88 treated with therapeutic hypothermia and 47 with fever control). This analysis was performed to examine clinical outcomes according to the CT classification of the Traumatic Coma Data Bank on admission. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale and mortality at 6 months after injury. Good recovery and moderate disability were defined as favorable outcomes. Favorable outcomes in young patients (≤50 years old) with evacuated mass lesions significantly increased from 33.3% with fever control to 77.8% with therapeutic hypothermia. Patients with diffuse injury III who were treated with therapeutic hypothermia, however, had significantly higher mortality than patients treated with fever control. It was difficult to control intracranial pressure with hypothermia for patients with diffuse injury III, but hypothermia was effective for young patients with an evacuated mass lesion.
Fortin, Audrey; Lefebvre, Mathilde Beaulieu; Ptito, Maurice
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Olfactory functions are not systematically evaluated following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aimed at comparing two smell tests that are used in a clinical setting. RESEARCH DESIGN: The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) and the Alberta Smell...... Test were compared in terms of assessment time, cost and diagnosis. Parameters associated with olfactory loss such as injury severity, type of cerebral lesion and depressive data were considered. Forty-nine TBI patients admitted to an outpatient rehabilitation programme took part in this experiment....... RESULTS: The scores of the two smell tests were significantly correlated. Both tests indicated that patients with frontal lesion performed significantly worse than patients with other types of lesion. Mood and injury severity were not associated with olfactory impairment when age was taken into account...
Kazumata, Ken; Tha, Khin Khin; Narita, Hisashi; Shichinohe, Hideo; Ito, Masaki; Uchino, Haruto; Abumiya, Takeo
Chronic ischemia in adult moyamoya disease (MMD) reduces the integrity of normal-appearing white matter (WM). We investigated whether covert WM impairment alters large-scale brain networks and specific neural circuits associated with neurocognitive dysfunction in MMD. Forty-six participants (control, n = 23; MMD, n = 23) were examined using diffusion tensor imaging and streamline tractography. Structural connectivity among 90 cortical and subcortical brain regions was evaluated using the mean fractional anisotropy along the fiber tracts. Graph theoretical analysis was used to measure network parameters and inter-regional connectivity. Global network parameters were reduced in patients with MMD, including cluster coefficient (controls vs. MMD: 3.62 ± 0.24 vs. 3.26 ± 0.36; P < 0.0001), characteristic path length (controls vs. MMD: 1.20 ± 0.02 vs. 1.17 ± 0.01; P < 0.001), and small-world property (controls vs. MMD: 3.07 ± 0.18 vs. 2.83 ± 0.27; P < 0.001). Reduced pairwise connectivity was found in prefrontal neural circuits within the middle/inferior frontal gyrus; supplementary motor area; and insular, inferior temporal, and dorsal cingulate cortices. Covert WM microstructural changes in patients with MMD alter large-scale brain networks, as well as lateral prefrontal neural circuits. Evaluation of structural connectivity may be useful to assess the severity of chronic ischemic injury from a network perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hamed, Sherifa A
Diabetes mellitus is a risk for brain injury. Brain injury is associated with acute and chronic hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hypoglycaemic events in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia is a cause of cognitive deterioration, low intelligent quotient, neurodegeneration, brain aging, brain atrophy and dementia. Areas covered: The current review highlights the experimental, clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological evidence of brain injury induced by diabetes and its associated metabolic derangements. It also highlights the mechanisms of diabetes-induced brain injury. It seems that the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia-induced brain injury is complex and includes combination of vascular disease, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, reduction of neurotrophic factors, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activation, neurotransmitters' changes, impairment of brain repair processes, impairment of brain glymphatic system, accumulation of amyloid β and tau phosphorylation and neurodegeneration. The potentials for prevention and treatment are also discussed. Expert commentary: We summarize the risks and the possible mechanisms of DM-induced brain injury and recommend strategies for neuroprotection and neurorestoration. Recently, a number of drugs and substances [in addition to insulin and its mimics] have shown promising potentials against diabetes-induced brain injury. These include: antioxidants, neuroinflammation inhibitors, anti-apoptotics, neurotrophic factors, AChE inhibitors, mitochondrial function modifiers and cell based therapies.
Lloréns, R; Colomer-Font, C; Alcañiz, M; Noé-Sebastián, E
To study effectiveness of and satisfaction with a virtual reality-based balance rehabilitation system (BioTrak) for patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). Ten patients with chronic hemiparesis (chronicity>6 months) following an ABI completed a 20-session programme using the balance reaching-task module of the BioTrak system. All patients were assessed at baseline, at the end of treatment, and one month later with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA), and the computerised posturography tool NedSVE/IBV. The posturography study included analysis of sensory indexes, limits of stability, and rhythmic weight shift. The usability study was conducted using an ad hoc questionnaire. Repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant improvement in BBS (Pvestibular index (Pvirtual reality systems for balance rehabilitation in this population. Usability data suggest that BioTrak could be adapted for use in multiple rehabilitation settings by a high number of patients. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Omid Moradi Moghaddam
Conclusion: Different kinds of acute traumatic cranial lesions with different prognosis may have different values in BIS monitoring. Presence or absence of frontal lobe injury, had no statistically significant correlations with BIS values.
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is often associated with cognitive impairments. The psychological sequelae of cognitive deficits and emotional problems contribute significantly to the disability in the patient and to the distress of the family. The study aimed to develop a cognitive retraining programme to enhance cognitive functioning in TBI. 25 years old male presenting with history of left temporal hemorrhagic contusion with cerebral edema underwent 2 months of a cognitive retaining programme, addressing executive functions impairment. A single case experimental design with pre- and post-assessment was adopted to evaluate changes in the patient in response to the intervention. Improvements were found in cognitive functioning, and in symptom reduction and behaviour. The 2 months hospital based cognitive retraining programme was found to be efficacious in ameliorating symptoms and improving cognitive, social and occupational functioning post traumatic brain injury.
Bock, J.; Christoffersen, J.K.; Hedegaard, M.
of the 89 surviving children suffered from major handicaps, primarily cerebral palsy. In 69 of the cases, misinterpretation of or late action on an abnormal cardiotocography (CTG) were the reasons for the majority of the hypoxic brain injuries. CONCLUSIONS: All injuries could potentially have been avoided...... using established obstetric practice. CTGs are often misinterpreted. In the authors' opinion, education and training in CTG interpretation is essential. The use of ST-analysis of the fetus ECG (STAN) could probably reduce the number of these injuries Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
Rezaei, Sajjad; Asgari, Karim; Yousefzadeh, Shahrokh; Moosavi, Heshmat-Allah; Kazemnejad, Ehsan
Background Neurosurgical treatment and the severity of head injury (HI) can have remarkable effect on patients’ neuropsychiatric outcomes. Objectives This research aimed to study the effect of these factors on cognitive functioning, general health and incidence of mental disorders in patients with a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients and Methods In this descriptive, longitudinal study, 206 TBI patients entered the study by consecutive sampling; they were then compared according to neurosurgery status and severity of their HI. Both groups underwent neurosurgical and psychological examinations. The mini mental state examination (MMSE) and general health questionnaire–28 items (GHQ-28) were administered to the study participants. At follow-up, four months later, the groups underwent a structured clinical interview by a psychiatrist based on the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria regarding the presence of mental disorders. Results Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) were performed and adjusted for the effect of confounding variables (age, gender, Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) , and level of education). The severity of HI had the most significant effect for the following variables; cognitive functioning and physical symptoms (P < 0.05). The effect of the neurosurgical treatment factor was not significant; however, the interaction effect of the two variables on social dysfunction, and total score of the GHQ-28 questionnaire appeared to be significant (P < 0.05). Fisher's exact test indicated that after a four month follow-up period, no significant differences were seen between the two groups (with or without neurosurgery) in the incidence of mental disorders, while χ2 Test showed that having a more severe HI is significantly correlated with the incidence of mental disorders (P < 0.01). Conclusions The implications of this study should be discussed with an
Full Text Available Introduction: Phenytoin (PHT is used for seizure prophylaxis in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, levetiracetam (LEV is emerging as an alternative. Hence in this study, we aimed to conduct a meta-analysis comparing these two drugs in patients with TBI. Methods: A systematic search in electronic databases was performed. Studies consistent with our purpose (comparing LEV vs. PHT for the prevention of seizures in TBI patients were selected for our meta-analysis. We extracted data of all eligible studies on a standard abstraction sheets. Extracted data included patient’s demographics, study type, intervention, and outcome. We defined seizures as primary outcome. Results: 1184 unduplicated papers identified by our search of which 1106 were excluded by reading the abstract and titles. 72 papers were removed by reading the full text. Finally 6 studies (Cohort studies were selected for analysis. There is no superiority of either these two drugs at preventing of seizures based on the point estimate’s odds ratio (OR = 1.1 [95% confidence interval (CI = 0.55-2.20]. Conclusion: PHT and LEV showed equal efficacy in prevention of seizures after TBI
Jeong, Eunju; Lesiuk, Teresa L
Impairments in attention are commonly seen in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). While visual attention assessment measurements have been rigorously developed and frequently used in cognitive neurorehabilitation, there is a paucity of auditory attention assessment measurements for patients with TBI. The purpose of this study was to field test a researcher-developed Music-based Attention Assessment (MAA), a melodic contour identification test designed to assess three different types of attention (i.e., sustained attention, selective attention, and divided attention), for patients with TBI. Additionally, this study aimed to evaluate the readability and comprehensibility of the test items and to examine the preliminary psychometric properties of the scale and test items. Fifteen patients diagnosed with TBI completed 3 different series of tasks in which they were required to identify melodic contours. The resulting data showed that (a) test items in each of the 3 subtests were found to have an easy to moderate level of item difficulty and an acceptable to high level of item discrimination, and (b) the musical characteristics (i.e., contour, congruence, and pitch interference) were found to be associated with the level of item difficulty, and (c) the internal consistency of the MAA as computed by Cronbach's alpha was .95. Subsequent studies using a larger sample of typical participants, along with individuals with TBI, are needed to confirm construct validity and internal consistency of the MAA. In addition, the authors recommend examination of criterion validity of the MAA as correlated with current neuropsychological attention assessment measurements.
Ignatieva, N S
We present conceptual changes in psychological rehabilitation after severe brain injury. Traditional clinical approach reduces the person's inner life to level of consciousness, considers psychological processes only from the deficit point of view. We consider the experience of coming out of coma (non-existence) from the point of fundamental components of existence, i.e. anchoring with the world, with life, with self, with the future (Langle, 2003). In aspect of experience these components form the matrix of Patient-World and Patient-Self recovery phases. While working with BI patients, we have defined following phases: 0-phase: experiencing existence, the feeling "I exist here". The main target of psychotherapy is consolidation and reinforcement of the feeling of existence through the feeling of one's body boundaries (and extension), and finding resources for surviving. 1-phase: "be-able-to-exist-in-the world". The patient comes across reality of external world. We mean first of all the perception of the factual side of the world. 2-phase: loving life. The work is concentrated on the recovery of patient's ability to address himself and others so as to be able to experience emotions and live through his own wishes. 3-phase: restoration of patient's self-image and substantiation of own value. It means self-perception and selfrespect despite all the losses and deficits because of trauma. 4-phase: finding the sense. It is necessary to help the patient to make the existential change to avoid dependent position, don't consider himself as the victim of circumstances. This conception is used on different stages of recovery starting from severe disordered consciousness to socialization stage.
McCammack, Kevin C; Sadler, Charlotte; Guo, Yueyang; Ramaswamy, Raja S; Farid, Nikdokht
Evaluation recommendations for patients on anticoagulant and antiplatelet (ACAP) therapy that present after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) are controversial. At our institution, an initial noncontrast head computed tomography (HCT) is performed, with a subsequent HCT performed six hours later to exclude delayed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). This study was performed to evaluate the yield and advisability of this approach. We performed a retrospective review of subjects undergoing evaluation for ICH after mild TBI in patients on ACAP therapy between January of 2012 and April of 2013. We assessed for the frequency of ICH on both the initial noncontrast HCT and on the routine six-hour follow-up HCT. Additionally, chart review was performed to evaluate the clinical implications of ICH, when present, and to interrogate whether pertinent clinical and laboratory data may predict the presence of ICH prior to imaging. We used multivariate generalized linear models to assess whether presenting Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), loss of consciousness (LOC), neurological or physical examination findings, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, platelet count, or specific ACAP regimen predicted ICH. 144 patients satisfied inclusion criteria. Ten patients demonstrated initial HCT positive for ICH, with only one demonstrating delayed ICH on the six-hour follow-up HCT. This patient was discharged without any intervention required or functional impairment. Presenting GCS deviation (pclopidogrel (p=0.003), aspirin (p=0.03) or combination regimen (p=0.004) use were more commonly seen in patients with ICH. Routine six-hour follow-up HCT is likely not indicated in patients on ACAP therapy, as our study suggests clinically significant delayed ICH does not occur. Additionally, presenting GCS deviation, LOC, neurological examination findings, clopidogrel, aspirin or combination regimen use may predict ICH, and, in the absence of these findings, HCT may
Full Text Available Mari Viola-Saltzman, Camelia Musleh Department of Neurology, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, USA Abstract: Sleep disturbances are frequently identified following traumatic brain injury, affecting 30%–70% of persons, and often occur after mild head injury. Insomnia, fatigue, and sleepiness are the most frequent sleep complaints after traumatic brain injury. Sleep apnea, narcolepsy, periodic limb movement disorder, and parasomnias may also occur after a head injury. In addition, depression, anxiety, and pain are common brain injury comorbidities with significant influence on sleep quality. Two types of traumatic brain injury that may negatively impact sleep are acceleration/deceleration injuries causing generalized brain damage and contact injuries causing focal brain damage. Polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing, and/or actigraphy may be utilized to diagnose sleep disorders after a head injury. Depending on the disorder, treatment may include the use of medications, positive airway pressure, and/or behavioral modifications. Unfortunately, the treatment of sleep disorders associated with traumatic brain injury may not improve neuropsychological function or sleepiness. Keywords: traumatic brain injury, insomnia, hypersomnia, sleep apnea, periodic limb movement disorder, fatigue
Introduction of the Uppsala Traumatic Brain Injury register for regular surveillance of patient characteristics and neurointensive care management including secondary insult quantification and clinical outcome
Nyholm, Lena; Howells, Tim; Enblad, Per; Lew?n, Anders
Background To improve neurointensive care (NIC) and outcome for traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients it is crucial to define and monitor indexes of the quality of patient care. With this purpose we established the web-based Uppsala TBI register in 2008. In this study we will describe and analyze the data collected during the first three years of this project. Methods Data from the medical charts were organized in three columns containing: 1) Admission data; 2) Data from the NIC period includ...
Chen, Zaifeng; Tang, Linjun; Xu, Xinlong; Wei, Xiaojie; Wen, Lutong; Xie, Qingsong
β-Blocker exposure has been shown to reduce mortality in traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the efficacy of β-blockers remains inconclusive. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted in this paper to evaluate the safety and efficacy of β-blocker therapy on patients with TBI. The electronic databases were systemically retrieved from construction to February 2017. The odds ratio (OR), mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined. A total of 13 observational cohort studies involving 15,734 cases were enrolled. The results indicated that β-blocker therapy had remarkably reduced the in-hospital mortality (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.27-0.40; pblocker therapy was also associated with increased infection rate (OR 2.01; 95% CI 1.50-2.69; pblocker therapy also led to longer period of ventilator support (MD=2.70; 95% CI=1.81, 3.59; pblockers are effective in lowering mortality in patients with TBI. However, β-blocker therapy has markedly increased the infection rate and requires a longer period of ventilator support, intensive care management as well as length of stay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hartings, Jed A; Bullock, M Ross; Okonkwo, David O
Pathological waves of spreading mass neuronal depolarisation arise repeatedly in injured, but potentially salvageable, grey matter in 50-60% of patients after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We aimed to ascertain whether spreading depolarisations are independently associated with unfavourable...
Bratu, Lavinia M; Rogobete, Alexandru F; Papurica, Marius; Sandesc, Dorel; Cradigati, Carmen A; Sarandan, Mirela; Dumache, Raluca; Popovici, Sonia E; Crisan, Dan C; Stanca, Horia; Tanasescu, Sonia; Bedreag, Ovidiu H
One of the most severe conditions specific to the critically ill polytrauma patient is traumatic brain injury and traumatic spinal cord injury. The mortality rate is high in the case of these patients, both because of the direct traumatic lesions, and because of the pathophysiological imbalances associated with trauma. Amongst the most common pathologies associated with the critically ill polytrauma patients responsible for a lower survival rate, are redox imbalance, systemic inflammatory response, infections, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. For this study, was analysed the literature available on PubMed. The key words used in the search were "traumatic brain injury", "spinal cord injury", "microRNAs expression", "polytrauma patients", and "biomarkers". For the study were selected 34 science articles. The oxidative attack on lipids is responsible for the biosynthesis of an increased quantity of free radicals, which further intensifies and aggravates the redox status in these patients. A new era for biomarkers is represented by the expression of miRNAs. In the case of the critically ill polytrauma patient, using miRNAs' expression as biomarkers for the evaluation and monitoring of the molecular and pathophysiological dysfunctions can bring a range of valuable answers that could contribute to an increased survival rate.
Kos, Claire; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C.; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, Andre
Apathy can be described as a loss of goal-directed purposeful behavior and is common in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although previous studies investigated associations between abnormal brain functioning and apathy, it is unclear whether the neural basis of apathy is similar
Salmaso, Natalina; Jablonska, Beata; Scafidi, Joseph; Vaccarino, Flora M; Gallo, Vittorio
Every year in the United States, an estimated 500,000 babies are born preterm (before 37 completed weeks of gestation), and this number is rising, along with the recognition of brain injuries due to preterm delivery. A common underlying pathogenesis appears to be perinatal hypoxia induced by immature lung development, which causes injury to vulnerable neurons and glia. Abnormal growth and maturation of susceptible cell types, particularly neurons and oligodendrocytes, in preterm babies with very low birth weight is associated with decreased cerebral and cerebellar volumes and increases in cerebral ventricular size. Here we reconcile these observations with recent studies using models of perinatal hypoxia that show perturbations in the maturation and function of interneurons, oligodendrocytes and astroglia. Together, these findings suggest that the global mechanism by which perinatal hypoxia alters development is through a delay in maturation of affected cell types, including astroglia, oligodendroglia and neurons.
Lu, Liyan; Cao, Heli; Wei, Xiaoer; Li, Yuehua; Li, Wenbin
This study aimed to evaluate the usability of SWI in assessment of brain iron to detect cognitive dysfunction in patients with chronic mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). 39 patients with mTBI and 37 normal controls were given the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and underwent SWI scanning at least 6 months after injury. Angle radian values were calculated with phase images. The angle radian values were compared between groups using analysis of covariance, and their association with MMSE scores was analyzed using Spearman correlations. Significantly higher angle radian values (p radian values in the right substantia nigra (r = -0.685, p radian values in the right substantia nigra, suggesting a role of SWI in the assessment of cognitive impairments of these patients.
Patet, Camille; Suys, Tamarah; Carteron, Laurent; Oddo, Mauro
Cerebral energy dysfunction has emerged as an important determinant of prognosis following traumatic brain injury (TBI). A number of studies using cerebral microdialysis, positron emission tomography, and jugular bulb oximetry to explore cerebral metabolism in patients with TBI have demonstrated a critical decrease in the availability of the main energy substrate of brain cells (i.e., glucose). Energy dysfunction induces adaptations of cerebral metabolism that include the utilization of alternative energy resources that the brain constitutively has, such as lactate. Two decades of experimental and human investigations have convincingly shown that lactate stands as a major actor of cerebral metabolism. Glutamate-induced activation of glycolysis stimulates lactate production from glucose in astrocytes, with subsequent lactate transfer to neurons (astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle). Lactate is not only used as an extra energy substrate but also acts as a signaling molecule and regulator of systemic and brain glucose use in the cerebral circulation. In animal models of brain injury (e.g., TBI, stroke), supplementation with exogenous lactate exerts significant neuroprotection. Here, we summarize the main clinical studies showing the pivotal role of lactate and cerebral lactate metabolism after TBI. We also review pilot interventional studies that examined exogenous lactate supplementation in patients with TBI and found hypertonic lactate infusions had several beneficial properties on the injured brain, including decrease of brain edema, improvement of neuroenergetics via a "cerebral glucose-sparing effect," and increase of cerebral blood flow. Hypertonic lactate represents a promising area of therapeutic investigation; however, larger studies are needed to further examine mechanisms of action and impact on outcome.
Full Text Available Temperature variations after traumatic brain injury are common and devastating. This has been shown most clearly with hypothermia, but the complications associated with hyperthermia in the setting of traumatic brain injury can be just as problematic. We present the case of a soldier with traumatic brain injury exposed to environmental temperatures of 115-120° F with a core temperature of over 108° F. The complications of his conditions are discussed as well as potential treatments for the deadly combination of traumatic brain injury and environmental hyperthermia.
Eva Esther Tejerina Alvarez
Increased intracranial pressure is associated with mortality and with unfavorable functional outcomes is patients with severe traumatic brain injury. The main clinical practice guidelines recommend using a number of staggered therapeutic measures. However, although these measures seem to be efficient in reducing intracranial pressure, this effect is not often translated into clinical improvement. This review describes the essential principles of the management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury in intensive care units.
Degeneffe, Charles Edmund; Tucker, Mark
Objective: to examine the perspectives of brain injury professionals concerning family members' feelings about the quality of life experienced by individuals with brain injuries. Participants: participating in the study were 28 individuals in leadership positions with the state affiliates of the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA). Methods:…
Kjaersgaard, Annette; Nielsen, Lars Hedemann; Sjölund, Bengt H.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether patients assessed for initiation of oral intake only by Facial-Oral Tract Therapy had a greater risk of developing aspiration pneumonia during neurorehabilitation than patients assessed by Fibreoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing. DESIGN: Randomized controlled ...
Rickels, E; von Wild, K; Wenzlaff, P
The relationship between severe, moderate and mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) as well as the course of treatment and quality management, were studied in a 1-year prospective study in regions of Hannover and Münster Germany. A total of 6,783 patients were documented at the initial examination (58.4% male, 28.1% children <16 years old) and 63.5% participated in the follow-up survey 1 year after the accident. Of these TBI patients 5,220 (73%) were admitted to hospital for clinical treatment but only 258 (<4%) received inpatient rehabilitation. The incidence of TBI was 332/100,000 inhabitants and according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) brain injury was mild in 90.9%, severe in 5.2% and moderate in 3.9%. The main cause of injury was a fall (52.5%) followed by a traffic accident (26.3%). In-hospital mortality was 1%. Only 56% of TBI patients were neurological examined and 63% were examined in hospital within the first hour after the accident. An immediate x-ray of the skull with a doubtful evidential value was made in 82%. Of the participants 35.9% were still receiving medical treatment 1 year after the accident although the majority only suffered mild TBI. An overabundance of severe socioeconomic consequences, e.g. loss of job, accommodation, family, were also found following only mild TBI.
Lannin, Natasha; Carr, Belinda; Allaous, Jeanine; Mackenzie, Bronwyn; Falcon, Alex; Tate, Robyn
To determine the effectiveness of personal digital assistant devices on achievement of memory and organization goals in patients with poor memory after acquired brain injury. Assessor blinded randomized controlled trial. Specialist brain injury rehabilitation hospital (inpatients and outpatients). Adults with acquired brain impairments (85% traumatic brain injury; aged ≥17 years) who were assessed as having functional memory impairment on the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (General Memory Index). Training and support to use a personal digital assistant for eight weeks to compensate for memory failures by an occupational therapist. The control intervention was standard rehabilitation, including use of non-electronic memory aids. Goal Attainment Scale which assessed achievement of participants' daily memory functioning goals and caregiver perception of memory functioning; and General Frequency of Forgetting subscale of the Memory Functioning Questionnaire administered at baseline (pre-randomization) and post intervention (eight weeks later). Forty-two participants with memory impairment were recruited. Use of a personal digital assistant led to greater achievement of functional memory goals (mean difference 1.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0 to 2.2), P = 0.0001) and improvement on the General Frequency of Forgetting subscale (mean difference 12.5 (95% CI 2.0 to 22.9), P = 0.021). Occupational therapy training in the use of a handheld computer improved patients' daily memory function more than standard rehabilitation.
Psychometric evaluation of the pediatric and parent-proxy Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System and the Neurology and Traumatic Brain Injury Quality of Life measurement item banks in pediatric traumatic brain injury.
Bertisch, Hilary; Rivara, Frederick P; Kisala, Pamela A; Wang, Jin; Yeates, Keith Owen; Durbin, Dennis; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Bell, Michael J; Temkin, Nancy; Tulsky, David S
The primary objective is to provide evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the pediatric and parent-proxy versions of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Anxiety, Depression, Anger, Peer Relations, Mobility, Pain Interference, and Fatigue item banks, the Neurology Quality of Life measurement system (Neuro-QOL) Cognition-General Concerns and Stigma item banks, and the Traumatic Brain Injury Quality of Life (TBI-QOL) Executive Function and Headache item banks in a pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) sample. Participants were 134 parent-child (ages 8-18 years) days. Children all sustained TBI and the dyads completed outcome ratings 6 months after injury at one of six medical centers across the United States. Ratings included PROMIS, Neuro-QOL, and TBI-QOL item banks, as well as the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory (PedsQL), the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as legacy criterion measures against which these item banks were validated. The PROMIS, Neuro-QOL, and TBI-QOL item banks demonstrated good convergent validity, as evidenced by moderate to strong correlations with comparable scales on the legacy measures. PROMIS, Neuro-QOL, and TBI-QOL item banks showed weaker correlations with ratings of unrelated constructs on legacy measures, providing evidence of discriminant validity. Our results indicate that the constructs measured by the PROMIS, Neuro-QOL, and TBI-QOL item banks are valid in our pediatric TBI sample and that it is appropriate to use these standardized scores for our primary study analyses.
Full Text Available Objectives: To study the effects of cognitive retraining and inpatient rehabilitation to study the effects of cognitive retraining and inpatient rehabilitation in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI. Design and Setting: This was a prospective follow-up study in a neurological rehabilitation department of quaternary research hospital. Patients and Methods: Thirty patients with ABI, mean age 36.43 years (standard deviation [SD] 12.6, range 18–60, mean duration of illness 77.87 days (SD 91.78, range 21–300 days with cognitive, physical, and motor-sensory deficits underwent inpatient rehabilitation for minimum of 14 sessions over a period of 3 weeks. Nineteen patients (63% reported in the follow-up of minimum 3 months after discharge. Type of ABI, cognitive status (using Montreal Cognitive assessment scale [MoCA] and cognitive Functional Independence Measure [Cog FIM]®, and functional status (motor FIM® were noted at admission, discharge, and follow-up and scores were compared. Results: Patients received inpatient rehabilitation addressing cognitive and functional impairments. Baseline MoCA, motor FIM, and Cog FIM scores were 15.27 (SD = 7.2, range 3–30, 31.57 (SD = 15.6, range 12–63, and 23.47 (SD = 9.7, range 5–35, respectively. All the parameters improved significantly at the time of discharge (MoCA = 19.6 ± 7.4 range 3–30, motor FIM® = 61.33 ± 18.7 range 12–89, Cog FIM® =27.23 ± 8.10 range 9–35. Patients were discharged with home-based programs. Nineteen patients reported in follow-up and observed to have maintained cognition on MoCA (18.8 ± 6.8 range 6–27, significantly improved (P < 0.01 on Cog FIM® (28.0 ± 7.7 range 14–35 and motor FIM® =72.89 ± 16.2 range 40–96 as compare to discharge scores. Conclusions: Cognitive and functional outcomes improve significantly with dedicated and specialized inpatient rehabilitation in ABI patients, which is sustainable over a period.
Full Text Available Approximately 100,000 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients/year in the US survive long enough (> 6 months to experience radiation-induced brain injury. Prior to 1970, the human brain was thought to be highly radioresistant; the acute CNS syndrome occurs after single doses > 30 Gy; white matter necrosis occurs at fractionated doses > 60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become important, because they have profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Given its central role in memory and neurogenesis, the majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus. Irradiating pediatric and young adult rodent brains leads to several hippocampal changes including neuroinflammation and a marked reduction in neurogenesis. These data have been interpreted to suggest that shielding the hippocampus will prevent clinical radiation-induced cognitive impairment. However, this interpretation may be overly simplistic. Studies using older rodents, that more closely match the adult human brain tumor population, indicate that, unlike pediatric and young adult rats, older rats fail to show a radiation-induced decrease in neurogenesis or a loss of mature neurons. Nevertheless, older rats still exhibit cognitive impairment. This occurs in the absence of demyelination and/or white matter necrosis similar to what is observed clinically, suggesting that more subtle molecular, cellular and/or microanatomic modifications are involved in this radiation-induced brain injury. Given that radiation-induced cognitive impairment likely reflects damage to both hippocampal- and non-hippocampal-dependent domains, there is a critical need to investigate the microanatomic and functional effects of radiation in various brain
McCammack, Kevin C.
Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation recommendations for patients on anticoagulant and antiplatelet (ACAP therapy that present after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI are controversial. At our institution, an initial noncontrast head computed tomography (HCT is performed, with a subsequent HCT performed six hours later to exclude delayed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH. This study was performed to evaluate the yield and advisability of this approach. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of subjects undergoing evaluation for ICH after mild TBI in patients on ACAP therapy between January of 2012 and April of 2013. We assessed for the frequency of ICH on both the initial noncontrast HCT and on the routine six-hour follow-up HCT. Additionally, chart review was performed to evaluate the clinical implications of ICH, when present, and to interrogate whether pertinent clinical and laboratory data may predict the presence of ICH prior to imaging. We used multivariate generalized linear models to assess whether presenting Glasgow Coma Score (GCS, loss of consciousness (LOC, neurological or physical examination findings, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, platelet count, or specific ACAP regimen predicted ICH. Results: 144 patients satisfied inclusion criteria. Ten patients demonstrated initial HCT positive for ICH, with only one demonstrating delayed ICH on the six-hour follow-up HCT. This patient was discharged without any intervention required or functional impairment. Presenting GCS deviation (p<0.001, LOC (p=0.04, neurological examination findings (p<0.001, clopidogrel (p=0.003, aspirin (p=0.03 or combination regimen (p=0.004 use were more commonly seen in patients with ICH. Conclusion: Routine six-hour follow-up HCT is likely not indicated in patients on ACAP therapy, as our study suggests clinically significant delayed ICH does not occur. Additionally, presenting GCS deviation, LOC, neurological examination
Younis, Rafif; Younis, Mustafa; Hamidi, Samer; Musmar, Mohamed; Mawson, Anthony R
The eruption of Al-Aqsa Intifada created a war situation in Palestine, increasing the number of firearms injuries caused by occupying Israeli forces as well as disabling head injuries. No data were available to the Palestinian Ministry of Health and other health organizations on traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Palestine. This study, therefore, sought to determine the causes and outcomes of TBI in patients who were admitted to three hospitals in Nablus, Palestine. Retrospective review of medical records and contacts with patients and/or caregivers. The medical records of patients who were diagnosed with TBI (n=312) and admitted to any one of the three hospitals in 2006 and 2007 were reviewed. Data were also obtained from follow-up home visits and telephone calls with consenting patients and/or caregivers. The major causes of TBI were assault (33%), falls (32.1%), road traffic crashes (29.8%) and impacts from heavy objects (3.2%). Gunshot wounds are a major cause of head injury in Palestine. The study shows that assault with firearms is the most frequent cause of TBI in this population and that patients with head injuries due to assault have poorer outcomes at discharge than those injured in other ways.
Aas, Randi Wågø; Haveraaen, Lise Aasen; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Skarpaas, Lisebet Skeie
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is known to be severely disabling. On average, 40% of employees return to work (RTW) within two years after injury. There is, however, limited research on what might contribute to successful RTW. To examine factors that might impact the time-to first RTW for patients with ABI, participating in a RTW-program. The study was designed as a cohort study of patients on sick leave due to mild or moderate ABI (n = 137). The mean age of the patients was 51 years, and 58% were men. The most common diagnoses were stroke (75%) and traumatic brain injury (12%). Data were collected through questionnaires, and combined with register data on sickness absence. Survival analyses were used to analyse the effect of different variables on time to first RTW (full or partial), at one- and two-year follow-up. Generally, women (HR = 0.447; CI: 0.239-0.283) had higher RTW-rates than men, and patients with non-comorbid impairments returned to work earlier than patients with multiple impairments. Although not statistically significant, receiving individual consultations and participating in group-sessions were generally associated with a delayed RTW at both follow-up-times. The only service-related factor significantly associated with delayed RTW was meetings with the social insurance office (HR = 0.522; CI: 0.282-0.965), and only at one-year follow-up. Women and patients with non-comorbid impairments returned to work earlier than men and patients with multiple impairments. There seems to be an association between intense and long-lasting participation in the RTW program and prolonged time-to first-RTW, even after controlling for level of cognitive impairments and comorbidity. Implications for Rehabilitation Acquired brain injury (ABI) is known to be severely disabling, and persons with ABI often experience difficulties in regard to returning to work. This study provides information on prognostic factors that might contribute to return to work (RTW
Buzan, Randall D; Kupfer, Jeff; Eastridge, Dixie; Lema-Hincapie, Andres
Patients and their families struggle with accepting changes in personality after traumatic brain injury (TBI). A neuroanatomic understanding may assist with this process. We briefly review the history of the Western conceptualization of the Self, and discuss how neuroscience and changes in personality wrought by brain injuries modify and enrich our understanding of our selves and our patients. The sense of self, while conflated with the concept of a "soul" in Western thinking, is more rationally considered a construct derived from neurophysiologic structures. The self or personality therefore often changes when the brain changes. A neuroanatomic perspective can help patients, families, and clinicians accept and cope with the sequellae of TBI.
Sachs, Marianne Brostrup; Wolffbrandt, Mia Moth; Poulsen, Ingrid
and methods. Observations were analysed using content analysis. Patricia Benner's aspects of clinical grasp were employed in the interpretation of the observations. FINDINGS: One overarching theme was identified: "Professionalism expressed by preventing intervention, involving the patient, employing clinical...
Freire, Fabio Rios; Coelho, Fernanda; Lacerda, Juliana Rhein; da Silva, Marcio Fernando; Gonçalves, Vanessa Tome; Machado, Sergio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Basile, Luis Fernando Hindi; Oliveira, Arthur Maynart Pereira; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Kanda, Paulo Afonso Medeiros; Anghinah, Renato
Annually, some 500,000 people are hospitalized with brain lesions acquired after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Brazil. Between 75,000 and 100,000 individuals die within hours of the event and 70,000 to 90,000 evolve to irreversible loss of some neurological function. The principal causes of TBI include motor vehicle accidents (50%), falls (21%), assaults and robberies (12%) and accidents during leisure activities (10%). Within this context, cognitive rehabilitation, a clinical area encompassing interdisciplinary action aimed at recovery as well as compensation of cognitive functions altered as a result of cerebral injury, is extremely important for these individuals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the basic concepts related to TBI, including mechanisms of injury, severity levels of TBI, the most common findings in moderate and severe TBI survivors, and the most frequent cognitive impairments following TBI, and also to discuss the strategies used to handle patients post-TBI. The study results yielded relevant information on a structured cognitive rehabilitation service, representing an alternative for patients and families afflicted by TBI, enabling the generation of multiple research protocols.
Sande, Allison; West, Chad
To review current information regarding the pathophysiology associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to outline appropriate patient assessment, diagnostic, and therapeutic options. TBI in veterinary patients can occur subsequent to trauma induced by motor vehicle accidents, falls, and crush injuries. Primary brain injury occurs at the time of initial impact as a result of direct mechanical damage. Secondary brain injury occurs in the minutes to days following the trauma as a result of systemic extracranial events and intracranial changes. The initial diagnosis is often made based on history and physical examination. Assessment should focus on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems followed by a complete neurologic examination. Advanced imaging may be indicated in a patient that fails to respond to appropriate medical therapy. Primary brain injury is beyond the control of the veterinarian. Therefore, treatment should focus on minimizing the incidence or impact of secondary brain injury. Because of a lack of prospective or retrospective clinical data, treatment recommendations for veterinary TBI patients are primarily based on human and experimental studies and personal experience. Therapeutic guidelines have been developed that center on maintaining adequate cerebral perfusion. Severe head trauma is associated with high mortality in humans and animals. However, dogs and cats have a remarkable ability to compensate for loss of cerebral tissue. It is therefore important not to reach hasty prognostic conclusions based on initial appearance. Many pets go on to have a functional outcome and recover from injury.
Høffding, Louise.K.Enggaard; Nielsen, Maria Haahr; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt
% of the patients with ABI are of working age. Thus, standardized clinically effective and cost-effective methodologies regarding VR for patients with ABI are highly needed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of an individually targeted manual-based VR for patient with ABI compared...... as a work placement program including supported employment. Furthermore, the intervention will include a family intervention program followed up by support to one individual family caregiver. The primary outcomes are increased work or study rate at six-month follow-up. Moreover, a budget impact analysis...... is proven successful when compared to the conventional VR, it will provide evidence for a manual-based individualized holistic approach in returning to work after an ABI. Furthermore, the study will contribute with novel knowledge regarding feasibility and clinical effectiveness of the VR intervention...
Abrahamson, Vanessa; Jensen, Jan; Springett, Kate; Sakel, Mohamed
To explore the experiences of individuals who have had a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their carers in the first month post-discharge from in-patient rehabilitation into living in the community. Using a qualitative approach underpinned by critical realism, we explored the narratives of 10 patients and nine carers using semi-structured interviews approximately one month post-discharge. Thematic analysis was carried out independently by two researchers. Firstly, perceptions of support were mixed but many patients and carers felt unsupported in the inpatient phase, during transitions between units and when preparing for discharge. Secondly, they struggled to accept a new reality of changed abilities, loss of roles and loss of autonomy. Thirdly, early experiences post-discharge exacerbated fears for the future. Most patients and carers struggled to identify a cohesive plan that supported their transition to living in the community. Access to services required much persistence on the part of carers and tended to be short-term, and therefore did not meet their long-term needs. We propose the need for a case manager to be involved at an early stage of their rehabilitation and act as a key point for information and access to on-going rehabilitation and other support services. Implications for Rehabilitation Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of long-term disability. It can affect all areas of daily life and significantly reduce quality of life for both patient and carer. Professionals appear to underestimate the change in abilities and impact on daily life once patients return home. Community services maintain a short-term focus, whereas patients and carers want to look further ahead - this dissonance adds to anxiety. The study's findings on service fragmentation indicate an urgent need for better integration within health services and across health, social care and voluntary sectors. A link person/case manager who oversees the patient journey from
Cross, Donna J.; Garwin, Gregory G.; Cline, Marcella M.; Richards, Todd L.; Yarnykh, Vasily; Mourad, Pierre D.; Ho, Rodney J.Y.; Minoshima, Satoshi
Pharmacologic interventions for traumatic brain injury (TBI) hold promise to improve outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine if the microtubule stabilizing therapeutic paclitaxel used for more than 20 years in chemotherapy would improve outcome after TBI. We assessed neurological outcome in mice that received direct application of paclitaxel to brain injury from controlled cortical impact (CCI). Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess injury-related morphological changes. Ca...
Kothari, Mohit; Bjerrum, Katje; Nielsen, Lars Hedemann
through the standard cuffed suction aid tracheotomy tube which primarily is used to suction residual secretion volume from the subglottic area. Sessions were 150 min and ESAF was provided at 60-65, 90-95 and 120-125 min at 3L/min. Outcome measures included swallowing frequency (swallows/5min) at 0-5 (pre...... and reduction in residual secretion volume may indicate that ESAF influences swallowing parameters in patients with tracheotomy tubes....
Macedonia, Christian; Zamisch, Monica; Judy, Jack; Ling, Geoffrey
The repair of traumatic injuries to the central nervous system remains among the most challenging and exciting frontiers in medicine. In both traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injuries, the ultimate goals are to minimize damage and foster recovery. Numerous DARPA initiatives are in progress to meet these goals. The PREventing Violent Explosive Neurologic Trauma program focuses on the characterization of non-penetrating brain injuries resulting from explosive blast, devising predictive models and test platforms, and creating strategies for mitigation and treatment. To this end, animal models of blast induced brain injury are being established, including swine and non-human primates. Assessment of brain injury in blast injured humans will provide invaluable information on brain injury associated motor and cognitive dysfunctions. The Blast Gauge effort provided a device to measure warfighter's blast exposures which will contribute to diagnosing the level of brain injury. The program Cavitation as a Damage Mechanism for Traumatic Brain Injury from Explosive Blast developed mathematical models that predict stresses, strains, and cavitation induced from blast exposures, and is devising mitigation technologies to eliminate injuries resulting from cavitation. The Revolutionizing Prosthetics program is developing an avant-garde prosthetic arm that responds to direct neural control and provides sensory feedback through electrical stimulation. The Reliable Neural-Interface Technology effort will devise technologies to optimally extract information from the nervous system to control next generation prosthetic devices with high fidelity. The emerging knowledge and technologies arising from these DARPA programs will significantly improve the treatment of brain and spinal cord injured patients.
David R. Williamson
Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a worldwide leading cause of mortality and disability. Among TBI complications, agitation is a frequent behavioural problem. Agitation causes potential harm to patients and caregivers, interferes with treatments, leads to unnecessary chemical and physical restraints, increases hospital length of stay, delays rehabilitation, and impedes functional independence. Pharmacological treatments are often considered for agitation management following TBI. Several types of agents have been proposed for the treatment of agitation. However, the benefit and safety of these agents in TBI patients as well as their differential effects and interactions are uncertain. In addition, animal studies and observational studies have suggested impaired cognitive function with the use of certain antipsychotics and benzodiazepines. Hence, a safe and effective treatment for agitation, which does not interfere with neurological recovery, remains to be identified. Methods/design With the help of Health Sciences librarian, we will design a search strategy in the following databases: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE®, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals, LILACS, Web of Science, and Prospero. A grey literature search will be performed using the resources suggested in CADTH’s Grey Matters. We will include all randomized controlled, quasi-experimental, and observational studies with control groups. The population of interest is all patients, including children and adults, who have suffered a TBI. We will include studies in which agitation, not further defined, was the presenting symptom or one of the presenting symptoms. We will also include studies where agitation was not the presenting symptom but was measured as an outcome variable and studies assessing the safety of these pharmacological interventions in TBI patients. We will include studies evaluating all pharmacological
Sinha, Sumit; Raheja, Amol; Samson, Neha; Goyal, Keshav; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Selvi, Arul; Sharma, Pushpa; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar
Among newer neuroprotectant modalities, hypothermia and progesterone have shown a beneficial role in preliminary studies enrolling patients with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of progesterone with or without prophylactic hypothermia in acute sTBI patients. This is a prospective, outcome assessor, statistician blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled phase II trial of progesterone with or without hypothermia (factorial design). All adult patients (18-65 years) with acute sTBI (Glasgow coma score of 4-8) and presenting to trauma center within 8 h after injury were included in the trial. Computer-generated randomization was done after exclusion; sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelope technique was used for allocation concealment. The enrollment duration was from January 2012 to October 2014. The primary endpoint was dichotomized Glasgow outcome score (GOS) [poor recovery = GOS 1-3; good recovery = GOS 4-5], and secondary endpoints were functional independence measure (FIM) score and mortality rate at 6 and 12 months follow-up after recruitment. A total of 107 patients were randomized into four groups (placebo [n = 27], progesterone [n = 26], hypothermia alone [n = 27], and progesterone + hypothermia [n = 27]). The study groups were comparable in baseline parameters except for a higher incidence of decompressive craniectomy in the placebo group (P = 0.001). The analysis of GOS at 6 months revealed statistically significant better outcome in the hypothermia group (82%; P = 0.01) and a weaker evidence for progesterone group (74%; P = 0.07) as compared with the placebo group (44%). However, the outcome benefit was marginal at 1-year follow-up for the hypothermia group (82% vs. 58%, P = 0.17). The adjusted odds ratio of poor recovery at 6 months in the hypothermia group was 0.21 (confidence interval = 0.05-0.84, P = 0.03), as compared with the placebo group. Although mean FIM scores at 6 and
Shumskaya, E.; Andriessen, T.; Norris, David Gordon; Vos, P.E.
Objectives: To evaluate the whole-brain resting-state networks in a homogeneous group of patients with acute mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and to identify alterations in functional connectivity induced by MTBI. Methods: Thirty-five patients with acute MTBI and 35 healthy control subjects,
Hart, Tessa; Kozlowski, Allan; Whyte, John
functional levels received more treatment and more treatment was associated with slower recovery, presumably because treatment was allocated according to need. Thus, effects of treatment on outcome could not be disentangled from effects of case mix factors. CONCLUSIONS: FIM gain during inpatient recovery......OBJECTIVE: To examine person, injury, and treatment characteristics associated with recovery trajectories of people with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) during inpatient rehabilitation. DESIGN: Observational prospective longitudinal study. SETTING: Two specialized inpatient TBI rehabilitation...... recovery was best modeled with linear, cubic, and quadratic components: relatively steep recovery was followed by deceleration of improvement, which attenuated prior to discharge. Slower recovery was associated with older age, longer coma, and interruptions to rehabilitation. Patients admitted at lower...
Ariza, Mar; Pueyo, Roser; Junqué, Carme; Mataró, María; Poca, María Antonia; Mena, Maria Pau; Sahuquillo, Juan
The aim of the present study was to determine whether the type of lesion in a sample of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) was related to material-specific memory impairment. Fifty-nine patients with TBI were classified into three groups according to whether the site of the lesion was right temporal, left temporal or diffuse. Six-months post-injury, visual (Warrington's Facial Recognition Memory Test and Rey's Complex Figure Test) and verbal (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test) memories were assessed. Visual memory deficits assessed by facial memory were associated with right temporal lobe lesion, whereas verbal memory performance assessed with a list of words was related to left temporal lobe lesion. The group with diffuse injury showed both verbal and visual memory impairment. These results suggest a material-specific memory impairment in moderate and severe TBI after focal temporal lesions and a non-specific memory impairment after diffuse damage.
Freire-Aragón, María Dolores; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Egea-Guerrero, Juan José
There has been concern for many years regarding the identification of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) at high risk of developing an intracranial lesion (IL) that would require neurosurgical intervention. The small percentage of patients with these characteristics and the exceptional mortality associated with mild TBI with IL have led to the high use of resources such as computerised tomography (CT) being reconsidered. The various protocols developed for the management of mild TBI are based on the identification of risk factors for IL, which ultimately allows more selective indication or discarding both the CT application and the hospital stay for neurological monitoring. Finally, progress in the study of brain injury biomarkers with prognostic utility in different clinical categories of TBI has recently been incorporated by several clinical practice guidelines, which has allowed, together with clinical assessment, a more accurate prognostic approach for these patients to be established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Annen, J.; Heine, Lizette; Ziegler, E.
A vast body of literature exists showing functional and structural dysfunction within the brains of patients with disorders of consciousness. However, the function (fluorodeoxyglucose FDG-PET metabolism)–structure (MRI-diffusion-weighted images; DWI) relationship and how it is affected in severely...... brain injured patients remains ill-defined. FDG-PET and MRI-DWI in 25 severely brain injured patients (19 Disorders of Consciousness of which 7 unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, 12 minimally conscious; 6 emergence from minimally conscious state) and 25 healthy control subjects were acquired here....... Default mode network (DMN) function–structure connectivity was assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA) and metabolic standardized uptake value (SUV). As expected, a profound decline in regional metabolism and white matter integrity was found in patients as compared with healthy subjects. Furthermore...
Aminmansour, Bahram; Nikbakht, Hossein; Ghorbani, Abbas; Rezvani, Majid; Rahmani, Paiman; Torkashvand, Mostaffa; Nourian, Mohammadamin; Moradi, Mehran
Due to the heterogeneity of traumatic brain injury (TBI), many of single treatments have not been successful in prevention and cure of these kinds of injuries. The neuroprotective effect of progesterone drug on severe brain injuries has been identified, and recently, the neuroprotective effect of vitamin D has also been studied as the combination of these two drugs has shown better effects on animal samples in some studies. This study was conducted to examine the effect of vitamin D and progesterone on brain injury treatment after brain trauma. This study was performed on patients with severe brain trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤ 8) from April to September, 2011. The patients were divided to 3 groups (placebo, progesterone, progesterone-vitamin D), each with 20 people. Upon the patients' admission, their GCS and demographic information were recorded. After 3 months, they were reassessed, and their GCS and GOS (Glasgow outcome scale) were recorded. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 18 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). Before intervention, GCS mean of the placebo, progesterone, and progesterone-vitamin D groups were 6.3 ± 0.88, 6.31 ± 0.87, and 6 ± 0.88, respectively. They increased to 9.16 ± 1.11, 10.25 ± 1.34, and 11.27 ± 2.27, respectively 3 months after intervention. There was a significant difference among GCS means of the 3 groups (P-value = 0.001). GOS was classified to 2 main categories of favorable and unfavorable recovery, of which, favorable recovery in placebo, progesterone, and progesterone-vitamin D was 25%, 45%, and 60%, respectively which showed a statistical significant difference among the groups (P-value = 0.03). The results showed that recovery rate in patients with severe brain trauma in the group receiving progesterone and vitamin D together was significantly higher than that of progesterone group, which was in turn higher than that of placebo group.
Batty, Rachel A; Francis, Andrew; Thomas, Neil; Hopwood, Malcolm; Ponsford, Jennie; Rossell, Susan L
Patients who develop psychosis following a traumatic brain injury (PFTBI) show impaired neurocognition; however, the degree of impairment has not been empirically investigated using a standardised battery. We administered the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) to patients with PFTBI (n=10), and to three groups of controls: traumatic brain injury (TBI) (n=10), schizophrenia (n=23), and nonclinical controls (n=23). The results confirmed that the cognitive neuropsychological profile of dually-diagnosed patients with PFTBI is significantly and substantially impaired. Seventy per cent of patients with PFTBI received a neuropsychological classification between the "extremely low" and "low average" ranges. Group-wise analyses on the RBANS indices indicated that patients with PFTBI had the lowest (Immediate Memory, Attention, Delayed Memory, Total Score), or equal lowest (visuospatial, equivalent with schizophrenia patients) scores, with the exception of the Language Index where no group differences were shown (however, the mean PFTBI score on the Language Index was two standard deviations below the RBANS normative score). These findings provide novel evidence of impaired cognitive neuropsychological processing in patients with PFTBI using a standardised and replicable battery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Postl, Lukas Kurt; Bogner, Viktoria; Beirer, Marc; Kanz, Karl Georg; Egginger, Christoph; Schmitt-Sody, Markus; Biberthaler, Peter; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig
In traumatic brain injury (TBI) the analysis of neuroinflammatory mechanisms gained increasing interest. In this context certain immunocompetent cells might play an important role. Interestingly, in the actual literature there exist only a few studies focusing on the role of monocytes and granulocytes in TBI patients. In this regard it has recently reported that the choroid plexus represents an early, selective barrier for leukocytes after brain injury. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the very early dynamics of CD14+ monocytes and CD15+ granulocyte in CSF of patients following severe TBI with regard to the integrity of the BBB. Cytometric flow analysis was performed to analyze the CD14+ monocyte and CD15+ granulocyte population in CSF of TBI patients. The ratio of CSF and serum albumin as a measure for the BBB's integrity was assessed in parallel. CSF samples of patients receiving lumbar puncture for elective surgery were obtained as controls. Overall 15 patients following severe TBI were enrolled. 10 patients were examined as controls. In patients, the monocyte population as well as the granulocyte population was significantly increased within 72 hours after TBI. The BBB's integrity did not have a significant influence on the cell count in the CSF. PMID:26568661
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In traumatic brain injury (TBI, the appropriate timing and route of feeding, and the efficacy of immune-enhancing formulae have not been well established. We performed this meta-analysis aiming to compare the effects of different nutritional support modalities on clinical outcomes of TBI patients. METHODS: We systematically searched Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library until October, 2012. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs and non-randomized prospective studies (NPSs that compared the effects of different routes, timings, or formulae of feeding on outcomes in TBI patients were selected. The primary outcomes included mortality and poor outcome. The secondary outcomes included the length of hospital stay, the length of ventilation days, and the rate of infectious or feeding-related complications. FINDINGS: 13 RCTs and 3 NPSs were included. The pooled data demonstrated that, compared with delayed feeding, early feeding was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of mortality (relative risk [RR] = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.24-0.50, poor outcome (RR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54-0.91, and infectious complications (RR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-0.99. Compared with enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition showed a slight trend of reduction in the rate of mortality (RR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.34-1.09, poor outcome (RR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.51-1.04, and infectious complications (RR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.66-1.22, whereas without statistical significances. The immune-enhancing formula was associated with a significant reduction in infection rate compared with the standard formula (RR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.35-0.82. Small-bowel feeding was found to be with a decreasing rate of pneumonia compared with nasogastric feeding (RR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.22-0.76. CONCLUSION: After TBI, early initiation of nutrition is recommended. It appears that parenteral nutrition is superior to enteral nutrition in improving outcomes. Our results lend support to
Full Text Available Background: Due to the heterogeneity of traumatic brain injury (TBI, many of single treatments have not been successful in prevention and cure of these kinds of injuries. The neuroprotective effect of progesterone drug on severe brain injuries has been identified, and recently, the neuroprotective effect of vitamin D has also been studied as the combination of these two drugs has shown better effects on animal samples in some studies. This study was conducted to examine the effect of vitamin D and progesterone on brain injury treatment after brain trauma. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on patients with severe brain trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS ≤ 8 from April to September, 2011. The patients were divided to 3 groups (placebo, progesterone, progesterone-vitamin D, each with 20 people. Upon the patients′ admission, their GCS and demographic information were recorded. After 3 months, they were reassessed, and their GCS and GOS (Glasgow outcome scale were recorded. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 18 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA. Results: Before intervention, GCS mean of the placebo, progesterone, and progesterone-vitamin D groups were 6.3 ± 0.88, 6.31 ± 0.87, and 6 ± 0.88, respectively. They increased to 9.16 ± 1.11, 10.25 ± 1.34, and 11.27 ± 2.27, respectively 3 months after intervention. There was a significant difference among GCS means of the 3 groups (P-value = 0.001. GOS was classified to 2 main categories of favorable and unfavorable recovery, of which, favorable recovery in placebo, progesterone, and progesterone-vitamin D was 25%, 45%, and 60%, respectively which showed a statistical significant difference among the groups (P-value = 0.03. Conclusion: The results showed that recovery rate in patients with severe brain trauma in the group receiving progesterone and vitamin D together was significantly higher than that of progesterone group, which was in turn higher than that of placebo group.
Azim, Asad; Jehan, Faisal S; Rhee, Peter; O'Keeffe, Terence; Tang, Andrew; Vercruysse, Gary; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Latifi, Rifat; Joseph, Bellal
Brain injury guidelines (BIG) were developed to reduce overutilization of neurosurgical consultation (NC) as well as computed tomography (CT) imaging. Currently, BIG have been successfully applied to adult populations, but the value of implementing these guidelines among pediatric patients remains unassessed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the established BIG (BIG-1 category) for managing pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) without NC (no-NC). We prospectively implemented the BIG-1 category (normal neurologic examination, ICH ≤ 4 mm limited to one location, no skull fracture) to identify pediatric TBI patients (age, ≤ 21 years) that were to be managed no-NC. Propensity score matching was performed to match these no-NC patients to a similar cohort of patients managed with NC before the implementation of BIG in a 1:1 ratio for demographics, severity of injury, and type as well as size of ICH. Our primary outcome measure was need for neurosurgical intervention. A total of 405 pediatric TBI patients were enrolled, of which 160 (NC, 80; no-NC, 80) were propensity score matched. The mean age was 9.03 ± 7.47 years, 62.1% (n = 85) were male, the median Glasgow Coma Scale score was 15 (13-15), and the median head Abbreviated Injury Scale score was 2 (2-3). A subanalysis based on stratifying patients by age groups showed a decreased in the use of repeat head CT (p = 0.02) in the no-NC group, with no difference in progression (p = 0.34) and the need for neurosurgical intervention (p = 0.9) compared with the NC group. The BIG can be safely and effectively implemented in pediatric TBI patients. Reducing repeat head CT in pediatric patients has long-term sequelae. Likewise, adhering to the guidelines helps in reducing radiation exposure across all age groups. Therapeutic/care management, level III.
M. Smits (Marion); G.C. Houston (Gavin); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); P.A. Wielopolski (Piotr); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam); A. van der Lugt (Aad)
textabstractIntroduction: After minor head injury (MHI), post-concussive symptoms commonly occur. The purpose of this study was to correlate the severity of post-concussive symptoms in MHI patients with MRI measures of microstructural brain injury, namely mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional
Schalow, G; Pääsuke, M
Low-load coordination dynamics were measured in athletes, physiotherapists, gymnasts, musicians and patients after stroke, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord lesion during exercise on a special coordination dynamic therapy device to quantify differences in central nervous system (CNS) organization between healthy subjects and patients with CNS injury. In healthy humans coordination dynamics (arrhythmicity of turning) varied between 5.2 and 6.0 for forward and between 6.9 and 10.7 1/s for backward turning. The frequency of turning varied between 1.24 (athletes) and 1.49 Hz (musicians) for forward and between 1.11 and 1.25 Hz for backward turning. Apart from the poor rhythmicity of backward turning among physiotherapists, gymnasts and musicians, inter-group differences were small in comparison to intra-group variation. In patients with spinal cord lesion the coordination dynamics value was 8.3 for forward and 11.0 for backward turning. The frequencies for forward and backward turning were 1.20 and 1.20 Hz respectively. The values for coordination dynamics and frequency of turning thus did only slightly differ from those measured for healthy subjects. The patients after stroke, traumatic brain injury and cerebral palsy had much higher coordination dynamic values (20.4, 22.9 and 30 1/s respectively) and lower forward (0.85, 0.93, and 0.52 Hz) and backward turning frequencies (0.98, 1.06, 0.42 Hz), suggesting strongly pathologic CNS organization. Low-load coordination dynamics (20N) are thus useful to measure progress in CNS organization due to therapy in patients with CNS injury.
Rafaels, Karin A; Bass, Cameron R Dale; Panzer, Matthew B; Salzar, Robert S; Woods, William A; Feldman, Sanford H; Walilko, Tim; Kent, Richard W; Capehart, Bruce P; Foster, Jonathan B; Derkunt, Burcu; Toman, Amanda
Military service members are often exposed to at least one explosive event, and many blast-exposed veterans present with symptoms of traumatic brain injury. However, there is little information on the intensity and duration of blast necessary to cause brain injury. Varying intensity shock tube blasts were focused on the head of anesthetized ferrets, whose thorax and abdomen were protected. Injury evaluations included physiologic consequences, gross necropsy, and histologic diagnosis. The resulting apnea, meningeal bleeding, and fatality were analyzed using logistic regressions to determine injury risk functions. Increasing severity of blast exposure demonstrated increasing apnea immediately after the blast. Gross necropsy revealed hemorrhages, frequently near the brain stem, at the highest blast intensities. Apnea, bleeding, and fatality risk functions from blast exposure to the head were determined for peak overpressure and positive-phase duration. The 50% risk of apnea and moderate hemorrhage were similar, whereas the 50% risk of mild hemorrhage was independent of duration and required lower overpressures (144 kPa). Another fatality risk function was determined with existing data for scaled positive-phase durations from 1 millisecond to 20 milliseconds. The first primary blast brain injury risk assessments for mild and moderate/severe injuries in a gyrencephalic animal model were determined. The blast level needed to cause a mild/moderate brain injury may be similar to or less than that needed for pulmonary injury. The risk functions can be used in future research for blast brain injury by providing realistic injury risks to guide the design of protection or evaluate injury.
Alharfi, Ibrahim M; Stewart, Tanya Charyk; Foster, Jennifer; Morrison, Gavin C; Fraser, Douglas D
To determine the occurrence rate of central diabetes insipidus in pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury and to describe the clinical, injury, biochemical, imaging, and intervention variables associated with mortality. Retrospective chart and imaging review. Children's Hospital, level 1 trauma center. Severely injured (Injury Severity Score ≥ 12) pediatric trauma patients (>1 month and diabetes insipidus between January 2000 and December 2011. Of 818 severely injured trauma patients, 180 had severe traumatic brain injury with an overall mortality rate of 27.2%. Thirty-two of the severe traumatic brain injury patients developed acute central diabetes insipidus that responded to desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin and/or vasopressin infusion, providing an occurrence rate of 18%. At the time of central diabetes insipidus diagnosis, median urine output and serum sodium were 6.8 ml/kg/hr (interquartile range = 5-11) and 154 mmol/L (interquartile range = 149-159), respectively. The mortality rate of central diabetes insipidus patients was 87.5%, with 71.4% declared brain dead after central diabetes insipidus diagnosis. Early central diabetes insipidus onset, within the first 2 days of severe traumatic brain injury, was strongly associated with mortality (p diabetes insipidus were more likely to have intracranial pressure monitoring (p = 0.03), have thiopental administered to induce coma (p = 0.04) and have received a decompressive craniectomy for elevated intracranial pressure (p = 0.04). The incidence of central diabetes insipidus in pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury is 18%. Mortality was associated with early central diabetes insipidus onset and cerebral edema on head computed tomography. Central diabetes insipidus nonsurvivors were less likely to have received intracranial pressure monitoring, thiopental coma and decompressive craniectomy.
Severe cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) require neurocritical care, the goal being to stabilize hemodynamics and systemic oxygenation to prevent secondary brain injury. It is reported that approximately 45 % of dysoxygenation episodes during critical care have both extracranial and intracranial causes, such as intracranial hypertension and brain edema. For this reason, neurocritical care is incomplete if it only focuses on prevention of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) or decreased cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Arterial hypotension is a major risk factor for secondary brain injury, but hypertension with a loss of autoregulation response or excess hyperventilation to reduce ICP can also result in a critical condition in the brain and is associated with a poor outcome after TBI. Moreover, brain injury itself stimulates systemic inflammation, leading to increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, exacerbated by secondary brain injury and resulting in increased ICP. Indeed, systemic inflammatory response syndrome after TBI reflects the extent of tissue damage at onset and predicts further tissue disruption, producing a worsening clinical condition and ultimately a poor outcome. Elevation of blood catecholamine levels after severe brain damage has been reported to contribute to the regulation of the cytokine network, but this phenomenon is a systemic protective response against systemic insults. Catecholamines are directly involved in the regulation of cytokines, and elevated levels appear to influence the immune system during stress. Medical complications are the leading cause of late morbidity and mortality in many types of brain damage. Neurocritical care after severe TBI has therefore been refined to focus not only on secondary brain injury but also on systemic organ damage after excitation of sympathetic nerves following a stress reaction.
James A. Rodger
Full Text Available Entering medical encounter data by hand is time-consuming. In addition, data are often not entered into the database in a timely enough fashion to enable their use for subsequent mission planning. The Patient Informatics Processing Software semi-automates the data collection process onboard ships. Then data within these images are captured and used to populate a database, after which multiple ship databases are used for reporting and analysis. In this paper, we used the Patient Informatics Processing Software Hybrid Hadoop Hive to orchestrate database processing via various ships, by marshaling the distributed servers, running the various tasks in parallel, managing all of the communications and data transfers between the various parts of the system, and providing for redundancy and fault tolerance. Then we employed the Apache Hive as a data warehouse infrastructure built on top of Hadoop for data summarization, query, and analysis to identify traumatic brain injury (TBI as well as other injury cases. Finally, a proposed Misdiagnosis Minimization Approach method was used for data analysis. We collected data on three ship variables (Byrd, Boxer, Kearsage and injuries to four body regions (head, torso, extremities, and abrasions to determine how the set of collected variables relates to the body injuries. Two dimensions or canonical variables (survival vs. mortality were necessary to understand the association between the two sets of variables. Our method improved data classification and showed that survival, mortality, and morbidity rates can be derived from the superset of Medical Operations data and used for future decision-making and planning. We suggest that an awareness of procedural errors as well as methods to reduce misclassification should be incorporated into all TBI clinical trials. Keywords: Decision support, Traumatic brain injuries, Apache hive, Symbolic data analysis, Informatics, Data mining
Ledig, Christian; Heckemann, Rolf A; Hammers, Alexander; Lopez, Juan Carlos; Newcombe, Virginia F J; Makropoulos, Antonios; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Menon, David K; Rueckert, Daniel
We propose a framework for the robust and fully-automatic segmentation of magnetic resonance (MR) brain images called "Multi-Atlas Label Propagation with Expectation-Maximisation based refinement" (MALP-EM). The presented approach is based on a robust registration approach (MAPER), highly performant label fusion (joint label fusion) and intensity-based label refinement using EM. We further adapt this framework to be applicable for the segmentation of brain images with gross changes in anatomy. We propose to account for consistent registration errors by relaxing anatomical priors obtained by multi-atlas propagation and a weighting scheme to locally combine anatomical atlas priors and intensity-refined posterior probabilities. The method is evaluated on a benchmark dataset used in a recent MICCAI segmentation challenge. In this context we show that MALP-EM is competitive for the segmentation of MR brain scans of healthy adults when compared to state-of-the-art automatic labelling techniques. To demonstrate the versatility of the proposed approach, we employed MALP-EM to segment 125 MR brain images into 134 regions from subjects who had sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI). We employ a protocol to assess segmentation quality if no manual reference labels are available. Based on this protocol, three independent, blinded raters confirmed on 13 MR brain scans with pathology that MALP-EM is superior to established label fusion techniques. We visually confirm the robustness of our segmentation approach on the full cohort and investigate the potential of derived symmetry-based imaging biomarkers that correlate with and predict clinically relevant variables in TBI such as the Marshall Classification (MC) or Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS). Specifically, we show that we are able to stratify TBI patients with favourable outcomes from non-favourable outcomes with 64.7% accuracy using acute-phase MR images and 66.8% accuracy using follow-up MR images. Furthermore, we are able to
Stein, Donald G
Progesterone, although still widely considered primarily a sex hormone, is an important agent affecting many central nervous system functions. This review assesses recent, primarily in vivo, evidence that progesterone can play an important role in promoting and enhancing repair after traumatic brain injury and stroke. Although many of its specific actions on neuroplasticity remain to be discovered, there is growing evidence that this hormone may be a safe and effective treatment for traumatic brain injury and other neural disorders in humans.
Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin
To estimate the health service use over 9 years after the injury year for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), spinal cord injury (SCI) and pelvic fracture (PF), and compare with non-injured....
Scafidi, Joey; Fagel, Devon M.; Ment, Laura R.; Vaccarino, Flora M.
Premature birth is a growing and significant public health problem because of the large number of infants that survive with neurodevelopmental sequelae from brain injury. Recent advances in neuroimaging have shown that although some neuroanatomical structures are altered, others improve over time. This review outlines recent insights into brain structure and function in these preterm infants at school age and relevant animal models. These animal models have provided scientists with an opportunity to explore in depth the molecular and cellular mechanisms of injury as well as the potential of the brain for recovery. The endogenous potential that the brain has for neurogenesis and gliogenesis, and how environment contributes to recovery, are also outlined. These preclinical models will provide important insights into the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms responsible for variable degrees of injury and recovery, permitting the exploration of targeted therapies to facilitate recovery in the developing preterm brain. PMID:19482072
Bahram Aminmansour; Hossein Nikbakht; Abbas Ghorbani; Majid Rezvani; Paiman Rahmani; Mostaffa Torkashvand; Mohammadamin Nourian; Mehran Moradi
Background: Due to the heterogeneity of traumatic brain injury (TBI), many of single treatments have not been successful in prevention and cure of these kinds of injuries. The neuroprotective effect of progesterone drug on severe brain injuries has been identified, and recently, the neuroprotective effect of vitamin D has also been studied as the combination of these two drugs has shown better effects on animal samples in some studies. This study was conducted to examine the effect of vitamin...
Clausen, T; Bullock, R
The goal of this article is to give an overview about the established current treatment concepts of traumatic brain injury, as well as an outlook on possible future developments in pharmacological neuroprotection. Modern medical treatment modalities of traumatic brain injury (TBI), including the preclinical management of severely head-injured patients, are reviewed. Since an increased intracranial pressure represents the most common complication of severe traumatic brain injury, frequently associated with the development of secondary brain damage, special emphasis was given to an updated treatment algorithm for this important condition. New insight into the pathophysiology of severe traumatic brain injury, especially the realization that brain damage develops sequentially, initiated several new treatment approaches aiming at the interruption of pathophysiological mechanisms leading to secondary brain injury. A high number of pharmacological substances have been tested for their ability to ameliorate secondary damage after TBI, or are currently under clinical trial. Although no drug has achieved this goal so far, the most promising of these therapeutical approaches, glutamate receptor antagonists, calcium channel antagonists, free radical scavengers, and cyclosporin A will be discussed in this review. Although a "magical bullet" for the treatment of traumatic brain injury has not been developed yet, several of the currently investigated neuroprotective strategies seem to be encouraging. A promising future approach might be to evaluate treatment strategies that combine several pharmacological agents, and possibly other treatment modalities, such as mild hypothermia, "tailored" according to the special pathology of patient subgroups, or even to every single patient in order to achieve an improvement in outcome after TBI.
Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to evaluate the usability of SWI in assessment of brain iron to detect cognitive dysfunction in patients with chronic mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. Methods. 39 patients with mTBI and 37 normal controls were given the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and underwent SWI scanning at least 6 months after injury. Angle radian values were calculated with phase images. The angle radian values were compared between groups using analysis of covariance, and their association with MMSE scores was analyzed using Spearman correlations. Results. Significantly higher angle radian values (p<0.05 were found in the head of the caudate nucleus, the lenticular nucleus, the hippocampus, the thalamus, the right substantia nigra, the red nucleus, and the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC in the mTBI group, compared to the control group. MMSE scores were negatively correlated with angle radian values in the right substantia nigra (r=-0.685, p<0.001. Conclusions. Patients with chronic mTBI might have abnormally high accumulations of iron, and their MMSE scores are negatively associated with angle radian values in the right substantia nigra, suggesting a role of SWI in the assessment of cognitive impairments of these patients.
Pervez, Mubashir; Kitagawa, Ryan S; Chang, Tiffany R
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) disrupts the normal function of the brain. This condition can adversely affect a person's quality of life with cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and physical symptoms that limit interpersonal, social, and occupational functioning. Although many systems exist, the simplest classification includes mild, moderate, and severe TBI depending on the nature of injury and the impact on the patient's clinical status. Patients with TBI require prompt evaluation and multidisciplinary management. Aside from the type and severity of the TBI, recovery is influenced by individual patient characteristics, social and environmental factors, and access to medical and rehabilitation services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van der Horn, Harm J.; Liemburg, Edith J.; Scheenen, Myrthe E.; de Koning, Myrthe E.; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C.; Spikman, Jacoba M.; van der Naalt, Joukje
ObjectivesTo assess the role of brain networks in emotion regulation and post-traumatic complaints in the sub-acute phase after non-complicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Experimental designFifty-four patients with mTBI (34 with and 20 without complaints) and 20 healthy controls
Kreutzer, Jeffrey S; Marwitz, Jennifer H; Hsu, Nancy; Williams, Kelli; Riddick, Amy
To examine rates of separation and divorce after traumatic brain injury and identify factors relating to risk of marital breakdown. 120 persons who sustained a mild, moderate, or severe traumatic brain injury and who were married at the time of injury. Survivors were contacted between 30 and 96 months postinjury when demographic and marital status information was solicited. Injury information was obtained from medical records. A majority of patients remained married. The rate of divorce was 17% and 8% was the separation rate. People who were married longer before their injury, victims of non-violent injuries, older persons, and persons with less severe injuries were more likely to remain married. Gender, ethnicity, educational level, time elapsed since injury, and postinjury employment status were unrelated to risk for marital breakdown. Research findings do not support contentions that persons with brain injury are at greater risk for divorce relative to the general population. Nor do findings suggest that males are more likely to leave injured female partners. More research is needed to assess marital quality and the potential benefits of intervention programs designed to develop and maintain mutually supportive relationships.
Fact Sheet Occupational Therapy and Community Reintegration of Persons With Brain Injury Brain injuries can affect motor, sensory, cognitive, and behavioral functioning. A person who has sustained a brain ...
Very little research has been done on the effect of dancing on the rehabilitation of patients having a severe brain injury. In addition to motor problems, the symptom picture of the sequelae of severe brain injuries often involves strong fatigability, reduced physiological arousal, disturbances of coordination of attention, difficulties of emotional control and impairment of memory. This review deals with the neural foundation of dancing and the possibilities of dancing in the rehabilitation of severe brain injuries.
cold in another. A study assessing thermal stress and human responses onboard aeromedical evacuation aircraft demonstrated a thermal gradient in...altitude is cold and possesses very little moisture; the higher the altitude, the colder and drier the air. The fresh air is drawn into the aircraft...normothermic measures. Antipyretic agents rely on intact thermoregulation and may not be effective in patients with neurogenic injury (Badjatia
Hartings, Jed A
Spreading depolarizations are unique in being discrete pathologic entities that are well characterized experimentally and also occur commonly in patients with substantial acute brain injury. Here, we review essential concepts in depolarization monitoring, highlighting its clinical significance, interpretation, and future potential. Cortical lesion development in diverse animal models is mediated by tissue waves of mass spreading depolarization that cause the toxic loss of ion homeostasis and limit energy substrate supply through associated vasoconstriction. The signatures of such deterioration are observed in electrocorticographic recordings from perilesional cortex of patients with acute stroke or brain trauma. Experimental work suggests that depolarizations are triggered by energy supply-demand mismatch in focal hotspots of the injury penumbra, and depolarizations are usually observed clinically when other monitoring variables are within recommended ranges. These results suggest that depolarizations are a sensitive measure of relative ischemia and ongoing secondary injury, and may serve as a clinical guide for personalized, mechanistically targeted therapy. Both existing and future candidate therapies offer hope to limit depolarization recurrence. Electrocorticographic monitoring of spreading depolarizations in patients with acute brain injury provides a sensitive measure of relative energy shortage in focal, vulnerable brains regions and indicates ongoing secondary damage. Depolarization monitoring holds potential for targeted clinical trial design and implementation of precision medicine approaches to acute brain injury therapy.
Sommer, Jens Bak; Norup, Anne; Poulsen, Ingrid
-acute rehabilitation in the Eastern part of Denmark during a 5-year period from 2005 to 2009. Methods: Level of consciousness was assessed consecutively during rehabilitation and at 1 year post-trauma. Severity of traumatic brain injury was classified according to duration of post-traumatic amnesia. The cognitive...... of consciousness during the first year post-trauma. At follow-up 33-58% of patients had achieved functional independence within the cognitive domains on the Cog-FIM. Socio-economic status, duration of acute care and post-traumatic amnesia were significant predictors of outcome. Conclusion: Substantial recovery...
Welch, Robert D; Ellis, Morgan; Lewis, Lawrence M; Ayaz, Syed I; Mika, Valerie H; Millis, Scott; Papa, Linda
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), and S100B have been shown to be predictive of patients with brain injury. Kinetics of these biomarkers in injured humans have not been extensively examined. This prospective multi-center study included patients with mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury. Blood samples obtained at enrollment and every 6 h up to 24 h post-injury were assayed for GFAP, UCH-L1, and S100B. Random effects models examined changes in the biomarkers' level over time. A total of 167 patients were enrolled; mean age was 46.0 ± 17.8, 61.1% were male, 143 (85.6%) had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15, and 33 (19.8%) had a positive head computed tomography (CT) scan. Baseline median biomarker concentrations for all three were higher among CT-positive patients (p < 0.0001) but GFAP was the only biomarker that significantly increased over time among CT-positive patients relative to CT-negative patients (log transformed values 0.037; 95% confidence interval 0.02, 0.05; p < 0.001), indicating a 3.7% per hour rise in GFAP concentration. There was no significant increase in either UCH-L1 or S100B in CT-positive patients (p = 0.15 and p = 0.47, respectively). GFAP concentrations increased 3.7% per hour among CT-positive patients whereas neither UCH-L1 nor S100B increased, compared with CT-negative patients. The kinetics and temporal profile of GFAP suggest it may be a more robust biomarker to detect patients with positive CT findings, particularly at later post-injury times. Further study is needed to determine if GFAP is a useful test to follow throughout a patient's clinical course.
Gocheva, Vanya; Hund-Georgiadis, Margret; Hediger, Karin
Previous studies have reported that brain-injured patients frequently suffer from cognitive impairments such as attention and concentration deficits. Numerous rehabilitation clinics offer animal-assisted therapy (AAT) to address these difficulties. The authors' aim was to investigate the immediate effects of AAT on the concentration and attention span of brain-injured patients. Nineteen patients with acquired brain injury were included in a randomized, controlled, within-subject trial. The patients alternately received 12 standard therapy sessions (speech therapy, physiotherapy, occupational therapy) and 12 paralleled AAT sessions with comparable content. A total of 429 therapy sessions was analyzed consisting of 214 AAT and 215 control sessions. Attention span and instances of distraction were assessed via video coding in Noldus Observer. The Mehrdimensionaler Befindlichkeitsbogen ([Multidimensional Affect Rating Scale] MDBF questionnaire; Steyer, Schwenkmezger, Notz, & Eid, 1997) was used to measure the patient's self-rated alertness. Concentration was assessed through Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) via self-assessment and therapist's ratings. The patients' attention span did not differ whether an animal was present or not. However, patients displayed more instances of distraction during AAT. Moreover, patients rated themselves more concentrated and alert during AAT sessions. Further, therapists' evaluation of patients' concentration indicated that patients were more concentrated in AAT compared with the control condition. Although the patients displayed more instances of distraction while in the presence of an animal, it did not have a negative impact on their attention span. In addition, patients reported to be more alert and concentrated when an animal was present. Future studies should examine other attentional processes such as divided attention and include neurobiological correlates of attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
... of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and adolescents and to compare it with previous audits from our local environment and from other developing world centres. All TBI patients admitted to hospital were included in this study. We reviewed the age, gender, outcomes, radiological findings and treatment of the patients.
Andrew B Newberg
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the clinical interpretations of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT using a cerebral blood flow and a dopamine transporter tracer in patients with chronic mild traumatic brain injury (TBI. The goal was to determine how these two different scan might be used and compared to each other in this patient population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twenty-five patients with persistent symptoms after a mild TBI underwent SPECT with both (99mTc exametazime to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF and (123I ioflupane to measure dopamine transporter (DAT binding. The scans were interpreted by two expert readers blinded to any case information and were assessed for abnormal findings in comparison to 10 controls for each type of scan. Qualitative CBF scores for each cortical and subcortical region along with DAT binding scores for the striatum were compared to each other across subjects and to controls. In addition, symptoms were compared to brain scan findings. TBI patients had an average of 6 brain regions with abnormal perfusion compared to controls who had an average of 2 abnormal regions (p<0.001. Patient with headaches had lower CBF in the right frontal lobe, and higher CBF in the left parietal lobe compared to patients without headaches. Lower CBF in the right temporal lobe correlated with poorer reported physical health. Higher DAT binding was associated with more depressive symptoms and overall poorer reported mental health. There was no clear association between CBF and DAT binding in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, both scans detected abnormalities in brain function, but appear to reflect different types of physiological processes associated with chronic mild TBI symptoms. Both types of scans might have distinct uses in the evaluation of chronic TBI patients depending on the clinical scenario.
Capatina, Cristina; Paluzzi, Alessandro; Mitchell, Rosalid; Karavitaki, Niki
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many age groups. Neuroendocrine dysfunction has been recognized as a consequence of TBI and consists of both anterior and posterior pituitary insufficiency; water and electrolyte abnormalities (diabetes insipidus (DI) and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)) are amongst the most challenging sequelae. The acute head trauma can lead (directly or indirectly) to dysfunction of the hypothalamic neurons secreting antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or of the posterior pituitary gland causing post-traumatic DI (PTDI). PTDI is usually diagnosed in the first days after the trauma presenting with hypotonic polyuria. Frequently, the poor general status of most patients prevents adequate fluid intake to compensate the losses and severe dehydration and hypernatremia occur. Management consists of careful monitoring of fluid balance and hormonal replacement. PTDI is associated with high mortality, particularly when presenting very early following the injury. In many surviving patients, the PTDI is transient, lasting a few days to a few weeks and in a minority of cases, it is permanent requiring management similar to that offered to patients with non-traumatic central DI. PMID:26239685
Lannsjö, Marianne; Raininko, Raili; Bustamante, Mariana; von Seth, Charlotta; Borg, Jörgen
To explore brain pathology after mild traumatic brain injury by repeated magnetic resonance examination. A prospective follow-up study. Nineteen patients with mild traumatic brain injury presenting with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 14-15. The patients were examined on day 2 or 3 and 3-7 months after the injury. The magnetic resonance protocol comprised conventional T1- and T2-weighted sequences including fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), two susceptibility-weighted sequences to reveal haemorrhages, and diffusion-weighted sequences. Computer-aided volume comparison was performed. Clinical outcome was assessed by the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). At follow-up, 7 patients (37%) reported ≥ 3 symptoms in RPQ, 5 reported some anxiety and 1 reported mild depression. Fifteen patients reported upper level of good recovery and 4 patients lower level of good recovery (GOSE 8 and 7, respectively). Magnetic resonance pathology was found in 1 patient at the first examination, but 4 patients (21%) showed volume loss at the second examination, at which 3 of them reported brain volume, demonstrated by computer-aided magnetic resonance imaging volumetry, may be a feasible marker of brain pathology after mild traumatic brain injury.
Jenkins, Peter O; Mehta, Mitul A; Sharp, David J
Cognitive problems are one of the main causes of ongoing disability after traumatic brain injury. The heterogeneity of the injuries sustained and the variability of the resulting cognitive deficits makes treating these problems difficult. Identifying the underlying pathology allows a targeted treatment approach aimed at cognitive enhancement. For example, damage to neuromodulatory neurotransmitter systems is common after traumatic brain injury and is an important cause of cognitive impairment. Here, we discuss the evidence implicating disruption of the catecholamines (dopamine and noradrenaline) and review the efficacy of catecholaminergic drugs in treating post-traumatic brain injury cognitive impairments. The response to these therapies is often variable, a likely consequence of the heterogeneous patterns of injury as well as a non-linear relationship between catecholamine levels and cognitive functions. This individual variability means that measuring the structure and function of a person's catecholaminergic systems is likely to allow more refined therapy. Advanced structural and molecular imaging techniques offer the potential to identify disruption to the catecholaminergic systems and to provide a direct measure of catecholamine levels. In addition, measures of structural and functional connectivity can be used to identify common patterns of injury and to measure the functioning of brain 'networks' that are important for normal cognitive functioning. As the catecholamine systems modulate these cognitive networks, these measures could potentially be used to stratify treatment selection and monitor response to treatment in a more sophisticated manner. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI represents a significant public health problem in modern societies. It is primarily a consequence of traffic-related accidents and falls. Other recently recognized causes include sports injuries and indirect forces such as shock waves from battlefield explosions. TBI is an important cause of death and lifelong disability and represents the most well-established environmental risk factor for dementia. With the growing recognition that even mild head injury can lead to neurocognitive deficits, imaging of brain injury has assumed greater importance. However, there is no single imaging modality capable of characterizing TBI. Current advances, particularly in MR imaging, enable visualization and quantification of structural and functional brain changes not hitherto possible. In this review, we summarize data linking TBI with dementia, emphasizing the imaging techniques currently available in clinical practice along with some advances in medical knowledge.
Ramalho, Joana; Castillo, Mauricio
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a significant public health problem in modern societies. It is primarily a consequence of traffic-related accidents and falls. Other recently recognized causes include sports injuries and indirect forces such as shock waves from battlefield explosions. TBI is an important cause of death and lifelong disability and represents the most well-established environmental risk factor for dementia. With the growing recognition that even mild head injury can lead to neurocognitive deficits, imaging of brain injury has assumed greater importance. However, there is no single imaging modality capable of characterizing TBI. Current advances, particularly in MR imaging, enable visualization and quantification of structural and functional brain changes not hitherto possible. In this review, we summarize data linking TBI with dementia, emphasizing the imaging techniques currently available in clinical practice along with some advances in medical knowledge.
... Playing a contact sport, such as football, ice hockey, or boxing; Using in-line skates or riding ... Brain Injury Awareness Additional Pevention Resources Childhood Injuries Concussion in Children and Teens Injuries from Violence Injuries ...
Full Text Available Secondary injuries especially extremity fractures may be seen concurrently with traumatic brain injury (TBI. Peripheral nerve damages may accompany to these fractures and may be missed out, especially in acute stage. In this case report; damage of radial, ulnar and median nerves which was developed secondarily to distal humerus fracture that could not be detected in acute stage, in a patient who had motor vehicle accident (MVA. 29-year-old male patient was admitted with weakness in the right upper extremity. 9 months ago, he had traumatic brain injury because of MVA, and fracture of distal humerus was detected in follow-ups. Upon the suspect of the peripheral nerve injury, the diagnosis was confirmed with ENMG. The patient responded well to the rehabilitation program treatment. In a TBI patient, it must be kept in mind that there might be a secondary trauma and therefore peripheral nerve lesions may accompany to TBI.
Erin D. Bigler
Full Text Available Depending on severity, traumatic brain injury (TBI induces immediate neuropathological effects that in the mildest form may be transient but as severity increases results in neural damage and degeneration. The first phase of neural degeneration is explainable by the primary acute and secondary neuropathological effects initiated by the injury; however, neuroimaging studies demonstrate a prolonged period of pathological changes that progressively occur even during the chronic phase. This review examines how neuroimaging may be used in TBI to understand (1 the dynamic changes that occur in brain development relevant to understanding the effects of TBI and how these relate to developmental stage when the brain is injured, (2 how TBI interferes with age-typical brain development and the effects of aging thereafter, and (3 how TBI results in greater frontotemporolimbic damage, results in cerebral atrophy, and is more disruptive to white matter neural connectivity. Neuroimaging quantification in TBI demonstrates degenerative effects from brain injury over time. An adverse synergistic influence of TBI with aging may predispose the brain injured individual for the development of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders long after surviving the brain injury.
Nucleus accumbens deep brain stimulation for a patient with self-injurious behavior and autism spectrum disorder: functional and structural changes of the brain: report of a case and review of literature.
Park, Hye Ran; Kim, In Hyang; Kang, Hyejin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Dong Gyu; Paek, Sun Ha
The aim of this report was to investigate the clinical outcome of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the functional and structural changes in the brain after DBS. We present a 14-year-old boy with ASD and self-injurious behavior (SIB) refractory with medical and behavioral therapy. He was treated by bilateral nucleus accumbens (NAc) DBS. Remarkable clinical improvement was observed following NAc DBS. Brain fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetric studies revealed that the metabolism in the prefrontal and the frontal cortex as well as the occipital cortex was markedly decreased in association with the decreased cortical volumes in those areas 2 years after NAc DBS. The therapeutic potential of NAc DBS is suggested for the clinical improvement of patients with ASD and SIB with structural and functional changes after DBS.
Introduction of the Uppsala Traumatic Brain Injury register for regular surveillance of patient characteristics and neurointensive care management including secondary insult quantification and clinical outcome
Nyholm, Lena; Howells, Tim; Enblad, Per
Background To improve neurointensive care (NIC) and outcome for traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients it is crucial to define and monitor indexes of the quality of patient care. With this purpose we established the web-based Uppsala TBI register in 2008. In this study we will describe and analyze the data collected during the first three years of this project. Methods Data from the medical charts were organized in three columns containing: 1) Admission data; 2) Data from the NIC period including neurosurgery, type of monitoring, treatment, complications, neurological condition at discharge, and the amount of secondary insults; 3) Outcome six months after injury. Indexes of the quality of care implemented include: 1) Index of improvement; 2) Index of change; 3) The percentages of ‘Talk and die' and ‘Talk and deteriorate' patients. Results Altogether 314 patients were included 2008–2010: 66 women and 248 men aged 0–86 years. Automatic reports showed that the proportion of patients improving during NIC varied between 80% and 60%. The percentage of deteriorated patients was less than 10%. The percentage of Talk and die/Talk and deteriorate cases was NIC unit stay. The occurrences of secondary insults were less than 5% of good monitoring time for intracranial pressure (ICP) >25 mmHg, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) NIC quality indexes. PMID:23837596
Introduction of the Uppsala Traumatic Brain Injury register for regular surveillance of patient characteristics and neurointensive care management including secondary insult quantification and clinical outcome.
Nyholm, Lena; Howells, Tim; Enblad, Per; Lewén, Anders
To improve neurointensive care (NIC) and outcome for traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients it is crucial to define and monitor indexes of the quality of patient care. With this purpose we established the web-based Uppsala TBI register in 2008. In this study we will describe and analyze the data collected during the first three years of this project. Data from the medical charts were organized in three columns containing: 1) Admission data; 2) Data from the NIC period including neurosurgery, type of monitoring, treatment, complications, neurological condition at discharge, and the amount of secondary insults; 3) Outcome six months after injury. Indexes of the quality of care implemented include: 1) Index of improvement; 2) Index of change; 3) The percentages of 'Talk and die' and 'Talk and deteriorate' patients. Altogether 314 patients were included 2008-2010: 66 women and 248 men aged 0-86 years. Automatic reports showed that the proportion of patients improving during NIC varied between 80% and 60%. The percentage of deteriorated patients was less than 10%. The percentage of Talk and die/Talk and deteriorate cases was insults were less than 5% of good monitoring time for intracranial pressure (ICP) >25 mmHg, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) <50 mmHg, and systolic blood pressure <100 mmHg. Favorable outcome was achieved by 64% of adults. The Uppsala TBI register enables the routine monitoring of NIC quality indexes.
Bremare, A; Rapin, A; Veber, B; Beuret-Blanquart, F; Verin, E
The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of swallowing disorders in severe brain injury in the arousal phase after coma. Between December 1, 2013 and June 30, 2014, eleven patients with severe acquired brain injury who were admitted to rehabilitation center (Male 81.8 %; 40.7 ± 14.6 years) were included in the study. Evaluation of swallowing included a functional examination, clinical functional swallowing test, and naso-endoscopic swallowing test. All patients had swallowing disorders at admission. The first functional swallowing test showed oral (77.8 %) and pharyngeal (66.7 %) food bolus transport disorders; and alterations in airway protection mechanisms (80 %). Swallowing test under endoscopic control showed a disorder in swallowing coordination in 55.6 % of patients tested. Seven (63.6 %) patients resumed oral feeding within an average of 6 weeks after admission to rehabilitation center and 14 weeks after acquired brain injury. Six (85.7 %) of these seven patients continued to require modified solid and liquid textures. Swallowing disorders are a major concern in severe brain injury in the arousal phase. Early bedside assessment of swallowing is essential for detection of swallowing disorders to propose appropriate medical rehabilitation care to these patients in a state of altered consciousness.
An 8 yr old spayed female Yorkshire terrier was referred for evaluation of progressive neurological signs after a routine dental prophylaxis with tooth extractions. The patient was circling to the left and blind in the right eye with right hemiparesis. Neurolocalization was to the left forebrain. MRI revealed a linear tract extending from the caudal oropharynx, through the left retrobulbar space and frontal lobe, into the left parietal lobe. A small skull fracture was identified in the frontal bone through which the linear tract passed. Those findings were consistent with iatrogenic trauma from slippage of a dental elevator during extraction of tooth 210. The dog was treated empirically with clindamycin. The patient regained most of its normal neurological function within the first 4 mo after the initial injury. Although still not normal, the dog has a good quality of life. Traumatic brain injury is a rarely reported complication of extraction. Care must be taken while performing dental cleaning and tooth extraction, especially of the maxillary premolar and molar teeth to avoid iatrogenic damage to surrounding structures.
Choi, Phillip A; Parry, Phillip V; Bauer, Joshua S; Zusman, Benjamin E; Panczykowski, David M; Puccio, Ava M; Okonkwo, David O
At present, guidelines are lacking on platelet transfusion in patients with a traumatic intracranial bleed and history of antiplatelet therapy. The aspirin and P2Y 12 response unit (ARU and PRU, respectively) assays detect the effect of aspirin and P2Y 12 inhibitors in the cardiac population. To describe the reversal of platelet inhibition after platelet transfusion using the ARU and PRU assays in patients with traumatic brain injury. Between 2010 and 2015, we conducted a prospective comparative cohort study of patients presenting with a positive head computed tomography and a history of antiplatelet therapy. ARU and PRU assays were performed on admission and 6 hours after transfusion, with a primary end point of detection of disinhibition after platelet transfusion. One hundred seven patients were available for analysis. Seven percent of patients taking aspirin and 27% of patients taking clopidogrel were not therapeutic on admission per the ARU and PRU, respectively. After platelet transfusion, 51% of patients on any aspirin and 67% of patients on any clopidogrel failed to be reversed. ARU increased by 71 ± 76 per unit of apheresis platelets for patients taking any aspirin, and PRU increased by 48 ± 46 per unit of apheresis platelets for patients taking any clopidogrel. A significant percentage of patients taking aspirin or clopidogrel were not therapeutic and thus would be unlikely to benefit from a platelet transfusion. In patients with measured platelet inhibition, a single platelet transfusion was not sufficient to reverse platelet inhibition in almost half.
Oddo, Mauro; Levine, Joshua M; Kumar, Monisha; Iglesias, Katia; Frangos, Suzanne; Maloney-Wilensky, Eileen; Le Roux, Peter D
To investigate the relationship between hemoglobin (Hgb) and brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO(2)) after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to examine its impact on outcome. This was a retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort of severe TBI patients whose PbtO(2) was monitored. The relationship between Hgb-categorized into four quartiles (≤9; 9-10; 10.1-11; >11 g/dl)-and PbtO(2) was analyzed using mixed-effects models. Anemia with compromised PbtO(2) was defined as episodes of Hgb ≤ 9 g/dl with simultaneous PbtO(2) 11 g/dl as the reference level, and controlling for important physiologic covariates (CPP, PaO(2), PaCO(2)), Hgb ≤ 9 g/dl was the only Hgb level that was associated with lower PbtO(2) (coefficient -6.53 (95 % CI -9.13; -3.94), p < 0.001). Anemia with simultaneous PbtO(2) < 20 mmHg, but not anemia alone, increased the risk of unfavorable outcome (odds ratio 6.24 (95 % CI 1.61; 24.22), p = 0.008), controlling for age, GCS, Marshall CT grade, and APACHE II score. In this cohort of severe TBI patients whose PbtO(2) was monitored, a Hgb level no greater than 9 g/dl was associated with compromised PbtO(2). Anemia with simultaneous compromised PbtO(2), but not anemia alone, was a risk factor for unfavorable outcome, irrespective of injury severity.
Thelin, Eric Peter; Tajsic, Tamara; Zeiler, Frederick Adam; Menon, David K.; Hutchinson, Peter J. A.; Carpenter, Keri L. H.; Morganti-Kossmann, Maria Cristina; Helmy, Adel
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are major contributors to morbidity and mortality. Following the initial insult, patients may deteriorate due to secondary brain damage. The underlying molecular and cellular cascades incorporate components of the innate immune system. There are different approaches to assess and monitor cerebral inflammation in the neuro intensive care unit. The aim of this narrative review is to describe techniques to monitor inflammatory activity in patients with TBI and SAH in the acute setting. The analysis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in compartments of the central nervous system (CNS), including the cerebrospinal fluid and the extracellular fluid, represent the most common approaches to monitor surrogate markers of cerebral inflammatory activity. Each of these compartments has a distinct biology that reflects local processes and the cross-talk between systemic and CNS inflammation. Cytokines have been correlated to outcomes as well as ongoing, secondary injury progression. Alongside the dynamic, focal assay of humoral mediators, imaging, through positron emission tomography, can provide a global in vivo measurement of inflammatory cell activity, which reveals long-lasting processes following the initial injury. Compared to the innate immune system activated acutely after brain injury, the adaptive immune system is likely to play a greater role in the chronic phase as evidenced by T-cell-mediated autoreactivity toward brain-specific proteins. The most difficult aspect of assessing neuroinflammation is to determine whether the processes monitored are harmful or beneficial to the brain as accumulating data indicate a dual role for these inflammatory cascades following injury. In summary, the inflammatory component of the complex injury cascade following brain injury may be monitored using different modalities. Using a multimodal monitoring approach can potentially aid in the development of therapeutics
Cnossen, Maryse C; Polinder, Suzanne; Vos, Pieter E; Lingsma, Hester F; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Sun, Yanming; Ye, Pengpeng; Duan, Leilei; Haagsma, Juanita A
There is growing interest in health related quality of life (HRQoL) as an outcome measure in international trials. However, there might be differences in the conceptualization of HRQoL across different socio-cultural groups. The objectives of current study were: (I) to compare HRQoL, measured with the short form (SF)-36 of Dutch and Chinese traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients 1 year after injury and; (II) to assess whether differences in SF-36 profiles could be explained by cultural differences in HRQoL conceptualization. TBI patients are of particular interest because this is an important cause of diverse impairments and disabilities in functional, physical, emotional, cognitive, and social domains that may drastically reduce HRQoL. A prospective cohort study on adult TBI patients in the Netherlands (RUBICS) and a retrospective cohort study in China were used to compare HRQoL 1 year post-injury. Differences on subscales were assessed with the Mann-Whitney U-test. The internal consistency, interscale correlations, item-internal consistency and item-discriminate validity of Dutch and Chinese SF-36 profiles were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess whether Dutch and Chinese data fitted the SF-36 two factor-model (physical and mental construct). Four hundred forty seven Dutch and 173 Chinese TBI patients were included. Dutch patients obtained significantly higher scores on role limitations due to emotional problems (p cultural differences in conceptualization, since item- and scale statistics were all sufficient. However, differences among Dutch and Chinese patients were found in the conceptualization of the domains vitality, mental health and social functioning. One year after TBI, Dutch and Chinese patients reported a different pattern of HRQoL. Further, there might be cultural differences in the conceptualization of some of the SF-36 subscales, which has implications for outcome evaluation in multi-national trials.
Alberto García- Molina
Full Text Available There are many misconceptions about traumatic brain injuries, their recovery and outcome; misconceptions that have their origin in a lack of information influenced by the image that the media show of the brain damage. Development. Based on clinical experience, the authors of this essay sets out his personal view on some of the most frequent misconceptions in the field of neuropsychological rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury: 1 All deficits are evident; 2 The recovery depends mainly on the involvement of the patient: more effort, more rapid recovery; 3 Two years after traumatic brain injury there is no possibility of improvement and recovery; and 4 The “miracle” of recovery will occur when is found the appropriate professional or treatment. These and other beliefs may influence directly or indirectly on the recovery process and the expectations placed on it by the families and patients. Conclusions. Provide accurate, clear and honest information, at the right time, helps patients and their families to better understand the deficits, the course of recovery and to adapt to the new reality resulting from a traumatic brain injury.
Damkliang, Jintana; Considine, Julie; Kent, Bridie; Street, Maryann
Thai emergency nurses play a vital role in caring for patients with severe TBI, and are an important part of the healthcare team throughout the resuscitation phase. They are also responsible for continuous physiological monitoring, and detecting deterioration associated with increased intracranial pressure and preventing secondary brain injury. However, there is known variation in Thai nurses' knowledge and care practices for patients with severe TBI. In addition, there are no specific evidence-based practice guidelines available for emergency nursing management of patients with severe TBI. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of an evidence-based care bundle for initial emergency nursing management of patients with severe TBI for use in a Thai ED context. An evidence-based care bundle focused on seven major elements: (1) establish a secure airway along with c-spine protection, (2) maintain adequacy of oxygenation and ventilation, (3) maintain circulation and fluid balance, (4) assessment of GCS, and pupil size and reactivity, (5) maintain cerebral venous outflow, (6) management of pain, agitation, and irritability, and (7) administer for urgent CT scan. A care bundle is one method of promoting consistent, evidence-based emergency nursing care of patients with severe TBI, decreasing unnecessary variations in nursing care and reducing the risk of secondary brain injury from suboptimal care. Implementation of this evidence-based care bundle developed specifically for the Thai emergency nursing context has the potential to improve the care of the patients with severe TBI. Copyright © 2014 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carteron, Laurent; Taccone, Fabio S; Oddo, Mauro
Manipulation of blood pressure (BP) is a mainstay of therapy in patients with acute brain injury (ABI). In the early emergent phase (first hours from injury), depending on intracranial pathology, BP manipulation aims to: 1) limit the progression of parenchymal hematomas or hemorrhagic transformation (in patients with ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH]), and 2) attenuate hypoperfusion and secondary cerebral ischemic insults (in patients with traumatic brain injury [TBI]). During the intensive care unit (ICU) phase, BP management is primarily focused at identifying the so-called "optimal" BP/cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), i.e. the threshold of mean arterial pressure (MAP)/CPP to prevent secondary cerebral ischemia. BP augmentation is also an essential component of the medical management of delayed cerebral ischemia following SAH. Increasing clinical data support the use of surrogate monitoring modalities of cerebral perfusion (including trans-cranial Doppler and brain tissue oximetry) to indentify BP/CPP targets in ABI patients. We reviewed herein the actual evidence regarding BP control in the early phase after ABI and recent clinical investigations using multimodal monitoring to optimize CPP and BP in severe ABI patients. The main purpose of this review is to provide a pragmatic approach of BP management, taking into account the timing of injury and differences in brain pathologies.
Full Text Available Background: Trauma is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries and also in Iran. Anatomical imaging (AI CT and MRI is helpful in the diagnosis of acute traumatic complications however it is not efficient in the diagnosis of disabling injury syndrome. In contrast, brain perfusion SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography can be more useful for evaluation of microvascular structure. This study was designed to compare these two diagnostic methods. Methods: A total of 50 patients who had been suffering from traumatic brain injury for more than 1 year, and were followed as mild traumatic brain injury group according to “the Brain Injury Interdisciplinary Special Interest Group of the Ameri can Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine” criteria, were examined by brain perfusion SPECT and AI. The common anatomical classification of the lobes of brain was used. Results: The male to female ratio was 3:2. The mean age was 32.32±11.8 years and mean post-traumatic time was 1.48±0.65 years. The most common symptoms were headache (60%, agusia (36% and anosmia (32%. Among 400 examined brain lobes in this study, brain perfusion SPECT revealed remarkable abnormality in 76 lobes (19%, but AI determined abnormalities in 38 lobes (9.5% therefore, SPECT was twice sensitive than AI in mild traumatic brain injury (P<0.001. The correlation between SPECT and AI findings was 84%. SPECT was more sensitive than AI in demonstrating brain abnormalities in frontal lobe it was more obvious in the male group however, there was no significant difference between more and less than 30 years old groups. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, we recommend using brain perfusion SPECT for all patients with chronic complications of head trauma, particularly those who have signs and symptoms of hypofrontalism, even though with some abnormalities in AI.
Uchino, Hiroyuki; Ogihara, Yukihiko; Fukui, Hidekimi; Chijiiwa, Miyuki; Sekine, Shusuke; Hara, Naomi; Elmér, Eskil
Cardiac arrest induces the cessation of cerebral blood flow, which can result in brain damage. The primary intervention to salvage the brain under such a pathological condition is to restore the cerebral blood flow to the ischemic region. Ischemia is defined as a reduction in blood flow to a level that is sufficient to alter normal cellular function. Brain tissue is highly sensitive to ischemia, such that even brief ischemic periods in neurons can initiate a complex sequence of events that may ultimately culminate in cell death. However, paradoxically, restoration of blood flow can cause additional damage and exacerbate the neurocognitive deficits in patients who suffered a brain ischemic event, which is a phenomenon referred to as "reperfusion injury." Transient brain ischemia following cardiac arrest results from the complex interplay of multiple pathways including excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, ionic imbalance, peri-infarct depolarization, oxidative and nitrative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. The pathophysiology of post-cardiac arrest brain injury involves a complex cascade of molecular events, most of which remain unknown. Many lines of evidence have shown that mitochondria suffer severe damage in response to ischemic injury. Mitochondrial dysfunction based on the mitochondrial permeability transition after reperfusion, particularly involving the calcineurin/immunophilin signal transduction pathway, appears to play a pivotal role in the induction of neuronal cell death. The aim of this article is to discuss the underlying pathophysiology of brain damage, which is a devastating pathological condition, and highlight the central signal transduction pathway involved in brain damage, which reveals potential targets for therapeutic intervention.
Marwitz, Jennifer H; Sima, Adam P; Kreutzer, Jeffrey S; Dreer, Laura E; Bergquist, Thomas F; Zafonte, Ross; Johnson-Greene, Douglas; Felix, Elizabeth R
To evaluate (1) the trajectory of resilience during the first year after a moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI); (2) factors associated with resilience at 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury; and (3) changing relationships over time between resilience and other factors. Longitudinal analysis of an observational cohort. Five inpatient rehabilitation centers. Patients with TBI (N=195) enrolled in the resilience module of the TBI Model Systems study with data collected at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Not applicable. Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Initially, resilience levels appeared to be stable during the first year postinjury. Individual growth curve models were used to examine resilience over time in relation to demographic, psychosocial, and injury characteristics. After adjusting for these characteristics, resilience actually declined over time. Higher levels of resilience were related to nonminority status, absence of preinjury substance abuse, lower anxiety and disability level, and greater life satisfaction. Resilience is a construct that is relevant to understanding brain injury outcomes and has potential value in planning clinical interventions. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lim, Sher-Wei; Ao, Kam-Hou; Ho, Chung-Han; Tseng, Chien-Jen; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chio, Chung-Ching; Kuo, Jinn-Rung
The association between preexisting ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt and the risk of new-onset acute appendicitis in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not well established. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationships between VP shunt and acute appendicitis in patients with TBI. A longitudinal cohort study matched by a propensity score in patients with TBI with (4781 patients) or without (9562 patients) VP shunt was conducted using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan between January 1993 and December 2013. The main outcome studied was diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The cumulative probability of acute appendicitis was not different between these 2 groups (P = 0.6244). A Cox model showed central nervous system (CNS) infection to be an independent predictor of acute appendicitis with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.98. Patients with TBI with both a VP shunt and a CNS infection had a greater risk of developing new-onset acute appendicitis (hazard ratio 4.25; 95% confidence interval 1.84-9.81) compared patients with TBI without a VP shunt or CNS infection. We concluded that VP shunt is not a risk factor in the development of appendicitis in patients with TBI. Patients with TBI with a shunt and a CNS infection may have a greater risk of developing acute appendicitis. Therefore, care in avoiding CNS infection is a key for the prevention acute appendicitis in this patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mollayeva, Tatyana; Kendzerska, Tetyana; Mollayeva, Shirin
. CONCLUSIONS: The review will summarize the current knowledge in the field with the aim of increasing understanding and guiding future research on the associations between fatigue and clinically important factors, as well as the consequences of fatigue in traumatic brain injury. PROSPERO registry number: CRD......BACKGROUND: Despite strong indications that fatigue is the most common and debilitating symptom after traumatic brain injury, little is known about its frequency, natural history, or relation to other factors. The current protocol outlines a strategy for a systematic review that will identify......, assess, and critically appraise studies that assessed predictors for fatigue and the consequences of fatigue on at least two separate time points following traumatic brain injury. METHODS/DESIGN: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, and PsycINFO will be systematically...
Megha, M; Harpreet, S; Nayeem, Z
To evaluate the effectiveness of multimodal coma stimulation on the conscious levels of head injury comatose patients and to find out which of the two protocols of coma stimulation, i.e. administrating twice a day or 5-times a day is more beneficial. Thirty comatose patients with traumatic head injury (GCS coma stimulation 5-times a day (20 minutes each session), Group B (n = 10) received stimulation twice a day (50 minutes each session) and Group C (n = 10) received conventional physiotherapy twice daily. Subjects in all the three groups received treatment for 2 weeks. The results showed a significant difference (p Coma Scale as well as Western Neuro Sensory Stimulation Profile scores between Groups A & C and B & C, i.e. multimodal coma stimulation is effective as compared to the control group. The results also revealed a significant difference (p 0.01) on the Glasgow coma scale. This indicates that short sessions of high frequency can be more beneficial.
Zhao, Fan; Xi, Guohua; Liu, Wenqaun; Keep, Richard F; Hua, Ya
Iron plays an important role in brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Our previous study found minocycline reduces iron overload after ICH. The present study examined the effects of minocycline on the subacute brain injury induced by iron. Rats had an intracaudate injection of 50 μl of saline, iron, or iron + minocycline. All the animals were euthanized at day 3. Rat brains were used for immunohistochemistry (n = 5-6 per each group) and Western blotting assay (n = 4). Brain swelling, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and iron-handling proteins were measured. We found that intracerebral injection of iron resulted in brain swelling, BBB disruption, and brain iron-handling protein upregulation (p minocycline with iron significantly reduced iron-induced brain swelling (n = 5, p Minocycline significantly decreased albumin protein levels in the ipsilateral basal ganglia (p minocycline co-injected animals. In conclusion, the present study suggests that minocycline attenuates brain swelling and BBB disruption via an iron-chelation mechanism.
Das, Joe M; Chandra, Satheesh; Prabhakar, Rajmohan B
Penetrating brain injury (PBI) may be caused by low-velocity or high-velocity objects. Several objects are known to cause such injury ranging from knives to rooster pecks. However, an assault with the key of a bike causing PBI has not been reported in the literature. The objective of this study was to report the case of a 21-year-old male patient, who presented after an assault with a bike key. The key was impacted in the left parietal region. Left parietal craniotomy was done and the key was removed. There was an underlying parenchymal contusion, which was excised. On post-operative day two, the patient developed motor aphasia, which subsided in subsequent days with antiedema measures. At the first month follow-up, the patient was having normal speech and consciousness. Prompt treatment of penetrating brain injury is important and angiography is not always necessary for PBI.
Seyedeh Neda Mousavi
Full Text Available Background: Parenteral nutrition (PN is a valuable life saving intervention, which can improve the nutritional status of hospitalized malnourished patients. PN is associated with complications including hyperglycemia. This study was conducted to compare two methods of blood glucose control in traumatic brain injury patients on PN. Materials and Methods: A randomized, open-label, controlled trial with blinded end point assessment was designed. Traumatic brain injury patients (GCS = 4-9 on PN, without diabetes, pancreatitis, liver disease, kidney complication, were participated. Patients were randomly assigned to receive continuous insulin infusion to maintain glucose levels between 4.4 mmol/l (80 mg/dl and 6.6 mmol/l (120 mg/dl (n = 13 or conventional treatment (n = 13. Patients in the conventional group were not received insulin unless glucose levels were greater than 10 mmol/l (>180 mg/dl. These methods were done to maintain normoglycemia in ICU. The primary outcome was hypo/hyperglycemic episodes. Other factors such as C-reactive protein, blood electrolytes, liver function tests, lipid profile and mid-arm circumference were compared. Results: Mean glucose concentration were significantly lower in IIT group (118 ± 28 mg/dl vs conventional group (210 ± 31 mg/dl (P < 0.01. No hypoglycemic episode occurred in two groups. Triglyceride (P = 0.02 and C-reactive protein (P = 0.001 was decreased in the IIT group, significantly. There were also significant differences in the electrolytes, with magnesium and phosphorus being lower in the IIT group (P = 0.05. Conclusion: In this pilot study, blood glucose level, CRP and TG were lower in IIT group. Further data collection is warranted to reach definitive conclusions.
Giacino, Joseph T; Whyte, John; Bagiella, Emilia
Amantadine hydrochloride is one of the most commonly prescribed medications for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness after traumatic brain injury. Preliminary studies have suggested that amantadine may promote functional recovery.......Amantadine hydrochloride is one of the most commonly prescribed medications for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness after traumatic brain injury. Preliminary studies have suggested that amantadine may promote functional recovery....
Ovalle, Fernando; Xu, Likang; Pearson, William S; Spelke, Bridget; Sugerman, David E
Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health problem and little is known about site of care and outcomes of children with severe TBI. Across the country, most injured children are treated in adult trauma centers (ATCs). Recent literature suggests that ATCs with added qualifications in pediatrics (ATC-AQs) can have improved outcomes for pediatric trauma patients overall. This study characterizes the population of pediatric severe TBI patients treated at ATCs and investigates the effect of treatment at ATC-AQs versus ATCs on mortality. Using the 2009 National Trauma Data Bank, pediatric (age 0-17 years old) severe TBI (head Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥3) patient visits at level I and II ATCs and ATC-AQs were analyzed for patient and hospital characteristics. The primary outcome was in-patient mortality. Multivariate analysis was performed on propensity score weighted populations to investigate effect of treatment at ATC-AQs versus ATCs on survival. A total of 7,057 pediatric severe TBI patient visits in 398 level I and II trauma centers were observed, with 3,496 (49.5%) at ATC-AQs and 3,561 (50.5%) at ATCs. The mortality rate was 8.6% at ATC-AQs versus 10.3% at ATCs (p =0.0144). After adjusting for differences in case mix, patient, and hospital characteristics, mortality was not significantly different for patients treated in ATC-AQs versus ATCs (aOR = 0.896, 95% CI = 0.629-1.277). Mortality was significantly associated with age, length of hospital stay, firearm injury, GCS score, and head AIS (p pediatric severe TBI patients treated at ATC-AQs versus ATCs. Being younger, uninsured, and having severe injuries was associated with increased mortality. This study is limited by the exclusion of transferred patients and potentially underestimates differences in outcomes. Further research is needed to clarify the role of ATC additional pediatric qualifications in the treatment of severe TBI.
Background: Management of brain injury can pose enormous challenges to the health team. There are many studies aimed at discovering or developing pharmacotherapeutic agents targeted at improving outcome of head-injured patients. This paper reviews the role of oxidative stress in neuronal loss following traumatic ...
Hawley, Carol; Ward, Anthony B.; Magnay, Andrew R.; Mychilkiq, Wasyl
Objective: To examine return to school and classroom performance following traumatic brain injury (TBI)\\ud Design: Cross-sectional\\ud Setting: Community\\ud Subjects: 67 school-age children with TBI (35 mild, 13 moderate, 19 severe), and 14 uninjured matched controls.\\ud Interventions: Parents and children were interviewed and children assessed at a mean of two years post injury. Teachers reported on academic performance and educational needs.\\ud Main measures: Classroom performance, Children’...
Viola-Saltzman, Mari; Watson, Nathaniel F.
Sleep disturbance is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI), affecting 30–70% of individuals, many occurring after mild injuries. Insomnia, fatigue and sleepiness are the most frequent post-TBI sleep complaints with narcolepsy (with or without cataplexy), sleep apnea (obstructive and/or central), periodic limb movement disorder, and parasomnias occurring less commonly. In addition, depression, anxiety and pain are common TBI co-morbidities with substantial influence on sleep quality. T...
Armstrong, Richard A
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its associated concussion are major causes of disability and death. All ages can be affected but children, young adults and the elderly are particularly susceptible. A decline in mortality has resulted in many more individuals living with a disability caused by TBI including those affecting vision. This review describes: (1) the major clinical and pathological features of TBI; (2) the visual signs and symptoms associated with the disorder; and (3) discusses the assessment of quality of life and visual rehabilitation of the patient. Defects in primary vision such as visual acuity and visual fields, eye movement including vergence, saccadic and smooth pursuit movements, and in more complex aspects of vision involving visual perception, motion vision ('akinopsia'), and visuo-spatial function have all been reported in TBI. Eye movement dysfunction may be an early sign of TBI. Hence, TBI can result in a variety of visual problems, many patients exhibiting multiple visual defects in combination with a decline in overall health. Patients with chronic dysfunction following TBI may require occupational, vestibular, cognitive and other forms of physical therapy. Such patients may also benefit from visual rehabilitation, including reading-related oculomotor training and the prescribing of spectacles with a variety of tints and prism combinations. © 2018 Optometry Australia.
Albrecht, Jennifer S; Liu, Xinggang; Baumgarten, Mona; Langenberg, Patricia; Rattinger, Gail B; Smith, Gordon S; Gambert, Steven R; Gottlieb, Stephen S; Zuckerman, Ilene H
The increased risk of hemorrhage associated with anticoagulant therapy following traumatic brain injury creates a serious dilemma for medical management of older patients: Should anticoagulant therapy be resumed after traumatic brain injury, and if so, when? To estimate the risk of thrombotic and hemorrhagic events associated with warfarin therapy resumption following traumatic brain injury. Retrospective analysis of administrative claims data for Medicare beneficiaries aged at least 65 years hospitalized for traumatic brain injury during 2006 through 2009 who received warfarin in the month prior to injury (n = 10,782). Warfarin use in each 30-day period following discharge after hospitalization for traumatic brain injury. The primary outcomes were hemorrhagic and thrombotic events following discharge after hospitalization for traumatic brain injury. Hemorrhagic events were defined on inpatient claims using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes and included hemorrhagic stroke, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, adrenal hemorrhage, and other hemorrhage. Thrombotic events included ischemic stroke, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, and myocardial infarction. A composite of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke was a secondary outcome. Medicare beneficiaries with traumatic brain injury were predominantly female (64%) and white (92%), with a mean (SD) age of 81.3 (7.3) years, and 82% had atrial fibrillation. Over the 12 months following hospital discharge, 55% received warfarin during 1 or more 30-day periods. We examined the lagged effect of warfarin use on outcomes in the following period. Warfarin use in the prior period was associated with decreased risk of thrombotic events (relative risk [RR], 0.77 [95% CI, 0.67-0.88]) and increased risk of hemorrhagic events (RR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.29-1.78]). Warfarin use in the prior period was associated with decreased risk of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke (RR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0
O. S. Zaitsev
Full Text Available The state-of-the-art of Russian neuropsychiatry and priority developments in different psychopathological syndromes in severe brain injuries are assessed. Many cognitive and emotional impairments are explained in terms of the idea on the organization of psychic activity over time. It is emphasized that to achieve the premorbid levels of an interhemispheric interaction and functional asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres affords psychic activity recovery. The experience in investigating, classifying, and treating various mental disorders occurring after severe brain injuries is generalized. The basic principles of psychopharmacotherapy and rehabilitation of victims are stated.
Hartings, Jed A; Vidgeon, Steven; Strong, Anthony J
OBJECT: Mass lesions from traumatic brain injury (TBI) often require surgical evacuation as a life-saving measure and to improve outcomes, but optimal timing and surgical technique, including decompressive craniectomy, have not been fully defined. The authors compared neurosurgical approaches...... enrolled in the Co-Operative Studies on Brain Injury Depolarizations (COSBID) at King's College Hospital (KCH, n = 27) and Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU, n = 24) from July 2004 to March 2010. Subdural electrode strips were placed at the time of surgery for subsequent electrocorticographic...
Patman, Shane; Jenkins, Sue; Stiller, Kathy
To investigate the effect of respiratory physiotherapy on the prevention and treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) for adults in an intensive care unit (ICU) with an acquired brain injury (ABI). Two-part, prospective, randomised controlled trial. A total of 144 subjects with ABI admitted with a Glasgow Coma Scale 24 h; 33 subjects were subsequently diagnosed with VAP. Respiratory physiotherapy comprised six treatments (positioning, manual hyperinflation and suctioning) in each 24-h period whilst on MV. The Control Group received standard medical/nursing care but no respiratory physiotherapy. There were no significant differences between groups for incidence of VAP, duration of MV, length of ICU stay or clinical variables such as requirement for re-ventilation. In adults with ABI, regular respiratory physiotherapy in addition to routine medical/nursing care does not appear to prevent VAP, reduce length of MV or ICU stay. Due to small numbers, it is not possible to draw any conclusions as to whether or not respiratory physiotherapy hastens recovery from VAP.
Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid
Objective: To investigate clinically significant change in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation. Methods: Participants were 62 pairs of relatives and patients. Relatives completed the anxiety and depression scales from.......2% and 58.1% of relatives had scores above cut-off values on the anxiety and depression scales, respectively. On the anxiety scale 69.7% of these experienced a reliable improvement according to the Reliable Change Index (RCI) and 45.5% also obtained CSC, as their end-point was below the cut-off value....... On the depression scale the corresponding figures were 44.4% and 41.7%, respectively. When comparing relatives with and without CSC, we found that CSC in symptoms of anxiety was associated with significantly better functional improvement during rehabilitation and a shorter period of post-traumatic amnesia...
This article presents the findings from a doctoral research study that led to the development of an inductively derived substantive theory, "Nursing Defensively". This theory describes the process of coping used by staff nurses when caring for family members of acquired brain injury (ABI) patients. This study was conducted in two acute care teaching and one non-teaching neuroscience wards in Toronto, Canada, using grounded theory method. A total of 20 registered nurses participated in the study. Supporting data are presented to permit the reader to "hear" the voices of the nurses caring for families of ABI patients in today's clinical environments. In addition, the author's interpretation of the significance of the findings for nursing is offered for the reader's reflection for applicability to relevant clinical environments and a call for clinical leadership in practice, education and research.
Full Text Available Huiling Huang,1 Lin Chen,2,3 Hongyun Huang4–61Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cerebral Vascular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital, Tianjin Neurosurgical Institute, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 2Medical Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 3Tsinghua University Yuquan Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 4General Hospital of Chinese people's Armed Police Forces, 5Beijing Rehabilitation Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 6Beijing Hongtianji Neuroscience Academy, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of death and disability from trauma to the central nervous system. Besides the surgical interventions and symptomatic management, the conventional therapies for TBI and its sequelae are still limited. Recently emerging evidence suggests that some neurorestorative treatments appear to have a potential therapeutic role for TBI and improving the patient's quality of life. The current clinical neurorestorative strategies available in TBI include pharmacological treatments (recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, amantadine, lithium, and valproate, the neuromodulation treatments (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and low-level laser therapy, cell transplantation (bone marrow stromal cells and umbilical cord stromal cells, and combined neurorehabilitation. In this review, we summarize the recent clinical neurorestorative progress in the management of neurodegeneration as well as cognitive and motor deficits after TBI; indeed further clinical trials are required to provide more robust evidence.Keywords: brain trauma, neurorestorative treatment, cell transplantation, clinical study
Bruno do Valle Pinheiro
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os efeitos da traqueostomia precoce e da traqueostomia tardia em pacientes com lesão cerebral aguda grave. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo com 28 pacientes admitidos na UTI do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora com diagnóstico de lesão cerebral aguda grave e apresentando escore na escala de coma de Glasgow (ECG OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of early tracheostomy and of late tracheostomy in patients with acute severe brain injury. METHODS: A retrospective study involving 28 patients admitted to the ICU of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora University Hospital in Juiz de Fora, Brazil, diagnosed with acute severe brain injury and presenting with a Glasgow coma scale (GCS score < 8 within the first 48 h of hospitalization. The patients were divided into two groups: early tracheostomy (ET, performed within the first 8 days after admission; and late tracheostomy (LT, performed after postadmission day 8. At admission, we collected demographic data and determined the following scores: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II, GCS and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups (ET vs. LT regarding the demographic data or the scores: APACHE II (26 ± 6 vs. 28 ± 8; p = 0.37, SOFA (6.3 ± 2.7 vs. 7.2 ± 3.0; p = 0.43 and GCS (5.4 ± 1.7 vs. 5.5 ± 1.7; p = 0.87. The 28-day mortality rate was lower in the ET group (9% vs. 47%; p = 0.04. Nosocomial pneumonia occurring within the first 7 days was less common in the ET group, although the difference was not significant (0% vs. 23%; p = 0.13. There were no differences regarding the occurrence of late pneumonia or in the duration of mechanical ventilation between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of these findings, early tracheostomy should be considered in patients with acute severe brain injury.
Burns, Alexis; Adeli, Hojjat; Buford, John A
Brain-computer interface (BCI) has proven to be a useful tool for providing alternative communication and mobility to patients suffering from nervous system injury. BCI has been and will continue to be implemented into rehabilitation practices for more interactive and speedy neurological recovery. The most exciting BCI technology is evolving to provide therapeutic benefits by inducing cortical reorganization via neuronal plasticity. This article presents a state-of-the-art review of BCI technology used after nervous system injuries, specifically: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, and disorders of consciousness. Also presented is transcending, innovative research involving new treatment of neurological disorders. © The Author(s) 2014.
Arnaud Messé; Sophie Caplain; Mélanie Pélégrini-Issac; Sophie Blancho; Richard Lévy; Nozar Aghakhani; Michèle Montreuil; Habib Benali; Stéphane Lehéricy
Post-concussion syndrome has been related to axonal damage in patients with mild traumatic brain injury, but little is known about the consequences of injury on brain networks. In the present study, our aim was to characterize changes in functional brain networks following mild traumatic brain injury in patients with post-concussion syndrome using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. We investigated 17 injured patients with persistent post-concussion syndrome (under the D...
Mehrholz, Jan; Major, Yvonne; Meissner, Daniel; Sandi-Gahun, Sahr; Koch, Rainer; Pohl, Marcus
To determine the influence of contractures and different stretching velocities on the reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) in patients with severe brain injury and impaired consciousness. Cross-section observational study. A rehabilitation centre for adult persons with neurological disorders. Fifty patients with impaired consciousness due to severe cerebral damage of various aetiologies. MEASUREMENT PROTOCOL: Three experienced and trained medical professionals rated each patient in a randomized order once daily for two consecutive days. Shoulder, elbow, wrist, knee and ankle spasticity were assessed by the use of the MAS with different stretching velocities. The presence of contractures was assessed by a goniometer. Retest and inter-rater reliability (k(w) = weighted kappa) of the MAS. The retest reliability of the MAS was good (shoulder joints (k(w) 0.74), elbow joints (k(w) 0.74), wrist joints (k(w) 0.72), knee joints (k(w) 0.72), ankle joints (k(w) 0.77)) and the inter-rater reliability was moderate (shoulder joints (k(w) 0.49), elbow joints (k(w) 0.52), wrist joints (k(w) 0.51), knee joints (k(w) 0.54) ankle joints (k(w) 0.49)). The presence of contractures significantly influenced the reliability of MAS in shoulder and wrist joints. No influence of stretching velocity on the reliability of the MAS was found. In patients with impaired consciousness due to severe brain injury the MAS has good retest, but only limited inter-rater, reliability. The presence of contractures may influence reliability of the MAS, but stretching velocity does not.
Full Text Available Almost half of the people suffering traumatic brain injury (TBI may later be diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. The literature (PubMed, IndMed of past 30 years on psychiatric disturbances associated with TBI is reviewed. The authors highlight the close link between head injury and psychiatry and provide an overview of the epidemiology, risk-factors, and mechanisms of psychiatric sequelae including, cognitive deficits, substance abuse, psychoses, mood disorders, suicide, anxiety disorders, dissociative disorders, post-concussion syndrome, and personality changes following head injury. The various psychiatric sequelae are briefly discussed.
De Guise, E; Leblanc, J; Feyz, M; Thomas, H; Gosselin, N
To assess the effect of an integrated reality orientation programme (North Star Project) in acute care on the duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) of patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). It was hypothesized that those patients having participated in this programme would show a shorter PTA than those patients that did not. Duration of PTA for 12 patients with TBI who were part of the North Star Project was compared with that of 26 patients matched for initial GCS and age for whom this approach was not available (control group). Length of PTA was shorter by 5 days for the North Star patients. This result was not statistically significant (p = 0.19) but is clinically relevant. No between-group difference was found for Glasgow Coma Scale. Consequences of shorter PTA would include increased and more appropriate patient interaction and earlier transfer to rehabilitation. The North Star project also allows the family to become more actively involved in the treatment of their loved one. Further study is required to evaluate this intervention strategy to improve orientation for the patient with TBI.
Bouzat, Pierre; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Zerlauth, Jean-Baptiste; Sala, Nathalie; Suys, Tamarah; Schoettker, Patrick; Bloch, Jocelyne; Daniel, Roy T; Levivier, Marc; Meuli, Reto; Oddo, Mauro
To examine the accuracy of brain multimodal monitoring-consisting of intracranial pressure, brain tissue PO2, and cerebral microdialysis--in detecting cerebral hypoperfusion in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Prospective single-center study. Patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Medico-surgical ICU, university hospital. Intracranial pressure, brain tissue PO2, and cerebral microdialysis monitoring (right frontal lobe, apparently normal tissue) combined with cerebral blood flow measurements using perfusion CT. Cerebral blood flow was measured using perfusion CT in tissue area around intracranial monitoring (regional cerebral blood flow) and in bilateral supra-ventricular brain areas (global cerebral blood flow) and was matched to cerebral physiologic variables. The accuracy of intracranial monitoring to predict cerebral hypoperfusion (defined as an oligemic regional cerebral blood flow < 35 mL/100 g/min) was examined using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves. Thirty perfusion CT scans (median, 27 hr [interquartile range, 20-45] after traumatic brain injury) were performed on 27 patients (age, 39 yr [24-54 yr]; Glasgow Coma Scale, 7 [6-8]; 24/27 [89%] with diffuse injury). Regional cerebral blood flow correlated significantly with global cerebral blood flow (Pearson r = 0.70, p < 0.01). Compared with normal regional cerebral blood flow (n = 16), low regional cerebral blood flow (n = 14) measurements had a higher proportion of samples with intracranial pressure more than 20 mm Hg (13% vs 30%), brain tissue PO2 less than 20 mm Hg (9% vs 20%), cerebral microdialysis glucose less than 1 mmol/L (22% vs 57%), and lactate/pyruvate ratio more than 40 (4% vs 14%; all p < 0.05). Compared with intracranial pressure monitoring alone (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.61-0.87]), monitoring intracranial pressure + brain tissue PO2 (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, 0.84 [0
Degen, Ryan M; Fink, Matthew E; Callahan, Lisa; Fibel, Kenton H; Ramsay, Jim; Kelly, Bryan T
Head injuries are relatively common in ice hockey, with the majority represented by concussions, a form of mild traumatic brain injury. More severe head injuries are rare since the implementation of mandatory helmet use in the 1960s. We present a case of a 27 year-old male who sustained a traumatic intraparenchymal hemorrhage with an associated subdural hematoma resulting after being struck by a puck shot at high velocity. The patient presented with expressive aphasia, with no other apparent neurologic deficits. Acutely, he was successfully treated with observation and serial neuroimaging studies ensuring an absence of hematoma expansion. After a stable clinical picture following 24 hours of observation, the patient was discharged and managed with outpatient speech therapy with full resolution of symptoms and return to play 3 months later. We will outline the patient presentation and pertinent points in the management of acute head injuries in athletes.
Lequerica, Anthony; Krch, Denise
With the general population in the United States becoming increasingly diverse, it is important for rehabilitation professionals to develop the capacity to provide culturally sensitive treatment. This is especially relevant when working with minority populations who have a higher risk for brain injury and poorer rehabilitation outcomes. This article presents a number of clinical vignettes to illustrate how cultural factors can influence behavior in patients recovering from brain injury, as well as rehabilitation staff. The main objectives are to raise awareness among clinicians and stimulate research ideas by highlighting some real world examples of situations where a specialized, patient-centered approach needs to consider factors of cultural diversity. Because one's own world view impacts the way we see the world and interpret behavior, it is important to understand one's own ethnocentrism when dealing with a diverse population of patients with brain injury where behavioral sequelae are often expected. Being able to see behavior after brain injury with an open mind and taking into account cultural and contextual factors is an important step in developing culturally competent rehabilitation practices.
Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Clemmensen, Dorte; Jensen, Steffen Skov
Patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) do not undergo consistent follow-up in Denmark and the risk factors for long-term symptoms are not fully known. The purpose of this study was to look into symptom frequency, sick-leave frequency and to try to identify risk factors for long-term symptoms following MTBI. Patients were recruited from the emergency room at Viborg Hospital. Initial data were registered and telephone interviews were conducted one month and one year after trauma. 60% were asymptomatic within the first month; an additional 11% became asymptomatic within the next year, leaving 29% with residual symptoms one year after trauma. 70% reported a sick leave period one month and 2% > one year. The average trauma-to-emergency room contact reached 158 min (median 65 min). Gender, age, blood pressure (BP), pulse, Glasgow coma score (GCS), admission to hospital, unconsciousness, amnesia, alcohol intake, time or type of trauma were not associated with long term symptoms. Even patients with minor head trauma have a relatively high risk of long-term symptoms regardless of gender, age, BP, pulse, GCS, admission to hospital, unconsciousness, amnesia, alcohol intake, time or type of trauma. Nevertheless, the risk of long-term sick leave is relatively small.
Annick N. Tanguay
Full Text Available Acquired brain injury (ABI often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients’ difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we examined the usefulness of a computerized meal preparation task (the Breakfast Task; Craik & Bialystok, 2006 as an indicator of real life meal preparation skills. Twenty-two ABI patients and 22 age-matched controls completed the Breakfast Task and the Rehabilitation Activities of Daily Living Survey (RADLS; Salmon, 2003. Patients also prepared actual meals, and were rated by members of the clinical team. As expected, the ABI patients had significant difficulty on all aspects of the Breakfast Task (failing to have all their foods ready at the same time, over- and under-cooking foods, setting fewer places at the table, and so on relative to controls. Surprisingly, however, patients’ Breakfast Task performance was not correlated with their in vivo meal preparation. These results indicate caution when endeavoring to replace traditional evaluation methods with computerized tasks for the sake of expediency.
Stawicki, Stanislaw P; Wojda, Thomas R; Nuschke, John D; Mubang, Ronnie N; Cipolla, James; Hoff, William S; Hoey, Brian A; Thomas, Peter G; Sweeney, Joan; Ackerman, Daniel; Hosey, Jonathan; Falowski, Steven
Advanced age has been traditionally associated with worse traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcomes. Although prompt neurosurgical intervention (NSI, craniotomy or craniectomy) may be life-saving in the older trauma patient, it does not guarantee survival and/or return to preinjury functional status. The aim of this study was to determine whether a simple score, based entirely on the initial cranial computed tomography (CCT) is predictive of the need for NSI and key outcome measures (e.g., morbidity and mortality) in the older (age 45+ years) TBI patient subset. We hypothesized that increasing number of categorical CCT findings is independently associated with NSI, morbidity, and mortality in older patients with severe TBI. After IRB approval, a retrospective study of patients 45 years and older was performed using our Regional Level 1 Trauma Center registry data between June 2003 and December 2013. Collected variables included patient demographics, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Abbreviated Injury Scale Head (AISh), brain injury characteristics on CCT, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay (LOS), all-cause morbidity and mortality, functional independence scores, as well as discharge disposition. A novel CCT scoring tool (CCTST, scored from 1 to 8+) was devised, with one point given for each of the following findings: subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma, subarachnoid blood, intraventricular blood, cerebral contusion/intraparenchymal blood, skull fracture, pneumocephalus, brain edema/herniation, midline shift, and external (skin/face) trauma. Descriptive statistics and univariate analyses were conducted with 30-day mortality, in-hospital morbidity, and need for NSI as primary end-points. Secondary end-points included the length of stay in the ICU (ICULOS), step-down unit (SDLOS), and the hospital (HLOS) as well as patient functional outcomes, and postdischarge destination. Factors associated with the need for NSI were determined
Tornås, Sveinung; Løvstad, Marianne; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Evans, Jonathan; Endestad, Tor; Hol, Per Kristian; Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Stubberud, Jan
Executive dysfunction is a common consequence of acquired brain injury (ABI), causing significant disability in daily life. This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of Goal Management Training (GMT) in improving executive functioning in patients with chronic ABI. Seventy patients with a verified ABI and executive dysfunction were randomly allocated to GMT (n=33) or a psycho-educative active control condition, Brain Health Workshop (BHW) (n=37). In addition, all participants received external cueing by text messages. Neuropsychological tests and self-reported questionnaires of executive functioning were administered pre-intervention, immediately after intervention, and at 6 months follow-up. Assessors were blinded to group allocation. Questionnaire measures indicated significant improvement of everyday executive functioning in the GMT group, with effects lasting at least 6 months post-treatment. Both groups improved on the majority of the applied neuropsychological tests. However, improved performance on tests demanding executive attention was most prominent in the GMT group. The results indicate that GMT combined with external cueing is an effective metacognitive strategy training method, ameliorating executive dysfunction in daily life for patients with chronic ABI. The strongest effects were seen on self-report measures of executive functions 6 months post-treatment, suggesting that strategies learned in GMT were applied and consolidated in everyday life after the end of training. Furthermore, these findings show that executive dysfunction can be improved years after the ABI.
Full Text Available Aims: This study sought to address two questions: 1 what is the inter-rater reliability of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX when completed by patients, their significant others, and clinicians; and 2 does the factor structure of the DEX vary for these three groups?Methods: We obtained DEX ratings for 113 patients with an acquired brain injury from two brain injury services in the UK and two services in Ireland. We gathered data from two groups of raters – significant others (DEX-SO such as partners and close family members and clinicians (DEX-C, who were psychologists or rehabilitation physicians working closely with the patient and who were able to provide an opinion about the patient’s level of everyday executive functioning. Intra-class correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated between each of the three groups (self, significant other, clinician. Principal component factor analyses were also conducted for each of the three groups.Results: The factor analysis revealed a consistent one-factor model for each of the three groups of raters. However, the inter-rater reliability analyses showed a low level of agreement between the self-ratings and the ratings of the two groups of independent raters. We also found low agreement between the significant others and the clinicians.Conclusion: Although there was a consistent finding of a single factor solution for each of the three groups, the low level of agreement between significant others and clinicians raises a question about the reliability of the DEX.
Nandrajog, Puneet; Idris, Zamzuri; Azlen, Wan Nor; Liyana, Alwani; Abdullah, Jafri Malin
The aim of the study is to compare the amplitude and latency of the P300 event-related potential (ERP) component between a control group and patients after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) during 1-7 days (short duration) and 2-3 months (long duration), and to compare the outcome of neuropsychological tests between the long duration postinjury and control study groups. We studied responses to auditory stimulation in two main and one subgroups, namely the control healthy group (19 patients, both ERP and neuropsychology test done), the mTBI 1 group (17 patients, only ERP done within 7 days after injury), and the mTBI 2 subgroup (the 17 mTBI 1 patients in whom a repeated ERP together with neuropsychological testing was done at 2-3 months postinjury). Auditory evoked responses were studied with two different stimuli (standard and target stimuli), where the P300 amplitude and latency were recorded from three midline sites and results were compared between the groups, as were the neuropsychological test results. There was a significant prolongation of the target P300 latency values shown by the MBI 1 group measured at the central electrode when compared to the control group, which was also seen when the mTBI 1 and mTBI 2 groups were compared. The results of the P300 amplitude values measured at the frontal electrode showed the control group to have higher readings during the presentation of standard tones when compared to the mTBI 1 group. The mTBI 2 group performed better on some neuropsychological tests. The latency of P300 was significantly prolonged in early mTBI patients who improved over time, and the neuropsychological testing on mTBI 2 patients showed them to be comparable to the control group. The study indicates that ERP should be used as an additional modality of investigation in mTBI patients.
Young, Jacob S; Hobbs, Jonathan G; Bailes, Julian E
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has come to the forefront of both the scientific and popular culture. Specifically, sports-related concussions or mild TBI (mTBI) has become the center of scientific scrutiny with a large amount of research focusing on the long-term sequela of this type of injury. As the populace continues to age, the impact of TBI on the aging brain will become clearer. Currently, reports have come to light that link TBI to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as certain psychiatric diseases. Whether these associations are causations, however, is yet to be determined. Other long-term sequelae, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), appear to be associated with repetitive injuries. Going forward, as we gain better understanding of the pathophysiological process involved in TBI and subclinical head traumas, and individual traits that influence susceptibility to neurocognitive diseases, a clearer, more comprehensive understanding of the connection between brain injury and resultant disease processes in the aging brain will become evident.
Maria Luisa Tataranno
Full Text Available The brain injury concept covers a lot of heterogeneity in terms of aetiology involving multiple factors, genetic, hemodynamic, metabolic, nutritional, endocrinological, toxic, and infectious mechanisms, acting in antenatal or postnatal period. Increased vulnerability of the immature brain to oxidative stress is documented because of the limited capacity of antioxidant enzymes and the high free radicals (FRs generation in rapidly growing tissue. FRs impair transmembrane enzyme Na+/K+-ATPase activity resulting in persistent membrane depolarization and excessive release of FR and excitatory aminoacid glutamate. Besides being neurotoxic, glutamate is also toxic to oligodendroglia, via FR effects. Neuronal cells die of oxidative stress. Excess of free iron and deficient iron/binding metabolising capacity are additional features favouring oxidative stress in newborn. Each step in the oxidative injury cascade has become a potential target for neuroprotective intervention. The administration of antioxidants for suspected or proven brain injury is still not accepted for clinical use due to uncertain beneficial effects when treatments are started after resuscitation of an asphyxiated newborn. The challenge for the future is the early identification of high-risk babies to target a safe and not toxic antioxidant therapy in combination with standard therapies to prevent brain injury and long-term neurodevelopmental impairment.
Keywords: Hypoxic–ischemic brain injury, α-Lipoic acid, Cerebral infarct area, Edema, Antioxidants,. Inflammatory markers. Tropical Journal of ... live births, of which ~55 % of the affected premature children die by the age of 2 years ..... severe complications, including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, motor impairment, and delayed.
Dec 23, 2011 ... Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a public health problem and is associated with many complications. However little is known about the psychiatric sequelae of TBI in Nigeria. This study described the pattern and determinants of psychiatric sequelae among subjects with TBI. Materials and Methods: ...
Keywords: Hypoxic–ischemic brain injury, α-Lipoic acid, Cerebral infarct area, Edema, Antioxidants,. Inflammatory markers. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,. International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, ...
Sánchez-Catasús, Carlos A; Vállez Garcia, David; Le Riverend Morales, Eloísa; Galvizu Sánchez, Reinaldo; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; Leenders, Klaus L
This chapter provides an up-to-date review of nuclear medicine neuroimaging in traumatic brain injury (TBI). 18F-FDG PET will remain a valuable tool in researching complex mechanisms associated with early metabolic dysfunction in TBI. Although evidence-based imaging studies are needed, 18F-FDG PET