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Sample records for brain gene expression

  1. Positive selection on gene expression in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaitovich, Philipp; Tang, Kun; Franz, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the expression levels of genes transcribed in the brains of humans and chimpanzees have changed less than those of genes transcribed in other tissues [1] . However, when gene expression changes are mapped onto the evolutionary lineage in which they occurred, the brain...... shows more changes than other tissues in the human lineage compared to the chimpanzee lineage [1] , [2] and [3] . There are two possible explanations for this: either positive selection drove more gene expression changes to fixation in the human brain than in the chimpanzee brain, or genes expressed...... in the brain experienced less purifying selection in humans than in chimpanzees, i.e. gene expression in the human brain is functionally less constrained. The first scenario would be supported if genes that changed their expression in the brain in the human lineage showed more selective sweeps than other genes...

  2. Conservation of regional gene expression in mouse and human brain.

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    Andrew D Strand

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative diseases have a hallmark regional and cellular pathology. Gene expression analysis of healthy tissues may provide clues to the differences that distinguish resistant and sensitive tissues and cell types. Comparative analysis of gene expression in healthy mouse and human brain provides a framework to explore the ability of mice to model diseases of the human brain. It may also aid in understanding brain evolution and the basis for higher order cognitive abilities. Here we compare gene expression profiles of human motor cortex, caudate nucleus, and cerebellum to one another and identify genes that are more highly expressed in one region relative to another. We separately perform identical analysis on corresponding brain regions from mice. Within each species, we find that the different brain regions have distinctly different expression profiles. Contrasting between the two species shows that regionally enriched genes in one species are generally regionally enriched genes in the other species. Thus, even when considering thousands of genes, the expression ratios in two regions from one species are significantly correlated with expression ratios in the other species. Finally, genes whose expression is higher in one area of the brain relative to the other areas, in other words genes with patterned expression, tend to have greater conservation of nucleotide sequence than more widely expressed genes. Together these observations suggest that region-specific genes have been conserved in the mammalian brain at both the sequence and gene expression levels. Given the general similarity between patterns of gene expression in healthy human and mouse brains, we believe it is reasonable to expect a high degree of concordance between microarray phenotypes of human neurodegenerative diseases and their mouse models. Finally, these data on very divergent species provide context for studies in more closely related species that address

  3. Genes differentially expressed in medulloblastoma and fetal brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiels, E. M.; Oussoren, E.; van Groenigen, M.; Pauws, E.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Voûte, P. A.; Baas, F.

    1999-01-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was used to identify genes that might be involved in the development or growth of medulloblastoma, a childhood brain tumor. Sequence tags from medulloblastoma (10229) and fetal brain (10692) were determined. The distributions of sequence tags in each

  4. Comparative gene expression analysis of murine retina and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackam, Abigail S; Qian, Jiang; Liu, Dongmei; Gunatilaka, Tushara; Farkas, Ronald H; Chowers, Itay; Kageyama, Masaaki; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Zack, Donald J

    2004-08-31

    Several high-throughput studies have described gene expression in the central nervous system (CNS), and recently there has been increasing interest in analyzing how gene expression compares in different regions of the CNS. As the retina is often used as a model system to study CNS development and function, we compared retina and brain gene expression using microarray analyses. Mouse retina, brain and liver RNA was hybridized to a custom cDNA microarray containing 5,376 genes and ESTs, and the data from the quantified scanned images were analyzed using Bioconductor and SAM. Preferential retina expression was confirmed by real-time PCR. The cellular distribution of genes newly identified as retina enriched genes was determined by immunohistochemistry. Using stringent statistical analyses we identified 733 genes that were preferentially expressed in retina and 389 in brain. The retina-liver hybridizations identified an additional 837 retina enriched genes. The cellular distribution in the retina was determined for two genes that had not previously been reported to be expressed in the retina, the transcription regulatory proteins EWS and PCPB1. Both proteins were found primarily in the inner nuclear layer. Finally, a comparison of the microarray data to publicly available SAGE and EST library databases demonstrated only limited overlap of the sets of retina enriched genes identified by the different methodologies. The preferential retinal expression of a subset of genes from the microarray, which were not identified as differentially expressed by other methods, was confirmed by quantitative PCR. The finding of differences in the groups of identified retina enriched genes from the various profiling techniques supports the use of multiple approaches to obtain a more complete description of retinal gene expression. Characterization of gene expression profiles of retina and brain may facilitate the understanding of the processes that underlie differences between the retina

  5. Automated gene expression pattern annotation in the mouse brain.

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    Yang, Tao; Zhao, Xinlin; Lin, Binbin; Zeng, Tao; Ji, Shuiwang; Ye, Jieping

    2015-01-01

    Brain tumor is a fatal central nervous system disease that occurs in around 250,000 people each year globally and it is the second cause of cancer in children. It has been widely acknowledged that genetic factor is one of the significant risk factors for brain cancer. Thus, accurate descriptions of the locations of where the relative genes are active and how these genes express are critical for understanding the pathogenesis of brain tumor and for early detection. The Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas is a project on gene expression over the course of mouse brain development stages. Utilizing mouse models allows us to use a relatively homogeneous system to reveal the genetic risk factor of brain cancer. In the Allen atlas, about 435,000 high-resolution spatiotemporal in situ hybridization images have been generated for approximately 2,100 genes and currently the expression patterns over specific brain regions are manually annotated by experts, which does not scale with the continuously expanding collection of images. In this paper, we present an efficient computational approach to perform automated gene expression pattern annotation on brain images. First, the gene expression information in the brain images is captured by invariant features extracted from local image patches. Next, we adopt an augmented sparse coding method, called Stochastic Coordinate Coding, to construct high-level representations. Different pooling methods are then applied to generate gene-level features. To discriminate gene expression patterns at specific brain regions, we employ supervised learning methods to build accurate models for both binary-class and multi-class cases. Random undersampling and majority voting strategies are utilized to deal with the inherently imbalanced class distribution within each annotation task in order to further improve predictive performance. In addition, we propose a novel structure-based multi-label classification approach, which makes use of label

  6. Expression of Alzheimer's disease risk genes in ischemic brain degeneration.

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    Ułamek-Kozioł, Marzena; Pluta, Ryszard; Januszewski, Sławomir; Kocki, Janusz; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2016-12-01

    We review the Alzheimer-related expression of genes following brain ischemia as risk factors for late-onset of sporadic Alzheimer's disease and their role in Alzheimer's disease ischemia-reperfusion pathogenesis. More recent advances in understanding ischemic etiology of Alzheimer's disease have revealed dysregulation of Alzheimer-associated genes including amyloid protein precursor, β-secretase, presenilin 1 and 2, autophagy, mitophagy and apoptosis. We review the relationship between these genes dysregulated by brain ischemia and the cellular and neuropathological characteristics of Alzheimer's disease. Here we summarize the latest studies supporting the theory that Alzheimer-related genes play an important role in ischemic brain injury and that ischemia is a needful and leading supplier to the onset and progression of sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Although the exact molecular mechanisms of ischemic dependent neurodegenerative disease and neuronal susceptibility finally are unknown, a downregulated expression of neuronal defense genes like alfa-secretase in the ischemic brain makes the neurons less able to resist injury. The recent challenge is to find ways to raise the adaptive reserve of the brain to overcome such ischemic-associated deficits and support and/or promote neuronal survival. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the association of these genes with risk for Alzheimer's disease will provide the most meaningful targets for therapeutic development to date. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Gene Expression Profiling during Pregnancy in Rat Brain Tissue

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    Phyllis E. Mann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The neurophysiological changes that occur during pregnancy in the female mammal have led to the coining of the phrases “expectant brain” and “maternal brain”. Although much is known of the hormonal changes during pregnancy, alterations in neurotransmitter gene expression have not been well-studied. We examined gene expression in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH during pregnancy based on the fact that this nucleus not only modulates the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy but is also involved in the development of maternal behavior. This study was designed to identify genes that are differentially expressed between mid- and late-pregnancy in order to determine which genes may be associated with the onset and display of maternal behavior and the development of the maternal brain. A commercially available PCR array containing 84 neurotransmitter receptor and regulator genes (RT2 Profiler PCR array was used. Brains were harvested from rats on days 12 and 21 of gestation, frozen, and micropunched to obtain the VMH. Total RNA was extracted, cDNA prepared, and SYBR Green qPCR was performed. In the VMH, expression of five genes were reduced on day 21 of gestation compared to day 12 (Chrna6, Drd5, Gabrr2, Prokr2, and Ppyr1 whereas Chat, Chrm5, Drd4, Gabra5, Gabrg2, LOC289606, Nmu5r2, and Npy5r expression was elevated. Five genes were chosen to be validated in an additional experiment based on their known involvement in maternal behavior onset. This experiment confirmed that gene expression for both the CCK-A receptor and the GABAAR γ2 receptor increases at the end of pregnancy. In general, these results identify genes possibly involved in the establishment of the maternal brain in rats and indicate possible new genes to be investigated.

  8. Relationships between gene expression and brain wiring in the adult rodent brain.

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    Leon French

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the global relationship between gene expression and neuroanatomical connectivity in the adult rodent brain. We utilized a large data set of the rat brain "connectome" from the Brain Architecture Management System (942 brain regions and over 5000 connections and used statistical approaches to relate the data to the gene expression signatures of 17,530 genes in 142 anatomical regions from the Allen Brain Atlas. Our analysis shows that adult gene expression signatures have a statistically significant relationship to connectivity. In particular, brain regions that have similar expression profiles tend to have similar connectivity profiles, and this effect is not entirely attributable to spatial correlations. In addition, brain regions which are connected have more similar expression patterns. Using a simple optimization approach, we identified a set of genes most correlated with neuroanatomical connectivity, and find that this set is enriched for genes involved in neuronal development and axon guidance. A number of the genes have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autistic spectrum disorder. Our results have the potential to shed light on the role of gene expression patterns in influencing neuronal activity and connectivity, with potential applications to our understanding of brain disorders. Supplementary data are available at http://www.chibi.ubc.ca/ABAMS.

  9. Expression of iron-related genes in human brain and brain tumors

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    Britton Robert S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defective iron homeostasis may be involved in the development of some diseases within the central nervous system. Although the expression of genes involved in normal iron balance has been intensively studied in other tissues, little is known about their expression in the brain. We investigated the mRNA levels of hepcidin (HAMP, HFE, neogenin (NEO1, transferrin receptor 1 (TFRC, transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2, and hemojuvelin (HFE2 in normal human brain, brain tumors, and astrocytoma cell lines. The specimens included 5 normal brain tissue samples, 4 meningiomas, one medulloblastoma, 3 oligodendrocytic gliomas, 2 oligoastrocytic gliomas, 8 astrocytic gliomas, and 3 astrocytoma cell lines. Results Except for hemojuvelin, all genes studied had detectable levels of mRNA. In most tumor types, the pattern of gene expression was diverse. Notable findings include high expression of transferrin receptor 1 in the hippocampus and medulla oblongata compared to other brain regions, low expression of HFE in normal brain with elevated HFE expression in meningiomas, and absence of hepcidin mRNA in astrocytoma cell lines despite expression in normal brain and tumor specimens. Conclusion These results indicate that several iron-related genes are expressed in normal brain, and that their expression may be dysregulated in brain tumors.

  10. Exploring Brain Gene Expression i Animal Models of Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Julia

    2007-01-01

    The genetic basis for behavioural traits is largely unknown. The overall aim of this thesis was to find genes with importance for behavioural traits related to fear and anxiety. Microarray analysis was used to screen expression profiles of brain regions important for emotional behaviour in dogs, wolves, foxes and mice. In a first experiment, dogs and their wild ancestors the wolves were compared. Our results suggested that directed selection for behaviour might have resulted in expression cha...

  11. Aging and Gene Expression in the Primate Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Hunter B.; Khaitovich, Philipp; Plotkin, Joshua B.; Paabo, Svante; Eisen, Michael B.

    2005-02-18

    It is well established that gene expression levels in many organisms change during the aging process, and the advent of DNA microarrays has allowed genome-wide patterns of transcriptional changes associated with aging to be studied in both model organisms and various human tissues. Understanding the effects of aging on gene expression in the human brain is of particular interest, because of its relation to both normal and pathological neurodegeneration. Here we show that human cerebral cortex, human cerebellum, and chimpanzee cortex each undergo different patterns of age-related gene expression alterations. In humans, many more genes undergo consistent expression changes in the cortex than in the cerebellum; in chimpanzees, many genes change expression with age in cortex, but the pattern of changes in expression bears almost no resemblance to that of human cortex. These results demonstrate the diversity of aging patterns present within the human brain, as well as how rapidly genome-wide patterns of aging can evolve between species; they may also have implications for the oxidative free radical theory of aging, and help to improve our understanding of human neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Aging and gene expression in the primate brain.

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    Hunter B Fraser

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that gene expression levels in many organisms change during the aging process, and the advent of DNA microarrays has allowed genome-wide patterns of transcriptional changes associated with aging to be studied in both model organisms and various human tissues. Understanding the effects of aging on gene expression in the human brain is of particular interest, because of its relation to both normal and pathological neurodegeneration. Here we show that human cerebral cortex, human cerebellum, and chimpanzee cortex each undergo different patterns of age-related gene expression alterations. In humans, many more genes undergo consistent expression changes in the cortex than in the cerebellum; in chimpanzees, many genes change expression with age in cortex, but the pattern of changes in expression bears almost no resemblance to that of human cortex. These results demonstrate the diversity of aging patterns present within the human brain, as well as how rapidly genome-wide patterns of aging can evolve between species; they may also have implications for the oxidative free radical theory of aging, and help to improve our understanding of human neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Conditional gene expression systems in the transgenic rat brain

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    Schönig Kai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Turning gene expression on and off at will is one of the most powerful tools for the study of gene function in vivo. While several conditional systems were successful in invertebrates, in mice the Cre/loxP recombination system and the tet-controlled transcription activation system are predominant. Both expression systems allow for spatial and temporal control of gene activities, and, in the case of tet regulation, even for the reversible activation/inactivation of gene expression. Although the rat is the principal experimental model in biomedical research, in particular in studies of neuroscience, conditional rat transgenic systems are exceptionally rare in this species. Results We addressed this lack of technology, and established and thoroughly characterized CreERT2 and tTA transgenic rats with forebrain-specific transgene expression, controlled by the CaMKII alpha promoter. In addition, we developed new universal rat reporter lines for both transcription control systems and established inducible and efficient reporter gene expression in forebrain neurons. Conclusions We demonstrate that conditional genetic manipulations in the rat brain are both feasible and practicable and outline advantages and limitations of the Tet and Cre/loxP system in the rat brain.

  14. Human brain arteriovenous malformations express lymphatic-associated genes.

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    Shoemaker, Lorelei D; Fuentes, Laurel F; Santiago, Shauna M; Allen, Breanna M; Cook, Douglas J; Steinberg, Gary K; Chang, Steven D

    2014-12-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are devastating, hemorrhage-prone, cerebrovascular lesions characterized by well-defined feeding arteries, draining vein(s) and the absence of a capillary bed. The endothelial cells (ECs) that comprise AVMs exhibit a loss of arterial and venous specification. Given the role of the transcription factor COUP-TFII in vascular development, EC specification, and pathological angiogenesis, we examined human AVM tissue to determine if COUP-FTII may have a role in AVM disease biology. We examined 40 human brain AVMs by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and qRT-PCR for the expression of COUP-TFII as well as other genes involved in venous and lymphatic development, maintenance, and signaling. We also examined proliferation and EC tube formation with human umbilical ECs (HUVEC) following COUP-TFII overexpression. We report that AVMs expressed COUP-TFII, SOX18, PROX1, NFATC1, FOXC2, TBX1, LYVE1, Podoplanin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, contained Ki67-positive cells and heterogeneously expressed genes involved in Hedgehog, Notch, Wnt, and VEGF signaling pathways. Overexpression of COUP-TFII alone in vitro resulted in increased EC proliferation and dilated tubes in an EC tube formation assay in HUVEC. This suggests AVM ECs are further losing their arterial/venous specificity and acquiring a partial lymphatic molecular phenotype. There was significant correlation of gene expression with presence of clinical edema and acute hemorrhage. While the precise role of these genes in the formation, stabilization, growth and risk of hemorrhage of AVMs remains unclear, these findings have potentially important implications for patient management and treatment choice, and opens new avenues for future work on AVM disease mechanisms.

  15. Brain Gene Expression Signatures From Cerebrospinal Fluid Exosome RNA Profiling

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    Zanello, S. B.; Stevens, B.; Calvillo, E.; Tang, R.; Gutierrez Flores, B.; Hu, L.; Skog, J.; Bershad, E.

    2016-01-01

    While the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome observations have focused on ocular symptoms, spaceflight has been also associated with a number of other performance and neurologic signs, such as headaches, cognitive changes, vertigo, nausea, sleep/circadian disruption and mood alterations, which, albeit likely multifactorial, can also result from elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). We therefore hypothesize that these various symptoms are caused by disturbances in the neurophysiology of the brain structures and are correlated with molecular markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as indicators of neurophysiological changes. Exosomes are 30-200 nm microvesicles shed into all biofluids, including blood, urine, and CSF, carrying a highly rich source of intact protein and RNA cargo. Exosomes have been identified in human CSF, and their proteome and RNA pool is a potential new reservoir for biomarker discovery in neurological disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate changes in brain gene expression via exosome analysis in patients suffering from ICP elevation of varied severity (idiopathic intracranial hypertension -IIH), a condition which shares some of the neuroophthalmological features of VIIP, as a first step toward obtaining evidence suggesting that cognitive function and ICP levels can be correlated with biomarkers in the CSF. Our preliminary work, reported last year, validated the exosomal technology applicable to CSF analysis and demonstrated that it was possible to obtain gene expression evidence of inflammation processes in traumatic brain injury patients. We are now recruiting patients with suspected IIH requiring lumbar puncture at Baylor College of Medicine. Both CSF (5 ml) and human plasma (10 ml) are being collected in order to compare the pattern of differentially expressed genes observed in CSF and in blood. Since blood is much more accessible than CSF, we would like to determine whether plasma biomarkers for

  16. Gender-specific gene expression in post-mortem human brain: localization to sex chromosomes.

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    Vawter, Marquis P; Evans, Simon; Choudary, Prabhakara; Tomita, Hiroaki; Meador-Woodruff, Jim; Molnar, Margherita; Li, Jun; Lopez, Juan F; Myers, Rick; Cox, David; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda; Jones, Edward G; Bunney, William E

    2004-02-01

    Gender differences in brain development and in the prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression have been reported. Gender differences in human brain might be related to patterns of gene expression. Microarray technology is one useful method for investigation of gene expression in brain. We investigated gene expression, cell types, and regional expression patterns of differentially expressed sex chromosome genes in brain. We profiled gene expression in male and female dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and cerebellum using the Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray platform. Differentially expressed genes between males and females on the Y chromosome (DBY, SMCY, UTY, RPS4Y, and USP9Y) and X chromosome (XIST) were confirmed using real-time PCR measurements. In situ hybridization confirmed the differential expression of gender-specific genes and neuronal expression of XIST, RPS4Y, SMCY, and UTY in three brain regions examined. The XIST gene, which silences gene expression on regions of the X chromosome, is expressed in a subset of neurons. Since a subset of neurons express gender-specific genes, neural subpopulations may exhibit a subtle sexual dimorphism at the level of differences in gene regulation and function. The distinctive pattern of neuronal expression of XIST, RPS4Y, SMCY, and UTY and other sex chromosome genes in neuronal subpopulations may possibly contribute to gender differences in prevalence noted for some neuropsychiatric disorders. Studies of the protein expression of these sex-chromosome-linked genes in brain tissue are required to address the functional consequences of the observed gene expression differences.

  17. Gene × Smoking Interactions on Human Brain Gene Expression: Finding Common Mechanisms in Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolock, Samuel L.; Yates, Andrew; Petrill, Stephen A.; Bohland, Jason W.; Blair, Clancy; Li, Ning; Machiraju, Raghu; Huang, Kun; Bartlett, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have examined gene × environment interactions (G × E) in cognitive and behavioral domains. However, these studies have been limited in that they have not been able to directly assess differential patterns of gene expression in the human brain. Here, we assessed G × E interactions using two publically available datasets…

  18. Global differential expression of genes located in the Down Syndrome Critical Region in normal human brain.

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    Montoya, Julio Cesar; Fajardo, Dianora; Peña, Angela; Sánchez, Adalberto; Domínguez, Martha C; Satizábal, José María; García-Vallejo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    The information of gene expression obtained from databases, have made possible the extraction and analysis of data related with several molecular processes involving not only in brain homeostasis but its disruption in some neuropathologies; principally in Down syndrome and the Alzheimer disease. To correlate the levels of transcription of 19 genes located in the Down Syndrome Critical Region (DSCR) with their expression in several substructures of normal human brain. There were obtained expression profiles of 19 DSCR genes in 42 brain substructures, from gene expression values available at the database of the human brain of the Brain Atlas of the Allen Institute for Brain Sciences", (http://human.brain-map.org/). The co-expression patterns of DSCR genes in brain were calculated by using multivariate statistical methods. Highest levels of gene expression were registered at caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens and putamen among central areas of cerebral cortex. Increased expression levels of RCAN1 that encode by a protein involved in signal transduction process of the CNS were recorded for PCP4 that participates in the binding to calmodulin and TTC3; a protein that is associated with differentiation of neurons. That previously identified brain structures play a crucial role in the learning process, in different class of memory and in motor skills. The precise regulation of DSCR gene expression is crucial to maintain the brain homeostasis, especially in those areas with high levels of gene expression associated with a remarkable process of learning and cognition.

  19. Income inequality, gene expression, and brain maturation during adolescence.

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    Parker, Nadine; Wong, Angelita Pui-Yee; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, Bruce; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomas

    2017-08-07

    Income inequality is associated with poor health and social outcomes. Negative social comparisons and competition may involve the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes in underlying some of these complex inter-relationships. Here we investigate brain maturation, indexed by age-related decreases in cortical thickness, in adolescents living in neighborhoods with differing levels of income inequality and household income. We examine whether inter-regional variations relate to those in glucocorticoid receptor (HPA) and androgen receptor (HPG) gene expression. For each sex, we used a median split of income inequality and household income (income-to-needs ratio) to create four subgroups. In female adolescents, the high-inequality low-income group displayed the greatest age-related decreases in cortical thickness. In this group, expression of glucocorticoid and androgen receptor genes explained the most variance in these age-related decreases in thickness across the cortex. We speculate that female adolescents living in high-inequality neighborhoods and low-income households may experience greater HPA and HPG activity, leading to steeper decreases in cortical thickness with age.

  20. Global gene expression profiling of healthy human brain and its application in studying neurological disorders.

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    Negi, Simarjeet K; Guda, Chittibabu

    2017-04-18

    Brain function is governed by precise regulation of gene expression across its anatomically distinct structures; however, the expression patterns of genes across hundreds of brain structures are not clearly understood. Here, we describe a gene expression model, which is representative of the healthy human brain transcriptome by using data from the Allen Brain Atlas. Our in-depth gene expression profiling revealed that 84% of genes are expressed in at least one of the 190 brain structures studied. Hierarchical clustering based on gene expression profiles delineated brain regions into structurally tiered spatial groups and we observed striking enrichment for region-specific processes. Further, weighted co-expression network analysis identified 19 robust modules of highly correlated genes enriched with functional associations for neurogenesis, dopamine signaling, immune regulation and behavior. Also, structural distribution maps of major neurotransmission systems in the brain were generated. Finally, we developed a supervised classification model, which achieved 84% and 81% accuracies for predicting autism- and Parkinson's-implicated genes, respectively, using our expression model as a baseline. This study represents the first use of global gene expression profiling from healthy human brain to develop a disease gene prediction model and this generic methodology can be applied to study any neurological disorder.

  1. Invited Review: How sleep deprivation affects gene expression in the brain: a review of recent findings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiara Cirelli

    2002-01-01

    ..., and the functional consequences of sleep loss. To determine what molecular changes occur in the brain during the sleep-waking cycle and after sleep deprivation, our laboratory is performing a systematic screening of brain gene expression in rats...

  2. Rate of evolution in brain-expressed genes in humans and other primates.

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    Hurng-Yi Wang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain-expressed genes are known to evolve slowly in mammals. Nevertheless, since brains of higher primates have evolved rapidly, one might expect acceleration in DNA sequence evolution in their brain-expressed genes. In this study, we carried out full-length cDNA sequencing on the brain transcriptome of an Old World monkey (OWM and then conducted three-way comparisons among (i mouse, OWM, and human, and (ii OWM, chimpanzee, and human. Although brain-expressed genes indeed appear to evolve more rapidly in species with more advanced brains (apes > OWM > mouse, a similar lineage effect is observable for most other genes. The broad inclusion of genes in the reference set to represent the genomic average is therefore critical to this type of analysis. Calibrated against the genomic average, the rate of evolution among brain-expressed genes is probably lower (or at most equal in humans than in chimpanzee and OWM. Interestingly, the trend of slow evolution in coding sequence is no less pronounced among brain-specific genes, vis-à-vis brain-expressed genes in general. The human brain may thus differ from those of our close relatives in two opposite directions: (i faster evolution in gene expression, and (ii a likely slowdown in the evolution of protein sequences. Possible explanations and hypotheses are discussed.

  3. Exploration and visualization of gene expression with neuroanatomy in the adult mouse brain

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    Pathak Sayan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatially mapped large scale gene expression databases enable quantitative comparison of data measurements across genes, anatomy, and phenotype. In most ongoing efforts to study gene expression in the mammalian brain, significant resources are applied to the mapping and visualization of data. This paper describes the implementation and utility of Brain Explorer, a 3D visualization tool for studying in situ hybridization-based (ISH expression patterns in the Allen Brain Atlas, a genome-wide survey of 21,000 expression patterns in the C57BL6J adult mouse brain. Results Brain Explorer enables users to visualize gene expression data from the C57Bl/6J mouse brain in 3D at a resolution of 100 μm3, allowing co-display of several experiments as well as 179 reference neuro-anatomical structures. Brain Explorer also allows viewing of the original ISH images referenced from any point in a 3D data set. Anatomic and spatial homology searches can be performed from the application to find data sets with expression in specific structures and with similar expression patterns. This latter feature allows for anatomy independent queries and genome wide expression correlation studies. Conclusion These tools offer convenient access to detailed expression information in the adult mouse brain and the ability to perform data mining and visualization of gene expression and neuroanatomy in an integrated manner.

  4. Broad integration of expression maps and co-expression networks compassing novel gene functions in the brain.

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    Okamura-Oho, Yuko; Shimokawa, Kazuro; Nishimura, Masaomi; Takemoto, Satoko; Sato, Akira; Furuichi, Teiichi; Yokota, Hideo

    2014-11-10

    Using a recently invented technique for gene expression mapping in the whole-anatomy context, termed transcriptome tomography, we have generated a dataset of 36,000 maps of overall gene expression in the adult-mouse brain. Here, using an informatics approach, we identified a broad co-expression network that follows an inverse power law and is rich in functional interaction and gene-ontology terms. Our framework for the integrated analysis of expression maps and graphs of co-expression networks revealed that groups of combinatorially expressed genes, which regulate cell differentiation during development, were present in the adult brain and each of these groups was associated with a discrete cell types. These groups included non-coding genes of unknown function. We found that these genes specifically linked developmentally conserved groups in the network. A previously unrecognized robust expression pattern covering the whole brain was related to the molecular anatomy of key biological processes occurring in particular areas.

  5. Molecular Imaging of Gene Expression and Efficacy following Adenoviral-Mediated Brain Tumor Gene Therapy

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    Alnawaz Rehemtulla

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer gene therapy is an active area of research relying upon the transfer and subsequent expression of a therapeutic transgene into tumor cells in order to provide for therapeutic selectivity. Noninvasive assessment of therapeutic response and correlation of the location, magnitude, and duration of transgene expression in vivo would be particularly useful in the development of cancer gene therapy protocols by facilitating optimization of gene transfer protocols, vector development, and prodrug dosing schedules. In this study, we developed an adenoviral vector containing both the therapeutic transgene yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD along with an optical reporter gene (luciferase. Following intratumoral injection of the vector into orthotopic 9L gliomas, anatomical and diffusion-weighted MR images were obtained over time in order to provide for quantitative assessment of overall therapeutic efficacy and spatial heterogeneity of cell kill, respectively. In addition, bioluminescence images were acquired to assess the duration and magnitude of gene expression. MR images revealed significant reduction in tumor growth rates associated with yCD/5-fluorocytosine (5FC gene therapy. Significant increases in mean tumor diffusion values were also observed during treatment with 5FC. Moreover, spatial heterogeneity in tumor diffusion changes were also observed revealing that diffusion magnetic resonance imaging could detect regional therapeutic effects due to the nonuniform delivery and/or expression of the therapeutic yCD transgene within the tumor mass. In addition, in vivo bioluminescence imaging detected luciferase gene expression, which was found to decrease over time during administration of the prodrug providing a noninvasive surrogate marker for monitoring gene expression. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the yCD/5FC strategy for the treatment of brain tumors and reveal the feasibility of using multimodality molecular and functional imaging

  6. Human speech- and reading-related genes display partially overlapping expression patterns in the marmoset brain.

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    Kato, Masaki; Okanoya, Kazuo; Koike, Taku; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Shigeru; Iriki, Atsushi

    2014-06-01

    Language is a characteristic feature of human communication. Several familial language impairments have been identified, and candidate genes for language impairments already isolated. Studies comparing expression patterns of these genes in human brain are necessary to further understanding of these genes. However, it is difficult to examine gene expression in human brain. In this study, we used a non-human primate (common marmoset; Callithrix jacchus) as a biological model of the human brain to investigate expression patterns of human speech- and reading-related genes. Expression patterns of speech disorder- (FoxP2, FoxP1, CNTNAP2, and CMIP) and dyslexia- (ROBO1, DCDC2, and KIAA0319) related genes were analyzed. We found the genes displayed overlapping expression patterns in the ocular, auditory, and motor systems. Our results enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying language impairments. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of spatial-temporal gene expression patterns reveals dynamics and regionalization in developing mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shen-Ju; Wang, Chindi; Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Niou, Zhen-Xian; Lin, Chih-Hsu; Li, Ker-Chau; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    2016-01-20

    Allen Brain Atlas (ABA) provides a valuable resource of spatial/temporal gene expressions in mammalian brains. Despite rich information extracted from this database, current analyses suffer from several limitations. First, most studies are either gene-centric or region-centric, thus are inadequate to capture the superposition of multiple spatial-temporal patterns. Second, standard tools of expression analysis such as matrix factorization can capture those patterns but do not explicitly incorporate spatial dependency. To overcome those limitations, we proposed a computational method to detect recurrent patterns in the spatial-temporal gene expression data of developing mouse brains. We demonstrated that regional distinction in brain development could be revealed by localized gene expression patterns. The patterns expressed in the forebrain, medullary and pontomedullary, and basal ganglia are enriched with genes involved in forebrain development, locomotory behavior, and dopamine metabolism respectively. In addition, the timing of global gene expression patterns reflects the general trends of molecular events in mouse brain development. Furthermore, we validated functional implications of the inferred patterns by showing genes sharing similar spatial-temporal expression patterns with Lhx2 exhibited differential expression in the embryonic forebrains of Lhx2 mutant mice. These analysis outcomes confirm the utility of recurrent expression patterns in studying brain development.

  8. Enhanced gene expression in the brain following intravenous administration of lactoferrin-bearing polypropylenimine dendriplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somani, Sukrut; Robb, Gillian; Pickard, Benjamin S; Dufès, Christine

    2015-11-10

    The possibility of using gene therapy for the treatment of brain diseases such as brain cancer, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, is currently hampered by the lack of gene delivery systems able to cross the blood-brain barrier and deliver DNA to the brain following intravenous administration. On the basis that lactoferrin can effectively reach the brain by using specific receptors for crossing the blood-brain barrier, we propose to investigate if a lactoferrin-bearing generation 3-diaminobutyric polypropylenimine (DAB) dendrimer would allow the transport of plasmid DNA to the brain after intravenous administration. In this work, we demonstrated that the conjugation of lactoferrin to the dendrimer led to an enhanced DNA uptake by 2.1-fold in bEnd.3 murine brain capillary endothelial cells compared to the unmodified dendriplex in vitro. In vivo, the intravenous administration of lactoferrin-bearing DAB dendriplex resulted in a significantly increased gene expression in the brain, by more than 6.4-fold compared to that of DAB dendriplex, while decreasing gene expression in the lung and the kidneys. Gene expression in the brain was significantly higher than in any other major organs of the body. Lactoferrin-bearing generation 3 polypropylenimine dendrimer is therefore a highly promising delivery system for systemic gene delivery to the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles in the Human Brain Stem, Cerebellum and Cerebral Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    Full Text Available The human brain is one of the most mysterious tissues in the body. Our knowledge of the human brain is limited due to the complexity of its structure and the microscopic nature of connections between brain regions and other tissues in the body. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of three brain regions-the brain stem, cerebellum and cerebral cortex-to identify genes that are differentially expressed among these different brain regions in humans and to obtain a list of robust, region-specific, differentially expressed genes by comparing the expression signatures from different individuals. Feature selection methods, specifically minimum redundancy maximum relevance and incremental feature selection, were employed to analyze the gene expression profiles. Sequential minimal optimization, a machine-learning algorithm, was employed to examine the utility of selected genes. We also performed a literature search, and we discuss the experimental evidence for the important physiological functions of several highly ranked genes, including NR2E1, DAO, and LRRC7, and we give our analyses on a gene (TFAP2B that have not been investigated or experimentally validated. As a whole, the results of our study will improve our ability to predict and understand genes related to brain regionalization and function.

  10. Aerobic glycolysis in the human brain is associated with development and neotenous gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Manu S.; Hawrylycz, Michael; Miller, Jeremy A.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Aerobic glycolysis (AG), i.e., non-oxidative metabolism of glucose despite the presence of abundant oxygen, accounts for 10–12% of glucose used by the adult human brain. AG varies regionally in the resting state. Brain AG may support synaptic growth and remodeling; however, data supporting this hypothesis are sparse. Here, we report on investigations on the role of AG in the human brain. Meta-analysis of prior brain glucose and oxygen metabolism studies demonstrates that AG increases during childhood, precisely when synaptic growth rates are highest. In resting adult humans, AG correlates with persistence of gene expression typical of infancy (transcriptional neoteny). In brain regions with the highest AG, we find increased gene expression related to synapse formation and growth. In contrast, regions high in oxidative glucose metabolism express genes related to mitochondria and synaptic transmission. Our results suggest that brain AG supports developmental processes, particularly those required for synapse formation and growth. PMID:24411938

  11. Fresh Frozen Plasma Modulates Brain Gene Expression in a Swine Model of Traumatic Brain Injury and Shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Martin; Bambakidis, Ted; Dekker, Simone E

    2017-01-01

    analysis revealed an upregulation of genes involved in metabolic and platelet signaling, as well as collagen formation and downregulation of inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Fresh frozen plasma resuscitation in this model was associated with downregulation of inflammatory pathway genes and expression of gene...... clusters mapping to increased metabolic and platelet signaling, which, in turn, was reversely associated with brain swelling....

  12. Analysis of spatial-temporal gene expression patterns reveals dynamics and regionalization in developing mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Shen-Ju Chou; Chindi Wang; Nardnisa Sintupisut; Zhen-Xian Niou; Chih-Hsu Lin; Ker-Chau Li; Chen-Hsiang Yeang

    2016-01-01

    Allen Brain Atlas (ABA) provides a valuable resource of spatial/temporal gene expressions in mammalian brains. Despite rich information extracted from this database, current analyses suffer from several limitations. First, most studies are either gene-centric or region-centric, thus are inadequate to capture the superposition of multiple spatial-temporal patterns. Second, standard tools of expression analysis such as matrix factorization can capture those patterns but do not explicitly incorp...

  13. brain-coX: investigating and visualising gene co-expression in seven human brain transcriptomic datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freytag, Saskia; Burgess, Rosemary; Oliver, Karen L; Bahlo, Melanie

    2017-06-08

    The pathogenesis of neurological and mental health disorders often involves multiple genes, complex interactions, as well as brain- and development-specific biological mechanisms. These characteristics make identification of disease genes for such disorders challenging, as conventional prioritisation tools are not specifically tailored to deal with the complexity of the human brain. Thus, we developed a novel web-application-brain-coX-that offers gene prioritisation with accompanying visualisations based on seven gene expression datasets in the post-mortem human brain, the largest such resource ever assembled. We tested whether our tool can correctly prioritise known genes from 37 brain-specific KEGG pathways and 17 psychiatric conditions. We achieved average sensitivity of nearly 50%, at the same time reaching a specificity of approximately 75%. We also compared brain-coX's performance to that of its main competitors, Endeavour and ToppGene, focusing on the ability to discover novel associations. Using a subset of the curated SFARI autism gene collection we show that brain-coX's prioritisations are most similar to SFARI's own curated gene classifications. brain-coX is the first prioritisation and visualisation web-tool targeted to the human brain and can be freely accessed via http://shiny.bioinf.wehi.edu.au/freytag.s/ .

  14. Gene expression changes with age in skin, adipose tissue, blood and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Daniel; Viñuela, Ana; Davies, Matthew N; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Parts, Leopold; Knowles, David; Brown, Andrew A; Hedman, Asa K; Small, Kerrin S; Buil, Alfonso; Grundberg, Elin; Nica, Alexandra C; Di Meglio, Paola; Nestle, Frank O; Ryten, Mina; Durbin, Richard; McCarthy, Mark I; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Weale, Michael E; Bataille, Veronique; Spector, Tim D

    2013-07-26

    Previous studies have demonstrated that gene expression levels change with age. These changes are hypothesized to influence the aging rate of an individual. We analyzed gene expression changes with age in abdominal skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and lymphoblastoid cell lines in 856 female twins in the age range of 39-85 years. Additionally, we investigated genotypic variants involved in genotype-by-age interactions to understand how the genomic regulation of gene expression alters with age. Using a linear mixed model, differential expression with age was identified in 1,672 genes in skin and 188 genes in adipose tissue. Only two genes expressed in lymphoblastoid cell lines showed significant changes with age. Genes significantly regulated by age were compared with expression profiles in 10 brain regions from 100 postmortem brains aged 16 to 83 years. We identified only one age-related gene common to the three tissues. There were 12 genes that showed differential expression with age in both skin and brain tissue and three common to adipose and brain tissues. Skin showed the most age-related gene expression changes of all the tissues investigated, with many of the genes being previously implicated in fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial activity, cancer and splicing. A significant proportion of age-related changes in gene expression appear to be tissue-specific with only a few genes sharing an age effect in expression across tissues. More research is needed to improve our understanding of the genetic influences on aging and the relationship with age-related diseases.

  15. Differential gene expression in brain tissues of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tverdal Aage

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine behavioural problems, in particular aggression, are important reasons for euthanasia of otherwise healthy dogs. Aggressive behaviour in dogs also represents an animal welfare problem and a public threat. Elucidating the genetic background of adverse behaviour can provide valuable information to breeding programs and aid the development of drugs aimed at treating undesirable behaviour. With the intentions of identifying gene-specific expression in particular brain parts and comparing brains of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs, we studied amygdala, frontal cortex, hypothalamus and parietal cortex, as these tissues are reported to be involved in emotional reactions, including aggression. Based on quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR in 20 brains, obtained from 11 dogs euthanised because of aggressive behaviour and nine non-aggressive dogs, we studied expression of nine genes identified in an initial screening by subtraction hybridisation. Results This study describes differential expression of the UBE2V2 and ZNF227 genes in brains of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs. It also reports differential expression for eight of the studied genes across four different brain tissues (amygdala, frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and parietal cortex. Sex differences in transcription levels were detected for five of the nine studied genes. Conclusions The study showed significant differences in gene expression between brain compartments for most of the investigated genes. Increased expression of two genes was associated with the aggression phenotype. Although the UBE2V2 and ZNF227 genes have no known function in regulation of aggressive behaviour, this study contributes to preliminary data of differential gene expression in the canine brain and provides new information to be further explored.

  16. Evolutionary and Expression Analyses Show Co-option of khdrbs Genes for Origin of Vertebrate Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Su Wang; Su Wang; Qingyun Yang; Qingyun Yang; Ziyue Wang; Ziyue Wang; Shuoqi Feng; Shuoqi Feng; Hongyan Li; Hongyan Li; Dongrui Ji; Dongrui Ji; Shicui Zhang; Shicui Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Genes generated by whole genome duplications (WGD) can be co-opted by changing their regulation process or altering their coding proteins, which has been shown contributable to the emergence of vertebrate morphological novelties such as vertebrate cartilage. Mouse khdrbs genes, differing from its invertebrate orthologs, were mainly expressed in brain, hinting that khdrbs gene family as a member of genetic toolkit may be linked to vertebrate brain development. However, the evolutionary relatio...

  17. Singing-driven gene expression in the developing songbird brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Frank; Whitney, Osceola

    2005-10-15

    Neural and behavioral development arises from an integration of genetic and environmental influences, yet specifying the nature of this interaction remains a primary problem in neuroscience. Here, we review molecular and behavioral studies that focus on the role of singing-driven gene expression during neural and vocal development in the male zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), a songbird that learns a species-typical vocal pattern during juvenile development by imitating an adult male tutor. A primary aim of our lab has been to identify naturally-occurring environmental influences that shape the propensity to sing. This ethological approach underlies our theoretical perspective, which is to integrate the significance of singing-driven gene expression into a broader ecological context.

  18. Singing-driven gene expression in the developing songbird brain

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Frank; Whitney, Osceola

    2005-01-01

    Neural and behavioral development arises from an integration of genetic and environmental influences, yet specifying the nature of this interaction remains a primary problem in neuroscience. Here, we review molecular and behavioral studies that focus on the role of singing-driven gene expression during neural and vocal development in the male zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), a songbird that learns a species-typical vocal pattern during juvenile development by imitating an adult male tutor. ...

  19. Gene expression in the rodent brain is associated with its regional connectivity.

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    Lior Wolf

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The putative link between gene expression of brain regions and their neural connectivity patterns is a fundamental question in neuroscience. Here this question is addressed in the first large scale study of a prototypical mammalian rodent brain, using a combination of rat brain regional connectivity data with gene expression of the mouse brain. Remarkably, even though this study uses data from two different rodent species (due to the data limitations, we still find that the connectivity of the majority of brain regions is highly predictable from their gene expression levels-the outgoing (incoming connectivity is successfully predicted for 73% (56% of brain regions, with an overall fairly marked accuracy level of 0.79 (0.83. Many genes are found to play a part in predicting both the incoming and outgoing connectivity (241 out of the 500 top selected genes, p-value<1e-5. Reassuringly, the genes previously known from the literature to be involved in axon guidance do carry significant information about regional brain connectivity. Surveying the genes known to be associated with the pathogenesis of several brain disorders, we find that those associated with schizophrenia, autism and attention deficit disorder are the most highly enriched in the connectivity-related genes identified here. Finally, we find that the profile of functional annotation groups that are associated with regional connectivity in the rodent is significantly correlated with the annotation profile of genes previously found to determine neural connectivity in C. elegans (Pearson correlation of 0.24, p<1e-6 for the outgoing connections and 0.27, p<1e-5 for the incoming. Overall, the association between connectivity and gene expression in a specific extant rodent species' brain is likely to be even stronger than found here, given the limitations of current data.

  20. Cholesterogenic genes expression in brain and liver of ganglioside-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlinac, Kristina; Fon Tacer, Klementina; Heffer, Marija; Rozman, Damjana; Bognar, Svjetlana Kalanj

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of changed ganglioside profile on transcription of selected genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. For that purpose, the expression of 11 genes related to cholesterol synthesis, regulation, and cholesterol transport was investigated in selected brain regions (frontal cortex, hippocampus, brain stem, cerebellum) and liver of St8sia1 knockout (KO) mice characterized by deficient synthesis of b- and c-series gangliosides and accumulation of a-series gangliosides. The expression of majority of the analyzed genes, as determined using quantitative real time PCR, was slightly higher in St8sia1 KO compared to wild-type (wt) controls. More prominent changes were observed in Hmgr, Cyp51, and Cyp46 expression in brain (hippocampus and brain stem) and Srebp1a, Insig2a, and Ldlr in liver. In addition, the expression of master transcriptional regulators, Srebp1a, Srebp1c, and Insig2a, as well as transporters Ldlr and Vldlr differed between liver and brain, and within brain regions in wt animals. Cyp46 expression was expectedly brain-specific, with brain region difference in both wt and St8sia1 KO. The established change in transcriptome of cholesterogenic genes is associated to specific alteration of ganglioside composition which indicates relationship between gangliosides and regulation of cholesterol metabolism.

  1. Gene expression changes in female zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain in response to acute exposure to methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Catherine A.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Martyniuk, Chris; Knoebl, Iris; Pope, Marie; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxicant and endocrine disruptor that accumulates in aquatic systems. Previous studies have shown suppression of hormone levels in both male and female fish, suggesting effects on gonadotropin regulation in the brain. The gene expression profile in adult female zebrafish whole brain induced by acute (96 h) MeHg exposure was investigated. Fish were exposed by injection to 0 or 0.5(mu or u)g MeHg/g. Gene expression changes in the brain were examined using a 22,000-feature zebrafish microarray. At a significance level of pfemale brain. Future studies will compare the gene expression profile induced in response to MeHg with that induced by other toxicants and will investigate responsive genes as potential biomarkers of MeHg exposure.

  2. Expression of the homeobox genes OTX2 and OTX1 in the early developing human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen B; Lutterodt, Melissa C; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2010-01-01

    protein was found in the subcommissural organ, pineal gland, and cerebellum. The early expression of OTX2 and OTX1 in proliferative cell layers of the human fetal brain supports the concept that these homeobox genes are important in neuronal cell development and differentiation: OTX1 primarily......In rodents, the Otx2 gene is expressed in the diencephalon, mesencephalon, and cerebellum and is crucial for the development of these brain regions. Together with Otx1, Otx2 is known to cooperate with other genes to develop the caudal forebrain and, further, Otx1 is also involved in differentiation...... of young neurons of the deeper cortical layers. We have studied the spatial and temporal expression of the two homeobox genes OTX2 and OTX1 in human fetal brains from 7 to 14 weeks postconception by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. OTX2 was expressed in the diencephalon, mesencephalon...

  3. Expression of the Otx2 homeobox gene in the developing mammalian brain: embryonic and adult expression in the pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin F; Muñoz, Estela; Ganguly, Surajit

    2006-01-01

    that the level of Otx2 mRNA appears to be independent of the photoneural input to the gland. Our results are consistent with the view that pineal expression of Otx2 is required for development and we hypothesize that it plays a role in the adult in controlling the expression of the cluster of genes associated......Otx2 is a vertebrate homeobox gene, which has been found to be essential for the development of rostral brain regions and appears to play a role in the development of retinal photoreceptor cells and pinealocytes. In this study, the temporal expression pattern of Otx2 was revealed in the rat brain......, with special emphasis on the pineal gland throughout late embryonic and postnatal stages. Widespread high expression of Otx2 in the embryonic brain becomes progressively restricted in the adult to the pineal gland. Crx (cone-rod homeobox), a downstream target gene of Otx2, showed a pineal expression pattern...

  4. Regional differences in gene expression and promoter usage in aged human brains

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, Luba M.

    2013-02-19

    To characterize the promoterome of caudate and putamen regions (striatum), frontal and temporal cortices, and hippocampi from aged human brains, we used high-throughput cap analysis of gene expression to profile the transcription start sites and to quantify the differences in gene expression across the 5 brain regions. We also analyzed the extent to which methylation influenced the observed expression profiles. We sequenced more than 71 million cap analysis of gene expression tags corresponding to 70,202 promoter regions and 16,888 genes. More than 7000 transcripts were differentially expressed, mainly because of differential alternative promoter usage. Unexpectedly, 7% of differentially expressed genes were neurodevelopmental transcription factors. Functional pathway analysis on the differentially expressed genes revealed an overrepresentation of several signaling pathways (e.g., fibroblast growth factor and wnt signaling) in hippocampus and striatum. We also found that although 73% of methylation signals mapped within genes, the influence of methylation on the expression profile was small. Our study underscores alternative promoter usage as an important mechanism for determining the regional differences in gene expression at old age.

  5. Comparison of regional gene expression differences in the brains of the domestic dog and human

    OpenAIRE

    Kennerly Erin; Thomson Susanne; Olby Natasha; Breen Matthew; Gibson Greg

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Comparison of the expression profiles of 2,721 genes in the cerebellum, cortex and pituitary gland of three American Staffordshire terriers, one beagle and one fox hound revealed regional expression differences in the brain but failed to reveal marked differences among breeds, or even individual dogs. Approximately 85 per cent (42 of 49 orthologue comparisons) of the regional differences in the dog are similar to those that differentiate the analogous human brain regions. A smaller p...

  6. A Comparison of Brain Gene Expression Levels in Domesticated and Wild Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Frank W.; Somel, Mehmet; Carneiro, Miguel; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Halbwax, Michel; Thalmann, Olaf; Blanco-Aguiar, Jose A.; Trut, Lyudmila; Villafuerte, Rafael; Ferrand, Nuno; Kaiser, Sylvia; Jensen, Per; Pääbo, Svante

    2012-01-01

    Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits). We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea) as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30–75 genes (less than 1%) of expressed genes were differentially expressed), while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH) were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different. PMID:23028369

  7. A comparison of brain gene expression levels in domesticated and wild animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank W Albert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits. We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30-75 genes (less than 1% of expressed genes were differentially expressed, while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different.

  8. Flexible, AAV-equipped Genetic Modules for Inducible Control of Gene Expression in Mammalian Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin K Dogbevia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling gene expression in mammalian brain is of utmost importance to causally link the role of gene function to cell circuit dynamics under normal conditions and disease states. We have developed recombinant adeno-associated viruses equipped with tetracycline-controlled genetic switches for inducible and reversible control of gene expression in a cell type specific and brain subregion selective manner. Here, we characterize a two-virus approach to efficiently and reliably switch gene expression on and off, repetitively, both in vitro and in vivo. Our recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV-Tet approach is highly flexible and it has great potential for application in basic and biomedical neuroscience research and gene therapy.

  9. Gene expression in the brain and kidney of rainbow trout in response to handling stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afanasyev Sergey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technologies are rapidly becoming available for new species including teleost fishes. We constructed a rainbow trout cDNA microarray targeted at the identification of genes which are differentially expressed in response to environmental stressors. This platform included clones from normalized and subtracted libraries and genes selected through functional annotation. Present study focused on time-course comparisons of stress responses in the brain and kidney and the identification of a set of genes which are diagnostic for stress response. Results Fish were stressed with handling and samples were collected 1, 3 and 5 days after the first exposure. Gene expression profiles were analysed in terms of Gene Ontology categories. Stress affected different functional groups of genes in the tissues studied. Mitochondria, extracellular matrix and endopeptidases (especially collagenases were the major targets in kidney. Stress response in brain was characterized with dramatic temporal alterations. Metal ion binding proteins, glycolytic enzymes and motor proteins were induced transiently, whereas expression of genes involved in stress and immune response, cell proliferation and growth, signal transduction and apoptosis, protein biosynthesis and folding changed in a reciprocal fashion. Despite dramatic difference between tissues and time-points, we were able to identify a group of 48 genes that showed strong correlation of expression profiles (Pearson r > |0.65| in 35 microarray experiments being regulated by stress. We evaluated performance of the clone sets used for preparation of microarray. Overall, the number of differentially expressed genes was markedly higher in EST than in genes selected through Gene Ontology annotations, however 63% of stress-responsive genes were from this group. Conclusions 1. Stress responses in fish brain and kidney are different in function and time-course. 2. Identification of stress

  10. Aging shapes the population-mean and -dispersion of gene expression in human brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Brinkmeyer-Langford

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human aging is associated with cognitive decline and an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease. Our objective for this study was to evaluate potential relationships between age and variation in gene expression across different regions of the brain. We analyzed the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx data from 54 and 101 tissue samples across 13 brain regions in post-mortem donors of European descent aged between 20 and 70 years at death. After accounting for the effects of covariates and hidden confounding factors, we identified 1,446 protein-coding genes whose expression in one or more brain regions is correlated with chronological age at a false discovery rate of 5%. These genes are involved in various biological processes including apoptosis, mRNA splicing, amino acid biosynthesis, and neurotransmitter transport. The distribution of these genes among brain regions is uneven, suggesting variable regional responses to aging. We also found that the aging response of many genes, e.g., TP37 and C1QA, depends on individuals’ genotypic backgrounds. Finally, using dispersion-specific analysis, we identified genes such as IL7R, MS4A4E, and TERF1/TERF2 whose expressions are differentially dispersed by aging, i.e., variances differ between age groups. Our results demonstrate that age-related gene expression is brain region-specific, genotype-dependent, and associated with both mean and dispersion changes. Our findings provide a foundation for more sophisticated gene expression modeling in the studies of age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Identification of valid reference genes for the normalization of RT qPCR gene expression data in human brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravid Rivka

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of gene expression in post mortem human brain can contribute to understanding of the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT qPCR is often used to analyse gene expression. The validity of results obtained using RT qPCR is reliant on accurate data normalization. Reference genes are generally used to normalize RT qPCR data. Given that expression of some commonly used reference genes is altered in certain conditions, this study aimed to establish which reference genes were stably expressed in post mortem brain tissue from individuals with AD, PD or DLB. Results The present study investigated the expression stability of 8 candidate reference genes, (ubiquitin C [UBC], tyrosine-3-monooxygenase [YWHAZ], RNA polymerase II polypeptide [RP II], hydroxymethylbilane synthase [HMBS], TATA box binding protein [TBP], β-2-microglobulin [B2M], glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH], and succinate dehydrogenase complex-subunit A, [SDHA] in cerebellum and medial temporal gyrus of 6 AD, 6 PD, 6 DLB subjects, along with 5 matched controls using RT qPCR (TaqMan® Gene Expression Assays. Gene expression stability was analysed using geNorm to rank the candidate genes in order of decreasing stability in each disease group. The optimal number of genes recommended for accurate data normalization in each disease state was determined by pairwise variation analysis. Conclusion This study identified validated sets of mRNAs which would be appropriate for the normalization of RT qPCR data when studying gene expression in brain tissue of AD, PD, DLB and control subjects.

  12. Expression of novel Alzheimer's disease risk genes in control and Alzheimer's disease brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste M Karch

    Full Text Available Late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD etiology is influenced by complex interactions between genetic and environmental risk factors. Large-scale genome wide association studies (GWAS for LOAD have identified 10 novel risk genes: ABCA7, BIN1, CD2AP, CD33, CLU, CR1, EPHA1, MS4A6A, MS4A6E, and PICALM. We sought to measure the influence of GWAS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and gene expression levels on clinical and pathological measures of AD in brain tissue from the parietal lobe of AD cases and age-matched, cognitively normal controls. We found that ABCA7, CD33, and CR1 expression levels were associated with clinical dementia rating (CDR, with higher expression being associated with more advanced cognitive decline. BIN1 expression levels were associated with disease progression, where higher expression was associated with a delayed age at onset. CD33, CLU, and CR1 expression levels were associated with disease status, where elevated expression levels were associated with AD. Additionally, MS4A6A expression levels were associated with Braak tangle and Braak plaque scores, with elevated expression levels being associated with more advanced brain pathology. We failed to detect an association between GWAS SNPs and gene expression levels in our brain series. The minor allele of rs3764650 in ABCA7 is associated with age at onset and disease duration, and the minor allele of rs670139 in MS4A6E was associated with Braak tangle and Braak plaque score. These findings suggest that expression of some GWAS genes, namely ABCA7, BIN1, CD33, CLU, CR1 and the MS4A family, are altered in AD brains.

  13. Dynamic, mating-induced gene expression changes in female head and brain tissues of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Drosophila melanogaster females show changes in behavior and physiology after mating that are thought to maximize the number of progeny resulting from the most recent copulation. Sperm and seminal fluid proteins induce post-mating changes in females, however, very little is known about the resulting gene expression changes in female head and central nervous system tissues that contribute to the post-mating response. Results We determined the temporal gene expression changes in female head tissues 0-2, 24, 48 and 72 hours after mating. Females from each time point had a unique post-mating gene expression response, with 72 hours post-mating having the largest number of genes with significant changes in expression. At most time points, genes expressed in the head fat body that encode products involved in metabolism showed a marked change in expression. Additional analysis of gene expression changes in dissected brain tissues 24 hours post-mating revealed changes in transcript abundance of many genes, notably, the reduced transcript abundance of genes that encode ion channels. Conclusions Substantial changes occur in the regulation of many genes in female head tissues after mating, which might underlie aspects of the female post-mating response. These results provide new insights into the physiological and metabolic changes that accompany changes in female behaviors. PMID:20925960

  14. Dynamic, mating-induced gene expression changes in female head and brain tissues of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirling Emma J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drosophila melanogaster females show changes in behavior and physiology after mating that are thought to maximize the number of progeny resulting from the most recent copulation. Sperm and seminal fluid proteins induce post-mating changes in females, however, very little is known about the resulting gene expression changes in female head and central nervous system tissues that contribute to the post-mating response. Results We determined the temporal gene expression changes in female head tissues 0-2, 24, 48 and 72 hours after mating. Females from each time point had a unique post-mating gene expression response, with 72 hours post-mating having the largest number of genes with significant changes in expression. At most time points, genes expressed in the head fat body that encode products involved in metabolism showed a marked change in expression. Additional analysis of gene expression changes in dissected brain tissues 24 hours post-mating revealed changes in transcript abundance of many genes, notably, the reduced transcript abundance of genes that encode ion channels. Conclusions Substantial changes occur in the regulation of many genes in female head tissues after mating, which might underlie aspects of the female post-mating response. These results provide new insights into the physiological and metabolic changes that accompany changes in female behaviors.

  15. Circadian clock gene expression in brain regions of Alzheimer 's disease patients and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermakian, Nicolas; Lamont, Elaine Waddington; Boudreau, Philippe; Boivin, Diane B

    2011-04-01

    Circadian oscillators have been observed throughout the rodent brain. In the human brain, rhythmic expression of clock genes has been reported only in the pineal gland, and little is known about their expression in other regions. The investigators sought to determine whether clock gene expression could be detected and whether it varies as a function of time of day in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and cingulate cortex, areas known to be involved in decision making and motivated behaviors, as well as in the pineal gland, in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and aged controls. Relative expression levels of PERIOD1 (PER1 ), PERIOD2 (PER2), and Brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1) were detected by quantitative PCR in all 3 brain regions. A harmonic regression model revealed significant 24-h rhythms of PER1 in the BNST of AD subjects. A significant rhythm of PER2 was found in the cingulate cortex and BNST of control subjects and in all 3 regions of AD patients. In controls, BMAL1 did not show a diurnal rhythm in the cingulate cortex but significantly varied with time of death in the pineal and BNST and in all 3 regions for AD patients. Notable differences in the phase of clock gene rhythms and phase relationships between genes and regions were observed in the brains of AD compared to those of controls. These results indicate the presence of multiple circadian oscillators in the human brain and suggest altered synchronization among these oscillators in the brain of AD patients. © 2011 Sage Publications

  16. Elevated transcription factor specificity protein 1 in autistic brains alters the expression of autism candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanseem, Ismail; Anitha, Ayyappan; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Suda, Shiro; Iwata, Keiko; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Ohtsubo, Masafumi; Ueki, Takatoshi; Katayama, Taiichi; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Minoshima, Shinsei; Mori, Norio

    2012-03-01

    Profound changes in gene expression can result from abnormalities in the concentrations of sequence-specific transcription factors like specificity protein 1 (Sp1). Specificity protein 1 binding sites have been reported in the promoter regions of several genes implicated in autism. We hypothesize that dysfunction of Sp1 could affect the expression of multiple autism candidate genes, contributing to the heterogeneity of autism. We assessed any alterations in the expression of Sp1 and that of autism candidate genes in the postmortem brain (anterior cingulate gyrus [ACG], motor cortex, and thalamus) of autism patients (n = 8) compared with healthy control subjects (n = 13). Alterations in the expression of candidate genes upon Sp1/DNA binding inhibition with mithramycin and Sp1 silencing by RNAi were studied in SK-N-SH neuronal cells. We observed elevated expression of Sp1 in ACG of autism patients (p = .010). We also observed altered expression of several autism candidate genes. GABRB3, RELN, and HTR2A showed reduced expression, whereas CD38, ITGB3, MAOA, MECP2, OXTR, and PTEN showed elevated expression in autism. In SK-N-SH cells, OXTR, PTEN, and RELN showed reduced expression upon Sp1/DNA binding inhibition and Sp1 silencing. The RNA integrity number was not available for any of the samples. Transcription factor Sp1 is dysfunctional in the ACG of autistic brain. Consequently, the expression of potential autism candidate genes regulated by Sp1, especially OXTR and PTEN, could be affected. The diverse downstream pathways mediated by the Sp1-regulated genes, along with the environmental and intracellular signal-related regulation of Sp1, could explain the complex phenotypes associated with autism.

  17. Sex-dependent gene expression in early brain development of chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stigson Michael

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiation of the brain during development leads to sexually dimorphic adult reproductive behavior and other neural sex dimorphisms. Genetic mechanisms independent of steroid hormones produced by the gonads have recently been suggested to partly explain these dimorphisms. Results Using cDNA microarrays and real-time PCR we found gene expression differences between the male and female embryonic brain (or whole head that may be independent of morphological differentiation of the gonads. Genes located on the sex chromosomes (ZZ in males and ZW in females were common among the differentially expressed genes, several of which (WPKCI-8, HINT, MHM non-coding RNA have previously been implicated in avian sex determination. A majority of the identified genes were more highly expressed in males. Three of these genes (CDK7, CCNH and BTF2-P44 encode subunits of the transcription factor IIH complex, indicating a role for this complex in neuronal differentiation. Conclusion In conclusion, this study provides novel insights into sexually dimorphic gene expression in the embryonic chicken brain and its possible involvement in sex differentiation of the nervous system in birds.

  18. Income inequality, gene expression, and brain maturation during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Nadine; Wong, Angelita Pui-Yee; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, G Bruce; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Income inequality is associated with poor health and social outcomes. Negative social comparisons and competition may involve the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes in underlying some of these complex inter-relationships. Here we investigate brain maturation, indexed by age-related decreases in cortical thickness, in adolescents living in neighborhoods with differing levels of income inequality and household income. We examine whether inter-regi...

  19. Human brain arteriovenous malformations express lymphatic-associated genes

    OpenAIRE

    Shoemaker, Lorelei D.; Fuentes, Laurel F; Santiago, Shauna M; Allen, Breanna M; Cook, Douglas J.; Steinberg, Gary K.; Chang, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are devastating, hemorrhage-prone, cerebrovascular lesions characterized by well-defined feeding arteries, draining vein(s) and the absence of a capillary bed. The endothelial cells (ECs) that comprise AVMs exhibit a loss of arterial and venous specification. Given the role of the transcription factor COUP-TFII in vascular development, EC specification, and pathological angiogenesis, we examined human AVM tissue to determine if COUP-FTII may ...

  20. Expression Profiling of Autism Candidate Genes during Human Brain Development Implicates Central Immune Signaling Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Ziats, Mark N.; Rennert, Owen M.

    2011-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) represent a clinically heterogeneous set of conditions with strong hereditary components. Despite substantial efforts to uncover the genetic basis of ASD, the genomic etiology appears complex and a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying Autism remains elusive. We hypothesized that focusing gene interaction networks on ASD-implicated genes that are highly expressed in the developing brain may reveal core mechanisms that are otherwise obsc...

  1. Gene expression profiling of brain samples from patients with Lewy body dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Maciej; Papp, Audrey; Curtis, Amanda; Handelman, Samuel K; Kataki, Maria; Scharre, Douglas W; Rempala, Grzegorz; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2016-10-28

    Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly. The development and progression of DLB remain unclear. In this study we used next generation sequencing to assess RNA expression profiles and cellular processes associated with DLB in the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region affected by DLB pathology. The expression measurements were made in autopsy brain tissues from 8 DLB subjects and 10 age-matched controls using AmpliSeq technology with ion torrent sequencing. The analysis of RNA expression profiles revealed 490 differentially expressed genes, among which 367 genes were down-regulated and 123 were up-regulated. Functional enrichment analysis of genes differentially expressed in DLB indicated downregulation of genes associated with myelination, neurogenesis, and regulation of nervous system development. miRNA binding sites enriched in these mRNAs yielded a list of candidate miRNAs participating in DLB pathophysiology. Our study provides a comprehensive picture of gene expression landscape in DLB, identifying key cellular processes associated with DLB pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence of a bigenomic regulation of mitochondrial gene expression by thyroid hormone during rat brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Pathak, Amrita; Mohan, Vishwa; Babu, Satish; Pal, Amit; Khare, Drirh [Department of Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India); Godbole, Madan M., E-mail: madangodbole@yahoo.co.in [Department of Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India)

    2010-07-02

    Hypothyroidism during early mammalian brain development is associated with decreased expression of various mitochondrial encoded genes along with evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction. However, in-spite of the similarities between neurological disorders caused by perinatal hypothyroidism and those caused by various genetic mitochondrial defects we still do not know as to how thyroid hormone (TH) regulates mitochondrial transcription during development and whether this regulation by TH is nuclear mediated or through mitochondrial TH receptors? We here in rat cerebellum show that hypothyroidism causes reduction in expression of nuclear encoded genes controlling mitochondrial biogenesis like PGC-1{alpha}, NRF-1{alpha} and Tfam. Also, we for the first time demonstrate a mitochondrial localization of thyroid hormone receptor (mTR) isoform in developing brain capable of binding a TH response element (DR2) present in D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. These results thus indicate an integrated nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk in regulation of mitochondrial transcription by TH during brain development.

  3. Aging alters mRNA expression of amyloid transporter genes at the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, Doreen; Miller, Miles C; Messier, Arthur A; Gonzalez, Liliana; Silverberg, Gerald D

    2017-09-01

    Decreased clearance of potentially toxic metabolites, due to aging changes, likely plays a significant role in the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides and other macromolecules in the brain of the elderly and in the patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aging is the single most important risk factor for AD development. Aβ transport receptor proteins expressed at the blood-brain barrier are significantly altered with age: the efflux transporters lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and P-glycoprotein are reduced, whereas the influx transporter receptor for advanced glycation end products is increased. These receptors play an important role in maintaining brain biochemical homeostasis. We now report that, in a rat model of aging, gene transcription is altered in aging, as measured by Aβ receptor gene messenger RNA (mRNA) at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20, 30, and 36 months. Gene mRNA expression from isolated cerebral microvessels was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and P-glycoprotein mRNA were significantly reduced in aging, and receptor for advanced glycation end products was increased, in parallel with the changes seen in receptor protein expression. Transcriptional changes appear to play a role in aging alterations in blood-brain barrier receptor expression and Aβ accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Distinct gene expression profiles in adult rat brains after acute MK-801 and cocaine treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storvik, Markus; Tiikkainen, Pekka; van Iersel, Martijn; Wong, Garry

    2006-04-01

    Uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists have been suggested to attenuate the self-administration and rewarding effects of psychostimulants. Microarrays containing 14,500 rat cDNAs were hybridized to identify alterations in gene expression levels in rat brain regions elicited by the uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine, 1 mg/kg), the dopamine agonist cocaine (20 mg/kg), or combined treatment (MK-801 15 min prior to cocaine) 4 h after injections. Total genes up regulated (Z-ratio >2) in parietal cortex and nucleus accumbens were 111 and 158, respectively. Total genes down regulated (Z-ratio 18%), and nucleic acid (15%) binding. In nucleus accumbens, genes up regulated by MK-801 (87 genes) did not overlap those up regulated by cocaine (46 genes). Genes down regulated by MK-801 (33 genes) consisted of 2 overlapping genes with those down regulated by cocaine (89 genes). In parietal cortex, low numbers of overlapping regulated genes were also observed. Combined treatments also indicated low numbers (0-10) of genes commonly regulated when compared with single treatments alone. In situ hybridisation studies indicated significant increases in b-ZIP transcription factors (CREM, ICER, CBP, and c-fos) elicited by MK-801 and decreases in c-fos elicited by cocaine. The results indicate independent gene expression signatures following acute MK-801 and cocaine administration that appears to be largely non-overlapping and context dependent.

  5. Global analysis of gene expression in the developing brain of Gtf2ird1 knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer O'Leary

    Full Text Available Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of a 1.5 Mb region on chromosome 7q11.23 encompassing 26 genes. One of these genes, GTF2IRD1, codes for a putative transcription factor that is expressed throughout the brain during development. Genotype-phenotype studies in patients with atypical deletions of 7q11.23 implicate this gene in the neurological features of WBS, and Gtf2ird1 knockout mice show reduced innate fear and increased sociability, consistent with features of WBS. Multiple studies have identified in vitro target genes of GTF2IRD1, but we sought to identify in vivo targets in the mouse brain.We performed the first in vivo microarray screen for transcriptional targets of Gtf2ird1 in brain tissue from Gtf2ird1 knockout and wildtype mice at embryonic day 15.5 and at birth. Changes in gene expression in the mutant mice were moderate (0.5 to 2.5 fold and of candidate genes with altered expression verified using real-time PCR, most were located on chromosome 5, within 10 Mb of Gtf2ird1. siRNA knock-down of Gtf2ird1 in two mouse neuronal cell lines failed to identify changes in expression of any of the genes identified from the microarray and subsequent analysis showed that differences in expression of genes on chromosome 5 were the result of retention of that chromosome region from the targeted embryonic stem cell line, and so were dependent upon strain rather than Gtf2ird1 genotype. In addition, specific analysis of genes previously identified as direct in vitro targets of GTF2IRD1 failed to show altered expression.We have been unable to identify any in vivo neuronal targets of GTF2IRD1 through genome-wide expression analysis, despite widespread and robust expression of this protein in the developing rodent brain.

  6. Global analysis of gene expression in the developing brain of Gtf2ird1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Jennifer; Osborne, Lucy R

    2011-01-01

    Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of a 1.5 Mb region on chromosome 7q11.23 encompassing 26 genes. One of these genes, GTF2IRD1, codes for a putative transcription factor that is expressed throughout the brain during development. Genotype-phenotype studies in patients with atypical deletions of 7q11.23 implicate this gene in the neurological features of WBS, and Gtf2ird1 knockout mice show reduced innate fear and increased sociability, consistent with features of WBS. Multiple studies have identified in vitro target genes of GTF2IRD1, but we sought to identify in vivo targets in the mouse brain. We performed the first in vivo microarray screen for transcriptional targets of Gtf2ird1 in brain tissue from Gtf2ird1 knockout and wildtype mice at embryonic day 15.5 and at birth. Changes in gene expression in the mutant mice were moderate (0.5 to 2.5 fold) and of candidate genes with altered expression verified using real-time PCR, most were located on chromosome 5, within 10 Mb of Gtf2ird1. siRNA knock-down of Gtf2ird1 in two mouse neuronal cell lines failed to identify changes in expression of any of the genes identified from the microarray and subsequent analysis showed that differences in expression of genes on chromosome 5 were the result of retention of that chromosome region from the targeted embryonic stem cell line, and so were dependent upon strain rather than Gtf2ird1 genotype. In addition, specific analysis of genes previously identified as direct in vitro targets of GTF2IRD1 failed to show altered expression. We have been unable to identify any in vivo neuronal targets of GTF2IRD1 through genome-wide expression analysis, despite widespread and robust expression of this protein in the developing rodent brain.

  7. Species differences in brain gene expression profiles associated with adult behavioral maturation in honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Gene E

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Honey bees are known for several striking social behaviors, including a complex pattern of behavioral maturation that gives rise to an age-related colony division of labor and a symbolic dance language, by which successful foragers communicate the location of attractive food sources to their nestmates. Our understanding of honey bees is mostly based on studies of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, even though there are 9–10 other members of genus Apis, showing interesting variations in social behavior relative to A. mellifera. To facilitate future in-depth genomic and molecular level comparisons of behavior across the genus, we performed a microarray analysis of brain gene expression for A. mellifera and three key species found in Asia, A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata. Results For each species we compared brain gene expression patterns between foragers and adult one-day-old bees on an A. mellifera cDNA microarray and calculated within-species gene expression ratios to facilitate cross-species analysis. The number of cDNA spots showing hybridization fluorescence intensities above the experimental threshold was reduced by an average of 16% in the Asian species compared to A. mellifera, but an average of 71% of genes on the microarray were available for analysis. Brain gene expression profiles between foragers and one-day-olds showed differences that are consistent with a previous study on A. mellifera and were comparable across species. Although 1772 genes showed significant differences in expression between foragers and one-day-olds, only 218 genes showed differences in forager/one-day-old expression between species (p Conclusion We conclude that the A. mellifera cDNA microarray can be used effectively for cross-species comparisons within the genus. Our results indicate that there is a widespread conservation of the molecular processes in the honey bee brain underlying behavioral maturation. Species differences in

  8. Expression profiling of autism candidate genes during human brain development implicates central immune signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark N Ziats

    Full Text Available The Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD represent a clinically heterogeneous set of conditions with strong hereditary components. Despite substantial efforts to uncover the genetic basis of ASD, the genomic etiology appears complex and a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying Autism remains elusive. We hypothesized that focusing gene interaction networks on ASD-implicated genes that are highly expressed in the developing brain may reveal core mechanisms that are otherwise obscured by the genomic heterogeneity of the disorder. Here we report an in silico study of the gene expression profile from ASD-implicated genes in the unaffected developing human brain. By implementing a biologically relevant approach, we identified a subset of highly expressed ASD-candidate genes from which interactome networks were derived. Strikingly, immune signaling through NFκB, Tnf, and Jnk was central to ASD networks at multiple levels of our analysis, and cell-type specific expression suggested glia--in addition to neurons--deserve consideration. This work provides integrated genomic evidence that ASD-implicated genes may converge on central cytokine signaling pathways.

  9. Expression profiling of autism candidate genes during human brain development implicates central immune signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziats, Mark N; Rennert, Owen M

    2011-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) represent a clinically heterogeneous set of conditions with strong hereditary components. Despite substantial efforts to uncover the genetic basis of ASD, the genomic etiology appears complex and a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying Autism remains elusive. We hypothesized that focusing gene interaction networks on ASD-implicated genes that are highly expressed in the developing brain may reveal core mechanisms that are otherwise obscured by the genomic heterogeneity of the disorder. Here we report an in silico study of the gene expression profile from ASD-implicated genes in the unaffected developing human brain. By implementing a biologically relevant approach, we identified a subset of highly expressed ASD-candidate genes from which interactome networks were derived. Strikingly, immune signaling through NFκB, Tnf, and Jnk was central to ASD networks at multiple levels of our analysis, and cell-type specific expression suggested glia--in addition to neurons--deserve consideration. This work provides integrated genomic evidence that ASD-implicated genes may converge on central cytokine signaling pathways.

  10. Influence of stochastic gene expression on the cell survival rheostat after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Daniel R; Prough, Donald S; Falduto, Michael T; Boone, Deborah R; Micci, Maria-Adelaide; Kahrig, Kristen M; Crookshanks, Jeanna M; Jimenez, Arnaldo; Uchida, Tatsuo; Cowart, Jeremy C; Hawkins, Bridget E; Avila, Marcela; DeWitt, Douglas S; Hellmich, Helen L

    2011-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that random, spontaneous (stochastic) fluctuations in gene expression have important biological consequences, including determination of cell fate and phenotypic variation within isogenic populations. We propose that fluctuations in gene expression represent a valuable tool to explore therapeutic strategies for patients who have suffered traumatic brain injury (TBI), for which there is no effective drug therapy. We have studied the effects of TBI on the hippocampus because TBI survivors commonly suffer cognitive problems that are associated with hippocampal damage. In our previous studies we separated dying and surviving hippocampal neurons by laser capture microdissection and observed unexplainable variations in post-TBI gene expression, even though dying and surviving neurons were adjacent and morphologically identical. We hypothesized that, in hippocampal neurons that subsequently are subjected to TBI, randomly increased pre-TBI expression of genes that are associated with neuroprotection predisposes neurons to survival; conversely, randomly decreased expression of these genes predisposes neurons to death. Thus, to identify genes that are associated with endogenous neuroprotection, we performed a comparative, high-resolution transcriptome analysis of dying and surviving hippocampal neurons in rats subjected to TBI. We found that surviving hippocampal neurons express a distinct molecular signature--increased expression of networks of genes that are associated with regeneration, cellular reprogramming, development, and synaptic plasticity. In dying neurons we found decreased expression of genes in those networks. Based on these data, we propose a hypothetical model in which hippocampal neuronal survival is determined by a rheostat that adds injury-induced genomic signals to expression of pro-survival genes, which pre-TBI varies randomly and spontaneously from neuron to neuron. We suggest that pharmacotherapeutic strategies that co

  11. Deletion of Rictor in brain and fat alters peripheral clock gene expression and increases blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drägert, Katja; Bhattacharya, Indranil; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Seebeck, Petra; Azzi, Abdelhalim; Brown, Steven A; Georgiopoulou, Stavroula; Held, Ulrike; Blyszczuk, Przemyslaw; Arras, Margarete; Humar, Rok; Hall, Michael N; Battegay, Edouard; Haas, Elvira

    2015-08-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) contains the essential protein RICTOR and is activated by growth factors. mTORC2 in adipose tissue contributes to the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. In the perivascular adipose tissue, mTORC2 ensures normal vascular reactivity by controlling expression of inflammatory molecules. To assess whether RICTOR/mTORC2 contributes to blood pressure regulation, we applied a radiotelemetry approach in control and Rictor knockout (Rictor(aP2KO)) mice generated using adipocyte protein-2 gene promoter-driven CRE recombinase expression to delete Rictor. The 24-hour mean arterial pressure was increased in Rictor(aP2KO) mice, and the physiological decline in mean arterial pressure during the dark period was impaired. In parallel, heart rate and locomotor activity were elevated during the dark period with a pattern similar to blood pressure changes. This phenotype was associated with mild cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, decreased cardiac natriuretic peptides, and their receptor expression in adipocytes. Moreover, clock gene expression was reduced or phase-shifted in perivascular adipose tissue. No differences in clock gene expression were observed in the master clock suprachiasmatic nucleus, although Rictor gene expression was also lower in brain of Rictor(aP2KO) mice. Thus, this study highlights the importance of RICTOR/mTORC2 for interactions between vasculature, adipocytes, and brain to tune physiological outcomes, such as blood pressure and locomotor activity. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Insights into TREM2 biology by network analysis of human brain gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forabosco, Paola; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Trabzuni, Daniah; Walker, Robert; Smith, Colin; Bras, Jose; Levine, Adam P; Hardy, John; Pocock, Jennifer M; Guerreiro, Rita; Weale, Michael E; Ryten, Mina

    2013-12-01

    Rare variants in TREM2 cause susceptibility to late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Here we use microarray-based expression data generated from 101 neuropathologically normal individuals and covering 10 brain regions, including the hippocampus, to understand TREM2 biology in human brain. Using network analysis, we detect a highly preserved TREM2-containing module in human brain, show that it relates to microglia, and demonstrate that TREM2 is a hub gene in 5 brain regions, including the hippocampus, suggesting that it can drive module function. Using enrichment analysis we show significant overrepresentation of genes implicated in the adaptive and innate immune system. Inspection of genes with the highest connectivity to TREM2 suggests that it plays a key role in mediating changes in the microglial cytoskeleton necessary not only for phagocytosis, but also migration. Most importantly, we show that the TREM2-containing module is significantly enriched for genes genetically implicated in Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and motor neuron disease, implying that these diseases share common pathways centered on microglia and that among the genes identified are possible new disease-relevant genes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Brain region-specific altered expression and association of mitochondria-related genes in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Ayyappan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy metabolism, while most of the genetic studies have been based on mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Despite the mtDNA, most of the proteins essential for mitochondrial replication and function are encoded by the genomic DNA; so far, there have been very few studies of those genes. Therefore, we carried out a detailed study involving gene expression and genetic association studies of genes related to diverse mitochondrial functions. Methods For gene expression analysis, postmortem brain tissues (anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG, motor cortex (MC and thalamus (THL from autism patients (n=8 and controls (n=10 were obtained from the Autism Tissue Program (Princeton, NJ, USA. Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify the expression of 84 genes related to diverse functions of mitochondria, including biogenesis, transport, translocation and apoptosis. We used the delta delta Ct (∆∆Ct method for quantification of gene expression. DNA samples from 841 Caucasian and 188 Japanese families were used in the association study of genes selected from the gene expression analysis. FBAT was used to examine genetic association with autism. Results Several genes showed brain region-specific expression alterations in autism patients compared to controls. Metaxin 2 (MTX2, neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL and solute carrier family 25, member 27 (SLC25A27 showed consistently reduced expression in the ACG, MC and THL of autism patients. NEFL (P = 0.038; Z-score 2.066 and SLC25A27 (P = 0.046; Z-score 1.990 showed genetic association with autism in Caucasian and Japanese samples, respectively. The

  14. Gene expression profiling following maternal deprivation: Involvement of the brain renin-angiotensin system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Liebl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The postnatal development of the mouse is characterized by a stress hyporesponsive period (SHRP, where basal corticosterone levels are low and responsiveness to mild stressors is reduced. Maternal separation is able to disrupt the SHRP and is widely used to model early trauma. In this study we aimed at identifying of brain systems involved in acute and possible long-term effects of maternal separation. We conducted a microarray-based gene expression analysis in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus after maternal separation, which revealed 52 differentially regulated genes compared to undisturbed controls, among them are 37 up-regulated and 15 down-regulated genes. One of the prominently up-regulated genes, angiotensinogen, was validated using in-situ hybridization. Angiotensinogen is the precursor of angiotensin II, the main effector of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS, which is known to be involved in stress system modulation in adult animals. Using the selective angiotensin type I receptor (AT(1 antagonist candesartan we found strong effects on CRH and GR mRNA expression in the brain a nd ACTH release following maternal separation. AT(1 receptor blockade appears to enhance central effects of maternal separation in the neonate, suggesting a suppressing function of brain RAS during the SHRP. Taken together, our results illustrate the molecular adaptations that occur in the paraventricular nucleus following maternal separation and contribute to identifying signaling cascades that control stress system activity in the neonate.

  15. Gene expression alterations in brains of mice infected with three strains of scrapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Race Richard E

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders which occur in humans and various animal species. Examples include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in cattle, chronic wasting disease (CWD in deer and elk, and scrapie in sheep, and experimental mice. To gain insights into TSE pathogenesis, we made and used cDNA microarrays to identify disease-associated alterations in gene expression. Brain gene expression in scrapie-infected mice was compared to mock-infected mice at pre-symptomatic and symptomatic time points. Three strains of mouse scrapie that show striking differences in neuropathology were studied: ME7, 22L, and Chandler/RML. Results In symptomatic mice, over 400 significant gene expression alterations were identified. In contrast, only 22 genes showed significant alteration in the pre-symptomatic animals. We also identified genes that showed significant differences in alterations in gene expression between strains. Genes identified in this study encode proteins that are involved in many cellular processes including protein folding, endosome/lysosome function, immunity, synapse function, metal ion binding, calcium regulation and cytoskeletal function. Conclusion These studies shed light on the complex molecular events that occur during prion disease, and identify genes whose further study may yield new insights into strain specific neuropathogenesis and ante-mortem tests for TSEs.

  16. Alternative life histories shape brain gene expression profiles in males of the same population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin-Horth, N.; Landry, C.R.; Letcher, B.H.; Hofmann, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) undergo spectacular marine migrations before homing to spawn in natal rivers. However, males that grow fastest early in life can adopt an alternative 'sneaker' tactic by maturing earlier at greatly reduced size without leaving freshwater. While the ultimate evolutionary causes have been well studied, virtually nothing is known about the molecular bases of this developmental plasticity. We investigate the nature and extent of coordinated molecular changes that accompany such a fundamental transformation by comparing the brain transcription profiles of wild mature sneaker males to age-matched immature males (future large anadromous males) and immature females. Of the ca. 3000 genes surveyed, 15% are differentially expressed in the brains of the two male types. These genes are involved in a wide range of processes, including growth, reproduction and neural plasticity. Interestingly, despite the potential for wide variation in gene expression profiles among individuals sampled in nature, consistent patterns of gene expression were found for individuals of the same reproductive tactic. Notably, gene expression patterns in immature males were different both from immature females and sneakers, indicating that delayed maturation and sea migration by immature males, the 'default' life cycle, may actually result from an active inhibition of development into a sneaker. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  17. Fto colocalizes with a satiety mediator oxytocin in the brain and upregulates oxytocin gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Pawel K., E-mail: olsze005@umn.edu [Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology, Uppsala University, 75124 Uppsala (Sweden); Minnesota Obesity Center, Saint Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Fredriksson, Robert; Eriksson, Jenny D. [Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology, Uppsala University, 75124 Uppsala (Sweden); Mitra, Anaya [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Saint Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Radomska, Katarzyna J. [Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology, Uppsala University, 75124 Uppsala (Sweden); Gosnell, Blake A. [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Saint Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Solvang, Maria N. [Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology, Uppsala University, 75124 Uppsala (Sweden); Levine, Allen S. [Minnesota Obesity Center, Saint Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Saint Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Schioeth, Helgi B. [Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology, Uppsala University, 75124 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} The majority of neurons synthesizing a satiety mediator, oxytocin, coexpress Fto. {yields} The level of colocalization is similar in the male and female brain. {yields} Fto overexpression in hypothalamic neurons increases oxytocin mRNA levels by 50%. {yields} Oxytocin does not affect Fto expression through negative feedback mechanisms. -- Abstract: Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been associated with obesity in humans. Alterations in Fto expression in transgenic animals affect body weight, energy expenditure and food intake. Fto, a nuclear protein and proposed transcription co-factor, has been speculated to affect energy balance through a functional relationship with specific genes encoding feeding-related peptides. Herein, we employed double immunohistochemistry and showed that the majority of neurons synthesizing a satiety mediator, oxytocin, coexpress Fto in the brain of male and female mice. We then overexpressed Fto in a murine hypothalamic cell line and, using qPCR, detected a 50% increase in the level of oxytocin mRNA. Expression levels of several other feeding-related genes, including neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Agouti-related protein (AgRP), were unaffected by the FTO transfection. Addition of 10 and 100 nmol oxytocin to the cell culture medium did not affect Fto expression in hypothalamic cells. We conclude that Fto, a proposed transcription co-factor, influences expression of the gene encoding a satiety mediator, oxytocin.

  18. Testes and brain gene expression in precocious male and adult maturing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called 'precocious' parr or 'sneakers' can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their line. We have used a custom-built cDNA microarray to investigate gene expression changes occurring in the salmon gonad and brain associated with precocious maturation. The microarray has been populated with genes selected specifically for involvement in sexual maturation (precocious and adult) and in the parr-smolt transformation. Results Immature and mature parr collected from a hatchery-reared stock in January were significantly different in weight, length and condition factor. Changes in brain expression were small - never more than 2-fold on the microarray, and down-regulation of genes was much more pronounced than up-regulation. Significantly changing genes included isotocin, vasotocin, cathepsin D, anamorsin and apolipoprotein E. Much greater changes in expression were seen in the testes. Among those genes in the testis with the most significant changes in expression were anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, and zinc finger protein (Zic1), which were down-regulated in precocity and apolipoproteins E and C-1, lipoprotein lipase and anti-leukoproteinase precursor which were up-regulated in precocity. Expression changes of several genes were confirmed in individual fish by quantitative PCR and several genes (anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, beta-globin and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) beta polypeptide 2-like 1 (GNB2L1) were also examined in adult maturing testes. Down-regulation of anti-Mullerian hormone was judged to be greater than 160-fold for precocious males and greater than 230-fold for November adult testes in comparison to July testes by this method. For anti-Mullerian hormone

  19. Testes and brain gene expression in precocious male and adult maturing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiry, Aoife; Flynn, Denis; Hubert, Sophie; O'Keeffe, Allan M; LeProvost, Olivier; White, Samantha L; Forde, Patrick F; Davoren, Pamela; Houeix, Benoit; Smith, Terry J; Cotter, Deirdre; Wilkins, Noel P; Cairns, Michael T

    2010-03-30

    The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called 'precocious' parr or 'sneakers' can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their line. We have used a custom-built cDNA microarray to investigate gene expression changes occurring in the salmon gonad and brain associated with precocious maturation. The microarray has been populated with genes selected specifically for involvement in sexual maturation (precocious and adult) and in the parr-smolt transformation. Immature and mature parr collected from a hatchery-reared stock in January were significantly different in weight, length and condition factor. Changes in brain expression were small - never more than 2-fold on the microarray, and down-regulation of genes was much more pronounced than up-regulation. Significantly changing genes included isotocin, vasotocin, cathepsin D, anamorsin and apolipoprotein E. Much greater changes in expression were seen in the testes. Among those genes in the testis with the most significant changes in expression were anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, and zinc finger protein (Zic1), which were down-regulated in precocity and apolipoproteins E and C-1, lipoprotein lipase and anti-leukoproteinase precursor which were up-regulated in precocity. Expression changes of several genes were confirmed in individual fish by quantitative PCR and several genes (anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, beta-globin and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) beta polypeptide 2-like 1 (GNB2L1) were also examined in adult maturing testes. Down-regulation of anti-Mullerian hormone was judged to be greater than 160-fold for precocious males and greater than 230-fold for November adult testes in comparison to July testes by this method. For anti-Mullerian hormone and guanine

  20. Testes and brain gene expression in precocious male and adult maturing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houeix Benoit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called 'precocious' parr or 'sneakers' can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their line. We have used a custom-built cDNA microarray to investigate gene expression changes occurring in the salmon gonad and brain associated with precocious maturation. The microarray has been populated with genes selected specifically for involvement in sexual maturation (precocious and adult and in the parr-smolt transformation. Results Immature and mature parr collected from a hatchery-reared stock in January were significantly different in weight, length and condition factor. Changes in brain expression were small - never more than 2-fold on the microarray, and down-regulation of genes was much more pronounced than up-regulation. Significantly changing genes included isotocin, vasotocin, cathepsin D, anamorsin and apolipoprotein E. Much greater changes in expression were seen in the testes. Among those genes in the testis with the most significant changes in expression were anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, and zinc finger protein (Zic1, which were down-regulated in precocity and apolipoproteins E and C-1, lipoprotein lipase and anti-leukoproteinase precursor which were up-regulated in precocity. Expression changes of several genes were confirmed in individual fish by quantitative PCR and several genes (anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, beta-globin and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein beta polypeptide 2-like 1 (GNB2L1 were also examined in adult maturing testes. Down-regulation of anti-Mullerian hormone was judged to be greater than 160-fold for precocious males and greater than 230-fold for November adult testes in comparison to July testes by this method. For

  1. Reconstructing Generalized Logical Networks of Transcriptional Regulation in Mouse Brain from Temporal Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodowski Kerrie H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression time course data can be used not only to detect differentially expressed genes but also to find temporal associations among genes. The problem of reconstructing generalized logical networks to account for temporal dependencies among genes and environmental stimuli from transcriptomic data is addressed. A network reconstruction algorithm was developed that uses statistical significance as a criterion for network selection to avoid false-positive interactions arising from pure chance. The multinomial hypothesis testing-based network reconstruction allows for explicit specification of the false-positive rate, unique from all extant network inference algorithms. The method is superior to dynamic Bayesian network modeling in a simulation study. Temporal gene expression data from the brains of alcohol-treated mice in an analysis of the molecular response to alcohol are used for modeling. Genes from major neuronal pathways are identified as putative components of the alcohol response mechanism. Nine of these genes have associations with alcohol reported in literature. Several other potentially relevant genes, compatible with independent results from literature mining, may play a role in the response to alcohol. Additional, previously unknown gene interactions were discovered that, subject to biological verification, may offer new clues in the search for the elusive molecular mechanisms of alcoholism.

  2. Isolating dividing neural and brain tumour cells for gene expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endaya, Berwini; Cavanagh, Brenton; Alowaidi, Faisal; Walker, Tom; de Pennington, Nicholas; Ng, Jin-Ming A; Lam, Paula Y P; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Neuzil, Jiri; Meedeniya, Adrian C B

    2016-01-15

    The characterisation of dividing brain cells is fundamental for studies ranging from developmental and stem cell biology, to brain cancers. Whilst there is extensive anatomical data on these dividing cells, limited gene transcription data is available due to technical constraints. We focally isolated dividing cells whilst conserving RNA, from culture, primary neural tissue and xenografted glioma tumours, using a thymidine analogue that enables gene transcription analysis. 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine labels the replicating DNA of dividing cells. Once labelled, cultured cells and tissues were dissociated, fluorescently tagged with a revised click chemistry technique and the dividing cells isolated using fluorescence-assisted cell sorting. RNA was extracted and analysed using real time PCR. Proliferation and maturation related gene expression in neurogenic tissues was demonstrated in acutely and 3 day old labelled cells, respectively. An elevated expression of marker and pathway genes was demonstrated in the dividing cells of xenografted brain tumours, with the non-dividing cells showing relatively low levels of expression. BrdU "immune-labelling", the most frequently used protocol for detecting cell proliferation, causes complete denaturation of RNA, precluding gene transcription analysis. This EdU labelling technique, maintained cell integrity during dissociation, minimized copper exposure during labelling and used a cell isolation protocol that avoided cell lysis, thus conserving RNA. The technique conserves RNA, enabling the definition of cell proliferation-related changes in gene transcription of neural and pathological brain cells in cells harvested immediately after division, or following a period of maturation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reconstructing Generalized Logical Networks of Transcriptional Regulation in Mouse Brain from Temporal Gene Expression Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mingzhou (Joe) [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces; Lewis, Chris K. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces; Lance, Eric [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Kirova, Roumyana [Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research & Development, NJ; Langston, Michael A [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bergeson, Susan [Texas Tech University, Lubbock

    2009-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing generalized logical networks to account for temporal dependencies among genes and environmental stimuli from high-throughput transcriptomic data is addressed. A network reconstruction algorithm was developed that uses the statistical significance as a criterion for network selection to avoid false-positive interactions arising from pure chance. Using temporal gene expression data collected from the brains of alcohol-treated mice in an analysis of the molecular response to alcohol, this algorithm identified genes from a major neuronal pathway as putative components of the alcohol response mechanism. Three of these genes have known associations with alcohol in the literature. Several other potentially relevant genes, highlighted and agreeing with independent results from literature mining, may play a role in the response to alcohol. Additional, previously-unknown gene interactions were discovered that, subject to biological verification, may offer new clues in the search for the elusive molecular mechanisms of alcoholism.

  4. Transcriptome analysis of human brain tissue identifies reduced expression of complement complex C1Q Genes in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peijie; Nicholls, Laura; Assareh, Hassan; Fang, Zhiming; Amos, Timothy G; Edwards, Richard J; Assareh, Amelia A; Voineagu, Irina

    2016-06-06

    MECP2, the gene mutated in the majority of Rett syndrome cases, is a transcriptional regulator that can activate or repress transcription. Although the transcription regulatory function of MECP2 has been known for over a decade, it remains unclear how transcriptional dysregulation leads to the neurodevelopmental disorder. Notably, little convergence was previously observed between the genes abnormally expressed in the brain of Rett syndrome mouse models and those identified in human studies. Here we carried out a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of human brain tissue from Rett syndrome brain using both RNA-seq and microarrays. We identified over two hundred differentially expressed genes, and identified the complement C1Q complex genes (C1QA, C1QB and C1QC) as a point of convergence between gene expression changes in human and mouse Rett syndrome brain. The results of our study support a role for alterations in the expression level of C1Q complex genes in RTT pathogenesis.

  5. Gene expression in the mouse brain following early pregnancy exposure to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Christine R; Chong, Suyinn

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to alcohol during early embryonic or fetal development has been linked with a variety of adverse outcomes, the most common of which are structural and functional abnormalities of the central nervous system [1]. Behavioural and cognitive deficits reported in individuals exposed to alcohol in utero include intellectual impairment, learning and memory difficulties, diminished executive functioning, attention problems, poor motor function and hyperactivity [2]. The economic and social costs of these outcomes are substantial and profound [3], [4]. Improvement of neurobehavioural outcomes following prenatal alcohol exposure requires greater understanding of the mechanisms of alcohol-induced damage to the brain. Here we use a mouse model of relatively moderate ethanol exposure early in pregnancy and profile gene expression in the hippocampus and caudate putamen of adult male offspring. The effects of offspring sex and age on ethanol-sensitive hippocampal gene expression were also examined. All array data are available at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository under accession number GSE87736.

  6. Comparison of regional gene expression differences in the brains of the domestic dog and human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennerly Erin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comparison of the expression profiles of 2,721 genes in the cerebellum, cortex and pituitary gland of three American Staffordshire terriers, one beagle and one fox hound revealed regional expression differences in the brain but failed to reveal marked differences among breeds, or even individual dogs. Approximately 85 per cent (42 of 49 orthologue comparisons of the regional differences in the dog are similar to those that differentiate the analogous human brain regions. A smaller percentage of human differences were replicated in the dog, particularly in the cortex, which may generally be evolving more rapidly than other brain regions in mammals. This study lays the foundation for detailed analysis of the population structure of transcriptional variation as it relates to cognitive and neurological phenotypes in the domestic dog.

  7. A high-resolution anatomical framework of the neonatal mouse brain for managing gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyl Boline

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide a high-resolution atlas and use it as an anatomical framework to localize the gene expression data for mouse brain on postnatal day 0 (P0. A color Nissl-stained volume with a resolution of 13.3×50×13.3 µm3 was constructed and co-registered to a standard anatomical space defined by an averaged geometry of C57BL/6J P0 mouse brains. A 145 anatomical structures were delineated based on the histological images. Anatomical relationships of delineated structures were established based on the hierarchical relations defined in the atlas of adult mouse brain (MacKenzie-Graham et al., 2004 so the P0 atlas can be related to the database associated with the adult atlas. The co-registered multimodal atlas as well as the original anatomical delineations is available for download at http://www.loni.ucla.edu/Atlases/. The region-specific anatomical framework based on the neonatal atlas allows for the analysis of gene activity within a high-resolution anatomical space at an early developmental stage. We demonstrated the potential application of this framework by incorporating gene expression data generated using in situ hybridization to the atlas space. By normalizing the gene expression patterns revealed by different images, experimental results from separate studies can be compared and summarized in an anatomical context. Co-displaying multiple registered datasets in the atlas space allows for 3D reconstruction of the co-expression patterns of the different genes in the atlas space, hence providing better insight into the relationship between the differentiated distribution pattern of gene products and specific anatomical systems.

  8. A gene co-expression network in whole blood of schizophrenia patients is independent of antipsychotic-use and enriched for brain-expressed genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Simone; Boks, Marco P M; Fuller, Tova F

    2012-01-01

    of these robustly defined disease modules is significantly enriched with brain-expressed genes and with genetic variants that were implicated in a GWAS study, which could imply a causal role in schizophrenia etiology. The most highly connected intramodular hub gene in this module (ABCF1), is located in......Despite large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the underlying genes for schizophrenia are largely unknown. Additional approaches are therefore required to identify the genetic background of this disorder. Here we report findings from a large gene expression study in peripheral blood...... of schizophrenia patients and controls. We applied a systems biology approach to genome-wide expression data from whole blood of 92 medicated and 29 antipsychotic-free schizophrenia patients and 118 healthy controls. We show that gene expression profiling in whole blood can identify twelve large gene co...

  9. Monoterpenoid-based preparations in beehives affect learning, memory, and gene expression in the bee brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnafé, Elsa; Alayrangues, Julie; Hotier, Lucie; Massou, Isabelle; Renom, Allan; Souesme, Guillaume; Marty, Pierre; Allaoua, Marion; Treilhou, Michel; Armengaud, Catherine

    2017-02-01

    Bees are exposed in their environment to contaminants that can weaken the colony and contribute to bee declines. Monoterpenoid-based preparations can be introduced into hives to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. The long-term effects of monoterpenoids are poorly investigated. Olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) has been used to evaluate the impact of stressors on cognitive functions of the honeybee such as learning and memory. The authors tested the PER to odorants on bees after exposure to monoterpenoids in hives. Octopamine receptors, transient receptor potential-like (TRPL), and γ-aminobutyric acid channels are thought to play a critical role in the memory of food experience. Gene expression levels of Amoa1, Rdl, and trpl were evaluated in parallel in the bee brain because these genes code for the cellular targets of monoterpenoids and some pesticides and neural circuits of memory require their expression. The miticide impaired the PER to odors in the 3 wk following treatment. Short-term and long-term olfactory memories were improved months after introduction of the monoterpenoids into the beehives. Chronic exposure to the miticide had significant effects on Amoa1, Rdl, and trpl gene expressions and modified seasonal changes in the expression of these genes in the brain. The decrease of expression of these genes in winter could partly explain the improvement of memory. The present study has led to new insights into alternative treatments, especially on their effects on memory and expression of selected genes involved in this cognitive function. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:337-345. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  10. Nutritionally driven differential gene expression leads to heterochronic brain development in honeybee castes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Lívia Maria; Vieira, Joseana; Guimarães Freire, Anna Cláudia; Bonatti, Vanessa; Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2013-01-01

    The differential feeding regimes experienced by the queen and worker larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera shape a complex endocrine response cascade that ultimately gives rise to differences in brain morphologies. Brain development analyzed at the morphological level from the third (L3) through fifth (L5) larval instars revealed an asynchrony between queens and workers. In the feeding phase of the last larval instar (L5F), two well-formed structures, pedunculi and calyces, are identifiable in the mushroom bodies of queens, both of which are not present in workers until a later phase (spinning phase, L5S). Genome-wide expression analyses and normalized transcript expression experiments monitoring specific genes revealed that this differential brain development starts earlier, during L3. Analyzing brains from L3 through L5S1 larvae, we identified 21 genes with caste-specific transcription patterns (e.g., APC-4, GlcAT-P, fax, kr-h1 and shot), which encode proteins that are potentially involved in the development of brain tissues through controlling the cell proliferation rate (APC4, kr-h1) and fasciculation (GlcAT-P, fax, and shot). Shot, whose expression is known to be required for axon extension and cell proliferation, was found to be transcribed at significantly higher levels in L4 queens compared with worker larvae. Moreover, the protein encoded by this gene was immunolocalized to the cytoplasm of cells near the antennal lobe neuropiles and proximal to the Kenyon cells in the brains of L4 queens. In conclusion, during the larval period, the brains of queens are larger and develop more rapidly than workers' brains, which represents a developmental heterochrony reflecting the effect of the differential feeding regime of the two castes on nervous system development. Furthermore, this differential development is characterized by caste-specific transcriptional profiles of a set of genes, thus pointing to a link between differential nutrition and differential

  11. Nutritionally Driven Differential Gene Expression Leads to Heterochronic Brain Development in Honeybee Castes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Lívia Maria; Vieira, Joseana; Guimarães Freire, Anna Cláudia; Bonatti, Vanessa; Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2013-01-01

    The differential feeding regimes experienced by the queen and worker larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera shape a complex endocrine response cascade that ultimately gives rise to differences in brain morphologies. Brain development analyzed at the morphological level from the third (L3) through fifth (L5) larval instars revealed an asynchrony between queens and workers. In the feeding phase of the last larval instar (L5F), two well-formed structures, pedunculi and calyces, are identifiable in the mushroom bodies of queens, both of which are not present in workers until a later phase (spinning phase, L5S). Genome-wide expression analyses and normalized transcript expression experiments monitoring specific genes revealed that this differential brain development starts earlier, during L3. Analyzing brains from L3 through L5S1 larvae, we identified 21 genes with caste-specific transcription patterns (e.g., APC-4, GlcAT-P, fax, kr-h1 and shot), which encode proteins that are potentially involved in the development of brain tissues through controlling the cell proliferation rate (APC4, kr-h1) and fasciculation (GlcAT-P, fax, and shot). Shot, whose expression is known to be required for axon extension and cell proliferation, was found to be transcribed at significantly higher levels in L4 queens compared with worker larvae. Moreover, the protein encoded by this gene was immunolocalized to the cytoplasm of cells near the antennal lobe neuropiles and proximal to the Kenyon cells in the brains of L4 queens. In conclusion, during the larval period, the brains of queens are larger and develop more rapidly than workers’ brains, which represents a developmental heterochrony reflecting the effect of the differential feeding regime of the two castes on nervous system development. Furthermore, this differential development is characterized by caste-specific transcriptional profiles of a set of genes, thus pointing to a link between differential nutrition and differential

  12. Brain Gene Expression is Influenced by Incubation Temperature During Leopard Gecko (Eublepharis macularius) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, Maria Michela; Turano, Mimmo; Ronca, Raffaele; Mezzasalma, Marcello; Petraccioli, Agnese; Odierna, Gaetano; Capriglione, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    Sexual differentiation (SD) during development results in anatomical, metabolic, and physiological differences that involve not only the gonads, but also a variety of other biological structures, such as the brain, determining differences in morphology, behavior, and response in the breeding season. In many reptiles, whose sex is determined by egg incubation temperature, such as the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, embryos incubated at different temperatures clearly differ in the volume of brain nuclei that modulate behavior. Based on the premise that "the developmental decision of gender does not flow through a single gene", we performed an analysis on E. macularius using three approaches to gain insights into the genes that may be involved in brain SD during the thermosensitive period. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we studied the expression of genes known to be involved in gonadal SD such as WNT4, SOX9, DMRT1, Erα, Erβ, GnRH, P450 aromatase, PRL, and PRL-R. Then, further genes putatively involved in sex dimorphic brain differentiation were sought by differential display (DDRT-PCR) and PCR array. Our findings indicate that embryo exposure to different sex determining temperatures induces differential expression of several genes that are involved not only in gonadal differentiation (PRL-R, Wnt4, Erα, Erβ, p450 aromatase, and DMRT1), but also in neural differentiation (TN-R, Adora2A, and ASCL1) and metabolic pathways (GP1, RPS15, and NADH12). These data suggest that the brains of SDT reptiles might be dimorphic at birth, thus behavioral experiences in postnatal development would act on a structure already committed to male or female. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Expression of alcoholism-relevant genes in the liver are differently correlated to different parts of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lishi; Huang, Yue; Jiao, Yan; Chen, Hong; Cao, Yanhong; Bennett, Beth; Wang, Yongjun; Gu, Weikuan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether expression profiles of alcoholism-relevant genes in different parts of the brain are correlated differently with those in the liver. Four experiments were conducted. First, we used gene expression profiles from five parts of the brain (striatum, prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, and cerebellum) and from liver in a population of recombinant inbred mouse strains to examine the expression association of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes. Second, we conducted the same association analysis between brain structures and the lung. Third, using five randomly selected, nonalcoholism-relevant genes, we conducted the association analysis between brain and liver. Finally, we compared the expression of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes in hippocampus and cerebellum between an alcohol preference strain and a wild-type control. We observed a difference in correlation patterns in expression levels of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes between different parts of the brain with those of liver. We then examined the association of gene expression between alcohol dehydrogenases (Adh1, Adh2, Adh5, and Adh7) and different parts of the brain. The results were similar to those of the 10 genes. Then, we found that the association of those genes between brain structures and lung was different from that of liver. Next, we found that the association patterns of five alcoholism-nonrelevant genes were different from those of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes. Finally, we found that the expression level of 10 alcohol-relevant genes is influenced more in hippocampus than in cerebellum in the alcohol preference strain. Our results show that the expression of alcoholism-relevant genes in liver is differently associated with the expression of genes in different parts of the brain. Because different structural changes in different parts of the brain in alcoholism have been reported, it is important to investigate whether those structural differences in

  14. Expression Profile of Genes Related to Drug Metabolism in Human Brain Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Stavrinou

    Full Text Available Endogenous and exogenous compounds as well as carcinogens are metabolized and detoxified by phase I and II enzymes, the activity of which could be crucial to the inactivation and hence susceptibility to carcinogenic factors. The expression of these enzymes in human brain tumor tissue has not been investigated sufficiently. We studied the association between tumor pathology and the expression profile of seven phase I and II drug metabolizing genes (CYP1A1, CYP1B1, ALDH3A1, AOX1, GSTP1, GSTT1 and GSTM3 and some of their proteins.Using qRT-PCR and western blotting analysis the gene and protein expression in a cohort of 77 tumors were investigated. The major tumor subtypes were meningioma, astrocytoma and brain metastases, -the later all adenocarcinomas from a lung primary.Meningeal tumors showed higher expression levels for AOX1, CYP1B1, GSTM3 and GSTP1. For AOX1, GSTM and GSTP1 this could be verified on a protein level as well. A negative correlation between the WHO degree of malignancy and the strength of expression was identified on both transcriptional and translational level for AOX1, GSTM3 and GSTP1, although the results could have been biased by the prevalence of meningiomas and glioblastomas in the inevitably bipolar distribution of the WHO grades. A correlation between the gene expression and the protein product was observed for AOX1, GSTP1 and GSTM3 in astrocytomas.The various CNS tumors show different patterns of drug metabolizing gene expression. Our results suggest that the most important factor governing the expression of these enzymes is the histological subtype and to a far lesser extent the degree of malignancy itself.

  15. Transcriptomics of the late gestation ovine fetal brain: modeling the co-expression of immune marker genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaglino, Maria B; Keller-Wood, Maureen; Wood, Charles E

    2014-11-19

    Major changes in gene expression occur in the fetal brain to modulate the function of this organ postnatally. Thus, factors can alter the genomics of the fetal brain, predisposing to neurological disorders later in life. We hypothesized that the physiological dynamics of the immune system transcriptome of the fetal brain during the last stage of gestation will reveal patterns of immune function and development in the developing brain. In this study we applied weighted gene co-expression analysis of microarrays performed on ovine fetal brain samples, to model the changes in gene expression throughout the second half of gestation. Clusters of co-expressed genes that strongly increase in expression toward the first day of extra-uterine life are related to the hematopoietic lineage, while activation of immune pathways is induced after birth. Moreover, the pattern of gene expression suggests induction of tolerance mechanisms, probably necessary to protect highly produced proteins--such as myelin basic protein--from an autoimmune attack. This study provides insight into the dramatic changes in gene expression that take place in the brain during the fetal life, especially during the last stage of gestation, and suggests that the immune system may have an important role in maturation of the fetal brain, which if disrupted or altered, could have negative consequences in postnatal life.

  16. Infectomic Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles of Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Infected with Cryptococcus neoformans

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    Ambrose Jong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to dissect the pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neoformans meningoencephalitis, a genomic survey of the changes in gene expression of human brain microvascular endothelial cells infected by C. neoformans was carried out in a time-course study. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed sigificant fluctuations in the expression levels of different groups of genes during the pathogen-host interaction. Self-organizing map (SOM analysis revealed that most genes were up- or downregulated 2 folds or more at least at one time point during the pathogen-host engagement. The microarray data were validated by Western blot analysis of a group of genes, including β-actin, Bcl-x, CD47, Bax, Bad, and Bcl-2. Hierarchical cluster profile showed that 61 out of 66 listed interferon genes were changed at least at one time point. Similarly, the active responses in expression of MHC genes were detected at all stages of the interaction. Taken together, our infectomic approaches suggest that the host cells significantly change the gene profiles and also actively participate in immunoregulations of the central nervous system (CNS during C. neoformans infection.

  17. Seasonal and regional differences in gene expression in the brain of a hibernating mammal.

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    Christine Schwartz

    Full Text Available Mammalian hibernation presents a unique opportunity to study naturally occurring neuroprotection. Hibernating ground squirrels undergo rapid and extreme physiological changes in body temperature, oxygen consumption, and heart rate without suffering neurological damage from ischemia and reperfusion injury. Different brain regions show markedly different activity during the torpor/arousal cycle: the cerebral cortex shows activity only during the periodic returns to normothermia, while the hypothalamus is active over the entire temperature range. Therefore, region-specific neuroprotective strategies must exist to permit this compartmentalized spectrum of activity. In this study, we use the Illumina HiSeq platform to compare the transcriptomes of these two brain regions at four collection points across the hibernation season: April Active, October Active, Torpor, and IBA. In the cerebral cortex, 1,085 genes were found to be differentially expressed across collection points, while 1,063 genes were differentially expressed in the hypothalamus. Comparison of these transcripts indicates that the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus implement very different strategies during hibernation, showing less than 20% of these differentially expressed genes in common. The cerebral cortex transcriptome shows evidence of remodeling and plasticity during hibernation, including transcripts for the presynaptic cytomatrix proteins bassoon and piccolo, and extracellular matrix components, including laminins and collagens. Conversely, the hypothalamic transcriptome displays upregulation of transcripts involved in damage response signaling and protein turnover during hibernation, including the DNA damage repair gene RAD50 and ubiquitin E3 ligases UBR1 and UBR5. Additionally, the hypothalamus transcriptome also provides evidence of potential mechanisms underlying the hibernation phenotype, including feeding and satiety signaling, seasonal timing mechanisms, and fuel

  18. Coordination of gene expression of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid cascade enzymes during human brain development and aging.

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    Veronica H Ryan

    Full Text Available The polyunsaturated arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids (AA and DHA participate in cell membrane synthesis during neurodevelopment, neuroplasticity, and neurotransmission throughout life. Each is metabolized via coupled enzymatic reactions within separate but interacting metabolic cascades.AA and DHA pathway genes are coordinately expressed and underlie cascade interactions during human brain development and aging.The BrainCloud database for human non-pathological prefrontal cortex gene expression was used to quantify postnatal age changes in mRNA expression of 34 genes involved in AA and DHA metabolism.Expression patterns were split into Development (0 to 20 years and Aging (21 to 78 years intervals. Expression of genes for cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2, cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and -2, and other AA cascade enzymes, correlated closely with age during Development, less so during Aging. Expression of DHA cascade enzymes was less inter-correlated in each period, but often changed in the opposite direction to expression of AA cascade genes. Except for the PLA2G4A (cPLA2 IVA and PTGS2 (COX-2 genes at 1q25, highly inter-correlated genes were at distant chromosomal loci.Coordinated age-related gene expression during the brain Development and Aging intervals likely underlies coupled changes in enzymes of the AA and DHA cascades and largely occur through distant transcriptional regulation. Healthy brain aging does not show upregulation of PLA2G4 or PTGS2 expression, which was found in Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Coordination of Gene Expression of Arachidonic and Docosahexaenoic Acid Cascade Enzymes during Human Brain Development and Aging

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    Ryan, Veronica H.; Primiani, Christopher T.; Rao, Jagadeesh S.; Ahn, Kwangmi; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Blanchard, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Background The polyunsaturated arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids (AA and DHA) participate in cell membrane synthesis during neurodevelopment, neuroplasticity, and neurotransmission throughout life. Each is metabolized via coupled enzymatic reactions within separate but interacting metabolic cascades. Hypothesis AA and DHA pathway genes are coordinately expressed and underlie cascade interactions during human brain development and aging. Methods The BrainCloud database for human non-pathological prefrontal cortex gene expression was used to quantify postnatal age changes in mRNA expression of 34 genes involved in AA and DHA metabolism. Results Expression patterns were split into Development (0 to 20 years) and Aging (21 to 78 years) intervals. Expression of genes for cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2), cyclooxygenases (COX)-1 and -2, and other AA cascade enzymes, correlated closely with age during Development, less so during Aging. Expression of DHA cascade enzymes was less inter-correlated in each period, but often changed in the opposite direction to expression of AA cascade genes. Except for the PLA2G4A (cPLA2 IVA) and PTGS2 (COX-2) genes at 1q25, highly inter-correlated genes were at distant chromosomal loci. Conclusions Coordinated age-related gene expression during the brain Development and Aging intervals likely underlies coupled changes in enzymes of the AA and DHA cascades and largely occur through distant transcriptional regulation. Healthy brain aging does not show upregulation of PLA2G4 or PTGS2 expression, which was found in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24963629

  20. A gene co-expression network in whole blood of schizophrenia patients is independent of antipsychotic-use and enriched for brain-expressed genes.

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    Simone de Jong

    Full Text Available Despite large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS, the underlying genes for schizophrenia are largely unknown. Additional approaches are therefore required to identify the genetic background of this disorder. Here we report findings from a large gene expression study in peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients and controls. We applied a systems biology approach to genome-wide expression data from whole blood of 92 medicated and 29 antipsychotic-free schizophrenia patients and 118 healthy controls. We show that gene expression profiling in whole blood can identify twelve large gene co-expression modules associated with schizophrenia. Several of these disease related modules are likely to reflect expression changes due to antipsychotic medication. However, two of the disease modules could be replicated in an independent second data set involving antipsychotic-free patients and controls. One of these robustly defined disease modules is significantly enriched with brain-expressed genes and with genetic variants that were implicated in a GWAS study, which could imply a causal role in schizophrenia etiology. The most highly connected intramodular hub gene in this module (ABCF1, is located in, and regulated by the major histocompatibility (MHC complex, which is intriguing in light of the fact that common allelic variants from the MHC region have been implicated in schizophrenia. This suggests that the MHC increases schizophrenia susceptibility via altered gene expression of regulatory genes in this network.

  1. A Gene Co-Expression Network in Whole Blood of Schizophrenia Patients Is Independent of Antipsychotic-Use and Enriched for Brain-Expressed Genes

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    de Jong, Simone; Boks, Marco P. M.; Fuller, Tova F.; Strengman, Eric; Janson, Esther; de Kovel, Carolien G. F.; Ori, Anil P. S.; Vi, Nancy; Mulder, Flip; Blom, Jan Dirk; Glenthøj, Birte; Schubart, Chris D.; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.; Horvath, Steve; Ophoff, Roel A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the underlying genes for schizophrenia are largely unknown. Additional approaches are therefore required to identify the genetic background of this disorder. Here we report findings from a large gene expression study in peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients and controls. We applied a systems biology approach to genome-wide expression data from whole blood of 92 medicated and 29 antipsychotic-free schizophrenia patients and 118 healthy controls. We show that gene expression profiling in whole blood can identify twelve large gene co-expression modules associated with schizophrenia. Several of these disease related modules are likely to reflect expression changes due to antipsychotic medication. However, two of the disease modules could be replicated in an independent second data set involving antipsychotic-free patients and controls. One of these robustly defined disease modules is significantly enriched with brain-expressed genes and with genetic variants that were implicated in a GWAS study, which could imply a causal role in schizophrenia etiology. The most highly connected intramodular hub gene in this module (ABCF1), is located in, and regulated by the major histocompatibility (MHC) complex, which is intriguing in light of the fact that common allelic variants from the MHC region have been implicated in schizophrenia. This suggests that the MHC increases schizophrenia susceptibility via altered gene expression of regulatory genes in this network. PMID:22761806

  2. Combined neuroimaging and gene expression analysis of the genetic basis of brain plasticity indicates across species homology.

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    Dinai, Yonatan; Wolf, Lior; Assaf, Yaniv

    2014-12-01

    Brain plasticity and memory formation depend on the expression of a large number of genes. This relationship had been studied using several experimental approaches and researchers have identified genes regulating plasticity through a variety of mechanisms. Despite this effort, a great deal remains unknown regarding the role of different genes in brain plasticity. Previous studies usually focused on specific brain structures and many of the genes influencing plasticity have yet to be identified. In this work, we integrate results of in vivo neuroimaging studies of plasticity with whole-brain gene expression data for the study of neuroplasticity. Brain regions, found in the imaging study to be involved in plasticity, are first spatially mapped to the anatomical framework of the genetic database. Feature ranking methods are then applied to identify genes that are differentially expressed in these regions. We find that many of our highly ranked genes are involved in synaptic transmission and that some of these genes have been previously associated with learning and memory. We show these results to be consistent when applying our method to gene expression data from four human subjects. Finally, by performing similar experiments in mice, we reveal significant cross species correlation in the ranking of genes. In addition to the identification of plasticity related candidate genes, our results also demonstrate the potential of data integration approaches as a tool to link high level phenomena such as learning and memory to underlying molecular mechanisms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Peripheral inflammation is associated with remote global gene expression changes in the brain

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    2014-01-01

    Background Although the central nervous system (CNS) was once considered an immunologically privileged site, in recent years it has become increasingly evident that cross talk between the immune system and the CNS does occur. As a result, patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease or psoriasis, are often further burdened with neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as depression, anxiety and fatigue. Despite the recent advances in our understanding of neuroimmune communication pathways, the precise effect of peripheral immune activation on neural circuitry remains unclear. Utilizing transcriptomics in a well-characterized murine model of systemic inflammation, we have started to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which inflammation originating in the periphery can induce transcriptional modulation in the brain. Methods Several different systemic and tissue-specific models of peripheral toll-like-receptor-(TLR)-driven (lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid and Imiquimod) and sterile (tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)) inflammation were induced in C57BL/6 mice. Whole brain transcriptional profiles were assessed and compared 48 hours after intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide or vehicle, using Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays. Target gene induction, identified by microarray analysis, was validated independently using qPCR. Expression of the same panel of target genes was then investigated in a number of sterile and other TLR-dependent models of peripheral inflammation. Results Microarray analysis of whole brains collected 48 hr after LPS challenge revealed increased transcription of a range of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in the brain. In addition to acute LPS challenge, ISGs were induced in the brain following both chronic LPS-induced systemic inflammation and Imiquimod-induced skin inflammation. Unique to the brain, this transcriptional response is

  4. Circulating IGF1 regulates hippocampal IGF1 levels and brain gene expression during adolescence.

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    Yan, Han; Mitschelen, Matthew; Bixler, Georgina V; Brucklacher, Robert M; Farley, Julie A; Han, Song; Freeman, Willard M; Sonntag, William E

    2011-10-01

    GH and its anabolic mediator, IGF1, are important not only in somatic growth but also in the regulation of brain function. Even though GH treatment has been used clinically to improve body composition and exercise capacity in adults, its influence on central nervous system function has only recently been recognized. This is also the case for children with childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) where GH has been used to stimulate bone growth and enhance final adult height. Circulating IGF1 is transported across the blood-brain barrier and IGF1 and its receptors are also synthesized in the brain by neurons and glial and endothelial cells. Nevertheless, the relationship between circulating IGF1 and brain IGF1 remains unclear. This study, using a GH-deficient dwarf rat model and peripheral GH replacement, investigated the effects of circulating IGF1 during adolescence on IGF1 levels in the brain. Our results demonstrated that hippocampal IGF1 protein concentrations during adolescence are highly regulated by circulating IGF1, which were reduced by GHD and restored by systematic GH replacement. Importantly, IGF1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid were decreased by GHD but not restored by GH replacement. Furthermore, analysis of gene expression using microarrays and RT-PCR indicated that circulating IGF1 levels did not modify the transcription of Igf1 or its receptor in the hippocampus but did regulate genes that are involved in microvascular structure and function, brain development, and synaptic plasticity, which potentially support brain structures involved in cognitive function during this important developmental period.

  5. Cloning of a Gene Whose Expression is Increased in Scrapie and in Senile Plaques in Human Brain

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    Wietgrefe, S.; Zupancic, M.; Haase, A.; Chesebro, B.; Race, R.; Frey, W.; Rustan, T.; Friedman, R. L.

    1985-12-01

    A complementary DNA library was constructed from messenger RNA's extracted from the brains of mice infected with the scrapie agent. The library was differentially screened with the objectives of finding clones that might be used as markers of infection and finding clones of genes whose increased expression might be correlated with the pathological changes common to scrapie and Alzheimer's disease. A gene was identified whose expression is increased in scrapie. The complementary DNA corresponding to this gene hybridized preferentially and focally to cells in the brains of scrapie-infected animals. The cloned DNA also hybridized to the neuritic plaques found with increased frequency in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Significant effects of antiretroviral therapy on global gene expression in brain tissues of patients with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders.

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    Alejandra Borjabad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART has reduced morbidity and mortality in HIV-1 infection; however HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND persist despite treatment. The reasons for the limited efficacy of ART in the brain are unknown. Here we used functional genomics to determine ART effectiveness in the brain and to identify molecular signatures of HAND under ART. We performed genome-wide microarray analysis using Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry in brain tissues from seven treated and eight untreated HAND patients and six uninfected controls. We also determined brain virus burdens by real-time PCR. Treated and untreated HAND brains had distinct gene expression profiles with ART transcriptomes clustering with HIV-1-negative controls. The molecular disease profile of untreated HAND showed dysregulated expression of 1470 genes at p<0.05, with activation of antiviral and immune responses and suppression of synaptic transmission and neurogenesis. The overall brain transcriptome changes in these patients were independent of histological manifestation of HIV-1 encephalitis and brain virus burdens. Depending on treatment compliance, brain transcriptomes from patients on ART had 83% to 93% fewer dysregulated genes and significantly lower dysregulation of biological pathways compared to untreated patients, with particular improvement indicated for nervous system functions. However a core of about 100 genes remained similarly dysregulated in both treated and untreated patient brain tissues. These genes participate in adaptive immune responses, and in interferon, cell cycle, and myelin pathways. Fluctuations of cellular gene expression in the brain correlated in Pearson's formula analysis with plasma but not brain virus burden. Our results define for the first time an aberrant genome-wide brain transcriptome of untreated HAND and they suggest that antiretroviral treatment can be broadly effective in reducing

  7. Coordinated Gene Expression of Neuroinflammatory and Cell Signaling Markers in Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex during Human Brain Development and Aging

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    Primiani, Christopher T.; Ryan, Veronica H.; Rao, Jagadeesh S.; Cam, Margaret C.; Ahn, Kwangmi; Modi, Hiren R.; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Age changes in expression of inflammatory, synaptic, and neurotrophic genes are not well characterized during human brain development and senescence. Knowing these changes may elucidate structural, metabolic, and functional brain processes over the lifespan, as well vulnerability to neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative diseases. Hypothesis Expression levels of inflammatory, synaptic, and neurotrophic genes in the human brain are coordinated over the lifespan and underlie changes in phenotypic networks or cascades. Methods We used a large-scale microarray dataset from human prefrontal cortex, BrainCloud, to quantify age changes over the lifespan, divided into Development (0 to 21 years, 87 brains) and Aging (22 to 78 years, 144 brains) intervals, in transcription levels of 39 genes. Results Gene expression levels followed different trajectories over the lifespan. Many changes were intercorrelated within three similar groups or clusters of genes during both Development and Aging, despite different roles of the gene products in the two intervals. During Development, changes were related to reported neuronal loss, dendritic growth and pruning, and microglial events; TLR4, IL1R1, NFKB1, MOBP, PLA2G4A, and PTGS2 expression increased in the first years of life, while expression of synaptic genes GAP43 and DBN1 decreased, before reaching plateaus. During Aging, expression was upregulated for potentially pro-inflammatory genes such as NFKB1, TRAF6, TLR4, IL1R1, TSPO, and GFAP, but downregulated for neurotrophic and synaptic integrity genes such as BDNF, NGF, PDGFA, SYN, and DBN1. Conclusions Coordinated changes in gene transcription cascades underlie changes in synaptic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory phenotypic networks during brain Development and Aging. Early postnatal expression changes relate to neuronal, glial, and myelin growth and synaptic pruning events, while late Aging is associated with pro-inflammatory and synaptic loss changes. Thus, comparable

  8. The Creatine Transporter Gene Paralogous at 16p11.2 Is Expressed in Human Brain

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    Nadia Bayou

    2008-01-01

    We report on the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular findings in a boy with autism carrying a de novo translocation t(7;16(p22.1;p11.2. The chromosome 16 breakpoint disrupts the paralogous SLC6A8 gene also called SLC6A10 or CT2. Predicted translation of exons and RT-PCR analysis reveal specific expression of the creatine transporter paralogous in testis and brain. Several studies reported on the role of X-linked creatine transporter mutations in individuals with mental retardation, with or without autism. The existence of disruption in SLC6A8 paralogous gene associated with idiopathic autism suggests that this gene may be involved in the autistic phenotype in our patient.

  9. Differential expression and methylation of brain developmental genes define location-specific subsets of pilocytic astrocytoma.

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    Lambert, Sally R; Witt, Hendrik; Hovestadt, Volker; Zucknick, Manuela; Kool, Marcel; Pearson, Danita M; Korshunov, Andrey; Ryzhova, Marina; Ichimura, Koichi; Jabado, Nada; Fontebasso, Adam M; Lichter, Peter; Pfister, Stefan M; Collins, V Peter; Jones, David T W

    2013-08-01

    Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most common brain tumors in pediatric patients and can cause significant morbidity, including chronic neurological deficiencies. They are characterized by activating alterations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, but little else is known about their development. To map the global DNA methylation profiles of these tumors, we analyzed 62 PAs and 7 normal cerebellum samples using Illumina 450K microarrays. These data revealed two subgroups of PA that separate according to tumor location (infratentorial versus supratentorial), and identified key neural developmental genes that are differentially methylated between the two groups, including NR2E1 and EN2. Integration with transcriptome microarray data highlighted significant expression differences, which were unexpectedly associated with a strong positive correlation between methylation and expression. Differentially methylated probes were often identified within the gene body and/or regions up- or downstream of the gene, rather than at the transcription start site. We also identified a large number of differentially methylated genes between cerebellar PAs and normal cerebellum, which were again enriched for developmental genes. In addition, we found a significant association between differentially methylated genes and SUZ12 binding sites, indicating potential disruption of the polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2). Taken together, these data suggest that PA from different locations in the brain may arise from region-specific cells of origin, and highlight the potential disruption of key developmental regulators during tumorigenesis. These findings have implications for future basic research and clinical trials, as therapeutic targets and drug sensitivity may differ according to tumor location.

  10. Gene expression in the mouse brain following early pregnancy exposure to ethanol

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    Christine R. Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to alcohol during early embryonic or fetal development has been linked with a variety of adverse outcomes, the most common of which are structural and functional abnormalities of the central nervous system [1]. Behavioural and cognitive deficits reported in individuals exposed to alcohol in utero include intellectual impairment, learning and memory difficulties, diminished executive functioning, attention problems, poor motor function and hyperactivity [2]. The economic and social costs of these outcomes are substantial and profound [3,4]. Improvement of neurobehavioural outcomes following prenatal alcohol exposure requires greater understanding of the mechanisms of alcohol-induced damage to the brain. Here we use a mouse model of relatively moderate ethanol exposure early in pregnancy and profile gene expression in the hippocampus and caudate putamen of adult male offspring. The effects of offspring sex and age on ethanol-sensitive hippocampal gene expression were also examined. All array data are available at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO repository under accession number GSE87736.

  11. A single dose of lysergic acid diethylamide influences gene expression patterns within the mammalian brain.

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    Nichols, Charles D; Sanders-Bush, Elaine

    2002-05-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have profound effects on humans including hallucinations and detachment from reality. These remarkable behavioral effects have many similarities to the debilitating symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. The effects of hallucinogens are thought to be mediated by serotonin receptor activation; however, how these drugs elicit the unusual behavioral effects remains largely a mystery, despite much research. We have undertaken the first comprehensive analysis of gene expression influenced by acute LSD administration in the mammalian brain. These studies represent a novel approach to elucidate the mechanism of action of this class of drugs. We have identified a number of genes that are predicted to be involved in the processes of synaptic plasticity, glutamatergic signaling and cytoskeletal architecture. Understanding these molecular events will lead to new insights into the etiology of disorders whose behavioral symptoms resemble the temporary effects of hallucinogenic drugs, and also may ultimately result in new therapies.

  12. Developmentally Regulated Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Receptor Gene in the Periphery and Brain

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    Buck, C. R.; Martinez, Humberto J.; Black, Ira B.; Chao, Moses V.

    1987-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates development and maintenance of function of peripheral sympathetic and sensory neurons. A potential role for the trophic factor in brain has been detected only recently. The ability of a cell to respond to NGF is due, in part, to expression of specific receptors on the cell surface. To study tissue-specific expression of the NGF receptor gene, we have used sensitive cRNA probes for detection of NGF receptor mRNA. Our studies indicate that the receptor gene is selectively and specifically expressed in sympathetic (superior cervical) and sensory (dorsal root) ganglia in the periphery, and by the septum-basal forebrain centrally, in the neonatal rat in vivo. Moreover, examination of tissues from neonatal and adult rats reveals a marked reduction in steady-state NGF receptor mRNA levels in sensory ganglia. In contrast, a 2- to 4-fold increase was observed in the basal forebrain and in the sympathetic ganglia over the same time period. Our observations suggest that NGF receptor mRNA expression is developmentally regulated in specific areas of the nervous system in a differential fashion.

  13. The Pattern of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Expression in the Hippocampus of Diabetic Rats

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    Iraj Salehi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of regular exercise in preventing diabetes complication in the hippocampus of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rat.Materials and MethodsA total of 48 male wistar rats were divided into four groups (control, control exercise, diabetic and diabetic exercise. Diabetes was induced by injection of single dose of STZ. Exercise was performed for one hr every day, over a period of 8 weeks. The antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX, CAT and GR and oxidant indexes with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF protein and its mRNA and apoptosis were measured in hippocampus of rats. ResultsA significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities and increased malondialdehyde (MDA level were observed in diabetic rats (P= 0.004. In response to exercise, antioxidant enzymes activities increased (P= 0.004. In contrast, MDA level decreased in diabetic rats (P= 0.004. Induction of diabetes caused an increase of BDNF protein and its mRNA expression. In response to exercise, BDNF protein and its mRNA expression reduced in hippocampus of diabetic rats. ConclusionDiabetes induced oxidative stress and increased BDNF gene expression. Exercise ameliorated oxidative stress and decreased BDNF gene expression.

  14. Gene co-expression analysis identifies brain regions and cell types involved in migraine pathophysiology: a GWAS-based study using the Allen Human Brain Atlas.

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    Eising, Else; Huisman, Sjoerd M H; Mahfouz, Ahmed; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S; Anttila, Verneri; Winsvold, Bendik S; Kurth, Tobias; Ikram, M Arfan; Freilinger, Tobias; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boomsma, Dorret I; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta R; Zwart, John-Anker; Quaye, Lydia; Strachan, David P; Kubisch, Christian; Dichgans, Martin; Davey Smith, George; Stefansson, Kari; Palotie, Aarno; Chasman, Daniel I; Ferrari, Michel D; Terwindt, Gisela M; de Vries, Boukje; Nyholt, Dale R; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Reinders, Marcel J T

    2016-04-01

    Migraine is a common disabling neurovascular brain disorder typically characterised by attacks of severe headache and associated with autonomic and neurological symptoms. Migraine is caused by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over a dozen genetic loci associated with migraine. Here, we integrated migraine GWAS data with high-resolution spatial gene expression data of normal adult brains from the Allen Human Brain Atlas to identify specific brain regions and molecular pathways that are possibly involved in migraine pathophysiology. To this end, we used two complementary methods. In GWAS data from 23,285 migraine cases and 95,425 controls, we first studied modules of co-expressed genes that were calculated based on human brain expression data for enrichment of genes that showed association with migraine. Enrichment of a migraine GWAS signal was found for five modules that suggest involvement in migraine pathophysiology of: (i) neurotransmission, protein catabolism and mitochondria in the cortex; (ii) transcription regulation in the cortex and cerebellum; and (iii) oligodendrocytes and mitochondria in subcortical areas. Second, we used the high-confidence genes from the migraine GWAS as a basis to construct local migraine-related co-expression gene networks. Signatures of all brain regions and pathways that were prominent in the first method also surfaced in the second method, thus providing support that these brain regions and pathways are indeed involved in migraine pathophysiology.

  15. Social support modulates stress-related gene expression in various brain regions of piglets

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    Ellen Kanitz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of an affiliative conspecific may alleviate an individual's stress response in threatening conditions. However, the mechanisms and neural circuitry underlying the process of social buffering have not yet been elucidated. Using the domestic pig as an animal model, we examined the effect of a 4-h maternal and littermate deprivation on stress hormones and on mRNA expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR, 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11ß-HSD types 1 and 2 and the immediate early gene c-fos in various brain regions of 7-, 21- and 35-day old piglets. The deprivation occurred either alone or with a familiar or unfamiliar age-matched piglet. Compared to piglets deprived alone, the presence of a conspecific animal significantly reduced free plasma cortisol concentrations and altered the MR/GR balance and 11ß-HSD2 and c-fos mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC, amygdala and hypothalamus, but not in the hippocampus. The alterations in brain mRNA expression were particularly found in 21- or 35-day old piglets, which may reflect the species-specific postnatal ontogeny of the investigated brain regions. The buffering effects of social support were most pronounced in the amygdala, indicating its significance both for the assessment of social conspecifics as biologically relevant stimuli and for the processing of emotional states. In conclusion, the present findings provide further evidence for the importance of the cortico-limbic network underlying the abilities of individuals to cope with social stress and strongly emphasize the benefits of social partners in livestock with respect to positive welfare and health.

  16. Natural selection constrains personality and brain gene expression differences in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

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    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Höglund, Erik; Winberg, Svante

    2015-04-01

    In stream-spawning salmonid fishes there is a considerable variation in the timing of when fry leave the spawning nests and establish a feeding territory. The timing of emergence from spawning nests appears to be related to behavioural and physiological traits, e.g. early emerging fish are bolder and more aggressive. In the present study, emerging Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) alevins were sorted into three fractions: early, intermediate and late emerging. At the parr stage, behaviour, stress responses, hindbrain monoaminergic activity and forebrain gene expression were explored in fish from the early and late emerging fractions (first and last 25%). The results show that when subjected to confinement stress, fish from the late emerging fraction respond with a larger activation of the brain serotonergic system than fish from the early fraction. Similarly, in late emerging fish, stress resulted in elevated expression of mRNA coding for serotonin 1A receptors (5-HT1A), GABA-A receptor-associated protein and ependymin, effects not observed in fish from the early emerging fraction. Moreover, fish from the early emerging fraction displayed bolder behaviour than their late emerging littermates. Taken together, these results suggest that time of emergence, boldness and aggression are linked to each other, forming a behavioural syndrome in juvenile salmon. Differences in brain gene expression between early and late emerging salmon add further support to a relationship between stress coping style and timing of emergence. However, early and late emerging salmon do not appear to differ in hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis reactivity, another characteristic of divergent stress coping styles. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Brains, Genes and Primates

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    Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Callaway, Edward M.; Churchland, Patricia; Caddick, Sarah J.; Feng, Guoping; Homanics, Gregg E.; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Leopold, David A.; Miller, Cory T.; Mitchell, Jude F.; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Moutri, Alysson R.; Movshon, J. Anthony; Okano, Hideyuki; Reynolds, John H.; Ringach, Dario; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Silva, Afonso C.; Strick, Peter L.; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    One of the great strengths of the mouse model is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed. Striking examples include methods for directed modification of the genome, and for regulated expression or inactivation of genes. Within neuroscience, it is now routine to express reporter genes, neuronal activity indicators and opsins in specific neuronal types in the mouse. However, there are considerable anatomical, physiological, cognitive and behavioral differences between the mouse and the human that, in some areas of inquiry, limit the degree to which insights derived from the mouse can be applied to understanding human neurobiology. Several recent advances have now brought into reach the goal of applying these tools to understanding the primate brain. Here we describe these advances, consider their potential to advance our understanding of the human brain and brain disorders, discuss bioethical considerations, and describe what will be needed to move forward. PMID:25950631

  18. Gene expression patterns of spleen, lung and brain with different radiosensitivity in C57BL6 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumder, Zahidur Rahman; Lee, Woo Jung; Bae, Sang Woo; Lee, Yun Sil [Laboratory of Radiation Effect, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Jae [Laboratory of Radiation Experimental Therapeutics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    Although little information is available on the underlying mechanisms, various genetic factors have been associated with tissue-specific responses to radiation. In the present study, we explored the possibility whether organ specific gene expression is associated with radiosensitivity using samples from brain, lung and spleen. We examined intrinsic expression pattern of 23 genes in the organs by semi-quantitative RT-PCR method using both male and female C57BL/6 mice. Expression of p53 and p21, well known factors for governing sensitivity to radiation or chemotherapeutic agents, was not different among the organ types. Both higher expression of sialyltransferase, delta7-sterol reductase, leptin receptor splice variant form 12.1, and Cu/Zn SuperOxide Dismutase (SOD) and lower expression of alphaB crystalline were specific for spleen tissue. Expression level of glutathione peroxidase and APO-1 cell surface antigen gene in lung tissue was high, while that of Na, K-ATPase alpha-subunit, Cu/ZnSOD, and cyclin G was low. Brain, radioresistant organ, showed higher expression of Na, K-ATPase-subunit, cyclin G, and nucleolar protein hNop56 and lower expression of delta7-sterol reductase. The result revealed a potential correlation between gene expression patterns and organ sensitivity, and identified genes which might be responsible for organ sensitivity.

  19. Multiple signaling pathways direct the initiation of tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in cultured brain neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X; Iacovitti, L

    1997-10-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the synergistic interaction of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and a second co-activator molecule can novelly induce expression of the CA biosynthetic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in non-TH expressing neurons of the striatum. Several co-activators have been identified, including substances present in L6 muscle cell extract (X. Du et al., J. Neurosci. 14 (1994) 7688-7694) catecholamines, such as dopamine (DA) (X. Du and L. Iacovitti, J. Neurosci. 15 (1995) 5420-5427; X. Du et al., Brain Res. 680 (1995) 229-233) and activators of protein kinase C (PKC) such as TPA (X. Du and L. Iacovitti, J. Neurochem. 68 (1997) 564-569). In the present study, we investigated whether activators of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway also serve as effective co-activators of aFGF in the induction of TH gene expression. In addition, the combinatorial effects of the various TH-inducing agents were also evaluated. We found that, as with other co-activating molecules, the PKA stimulants IBMX and forskolin had no TH-inducing capacity when administered alone. However, co-treatment of 10 ng/ml aFGF with either (250 microM) IBMX or (10 microM) forskolin resulted in the novel expression of TH in 25% of plated neurons. The number of TH-expressing neurons was increased to 55% in aFGF-treated cultures co-incubated with aFGF and both (250 microM) IBMX and (10 microM) forskolin. Time course studies indicated that TH induction was rapid (peaking within 24 h) and enduring (lasting 4 days in culture). Induction of TH by aFGF and IBMX/forskolin was partially blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase, such as H7, H8 and H89, as well as pretreatment with protein (cyclohexamide) or RNA synthesis (amanitin and actinomycin D) inhibitors. The concomitant addition of combinations of co-activator molecules (DA, TPA and IBMX/forskolin) and aFGF resulted in the additive induction of TH. Maximal expression of TH (80% of striatal neurons) was accomplished when

  20. Detecting lineage-specific adaptive evolution of brain-expressed genes in human using rhesus macaque as outgroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xiao-Jing; Zheng, Hong-Kun; Wang, Jun

    2006-01-01

    Comparative genetic analysis between human and chimpanzee may detect genetic divergences responsible for human-specific characteristics. Previous studies have identified a series of genes that potentially underwent Darwinian positive selection during human evolution. However, without a closely...... related species as outgroup, it is difficult to identify human-lineage-specific changes, which is critical in delineating the biological uniqueness of humans. In this study, we conducted phylogeny-based analyses of 2633 human brain-expressed genes using rhesus macaque as the outgroup. We identified 47...... candidate genes showing strong evidence of positive selection in the human lineage. Genes with maximal expression in the brain showed a higher evolutionary rate in human than in chimpanzee. We observed that many immune-defense-related genes were under strong positive selection, and this trend was more...

  1. Comparison of the effects of erythropoietin and anakinra on functional recovery and gene expression in a traumatic brain injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail D Anderson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to compare the effects of two inflammatory modulators, erythropoietin (EPO and anakinra, on functional recovery and brain gene expression following a cortical contusion impact (CCI injury. Dosage regimens were designed to provide serum concentrations in the range obtained with clinically approved doses. Functional recovery was assessed using both motor and spatial learning tasks and neuropathological measurements conducted in the cortex and hippocampus. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine the effect on gene expression at 24 h, 72 h and 7 days post-CCI. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to evaluate the effect on relevant functional categories. EPO and anakinra treatment resulted in significant changes in brain gene expression in the CCI model demonstrating acceptable brain penetration. At all three time points, EPO treatment resulted in significantly more differentially expressed genes than anakinra. For anakinra at 24 h and EPO at 24 h, 72 h and 7 days, the genes in the top 3 functional categories were involved in cellular movement, inflammatory response and cell-to-cell signaling. For EPO, the majority of the genes in the top 10 canonical pathways identified were associated with inflammatory and immune signaling processes. This was true for anakinra only at 24 h post-traumatic brain injury (TBI. The immunomodulation effects of EPO and anakinra did not translate into positive effects on functional behavioral and lesion studies. Treatment with either EPO or anakinra failed to induce significant beneficial effects on recovery of function or produce any significant effects on the prevention of injury induced tissue loss at 30 days post-injury. In conclusion, treatment with EPO or anakinra resulted in significant effects on gene expression in the brain without affecting functional outcome. This suggests that targeting these inflammatory processes alone may not be sufficient for preventing

  2. Functional Genomics of Sleep and Circadian Rhythm: Invited Review: How sleep deprivation affects gene expression in the brain: a review of recent findings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cirelli, Chiara

    2002-01-01

    .... To determine what molecular changes occur in the brain during the sleep-waking cycle and after sleep deprivation, our laboratory is performing a systematic screening of brain gene expression in rats...

  3. Analysis of cycle gene expression in Aedes aegypti brains by in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; Gentile, Carla; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Even though the blood-sucking mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most important disease vectors, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying processes involved in the temporal pattern of its activity and host seeking behavior. In this study, we analyzed the expression of the cycle (cyc) gene, one of the core components of the circadian clock, in Ae. aegypti brains by in situ hybridization at two different time points in light-dark conditions and compared the results with those obtained using a quantitative PCR assay (qPCR). Within the brain, differential labeling was detected according to distinct areas empirically pre-defined. Six out of seven of these areas showed significantly higher staining at ZT3 (three hours after light-on) compared to ZT11 (one before light-off), which is consistent with the qPCR data. Predominant staining was observed in three of those areas which correspond to positions of the optical and antennal lobes, as well as the region where the neurons controlling activity rhythms are presumably localized.

  4. The effect of alcohol and nicotine abuse on gene expression in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatscher-Bader, Traute; Wilce, Peter A

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol intake at levels posing an acute heath risk is common amongst teenagers. Alcohol abuse is the second most common mental disorder worldwide. The incidence of smoking is decreasing in the Western world but increasing in developing countries and is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Considering the longstanding history of alcohol and tobacco consumption in human societies, it might be surprising that the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol and smoking dependence are still incompletely understood. Effective treatments against the risk of relapse are lacking. Drugs of abuse exert their effect manipulating the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic system. In this brain region, alcohol has many potential targets including membranes and several ion channels, while other drugs, for example nicotine, act via specific receptors or binding proteins. Repeated consumption of drugs of abuse mediates adaptive changes within this region, resulting in addiction. The high incidence of alcohol and nicotine co-abuse complicates analysis of the molecular basis of the disease. Gene expression profiling is a useful approach to explore novel drug targets in the brain. Several groups have utilised this technology to reveal drug-sensitive pathways in the mesocorticolimbic system of animal models and in human subjects. These studies are the focus of the present review.

  5. Mouse Social Network Dynamics and Community Structure are Associated with Plasticity-Related Brain Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Cait M; Franks, Becca; Curley, James P

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory studies of social behavior have typically focused on dyadic interactions occurring within a limited spatiotemporal context. However, this strategy prevents analyses of the dynamics of group social behavior and constrains identification of the biological pathways mediating individual differences in behavior. In the current study, we aimed to identify the spatiotemporal dynamics and hierarchical organization of a large social network of male mice. We also sought to determine if standard assays of social and exploratory behavior are predictive of social behavior in this social network and whether individual network position was associated with the mRNA expression of two plasticity-related genes, DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3a. Mice were observed to form a hierarchically organized social network and self-organized into two separate social network communities. Members of both communities exhibited distinct patterns of socio-spatial organization within the vivaria that was not limited to only agonistic interactions. We further established that exploratory and social behaviors in standard behavioral assays conducted prior to placing the mice into the large group was predictive of initial network position and behavior but were not associated with final social network position. Finally, we determined that social network position is associated with variation in mRNA levels of two neural plasticity genes, DNMT1 and DNMT3a, in the hippocampus but not the mPOA. This work demonstrates the importance of understanding the role of social context and complex social dynamics in determining the relationship between individual differences in social behavior and brain gene expression.

  6. Mouse Social Network Dynamics and Community Structure are Associated with Plasticity-Related Brain Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cait M Williamson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies of social behavior have typically focused on dyadic interactions occurring within a limited spatiotemporal context. However, this strategy prevents analyses of the dynamics of group social behavior and constrains identification of the biological pathways mediating individual differences in behavior. In the current study, we aimed to identify the spatiotemporal dynamics and hierarchical organization of a large social network of male mice. We also sought to determine if standard assays of social and exploratory behavior are predictive of social behavior in this social network and whether individual network position was associated with the mRNA expression of two plasticity-related genes, DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3a. Mice were observed to form a hierarchically organized social network and self-organized into two separate social network communities. Members of both communities exhibited distinct patterns of socio-spatial organization within the vivaria that was not limited to only agonistic interactions. We further established that exploratory and social behaviors in standard behavioral assays conducted prior to placing the mice into the large group was predictive of initial network position and behavior but were not associated with final social network position. Finally, we determined that social network position is associated with variation in mRNA levels of two neural plasticity genes, DNMT1 and DNMT3a, in the hippocampus but not the mPOA. This work demonstrates the importance of understanding the role of social context and complex social dynamics in determining the relationship between individual differences in social behavior and brain gene expression.

  7. ABAEnrichment: an R package to test for gene set expression enrichment in the adult and developing human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Steffi; Prüfer, Kay; Kelso, Janet; Dannemann, Michael

    2016-10-15

    We present ABAEnrichment, an R package that tests for expression enrichment in specific brain regions at different developmental stages using expression information gathered from multiple regions of the adult and developing human brain, together with ontologically organized structural information about the brain, both provided by the Allen Brain Atlas. We validate ABAEnrichment by successfully recovering the origin of gene sets identified in specific brain cell-types and developmental stages. ABAEnrichment was implemented as an R package and is available under GPL (≥ 2) from the Bioconductor website (http://bioconductor.org/packages/3.3/bioc/html/ABAEnrichment.html). steffi_grote@eva.mpg.de, kelso@eva.mpg.de or michael_dannemann@eva.mpg.deSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Microarray analysis of perinatal-estrogen-induced changes in gene expression related to brain sexual differentiation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Mototsugu; Uenoyama, Yoshihisa; Minabe, Shiori; Watanabe, Youki; Deura, Chikaya; Nakamura, Sho; Suzuki, Genki; Maeda, Kei-ichiro; Tsukamura, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism of the behaviors or physiological functions in mammals is mainly due to the sex difference of the brain. A number of studies have suggested that the brain is masculinized or defeminized by estradiol converted from testicular androgens in perinatal period in rodents. However, the mechanisms of estrogen action resulting in masculinization/defeminization of the brain have not been clarified yet. The large-scale analysis with microarray in the present study is an attempt to obtain the candidate gene(s) mediating the perinatal estrogen effect causing the brain sexual differentiation. Female mice were injected with estradiol benzoate (EB) or vehicle on the day of birth, and the hypothalamus was collected at either 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h after the EB injection. More than one hundred genes down-regulated by the EB treatment in a biphasic manner peaked at 3 h and 12-24 h after the EB treatment, while forty to seventy genes were constantly up-regulated after it. Twelve genes, including Ptgds, Hcrt, Tmed2, Klc1, and Nedd4, whose mRNA expressions were down-regulated by the neonatal EB treatment, were chosen for further examination by semiquantitative RT-PCR in the hypothalamus of perinatal intact male and female mice. We selected the genes based on the known profiles of their potential roles in brain development. mRNA expression levels of Ptgds, Hcrt, Tmed2, and Nedd4 were significantly lower in male mice than females at the day of birth, suggesting that the genes are down-regulated by estrogen converted from testicular androgen in perinatal male mice. Some genes, such as Ptgds encoding prostaglandin D2 production enzyme and Hcrt encording orexin, have been reported to have a role in neuroprotection. Thus, Ptgds and Hcrt could be possible candidate genes, which may mediate the effect of perinatal estrogen responsible for brain sexual differentiation.

  9. Microarray analysis of perinatal-estrogen-induced changes in gene expression related to brain sexual differentiation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mototsugu Sakakibara

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism of the behaviors or physiological functions in mammals is mainly due to the sex difference of the brain. A number of studies have suggested that the brain is masculinized or defeminized by estradiol converted from testicular androgens in perinatal period in rodents. However, the mechanisms of estrogen action resulting in masculinization/defeminization of the brain have not been clarified yet. The large-scale analysis with microarray in the present study is an attempt to obtain the candidate gene(s mediating the perinatal estrogen effect causing the brain sexual differentiation. Female mice were injected with estradiol benzoate (EB or vehicle on the day of birth, and the hypothalamus was collected at either 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h after the EB injection. More than one hundred genes down-regulated by the EB treatment in a biphasic manner peaked at 3 h and 12-24 h after the EB treatment, while forty to seventy genes were constantly up-regulated after it. Twelve genes, including Ptgds, Hcrt, Tmed2, Klc1, and Nedd4, whose mRNA expressions were down-regulated by the neonatal EB treatment, were chosen for further examination by semiquantitative RT-PCR in the hypothalamus of perinatal intact male and female mice. We selected the genes based on the known profiles of their potential roles in brain development. mRNA expression levels of Ptgds, Hcrt, Tmed2, and Nedd4 were significantly lower in male mice than females at the day of birth, suggesting that the genes are down-regulated by estrogen converted from testicular androgen in perinatal male mice. Some genes, such as Ptgds encoding prostaglandin D2 production enzyme and Hcrt encording orexin, have been reported to have a role in neuroprotection. Thus, Ptgds and Hcrt could be possible candidate genes, which may mediate the effect of perinatal estrogen responsible for brain sexual differentiation.

  10. Platelets alter gene expression profile in human brain endothelial cells in an in vitro model of cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Barbier

    Full Text Available Platelet adhesion to the brain microvasculature has been associated with cerebral malaria (CM in humans, suggesting that platelets play a role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. In vitro co-cultures have shown that platelets can act as a bridge between Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (pRBC and human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBEC and potentiate HBEC apoptosis. Using cDNA microarray technology, we analyzed transcriptional changes of HBEC in response to platelets in the presence or the absence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF and pRBC, which have been reported to alter gene expression in endothelial cells. Using a rigorous statistical approach with multiple test corrections, we showed a significant effect of platelets on gene expression in HBEC. We also detected a strong effect of TNF, whereas there was no transcriptional change induced specifically by pRBC. Nevertheless, a global ANOVA and a two-way ANOVA suggested that pRBC acted in interaction with platelets and TNF to alter gene expression in HBEC. The expression of selected genes was validated by RT-qPCR. The analysis of gene functional annotation indicated that platelets induce the expression of genes involved in inflammation and apoptosis, such as genes involved in chemokine-, TREM1-, cytokine-, IL10-, TGFβ-, death-receptor-, and apoptosis-signaling. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that platelets play a pathogenic role in CM.

  11. Over-expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mesenchymal stem cells transfected with recombinant lentivirus BDNF gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Zhu, J; Zhang, K; Liu, T; Zhang, Z

    2016-12-30

    This study was aimed at investigating the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) modified with recombinant lentivirus bearing BDNF gene. Lentivirus vectors bearing BDNF gene were constructed. MSCs were isolated from rats and cultured. The lentiviral vectors containing BDNF gene were transfected into the MSCs, and BDNF gene and protein expressions were monitored with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). RT-PCR and Western blot were used to measure gene and protein expressions, respectibvely in MSCs, MSCs-EGFP and MSCs-EGFP-BDNF groups. Green fluorescence assay confirmed successful transfection of BDNF gene recombinant lentivirus into MSCs. RT-PCR and Western blot revealed that BDNF gene and protein expressions in the MSCs-EGFP-BDNF group were significantly higher than that in MSCs group and MSCs-EGFP group. There were no statistically significant differences in gene expression between MSCs and MSCs-EGFP groups. MSCs can over-express BDNF when transfected with recombinant lentivirus bearing BDNF gene.

  12. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Expression in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Effects of Treatment and Clinical Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N.; Rizavi, Hooriyah S.; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2008-01-01

    The study determines the gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the lymphocytes of subjects with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) before and during treatment with mood stabilizers and in drug-free normal control subjects. Results indicate the potential of BDNF levels as a biomarker for PBD and as a treatment predictor and…

  13. Neurotoxicity and gene-expressed profile in brain-injured mice caused by exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ze, Yuguan; Hu, Renping; Wang, Xiaochun; Sang, Xuezi; Ze, Xiao; Li, Bi; Su, Junju; Wang, Yuan; Guan, Ning; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Gui, Suxin; Zhu, Liyuan; Cheng, Zhe; Cheng, Jie; Sheng, Lei; Sun, Qingqing; Wang, Ling; Hong, Fashui

    2014-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in toothpastes, sunscreens, and products for cosmetic purpose that the human use daily. Although the neurotoxicity induced by TiO2 NPs has been demonstrated, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the brain cognition and behavioral injury. In this study, mice were exposed to 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) TiO2 NPs by nasal administration for 90 consecutive days, respectively, and their brains' injuries and brain gene-expressed profile were investigated. Our findings showed that TiO2 NPs could be translocated and accumulated in brain, led to oxidative stress, overproliferation of all glial cells, tissue necrosis as well as hippocampal cell apoptosis. Furthermore, microarray data showed significant alterations in the expression of 249 known function genes, including 113 genes upregulation and 136 genes downregulation following exposure to 10 mg/kg BW TiO2 NPs, which were associated with oxidative stress, immune response, apoptosis, memory and learning, brain development, signal transduction, metabolic process, DNA repair, response to stimulus, and cellular process. Especially, significant increases in Col1a1, serine/threonine-protein kinase 1, Ctnnb1, cysteine-serine-rich nuclear protein-1, Ddit4, Cyp2e1, and Krev interaction trapped protein 1 (Krit1) expressions and great decreases in DA receptor D2, Neu1, Fc receptor-like molecules, and Dhcr7 expressions following long-term exposure to TiO2 NPs resulted in neurogenic disease states in mice. Therefore, these genes may be potential biomarkers of brain toxicity caused by TiO2 NPs exposure, and the application of TiO2 NPs should be carried out cautiously. © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  14. Gene expression Analysis of Neurons and Astrocytes Isolated by Laser Capture Microdissection from Frozen Human Brain Tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Tagliafierro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Different cell types and multiple cellular connections characterize the human brain. Gene expression analysis using a specific population of cells is more accurate than conducting analysis of the whole tissue homogenate, particularly in the context of neurodegenerative diseases, where a specific subset of cells is affected by the different pathology. Due to the difficulty to obtain homogenous cell populations, gene expression in specific cell-types (neurons, astrocytes, etc. has been understudied. To leverage the use of archive resources of frozen human brains in studies of neurodegenerative diseases, we developed and calibrated a method to quantify cell-type specific – neuronal, astrocytes – expression profiles of genes implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Archive human frozen brain tissues were used to prepare slides for rapid immunostaining using cell-specific antibodies. The immunoreactive-cells were isolated by Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM. The enrichment for a particular cell-type of interest was validated in post-analysis stage by the expression of cell-specific markers. We optimized the technique to preserve the RNA integrity, so that the RNA was suitable for downstream expression analyses. Following RNA extraction, the expression levels were determined digitally using nCounter Single Cell Gene Expression assay (NanoString Technologies®. The results demonstrated that using our optimized technique we successfully isolated single neurons and astrocytes from human frozen brain tissues and obtained RNA of a good quality that was suitable for mRNA expression analysis. We present here new advancements compared to previous reported methods, which improve the method’s feasibility and its applicability for a variety of downstream molecular analyses. Our new developed method can be implemented in genetic and functional genomic research of neurodegenerative diseases and has the

  15. Inheritance of acquired behaviour adaptations and brain gene expression in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nätt, Daniel; Lindqvist, Niclas; Stranneheim, Henrik; Lundeberg, Joakim; Torjesen, Peter A; Jensen, Per

    2009-07-28

    Environmental challenges may affect both the exposed individuals and their offspring. We investigated possible adaptive aspects of such cross-generation transmissions, and hypothesized that chronic unpredictable food access would cause chickens to show a more conservative feeding strategy and to be more dominant, and that these adaptations would be transmitted to the offspring. Parents were raised in an unpredictable (UL) or in predictable diurnal light rhythm (PL, 12:12 h light:dark). In a foraging test, UL birds pecked more at freely available, rather than at hidden and more attractive food, compared to birds from the PL group. Female offspring of UL birds, raised in predictable light conditions without parental contact, showed a similar foraging behavior, differing from offspring of PL birds. Furthermore, adult offspring of UL birds performed more food pecks in a dominance test, showed a higher preference for high energy food, survived better, and were heavier than offspring of PL parents. Using cDNA microarrays, we found that the differential brain gene expression caused by the challenge was mirrored in the offspring. In particular, several immunoglobulin genes seemed to be affected similarly in both UL parents and their offspring. Estradiol levels were significantly higher in egg yolk from UL birds, suggesting one possible mechanism for these effects. Our findings suggest that unpredictable food access caused seemingly adaptive responses in feeding behavior, which may have been transmitted to the offspring by means of epigenetic mechanisms, including regulation of immune genes. This may have prepared the offspring for coping with an unpredictable environment.

  16. Inheritance of acquired behaviour adaptations and brain gene expression in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nätt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental challenges may affect both the exposed individuals and their offspring. We investigated possible adaptive aspects of such cross-generation transmissions, and hypothesized that chronic unpredictable food access would cause chickens to show a more conservative feeding strategy and to be more dominant, and that these adaptations would be transmitted to the offspring. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Parents were raised in an unpredictable (UL or in predictable diurnal light rhythm (PL, 12:12 h light:dark. In a foraging test, UL birds pecked more at freely available, rather than at hidden and more attractive food, compared to birds from the PL group. Female offspring of UL birds, raised in predictable light conditions without parental contact, showed a similar foraging behavior, differing from offspring of PL birds. Furthermore, adult offspring of UL birds performed more food pecks in a dominance test, showed a higher preference for high energy food, survived better, and were heavier than offspring of PL parents. Using cDNA microarrays, we found that the differential brain gene expression caused by the challenge was mirrored in the offspring. In particular, several immunoglobulin genes seemed to be affected similarly in both UL parents and their offspring. Estradiol levels were significantly higher in egg yolk from UL birds, suggesting one possible mechanism for these effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that unpredictable food access caused seemingly adaptive responses in feeding behavior, which may have been transmitted to the offspring by means of epigenetic mechanisms, including regulation of immune genes. This may have prepared the offspring for coping with an unpredictable environment.

  17. Bioluminescence imaging of c-fos gene expression accompanying filial imprinting in the newly hatched chick brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Iikubo, Eiji; Hirose, Naoki; Kitajima, Takaaki; Katagiri, Sachiko; Kawamori, Ai; Fujii-Taira, Ikuko; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J

    2010-06-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is a powerful tool for examining gene expression in living animals. Previously, we reported that exogenous DNA could be successfully delivered into neurons in the newly hatched chick brain using electroporation. Here, we show the in vivo bioluminescence imaging of c-fos promoter activity and its upregulation, which is associated with filial imprinting. The upregulation of c-fos gene expression correlated with both the strength of the chicks' approach activity to the training object and the acquisition of memory. The present technique should be a powerful tool for analyzing the time changes in neural activity of certain brain areas in real-time during memory formation, using brains of living animals.

  18. Influence of X-rays on early response gene expression in rat astrocytes and brain tumour cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrdoljak, E.; Borchardt, P.E.; Bill, C.A.; Stephens, L.C.; Tofilon, P.J. [Anderson (M.D.) Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on c-fos, c-jun and jun-B mRNA levels were determined in cultures of rat perinatal type 1 astrocytes and two rat brain tumour cell lines, 175A and 9L. In astrocyte cultures X-ray doses as low as 1 Gy induced the expression of c-fos and jun-B but had essentially no effect on c-jun. The maximum increase in expression was found 1 h after irradiation, which then rapidly returned to control levels. These findings suggest that astrocytes may play a role in mediating the radiation response of the central nervous system via X-ray-induced changes in gene expression. In contrast, doses of up to 20 Gy had no effect on c-fos, c-jun and jun-B mRNA levels in the two brain tumour cell lines. In addition, whereas 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induced the expression of these genes in astrocytes, it had little or no effect on fos or jun expression in 9L or 175A cells. These results suggest that the signal transduction pathways mediating radiation-induced genes expression may be different in normal astrocytes and brain tumour cells. (author).

  19. Quantitative, noninvasive, in vivo longitudinal monitoring of gene expression in the brain by co-AAV transduction with a PET reporter gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sea Young Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vivo imaging of vector transgene expression would be particularly valuable for repetitive monitoring of therapy in the brain, where invasive tissue sampling is contraindicated. We evaluated adeno-associated virus vector expression of a dopamine-2 receptor (D2R mutant (D2R80A by positron emission tomography in the brains of mice and cats. D2R80A is inactivated for intracellular signaling and binds subphysiologic amounts of the radioactive [18F]-fallypride analog of dopamine. The [18F]-fallypride signal bound to D2R80A in the injection site was normalized to the signal from endogenous D2R in the striatum and showed stable levels of expression within individual animals. A separate adeno-associated virus type 1 vector with identical gene expression control elements, expressing green fluorescent protein or a therapeutic gene, was coinjected with the D2R80A vector at equal doses into specific sites. Both transgenes had similar levels of gene expression by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and quantitative PCR assays, demonstrating that D2R80A is a faithful surrogate measure for expression of a gene of interest. This dual vector approach allows the D2R80A gene to be used with any therapeutic gene and to be injected into a single site for monitoring while the therapeutic gene can be distributed more widely as needed in each disease.

  20. Large sex differences in chicken behavior and brain gene expression coincide with few differences in promoter DNA-methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nätt

    Full Text Available While behavioral sex differences have repeatedly been reported across taxa, the underlying epigenetic mechanisms in the brain are mostly lacking. Birds have previously shown to have only limited dosage compensation, leading to high sex bias of Z-chromosome gene expression. In chickens, a male hyper-methylated region (MHM on the Z-chromosome has been associated with a local type of dosage compensation, but a more detailed characterization of the avian methylome is limiting our interpretations. Here we report an analysis of genome wide sex differences in promoter DNA-methylation and gene expression in the brain of three weeks old chickens, and associated sex differences in behavior of Red Junglefowl (ancestor of domestic chickens. Combining DNA-methylation tiling arrays with gene expression microarrays we show that a specific locus of the MHM region, together with the promoter for the zinc finger RNA binding protein (ZFR gene on chromosome 1, is strongly associated with sex dimorphism in gene expression. Except for this, we found few differences in promoter DNA-methylation, even though hundreds of genes were robustly differentially expressed across distantly related breeds. Several of the differentially expressed genes are known to affect behavior, and as suggested from their functional annotation, we found that female Red Junglefowl are more explorative and fearful in a range of tests performed throughout their lives. This paper identifies new sites and, with increased resolution, confirms known sites where DNA-methylation seems to affect sexually dimorphic gene expression, but the general lack of this association is noticeable and strengthens the view that birds do not have dosage compensation.

  1. A Social Network Approach Reveals Associations between Mouse Social Dominance and Brain Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Nina; Franks, Becca; Lim, Sean; Curley, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Modelling complex social behavior in the laboratory is challenging and requires analyses of dyadic interactions occurring over time in a physically and socially complex environment. In the current study, we approached the analyses of complex social interactions in group-housed male CD1 mice living in a large vivarium. Intensive observations of social interactions during a 3-week period indicated that male mice form a highly linear and steep dominance hierarchy that is maintained by fighting and chasing behaviors. Individual animals were classified as dominant, sub-dominant or subordinate according to their David’s Scores and I& SI ranking. Using a novel dynamic temporal Glicko rating method, we ascertained that the dominance hierarchy was stable across time. Using social network analyses, we characterized the behavior of individuals within 66 unique relationships in the social group. We identified two individual network metrics, Kleinberg’s Hub Centrality and Bonacich’s Power Centrality, as accurate predictors of individual dominance and power. Comparing across behaviors, we establish that agonistic, grooming and sniffing social networks possess their own distinctive characteristics in terms of density, average path length, reciprocity out-degree centralization and out-closeness centralization. Though grooming ties between individuals were largely independent of other social networks, sniffing relationships were highly predictive of the directionality of agonistic relationships. Individual variation in dominance status was associated with brain gene expression, with more dominant individuals having higher levels of corticotropin releasing factor mRNA in the medial and central nuclei of the amygdala and the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus, as well as higher levels of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA. This study demonstrates the potential and significance of combining complex social housing and intensive

  2. A Social Network Approach Reveals Associations between Mouse Social Dominance and Brain Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Nina; Franks, Becca; Lim, Sean; Curley, James P

    2015-01-01

    Modelling complex social behavior in the laboratory is challenging and requires analyses of dyadic interactions occurring over time in a physically and socially complex environment. In the current study, we approached the analyses of complex social interactions in group-housed male CD1 mice living in a large vivarium. Intensive observations of social interactions during a 3-week period indicated that male mice form a highly linear and steep dominance hierarchy that is maintained by fighting and chasing behaviors. Individual animals were classified as dominant, sub-dominant or subordinate according to their David's Scores and I& SI ranking. Using a novel dynamic temporal Glicko rating method, we ascertained that the dominance hierarchy was stable across time. Using social network analyses, we characterized the behavior of individuals within 66 unique relationships in the social group. We identified two individual network metrics, Kleinberg's Hub Centrality and Bonacich's Power Centrality, as accurate predictors of individual dominance and power. Comparing across behaviors, we establish that agonistic, grooming and sniffing social networks possess their own distinctive characteristics in terms of density, average path length, reciprocity out-degree centralization and out-closeness centralization. Though grooming ties between individuals were largely independent of other social networks, sniffing relationships were highly predictive of the directionality of agonistic relationships. Individual variation in dominance status was associated with brain gene expression, with more dominant individuals having higher levels of corticotropin releasing factor mRNA in the medial and central nuclei of the amygdala and the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus, as well as higher levels of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA. This study demonstrates the potential and significance of combining complex social housing and intensive

  3. A Social Network Approach Reveals Associations between Mouse Social Dominance and Brain Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina So

    Full Text Available Modelling complex social behavior in the laboratory is challenging and requires analyses of dyadic interactions occurring over time in a physically and socially complex environment. In the current study, we approached the analyses of complex social interactions in group-housed male CD1 mice living in a large vivarium. Intensive observations of social interactions during a 3-week period indicated that male mice form a highly linear and steep dominance hierarchy that is maintained by fighting and chasing behaviors. Individual animals were classified as dominant, sub-dominant or subordinate according to their David's Scores and I& SI ranking. Using a novel dynamic temporal Glicko rating method, we ascertained that the dominance hierarchy was stable across time. Using social network analyses, we characterized the behavior of individuals within 66 unique relationships in the social group. We identified two individual network metrics, Kleinberg's Hub Centrality and Bonacich's Power Centrality, as accurate predictors of individual dominance and power. Comparing across behaviors, we establish that agonistic, grooming and sniffing social networks possess their own distinctive characteristics in terms of density, average path length, reciprocity out-degree centralization and out-closeness centralization. Though grooming ties between individuals were largely independent of other social networks, sniffing relationships were highly predictive of the directionality of agonistic relationships. Individual variation in dominance status was associated with brain gene expression, with more dominant individuals having higher levels of corticotropin releasing factor mRNA in the medial and central nuclei of the amygdala and the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus, as well as higher levels of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA. This study demonstrates the potential and significance of combining complex social housing

  4. Altered gene expression in the brain and liver of female fathead minnows Pimephales promelas Rafinesque exposed to fadrozole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, Daniel L. [US EPA, Duluth, MN (United States); Knoebl, Iris [US EPA, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Larkin, Patrick [Sante Fe Community College, Gainesville, FL (United States); EcoArray, Alachua, FL (United States); Miracle, Ann L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carter, Barbara J. [EcoArray, Alachua, FL (United States); Denslow, Nancy D. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ankley, Gerald T. [US EPA, Duluth, MN (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) is a small fish species widely used for ecotoxicology research and regulatory testing in North America. This study used a novel 2000 gene oligonucleotide microarray to evaluate the effects of the aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, on gene expression in the liver and brain tissue of exposed females. Exposure to 60 μg 1-1 fadrozole/L for 7 d, resulted in the significant (p<0.05; high-moderate agreement among multiple probes spotted on the array) up-regulation of approximately 47 genes in brain and 188 in liver, and the significant down-regulation of 61 genes in brain and 162 in liver. In particular, fadrozole exposure elicited significant up-regulation of five genes in brain involved in the cholesterol synthesis pathway and altered the expression of over a dozen cytoskeleton-related genes. In the liver, there was notable down-regulation of genes coding for vitellogenin precursors, vigillin, and fibroin-like ovulatory proteins which were consistent with an expected reduction in plasma estradiol concentrations as a result of fadrozole exposure and an associated reduction in measured plasma vitellogenin concentrations. These changes coincided with a general down-regulation of genes coding for non-mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and proteins that play a role in translation. With the exception of the fibroin-like ovulatory proteins, real-time PCR results largely corroborated the microarray responses. Overall, results of this study demonstrate the utility of high density oligonucleotide microarrays for unsupervised, discovery-driven, ecotoxicogenomics research with the fathead minnow and helped inform the subsequent development of a 22,000 gene microarray for the species.

  5. Gene expression of the TGF-beta family in rat brain infected with Borna disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Yoshii; Ooishi, Ryo; Kurokawa, Sachiko; Fujino, Kan; Murakami, Masaru; Madarame, Hiroo; Hashimoto, Osamu; Sugiyama, Kazutoshi; Funaba, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    CRNP5, a variant of Borna disease virus (BDV), has stronger pathogenesis in rats than the related variant CRP3, although only 4 amino acids in the whole genome are different. As a first step to clarify the differential pathogenesis between the variants, the present study focused on examining the expression of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family in the brain of rats infected with BDV. The main results were as follows. (1) BDV infection, irrespective of the variant, up-regulates TGF-beta1 expression in the brain, (2) the expressions of signal receptors for TGF-beta1 are also increased, (3) the expression of brain inhibin/activin betaE is up-regulated by BDV infection, and (4) the expression of brain inhibin/activin betaC tends to be higher in rats exhibiting severe Borna disease. These results indicate that members of the TGF-beta family are involved in neuronal disorders induced by BDV infection in a ligand-dependent manner. In particular, up-regulation of inhibin/activin betaC may be a key event responsible for induction of the stronger pathogenesis of the CRNP5 variant of BDV.

  6. Association of DNA methylation and monoamine oxidase A gene expression in the brains of different dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eo, JungWoo; Lee, Hee-Eun; Nam, Gyu-Hwi; Kwon, Yun-Jeong; Choi, Yuri; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Huh, Jae-Won; Kim, Minkyu; Lee, Sang-Eun; Seo, Bohyun; Kim, Heui-Soo

    2016-04-15

    The monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene is an important candidate gene for human behavior that encodes an enzyme regulating the metabolism of key neurotransmitters. The regulatory mechanisms of the MAOA gene in dogs are yet to be elucidated. We measured MAOA gene transcription and analyzed the VNTR genotype and methylation status of the gene promoter region in different dog breeds to determine whether MAOA expression is correlated with the MAOA genotype or epigenetic modification in dogs. We found brain-specific expression of the MAOA gene and different transcription levels in different dog breeds including Beagle, Sapsaree, and German shepherd, and also a robust association of the DNA methylation of the gene promoter with mRNA levels. However, the 90 bp tandem repeats that we observed near the transcription start site were not variable, indicating no correlation with canine MAOA activity. These results show that differential DNA methylation in the MAOA promoter region may affect gene expression by modulating promoter activity. Moreover, the distinctive patterns of MAOA expression and DNA methylation may be involved in breed-specific or individual behavioral characteristics, such as aggression, because behavioral phenotypes are related to different physiological and neuroendocrine responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic methamphetamine treatment reduces the expression of synaptic plasticity genes and changes their DNA methylation status in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Min-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Hsin; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2015-12-10

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant that may cause long-lasting synaptic dysfunction and abnormal gene expression. We aimed to explore the differential expression of synaptic plasticity genes in chronic METH-treated mouse brain. We used the RT(2) Profiler PCR Array and the real-time quantitative PCR to characterize differentially expressed synaptic plasticity genes in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus of chronic METH-treated mice compared with normal saline-treated mice. We further used pyrosequencing to assess DNA methylation changes in the CpG region of the five immediate early genes (IEGs) in chronic METH-treated mouse brain. We detected six downregulated genes in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus of chronic METH-treated mice, including five IEGs (Arc, Egr2, Fos, Klf10, and Nr4a1) and one neuronal receptor gene (Grm1), compared with normal saline-treated group, but only four genes (Arc, Egr2, Fos, and Nr4a1) were confirmed to be different. Furthermore, we found several CpG sites of the Arc and the Fos that had significant changes in DNA methylation status in the frontal cortex of chronic METH-treated mice, while the klf10 and the Nr4a1 that had significant changes in the hippocampus. Our results show that chronic administration of METH may lead to significant downregulation of the IEGs expression in both the frontal cortex and the hippocampus, which may partly account for the molecular mechanism of the action of METH. Furthermore, the changes in DNA methylation status of the IEGs in the brain indicate that an epigenetic mechanism-dependent transcriptional regulation may contribute to METH addiction, which warrants additional study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. CRISPR/Cas9-induced disruption of gene expression in mouse embryonic brain and single neural stem cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalebic, Nereo; Taverna, Elena; Tavano, Stefania; Wong, Fong Kuan; Suchold, Dana; Winkler, Sylke; Huttner, Wieland B; Sarov, Mihail

    2016-03-01

    We have applied the CRISPR/Cas9 system in vivo to disrupt gene expression in neural stem cells in the developing mammalian brain. Two days after in utero electroporation of a single plasmid encoding Cas9 and an appropriate guide RNA (gRNA) into the embryonic neocortex of Tis21::GFP knock-in mice, expression of GFP, which occurs specifically in neural stem cells committed to neurogenesis, was found to be nearly completely (≈ 90%) abolished in the progeny of the targeted cells. Importantly, upon in utero electroporation directly of recombinant Cas9/gRNA complex, near-maximal efficiency of disruption of GFP expression was achieved already after 24 h. Furthermore, by using microinjection of the Cas9 protein/gRNA complex into neural stem cells in organotypic slice culture, we obtained disruption of GFP expression within a single cell cycle. Finally, we used either Cas9 plasmid in utero electroporation or Cas9 protein complex microinjection to disrupt the expression of Eomes/Tbr2, a gene fundamental for neocortical neurogenesis. This resulted in a reduction in basal progenitors and an increase in neuronal differentiation. Thus, the present in vivo application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in neural stem cells provides a rapid, efficient and enduring disruption of expression of specific genes to dissect their role in mammalian brain development. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  9. Expression of defective measles virus genes in brain tissues of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baczko, K.; Liebert, U.G.; Billeter, M.; Cattaneo, R.; Budka, H.; Ter Meulen, V.

    1986-08-01

    The persistence of measles virus in selected areas of the brains of four patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was characterized by immunohistological and biochemical techniques. The five measles virus structural proteins were never simultaneously detectable in any of the bran sections. Nucleocapsid proteins and phosphoproteins were found in every diseased brain area, whereas hemagglutinin protein was detected in two cases, fusion protein was detected in three cases, and matrix protein was detected in only one case. Also, it could be shown that the amounts of measles virus RNA in the brains differed from patient to patient and in the different regions investigated. In all patients, plus-strand RNAs specific for these five viral genes could be detected. However, the amounts of fusion and hemagglutinin mRNAs were low compared with the amounts in lytically infected cells. The presence of particular measles virus RNAs in SSPE-infected brains did not always correlate with mRNA activity. In in vitro translations, the matrix protein was produced in only one case, and the hemagglutinin protein was produced in none. These results indicate that measles virus persistence in SSPE is correlated with different defects of several genes which probably prevent assembly of viral particles in SSPE-infected brain tissue.

  10. Chasing Migration Genes: A Brain Expressed Sequence Tag Resource for Summer and Migratory Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haisun; Casselman, Amy; Reppert, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a spectacular fall migration. In contrast to summer butterflies, migrants are juvenile hormone (JH) deficient, which leads to reproductive diapause and increased longevity. Migrants also utilize time-compensated sun compass orientation to help them navigate to their overwintering grounds. Here, we describe a brain expressed sequence tag (EST) resource to identify genes involved in migratory behaviors. A brain EST library was constructed from summer and migrating butterflies. Of 9,484 unique sequences, 6068 had positive hits with the non-redundant protein database; the EST database likely represents ∼52% of the gene-encoding potential of the monarch genome. The brain transcriptome was cataloged using Gene Ontology and compared to Drosophila. Monarch genes were well represented, including those implicated in behavior. Three genes involved in increased JH activity (allatotropin, juvenile hormone acid methyltransfersase, and takeout) were upregulated in summer butterflies, compared to migrants. The locomotion-relevant turtle gene was marginally upregulated in migrants, while the foraging and single-minded genes were not differentially regulated. Many of the genes important for the monarch circadian clock mechanism (involved in sun compass orientation) were in the EST resource, including the newly identified cryptochrome 2. The EST database also revealed a novel Na+/K+ ATPase allele predicted to be more resistant to the toxic effects of milkweed than that reported previously. Potential genetic markers were identified from 3,486 EST contigs and included 1599 double-hit single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 98 microsatellite polymorphisms. These data provide a template of the brain transcriptome for the monarch butterfly. Our “snap-shot” analysis of the differential regulation of candidate genes between summer and migratory butterflies suggests that unbiased, comprehensive transcriptional profiling

  11. Chasing migration genes: a brain expressed sequence tag resource for summer and migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haisun Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus undergo a spectacular fall migration. In contrast to summer butterflies, migrants are juvenile hormone (JH deficient, which leads to reproductive diapause and increased longevity. Migrants also utilize time-compensated sun compass orientation to help them navigate to their overwintering grounds. Here, we describe a brain expressed sequence tag (EST resource to identify genes involved in migratory behaviors. A brain EST library was constructed from summer and migrating butterflies. Of 9,484 unique sequences, 6068 had positive hits with the non-redundant protein database; the EST database likely represents approximately 52% of the gene-encoding potential of the monarch genome. The brain transcriptome was cataloged using Gene Ontology and compared to Drosophila. Monarch genes were well represented, including those implicated in behavior. Three genes involved in increased JH activity (allatotropin, juvenile hormone acid methyltransfersase, and takeout were upregulated in summer butterflies, compared to migrants. The locomotion-relevant turtle gene was marginally upregulated in migrants, while the foraging and single-minded genes were not differentially regulated. Many of the genes important for the monarch circadian clock mechanism (involved in sun compass orientation were in the EST resource, including the newly identified cryptochrome 2. The EST database also revealed a novel Na+/K+ ATPase allele predicted to be more resistant to the toxic effects of milkweed than that reported previously. Potential genetic markers were identified from 3,486 EST contigs and included 1599 double-hit single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 98 microsatellite polymorphisms. These data provide a template of the brain transcriptome for the monarch butterfly. Our "snap-shot" analysis of the differential regulation of candidate genes between summer and migratory butterflies suggests that unbiased, comprehensive

  12. Expression of autophagy and UPR genes in the developing brain during ethanol-sensitive and resistant periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimov, Alexander; Wang, Haiping; Liu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A; Xu, Mei; Ou, Xiaoming; Luo, Jia

    2013-12-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) results from ethanol exposure to the developing fetus and is the leading cause of mental retardation. FASD is associated with a broad range of neurobehavioral deficits which may be mediated by ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in the developing brain. An immature brain is more susceptible to ethanol neurotoxicity. We hypothesize that the enhanced sensitivity of the immature brain to ethanol is due to a limited capacity to alleviate cellular stress. Using a third trimester equivalent mouse model of ethanol exposure, we demonstrated that subcutaneous injection of ethanol induced a wide-spread neuroapoptosis in postnatal day 4 (PD4) C57BL/6 mice, but had little effect on the brain of PD12 mice. We analyzed the expression profile of genes regulating apoptosis, and the pathways of ER stress response (also known as unfolded protein response, UPR) and autophagy during these ethanol-sensitive and resistant periods (PD4 versus PD12) using PCR microarray. The expression of pro-apoptotic genes, such as caspase-3, was much higher on PD4 than PD12; in contrast, the expression of genes that regulate UPR and autophagy, such as atf6, atg4, atg9, atg10, beclin1, bnip3, cebpb, ctsb, ctsd, ctss, grp78, ire1α, lamp, lc3 perk, pik3c3, and sqstm1 was significantly higher on PD12 than PD4. These results suggest that the vulnerability of the immature brain to ethanol could result from high expression of pro-apoptotic proteins and a deficiency in the stress responsive system, such as UPR and autophagy.

  13. Sex-specific expression of the X-linked histone demethylase gene Jarid1c in brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Jarid1c, an X-linked gene coding for a histone demethylase, plays an important role in brain development and function. Notably, JARID1C mutations cause mental retardation and increased aggression in humans. These phenotypes are consistent with the expression patterns we have identified in mouse brain where Jarid1c mRNA was detected in hippocampus, hypothalamus, and cerebellum. Jarid1c expression and associated active histone marks at its 5'end are high in P19 neurons, indicating that JARID1C demethylase plays an important role in differentiated neuronal cells. We found that XX mice expressed Jarid1c more highly than XY mice, independent of their gonadal types (testes versus ovaries. This increased expression in XX mice is consistent with Jarid1c escape from X inactivation and is not compensated by expression from the Y-linked paralogue Jarid1d, which is expressed at a very low level compared to the X paralogue in P19 cells. Our observations suggest that sex-specific expression of Jarid1c may contribute to sex differences in brain function.

  14. Identification of gene expression changes associated with the initiation of diapause in the brain of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Diapause, a state of arrested development accompanied by a marked decrease of metabolic rate, helps insects to overcome unfavorable seasons. Helicoverpa armigera (Har) undergoes pupal diapause, but the molecular mechanism of diapause initiation is unclear. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), we investigated differentially expressed genes in diapause- and nondiapause-destined pupal brains at diapause initiation. Results We constructed two SSH libraries (forward, F and reverse, R) to isolate genes that are up-regulated or down-regulated at diapause initiation. We obtained 194 unique sequences in the F library and 115 unique sequences in the R library. Further, genes expression at the mRNA and protein level in diapause- and nondiapause-destined pupal brains were confirmed by RT-PCR, Northern blot or Western blot analysis. Finally, we classified the genes and predicted their possible roles at diapause initiation. Conclusion Differentially expressed genes at pupal diapause initiation are possibly involved in the regulation of metabolism, energy, stress resistance, signaling pathways, cell cycle, transcription and translation. PMID:21569297

  15. Identification of gene expression changes associated with the initiation of diapause in the brain of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei-Hua

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diapause, a state of arrested development accompanied by a marked decrease of metabolic rate, helps insects to overcome unfavorable seasons. Helicoverpa armigera (Har undergoes pupal diapause, but the molecular mechanism of diapause initiation is unclear. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH, we investigated differentially expressed genes in diapause- and nondiapause-destined pupal brains at diapause initiation. Results We constructed two SSH libraries (forward, F and reverse, R to isolate genes that are up-regulated or down-regulated at diapause initiation. We obtained 194 unique sequences in the F library and 115 unique sequences in the R library. Further, genes expression at the mRNA and protein level in diapause- and nondiapause-destined pupal brains were confirmed by RT-PCR, Northern blot or Western blot analysis. Finally, we classified the genes and predicted their possible roles at diapause initiation. Conclusion Differentially expressed genes at pupal diapause initiation are possibly involved in the regulation of metabolism, energy, stress resistance, signaling pathways, cell cycle, transcription and translation.

  16. The metabolic trinity, glucose-glycogen-lactate, links astrocytes and neurons in brain energetics, signaling, memory, and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2017-01-10

    Glucose, glycogen, and lactate are traditionally identified with brain energetics, ATP turnover, and pathophysiology. However, recent studies extend their roles to include involvement in astrocytic signaling, memory consolidation, and gene expression. Emerging roles for these brain fuels and a readily-diffusible by-product are linked to differential fluxes in glycolytic and oxidative pathways, astrocytic glycogen dynamics, redox shifts, neuron-astrocyte interactions, and regulation of astrocytic activities by noradrenaline released from the locus coeruleus. Disproportionate utilization of carbohydrate compared with oxygen during brain activation is influenced by catecholamines, but its physiological basis is not understood and its magnitude may be affected by technical aspects of metabolite assays. Memory consolidation and gene expression are impaired by glycogenolysis blockade, and prevention of these deficits by injection of abnormally-high concentrations of lactate was interpreted as a requirement for astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttling in memory and gene expression. However, lactate transport was not measured and evidence for presumed shuttling is not compelling. In fact, high levels of lactate used to preserve memory consolidation and induce gene expression are sufficient to shut down neuronal firing via the HCAR1 receptor. In contrast, low lactate levels activate a receptor in locus coeruleus that stimulates noradrenaline release that may activate astrocytes throughout brain. Physiological relevance of exogenous concentrations of lactate used to mimic and evaluate metabolic, molecular, and behavioral effects of lactate requires close correspondence with the normal lactate levels, the biochemical and cellular sources and sinks, and specificity of lactate delivery to target cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrative analyses of RNA editing, alternative splicing, and expression of young genes in human brain transcriptome by deep RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Ye, Ling-Qun; Li, Yan; Sun, Yan-Bo; Shao, Yi; Chen, Chunyan; Zhu, Zhu; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Yong E; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Next-generation RNA sequencing has been successfully used for identification of transcript assembly, evaluation of gene expression levels, and detection of post-transcriptional modifications. Despite these large-scale studies, additional comprehensive RNA-seq data from different subregions of the human brain are required to fully evaluate the evolutionary patterns experienced by the human brain transcriptome. Here, we provide a total of 6.5 billion RNA-seq reads from different subregions of the human brain. A significant correlation was observed between the levels of alternative splicing and RNA editing, which might be explained by a competition between the molecular machineries responsible for the splicing and editing of RNA. Young human protein-coding genes demonstrate biased expression to the neocortical and non-neocortical regions during evolution on the lineage leading to humans. We also found that a significantly greater number of young human protein-coding genes are expressed in the putamen, a tissue that was also observed to have the highest level of RNA-editing activity. The putamen, which previously received little attention, plays an important role in cognitive ability, and our data suggest a potential contribution of the putamen to human evolution. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of L-Theanine on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Induced Changes in Rat Brain Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Eduardo Ceremuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is characterized by the occurrence of a traumatic event that is beyond the normal range of human experience. The future of PTSD treatment may specifically target the molecular mechanisms of PTSD. In the US, approximately 20% of adults report taking herbal products to treat medical illnesses. L-theanine is the amino acid in green tea primarily responsible for relaxation effects. No studies have evaluated the potential therapeutic properties of herbal medications on gene expression in PTSD. We evaluated gene expression in PTSD-induced changes in the amygdala and hippocampus of Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were assigned to PTSD-stressed and nonstressed groups that received either saline, midazolam, L-theanine, or L-theanine + midazolam. Amygdala and hippocampus tissue samples were analyzed for changes in gene expression. One-way ANOVA was used to detect significant difference between groups in the amygdala and hippocampus. Of 88 genes examined, 17 had a large effect size greater than 0.138. Of these, 3 genes in the hippocampus and 5 genes in the amygdala were considered significant (P<0.05 between the groups. RT-PCR analysis revealed significant changes between groups in several genes implicated in a variety of disorders ranging from PTSD, anxiety, mood disorders, and substance dependence.

  19. PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF BRAIN AND ACUTE LEUKEMIA CYTOPLASMIC GENE EXPRESSION IN EGYPTIAN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA

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    adel abd elhaleim hagag

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract      Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML accounts for 25%-35% of the acute leukemia in children. BAALC (Brain and Acute Leukemia, Cytoplasmic gene is a recently identified gene on chromosome 8q22.3 that has prognostic significance in AML.  The aim of this work was to study the impact of BAALC gene expression on prognosis of AML in Egyptian children. Patients and methods: This study was conducted on 40 patients of newly diagnosed AML who were subjected to the following: Full history taking, clinical examination, laboratory investigations including: complete blood count, LDH, bone marrow aspiration, cytochemistry and immunophenotyping, assessment of BAALC Gene by real time PCR in bone marrow aspirate mononuclear cells before the start of chemotherapy. Results: BAALC gene expression showed positive expression in 24 cases (60% and negative expression in 16 cases (40%. Patients who showed positive BAALC gene expression included 10 patients achieved complete remission, 8 patients died and 6 relapsed patients, while patients who showed negative expression include 12 patients achieved complete remission, 1 relapsed patient and 3 patients died. There was significant association between BAALC gene expression and FAB classification of patients of AML patientsas positive BAALC expression is predominantly seen in FAB subtypes M1 and M2 compared with negative BAALC gene expression that was found more in M3 and M4 (8 cases with M1, 12 cases with M2, 1 case with M3 and 3 cases with M4 in positive BAALC expression versus 2 cases with M1, 3 cases with M2, 4 cases with M3 and 7 cases with M4 in BAALC gene negative expression group with significant difference regarding FAB subtypes. As regard age, sex, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, pallor, purpura, platelets count, WBCs count, and percentage of blast cells in BM, the present study showed no significant association with BAALC. Conclusion: BAALC expression is an important prognostic factor in AML

  20. Vascular endothelial growth factor A protein level and gene expression in intracranial meningiomas with brain edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nassehi, Damoun; Dyrbye, Henrik; Andresen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific mitogen and angiogen. VEGF-A protein, which is identical to vascular permeability factor, is a regulator of angiogenesis. In this study, 101 patients with meningiomas, and possible co-factors to PTBE, such as meningioma subtypes and tumor location, were examined....... Forty-three patients had primary, solitary, supratentorial meningiomas with PTBE. In these, correlations in PTBE, edema index, VEGF-A protein, VEGF gene expression, capillary length, and tumor water content were investigated. DNA-branched hybridization was used for measuring VEGF gene expression...... in tissue homogenates prepared from frozen tissue samples. The method for VEGF-A analysis resembled an ELISA assay, but was based on chemiluminescence. The edema index was positively correlated to VEGF-A protein (p = 0.014) and VEGF gene expression (p

  1. Inducible and reversible Clock gene expression in brain using the tTA system for the study of circadian behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Kyung Hong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of circadian oscillations in mammals is cell autonomous and is generated by a set of genes that form a transcriptional autoregulatory feedback loop. While these "clock genes" are well conserved among animals, their specific functions remain to be fully understood and their roles in central versus peripheral circadian oscillators remain to be defined. We utilized the in vivo inducible tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA system to regulate Clock gene expression conditionally in a tissue-specific and temporally controlled manner. Through the use of Secretogranin II to drive tTA expression, suprachiasmatic nucleus- and brain-directed expression of a tetO::Clock(Delta19 dominant-negative transgene lengthened the period of circadian locomotor rhythms in mice, whereas overexpression of a tetO::Clock(wt wild-type transgene shortened the period. Low doses (10 mug/ml of doxycycline (Dox in the drinking water efficiently inactivated the tTA protein to silence the tetO transgenes and caused the circadian periodicity to return to a wild-type state. Importantly, low, but not high, doses of Dox were completely reversible and led to a rapid reactivation of the tetO transgenes. The rapid time course of tTA-regulated transgene expression demonstrates that the CLOCK protein is an excellent indicator for the kinetics of Dox-dependent induction/repression in the brain. Interestingly, the daily readout of circadian period in this system provides a real-time readout of the tTA transactivation state in vivo. In summary, the tTA system can manipulate circadian clock gene expression in a tissue-specific, conditional, and reversible manner in the central nervous system. The specific methods developed here should have general applicability for the study of brain and behavior in the mouse.

  2. Differential Expression of FosB Proteins and Potential Target Genes in Select Brain Regions of Addiction and Depression Patients.

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    Paula A Gajewski

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to stress or drugs of abuse has been linked to altered gene expression throughout the body, and changes in gene expression in discrete brain regions are thought to underlie many psychiatric diseases, including major depressive disorder and drug addiction. Preclinical models of these disorders have provided evidence for mechanisms of this altered gene expression, including transcription factors, but evidence supporting a role for these factors in human patients has been slow to emerge. The transcription factor ΔFosB is induced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and hippocampus (HPC of rodents in response to stress or cocaine, and its expression in these regions is thought to regulate their "top down" control of reward circuitry, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc. Here, we use biochemistry to examine the expression of the FosB family of transcription factors and their potential gene targets in PFC and HPC postmortem samples from depressed patients and cocaine addicts. We demonstrate that ΔFosB and other FosB isoforms are downregulated in the HPC but not the PFC in the brains of both depressed and addicted individuals. Further, we show that potential ΔFosB transcriptional targets, including GluA2, are also downregulated in the HPC but not PFC of cocaine addicts. Thus, we provide the first evidence of FosB gene expression in human HPC and PFC in these psychiatric disorders, and in light of recent findings demonstrating the critical role of HPC ΔFosB in rodent models of learning and memory, these data suggest that reduced ΔFosB in HPC could potentially underlie cognitive deficits accompanying chronic cocaine abuse or depression.

  3. Learning-dependent gene expression of CREB1 isoforms in the molluscan brain

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    Hisayo Sadamoto

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein1 (CREB1 has multiple functions in gene regulation. Various studies have reported that CREB1-dependent gene induction is necessary for memory formation and long-lasting behavioral changes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the present study, we characterized Lymnaea CREB1 (LymCREB1 mRNA isoforms of spliced variants in the central nervous system (CNS of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Among these spliced variants, the three isoforms that code a whole LymCREB1 protein are considered to be the activators for gene regulation. The other four isoforms, which code truncated LymCREB1 proteins with no kinase inducible domain, are the repressors. For a better understanding of the possible roles of different LymCREB1 isoforms, the expression level of these isoform mRNAs was investigated by a real-time quantitative RT-PCR method. Further, we examined the changes in gene expression for all the isoforms in the CNS after conditioned taste aversion (CTA learning or backward conditioning as a control. The results showed that CTA learning increased LymCREB1 gene expression, but it did not change the activator/repressor ratio. Our findings showed that the repressor isoforms, as well as the activator ones, are expressed in large amounts in the CNS, and the gene expression of CREB1 isoforms appeared to be specific for the given stimulus. This was the first quantitative analysis of the expression patterns of CREB1 isoforms at the mRNA level and their association with learning behavior.

  4. Regulation of gene expression in adeno-associated virus vectors in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Rebecca P; McCown, Thomas J

    2002-10-01

    Regulated adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have broad utility in both experimental and applied gene therapy, and to date, several regulation systems have exhibited a capability to control gene expression from viral vectors over two orders of magnitude. The tetracycline responsive system has been the most used in AAV, although other regulation systems such as RU486- and rapamycin-responsive systems are reasonable options. AAV vectors influence how regulation systems function by several mechanisms, leading to increased background gene expression and restricted induction. Methods to reduce background expression continue to be explored and systems not yet tried in AAV may prove quite functional. Although regulated promoters are often assumed to exhibit ubiquitous expression, the tropism of different neuronal subtypes can be altered dramatically by changing promoters in recombinant AAV vectors. Differences in promoter-directed tropism have significant consequences for proper expression of gene products as well as the utility of dual vector regulation. Thus regulated vector systems must be carefully optimized for each application. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  5. Meta-type analysis of dopaminergic effects on gene expression in the neuroendocrine brain of female goldfish

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    Jason T Popesku

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA is a major neurotransmitter important for neuroendocrine control and recent studies have described genomic signalling pathways activated and inhibited by DA agonists and antagonists in the goldfish brain. Here we perform a meta-type analysis using microarray datasets from experiments conducted with female goldfish to characterize the gene expression responses that underlie dopaminergic signalling. Sexually mature, pre-spawning (GSI 4.5 ± 1.3% or sexually regressing ( GSI 3 ± 0.4% female goldfish (15-40 g injected intraperitoneally with either SKF 38393, LY 171555, SCH 23390, sulpiride, or a combination of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and α-methyl-p-tyrosine. Microarray meta-type analysis identified 268 genes in the telencephalon and hypothalamus as having reciprocal (i.e. opposite between agonism and antagonism/depletion fold change responses, suggesting that these transcripts are likely targets for DA-mediated regulation. Noteworthy genes included ependymin, vimentin, and aromatase, genes that support the significance of DA in neuronal plasticity and tissue remodelling. Sub-network enrichment analysis (SNEA was used to identify common gene regulators and binding proteins associated with the differentially expressed genes mediated by DA. SNEA analysis identified gene expression targets that were related to three major categories that included cell signalling (STAT3, SP1, SMAD, Jun/Fos, immune response (IL6, IL1β, TNFs, cytokine, NF-κB, and cell proliferation and growth (IGF1, TGFβ1. These gene networks are also known to be associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinsons’ disease, well-known to be associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons. This study identifies genes and networks that underlie DA signalling in the vertebrate CNS and provides targets that may be key neuroendocrine regulators. The results provide a foundation for future work on dopaminergic regulation of gene expression in fish

  6. Exploring terra incognita of cognitive science: Lateralization of gene expression at the frontal pole of the human brain

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    Dolina I.A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rostral prefrontal cortex, or frontopolar cortex (FPC, also known as Brodmann area 10 (BA10, is the most anterior part of the human brain. It is one of the largest cytoarchitectonic areas of the human brain that has significantly increased its volume during evolution. Anatomically the le (BA10L and right (BA10R parts of FPC show slight asymmetries and they may have distinctive cognitive functions. Objective. In the present study, we investigated differential expression of the transcriptome in the le and right parts of BA10. Design. Postmortem samples of human brain tissue from fourteen donors (male/ female without history of psychiatric and neurological diseases, mean age 39.79±3.23 years old, mean postmortem interval 12.10±1.76 h were obtained using the resources of three institutions: the Partner Institute of Computational Biology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, and NIH Neuro-BioBank. Results. By using a standard RNA-sequencing followed by bioinformatic analysis, we identified 61 genes with differential expression in the le and right FPC. In general, gene expression was increased in BA10R relative to BA10L: 40 vs. 21 genes, respectively. According to gene ontology analysis, the majority of up-regulated genes in BA10R be- longed to the protein-coding category, whereas protein-coding and non-coding genes were equally up-expressed in BA10L. Most of the up-regulated genes in BA10R were involved in brain plasticity and activity-dependent mechanisms also known for their role in the hippocampus. 24 out of 30 mental disorder-related genes in the dataset were disrupted in schizophrenia. No such a wide association with other mental disorders was found. Conclusion. Discovered differences point at possible causes of hemispheric asymmetries in the human frontal lobes and at the molecular base of higher-order cognitive processes in health and disease.

  7. Photoperiodic Modulation of Circadian Clock and Reproductive Axis Gene Expression in the Pre-Pubertal European Sea Bass Brain

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    Martins, Rute S. T.; Gomez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel; Canário, Adelino V. M.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of reproductive competence requires the activation of the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis, which in most vertebrates, including fishes, is initiated by changes in photoperiod. In the European sea bass long-term exposure to continuous light (LL) alters the rhythm of reproductive hormones, delays spermatogenesis and reduces the incidence of precocious males. In contrast, an early shift from long to short photoperiod (AP) accelerates spermatogenesis. However, how photoperiod affects key genes in the brain to trigger the onset of puberty is still largely unknown. Here, we investigated if the integration of the light stimulus by clock proteins is sufficient to activate key genes that trigger the BPG axis in the European sea bass. We found that the clock genes clock, npas2, bmal1 and the BPG genes gnrh, kiss and kissr share conserved transcription factor frameworks in their promoters, suggesting co-regulation. Other gene promoters of the BGP axis were also predicted to be co-regulated by the same frameworks. Co-regulation was confirmed through gene expression analysis of brains from males exposed to LL or AP photoperiod compared to natural conditions: LL fish had suppressed gnrh1, kiss2, galr1b and esr1, while AP fish had stimulated npas2, gnrh1, gnrh2, kiss2, kiss1rb and galr1b compared to NP. It is concluded that fish exposed to different photoperiods present significant expression differences in some clock and reproductive axis related genes well before the first detectable endocrine and morphological responses of the BPG axis. PMID:26641263

  8. Photoperiodic Modulation of Circadian Clock and Reproductive Axis Gene Expression in the Pre-Pubertal European Sea Bass Brain.

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    Rute S T Martins

    Full Text Available The acquisition of reproductive competence requires the activation of the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG axis, which in most vertebrates, including fishes, is initiated by changes in photoperiod. In the European sea bass long-term exposure to continuous light (LL alters the rhythm of reproductive hormones, delays spermatogenesis and reduces the incidence of precocious males. In contrast, an early shift from long to short photoperiod (AP accelerates spermatogenesis. However, how photoperiod affects key genes in the brain to trigger the onset of puberty is still largely unknown. Here, we investigated if the integration of the light stimulus by clock proteins is sufficient to activate key genes that trigger the BPG axis in the European sea bass. We found that the clock genes clock, npas2, bmal1 and the BPG genes gnrh, kiss and kissr share conserved transcription factor frameworks in their promoters, suggesting co-regulation. Other gene promoters of the BGP axis were also predicted to be co-regulated by the same frameworks. Co-regulation was confirmed through gene expression analysis of brains from males exposed to LL or AP photoperiod compared to natural conditions: LL fish had suppressed gnrh1, kiss2, galr1b and esr1, while AP fish had stimulated npas2, gnrh1, gnrh2, kiss2, kiss1rb and galr1b compared to NP. It is concluded that fish exposed to different photoperiods present significant expression differences in some clock and reproductive axis related genes well before the first detectable endocrine and morphological responses of the BPG axis.

  9. Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene.

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    Rebecca L Skalsky

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive malignant tumor involving glial cells in the human brain. We used high-throughput sequencing to comprehensively profile the small RNAs expressed in glioblastoma and non-tumor brain tissues. MicroRNAs (miRNAs made up the large majority of small RNAs, and we identified over 400 different cellular pre-miRNAs. No known viral miRNAs were detected in any of the samples analyzed. Cluster analysis revealed several miRNAs that were significantly down-regulated in glioblastomas, including miR-128, miR-124, miR-7, miR-139, miR-95, and miR-873. Post-transcriptional editing was observed for several miRNAs, including the miR-376 family, miR-411, miR-381, and miR-379. Using the deep sequencing information, we designed a lentiviral vector expressing a cell suicide gene, the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK gene, under the regulation of a miRNA, miR-128, that was found to be enriched in non-tumor brain tissue yet down-regulated in glioblastomas, Glioblastoma cells transduced with this vector were selectively killed when cultured in the presence of ganciclovir. Using an in vitro model to recapitulate expression of brain-enriched miRNAs, we demonstrated that neuronally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells transduced with the miRNA-regulated HSV-TK vector are protected from killing by expression of endogenous miR-128. Together, these results provide an in-depth analysis of miRNA dysregulation in glioblastoma and demonstrate the potential utility of these data in the design of miRNA-regulated therapies for the treatment of brain cancers.

  10. Does Short-Term Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Influence Brain Hippocampus Gene Expression of Zinc Transporter-3?

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    Nur Farhana Ahmad Sopian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary omega-3 fatty acids have been recognized to improve brain cognitive function. Deficiency leads to dysfunctional zinc metabolism associated with learning and memory impairment. The objective of this study is to explore the effect of short-term dietary omega-3 fatty acids on hippocampus gene expression at the molecular level in relation to spatial recognition memory in mice. A total of 24 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups and fed a standard pellet as a control group (CTL, n = 6, standard pellet added with 10% (w/w fish oil (FO, n = 6, 10% (w/w soybean oil (SO, n = 6 and 10% (w/w butter (BT, n = 6. After 3 weeks on the treatment diets, spatial-recognition memory was tested on a Y-maze. The hippocampus gene expression was determined using a real-time PCR. The results showed that 3 weeks of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improved cognitive performance along with the up-regulation of α-synuclein, calmodulin and transthyretin genes expression. In addition, dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency increased the level of ZnT3 gene and subsequently reduced cognitive performance in mice. These results indicate that the increased the ZnT3 levels caused by the deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids produced an abnormal zinc metabolism that in turn impaired the brain cognitive performance in mice.

  11. Suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) and macroarray techniques reveal differential gene expression profiles in brain of sea bream infected with nodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dios, S; Poisa-Beiro, L; Figueras, A; Novoa, B

    2007-03-01

    Despite of the impact that viruses have on aquatic organisms, relatively little is known on how fish fight against these infections. In this work, the brain gene expression pattern of sea bream (Sparus aurata) in response to nodavirus infection was investigated. We used the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method to generate a subtracted cDNA library enriched with gene transcripts differentially expressed after 1 day post-infection. Some of the ESTs from the infected tissues fell in gene categories related to stress and immune responses. For the reverse library (ESTs expressed in controls compared with infected tissues) the most abundant transcripts were of ribosomal and mitochondrial nature. Several ESTs potentially induced by virus exposure were selected for in vivo expression studies. We observed a clear difference in expression between infected and control samples for two candidate genes, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 7 interacting protein, which seems to play an important role in apoptosis and the interferon induced protein with helicase C domain 1 (mda-5) that contributes to apoptosis and regulates the type I IFN production, a key molecule of the antiviral innate response in most organisms.

  12. A Complex Network of MicroRNAs Expressed in Brain and Genes Associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

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    Santosh Shinde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS is a rare neurological disease affecting mainly motor neurons and often leads to paralysis and death in extreme cases. For exploring the role of microRNAs in genes regulation in ALS disease, miRanda was employed for prediction of target sites of miRNAs expressed in various parts of brain and CNS on 35 genes associated with ALS. Similar search was conducted using TargetScan and PicTar for prediction of target sites in 3′ UTR only. 1456 target sites were predicted using miRanda and more target sites were found in 5′ UTR and CDS region as compared to 3′ UTR. 11 target sites were predicted to be common by all the algorithms and, thus, these represent the most significant sites. Target site hotspots were identified and were recognized as hotspots for multiple miRNAs action, thus, acting as favoured sites of action for the repression of gene expression. The complex interplay of genes and miRNAs brought about by multiplicity and cooperativity was explored. This investigation will aid in elucidating the mechanism of action of miRNAs for the considered genes. The intrinsic network of miRNAs expressed in nervous system and genes associated with ALS may provide rapid and effective outcome for therapeutic applications and diagnosis.

  13. Non-negative Tensor Factorization with missing data for the modeling of gene expressions in the Human Brain

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    Nielsen, Søren Føns Vind; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Non-negative Tensor Factorization (NTF) has become a prominent tool for analyzing high dimensional multi-way structured data. In this paper we set out to analyze gene expression across brain regions in multiple subjects based on data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas [1] with more than 40 % data...... from all subjects the model based predictions are useful. When analyzing the structure of the components derived for one of the best predicting model orders the components identified in general constitute localized regions of the brain. Non-negative tensor factorization based on marginalization thus...... missing in our problem. Our analysis is based on the non-negativity constrained Canonical Polyadic (CP) decomposition where we handle the missing data using marginalization considering three prominent alternating least squares procedures; multiplicative updates, column-wise, and row-wise updating...

  14. Altered expression of circadian clock gene, mPer1, in mouse brain and kidney under morphine dependence and withdrawal

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    Wang Yuhui

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Every physiological function in the human body exhibits some form of circadian rhythmicity. Under pathological conditions, however, circadian rhythmicity may be dusrupted. Patients infected with HIV or addicted to drugs of abuse often suffer from sleep disorders and altered circadian rhythms. Early studies in Drosophila suggested that drug seeking behavior might be related to the expression of certain circadian clock genes. Our previous research showed that conditioned place preference with morphine treatment was altered in mice lacking the Period-1 (mPer1 circadian clock gene. Thus, we sought to investigate whether morphine treatment could alter the expression of mPer1, especially in brain regions outside the SCN and in peripheral tissues. Our results using Western blot analysis showed that the mPER1 immunoreactivity exhibited a strong circadian rhythm in the brains of the control (Con, morphine-dependent (MD, and morphine-withdrawal (MW mice. However, the phase of the circadian rhythm of mPER1 expression in the brains of MD mice significantly differed from that of the Con mice (p mPer1 may vary among different organs, resulting in desynchronization of circadian function between the SCN and peripheral organs.

  15. Changes in neurotransmitter levels and expression of immediate early genes in brain of mice infected with Neospora caninum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Fumiaki; Nishimura, Maki; Muroi, Yoshikage; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes neurological disorders in dogs and cattle. The majority of host animals are asymptomatic at the chronic stage of infection. However, it remains unclear whether cerebral function is normal in asymptomatic animals. In this study, mice were infected with N. caninum (strain Nc-1) and their brains were examined to understand changes in cerebral function at the chronic stage of infection. Mice infected with N. caninum showed impaired locomotor activity, but no differences in clinical symptoms were observed. In the brains of infected mice, parasites were distributed throughout the brain and histological lesions were observed everywhere except for the cerebellum. Expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha, were highly upregulated in several brain regions of infected mice. Additionally, the level of neurotransmitters glutamate, glycine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine, were altered in infected mice compared with those of uninfected mice. Interestingly, the expression levels of immediately early genes, c-Fos and Arc, in the brain of infected mice were lower than those of in uninfected mice. Our findings may provide insight into neurological disorders associated with N. caninum infection. PMID:26971577

  16. Transsynaptic Tracing from Taste Receptor Cells Reveals Local Taste Receptor Gene Expression in Gustatory Ganglia and Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Anja; Bojahr, Juliane; Narukawa, Masataka; Hübner, Sandra; Boehm, Ulrich; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    Taste perception begins in the oral cavity by interactions of taste stimuli with specific receptors. Specific subsets of taste receptor cells (TRCs) are activated upon tastant stimulation and transmit taste signals to afferent nerve fibers and ultimately to the brain. How specific TRCs impinge on the innervating nerves and how the activation of a subset of TRCs leads to the discrimination of tastants of different qualities and intensities is incompletely understood. To investigate the organization of taste circuits, we used gene targeting to express the transsynaptic tracer barley lectin (BL) in the gustatory system of mice. Because TRCs are not synaptically connected with the afferent nerve fibers, we first analyzed tracer production and transfer within the taste buds (TBs). Surprisingly, we found that BL is laterally transferred across all cell types in TBs of mice expressing the tracer under control of the endogenous Tas1r1 and Tas2r131 promotor, respectively. Furthermore, although we detected the BL tracer in both ganglia and brain, we also found local low-level Tas1r1 and Tas2r131 gene, and thus tracer expression in these tissues. Finally, we identified the Tas1r1 and Tas2r131-expressing cells in the peripheral and CNS using a binary genetic approach. Together, our data demonstrate that genetic transsynaptic tracing from bitter and umami receptor cells does not selectively label taste-specific neuronal circuits and reveal local taste receptor gene expression in the gustatory ganglia and the brain. Previous papers described the organization of taste pathways in mice expressing a transsynaptic tracer from transgenes in bitter or sweet/umami-sensing taste receptor cells. However, reported results differ dramatically regarding the numbers of synapses crossed and the reduction of signal intensity after each transfer step. Nevertheless, all groups claimed this approach appropriate for quality-specific visualization of taste pathways. In the present study, we

  17. Effect of a thymol application on olfactory memory and gene expression levels in the brain of the honeybee Apis mellifera.

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    Bonnafé, Elsa; Drouard, Florian; Hotier, Lucie; Carayon, Jean-Luc; Marty, Pierre; Treilhou, Michel; Armengaud, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Essential oils are used by beekeepers to control the Varroa mites that infest honeybee colonies. So, bees can be exposed to thymol formulations in the hive. The effects of the monoterpenoid thymol were explored on olfactory memory and gene expression in the brain of the honeybee. In bees previously exposed to thymol (10 or 100 ng/bee), the specificity of the response to the conditioned stimulus (CS) was lost 24 h after learning. Besides, the octopamine receptor OA1 gene Amoa1 showed a significant decrease of expression 3 h after exposure with 10 or 100 ng/bee of thymol. With the same doses, expression of Rdl gene, coding for a GABA receptor subunit, was not significantly modified but the trpl gene was upregulated 1 and 24 h after exposure to thymol. These data indicated that the genes coding for the cellular targets of thymol could be rapidly regulated after exposure to this molecule. Memory and sensory processes should be investigated in bees after chronic exposure in the hive to thymol-based preparations.

  18. Short-term striatal gene expression responses to brain-derived neurotrophic factor are dependent on MEK and ERK activation.

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    Ozgun Gokce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is believed to be an important regulator of striatal neuron survival, differentiation, and plasticity. Moreover, reduction of BDNF delivery to the striatum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease. Nevertheless, many essential aspects of BDNF responses in striatal neurons remain to be elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we assessed the relative contributions of multipartite intracellular signaling pathways to the short-term induction of striatal gene expression by BDNF. To identify genes regulated by BDNF in these GABAergic cells, we first used DNA microarrays to quantify their transcriptomic responses following 3 h of BDNF exposure. The signal transduction pathways underlying gene induction were subsequently dissected using pharmacological agents and quantitative real-time PCR. Gene expression responses to BDNF were abolished by inhibitors of TrkB (K252a and calcium (chelator BAPTA-AM and transient receptor potential cation channel [TRPC] antagonist SKF-96365. Interestingly, inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 1 and 2 (MEK1/2 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK also blocked the BDNF-mediated induction of all tested BDNF-responsive genes. In contrast, inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K, and CAMK exhibited less prevalent, gene-specific effects on BDNF-induced RNA expression. At the nuclear level, the activation of both Elk-1 and CREB showed MEK dependence. Importantly, MEK-dependent activation of transcription was shown to be required for BDNF-induced striatal neurite outgrowth, providing evidence for its contribution to striatal neuron plasticity. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the MEK/ERK pathway is a major mediator of neuronal plasticity and other important BDNF-dependent striatal functions that are fulfilled through the positive regulation of gene expression.

  19. Genomics-based screening of differentially expressed genes in the brains of mice exposed to silver nanoparticles via inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Young; Choi, You-Jin; Jung, Eun-Jung; Yin, Hu-Quan; Kwon, Jung-Taek; Kim, Ji-Eun; Im, Hwang-Tae; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Ju-Han; Kim, Hyun-Young; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2010-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are among the fastest growing product categories in the nanotechnology industry. Despite the importance of AgNP in consumer products and clinical applications, relatively little is known regarding AgNP toxicity and its associated risks. We investigated the effects of AgNP on gene expression in the mouse brain using Affymetrix Mouse Genome Arrays. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to AgNP (geometric mean diameter, 22.18 ± 1.72 nm; 1.91 × 107 particles/cm3) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week using the nose-only exposure system for 2 weeks. Total RNA isolated from the cerebrum and cerebellum was subjected to hybridization. From over 39,000 probe sets, 468 genes in the cerebrum and 952 genes in the cerebellum were identified as AgNP-responsive (one-way analysis of variance; p Real-time PCR data for five genes analyzed from whole blood showed good correlation with the observed changes in the brain. Following rigorous validation and substantiation, these genes may assist in the development of surrogate markers for AgNP exposure and/or toxicity.

  20. Surgery increases cell death and induces changes in gene expression compared with anesthesia alone in the developing piglet brain.

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    Kevin D Broad

    Full Text Available In a range of animal species, exposure of the brain to general anaesthesia without surgery during early infancy may adversely affect its neural and cognitive development. The mechanisms mediating this are complex but include an increase in brain cell death. In humans, attempts to link adverse cognitive development to infantile anaesthesia exposure have yielded ambiguous results. One caveat that may influence the interpretation of human studies is that infants are not exposed to general anaesthesia without surgery, raising the possibility that surgery itself, may contribute to adverse cognitive development. Using piglets, we investigated whether a minor surgical procedure increases cell death and disrupts neuro-developmental and cognitively salient gene transcription in the neonatal brain. We randomly assigned neonatal male piglets to a group who received 6h of 2% isoflurane anaesthesia or a group who received an identical anaesthesia plus 15 mins of surgery designed to replicate an inguinal hernia repair. Compared to anesthesia alone, surgery-induced significant increases in cell death in eight areas of the brain. Using RNAseq data derived from all 12 piglets per group we also identified significant changes in the expression of 181 gene transcripts induced by surgery in the cingulate cortex, pathway analysis of these changes suggests that surgery influences the thrombin, aldosterone, axonal guidance, B cell, ERK-5, eNOS and GABAA signalling pathways. This suggests a number of novel mechanisms by which surgery may influence neural and cognitive development independently or synergistically with the effects of anaesthesia.

  1. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) is predominantly expressed in the brain and negatively regulates hepatopancreatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Zhang, Lv-Ping; Wong, Nai-Kei; Zhong, Ming; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Ovarian maturation in crustaceans is temporally orchestrated by two processes: oogenesis and vitellogenesis. The peptide hormone vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), by far the most potent negative regulator of crustacean reproduction known, critically modulates crustacean ovarian maturation by suppressing vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis. In this study, cDNA encoding VIH was cloned from the eyestalk of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, a highly significant commercial culture species. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that L. vannamei VIH (lvVIH) can be classified as a member of the type II crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family. Northern blot and RT-PCR results reveal that both the brain and eyestalk were the major sources for lvVIH mRNA expression. In in vitro experiments on primary culture of shrimp hepatopancreatic cells, it was confirmed that some endogenous inhibitory factors existed in L. vannamei hemolymph, brain, and eyestalk that suppressed hepatopancreatic VTG gene expression. Purified recombinant lvVIH protein was effective in inhibiting VTG mRNA expression in both in vitro primary hepatopancreatic cell culture and in vivo injection experiments. Injection of recombinant VIH could also reverse ovarian growth induced by eyestalk ablation. Furthermore, unilateral eyestalk ablation reduced the mRNA level of lvVIH in the brain but not in the remaining contralateral eyestalk. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights on VIH regulation of shrimp reproduction: 1) the brain and eyestalk are both important sites of VIH expression and therefore possible coregulators of hepatopancreatic VTG mRNA expression and 2) eyestalk ablation could increase hepatopancreatic VTG expression by transcriptionally abolishing eyestalk-derived VIH and diminishing brain-derived VIH.

  2. Individual variation in pheromone response correlates with reproductive traits and brain gene expression in worker honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah D Kocher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variation in individual behavior within social groups can affect the fitness of the group as well as the individual, and can be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. However, the molecular factors associated with individual variation in social behavior remain relatively unexplored. We used honey bees (Apis mellifera as a model to examine differences in socially-regulated behavior among individual workers, and used transcriptional profiling to determine if specific gene expression patterns are associated with these individual differences. In honey bees, the reproductive queen produces a pheromonal signal that regulates many aspects of worker behavior and physiology and maintains colony organization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we demonstrate that there is substantial natural variation in individual worker attraction to queen pheromone (QMP. Furthermore, worker attraction is negatively correlated with ovariole number-a trait associated with reproductive potential in workers. We identified transcriptional differences in the adult brain associated with individual worker attraction to QMP, and identified hundreds of transcripts that are organized into statistically-correlated gene networks and associated with this response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our studies demonstrate that there is substantial variation in worker attraction to QMP among individuals, and that this variation is linked with specific differences in physiology and brain gene expression patterns. This variation in individual response thresholds may reveal underlying variation in queen-worker reproductive conflict, and may mediate colony function and productivity by creating variation in individual task performance.

  3. Individual variation in pheromone response correlates with reproductive traits and brain gene expression in worker honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Sarah D; Ayroles, Julien F; Stone, Eric A; Grozinger, Christina M

    2010-02-09

    Variation in individual behavior within social groups can affect the fitness of the group as well as the individual, and can be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. However, the molecular factors associated with individual variation in social behavior remain relatively unexplored. We used honey bees (Apis mellifera) as a model to examine differences in socially-regulated behavior among individual workers, and used transcriptional profiling to determine if specific gene expression patterns are associated with these individual differences. In honey bees, the reproductive queen produces a pheromonal signal that regulates many aspects of worker behavior and physiology and maintains colony organization. Here, we demonstrate that there is substantial natural variation in individual worker attraction to queen pheromone (QMP). Furthermore, worker attraction is negatively correlated with ovariole number-a trait associated with reproductive potential in workers. We identified transcriptional differences in the adult brain associated with individual worker attraction to QMP, and identified hundreds of transcripts that are organized into statistically-correlated gene networks and associated with this response. Our studies demonstrate that there is substantial variation in worker attraction to QMP among individuals, and that this variation is linked with specific differences in physiology and brain gene expression patterns. This variation in individual response thresholds may reveal underlying variation in queen-worker reproductive conflict, and may mediate colony function and productivity by creating variation in individual task performance.

  4. Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek, Jean-Ha; Schmidt, Eva; Viceconte, Nikenza

    2015-01-01

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental progeroid syndrome with multiple features suggestive of premature accelerated aging. Accumulation of progerin is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of HGPS. However, despite ubiquitous expression of lamin A in all differentiated cells...... also been found in several tissues from normal individuals, but it is not clear if low levels of progerin contribute to the aging of the brain. In an attempt to clarify the origin of this phenomenon, we have developed an inducible transgenic mouse model with expression of the most common HGPS mutation...... of hippocampal neurons of HGPS animals, there were only negligible changes in gene expression after 63 weeks of transgenic expression. Behavioral analysis and neurogenesis assays, following long-term expression of the HGPS mutation, did not reveal significant pathology. Our results suggest that certain tissues...

  5. Preprocessing and Quality Control Strategies for Illumina DASL Assay-Based Brain Gene Expression Studies with Semi-Degraded Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maggie L; Winn, Mary E; Li, Hai-Ri; April, Craig; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Fan, Jian-Bing; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Courchesne, Eric; Schork, Nicholas J

    2012-01-01

    Available statistical preprocessing or quality control analysis tools for gene expression microarray datasets are known to greatly affect downstream data analysis, especially when degraded samples, unique tissue samples, or novel expression assays are used. It is therefore important to assess the validity and impact of the assumptions built in to preprocessing schemes for a dataset. We developed and assessed a data preprocessing strategy for use with the Illumina DASL-based gene expression assay with partially degraded postmortem prefrontal cortex samples. The samples were obtained from individuals with autism as part of an investigation of the pathogenic factors contributing to autism. Using statistical analysis methods and metrics such as those associated with multivariate distance matrix regression and mean inter-array correlation, we developed a DASL-based assay gene expression preprocessing pipeline to accommodate and detect problems with microarray-based gene expression values obtained with degraded brain samples. Key steps in the pipeline included outlier exclusion, data transformation and normalization, and batch effect and covariate corrections. Our goal was to produce a clean dataset for subsequent downstream differential expression analysis. We ultimately settled on available transformation and normalization algorithms in the R/Bioconductor package lumi based on an assessment of their use in various combinations. A log2-transformed, quantile-normalized, and batch and seizure-corrected procedure was likely the most appropriate for our data. We empirically tested different components of our proposed preprocessing strategy and believe that our results suggest that a preprocessing strategy that effectively identifies outliers, normalizes the data, and corrects for batch effects can be applied to all studies, even those pursued with degraded samples.

  6. Functional characterisation of human synaptic genes expressed in the Drosophila brain

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    Lysimachos Zografos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster is an established and versatile model organism. Here we describe and make available a collection of transgenic Drosophila strains expressing human synaptic genes. The collection can be used to study and characterise human synaptic genes and their interactions and as controls for mutant studies. It was generated in a way that allows the easy addition of new strains, as well as their combination. In order to highlight the potential value of the collection for the characterisation of human synaptic genes we also use two assays, investigating any gain-of-function motor and/or cognitive phenotypes in the strains in this collection. Using these assays we show that among the strains made there are both types of gain-of-function phenotypes investigated. As an example, we focus on the three strains expressing human tyrosine protein kinase Fyn, the small GTPase Rap1a and human Arc, respectively. Of the three, the first shows a cognitive gain-of-function phenotype while the second a motor gain-of-function phenotype. By contrast, Arc, which has no Drosophila ortholog, shows no gain-of-function phenotype.

  7. Oxidant and enzymatic antioxidant status (gene expression and activity) in the brain of chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension

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    Hassanpour, Hossein; Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah; Nasiri, Leila; Mohebbi, Abdonnaser; Bahadoran, Shahab

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain (hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain) in chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension, the measurements of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, antioxidant capacity, enzymatic activity, and gene expression (for catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutases) were done. There were high lipid peroxidation/protein oxidation and low antioxidant capacity in the hindbrain of cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens compared to control ( P hypertensive chickens, superoxide dismutase activity was decreased (forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain), while catalase activity was increased (forebrain and midbrain) ( P hypertensive chickens. Probably, these situations in the oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain especially hindbrain may change its function at cardiovascular center and sympathetic nervous system to exacerbate pulmonary hypertension.

  8. Subacute activation of mGlu4 receptors causes the feedback inhibition of its gene expression in rat brain.

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    Pershina, E V; Arkhipov, V I

    2016-05-15

    The present study aimed to understand the relationship between pharmacological activation of mGlu4 receptors and regulation of its gene in the hippocampus. The expression level of the GRM4 gene, encoding mGluR4 receptors, was studied in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats after pharmacological activation of the receptor with positive allosteric modulator (E)-4-(2-Phenylethenyl)-2-pyrimidinamine (TCN 238). The drug was injected subcutaneously four times at a dose of 2mg/kg. The animals were previously trained with hippocampal-dependent task and after the treatment were tested for memory retrieval. The expression level of GRM4 was determined by qRT-PCR in control and experimental groups of animals one and five days post-treatment. We found that TCN 238 did not affect the performance of the learned task. However, the expression level of GRM4 in the hippocampus was reliable down-regulated five days after treatment with TCN 238. In addition, we showed that the expression level of GABRA1, encoding GABAA α-subunit was downregulated five days after the treatment in the frontal cortex. Subacute pharmacological intervention in mGluR activity by the selective positive modulator TCN 238 has led to adaptive rearrangements of transcription processes in the hippocampus. Moreover, this regulation affected GABA system, confirming importance of the brain excitation-inhibition balance. Since the pharmacological influence on mGluR activity can be regarded as a promising tool aimed to correct brain dysfunction, the properties of mGluR modulators should be studied in more detail, including the level of gene transcription. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Glutathione S-transferase omega genes in Alzheimer and Parkinson disease risk, age-at-diagnosis and brain gene expression: an association study with mechanistic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mariet; Zou, Fanggeng; Chai, High Seng; Younkin, Curtis S; Miles, Richard; Nair, Asha A; Crook, Julia E; Pankratz, V Shane; Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Rowley, Christopher N; Nguyen, Thuy; Ma, Li; Malphrus, Kimberly G; Bisceglio, Gina; Ortolaza, Alexandra I; Palusak, Ryan; Middha, Sumit; Maharjan, Sooraj; Georgescu, Constantin; Schultz, Debra; Rakhshan, Fariborz; Kolbert, Christopher P; Jen, Jin; Sando, Sigrid B; Aasly, Jan O; Barcikowska, Maria; Uitti, Ryan J; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Ross, Owen A; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Dickson, Dennis W; Younkin, Steven G; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer

    2012-04-11

    Glutathione S-transferase omega-1 and 2 genes (GSTO1, GSTO2), residing within an Alzheimer and Parkinson disease (AD and PD) linkage region, have diverse functions including mitigation of oxidative stress and may underlie the pathophysiology of both diseases. GSTO polymorphisms were previously reported to associate with risk and age-at-onset of these diseases, although inconsistent follow-up study designs make interpretation of results difficult. We assessed two previously reported SNPs, GSTO1 rs4925 and GSTO2 rs156697, in AD (3,493 ADs vs. 4,617 controls) and PD (678 PDs vs. 712 controls) for association with disease risk (case-controls), age-at-diagnosis (cases) and brain gene expression levels (autopsied subjects). We found that rs156697 minor allele associates with significantly increased risk (odds ratio = 1.14, p = 0.038) in the older ADs with age-at-diagnosis > 80 years. The minor allele of GSTO1 rs4925 associates with decreased risk in familial PD (odds ratio = 0.78, p = 0.034). There was no other association with disease risk or age-at-diagnosis. The minor alleles of both GSTO SNPs associate with lower brain levels of GSTO2 (p = 4.7 × 10-11-1.9 × 10-27), but not GSTO1. Pathway analysis of significant genes in our brain expression GWAS, identified significant enrichment for glutathione metabolism genes (p = 0.003). These results suggest that GSTO locus variants may lower brain GSTO2 levels and consequently confer AD risk in older age. Other glutathione metabolism genes should be assessed for their effects on AD and other chronic, neurologic diseases.

  10. Glutathione S-transferase omega genes in Alzheimer and Parkinson disease risk, age-at-diagnosis and brain gene expression: an association study with mechanistic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Mariet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione S-transferase omega-1 and 2 genes (GSTO1, GSTO2, residing within an Alzheimer and Parkinson disease (AD and PD linkage region, have diverse functions including mitigation of oxidative stress and may underlie the pathophysiology of both diseases. GSTO polymorphisms were previously reported to associate with risk and age-at-onset of these diseases, although inconsistent follow-up study designs make interpretation of results difficult. We assessed two previously reported SNPs, GSTO1 rs4925 and GSTO2 rs156697, in AD (3,493 ADs vs. 4,617 controls and PD (678 PDs vs. 712 controls for association with disease risk (case-controls, age-at-diagnosis (cases and brain gene expression levels (autopsied subjects. Results We found that rs156697 minor allele associates with significantly increased risk (odds ratio = 1.14, p = 0.038 in the older ADs with age-at-diagnosis > 80 years. The minor allele of GSTO1 rs4925 associates with decreased risk in familial PD (odds ratio = 0.78, p = 0.034. There was no other association with disease risk or age-at-diagnosis. The minor alleles of both GSTO SNPs associate with lower brain levels of GSTO2 (p = 4.7 × 10-11-1.9 × 10-27, but not GSTO1. Pathway analysis of significant genes in our brain expression GWAS, identified significant enrichment for glutathione metabolism genes (p = 0.003. Conclusion These results suggest that GSTO locus variants may lower brain GSTO2 levels and consequently confer AD risk in older age. Other glutathione metabolism genes should be assessed for their effects on AD and other chronic, neurologic diseases.

  11. Distinct functional brain regional integration of Casp3, Ascl1 and S100a6 gene expression in spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruden, Marina A; Storozheva, Zinaida I; Sewell, Robert D E; Kolobov, Vitaly V; Sherstnev, Vladimir V

    2013-09-01

    Evaluating the brain structural expression of defined genes involved in basic biological processes of neurogenesis, apoptosis or neural plasticity may facilitate the understanding of genetic mechanisms underlying spatial memory. The aim of the present study was to compare Ascl1, Casp3 and S100a6 gene expression in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of adult rats in water maze spatial memory performance. After four days training, the mean platform time (memory formation. Real time PCR analysis revealed a positive inter-structural correlation for S100a6/Casp gene expression between the prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum but a negative correlation for S100a6/Ascl1 transcribed genes between the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus during swimming in the active controls. However, during spatial memory performance there was only one inter-structural correlation between the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum with respect to Casp3 expression, though there were intra-structural correlations between Casp3/Ascl1 transcriptions within the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus as well as between Ascl1/S100a6 in the cerebellum. In active learners versus naive controls, the transcrption of all genes was augmented in the prefrontal cortex but Casp3 and Ascl1 were also elevated in hippocampus whilst only S100a6 increased in the cerebellum. The findings endorsed the role of the hippocampus in memory acquisition in addition to an integrative relationship with the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum. This structural and molecular configuration is important for creation of novel neural circuitry for consolidation and reconsolidation of memory trace with an involvement of coupled processes of neurogenesis, apoptosis or neural plasticity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of aromatase in radial glial cells in the brain of the Japanese eel provides insight into the evolution of the cyp191a gene in Actinopterygians.

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    Shan-Ru Jeng

    Full Text Available The cyp19a1 gene that encodes aromatase, the only enzyme permitting conversion of C19 aromatizable androgens into estrogens, is present as a single copy in the genome of most vertebrate species, except in teleosts in which it has been duplicated. This study aimed at investigating the brain expression of a cyp19a1 gene expressed in both gonad and brain of Japanese eel, a basal teleost. By means of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we show that cyp19a1 is expressed only in radial glial cells of the brain and in pituitary cells. Treatments with salmon pituitary homogenates (female or human chorionic gonadotrophin (male, known to turn on steroid production in immature eels, strongly stimulated cyp19a1 messenger and protein expression in radial glial cells and pituitary cells. Using double staining studies, we also showed that aromatase-expressing radial glial cells exhibit proliferative activity in both the brain and the pituitary. Altogether, these data indicate that brain and pituitary expression of Japanese eel cyp19a1 exhibits characteristics similar to those reported for the brain specific cyp19a1b gene in teleosts having duplicated cyp19a1 genes. This supports the hypothesis that, despite the fact that eels also underwent the teleost specific genome duplication, they have a single cyp19a1 expressed in both brain and gonad. Such data also suggest that the intriguing features of brain aromatase expression in teleost fishes were not gained after the whole genome duplication and may reflect properties of the cyp19a1 gene of ancestral Actinopterygians.

  13. Characterization of the Transcriptome and Gene Expression of Brain Tissue in Sevenband Grouper (Hyporthodus septemfasciatus in Response to NNV Infection

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    Jong-Oh Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouper is one of the favorite sea food resources in Southeast Asia. However, the outbreaks of the viral nervous necrosis (VNN disease due to nervous necrosis virus (NNV infection have caused mass mortality of grouper larvae. Many aqua-farms have suffered substantial financial loss due to the occurrence of VNN. To better understand the infection mechanism of NNV, we performed the transcriptome analysis of sevenband grouper brain tissue, the main target of NNV infection. After artificial NNV challenge, transcriptome of brain tissues of sevenband grouper was subjected to next generation sequencing (NGS using an Illumina Hi-seq 2500 system. Both mRNAs from pooled samples of mock and NNV-infected sevenband grouper brains were sequenced. Clean reads of mock and NNV-infected samples were de novo assembled and obtained 104,348 unigenes. In addition, 628 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in response to NNV infection were identified. This result could provide critical information not only for the identification of genes involved in NNV infection, but for the understanding of the response of sevenband groupers to NNV infection.

  14. Correlated 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and Gene Expression Profiles Underpin Gene and Organ-Specific Epigenetic Regulation in Adult Mouse Brain and Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Hsuan; Chen, Yi-Fan; Hsu, Ming-Ta

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism essential for gene regulation and vital for mammalian development. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is the first oxidative product of the TET-mediated 5-methylcytosine (5mC) demethylation pathway. Aside from being a key intermediate in cytosine demethylation, 5hmC may have potential regulatory functions with emerging importance in mammalian biology. Here, we investigate the global 5hmC enrichment in five brain structures, including cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and thalamus, as well as liver tissues from female and male adult mice by using chemical capture-based technique coupled with next-generation sequencing. At the same time, we carried out total RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to analyze the transcriptomes of brain regions and liver tissues. Our results reveal preferential 5hmC enrichment in the gene bodies of expressed genes, and 5hmC levels of many protein-coding genes are positively correlated with RNA expression intensity. However, more than 75% of genes with low or no 5hmC enrichment are genes encode for mitochondrial proteins and ribosomal proteins despite being actively transcribed, implying different transcriptional regulation mechanisms of these housekeeping genes. Brain regions developed from the same embryonic structures have more similar 5hmC profiles. Also, the genic 5hmC enrichment pattern is highly tissue-specific, and 5hmC marks genes involving in tissue-specific biological processes. Sex chromosomes are mostly depleted of 5hmC, and the X inactive specific transcript (Xist) gene located on the X chromosome is the only gene to show sex-specific 5hmC enrichment. This is the first report of the whole-genome 5hmC methylome of five major brain structures and liver tissues in mice of both sexes. This study offers a comprehensive resource for future work of mammalian cytosine methylation dynamics. Our findings offer additional evidence that suggests 5hmC is an active epigenetic mark stably

  15. Males are from Mars, and females are from Venus: sex-specific fetal brain gene expression signatures in a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity.

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    Edlow, Andrea G; Guedj, Faycal; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Sverdlov, Deanna; Neri, Caterina; Bianchi, Diana W

    2016-05-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children, including autism spectrum disorders, developmental delay, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We previously identified second-trimester amniotic fluid and term cord blood gene expression patterns suggesting dysregulated brain development in fetuses of obese compared with lean women. We sought to investigate the biological significance of these findings in a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity. We evaluated sex-specific differences in fetal growth, brain gene expression signatures, and associated pathways. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a 60% high-fat diet or 10% fat control diet for 12-14 weeks prior to mating. During pregnancy, obese dams continued on the high-fat diet or transitioned to the control diet. Lean dams stayed on the control diet. On embryonic day 17.5, embryos were weighed and fetal brains were snap frozen. RNA was extracted from male and female forebrains (10 per diet group per sex) and hybridized to whole-genome expression arrays. Significantly differentially expressed genes were identified using a Welch's t test with the Benjamini-Hochberg correction. Functional analyses were performed using ingenuity pathways analysis and gene set enrichment analysis. Embryos of dams on the high-fat diet were significantly smaller than controls, with males more severely affected than females (P = .01). Maternal obesity and maternal obesity with dietary change in pregnancy resulted in significantly more dysregulated genes in male vs female fetal brains (386 vs 66, P Maternal obesity with and without dietary change in pregnancy was associated with unique brain gene expression signatures for each sex, with an overlap of only 1 gene. Changing obese dams to a control diet in pregnancy resulted in more differentially expressed genes in the fetal brain than maternal obesity alone. Functional analyses identified common

  16. Dietary intake alters behavioural recovery and gene expression profiles in the brain of juvenile rats that have experienced a concussion

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    Richelle eMychasiuk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Concussion and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI research has made minimal progress diagnosing who will suffer from lingering symptomology or generating effective treatment strategies. Research demonstrates that dietary intake affects many biological systems including brain and neurological health. This study determined if exposure to a high fat diet (HFD or caloric restriction (CR altered post-concussion susceptibility or resiliency using a rodent model of pediatric concussion. Rats were maintained on HFD, CR, or standard diet (STD throughout life (including the prenatal period and weaning. At postnatal day 30, male and female rats experienced a concussion or a sham injury which was followed by 17 days of testing. Prefrontal cortex and hippocampus tissue was collected for molecular profiling. Gene expression changes in BDNF, CREB, DNMT1, FGF-2, IGF1, LEP, PGC-1α, SIRT1, Tau, and TERT were analyzed with respect to injury and diet. Analysis of telomere length (TL using peripheral skin cells and brain tissue found that TL in skin significantly correlated with TL in brain tissue and TL was affected by dietary intake and injury status. With respect to mTBI outcomes, diet was correlated with recovery as animals on the HFD often displayed poorer performance than animals on the CR diet. Molecular analysis demonstrated that diet induced epigenetic changes that can be associated with differences in individual predisposition and resiliency to post-concussion syndrome.

  17. Gene expression profiling in the stress control brain region hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus reveals a novel gene network including Amyloid beta Precursor Protein

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    Deussing Jan M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pivotal role of stress in the precipitation of psychiatric diseases such as depression is generally accepted. This study aims at the identification of genes that are directly or indirectly responding to stress. Inbred mouse strains that had been evidenced to differ in their stress response as well as in their response to antidepressant treatment were chosen for RNA profiling after stress exposure. Gene expression and regulation was determined by microarray analyses and further evaluated by bioinformatics tools including pathway and cluster analyses. Results Forced swimming as acute stressor was applied to C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice and resulted in sets of regulated genes in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN, 4 h or 8 h after stress. Although the expression changes between the mouse strains were quite different, they unfolded in phases over time in both strains. Our search for connections between the regulated genes resulted in potential novel signalling pathways in stress. In particular, Guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha inhibiting 2 (GNAi2 and Amyloid β (A4 precursor protein (APP were detected as stress-regulated genes, and together with other genes, seem to be integrated into stress-responsive pathways and gene networks in the PVN. Conclusions This search for stress-regulated genes in the PVN revealed its impact on interesting genes (GNAi2 and APP and a novel gene network. In particular the expression of APP in the PVN that is governing stress hormone balance, is of great interest. The reported neuroprotective role of this molecule in the CNS supports the idea that a short acute stress can elicit positive adaptational effects in the brain.

  18. Distribution and postnatal development of Gpr54 gene expression in mouse brain and gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbison, Allan E; de Tassigny, Xavier d'Anglemont; Doran, Joanne; Colledge, William H

    2010-01-01

    Kisspeptin and G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) are now acknowledged to play essential roles in the neural regulation of fertility. Using a transgenic Gpr54 LacZ knock-in mouse model, this study aimed to provide 1) a detailed map of cells expressing Gpr54 in the mouse brain and 2) an analysis of Gpr54 expression in GnRH neurons across postnatal development. The highest density of Gpr54-expressing cells in the mouse central nervous system was found in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus beginning on postnatal d 6 (P6). Abundant Gpr54 expression was also noted in the septum, rostral preoptic area (rPOA), anteroventral nucleus of the thalamus, posterior hypothalamus, periaqueductal grey, supramammillary and pontine nuclei, and dorsal cochlear nucleus. No Gpr54 expression was detected in the arcuate and rostral periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. Dual-labeling experiments showed that essentially all Gpr54-expressing cells in the rPOA were GnRH neurons. Analyses of mice at birth, P1, P5, P20, and P30 and as adults revealed a gradual increase in the percentage of GnRH neurons expressing Gpr54 from approximately 40% at birth through to approximately 70% from P20 onward. Whereas GnRH neurons located in the septum displayed a consistent increase across this time, GnRH neurons in the rPOA showed a sharp reduction in Gpr54 expression after birth (to approximately 10% at P5) before increasing to the 70% expression levels by P20. Together these findings provide an anatomical basis for the exploration of Gpr54 actions outside the reproductive axis and reveal a complex temporal and spatial pattern of Gpr54 gene expression in developing GnRH neurons.

  19. Differential Gene Expression Patterns in Developing Sexually Dimorphic Rat Brain Regions Exposed to Antiandrogenic, Estrogenic, or Complex Endocrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtensteiger, Walter; Bassetti-Gaille, Catherine; Faass, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The study addressed the question whether gene expression patterns induced by different mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) administered in a higher dose range, corresponding to 450×, 200×, and 100× high-end human exposure levels, could be characterized in developing brain with respect...... to endocrine activity of mixture components, and which developmental processes were preferentially targeted. Three EDC mixtures, A-Mix (anti-androgenic mixture) with 8 antiandrogenic chemicals (di-n-butylphthalate, diethylhexylphthalate, vinclozolin, prochloraz, procymidone, linuron, epoxiconazole, and DDE), E...... area and ventromedial hypothalamus in all dose groups. Expression patterns were mixture, sex, and region specific. Effects of the analgesic drug paracetamol, which exhibits antiandrogenic activity in peripheral systems, differed from those of A-Mix. All mixtures had a strong, mixture-specific impact...

  20. A brain-specific gene cluster isolated from the region of the mouse obesity locus is expressed in the adult hypothalamus and during mouse development

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    Laig-Webster, M.; Lim, M.E.; Chehab, F.F. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The molecular defect underlying an autosomal recessive form of genetic obesity in a classical mouse model C57 BL/6J-ob/ob has not yet been elucidated. Whereas metabolic and physiological disturbances such as diabetes and hypertension are associated with obesity, the site of expression and the nature of the primary lesion responsible for this cascade of events remains elusive. Our efforts aimed at the positional cloning of the ob gene by YAC contig mapping and gene identification have resulted in the cloning of a brain-specific gene cluster from the ob critical region. The expression of this gene cluster is remarkably complex owing to the multitude of brain-specific mRNA transcripts detected on Northern blots. cDNA cloning of these transcripts suggests that they are expressed from different genes as well as by alternate splicing mechanisms. Furthermore, the genomic organization of the cluster appears to consist of at least two identical promoters displaying CpG islands characteristic of housekeeping genes, yet clearly involving tissue-specific expression. Sense and anti-sense synthetic RNA probes were derived from a common DNA sequence on 3 cDNA clones and hybridized to 8-16 days mouse embryonic stages and mouse adult brain sections. Expression in development was noticeable as of the 11th day of gestation and confined to the central nervous system mainly in the telencephalon and spinal cord. Coronal and sagittal sections of the adult mouse brain showed expression only in 3 different regions of the brain stem. In situ hybridization to mouse hypothalamus sections revealed the presence of a localized and specialized group of cells expressing high levels of mRNA, suggesting that this gene cluster may also be involved in the regulation of hypothalamic activities. The hypothalamus has long been hypothesized as a primary candidate tissue for the expression of the obesity gene mainly because of its well-established role in the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake.

  1. Novel subtractive transcription-based amplification of mRNA (STAR method and its application in search of rare and differentially expressed genes in AD brains

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    Walker P Roy

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a complex disorder that involves multiple biological processes. Many genes implicated in these processes may be present in low abundance in the human brain. DNA microarray analysis identifies changed genes that are expressed at high or moderate levels. Complementary to this approach, we described here a novel technology designed specifically to isolate rare and novel genes previously undetectable by other methods. We have used this method to identify differentially expressed genes in brains affected by AD. Our method, termed Subtractive Transcription-based Amplification of mRNA (STAR, is a combination of subtractive RNA/DNA hybridization and RNA amplification, which allows the removal of non-differentially expressed transcripts and the linear amplification of the differentially expressed genes. Results Using the STAR technology we have identified over 800 differentially expressed sequences in AD brains, both up- and down- regulated, compared to age-matched controls. Over 55% of the sequences represent genes of unknown function and roughly half of them were novel and rare discoveries in the human brain. The expression changes of nearly 80 unique genes were further confirmed by qRT-PCR and the association of additional genes with AD and/or neurodegeneration was established using an in-house literature mining tool (LitMiner. Conclusion The STAR process significantly amplifies unique and rare sequences relative to abundant housekeeping genes and, as a consequence, identifies genes not previously linked to AD. This method also offers new opportunities to study the subtle changes in gene expression that potentially contribute to the development and/or progression of AD.

  2. Isoflurane Exposure Induces Cell Death, Microglial Activation and Modifies the Expression of Genes Supporting Neurodevelopment and Cognitive Function in the Male Newborn Piglet Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, Kevin D; Hassell, Jane; Fleiss, Bobbi; Kawano, Go; Ezzati, Mojgan; Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Hristova, Mariya; Bennett, Kate; Fierens, Igor; Burnett, Ryan; Chaban, Badr; Alonso-Alconada, Daniel; Oliver-Taylor, Aaron; Tachsidis, Ilias; Rostami, Jamshid; Gressens, Pierre; Sanders, Robert D; Robertson, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of the brain to general anesthesia during early infancy may adversely affect its neural and cognitive development. The mechanisms mediating this are complex, incompletely understood and may be sexually dimorphic, but include developmentally inappropriate apoptosis, inflammation and a disruption to cognitively salient gene expression. We investigated the effects of a 6h isoflurane exposure on cell death, microglial activation and gene expression in the male neonatal piglet brain. Piglets (n = 6) were randomised to: (i) naive controls or (ii) 6h isoflurane. Cell death (TUNEL and caspase-3) and microglial activation were recorded in 7 brain regions. Changes in gene expression (microarray and qPCR) were assessed in the cingulate cortex. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded throughout. Isoflurane anesthesia induced significant increases in cell death in the cingulate and insular cortices, caudate nucleus, thalamus, putamen, internal capsule, periventricular white matter and hippocampus. Dying cells included both neurons and oligodendrocytes. Significantly, microglial activation was observed in the insula, pyriform, hippocampus, internal capsule, caudate and thalamus. Isoflurane induced significant disruption to the expression of 79 gene transcripts, of these 26 are important for the control of transcription and 23 are important for the mediation of neural plasticity, memory formation and recall. Our observations confirm that isoflurane increases apoptosis and inflammatory responses in the neonatal piglet brain but also suggests novel additional mechanisms by which isoflurane may induce adverse neural and cognitive development by disrupting the expression of genes mediating activity dependent development of neural circuits, the predictive adaptive responses of the brain, memory formation and recall.

  3. The Rat Homolog of the Schizophrenia Susceptibility Gene ZNF804A Is Highly Expressed during Brain Development, Particularly in Growth Cones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinna, Katja Hvid; Rich, Karen; Fex Svenningsen, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    it decreases towards adult levels. This time point is developmentally the equivalent to the second trimester of fetal development in humans. An exception to this expression pattern is the hippocampus where the expression of Zfp804A appears to increase again in the adult brain. Using laser capture......A single nucleotide polymorphism in the ZNF804A gene, rs1344706, is associated with schizophrenia. The polymorphism has been suggested to alter fetal expression of ZNF804A. It has also been reported to be associated with altered cortical functioning and neural connectivity in the brain. Since...... developmental mechanisms are suggested in the pathophysiology for schizophrenia, expression of Zfp804A, the rat homolog of ZNF804A, was investigated in the developing rat brain. We found that expression of Zfp804A in most brain regions is developmentally regulated and peaks around birth, where after...

  4. Gene expression in brain and liver produced by three different regimens of alcohol consumption in mice: comparison with immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterndorff-Kahanek, Elizabeth; Ponomarev, Igor; Blednov, Yuri A; Harris, R Adron

    2013-01-01

    Chronically available alcohol escalates drinking in mice and a single injection of the immune activator lipopolysaccharide can mimic this effect and result in a persistent increase in alcohol consumption. We hypothesized that chronic alcohol drinking and lipopolysaccharide injections will produce some similar molecular changes that play a role in regulation of alcohol intake. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of chronic alcohol consumption or lipopolysaccharide insult by gene expression profiling in prefrontal cortex and liver of C57BL/6J mice. We identified similar patterns of transcriptional changes among four groups of animals, three consuming alcohol (vs water) in different consumption tests and one injected with lipopolysaccharide (vs. vehicle). The three tests of alcohol consumption are the continuous chronic two bottle choice (Chronic), two bottle choice available every other day (Chronic Intermittent) and limited access to one bottle of ethanol (Drinking in the Dark). Gene expression changes were more numerous and marked in liver than in prefrontal cortex for the alcohol treatments and similar in the two tissues for lipopolysaccharide. Many of the changes were unique to each treatment, but there was significant overlap in prefrontal cortex for Chronic-Chronic Intermittent and for Chronic Intermittent-lipopolysaccharide and in liver all pairs showed overlap. In silico cell-type analysis indicated that lipopolysaccharide had strongest effects on brain microglia and liver Kupffer cells. Pathway analysis detected a prefrontal cortex-based dopamine-related (PPP1R1B, DRD1, DRD2, FOSB, PDNY) network that was highly over-represented in the Chronic Intermittent group, with several genes from the network being also regulated in the Chronic and lipopolysaccharide (but not Drinking in the Dark) groups. Liver showed a CYP and GST centered metabolic network shared in part by all four treatments. We demonstrate common consequences of chronic alcohol consumption and

  5. Gene Expression in Brain and Liver Produced by Three Different Regimens of Alcohol Consumption in Mice: Comparison with Immune Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterndorff-Kahanek, Elizabeth; Ponomarev, Igor; Blednov, Yuri A.; Harris, R. Adron

    2013-01-01

    Chronically available alcohol escalates drinking in mice and a single injection of the immune activator lipopolysaccharide can mimic this effect and result in a persistent increase in alcohol consumption. We hypothesized that chronic alcohol drinking and lipopolysaccharide injections will produce some similar molecular changes that play a role in regulation of alcohol intake. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of chronic alcohol consumption or lipopolysaccharide insult by gene expression profiling in prefrontal cortex and liver of C57BL/6J mice. We identified similar patterns of transcriptional changes among four groups of animals, three consuming alcohol (vs water) in different consumption tests and one injected with lipopolysaccharide (vs. vehicle). The three tests of alcohol consumption are the continuous chronic two bottle choice (Chronic), two bottle choice available every other day (Chronic Intermittent) and limited access to one bottle of ethanol (Drinking in the Dark). Gene expression changes were more numerous and marked in liver than in prefrontal cortex for the alcohol treatments and similar in the two tissues for lipopolysaccharide. Many of the changes were unique to each treatment, but there was significant overlap in prefrontal cortex for Chronic-Chronic Intermittent and for Chronic Intermittent-lipopolysaccharide and in liver all pairs showed overlap. In silico cell-type analysis indicated that lipopolysaccharide had strongest effects on brain microglia and liver Kupffer cells. Pathway analysis detected a prefrontal cortex-based dopamine-related (PPP1R1B, DRD1, DRD2, FOSB, PDNY) network that was highly over-represented in the Chronic Intermittent group, with several genes from the network being also regulated in the Chronic and lipopolysaccharide (but not Drinking in the Dark) groups. Liver showed a CYP and GST centered metabolic network shared in part by all four treatments. We demonstrate common consequences of chronic alcohol consumption and

  6. Gene expression in brain and liver produced by three different regimens of alcohol consumption in mice: comparison with immune activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Osterndorff-Kahanek

    Full Text Available Chronically available alcohol escalates drinking in mice and a single injection of the immune activator lipopolysaccharide can mimic this effect and result in a persistent increase in alcohol consumption. We hypothesized that chronic alcohol drinking and lipopolysaccharide injections will produce some similar molecular changes that play a role in regulation of alcohol intake. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of chronic alcohol consumption or lipopolysaccharide insult by gene expression profiling in prefrontal cortex and liver of C57BL/6J mice. We identified similar patterns of transcriptional changes among four groups of animals, three consuming alcohol (vs water in different consumption tests and one injected with lipopolysaccharide (vs. vehicle. The three tests of alcohol consumption are the continuous chronic two bottle choice (Chronic, two bottle choice available every other day (Chronic Intermittent and limited access to one bottle of ethanol (Drinking in the Dark. Gene expression changes were more numerous and marked in liver than in prefrontal cortex for the alcohol treatments and similar in the two tissues for lipopolysaccharide. Many of the changes were unique to each treatment, but there was significant overlap in prefrontal cortex for Chronic-Chronic Intermittent and for Chronic Intermittent-lipopolysaccharide and in liver all pairs showed overlap. In silico cell-type analysis indicated that lipopolysaccharide had strongest effects on brain microglia and liver Kupffer cells. Pathway analysis detected a prefrontal cortex-based dopamine-related (PPP1R1B, DRD1, DRD2, FOSB, PDNY network that was highly over-represented in the Chronic Intermittent group, with several genes from the network being also regulated in the Chronic and lipopolysaccharide (but not Drinking in the Dark groups. Liver showed a CYP and GST centered metabolic network shared in part by all four treatments. We demonstrate common consequences of chronic alcohol

  7. Fermentation enhances Ginkgo biloba protective role on gamma-irradiation induced neuroinflammatory gene expression and stress hormones in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amel F M; El-Sonbaty, Sawsan M

    2016-05-01

    Ionizing radiation has attracted a lot of attention due to its beneficial and possible harmful effects to the human population. The brain displays numerous biochemical and functional alterations after exposure to irradiation, which induces oxidative-stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study evaluated the neuro-protective role of fermented Ginkgo biloba (FGb) leaf extract, compared to non-fermented G. biloba (Gb) leaf extract against γ-irradiation (6Gy) in the rats' brain. The changes of the Gb phytochemical constituents after fermentation, using Aspergillus niger were evaluated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The results showed a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and elevation of the calcium level in the brain cytosolic fraction of γ-irradiated rats. Further, significant increases in the malondialdehyde (MDA), the stress hormones (catecholamines); epinephrine (EN), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels and the interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene expression relative ratio in parallel with a significant decrease in the glutathione (GSH) content and DNA fragmentation in the brain tissues of the γ-irradiated rats were observed. The pre-treatment with Gb extract significantly amended these biochemical parameters. Meanwhile, the pre-treatment with the FGb showed more improvement, compared to Gb, of these biochemical parameters in the brain of γ-irradiated rats, which could be attributed to the enhancement of its antioxidant activity after fermentation. These findings suggested that fermentation enhances the protective effect of Gb in the brain on the neuroinflammation, release of the stress hormones, apoptosis and oxidative damage induced by γ-irradiation. fermentation improved the bio-activities of Gb leaf extract and thus enhanced the in-vivo antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities, leading to

  8. Exposure of rat brain to 915 MHz GSM microwaves induces changes in gene expression but not double stranded DNA breaks or effects on chromatin conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Igor Y; Koch, Catrin Bauréus; Terenius, Olle; Roxström-Lindquist, Katarina; Malmgren, Lars O G; H Sommer, Wolfgang; Salford, Leif G; Persson, Bertil R R

    2006-05-01

    We investigated whether exposure of rat brain to microwaves (MWs) of global system for mobile communication (GSM) induces DNA breaks, changes in chromatin conformation and in gene expression. An exposure installation was used based on a test mobile phone employing a GSM signal at 915 MHz, all standard modulations included, output power level in pulses 2 W, specific absorption rate (SAR) 0.4 mW/g. Rats were exposed or sham exposed to MWs during 2 h. After exposure, cell suspensions were prepared from brain samples, as well as from spleen and thymus. For analysis of gene expression patterns, total RNA was extracted from cerebellum. Changes in chromatin conformation, which are indicative of stress response and genotoxic effects, were measured by the method of anomalous viscosity time dependencies (AVTD). DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Effects of MW exposure were observed on neither conformation of chromatin nor DNA DSBs. Gene expression profiles were obtained by Affymetrix U34 GeneChips representing 8800 rat genes and analyzed with the Affymetrix Microarray Suite (MAS) 5.0 software. In cerebellum from all exposed animals, 11 genes were upregulated in a range of 1.34-2.74 fold and one gene was downregulated 0.48-fold (P detectable DNA double stranded breaks or changes in chromatin conformation, but affected expression of genes in rat brain cells. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization to define abutting and overlapping gene expression in the embryonic zebrafish brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauptmann Giselbert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, mapping of overlapping and abutting regulatory gene expression domains by chromogenic two-color in situ hybridization has helped define molecular subdivisions of the developing vertebrate brain and shed light on its basic organization. Despite the benefits of this technique, visualization of overlapping transcript distributions by differently colored precipitates remains difficult because of masking of lighter signals by darker color precipitates and lack of three-dimensional visualization properties. Fluorescent detection of transcript distributions may be able to solve these issues. However, despite the use of signal amplification systems for increasing sensitivity, fluorescent detection in whole-mounts suffers from rapid quenching of peroxidase (POD activity compared to alkaline phosphatase chromogenic reactions. Thus, less strongly expressed genes cannot be efficiently detected. Results We developed an optimized procedure for fluorescent detection of transcript distribution in whole-mount zebrafish embryos using tyramide signal amplification (TSA. Conditions for hybridization and POD-TSA reaction were optimized by the application of the viscosity-increasing polymer dextran sulfate and the use of the substituted phenol compounds 4-iodophenol and vanillin as enhancers of POD activity. In combination with highly effective bench-made tyramide substrates, these improvements resulted in dramatically increased signal-to-noise ratios. The strongly enhanced signal intensities permitted fluorescent visualization of less abundant transcripts of tissue-specific regulatory genes. When performing multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH experiments, the highly sensitive POD reaction conditions required effective POD inactivation after each detection cycle by glycine-hydrochloric acid treatment. This optimized FISH procedure permitted the simultaneous fluorescent visualization of up to three unique transcripts

  10. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis genes, CLN2, CLN3 and CLN5 are spatially and temporally co-expressed in a developing mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabritius, A-L; Vesa, J; Minye, H M; Nakano, I; Kornblum, H; Peltonen, L

    2014-12-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) diseases consist of a group of genetically inherited neurodegenerative disorders that share common symptoms such as seizures, psychomotor retardation, blindness, and premature death. Although gene defects behind the NCL diseases are well characterized, very little is known how these defects affect normal development of the brain and cause the pathology of the disease. To obtain understanding of the development of the cell types that are mostly affected by defective function of CLN proteins, timing of expression of CLN2, CLN3 and CLN5 genes was investigated in developing mouse brain. The relationship between the expression pattern and the developmental stage of the brain showed that these genes are co-expressed spatially and temporally during brain development. Throughout the development strong expression of the three mRNAs was detected in germinal epithelium and in ventricle regions, hippocampus and cerebellum, all representing regions that are known to be associated with the formation of new neurons. More specifically, RT-PCR studies on developing mouse cortices revealed that the CLN genes were temporally co-expressed in the neural progenitor cells together with known stem cell markers. This suggested that CLN2, CLN3 and CLN5 genes may play an important role in early embryonal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression, Covariation, and Genetic Regulation of miRNA Biogenesis Genes in Brain Supports their Role in Addiction, Psychiatric Disorders, and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Kathleen Mulligan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of miRNA and miRNA biogenesis genes in the adult brain is just beginning to be explored. In this study we have performed a comprehensive analysis of the expression, genetic regulation, and co-expression of major components of the miRNA biogenesis pathway using human and mouse data sets and resources available on the GeneNetwork web site (genenetwork.org. We found a wide range of variation in expression in both species for key components of the pathway—Drosha, Pasha, and Dicer. Across species, tissues, and expression platforms all three genes are generally well correlated. No single genetic locus exerts a strong and consistent influence on the expression of these key genes across murine brain regions. However, in mouse striatum, many members of the miRNA pathway are correlated—including Dicer, Drosha, Pasha, Ars2 (Srrt, Eif2c1 (Ago1, Eif2c2 (Ago2, Zcchc11, and Snip1. The expression of these genes may be partly influenced by a locus on Chromosome 9 (105.67 to 106.32 Mb. We explored ~1500 brain phenotypes available for the C57BL/6J x DBA/2J (BXD genetic mouse population in order to identify miRNA biogenesis genes correlated with traits related to addiction and psychiatric disorders. We found a significant association between expression of Dicer and Drosha in several brain regions and the response to many drugs of abuse, including ethanol, cocaine, and methamphetamine. Expression of Dicer, Drosha, and Pasha in most of the brain regions explored is strongly correlated with the expression of key members of the dopamine system. Drosha, Pasha, and Dicer expression is also correlated with the expression of behavioral traits measuring depression and sensorimotor gating, impulsivity, and anxiety, respectively. Our study provides a global survey of the expression and regulation of key miRNA biogenesis genes in brain and provides preliminary support for the involvement of these genes and their product miRNAs in addiction and psychiatric disease

  12. Different alcohol exposures induce selective alterations on the expression of dynorphin and nociceptin systems related genes in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Claudio; Caputi, Francesca F; Rimondini, Roberto; Gandolfi, Ottavio; Del Borrello, Elia; Candeletti, Sanzio; Romualdi, Patrizia

    2013-05-01

    Molecular mechanisms of adaptive transformations caused by alcohol exposure on opioid dynorphin and nociceptin systems have been investigated in the rat brain. Alcohol was intragastrically administered to rats to resemble human drinking with several hours of exposure: water or alcohol (20% in water) at a dose of 1.5 g/kg three times daily for 1 or 5 days. The development of tolerance and dependence were recorded daily. Brains were dissected 30 minutes (1- and 5-day groups) or 1, 3 or 7 days after the last administration for the three other 5-day groups (groups under withdrawal). Specific alterations in opioid genes expression were ascertained. In the amygdala, an up-regulation of prodynorphin and pronociceptin was observed in the 1-day group; moreover, pronociceptin and the kappa opioid receptor mRNAs in the 5-day group and both peptide precursors in the 1-day withdrawal group were also up-regulated. In the prefrontal cortex, an increase in prodynorhin expression in the 1-day group was detected. These data indicate a relevant role of the dynorphinergic system in the negative hedonic states associated with multiple alcohol exposure. The pattern of alterations observed for the nociceptin system appears to be consistent with its role of functional antagonism towards the actions of ethanol associated with other opioid peptides. Our findings could help to the understanding of how alcohol differentially affects the opioid systems in the brain and also suggest the dynorphin and nociceptin systems as possible targets for the treatment and/or prevention of alcohol dependence. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Gene expression and immunohistochemical analyses of mKast suggest its late pupal and adult-specific functions in the honeybee brain.

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    Atsuhiro Yamane

    Full Text Available In insect brains, the mushroom bodies (MBs, a higher center comprise intrinsic neurons, termed Kenyon cells (KCs. We previously showed that the honeybee (Apis mellifera L. MBs comprise four types of KCs, in addition to the previously known three types of KCs: class I large-type KCs (lKCs, class I small-type KCs (sKCs and class II KCs, novel class I 'middle-type' KCs (mKCs, which are characterized by the preferential expression of a gene, termed mKast. Although mKast was originally discovered during the search for genes whose expression is enriched in the optic lobes (OLs in the worker brain, subsequent analysis revealed that the gene is expressed in an mKC-preferential manner in the MBs. To gain more insights into the function of mKast in the honeybee brain, we here performed expression analysis of mKast and immunohistochemistry of the mKast protein. Prominent mKast expression was first detected in the brain after the P7 pupal stage. In addition, mKast was expressed almost selectively in the brain, suggesting its late pupal and adult specific functions in the brain. Immunohistochemistry revealed that mKast-like immunoreactivity is detected in several regions in the worker brain: inside and around the MB calyces, at the outer edges of the OL lobula, at the outer surface of and posterior to the antennal lobes (ALs, along the dorsal midline of the anterior brain and at the outer surface of the subesophageal ganglions (SOG. mKast-like immunoreactivities in the MBs, OLs, ALs and SOG were due to the corresponding neurons, while mKast-like immunoreactivities beneath/between the MB calyces were assumed to most likely correspond to the lateral/medial neurosecretory cells.

  14. Gene expression and immunohistochemical analyses of mKast suggest its late pupal and adult-specific functions in the honeybee brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Atsuhiro; Kohno, Hiroki; Ikeda, Tsubomi; Kaneko, Kumi; Ugajin, Atsushi; Fujita, Toshiyuki; Kunieda, Takekazu; Kubo, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    In insect brains, the mushroom bodies (MBs, a higher center) comprise intrinsic neurons, termed Kenyon cells (KCs). We previously showed that the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) MBs comprise four types of KCs, in addition to the previously known three types of KCs: class I large-type KCs (lKCs), class I small-type KCs (sKCs) and class II KCs, novel class I 'middle-type' KCs (mKCs), which are characterized by the preferential expression of a gene, termed mKast. Although mKast was originally discovered during the search for genes whose expression is enriched in the optic lobes (OLs) in the worker brain, subsequent analysis revealed that the gene is expressed in an mKC-preferential manner in the MBs. To gain more insights into the function of mKast in the honeybee brain, we here performed expression analysis of mKast and immunohistochemistry of the mKast protein. Prominent mKast expression was first detected in the brain after the P7 pupal stage. In addition, mKast was expressed almost selectively in the brain, suggesting its late pupal and adult specific functions in the brain. Immunohistochemistry revealed that mKast-like immunoreactivity is detected in several regions in the worker brain: inside and around the MB calyces, at the outer edges of the OL lobula, at the outer surface of and posterior to the antennal lobes (ALs), along the dorsal midline of the anterior brain and at the outer surface of the subesophageal ganglions (SOG). mKast-like immunoreactivities in the MBs, OLs, ALs and SOG were due to the corresponding neurons, while mKast-like immunoreactivities beneath/between the MB calyces were assumed to most likely correspond to the lateral/medial neurosecretory cells.

  15. Gene Expression in the Human Brain: The Current State of the Study of Specificity and Spatiotemporal Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Oksana Yu.; Lee, Maria; Rychkov, Sergei Yu.; Vlasova, Natalia V.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression is one of the main molecular processes regulating the differentiation, development, and functioning of cells and tissues. In this review a handful of relevant terms and concepts are introduced and the most common techniques used in studies of gene expression/expression profiling (also referred to as studies of the transcriptome or…

  16. Genome-wide analysis of brain and gonad transcripts reveals changes of key sex reversal-related genes expression and signaling pathways in three stages of Monopterus albus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chi

    Full Text Available The natural sex reversal severely affects the sex ratio and thus decreases the productivity of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus. How to understand and manipulate this process is one of the major issues for the rice field eel stocking. So far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. Here we provide a comprehensive study of transcriptomes of brain and gonad tissue in three sex stages (female, intersex and male from the rice field eel to investigate changes in transcriptional level during the sex reversal process.Approximately 195 thousand unigenes were generated and over 44.4 thousand were functionally annotated. Comparative study between stages provided multiple differentially expressed genes in brain and gonad tissue. Overall 4668 genes were found to be of unequal abundance between gonad tissues, far more than that of the brain tissues (59 genes. These genes were enriched in several different signaling pathways. A number of 231 genes were found with different levels in gonad in each stage, with several reproduction-related genes included. A total of 19 candidate genes that could be most related to sex reversal were screened out, part of these genes' expression patterns were validated by RT-qPCR. The expression of spef2, maats1, spag6 and dmc1 were abundant in testis, but was barely detected in females, while the 17β-hsd12, zpsbp3, gal3 and foxn5 were only expressed in ovary.This study investigated the complexity of brain and gonad transcriptomes in three sex stages of the rice field eel. Integrated analysis of different gene expression and changes in signaling pathways, such as PI3K-Akt pathway, provided crucial data for further study of sex transformation mechanisms.

  17. Genome-wide analysis of brain and gonad transcripts reveals changes of key sex reversal-related genes expression and signaling pathways in three stages of Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Wei; Gao, Yu; Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Li, Dapeng

    2017-01-01

    The natural sex reversal severely affects the sex ratio and thus decreases the productivity of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus). How to understand and manipulate this process is one of the major issues for the rice field eel stocking. So far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. Here we provide a comprehensive study of transcriptomes of brain and gonad tissue in three sex stages (female, intersex and male) from the rice field eel to investigate changes in transcriptional level during the sex reversal process. Approximately 195 thousand unigenes were generated and over 44.4 thousand were functionally annotated. Comparative study between stages provided multiple differentially expressed genes in brain and gonad tissue. Overall 4668 genes were found to be of unequal abundance between gonad tissues, far more than that of the brain tissues (59 genes). These genes were enriched in several different signaling pathways. A number of 231 genes were found with different levels in gonad in each stage, with several reproduction-related genes included. A total of 19 candidate genes that could be most related to sex reversal were screened out, part of these genes' expression patterns were validated by RT-qPCR. The expression of spef2, maats1, spag6 and dmc1 were abundant in testis, but was barely detected in females, while the 17β-hsd12, zpsbp3, gal3 and foxn5 were only expressed in ovary. This study investigated the complexity of brain and gonad transcriptomes in three sex stages of the rice field eel. Integrated analysis of different gene expression and changes in signaling pathways, such as PI3K-Akt pathway, provided crucial data for further study of sex transformation mechanisms.

  18. Effect of vitamin E on cerebral cortical oxidative stress and brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression induced by hypoxia and exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, H F; Abbas, A M; El Samanoudy, A Z

    2015-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the proliferation of neurons, and its expression increases significantly with exercise. We aimed to investigate the effects of chronic exercise (swimming) and sustained hypoxia on cortical BDNF expression in both the presence and absence of vitamin E. Sixty four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two equal groups; a normoxic group and a hypoxic group. Both groups were equally subdivided into four subgroups: sedentary, sedentary with vitamin E, chronic exercise either with or without vitamin E supplementation. Arterial PO(2), and the levels of cortical malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidants (reduced glutathione GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and vitamin E) and BDNF gene expression were investigated. Hypoxia significantly increased MDA production and BDNF gene expression and decreased the antioxidants compared to control rats. Chronic exercise in hypoxic and normoxic rats increased MDA level and BDNF gene expression and decreased the antioxidants. Providing vitamin E supplementation to the hypoxic and normoxic rats significantly reduced MDA and BDNF gene expression and increased antioxidants. We conclude that sustained hypoxia and chronic exercise increased BDNF gene expression and induced oxidative stress. Moreover, vitamin E attenuated the oxidative stress and decreased BDNF gene expression in sustained hypoxia and chronic exercise which confirms the oxidative stress-induced stimulation of BDNF gene expression.

  19. Effects of different endocrine disruptor (EDC) mixtures on gene expression in neonatal rat brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtensteiger, Walter; Bassetti-Gaille, Catherine; Faass, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Sexual brain differentiation is a potential EDC target. It depends on a combination of estrogen receptor- and androgen receptor-mediated effects in males and on estrogens in females. It is not known how these processes are affected by real-world mixtures of EDCs. We investigated the effect of thr...

  20. Age-dependent brain gene expression and copy number anomalies in autism suggest distinct pathological processes at young versus mature ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie L Chow

    Full Text Available Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disorder are largely unknown. Aberrant brain overgrowth is a well-replicated observation in the autism literature; but association, linkage, and expression studies have not identified genetic factors that explain this trajectory. Few studies have had sufficient statistical power to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotypic variation in the autistic brain, especially in regions that display the greatest growth abnormality. Previous functional genomic studies have identified possible alterations in transcript levels of genes related to neurodevelopment and immune function. Thus, there is a need for genetic studies involving key brain regions to replicate these findings and solidify the role of particular functional pathways in autism pathogenesis. We therefore sought to identify abnormal brain gene expression patterns via whole-genome analysis of mRNA levels and copy number variations (CNVs in autistic and control postmortem brain samples. We focused on prefrontal cortex tissue where excess neuron numbers and cortical overgrowth are pronounced in the majority of autism cases. We found evidence for dysregulation in pathways governing cell number, cortical patterning, and differentiation in young autistic prefrontal cortex. In contrast, adult autistic prefrontal cortex showed dysregulation of signaling and repair pathways. Genes regulating cell cycle also exhibited autism-specific CNVs in DNA derived from prefrontal cortex, and these genes were significantly associated with autism in genome-wide association study datasets. Our results suggest that CNVs and age-dependent gene expression changes in autism may reflect distinct pathological processes in the developing versus the mature autistic prefrontal cortex. Our results raise the hypothesis that genetic dysregulation in the developing brain leads to abnormal regional patterning, excess

  1. Age-dependent brain gene expression and copy number anomalies in autism suggest distinct pathological processes at young versus mature ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maggie L; Pramparo, Tiziano; Winn, Mary E; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Li, Hai-Ri; Weiss, Lauren; Fan, Jian-Bing; Murray, Sarah; April, Craig; Belinson, Haim; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Schork, Nicholas J; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disorder are largely unknown. Aberrant brain overgrowth is a well-replicated observation in the autism literature; but association, linkage, and expression studies have not identified genetic factors that explain this trajectory. Few studies have had sufficient statistical power to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotypic variation in the autistic brain, especially in regions that display the greatest growth abnormality. Previous functional genomic studies have identified possible alterations in transcript levels of genes related to neurodevelopment and immune function. Thus, there is a need for genetic studies involving key brain regions to replicate these findings and solidify the role of particular functional pathways in autism pathogenesis. We therefore sought to identify abnormal brain gene expression patterns via whole-genome analysis of mRNA levels and copy number variations (CNVs) in autistic and control postmortem brain samples. We focused on prefrontal cortex tissue where excess neuron numbers and cortical overgrowth are pronounced in the majority of autism cases. We found evidence for dysregulation in pathways governing cell number, cortical patterning, and differentiation in young autistic prefrontal cortex. In contrast, adult autistic prefrontal cortex showed dysregulation of signaling and repair pathways. Genes regulating cell cycle also exhibited autism-specific CNVs in DNA derived from prefrontal cortex, and these genes were significantly associated with autism in genome-wide association study datasets. Our results suggest that CNVs and age-dependent gene expression changes in autism may reflect distinct pathological processes in the developing versus the mature autistic prefrontal cortex. Our results raise the hypothesis that genetic dysregulation in the developing brain leads to abnormal regional patterning, excess prefrontal neurons

  2. Effect of microgravity on glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor gene expression in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsybko, A S; Ilchibaeva, T V; Kulikov, A V; Kulikova, E A; Krasnov, I B; Sychev, V N; Shenkman, B S; Popova, N K; Naumenko, V S

    2015-09-01

    Mice were exposed to 1 month of space flight on the Russian biosatellite BION-M1 to determine its effect on the expression of genes involved in the maintenance of the mouse brain dopamine system. The current article focuses on the genes encoding glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF). Space flight reduced expression of the GDNF gene in the striatum and hypothalamus but increased it in the frontal cortex and raphe nuclei area. At the same time, actual space flight reduced expression of the gene encoding CDNF in the substantia nigra but increased it in the raphe nuclei area. To separate the effects of space flight from environmental stress contribution, we analyzed expression of the investigated genes in mice housed for 1 month on Earth in the same shuttle cabins that were used for space flight and in mice of the vivarium control group. Shuttle cabin housing failed to alter the expression of the GDNF and CDNF genes in the brain structures investigated. Thus, actual long-term space flight produced dysregulation in genetic control of GDNF and CDNF genes. These changes may be related to downregulation of the dopamine system after space flight, which we have shown earlier. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Our results provide the first evidence of microgravity effects on expression of the GDNF and CDNF neurotrophic factor genes. A considerable decrease in mRNA level of GDNF and CDNF in the nigrostriatal dopamine system was found. Because both GDNF and CDNF play a significant role in maintenance and survival of brain dopaminergic neurons, we can assume that this dysregulation in genetic control of GDNF and CDNF genes in substantia nigra could be among the reasons for the deleterious effects of space flight on the dopamine system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Supplementary Material for: Methamphetamine abuse affects gene expression in brain-derived microglia of SIV-infected macaques to enhance inflammation and promote virus targets

    KAUST Repository

    Najera, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse is a major health problem linked to the aggravation of HIV- associated complications, especially within the Central Nervous System (CNS). Within the CNS, Meth has the ability to modify the activity/function of innate immune cells and increase brain viral loads. Here, we examined changes in the gene expression profile of neuron-free microglial cell preparations isolated from the brain of macaques infected with the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), a model of neuroAIDS, and exposed to Meth. We aimed to identify molecular patterns triggered by Meth that could explain the detection of higher brain viral loads and the development of a pro-inflammatory CNS environment in the brain of infected drug abusers. Results We found that Meth alone has a strong effect on the transcription of genes associated with immune pathways, particularly inflammation and chemotaxis. Systems analysis led to a strong correlation between Meth exposure and enhancement of molecules associated with chemokines and chemokine receptors, especially CXCR4 and CCR5, which function as co-receptors for viral entry. The increase in CCR5 expression was confirmed in the brain in correlation with increased brain viral load. Conclusions Meth enhances the availability of CCR5-expressing cells for SIV in the brain, in correlation with increased viral load. This suggests that Meth is an important factor in the susceptibility to the infection and to the aggravated CNS inflammatory pathology associated with SIV in macaques and HIV in humans.

  4. Methamphetamine abuse affects gene expression in brain-derived microglia of SIV-infected macaques to enhance inflammation and promote virus targets

    KAUST Repository

    Najera, Julia A.

    2016-04-23

    Background Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse is a major health problem linked to the aggravation of HIV- associated complications, especially within the Central Nervous System (CNS). Within the CNS, Meth has the ability to modify the activity/function of innate immune cells and increase brain viral loads. Here, we examined changes in the gene expression profile of neuron-free microglial cell preparations isolated from the brain of macaques infected with the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), a model of neuroAIDS, and exposed to Meth. We aimed to identify molecular patterns triggered by Meth that could explain the detection of higher brain viral loads and the development of a pro-inflammatory CNS environment in the brain of infected drug abusers. Results We found that Meth alone has a strong effect on the transcription of genes associated with immune pathways, particularly inflammation and chemotaxis. Systems analysis led to a strong correlation between Meth exposure and enhancement of molecules associated with chemokines and chemokine receptors, especially CXCR4 and CCR5, which function as co-receptors for viral entry. The increase in CCR5 expression was confirmed in the brain in correlation with increased brain viral load. Conclusions Meth enhances the availability of CCR5-expressing cells for SIV in the brain, in correlation with increased viral load. This suggests that Meth is an important factor in the susceptibility to the infection and to the aggravated CNS inflammatory pathology associated with SIV in macaques and HIV in humans.

  5. Methamphetamine abuse affects gene expression in brain-derived microglia of SIV-infected macaques to enhance inflammation and promote virus targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najera, Julia A; Bustamante, Eduardo A; Bortell, Nikki; Morsey, Brenda; Fox, Howard S; Ravasi, Timothy; Marcondes, Maria Cecilia Garibaldi

    2016-04-23

    Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse is a major health problem linked to the aggravation of HIV- associated complications, especially within the Central Nervous System (CNS). Within the CNS, Meth has the ability to modify the activity/function of innate immune cells and increase brain viral loads. Here, we examined changes in the gene expression profile of neuron-free microglial cell preparations isolated from the brain of macaques infected with the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), a model of neuroAIDS, and exposed to Meth. We aimed to identify molecular patterns triggered by Meth that could explain the detection of higher brain viral loads and the development of a pro-inflammatory CNS environment in the brain of infected drug abusers. We found that Meth alone has a strong effect on the transcription of genes associated with immune pathways, particularly inflammation and chemotaxis. Systems analysis led to a strong correlation between Meth exposure and enhancement of molecules associated with chemokines and chemokine receptors, especially CXCR4 and CCR5, which function as co-receptors for viral entry. The increase in CCR5 expression was confirmed in the brain in correlation with increased brain viral load. Meth enhances the availability of CCR5-expressing cells for SIV in the brain, in correlation with increased viral load. This suggests that Meth is an important factor in the susceptibility to the infection and to the aggravated CNS inflammatory pathology associated with SIV in macaques and HIV in humans.

  6. Alterations in mRNA 3' UTR Isoform Abundance Accompany Gene Expression Changes in Human Huntington's Disease Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Lindsay; Ashar-Patel, Ami; Pfister, Edith; Aronin, Neil

    2017-09-26

    The huntingtin gene has two mRNA isoforms that differ in their 3' UTR length. The relationship of these isoforms with Huntington's disease is not established. We provide evidence that the abundance of huntingtin 3' UTR isoforms differs between patient and control neural stem cells, fibroblasts, motor cortex, and cerebellum. Huntingtin 3' UTR isoforms, including a mid-3' UTR isoform, have different localizations, half-lives, polyA tail lengths, microRNA sites, and RNA-binding protein sites. Isoform shifts in Huntington's disease motor cortex are not limited to huntingtin; 11% of alternatively polyadenylated genes change the abundance of their 3' UTR isoforms. Altered expression of RNA-binding proteins may be associated with aberrant isoform abundance; knockdown of the RNA-binding protein CNOT6 in control fibroblasts leads to huntingtin isoform differences similar to those in disease fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate that mRNA 3' UTR isoform changes are a feature of molecular pathology in the Huntington's disease brain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gene expression reversal toward pre-adult levels in the aging human brain and age-related loss of cellular identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönertaş, Handan Melike; İzgi, Hamit; Kamacıoğlu, Altuğ; He, Zhisong; Khaitovich, Philipp; Somel, Mehmet

    2017-07-19

    It was previously reported that mRNA expression levels in the prefrontal cortex at old age start to resemble pre-adult levels. Such expression reversals could imply loss of cellular identity in the aging brain, and provide a link between aging-related molecular changes and functional decline. Here we analyzed 19 brain transcriptome age-series datasets, comprising 17 diverse brain regions, to investigate the ubiquity and functional properties of expression reversal in the human brain. Across all 19 datasets, 25 genes were consistently up-regulated during postnatal development and down-regulated in aging, displaying an "up-down" pattern that was significant as determined by random permutations. In addition, 113 biological processes, including neuronal and synaptic functions, were consistently associated with genes showing an up-down tendency among all datasets. Genes up-regulated during in vitro neuronal differentiation also displayed a tendency for up-down reversal, although at levels comparable to other genes. We argue that reversals may not represent aging-related neuronal loss. Instead, expression reversals may be associated with aging-related accumulation of stochastic effects that lead to loss of functional and structural identity in neurons.

  8. gene structure, gene expression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Primer 5.0 software. To adjust for RNA quality and diffe- rences in cDNA concentration, we amplified actin as an internal control with the following primers: PtActin-F (5′-TG. AAGGAGAAACTTGCGTAT-3′) and PtActin-R (5′-GCA. CAATGTTACCGTACAGAT-3′). These genes were ampli- fied from first-strand cDNA using ...

  9. Changes of gene expression in developing mouse brain after exposures to x-rays, in comparison with exposures to accelerated heavy ion particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine, Dept. of Pathology and Applied Neurobiology, Kyoto (Japan); Nojima, Kumie [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, International Space Radiation Lab., Anagawa, Chiba (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation of low doses in rodents impedes neuronal migration during the period of cortical histogenesis, and results in disorganized cortical architecture in mature brain. On the contrary, exposure to heavy ion beams during fetal period mainly affects cell survival, viz., induction of apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying to produce such difference in the effects between exposure to heavy particles and exposure to X-rays remain unknown. We have attempted to elucidate whether the changes of gene expression after exposure to heavy ions differ from those after X-irradiation in fetal brains. We thus applied two molecular biological techniques, i.e., the Restriction Landmark cDNA Scanning (RLCS) method and the suppression subtractive PCR method. Approximately 13,000 cDNA species were scanned and it turned out that more than twenty genes among the genes scanned were differentially expressed between X-irradiated embryos and non-irradiated ones. One of the genes showing up-regulation is Rab6A that is known to be associated with vesicle transport from trans-Golgi network. In addition, expression of some genes encoding RAB6A-interacting proteins was up-regulated. When expression of these genes was compared between animals after heavy-ion irradiation and those after X-irradiation, the changing pattern was different. Taking our previous observation that prenatal exposure to carbon particles induces apoptotic cell death in developing cerebral cortex into consideration, the difference in gene expression herein reported may contribute to better understand the difference in effects between exposures to heavy-ion particles and to X-rays. In conclusion, we identified Rab6A and its interacting proteins as candidates for the migration-associated genes, whose expression in fetal brain is up-regulated by carbon beam irradiation. (author)

  10. A systematic integrated analysis of brain expression profiles reveals YAP1 and other prioritized hub genes as important upstream regulators in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Luo, Rongcan; Wu, Yong; Zhou, Hejiang; Kong, Li-Li; Bi, Rui; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2018-02-01

    Profiling the spatial-temporal expression pattern and characterizing the regulatory networks of brain tissues are vital for understanding the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We performed a systematic integrated analysis of expression profiles of AD-affected brain tissues (684 AD and 562 controls). A network-based convergent functional genomic approach was used to prioritize possible regulator genes during AD development, followed by functional characterization. We generated a complete list of differentially expressed genes and hub genes of the transcriptomic network in AD brain and constructed a Web server (www.alzdata.org) for public access. Seventeen hub genes active at the early stages, especially YAP1, were recognized as upstream regulators of the AD network. Cellular assays proved that early alteration of YAP1 could promote AD by influencing the whole transcriptional network. Early expression disturbance of hub genes is an important feature of AD development, and interfering with this process may reverse the disease progression. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemotherapy modulates intestinal immune gene expression including surfactant Protein-D and deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Thomassen, Mads; Shen, René L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Information about chemotherapy-induced intestinal gene expression may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying gut toxicity and help identify biomarkers and targets for intervention. Methods: We analyzed jejunal tissue from piglets subjected to two different, clinically relevant...... the upregulated genes for both treatments. Conclusion: In the developing intestine, chemotherapy increases the expression of genes related to innate immune functions involved in surveillance, protection, and homeostasis of mucosal surfaces....

  12. Temporal Changes in Cortical and Hippocampal Expression of Genes Important for Brain Glucose Metabolism Following Controlled Cortical Impact Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI causes transient increases and subsequent decreases in brain glucose utilization. The underlying molecular pathways are orchestrated processes and poorly understood. In the current study, we determined temporal changes in cortical and hippocampal expression of genes important for brain glucose/lactate metabolism and the effect of a known neuroprotective drug telmisartan on the expression of these genes after experimental TBI. Adult male C57BL/6J mice (n = 6/group underwent sham or unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI injury. Their ipsilateral and contralateral cortex and hippocampus were collected 6 h, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury. Expressions of several genes important for brain glucose utilization were determined by qRT-PCR. In results, (1 mRNA levels of three key enzymes in glucose metabolism [hexo kinase (HK 1, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH] were all increased 6 h after injury in the contralateral cortex, followed by decreases at subsequent times in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus; (2 capillary glucose transporter Glut-1 mRNA increased, while neuronal glucose transporter Glut-3 mRNA decreased, at various times in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus; (3 astrocyte lactate transporter MCT-1 mRNA increased, whereas neuronal lactate transporter MCT-2 mRNA decreased in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus; (4 HK2 (an isoform of hexokinase expression increased at all time points in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus. GPR81 (lactate receptor mRNA increased at various time points in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus. These temporal alterations in gene expression corresponded closely to the patterns of impaired brain glucose utilization reported in both TBI patients and experimental TBI rodents. The observed changes in hippocampal gene expression were delayed and prolonged, when compared with those in the cortex. The patterns of alterations were specific

  13. Theobromine-Induced Changes in A1 Purinergic Receptor Gene Expression and Distribution in a Rat Brain Alzheimer's Disease Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiola-Precoma, Jesus; Padilla, Karla; Rodríguez-Cruz, Alfredo; Berumen, Laura C; Miledi, Ricardo; García-Alcocer, Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    Dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD) is mainly characterized by accumulation in the brain of extra- and intraneuronal amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau proteins, respectively, which selectively affect specific regions, particularly the neocortex and the hippocampus. Sporadic AD is mainly caused by an increase in apolipoprotein E, a component of chylomicrons, which are cholesterol transporters in the brain. Recent studies have shown that high lipid levels, especially cholesterol, are linked to AD. Adenosine is an atypical neurotransmitter that regulates a wide range of physiological functions by activating four P1 receptors (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3) and P2 purinergic receptors that are G protein-coupled. A1 receptors are involved in the inhibition of neurotransmitter release, which could be related to AD. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of a lard-enriched diet (LED) on cognitive and memory processes in adult rats (6 months of age) as well as the effect of theobromine on these processes. The results indicated that the fat-enriched diet resulted in a long-term deterioration in cognitive and memory functions. Increased levels of Aβ protein and IL-1β were also observed in the rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet, which were used to validate the AD animal model. In addition, the results of qPCR and immunohistochemistry indicated a decrease in gene expression and distribution of A1 purinegic receptor, respectively, in the hippocampus of LED-fed rats. Interestingly, theobromine, at both concentrations tested, restored A1 receptor levels and improved cognitive functions and Aβ levels for a dose of 30 mg/L drinking water.

  14. Comparing the Expression of Genes Related to Serotonin (5-HT in C57BL/6J Mice and Humans Based on Data Available at the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas and Allen Human Brain Atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Acevedo-Triana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain atlases are tools based on comprehensive studies used to locate biological characteristics (structures, connections, proteins, and gene expression in different regions of the brain. These atlases have been disseminated to the point where tools have been created to store, manage, and share the information they contain. This study used the data published by the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas (2004 for mice (C57BL/6J and Allen Human Brain Atlas (2010 for humans (6 donors to compare the expression of serotonin-related genes. Genes of interest were searched for manually in each case (in situ hybridization for mice and microarrays for humans, normalized expression data (z-scores were extracted, and the results were graphed. Despite the differences in methodology, quantification, and subjects used in the process, a high degree of similarity was found between expression data. Here we compare expression in a way that allows the use of translational research methods to infer and validate knowledge. This type of study allows part of the relationship between structures and functions to be identified, by examining expression patterns and comparing levels of expression in different states, anatomical correlations, and phenotypes between different species. The study concludes by discussing the importance of knowing, managing, and disseminating comprehensive, open-access studies in neuroscience.

  15. Helicobacter pylori Infection Induces Anemia, Depletes Serum Iron Storage, and Alters Local Iron-Related and Adult Brain Gene Expression in Male INS-GAS Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Monika; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Ge, Zhongming; Wang, Timothy C; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Cunningham, Catriona; Ennis, Kathleen; Georgieff, Michael; Fox, James G

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) affects > 500 million people worldwide, and is linked to impaired cognitive development and function in children. Helicobacter pylori, a class 1 carcinogen, infects about half of the world's population, thus creating a high likelihood of overlapping risk. This study determined the effect of H. pylori infection on iron homeostasis in INS-GAS mice. Two replicates of INS-GAS/FVB male mice (n = 9-12/group) were dosed with H. pylori (Hp) strain SS1 or sham dosed at 6-9 weeks of age, and were necropsied at 27-29 weeks of age. Hematologic and serum iron parameters were evaluated, as was gene expression in gastric and brain tissues. Serum ferritin was lower in Hp SS1-infected mice than uninfected mice (p brain expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) (p = 0.02). Expression of iron-responsive genes involved in myelination (myelin basic protein (Mbp) and proteolipid protein 2 (Plp2)) was downregulated in infected mice (p = 0.001 and p = 0.02). Expression of synaptic plasticity markers (brain derived neurotrophic factor 3 (Bdnf3), Psd95 (a membrane associated guanylate kinase), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1)) was also downregulated in Hp SS1-infected mice (p = 0.09, p = 0.04, p = 0.02 respectively). Infection of male INS-GAS mice with Hp SS1, without concurrent dietary iron deficiency, depleted serum ferritin, deregulated gastric and hepatic expression of iron regulatory genes, and altered iron-dependent neural processes. The use of Hp SS1-infected INS-GAS mice will be an appropriate animal model for further study of the effects of concurrent H. pylori infection and anemia on iron homeostasis and adult iron-dependent brain gene expression.

  16. Linking melanism to brain development: expression of a melanism-related gene in barn owl feather follicles covaries with sleep ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, Madeleine F; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Henry, Isabelle; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Rattenborg, Niels C; Roulin, Alexandre

    2013-07-26

    Intra-specific variation in melanocyte pigmentation, common in the animal kingdom, has caught the eye of naturalists and biologists for centuries. In vertebrates, dark, eumelanin pigmentation is often genetically determined and associated with various behavioral and physiological traits, suggesting that the genes involved in melanism have far reaching pleiotropic effects. The mechanisms linking these traits remain poorly understood, and the potential involvement of developmental processes occurring in the brain early in life has not been investigated. We examined the ontogeny of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, a state involved in brain development, in a wild population of barn owls (Tyto alba) exhibiting inter-individual variation in melanism and covarying traits. In addition to sleep, we measured melanistic feather spots and the expression of a gene in the feather follicles implicated in melanism (PCSK2). As in mammals, REM sleep declined with age across a period of brain development in owlets. In addition, inter-individual variation in REM sleep around this developmental trajectory was predicted by variation in PCSK2 expression in the feather follicles, with individuals expressing higher levels exhibiting a more precocial pattern characterized by less REM sleep. Finally, PCSK2 expression was positively correlated with feather spotting. We demonstrate that the pace of brain development, as reflected in age-related changes in REM sleep, covaries with the peripheral activation of the melanocortin system. Given its role in brain development, variation in nestling REM sleep may lead to variation in adult brain organization, and thereby contribute to the behavioral and physiological differences observed between adults expressing different degrees of melanism.

  17. Mushroom Bodies of the Honeybee Brain Show Cell Population-Specific Plasticity in Expression of Amine-Receptor Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, H. James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine and octopamine released in the mushroom bodies of the insect brain play a critical role in the formation of aversive and appetitive memories, respectively. As recent evidence suggests a complex relationship between the effects of these two amines on the output of mushroom body circuits, we compared the expression of dopamine- and…

  18. Differential expression of splicing variants of the human caldesmon gene (CALD1) in glioma neovascularization versus normal brain microvasculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Zheng (Pingpin); A.M. Sieuwerts (Anieta); T.M. Luider (Theo); M.M. van der Weiden (Marcel); J.M. Kros (Johan); P.A.E. Sillevis Smitt (Peter)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractCaldesmon is a cytoskeleton-associated protein which has not yet been related to neoplastic angiogenesis. In this study we investigated the expression of the caldesmon gene (CALD1) splicing variants and the protein expression level in glioma microvessels versus normal

  19. Robust gene dysregulation in Alzheimer's disease brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xuemei; Bai, Zhouxian; Wang, Jiajia; Xie, Bin; Sun, Jiya; Han, Guangchun; Song, Fuhai; Crack, Peter J; Duan, Yong; Lei, Hongxing

    2014-01-01

    The brain transcriptome of Alzheimer's disease (AD) reflects the prevailing disease mechanism at the gene expression level. However, thousands of genes have been reported to be dysregulated in AD brains in existing studies, and the consistency or discrepancy among these studies has not been thoroughly examined. Toward this end, we conducted a comprehensive survey of the brain transcriptome datasets for AD and other neurological diseases. We first demonstrated that the frequency of observed dysregulation in AD was highly correlated with the reproducibility of the dysregulation. Based on this observation, we selected 100 genes with the highest frequency of dysregulation to illustrate the core perturbation in AD brains. The dysregulation of these genes was validated in several independent datasets for AD. We further identified 12 genes with strong correlation of gene expression with disease progression. The relevance of these genes to disease progression was also validated in an independent dataset. Interestingly, we found a transcriptional "cushion" for these 100 genes in the less vulnerable visual cortex region, which may be a critical component of the protection mechanism for less vulnerable brain regions. To facilitate the research in this field, we have provided the expression information of ~8000 relevant genes on a publicly accessible web server AlzBIG (http://alz.big.ac.cn).

  20. Sleep deprivation and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Souza, Annie; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occurs in a wide range of animal species as a vital process for the maintenance of homeostasis, metabolic restoration, physiological regulation, and adaptive cognitive functions in the central nervous system. Long-term perturbations induced by the lack of sleep are mostly mediated by changes at the level of transcription and translation. This chapter reviews studies in humans, rodents, and flies to address the various ways by which sleep deprivation affects gene expression in the nervous system, with a focus on genes related to neuronal plasticity, brain function, and cognition. However, the effects of sleep deprivation on gene expression and the functional consequences of sleep loss are clearly not restricted to the cognitive domain but may include increased inflammation, expression of stress-related genes, general impairment of protein translation, metabolic imbalance, and thermal deregulation.

  1. The brain-gut axis of fish: Rainbow trout with low and high cortisol response show innate differences in intestinal integrity and brain gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Malin; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Winberg, Svante; Sundell, Kristina

    2018-02-01

    In fish, the stress hormone cortisol is released through the action of the hypothalamic pituitary interrenal axis (HPI-axis). The reactivity of this axis differs between individuals and previous studies have linked this to different behavioural characteristics and stress coping styles. In the current study, low and high responding (LR and HR) rainbow trout in terms of cortisol release during stress were identified, using a repeated confinements stress test. The expression of stress related genes in the forebrain and the integrity of the stress sensitive primary barrier of the intestine was examined. The HR trout displayed higher expression levels of mineralocorticoid and serotonergic receptors and serotonergic re-uptake pumps in the telencephalon during both basal and stressed conditions. This confirms that HPI-axis reactivity is linked also to other neuronal behavioural modulators, as both the serotonergic and the corticoid system in the telencephalon are involved in behavioural reactivity and cognitive processes. Involvement of the HPI-axis in the brain-gut-axis was also found. LR trout displayed a lower integrity in the primary barrier of the intestine during basal conditions compared to the HR trout. However, following stress exposure, LR trout showed an unexpected increase in intestinal integrity whereas the HR trout instead suffered a reduction. This could make the LR individuals more susceptible to pathogens during basal conditions where instead HR individuals would be more vulnerable during stressed conditions. We hypothesize that these barrier differences are caused by regulation/effects on tight junction proteins possibly controlled by secondary effects of cortisol on the intestinal immune barrier or differences in parasympathetic reactivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Concomitant interferon alpha stimulation and TLR3 activation induces neuronal expression of depression-related genes that are elevated in the brain of suicidal persons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Hoyo-Becerra

    Full Text Available We have previously identified 15 genes that are associated with the development of severe depressive side effects during the standard therapy with interferon alpha and ribavirin in the peripheral blood of hepatitis C virus infected patients. An enhanced expression of these genes was also found in the blood of psychiatric patients suffering severe depressive episode. Herein, we demonstrate that the same depression-related interferon-inducible genes (DRIIs are also upregulated in post-mortem brains of suicidal individuals. Using cultured mouse hippocampal and prefrontal neurons we show that costimulation with murine IFN (mIFN and the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C promotes the expression of the described DRIIs, at the same time inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine expression through Stat1 and Stat3 activation, promoting neuronal apoptosis. Consequently, the upregulation of selective DRIIs, production of inflammatory cytokines and inhibition of neuronal plasticity may be involved in the pathogenesis of IFN-associated depression.

  3. Next-generation DNA sequencing-based assay for measuring allelic expression imbalance (AEI of candidate neuropsychiatric disorder genes in human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xiang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common genetic variants that regulate gene expression are widely suspected to contribute to the etiology and phenotypic variability of complex diseases. Although high-throughput, microarray-based assays have been developed to measure differences in mRNA expression among independent samples, these assays often lack the sensitivity to detect rare mRNAs and the reproducibility to quantify small changes in mRNA expression. By contrast, PCR-based allelic expression imbalance (AEI assays, which use a "marker" single nucleotide polymorphism (mSNP in the mRNA to distinguish expression from pairs of genetic alleles in individual samples, have high sensitivity and accuracy, allowing differences in mRNA expression greater than 1.2-fold to be quantified with high reproducibility. In this paper, we describe the use of an efficient PCR/next-generation DNA sequencing-based assay to analyze allele-specific differences in mRNA expression for candidate neuropsychiatric disorder genes in human brain. Results Using our assay, we successfully analyzed AEI for 70 candidate neuropsychiatric disorder genes in 52 independent human brain samples. Among these genes, 62/70 (89% showed AEI ratios greater than 1 ± 0.2 in at least one sample and 8/70 (11% showed no AEI. Arranging log2AEI ratios in increasing order from negative-to-positive values revealed highly reproducible distributions of log2AEI ratios that are distinct for each gene/marker SNP combination. Mathematical modeling suggests that these log2AEI distributions can provide important clues concerning the number, location and contributions of cis-acting regulatory variants to mRNA expression. Conclusions We have developed a highly sensitive and reproducible method for quantifying AEI of mRNA expressed in human brain. Importantly, this assay allowed quantification of differential mRNA expression for many candidate disease genes entirely missed in previously published microarray-based studies of

  4. Dietary exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether 47 (BDE-47) inhibits development and alters thyroid hormone-related gene expression in the brain of Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Alexandra T; Thornton, Leah M; Venables, Barney J; Sellin Jeffries, Marlo K

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have investigated the thyroid-disrupting effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) across multiple levels of biological organization in anurans, despite their suitability for the screening of thyroid disruptors. Therefore, the present study evaluated the effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) on development, thyroid histology and thyroid hormone-related gene expression in Xenopus laevis exposed to 0 (control), 50 (low), 500 (medium) or 5000μg BDE-47/g food (high) for 21days. Only the high dose of BDE-47 hindered growth and development; however, thyroid hormone-associated gene expression was downregulated in the brains of tadpoles regardless of dose. These results show that BDE-47 disrupts thyroid hormone signaling at the molecular and whole-organism levels and suggest that gene expression in the brain is a more sensitive endpoint than metamorphosis. Furthermore, the altered gene expression patterns among BDE-47-exposed tadpoles provide insight into the mechanisms of PBDE-induced thyroid disruption and highlight the potential for PBDEs to act as neurodevelopmental toxicants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Diet and endocrine effects on behavioral maturation-related gene expression in the pars intercerebralis of the honey bee brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Marsha M; Ament, Seth A; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Southey, Bruce; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-12-01

    Nervous and neuroendocrine systems mediate environmental conditions to control a variety of life history traits. Our goal was to provide mechanistic insights as to how neurosecretory signals mediate division of labor in the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Worker division of labor is based on a process of behavioral maturation by individual bees, which involves performing in-hive tasks early in adulthood, then transitioning to foraging for food outside the hive. Social and nutritional cues converge on endocrine factors to regulate behavioral maturation, but whether neurosecretory systems are central to this process is not known. To explore this, we performed transcriptomic profiling of a neurosecretory region of the brain, the pars intercerebralis (PI). We first compared PI transcriptional profiles for bees performing in-hive tasks and bees engaged in foraging. Using these results as a baseline, we then performed manipulative experiments to test whether the PI is responsive to dietary changes and/or changes in juvenile hormone (JH) levels. Results reveal a robust molecular signature of behavioral maturation in the PI, with a subset of gene expression changes consistent with changes elicited by JH treatment. In contrast, dietary changes did not induce transcriptomic changes in the PI consistent with behavioral maturation or JH treatment. Based on these results, we propose a new verbal model of the regulation of division of labor in honey bees in which the relationship between diet and nutritional physiology is attenuated, and in its place is a relationship between social signals and nutritional physiology that is mediated by JH. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Differential expression of brain immune genes and schizophrenia-related behavior in C57BL/6N and DBA/2J female mice.

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    Ma, Li; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Võikar, Vootele; Tian, Li

    2015-03-30

    Mounting evidence suggests the association of immune genes with complex neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia. However, immune gene expression in the brain and their involvement in schizophrenia-related behavior in animal models have not been well studied so far. We analyzed the social (resident-intruder) and sensorimotor gating (pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle) behaviors, and expression profiles of several brain immune genes in adult C57BL/6N and DBA/2J female mice. Compared to C57BL/6N mice, DBA/2J mice exhibited less social interaction in the resident-intruder test and reduced pre-pulse inhibition. The mRNA levels of Il1b and Il6 genes were significantly higher in the cortex and hypothalamus, while the mRNA level of C1qb was lower in the cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus of DBA/2J mice compared to C57BL/6N mice. Furthermore, Tnfsf13b was up-regulated in the cortex and hippocampus, and so did Cd47 in the hippocampus, while Cx3cl1 was down-regulated in the cortex of DBA/2J mice. Our study demonstrates the differential expression of several immune genes in C57BL/6N and DBA/2J strains and more importantly provides clues on their potential importance in regulating schizophrenia-related endophenotypes in animal models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comprehensive regional and temporal gene expression profiling of the rat brain during the first 24 h after experimental stroke identifies dynamic ischemia-induced gene expression patterns, and reveals a biphasic activation of genes in surviving tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Wieloch, Tadeusz; Gidö, Gunilla

    2006-01-01

    -dehydrogenase1, and Choline kinase) or cell death-regulating genes such as mitochondrial CLIC. We conclude that a biphasic transcriptional up-regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways occurs in surviving...... tissue, concomitant with a progressive and persistent activation of cell proliferation signifying tissue regeneration, which provide the means for cell survival and postischemic brain plasticity.......In order to identify biological processes relevant for cell death and survival in the brain following stroke, the postischemic brain transcriptome was studied by a large-scale cDNA array analysis of three peri-infarct brain regions at eight time points during the first 24 h of reperfusion following...

  8. Differential gene expression in the brain of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, after six days or six months of aestivation in air.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kum C Hiong

    Full Text Available The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, can undergo aestivation during drought. Aestivation has three phases: induction, maintenance and arousal. The objective of this study was to examine the differential gene expression in the brain of P. annectens during the induction (6 days and maintenance (6 months phases of aestivation as compared with the freshwater control using suppression subtractive hybridization. During the induction phase of aestivation, the mRNA expression of prolactin (prl and growth hormone were up-regulated in the brain of P. annectens, which indicate for the first time the possible induction role of these two hormones in aestivation. Also, the up-regulation of mRNA expression of tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein γ polypeptide and the down-regulation of phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein, suggest that there could be a reduction in biological and neuronal activities in the brain. The mRNA expression of cold inducible RNA-binding protein and glucose regulated protein 58 were also up-regulated in the brain, probably to enhance their cytoprotective effects. Furthermore, the down-regulation of prothymosin α expression suggests that there could be a suppression of transcription and cell proliferation in preparation for the maintenance phase. In general, the induction phase appeared to be characterized by reduction in glycolytic capacity and metabolic activity, suppression of protein synthesis and degradation, and an increase in defense against ammonia toxicity. In contrast, there was a down-regulation in the mRNA expression of prl in the brain of P. annectens during the maintenance phase of aestivation. In addition, there could be an increase in oxidative defense capacity, and up-regulation of transcription, translation, and glycolytic capacities in preparation for arousal. Overall, our results signify the importance of reconstruction of protein structures and regulation of energy

  9. Diurnal expression of clock genes in pineal gland and brain and plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol in Atlantic salmon parr and smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tien-sheng; Ruoff, Peter; Fjelldal, Per G

    2010-10-01

    In Atlantic salmon, the preadaptation to a marine life, i.e., parr-smolt transformation, and melatonin production in the pineal gland are regulated by the photoperiod. However, the clock genes have never been studied in the pineal gland of this species. The aim of the present study was to describe the diurnal expression of clock genes (Per1-like, Cry2, and Clock) in the pineal gland and brain of Atlantic salmon parr and smolts in freshwater, as well as plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol. By employing an out-of-season smolt production model, the parr-smolt transformation was induced by subjecting triplicate groups of parr to 6 wks (wks 0 to 6) under a 12 h:12 h light-dark (LD) regime followed by 6 wks (wks 6 to 12) of continuous light (LL). The measured clock genes in both pineal gland and brain and the plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol showed significant daily variations in parr under LD in wk 6, whereas these rhythms were abolished in smolts under LL in wk 12. In parr, the pineal Per1-like and Cry2 expression peaked in the dark phase, whereas the pineal Clock expression was elevated during the light phase. Although this study presents novel findings on the clock gene system in the teleost pineal gland, the role of this system in the regulation of smoltification needs to be studied in more detail.

  10. Gene Expression Changes in Long-Term In Vitro Human Blood-Brain Barrier Models and Their Dependence on a Transwell Scaffold Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel D. Gaston

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB is the hallmark of many neurovascular disorders, making it a critically important focus for therapeutic options. However, testing the effects of either drugs or pathological agents is difficult due to the potentially damaging consequences of altering the normal brain microenvironment. Recently, in vitro coculture tissue models have been developed as an alternative to animal testing. Despite low cost, these platforms use synthetic scaffolds which prevent normal barrier architecture, cellular crosstalk, and tissue remodeling. We created a biodegradable electrospun gelatin mat “biopaper” (BP as a scaffold material for an endothelial/astrocyte coculture model allowing cell-cell contact and crosstalk. To compare the BP and traditional models, we investigated the expression of 27 genes involved in BBB permeability, cellular function, and endothelial junctions at different time points. Gene expression levels demonstrated higher expression of transcripts involved in endothelial junction formation, including TJP2 and CDH5, in the BP model. The traditional model had higher expression of genes associated with extracellular matrix-associated proteins, including SPARC and COL4A1. Overall, the results demonstrate that the BP coculture model is more representative of a healthy BBB state, though both models have advantages that may be useful in disease modeling.

  11. Validating Serum S100B and Neuron-Specific Enolase as Biomarkers for the Human Brain – A Combined Serum, Gene Expression and MRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitbürger, Daniel-Paolo; Arelin, Katrin; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Thiery, Joachim; Steiner, Johann; Villringer, Arno

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Former studies have investigated the potential of serum biomarkers for diseases affecting the human brain. In particular the glial protein S100B, a neuro- and gliotrophin inducing plasticity, seems to be involved in the pathogenesis and treatment of psychiatric diseases such as major depression and schizophrenia. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is a specific serum marker for neuronal damage. However, the specificity of these biomarkers for cell type and brain region has not been investigated in vivo until now. Methods We acquired two magnetic resonance imaging parameters sensitive to changes in gray and white matter (T1-weighted/diffusion tensor imaging) and obtained serum S100B and NSE levels of 41 healthy subjects. Additionally, we analyzed whole brain gene expressions of S100B in another male cohort of three subjects using the Allen Brain Atlas. Furthermore, a female post mortal brain was investigated using double immunofluorescence labelling with oligodendrocyte markers. Results We show that S100B is specifically related to white matter structures, namely the corpus callosum, anterior forceps and superior longitudinal fasciculus in female subjects. This effect was observed in fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity – the latest an indicator of myelin changes. Histological data confirmed a co-localization of S100B with oligodendrocyte markers in the human corpus callosum. S100B was most abundantly expressed in the corpus callosum according to the whole genome Allen Human Brain Atlas. In addition, NSE was related to gray matter structures, namely the amygdala. This effect was detected across sexes. Conclusion Our data demonstrates a very high S100B expression in white matter tracts, in particular in human corpus callosum. Our study is the first in vivo study validating the specificity of the glial marker S100B for the human brain, and supporting the assumption that radial diffusivity represents a myelin marker. Our results open a new perspective

  12. Validating serum S100B and neuron-specific enolase as biomarkers for the human brain - a combined serum, gene expression and MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Paolo Streitbürger

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Former studies have investigated the potential of serum biomarkers for diseases affecting the human brain. In particular the glial protein S100B, a neuro- and gliotrophin inducing plasticity, seems to be involved in the pathogenesis and treatment of psychiatric diseases such as major depression and schizophrenia. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE is a specific serum marker for neuronal damage. However, the specificity of these biomarkers for cell type and brain region has not been investigated in vivo until now. METHODS: We acquired two magnetic resonance imaging parameters sensitive to changes in gray and white matter (T(1-weighted/diffusion tensor imaging and obtained serum S100B and NSE levels of 41 healthy subjects. Additionally, we analyzed whole brain gene expressions of S100B in another male cohort of three subjects using the Allen Brain Atlas. Furthermore, a female post mortal brain was investigated using double immunofluorescence labelling with oligodendrocyte markers. RESULTS: We show that S100B is specifically related to white matter structures, namely the corpus callosum, anterior forceps and superior longitudinal fasciculus in female subjects. This effect was observed in fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity - the latest an indicator of myelin changes. Histological data confirmed a co-localization of S100B with oligodendrocyte markers in the human corpus callosum. S100B was most abundantly expressed in the corpus callosum according to the whole genome Allen Human Brain Atlas. In addition, NSE was related to gray matter structures, namely the amygdala. This effect was detected across sexes. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrates a very high S100B expression in white matter tracts, in particular in human corpus callosum. Our study is the first in vivo study validating the specificity of the glial marker S100B for the human brain, and supporting the assumption that radial diffusivity represents a myelin marker. Our results

  13. Expression of microRNA-34a in Alzheimer's disease brain targets genes linked to synaptic plasticity, energy metabolism, and resting state network activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S; Jun, S; Rellick, S; Quintana, D D; Cavendish, J Z; Simpkins, J W

    2016-09-01

    Polygenetic risk factors and reduced expression of many genes in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) impedes identification of a target(s) for disease-modifying therapies. We identified a single microRNA, miR-34a that is over expressed in specific brain regions of AD patients as well as in the 3xTg-AD mouse model. Specifically, increased miR-34a expression in the temporal cortex region compared to age matched healthy control correlates with severity of AD pathology. miR-34a over expression in patient's tissue and forced expression in primary neuronal culture correlates with concurrent repression of its target genes involved in synaptic plasticity, oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis. The repression of oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis related proteins correlates with reduced ATP production and glycolytic capacity, respectively. We also found that miR-34a overexpressed neurons secrete miR-34a containing exosomes that are taken up by neighboring neurons. Furthermore, miR-34a targets dozens of genes whose expressions are known to be correlated with synchronous activity in resting state functional networks. Our analysis of human genomic sequences from the tentative promoter of miR-34a gene shows the presence of NFκB, STAT1, c-Fos, CREB and p53 response elements. Together, our results raise the possibilities that pathophysiology-induced activation of specific transcription factor may lead to increased expression of miR-34a gene and miR-34a mediated concurrent repression of its target genes in neural networks may result in dysfunction of synaptic plasticity, energy metabolism, and resting state network activity. Thus, our results provide insights into polygenetic AD mechanisms and disclose miR-34a as a potential therapeutic target for AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gene expression profiling in brain of mice exposed to the marine neurotoxin ciguatoxin reveals an acute anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan James C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ciguatoxins (CTXs are polyether marine neurotoxins and potent activators of voltage-gated sodium channels. This toxin is carried by multiple reef-fish species and human consumption of ciguatoxins can result in an explosive gastrointestinal/neurologic illness. This study characterizes the global transcriptional response in mouse brain to a symptomatic dose of the highly toxic Pacific ciguatoxin P-CTX-1 and additionally compares this data to transcriptional profiles from liver and whole blood examined previously. Adult male C57/BL6 mice were injected with 0.26 ng/g P-CTX-1 while controls received only vehicle. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 4 and 24 hrs and transcriptional profiling was performed on brain RNA with Agilent whole genome microarrays. RT-PCR was used to independently validate gene expression and the web tool DAVID was used to analyze gene ontology (GO and molecular pathway enrichment of the gene expression data. Results A pronounced 4°C hypothermic response was recorded in these mice, reaching a minimum at 1 hr and lasting for 8 hrs post toxin exposure. Ratio expression data were filtered by intensity, fold change and p-value, with the resulting data used for time course analysis, K-means clustering, ontology classification and KEGG pathway enrichment. Top GO hits for this gene set included acute phase response and mono-oxygenase activity. Molecular pathway analysis showed enrichment for complement/coagulation cascades and metabolism of xenobiotics. Many immediate early genes such as Fos, Jun and Early Growth Response isoforms were down-regulated although others associated with stress such as glucocorticoid responsive genes were up-regulated. Real time PCR confirmation was performed on 22 differentially expressed genes with a correlation of 0.9 (Spearman's Rho, p Conclusions Many of the genes differentially expressed in this study, in parallel with the hypothermia, figure prominently in protection against

  15. Neonatal exposure to 17β-estradiol down-regulates the expression of synaptogenesis related genes in selected brain regions of adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, N S; Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Sarangi, S K; Rao, A J

    2015-11-15

    Administration of estradiol or compounds with estrogenic activity to newborn female rats results in irreversible masculinization as well as defeminization in the brain and the animals exhibit altered reproductive behavior as adults. The cellular and molecular mechanism involved in inducing the irreversible changes is largely unknown. In the present study, we have monitored the changes in the expression of selected synaptogenesis related genes in the sexually dimorphic brain regions such as POA, hypothalamus and pituitary following 17β-estradiol administration to neonatal female rats. Female Wistar rats which were administered 17β-estradiol on day 2 and 3 after birth were sacrificed 120days later and the expression levels of genes implicated in synaptogenesis were monitored by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Since estradiol induced up-regulation of COX-2 in POA is a marker for estradiol induced masculinization as well as defeminization, in the present study only animals in which the increase in expression of COX-2 gene was observed in POA were included in the study. Down-regulation of genes such as NMDA-2B, NETRIN-1, BDNF, MT-5 MMP and TNF-α was observed in the pre-optic area of neonatally E2 treated female rat brain but not in hypothalamus and pituitary compared to the vehicle- treated controls as assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Our results suggest a possibility that down-regulation of genes associated with synaptogenesis in POA, may be resulting in disruption of the cyclical regulation of hormone secretion by pituitary the consequence of which could be infertility and altered reproductive behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Systems biology approach to late-onset Alzheimer's disease genome-wide association study identifies novel candidate genes validated using brain expression data and Caenorhabditis elegans experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Russell, Joshua C; Carr, Daniel T; Burgess, Jeremy D; Allen, Mariet; Serie, Daniel J; Boehme, Kevin L; Kauwe, John S K; Naj, Adam C; Fardo, David W; Dickson, Dennis W; Montine, Thomas J; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Kaeberlein, Matt R; Crane, Paul K

    2017-10-01

    We sought to determine whether a systems biology approach may identify novel late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) loci. We performed gene-wide association analyses and integrated results with human protein-protein interaction data using network analyses. We performed functional validation on novel genes using a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans Aβ proteotoxicity model and evaluated novel genes using brain expression data from people with LOAD and other neurodegenerative conditions. We identified 13 novel candidate LOAD genes outside chromosome 19. Of those, RNA interference knockdowns of the C. elegans orthologs of UBC, NDUFS3, EGR1, and ATP5H were associated with Aβ toxicity, and NDUFS3, SLC25A11, ATP5H, and APP were differentially expressed in the temporal cortex. Network analyses identified novel LOAD candidate genes. We demonstrated a functional role for four of these in a C. elegans model and found enrichment of differentially expressed genes in the temporal cortex. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of Post-Traumatic Brain Injury Gene Expression Signature Reveals Tubulins, Nfe2l2, Nfkb, Cd44, and S100a4 as Treatment Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipponen, Anssi; Paananen, Jussi; Puhakka, Noora; Pitkänen, Asla

    2016-08-17

    We aimed to define the chronically altered gene expression signature of traumatic brain injury (TBI-sig) to discover novel treatments to reverse pathologic gene expression or reinforce the expression of recovery-related genes. Genome-wide RNA-sequencing was performed at 3 months post-TBI induced by lateral fluid-percussion injury in rats. We found 4964 regulated genes in the perilesional cortex and 1966 in the thalamus (FDR sig was used for a LINCS analysis which identified 11 compounds that showed a strong connectivity with the TBI-sig in neuronal cell lines. Of these, celecoxib and sirolimus were recently reported to have a disease-modifying effect in in vivo animal models of epilepsy. Other compounds revealed by the analysis were BRD-K91844626, BRD-A11009626, NO-ASA, BRD-K55260239, SDZ-NKT-343, STK-661558, BRD-K75971499, ionomycin, and desmethylclomipramine. Network analysis of overlapping genes revealed the effects on tubulins (Tubb2a, Tubb3, Tubb4b), Nfe2l2, S100a4, Cd44, and Nfkb2, all of which are linked to TBI-relevant outcomes, including epileptogenesis and tissue repair. Desmethylclomipramine modulated most of the gene targets considered favorable for TBI outcome. Our data demonstrate long-lasting transcriptomics changes after TBI. LINCS analysis predicted that these changes could be modulated by various compounds, some of which are already in clinical use but never tested in TBI.

  18. ASPM gene expression in medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcani-Freitas, Tânia M; Saba-Silva, Najsla; Cappellano, Andréa; Cavalheiro, Sérgio; Marie, Sueli K N; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli M; Malheiros, Suzana M F; de Toledo, Sílvia Regina Caminada

    2011-01-01

    Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant tumors of the central nervous system in childhood. The incidence is about 19-20% between children younger than 16 years old with peak incidence between 4 and 7 years. Despite its sensibility to no specific therapeutic means like chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the treatment is very aggressive and frequently results in regression, growth deficit, and endocrine dysfunction. From this point of view, new treatment approaches are needed such as molecular targeted therapies. Studies in glioblastoma demonstrated that ASPM gene was overexpressed when compared to normal brain and ASPM inhibition by siRNA-mediated inhibits tumor cell proliferation and neural stem cell proliferation, supporting ASPM gene as a potential molecular target in glioblastoma. The aim of this work was to evaluate ASPM expression in medulloblastoma fragment samples, and to compare the results with the patient clinical features. Analysis of gene expression was performed by quantitative PCR real time using SYBR Green system in tumor samples from 37 children. The t test was used to analyze the gene expression, and Mann-Whitney test was performed to analyze the relationship between gene expressions and clinical characteristics. Kaplan-Meier test evaluated curve survival. All samples overexpressed ASPM gene more than 40-fold. However, we did not find any association between the overexpressed samples and the clinical parameters. ASPM overexpression may modify the ability of stem cells to differentiate during the development of the central nervous system, contributing to the development of medulloblastoma, a tumor of embryonic origin from cerebellar progenitor cells.

  19. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene Expression Omnibus is a public functional genomics data repository supporting MIAME-compliant submissions of array- and sequence-based data. Tools are provided...

  20. Compartmentalized gene expression of toll-like receptors 2, 4 and 9 in the brain and peripheral lymphoid organs during canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, G D; Silva, J E S; Grano, F G; Homem, C G; Machado, G F

    2014-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an important parasitic disease that affects humans and animals. The response against the protozoan involves the interaction of both innate and adaptive branches of the immune system, and an important immune sensor is represented by the toll-like receptor (TLR) family. Here, we investigated the pattern of TLR-2, TLR-4 and TLR-9 gene expression in different compartments (brain, choroid plexus, spleen and lymph node) of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum. Gene expression of the TLRs varied according to the compartment evaluated. In the brain, there was only an upregulation of TLR-2, whereas in the choroid plexus, TLR-2 and TLR-9 were both upregulated. Further, the peripheral lymphoid organs (spleen and lymph nodes) showed increased TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression. This study provides the first insight about TLR expression in the central nervous system of infected dogs, and gives additional evidence of the compartmentalization of the immune response during visceral leishmaniasis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [On the role of selective silencer Freud-1 in the regulation of the brain 5-HT(1A) receptor gene expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, V S; Osipova, D V; Tsybko, A S

    2010-01-01

    Selective 5-HT(1A) receptor silencer (Freud-1) is known to be one of the main factors for transcriptional regulation of brain serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor. However, there is a lack of data on implication of Freud-1 in the mechanisms underlying genetically determined and experimentally altered 5-HT(1A) receptor system state in vivo. In the present study we have found a difference in the 5-HT(1A) gene expression in the midbrain of AKR and CBA inbred mouse strains. At the same time no distinction in Freud-1 expression was observed. We have revealed 90.3% of homology between mouse and rat 5-HT(1A) receptor DRE-element, whereas there was no difference in DRE-element sequence between AKR and CBA mice. This indicates the absence of differences in Freud-1 binding site in these mouse strains. In the model of 5-HT(1A) receptor desensitization produced by chronic 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist administration, a significant reduction of 5-HT(1A) receptor gene expression together with considerable increase of Freud-1 expression were found. These data allow us to conclude that the selective silencer of 5-HT(1A) receptor, Freud-1, is involved in the compensatory mechanisms that modulate the functional state of brain serotonin system, although it is not the only factor for 5-HT(1A) receptor transcriptional regulation.

  2. Investigation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression in hypothalamus of obese rats: Modulation by omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Maksoud, Sahar M; Hassanein, Sally I; Gohar, Neveen A; Attia, Saad M M; Gad, Mohamed Z

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was investigating the effect of omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression, using in vivo and in vitro models, to unravel the potential mechanisms of polyunsaturated fatty acids use in obesity. Twenty-nine Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; lean controls fed normal chow diet for 14 weeks, obese controls fed 60% of their diet as saturated fats for 14 weeks, and ω-3 FAs-treated rats fed 60% saturated fat diet for 14 weeks with concomitant oral administration of 400 mg/kg/day ω-3 FAs, mainly docosahexaenoic acid and EPA, from week 12 to week 14. For the in vitro experiment, hypothalamic cells from six obese rats were cultured in the presence of different concentrations of ω-3 FAs to determine its direct effect on BDNF expression. In vivo results showed that obesity has negative effect on BDNF gene expression in rat hypothalamus that was reversed by administration of ω-3 FAs. Obese rats showed hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, normoinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperleptinemia. Treatment with ω-3 FAs showed significant decrease in serum total cholesterol and TAG. Also serum glucose level and HOMA index were decreased significantly. In vitro results demonstrated the increase in BDNF expression by ω-3 FAs in a dose-dependent manner. Obesity causes down-regulation of BDNF gene expression that can be reversed by ω-3 FAs treatment, making them an interesting treatment approach for obesity and metabolic disease.

  3. Brain responses to chronic social defeat stress: effects on regional oxidative metabolism as a function of a hedonic trait, and gene expression in susceptible and resilient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanarik, Margus; Alttoa, Aet; Matrov, Denis; Kõiv, Kadri; Sharp, Trevor; Panksepp, Jaak; Harro, Jaanus

    2011-01-01

    Chronic social defeat stress, a depression model in rats, reduced struggling in the forced swimming test dependent on a hedonic trait-stressed rats with high sucrose intake struggled less. Social defeat reduced brain regional energy metabolism, and this effect was also more pronounced in rats with high sucrose intake. A number of changes in gene expression were identified after social defeat stress, most notably the down-regulation of Gsk3b and Map1b. The majority of differences were between stress-susceptible and resilient rats. Conclusively, correlates of inter-individual differences in stress resilience can be identified both at gene expression and oxidative metabolism levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Circadian influences on dopamine circuits of the brain: regulation of striatal rhythms of clock gene expression and implications for psychopathology and disease [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Verwey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clock proteins form an autoregulatory feedback loop that is central to the endogenous generation and transmission of daily rhythms in behavior and physiology. Increasingly, circadian rhythms in clock gene expression are being reported in diverse tissues and brain regions that lie outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, the master circadian clock in mammals. For many of these extra-SCN rhythms, however, the region-specific implications are still emerging. In order to gain important insights into the potential behavioral, physiological, and psychological relevance of these daily oscillations, researchers have begun to focus on describing the neurochemical, hormonal, metabolic, and epigenetic contributions to the regulation of these rhythms. This review will highlight important sites and sources of circadian control within dopaminergic and striatal circuitries of the brain and will discuss potential implications for psychopathology and disease. For example, rhythms in clock gene expression in the dorsal striatum are sensitive to changes in dopamine release, which has potential implications for Parkinson’s disease and drug addiction. Rhythms in the ventral striatum and limbic forebrain are sensitive to psychological and physical stressors, which may have implications for major depressive disorder. Collectively, a rich circadian tapestry has emerged that forces us to expand traditional views and to reconsider the psychopathological, behavioral, and physiological importance of these region-specific rhythms in brain areas that are not immediately linked with the regulation of circadian rhythms.

  5. Does inbreeding affect gene expression in birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Bengt; Naurin, Sara; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2014-09-01

    Inbreeding increases homozygosity, exposes genome-wide recessive deleterious alleles and often reduces fitness. The physiological and reproductive consequences of inbreeding may be manifested already during gene regulation, but the degree to which inbreeding influences gene expression is unknown in most organisms, including in birds. To evaluate the pattern of inbreeding-affected gene expression over the genome and in relation to sex, we performed a transcriptome-wide gene expression (10 695 genes) study of brain tissue of 10-day-old inbred and outbred, male and female zebra finches. We found significantly lower gene expression in females compared with males at Z-linked genes, confirming that dosage compensation is incomplete in female birds. However, inbreeding did not affect gene expression at autosomal or sex-linked genes, neither in males nor in females. Analyses of single genes again found a clear sex-biased expression at Z-linked genes, whereas only a single gene was significantly affected by inbreeding. The weak effect of inbreeding on gene expression in zebra finches contrasts to the situation, for example, in Drosophila where inbreeding has been found to influence gene expression more generally and at stress-related genes in particular. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic heart failure alters orexin and melanin concentrating hormone but not corticotrophin releasing hormone-related gene expression in the brain of male Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Linda F; Hampton, Erin E; Ferreira, Leonardo F; Christou, Demetra D; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Hernandez, Morgan E; Martin, Eric J

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic heart failure (HF; 16 weeks post left coronary artery ligation) on the brain's orexin (ORX) and related neuropeptide systems. Indicators of cardiac function, including the percent fractional shortening (%FS) left ventricular posterior wall shortening velocity (LVPWSV) were assessed via echocardiography at 16 weeks post myocardial infarction or sham treatment in male Lewis rats (n=5/group). Changes in gene expression in HF versus control (CON) groups were quantified by real-time PCR in the hypothalamus, amygdala and dorsal pons. HF significantly reduced both the %FS and LVPWSV when compared to CON animals (Pgene expression was significantly reduced in HF and correlated with changes in cardiac function when compared to CON (Pgene expression were identified. Alternatively hypothalamic melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) gene expression was significantly upregulated in HF animals and negatively correlated with LVPWSV (P<0.006). In both the amygdala and dorsal pons ORX type 2 receptor expression was significantly down-regulated in HF compared to CON. ORX receptor type 1, CRH and CRH type 1 and type 2 receptor expressions were unchanged by HF in all brain regions analyzed. These observations support previous work demonstrating that cardiovascular disease modulates the ORX system and identify that in the case of chronic HF the ORX system is altered in parallel with changes in MCH expression but independent of any significant changes in the central CRH system. This raises the new possibility that ORX and MCH systems may play an important role in the pathophysiology of HF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ruminant brain ribonucleases: expression and evolution.

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    Zhao, W; Confalone, E; Breukelman, H J; Sasso, M P; Jekel, P A; Hodge, E; Furia, A; Beintema, J J

    2001-05-05

    Molecular evolutionary analyses of mammalian ribonucleases have shown that gene duplication events giving rise to three paralogous genes occurred in ruminant ancestors. One of these genes encodes a ribonuclease identified in bovine brain. A peculiar feature of this enzyme and orthologous sequences in other ruminants are C-terminal extensions consisting of 17-27 amino acid residues. Evidence was obtained by Western blot analysis for the presence of brain-type ribonucleases in brain tissue not only of ox, but also of sheep, roe deer and chevrotain (Tragulus javanicus), a member of the earliest diverged taxon of the ruminants. The C-terminal extension of brain-type ribonuclease from giraffe deviates much in sequence from orthologues in other ruminants, due to a change of reading frame. However, the gene encodes a functional enzyme, which could be expressed in heterologous systems. The messenger RNA of bovine brain ribonuclease is not only expressed at a high level in brain tissue but also in lactating mammary gland. The enzyme was isolated and identified from this latter tissue, but was not present in bovine milk, although pancreatic ribonucleases A and B could be isolated from both sources. This suggests different ways of secretion of the two enzyme types, possibly related to structural differences. The sequence of the brain-type RNase from chevrotain suggests that the C-terminal extensions of ruminant brain-type ribonucleases originate from deletions in the ancestral DNA (including a region with stop codons), followed by insertion of a 5-8-fold repeated hexanucleotide sequence, coding for a proline-rich polypeptide.

  8. High-resolution labeling and functional manipulation of specific neuron types in mouse brain by Cre-activated viral gene expression.

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    Sandra J Kuhlman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method that combines Cre-recombinase knockin mice and viral-mediated gene transfer to genetically label and functionally manipulate specific neuron types in the mouse brain. We engineered adeno-associated viruses (AAVs that express GFP, dsRedExpress, or channelrhodopsin (ChR2 upon Cre/loxP recombination-mediated removal of a transcription-translation STOP cassette. Fluorescent labeling was sufficient to visualize neuronal structures with synaptic resolution in vivo, and ChR2 expression allowed light activation of neuronal spiking. The structural dynamics of a specific class of neocortical neuron, the parvalbumin-containing (Pv fast-spiking GABAergic interneuron, was monitored over the course of a week. We found that although the majority of Pv axonal boutons were stable in young adults, bouton additions and subtractions on axonal shafts were readily observed at a rate of 10.10% and 9.47%, respectively, over 7 days. Our results indicate that Pv inhibitory circuits maintain the potential for structural re-wiring in post-adolescent cortex. With the generation of an increasing number of Cre knockin mice and because viral transfection can be delivered to defined brain regions at defined developmental stages, this strategy represents a general method to systematically visualize the structure and manipulate the function of different cell types in the mouse brain.

  9. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic gene expression in an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier following exposure to poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Andrew M; Hemmer, Ruth; Spaulding, Robert; Wetzel, Hanna N; Curcio, Joseph; Sabel, Bernhard A; Henrich-Noack, Petra; Pixley, Sarah; Hopkins, Tracy; Boyce, Richard L; Schultheis, Patrick J; Haik, Kristi L

    2016-08-01

    Background Poly(butylcyanoacrylate) (PBCA) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) and coated with polysorbate 80 (PS80) have shown efficacy in the treatment of rat glioblastoma. However, cytotoxicity of this treatment remains unclear. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate cytotoxicity and apoptotic gene expression using a proven in vitro co-culture model of the blood-brain barrier. Methods The co-cultures were exposed to uncoated PBCA NPs, PBCA-PS80 NPs or PBCA-PS80-DOX NPs at varying concentrations and evaluated using a resazurin-based cytotoxicity assay and an 84-gene apoptosis RT-PCR array. Results The cytotoxicity assays showed PBCA-PS80-DOX NPs exhibited a decrease in metabolic function at lower concentrations than uncoated PBCA NPs and PBCA-PS80 NPs. The apoptosis arrays showed differential expression of 18 genes in PBCA-PS80-DOX treated cells compared to the untreated control. Discussion As expected, the cytotoxicity assays demonstrated enhanced dose-dependent toxicity in the DOX loaded NPs. The differentially expressed apoptotic genes participate in both the tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 and mitochondria-associated apoptotic pathways implicated in current DOX chemotherapeutic toxicity. Conclusion The following data suggest that the cytotoxic effect may be attributed to DOX and not the NPs themselves, further supporting the use of PBCA-PS80 NPs as an effective drug delivery vehicle for treating central nervous system conditions.

  10. A nutrigenomics approach for the study of anti-aging interventions: olive oil phenols and the modulation of gene and microRNA expression profiles in mouse brain.

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    Luceri, Cristina; Bigagli, Elisabetta; Pitozzi, Vanessa; Giovannelli, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    Middle-aged C57Bl/6J mice fed for 6 months with extra-virgin olive oil rich in phenols (H-EVOO, phenol dose/day: 6 mg/kg) showed cognitive and motor improvement compared to controls fed the same olive oil deprived of phenolics (L-EVOO). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether these behavioral modifications were associated with changes in gene and miRNA expression in the brain. Two brain areas involved in cognitive and motor processes were chosen: cortex and cerebellum. Gene and miRNA profiling were analyzed by microarray and correlated with performance in behavioral tests. After 6 months, most of the gene expression changes were restricted to the cerebral cortex. The genes modulated by aging were mainly down-regulated, and the treatment with H-EVOO was associated with a significant up-regulation of genes compared to L-EVOO. Among those, we found genes previously associated with synaptic plasticity and with motor and cognitive behavior, such as Notch1, BMPs, NGFR, GLP1R and CRTC3. The agrin pathway was also significantly modulated. miRNAs were mostly up-regulated in old L-EVOO animals compared to young. However, H-EVOO-fed mice cortex displayed miRNA expression profiles similar to those observed in young mice. Sixty-three miRNAs, out of 1203 analyzed, were significantly down-regulated compared to the L-EVOO group; among them, we found miRNAs whose predicted target genes were up-regulated by the treatment, such as mir-484, mir-27, mir-137, mir-30, mir-34 and mir-124. We are among the first to report that a dietary intervention starting from middle age with food rich in phenols can modulate at the central level the expression of genes and miRNAs involved in neuronal function and synaptic plasticity, along with cognitive, motor and emotional behavior.

  11. Absence of mutations in four genes encoding for congenital cataract and expressed in the human brain in Tunisian families with cataract and mental retardation

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    Chograni Manèl

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify the genetic defect associated with autosomal recessive congenital cataract (ARCC, mental retardation (MR and ARCC, MR and microcephaly present in most patients in four Tunisian consanguineous families. Methods We screened four genes implicated in congenital cataract by direct sequencing in two groups of patients; those affected by ARCC associated to MR and those who presented also microcephaly. Among its three genes PAX6, PITX3 and HSF4 are expressed in human brain and one gene LIM2 encodes for the protein MP20 that interact with the protein galectin-3 expressed in human brain and plays a crucial role in its development. All genes were screened by direct sequencing in two groups of patients; those affected by ARCC associated to MR and those who presented also microcephaly. Results We report no mutation in the four genes of congenital cataract and its flanking regions. Only variations that did not segregate with the studied phenotypes (ARCC associated to MR, ARCC associated with MR and microcephaly are reported. We detected three intronic variations in PAX6 gene: IVS4 -274insG (intron 4, IVS12 -174G>A (intron12 in the four studied families and IVS4 -195G>A (intron 4 in two families. Two substitutions polymorphisms in PITX3 gene: c.439 C>T (exon 3 and c.930 C>A (exon4 in one family. One intronic variation in HSF4 gene: IVS7 +93C>T (intron 7 identified in one family. And three intronic substitutions in LIM2 gene identified in all four studied families: IVS2 -24A>G (intron 2, IVS4 +32C>T (intron 4 and c.*15A>C (3'-downstream sequence. Conclusion Although the role of the four studied genes: PAX6, PITX3, HSF4 and LIM2 in both ocular and central nervous system development, we report the absence of mutations in all studied genes in four families with phenotypes associating cataract, MR and microcephaly.

  12. Distress call-induced gene expression in the brain of the Indian short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Ambigapathy; Raghuram, Hanumanthan; Nathan, Parthasarathy T; Marimuthu, Ganapathy; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2010-02-01

    Individuals in distress emit audible vocalizations to either warn or inform conspecifics. The Indian short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx, emits distress calls soon after becoming entangled in mist nets, which appear to attract conspecifics. Phase I of these distress calls is longer and louder, and includes a secondary peak, compared to phase II. Activity-dependent expression of egr-1 was examined in free-ranging C. sphinx following the emissions and responses to a distress call. We found that the level of expression of egr-1 was higher in bats that emitted a distress call, in adults that responded, and in pups than in silent bats. Up-regulated cDNA was amplified to identify the target gene (TOE1) of the protein Egr-1. The observed expression pattern Toe1 was similar to that of egr-1. These findings suggest that the neuronal activity related to recognition of a distress call and an auditory feedback mechanism induces the expression of Egr-1. Co-expression of egr-1 with Toe1 may play a role in initial triggering of the genetic mechanism that could be involved in the consolidation or stabilization of distress call memories.

  13. Molecular characterization and gene expression of synaptosome-associated protein-25 (SNAP-25) in the brain during both seaward and homeward migrations of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takashi; Minowa, Yui; Kudo, Hideaki

    2018-03-01

    It is generally accepted that information about some of the odorants in the natal streams of anadromous Pacific salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus) is imprinted during their seaward migration, and that anadromous Pacific salmon use olfaction to identify their natal streams during the homeward migration. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the various pre-synaptic functions that are important for olfactory imprinting and memory retrieval in the salmon brain. Synaptosome-associated protein-25 (SNAP-25) mediates pre-synaptic vesicle exocytosis and regulates synaptic transmission and neuronal plasticity. Despite the importance of synaptic plasticity for memorization, the expression of SNAP-25 in the salmon brain is not well understood. In this study, snap25 expression was detected in chum salmon (O. keta) brains using molecular biological techniques. Two cDNAs encoding salmon SNAP-25 were isolated and sequenced (SNAP-25a and SNAP-25b). These cDNAs encoded proteins with 204 amino acid residues, which showed marked homology with each other (97%). The protein and nucleotide sequences demonstrated a high level of homology between salmon SNAP-25s and those of other teleost species. By quantitative PCR, the expression of snap25a and snap25b was detected in all regions of the salmon brain, especially in the telencephalon. The expression levels of snap25a in the olfactory blub were higher during seaward migration than in upriver and post-upriver migrations, reflecting synaptogenesis in the olfactory nervous system, and snap25b in the telencephalon was increased during upriver period. Our results indicated that snap25s gene is involved in synaptic plasticity for olfactory imprinting and/or olfactory memory retrieval in Pacific salmon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene expression is differentially modulated in the rat spinal dorsal horn and hippocampus during inflammatory pain

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    McCarson Kenneth E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Persistent pain produces complex alterations in sensory pathways of the central nervous system (CNS through activation of various nociceptive mechanisms. However, the effects of pain on higher brain centers, particularly the influence of the stressful component of pain on the limbic system, are poorly understood. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, known neuromediators of hyperalgesia and spinal central sensitization, have also been implicated in the plasticity and neurodegeneration occurring in the hippocampal formation during exposures to various stressors. Results of this study showed that injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA into the hind paw increased NK-1 receptor and BDNF mRNA levels in the ipsilateral dorsal horn, supporting an important role for these nociceptive mediators in the amplification of ascending pain signaling. An opposite effect was observed in the hippocampus, where CFA down-regulated NK-1 receptor and BDNF gene expression, phenomena previously observed in immobilization models of stress and depression. Western blot analyses demonstrated that in the spinal cord, CFA also increased levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB, while in the hippocampus the activation of this transcription factor was significantly reduced, further suggesting that tissue specific transcription of either NK-1 or BDNF genes may be partially regulated by common intracellular transduction mechanisms mediated through activation of CREB. These findings suggest that persistent nociception induces differential regional regulation of NK-1 receptor and BDNF gene expression and CREB activation in the CNS, potentially reflecting varied roles of these neuromodulators in the spinal cord during persistent sensory activation vs. modulation of the higher brain structures such as the hippocampus.

  15. Immune challenge by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide directs gene expression in distinct blood-brain barrier cells toward enhanced prostaglandin E(2) signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilache, Ana Maria; Qian, Hong; Blomqvist, Anders

    2015-08-01

    The cells constituting the blood-brain barrier are critical for the transduction of peripheral immune signals to the brain, but hitherto no comprehensive analysis of the signaling events that occur in these cells in response to a peripheral inflammatory stimulus has been performed. Here, we examined the inflammatory transcriptome in blood-brain barrier cells, including endothelial cells, pericytes, and perivascular macrophages, which were isolated by fluorescent-activated cell sorting, from non-immune-challenged mice and from mice stimulated by bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide. We show that endothelial cells and perivascular macrophages display distinct transcription profiles for inflammatory signaling and respond in distinct and often opposing ways to the immune stimulus. Thus, endothelial cells show induced PGE2 synthesis and transport with attenuation of PGE2 catabolism, increased expression of cytokine receptors and down-stream signaling molecules, and downregulation of adhesion molecules. In contrast, perivascular macrophages show downregulation of the synthesis of prostanoids other than PGE2 and of prostaglandin catabolism, but upregulation of interleukin-6 synthesis. Pericytes were largely unresponsive to the immune stimulation, with the exception of downregulation of proteins involved in pericyte-endothelial cell communication. While the endothelial cells account for most of the immune-induced gene expression changes in the blood-brain barrier, the response of the endothelial cells occurs in a concerted manner with that of the perivascular cells to elevate intracerebral levels of PGE2, hence emphasizing the critical role of PGE2 in immune-induced signal transduction across the blood-brain barrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. PACAP38 differentially effects genes and CRMP2 protein expression in ischemic core and penumbra regions of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model mice brain.

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    Hori, Motohide; Nakamachi, Tomoya; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Tsuchida, Masachi; Shioda, Seiji; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2014-09-23

    Pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has neuroprotective and axonal guidance functions, but the mechanisms behind such actions remain unclear. Previously we examined effects of PACAP (PACAP38, 1 pmol) injection intracerebroventrically in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) along with control saline (0.9% NaCl) injection. Transcriptomic and proteomic approaches using ischemic (ipsilateral) brain hemisphere revealed differentially regulated genes and proteins by PACAP38 at 6 and 24 h post-treatment. However, as the ischemic hemisphere consisted of infarct core, penumbra, and non-ischemic regions, specificity of expression and localization of these identified molecular factors remained incomplete. This led us to devise a new experimental strategy wherein, ischemic core and penumbra were carefully sampled and compared to the corresponding contralateral (healthy) core and penumbra regions at 6 and 24 h post PACAP38 or saline injections. Both reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to examine targeted gene expressions and the collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) protein profiles, respectively. Clear differences in expression of genes and CRMP2 protein abundance and degradation product/short isoform was observed between ischemic core and penumbra and also compared to the contralateral healthy tissues after PACAP38 or saline treatment. Results indicate the importance of region-specific analyses to further identify, localize and functionally analyse target molecular factors for clarifying the neuroprotective function of PACAP38.

  17. PACAP38 Differentially Effects Genes and CRMP2 Protein Expression in Ischemic Core and Penumbra Regions of Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model Mice Brain

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    Motohide Hori

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP has neuroprotective and axonal guidance functions, but the mechanisms behind such actions remain unclear. Previously we examined effects of PACAP (PACAP38, 1 pmol injection intracerebroventrically in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO along with control saline (0.9% NaCl injection. Transcriptomic and proteomic approaches using ischemic (ipsilateral brain hemisphere revealed differentially regulated genes and proteins by PACAP38 at 6 and 24 h post-treatment. However, as the ischemic hemisphere consisted of infarct core, penumbra, and non-ischemic regions, specificity of expression and localization of these identified molecular factors remained incomplete. This led us to devise a new experimental strategy wherein, ischemic core and penumbra were carefully sampled and compared to the corresponding contralateral (healthy core and penumbra regions at 6 and 24 h post PACAP38 or saline injections. Both reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to examine targeted gene expressions and the collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2 protein profiles, respectively. Clear differences in expression of genes and CRMP2 protein abundance and degradation product/short isoform was observed between ischemic core and penumbra and also compared to the contralateral healthy tissues after PACAP38 or saline treatment. Results indicate the importance of region-specific analyses to further identify, localize and functionally analyse target molecular factors for clarifying the neuroprotective function of PACAP38.

  18. Effects of an oxycodone conjugate vaccine on oxycodone self-administration and oxycodone-induced brain gene expression in rats.

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    Marco Pravetoni

    Full Text Available Prescription opioid abuse is an increasing public health concern in the USA. A vaccine comprising a hapten (OXY conjugated to the carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (OXY-KLH has been shown to attenuate the antinociceptive effects of oxycodone. Here, the vaccine's ability to prevent acquisition of intravenous (i.v. oxycodone self-administration was studied in rats. Effects of vaccination on oxycodone-induced changes in the expression of several genes within the mesolimbic system, which are regulated by chronic opiate use, were also examined. Vaccination with OXY-KLH reduced the proportion of rats acquiring i.v. self-administration of oxycodone under a fixed ratio (FR 3 schedule of reinforcement compared to control rats immunized with the unconjugated KLH carrier protein. Vaccination significantly reduced the mean number of infusions at FR3, total number of infusions, and total oxycodone intake during the entire protocol. Compared to oxycodone self-administering control rats immunized with the carrier alone, rats vaccinated with the OXY-KLH immunogen showed increased levels of adenylate cyclase 5 (Adcy5 and decreased levels of early growth response protein 2 (Egr2 and the early immediate gene c-Fos in the striatum. These data suggest that vaccination with OXY-KLH can attenuate the reinforcing effects of oxycodone at a clinically-relevant exposure level. Analysis of mRNA expression identified some addiction-relevant markers that may be of interest in understanding oxycodone effects or the protection provided by vaccination.

  19. Transmission of stress-induced learning impairment and associated brain gene expression from parents to offspring in chickens.

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    Christina Lindqvist

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress influences many aspects of animal behaviour and is a major factor driving populations to adapt to changing living conditions, such as during domestication. Stress can affect offspring through non-genetic mechanisms, but recent research indicates that inherited epigenetic modifications of the genome could possibly also be involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Red junglefowl (RJF, ancestors of modern chickens and domesticated White Leghorn (WL chickens were raised in a stressful environment (unpredictable light-dark rhythm and control animals in similar pens, but on a 12/12 h light-dark rhythm. WL in both treatments had poorer spatial learning ability than RJF, and in both populations, stress caused a reduced ability to solve a spatial learning task. Offspring of stressed WL, but not RJF, raised without parental contact, had a reduced spatial learning ability compared to offspring of non-stressed animals in a similar test as that used for their parents. Offspring of stressed WL were also more competitive and grew faster than offspring of non-stressed parents. Using a whole-genome cDNA microarray, we found that in WL, the same changes in hypothalamic gene expression profile caused by stress in the parents were also found in the offspring. In offspring of stressed WL, at least 31 genes were up- or down-regulated in the hypothalamus and pituitary compared to offspring of non-stressed parents. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that, in WL the gene expression response to stress, as well as some behavioural stress responses, were transmitted across generations. The ability to transmit epigenetic information and behaviour modifications between generations may therefore have been favoured by domestication. The mechanisms involved remain to be investigated; epigenetic modifications could either have been inherited or acquired de novo in the specific egg environment. In both cases, this would offer a novel explanation to

  20. Modulation of intestinal microbiota by the probiotic VSL#3 resets brain gene expression and ameliorates the age-related deficit in LTP.

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    Distrutti, Eleonora; O'Reilly, Julie-Ann; McDonald, Claire; Cipriani, Sabrina; Renga, Barbara; Lynch, Marina A; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is increasingly recognized as a complex signaling network that impacts on many systems beyond the enteric system modulating, among others, cognitive functions including learning, memory and decision-making processes. This has led to the concept of a microbiota-driven gut-brain axis, reflecting a bidirectional interaction between the central nervous system and the intestine. A deficit in synaptic plasticity is one of the many changes that occurs with age. Specifically, the archetypal model of plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP), is reduced in hippocampus of middle-aged and aged rats. Because the intestinal microbiota might change with age, we have investigated whether the age-related deficit in LTP might be attenuated by changing the composition of intestinal microbiota with VSL#3, a probiotic mixture comprising 8 Gram-positive bacterial strains. Here, we report that treatment of aged rats with VSL#3 induced a robust change in the composition of intestinal microbiota with an increase in the abundance of Actinobacteria and Bacterioidetes, which was reduced in control-treated aged rats. VSL#3 administration modulated the expression of a large group of genes in brain tissue as assessed by whole gene expression, with evidence of a change in genes that impact on inflammatory and neuronal plasticity processes. The age-related deficit in LTP was attenuated in VSL#3-treated aged rats and this was accompanied by a modest decrease in markers of microglial activation and an increase in expression of BDNF and synapsin. The data support the notion that intestinal microbiota can be manipulated to positively impact on neuronal function.

  1. Modulation of intestinal microbiota by the probiotic VSL#3 resets brain gene expression and ameliorates the age-related deficit in LTP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Distrutti

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota is increasingly recognized as a complex signaling network that impacts on many systems beyond the enteric system modulating, among others, cognitive functions including learning, memory and decision-making processes. This has led to the concept of a microbiota-driven gut-brain axis, reflecting a bidirectional interaction between the central nervous system and the intestine. A deficit in synaptic plasticity is one of the many changes that occurs with age. Specifically, the archetypal model of plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP, is reduced in hippocampus of middle-aged and aged rats. Because the intestinal microbiota might change with age, we have investigated whether the age-related deficit in LTP might be attenuated by changing the composition of intestinal microbiota with VSL#3, a probiotic mixture comprising 8 Gram-positive bacterial strains. Here, we report that treatment of aged rats with VSL#3 induced a robust change in the composition of intestinal microbiota with an increase in the abundance of Actinobacteria and Bacterioidetes, which was reduced in control-treated aged rats. VSL#3 administration modulated the expression of a large group of genes in brain tissue as assessed by whole gene expression, with evidence of a change in genes that impact on inflammatory and neuronal plasticity processes. The age-related deficit in LTP was attenuated in VSL#3-treated aged rats and this was accompanied by a modest decrease in markers of microglial activation and an increase in expression of BDNF and synapsin. The data support the notion that intestinal microbiota can be manipulated to positively impact on neuronal function.

  2. Effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein gene expression in primary frontal cortical neurons. Comparison with NMDA and AMPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Sayed, Mona; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    The effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) mRNA levels in primary neuronal cultures of rat frontal cortex was characterized pharmacologically and compared to the effect on expression of c-fos, bdnf, neuritin, cox-2 as examples...... and BDNF mRNA, but not COX-2 mRNA. The pharmacological profile of NMDA and AMPA-induced arc gene expression in frontal cortical neurons was compared to BDNF. NMDA and AMPA increased Arc mRNA but their maximal effect did not exceed 20-fold. The effect of AMPA was completely blocked by the NMDA receptor...... plasticity in the frontal cortex....

  3. Military Personnel with Chronic Symptoms Following Blast Traumatic Brain Injury Have Differential Expression of Neuronal Recovery and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Genes

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    Morgan eHeinzlemann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Approximately one-quarter of military personnel who deployed to combat stations sustained one or more blast-related, closed-head injuries. The mechanisms associated with blast exposure that give rise to traumatic brain injury (TBI, and place military personnel at high risk for chronic symptoms of post-concussive disorder (PCD, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and depression are not elucidated.Methods: To investigate the mechanisms of persistent blast related symptoms, we examined expression profiles of transcripts across the genome to determine the role of gene activity in chronic symptoms following blast-TBI. Active duty military personnel with (1 a medical record of a blast-TBI that occurred during deployment (n=19 were compared to control participants without TBI (n=17. Controls were matched to cases on demographic factors including age, gender and race, and also in diagnoses of sleep disturbance, and symptoms of PTSD and depression. Due to the high number of PCD symptoms in the TBI+ group, we did not match on this variable. Using expression profiles of transcripts in microarray platform in peripheral samples of whole blood, significantly differentially expressed gene lists were generated. Statistical threshold is based on criteria of 1.5 magnitude fold-change (up or down and p-values with multiple test correction (false discovery rate; FDR<0.05. Results: There were 34 transcripts in 29 genes that were differentially regulated in blast-TBI participants compared to controls. Up-regulated genes included epithelial cell transforming sequence and zinc finger proteins, which are necessary for astrocyte differentiation following injury. Tensin-1, which has been implicated in neuronal recovery in preclinical TBI models, was down-regulated in blast-TBI participants. Protein ubiquitination genes, such as epidermal growth factor receptor, were also down-regulated and identified a

  4. Discovery of a novel functional leptin protein (LEP) in zebra finches: evidence for the existence of an authentic avian leptin gene predominantly expressed in the brain and pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guian; Li, Juan; Wang, Hongning; Lan, Xinyu; Wang, Yajun

    2014-09-01

    Leptin (LEP) is reported to play important roles in controlling energy balance in vertebrates, including birds. However, it remains an open question whether an authentic "LEP gene" exists and functions in birds. Here, we identified and characterized a LEP gene (zebra finch LEP [zbLEP]) encoding a 172-amino acid precursor in zebra finches. Despite zbLEP showing limited amino acid sequence identity (26%-29%) to human and mouse LEPs, synteny analysis proved that zbLEP is orthologous to mammalian LEP. Using a pAH32 luciferase reporter system and Western blot analysis, we demonstrated that the recombinant zbLEP protein could potently activate finch and chicken LEP receptors (zbLEPR; cLEPR) expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and enhance signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation, further indicating that zbLEP is a functional ligand for avian LEPRs. Interestingly, quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that zbLEP mRNA is expressed nearly exclusively in the pituitary and various brain regions but undetectable in adipose tissue and liver, whereas zbLEPR mRNA is widely expressed in adult finch tissues examined with abundant expression noted in pituitary, implying that unlike mammalian LEP, finch LEP may not act as an adipocyte-derived signal to control energy balance. As in finches, a LEP highly homologous to zbLEP was also identified in budgerigar genome. Strikingly, finch and budgerigar LEPs show little homology with chicken LEP (cLEP) previously reported, suggesting that the so-called cLEP is incorrect. Collectively, our data provide convincing evidence for the existence of an authentic functional LEP in avian species and suggest an important role of brain- and pituitary-derived LEP played in vertebrates.

  5. Differential expression patterns of PQRFamide peptide and its two receptor genes in the brain and pituitary of grass puffer during the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Md; Doi, Hiroyuki; Ando, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Pain-modulatory neuropeptides, PQRFamide (PQRFa) peptides, have recently been implicated in the regulation of reproduction in fish. As a first step toward investigating the role of PQRFa peptides on reproductive function in the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles, which is a semilunar spawner, we cloned genes encoding PQRFa peptide precursor (pqrfa) and its two types of receptors (pqrfa-r1 and pqrfa-r2), and examined changes in their expression levels in the brain and pituitary over several months during the reproductive cycle. The grass puffer PQRFa peptide precursor of 126 amino acid residues contains two putative PQRFa peptides, PQRFa-1 and PQRFa-2, which correspond to NPFF and NPAF in other vertebrates, respectively. The grass puffer PQRFa-R1 and PQRFa-R2 consist of 426 and 453 amino acid residues, respectively, and contain distinct characteristics of G-protein coupled receptors. These three genes were exclusively expressed in the brain and pituitary. The expression levels of pqrfa and pqrfa-r1 were significantly increased during the late stage of sexual maturation, but low in the spawning fish just after releasing sperms and eggs. Therefore, the grass puffer PQRFa peptide may have a role in the late stage of sexual maturation before spawning via PQRFa-R1. In contrast, the pqrfa-r2 expression showed maximum levels in the spawning fish and in the post-spawning period. The present results provide fundamental data suggesting that the grass puffer PQRFa peptide may have multiple roles in the control of reproduction that are dependent on the reproductive stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lead induces similar gene expression changes in brains of gestationally exposed adult mice and in neurons differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells.

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    Francisco Javier Sánchez-Martín

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental toxicants during embryonic life causes changes in the expression of developmental genes that may last for a lifetime and adversely affect the exposed individual. Developmental exposure to lead (Pb, an ubiquitous environmental contaminant, causes deficits in cognitive functions and IQ, behavioral effects, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Long-term effects observed after early life exposure to Pb include reduction of gray matter, alteration of myelin structure, and increment of criminal behavior in adults. Despite growing research interest, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the effects of lead in the central nervous system are still largely unknown. To study the molecular changes due to Pb exposure during neurodevelopment, we exposed mice to Pb in utero and examined the expression of neural markers, neurotrophins, transcription factors and glutamate-related genes in hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus at postnatal day 60. We found that hippocampus was the area where gene expression changes due to Pb exposure were more pronounced. To recapitulate gestational Pb exposure in vitro, we differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC into neurons and treated ESC-derived neurons with Pb for the length of the differentiation process. These neurons expressed the characteristic neuronal markers Tubb3, Syp, Gap43, Hud, Ngn1, Vglut1 (a marker of glutamatergic neurons, and all the glutamate receptor subunits, but not the glial marker Gafp. Importantly, several of the changes observed in Pb-exposed mouse brains in vivo were also observed in Pb-treated ESC-derived neurons, including those affecting expression of Ngn1, Bdnf exon IV, Grin1, Grin2D, Grik5, Gria4, and Grm6. We conclude that our ESC-derived model of toxicant exposure during neural differentiation promises to be a useful model to analyze mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by Pb and other environmental agents.

  7. Introduction of the human AVPR1A gene substantially alters brain receptor expression patterns and enhances aspects of social behavior in transgenic mice

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    Rhonda Charles

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Central arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A modulates a wide range of behaviors, including stress management and territorial aggression, as well as social bonding and recognition. Inter- and intra-species variations in the expression pattern of AVPR1A in the brain and downstream differential behavioral phenotypes have been attributed to differences in the non-coding regions of the AVPR1A gene, including polymorphic elements within upstream regulatory areas. Gene association studies have suggested a link between AVPR1A polymorphisms and autism, and AVPR1A has emerged as a potential pharmacological target for treatment of social cognitive impairments and mood and anxiety disorders. To further investigate the genetic mechanism giving rise to species differences in AVPR1A expression patterns and associated social behaviors, and to create a preclinical mouse model useful for screening drugs targeting AVPR1A, we engineered and extensively characterized bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC transgenic mice harboring the entire human AVPR1A locus with the surrounding regulatory elements. Compared with wild-type animals, the humanized mice displayed a more widely distributed ligand-AVPR1A binding pattern, which overlapped with that of primates. Furthermore, humanized AVPR1A mice displayed increased reciprocal social interactions compared with wild-type animals, but no differences in social approach and preference for social novelty were observed. Aspects of learning and memory, specifically novel object recognition and spatial relocation recognition, were unaffected. The biological alterations in humanized AVPR1A mice resulted in the rescue of the prepulse inhibition impairments that were observed in knockout mice, indicating conserved functionality. Although further behavioral paradigms and additional cohorts need to be examined in humanized AVPR1A mice, the results demonstrate that species-specific variations in the genomic content of regulatory

  8. Type A and B monoamine oxidases distinctly modulate signal transduction pathway and gene expression to regulate brain function and survival of neurons.

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    Naoi, Makoto; Maruyama, Wakako; Shamoto-Nagai, Masayo

    2017-12-26

    Type A and B monoamine oxidases (MAO-A, -B) mediate and modulate intracellular signal pathways for survival or death of neuronal cells. MAO-A is associated with development of neuronal architecture, synaptic activity, and onset of psychiatric disorders, including depression, and antisocial aggressive impulsive behaviors. MAO-B produces hydrogen peroxide and plays a vital role in neuronal loss of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review presents a novel role of MAO-A and B, their substrates and inhibitors, and hydrogen peroxide in brain function and neuronal survival and death. MAO-A activity is regulated not only by genetic factor, but also by environmental factors, including stress, hormonal deregulation, and food factors. MAO-A activity fluctuates by genetic-environmental factors, modulates the neuronal response to the stimuli, and affects behavior and emotional activities. MAO-B inhibitors selegiline and rasagiline protect neurons via increase expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-survival neurotrophic factors in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and glioblastoma U118MG cell lines. MAO-A knockdown suppressed the rasagiline-induced gene expression in SH-SY5Y cells, whereas MAO-B silencing enhanced the basal- and selegiline-induced gene expression in U118MG cells. MAO-A and B were shown to function as a mediator or repressor of gene expression, respectively. Further study on cellular mechanism underlying regulation of signal pathways by MAO-A and B may bring us a new insight on the role of MAOs in decision of neuronal fate and the development of novel therapeutic strategy may be expected for neuropsychiatric disorders.

  9. Fish oil feeding attenuates neuroinflammatory gene expression without concomitant changes in brain eicosanoids and docosanoids in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

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    Hopperton, Kathryn E; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; James, Nicholas C E; Chouinard-Watkins, Raphaël; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-11-03

    Neuroinflammation is a recognized hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, along with accumulation of amyloid-β plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and synaptic loss. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and molecules derived from them, including eicosapentaenoic acid-derived eicosanoids and docosahexaenoic acid-derived docosanoids, are known to have both anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties, while human observational data links consumption of these fatty acids to a decreased risk of Alzheimer's disease. Few studies have examined the neuroinflammation-modulating effects of n-3 PUFA feeding in an Alzheimer's disease-related model, and none have investigated whether these effects are mediated by changes in brain eicosanoids and docosanoids. Here, we use both a fat-1 transgenic mouse and a fish oil feeding model to study the impact of increasing tissue n-3 PUFA on neuroinflammation and the production of pro-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators. Fat-1 mice, transgenic animals that can convert n-6 to n-3 PUFA, and their wildtype littermates were fed diets containing either fish oil (high n-3 PUFA) or safflower oil (negligible n-3 PUFA) from weaning to 12 weeks. Animals then underwent intracerebroventricular infusion of either amyloid-β 1-40 or a control peptide. Hippocampi were collected from non-surgery and surgery animals 10 days after infusion. Microarray was used to measure enrichment of inflammation-associated gene categories and expression of genes involved in the synthesis of lipid mediators. Results were validated by real-time PCR in a separate cohort of animals. Lipid mediators were measured via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Fat-1 and wildtype mice fed fish oil had higher total hippocampal DHA than wildtype mice fed the safflower oil diet. The safflower-fed mice, but not the fat-1 or fish oil-fed mice, had significantly increased expression in gene ontology categories associated with inflammation in response to amyloid

  10. A large-scale electrophoresis- and chromatography-based determination of gene expression profiles in bovine brain capillary endothelial cells after the re-induction of blood-brain barrier properties

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    Duban-Deweer Sophie

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs form the physiological basis of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. The barrier function is (at least in part due to well-known proteins such as transporters, tight junctions and metabolic barrier proteins (e.g. monoamine oxidase, gamma glutamyltranspeptidase and P-glycoprotein. Our previous 2-dimensional gel proteome analysis had identified a large number of proteins and revealed the major role of dynamic cytoskeletal remodelling in the differentiation of bovine BCECs. The aim of the present study was to elaborate a reference proteome of Triton X-100-soluble species from bovine BCECs cultured in the well-established in vitro BBB model developed in our laboratory. Results A total of 215 protein spots (corresponding to 130 distinct proteins were identified by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, whereas over 350 proteins were identified by a shotgun approach. We classified around 430 distinct proteins expressed by bovine BCECs. Our large-scale gene expression analysis enabled the correction of mistakes referenced into protein databases (e.g. bovine vinculin and constitutes valuable evidence for predictions based on genome annotation. Conclusions Elaboration of a reference proteome constitutes the first step in creating a gene expression database dedicated to capillary endothelial cells displaying BBB characteristics. It improves of our knowledge of the BBB and the key proteins in cell structures, cytoskeleton organization, metabolism, detoxification and drug resistance. Moreover, our results emphasize the need for both appropriate experimental design and correct interpretation of proteome datasets.

  11. On Expression Patterns and Developmental Origin of Human Brain Regions.

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    Kirsch, Lior; Chechik, Gal

    2016-08-01

    Anatomical substructures of the human brain have characteristic cell-types, connectivity and local circuitry, which are reflected in area-specific transcriptome signatures, but the principles governing area-specific transcription and their relation to brain development are still being studied. In adult rodents, areal transcriptome patterns agree with the embryonic origin of brain regions, but the processes and genes that preserve an embryonic signature in regional expression profiles were not quantified. Furthermore, it is not clear how embryonic-origin signatures of adult-brain expression interplay with changes in expression patterns during development. Here we first quantify which genes have regional expression-patterns related to the developmental origin of brain regions, using genome-wide mRNA expression from post-mortem adult human brains. We find that almost all human genes (92%) exhibit an expression pattern that agrees with developmental brain-region ontology, but that this agreement changes at multiple phases during development. Agreement is particularly strong in neuron-specific genes, but also in genes that are not spatially correlated with neuron-specific or glia-specific markers. Surprisingly, agreement is also stronger in early-evolved genes. We further find that pairs of similar genes having high agreement to developmental region ontology tend to be more strongly correlated or anti-correlated, and that the strength of spatial correlation changes more strongly in gene pairs with stronger embryonic signatures. These results suggest that transcription regulation of most genes in the adult human brain is spatially tuned in a way that changes through life, but in agreement with development-determined brain regions.

  12. On Expression Patterns and Developmental Origin of Human Brain Regions.

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    Lior Kirsch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical substructures of the human brain have characteristic cell-types, connectivity and local circuitry, which are reflected in area-specific transcriptome signatures, but the principles governing area-specific transcription and their relation to brain development are still being studied. In adult rodents, areal transcriptome patterns agree with the embryonic origin of brain regions, but the processes and genes that preserve an embryonic signature in regional expression profiles were not quantified. Furthermore, it is not clear how embryonic-origin signatures of adult-brain expression interplay with changes in expression patterns during development. Here we first quantify which genes have regional expression-patterns related to the developmental origin of brain regions, using genome-wide mRNA expression from post-mortem adult human brains. We find that almost all human genes (92% exhibit an expression pattern that agrees with developmental brain-region ontology, but that this agreement changes at multiple phases during development. Agreement is particularly strong in neuron-specific genes, but also in genes that are not spatially correlated with neuron-specific or glia-specific markers. Surprisingly, agreement is also stronger in early-evolved genes. We further find that pairs of similar genes having high agreement to developmental region ontology tend to be more strongly correlated or anti-correlated, and that the strength of spatial correlation changes more strongly in gene pairs with stronger embryonic signatures. These results suggest that transcription regulation of most genes in the adult human brain is spatially tuned in a way that changes through life, but in agreement with development-determined brain regions.

  13. Correlated basal expression of immediate early gene egr1 and tyrosine hydroxylase in zebrafish brain and downregulation in olfactory bulb after transitory olfactory deprivation.

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    Kress, Sigrid; Wullimann, Mario F

    2012-12-01

    Imprinting on kin occurs during the sixth day of larval development in zebrafish and depends on olfactory signals. In rodents, the immediate early gene egr1 is involved in maintaining the dopaminergic phenotype of periglomerular olfactory bulb cells in an activity dependent way. Furthermore, egr1 is upregulated in medial amygdalar dopamine cells in some rodents (prairie voles) dependent on social pheromone interactions. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether egr1 is involved in imprinting processes and later kin recognition in zebrafish in olfactory centers, such as the olfactory bulb and suspected medial amygdala. In the present paper, we focus on a basic investigation of basal egr1 expression throughout zebrafish brain development and its co-localization with tyrosine hydroxylase as a marker for dopaminergic neurons. Indeed, there is unambiguous co-localization of egr1 and tyrosine hydroxylase in the zebrafish olfactory bulb and hypothetical medial amygdala. Furthermore, as in rodents, ipsilateral transient olfactory deprivation through Triton X-100 treatment of the olfactory epithelium leads to downregulation of egr1 and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the olfactory bulb, but apparently not in secondary olfactory targets of the zebrafish brain. This indicates that similar processes might be at work in zebrafish and rodent olfactory systems, but their more specific involvement in imprinting in zebrafish has to be further tested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cloning and expression of genes enocoding antimicrobial peptides and bradykinin from the skin and brain of Oki Tago's brown frog, Rana tagoi okiensis.

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    Tazato, Shoro; Conlon, J Michael; Iwamuro, Shawichi

    2010-08-01

    Previous studies led to the isolation from skin extracts of Oki Tago's brown frog, Rana tagoi okiensis of five antimicrobial peptides belonging to the brevinin-1 (brevinin-1TOa), temporin (temporin-TOa and -TOb), and ranatuerin-2 (ranatuerin-2TOa and -2TOb) families, and bradykinin (BK) identical to mammalian BK. Using the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we have now cloned from skin total RNA preparations cDNAs encoding biosynthetic precursors of brevinin-1TOa and brevinin-1TOb (containing the substitution Gly(1)-->Val), temporin-TOa and -TOb, and ranatuerin-2TOa and -2TOb. In addition, three cDNA clones encoding preprobradykinins were obtained that contained either one, two, or three tandem repeats of the sequence of BK followed by the sequence of [Thr(6)]-BK. In tissue expression analyses, preprobrevinin-1, preprotemporin, and preproranatuerin-2 gene transcripts were detected at higher levels in brain compared with peripheral tissues (heart, small intestine, kidney, liver lung, skeletal muscle, stomach, and testis). RT-PCR of brain RNA resulted in the amplification of cDNAs encoding ranatuerin-2TOc and ranatuerin-2TOd that contained the amino acid substitutions Lys(6)-->Arg and Ala(14)-->Thr, respectively compared with ranatuerin-2TOb. cDNAs encoding preprobrevinin-1TOa and preprotemporin-TOa were amplified from brain RNA as well as a second preprotemporin cDNA that contained a 10-nucleotide insertion that introduced a frame shift resulting in a premature stop codon. A cDNA encoding a novel peptide, DK25 (DVNDLKNLCAKTHNLLPMCAMFGKK) was amplified from brain RNA but neither DK25 nor its putative post-translationally modified form, DF22-amide (DVNDLKNLCAKTHNLLPMCAMF.NH(2)) displayed antimicrobial or hemolytic activities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral leucine supplementation is sensed by the brain but neither reduces food intake nor induces an anorectic pattern of gene expression in the hypothalamus.

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    Thais T Zampieri

    Full Text Available Leucine activates the intracellular mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR pathway, and hypothalamic mTOR signaling regulates food intake. Although central infusion of leucine reduces food intake, it is still uncertain whether oral leucine supplementation is able to affect the hypothalamic circuits that control energy balance. We observed increased phosphorylation of p70s6k in the mouse hypothalamus after an acute oral gavage of leucine. We then assessed whether acute oral gavage of leucine induces the activation of neurons in several hypothalamic nuclei and in the brainstem. Leucine did not induce the expression of Fos in hypothalamic nuclei, but it increased the number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the area postrema. In addition, oral gavage of leucine acutely increased the 24 h food intake of mice. Nonetheless, chronic leucine supplementation in the drinking water did not change the food intake and the weight gain of ob/ob mice and of wild-type mice consuming a low- or a high-fat diet. We assessed the hypothalamic gene expression and observed that leucine supplementation increased the expression of enzymes (BCAT1, BCAT2 and BCKDK that metabolize branched-chain amino acids. Despite these effects, leucine supplementation did not induce an anorectic pattern of gene expression in the hypothalamus. In conclusion, our data show that the brain is able to sense oral leucine intake. However, the food intake is not modified by chronic oral leucine supplementation. These results question the possible efficacy of leucine supplementation as an appetite suppressant to treat obesity.

  16. A functional SNP in MIR124-1, a brain expressed miRNA gene, is associated with aggressiveness in a Colombian sample.

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    González-Giraldo, Y; Camargo, A; López-León, S; Adan, A; Forero, D A

    2015-06-01

    Interpersonal violence and suicide are among the main causes of mortality and morbidity around the world. In several developing countries, such as Colombia, they are among the first five entities of public health concern. Aggressiveness is an important endophenotype for aggression and suicidal behavior, having a heritability of around 50%. Exploration of classical candidate genes, involved in serotoninergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, has identified few consistent risk factors for aggressiveness. miRNAs are a novel class of molecules with a growing role in normal neural function and neuropsychiatric disorders; of special interest, miR-124 is a brain-specific miRNA that is key for neuronal plasticity. We evaluated the hypothesis that a functional polymorphism in MIR124-1 gene might be associated with aggressiveness in a Colombian sample. The Spanish adaptation of the refined version of the Aggression Questionnaire and the abbreviated Barratt Impulsiveness Scale were applied to 170 young subjects. The functional SNP in MIR124-1 (rs531564) was genotyped by a TaqMan assay. We found a significant association between the MIR124-1 and aggressiveness in our sample, with G/G carriers having lower scores (P=0.01). This association seemed to be specific for aggressiveness, as it was not significant for impulsiveness. We showed for the first time the association of a functional polymorphism in MIR124-1 and aggressiveness. Known targets of miR-124 (such as BDNF and DRD4 genes) could explain the effect of this miRNA on behavior. A future analysis of additional novel functional polymorphisms in other brain expressed miRNAs could be useful for a deeper understanding of aggression in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Upregulation of Haploinsufficient Gene Expression in the Brain by Targeting a Long Non-coding RNA Improves Seizure Phenotype in a Model of Dravet Syndrome

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    J. Hsiao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dravet syndrome is a devastating genetic brain disorder caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene SCN1A. There are currently no treatments, but the upregulation of SCN1A healthy allele represents an appealing therapeutic strategy. In this study we identified a novel, evolutionary conserved mechanism controlling the expression of SCN1A that is mediated by an antisense non-coding RNA (SCN1ANAT. Using oligonucleotide-based compounds (AntagoNATs targeting SCN1ANAT we were able to induce specific upregulation of SCN1A both in vitro and in vivo, in the brain of Dravet knock-in mouse model and a non-human primate. AntagoNAT-mediated upregulation of Scn1a in postnatal Dravet mice led to significant improvements in seizure phenotype and excitability of hippocampal interneurons. These results further elucidate the pathophysiology of Dravet syndrome and outline a possible new approach for the treatment of this and other genetic disorders with similar etiology.

  18. Shared Pathways Among Autism Candidate Genes Determined by Co-expression Network Analysis of the Developing Human Brain Transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfouz, A.; Ziats, M.N.; Rennert, O.M.; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.; Reinders, M.J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome known to have a significant but complex genetic etiology. Hundreds of diverse genes have been implicated in ASD; yet understanding how many genes, each with disparate function, can all be linked to a single clinical phenotype remains

  19. Landscape and pesticide effects on honey bees: forager survival and expression of acetylcholinesterase and brain oxidative genes

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    The aim of the present work was to assess the effects of agricultural pesticides on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) survival and physiological stress. Integrated use of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antioxidant enzymes (catalase and glutathione S-transferase) was tested on honey bee brains for detec...

  20. Brain transcriptomes of harbor seals demonstrate gene expression patterns of animals undergoing a metabolic disease and a viral infection

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    Stephanie M. Rosales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of marine mammals can be difficult to diagnose because of their life history and protected status. Stranded marine mammals have been a particularly useful resource to discover and comprehend the diseases that plague these top predators. Additionally, advancements in high-throughput sequencing (HTS has contributed to the discovery of novel pathogens in marine mammals. In this study, we use a combination of HTS and stranded harbor seals (Phoca vitulina to better understand a known and unknown brain disease. To do this, we used transcriptomics to evaluate brain tissues from seven neonatal harbor seals that expired from an unknown cause of death (UCD and compared them to four neonatal harbor seals that had confirmed phocine herpesvirus (PhV-1 infections in the brain. Comparing the two disease states we found that UCD animals showed a significant abundance of fatty acid metabolic transcripts in their brain tissue, thus we speculate that a fatty acid metabolic dysregulation contributed to the death of these animals. Furthermore, we were able to describe the response of four young harbor seals with PhV-1 infections in the brain. PhV-1 infected animals showed a significant ability to mount an innate and adaptive immune response, especially to combat viral infections. Our data also suggests that PhV-1 can hijack host pathways for DNA packaging and exocytosis. This is the first study to use transcriptomics in marine mammals to understand host and viral interactions and assess the death of stranded marine mammals with an unknown disease. Furthermore, we show the value of applying transcriptomics on stranded marine mammals for disease characterization.

  1. Brain transcriptomes of harbor seals demonstrate gene expression patterns of animals undergoing a metabolic disease and a viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Stephanie M; Vega Thurber, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Diseases of marine mammals can be difficult to diagnose because of their life history and protected status. Stranded marine mammals have been a particularly useful resource to discover and comprehend the diseases that plague these top predators. Additionally, advancements in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) has contributed to the discovery of novel pathogens in marine mammals. In this study, we use a combination of HTS and stranded harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) to better understand a known and unknown brain disease. To do this, we used transcriptomics to evaluate brain tissues from seven neonatal harbor seals that expired from an unknown cause of death (UCD) and compared them to four neonatal harbor seals that had confirmed phocine herpesvirus (PhV-1) infections in the brain. Comparing the two disease states we found that UCD animals showed a significant abundance of fatty acid metabolic transcripts in their brain tissue, thus we speculate that a fatty acid metabolic dysregulation contributed to the death of these animals. Furthermore, we were able to describe the response of four young harbor seals with PhV-1 infections in the brain. PhV-1 infected animals showed a significant ability to mount an innate and adaptive immune response, especially to combat viral infections. Our data also suggests that PhV-1 can hijack host pathways for DNA packaging and exocytosis. This is the first study to use transcriptomics in marine mammals to understand host and viral interactions and assess the death of stranded marine mammals with an unknown disease. Furthermore, we show the value of applying transcriptomics on stranded marine mammals for disease characterization.

  2. Effect of full flavor and denicotinized cigarettes exposure on the brain microvascular endothelium: a microarray-based gene expression study using a human immortalized BBB endothelial cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Pooja; Sajja, Ravi K; Prasad, Shikha; Cucullo, Luca

    2015-06-23

    Tobacco smoke (TS) toxicity to the brain microvasculature is still an understudied area till date. NF-E2 related factor (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor responsible for activating the antioxidant response element (ARE) genes following an oxidative insult. Till date, several studies targeting the blood brain barrier (BBB) have shown some protective role of Nrf2 in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, however, its functional role in chronic smokers subjected to a life-long oxidative stress has never been addressed. This is of crucial importance since smokers have a much higher risk for cerebrovascular stroke and tobacco smoke exposure has been clearly shown to enhance BBB damage following an ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thus, the goal of our study was to investigate the defense pathways activated at the BBB endothelial level by TS exposure. Specifically we focused on Nrf2 and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B signaling response (NF-κβ) as the central protective mechanisms related to oxidative insult. With the exception of Nicotine, both full flavor (3R4F) and decotinized (ULN) cigarettes activated Nrf2 and NFκβ pathways in hCMEC/D3 endothelial cells. Several detoxification and anti-oxidant genes including downstream products were also activated including NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO-1), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX-1), catalytic and modifier subunits of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), solute carrier-SLC7A11). Gene expression levels of cytochrome P450s (CYP2S1 and CYP51A1) and efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multi-drug resistance protein-4 (MRP4) were also enhanced. Increase of P-gp functional activity and depletion of GSH were also observed. Strikingly, toxicity of denicotinized ("reduced exposure") cigarettes was equivalent to 3R4F (or worse). This study provides a detailed analysis of Nrf2-related cytoprotective mechanisms activated in response to 3R4F and ULN-derived TS exposure correlating the results with their

  3. Long-Term Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Subsequent Seizure-Induced Brain Injury During Early Adulthood: Relationship of Seizure Thresholds to Zinc Transporter-Related Gene Expressions.

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    Tian, Tian; Li, Li-Li; Zhang, Shu-Qi; Ni, Hong

    2016-12-01

    The divalent cation zinc is associated with cortical plasticity. However, the mechanism of zinc in the pathophysiology of cortical injury-associated neurobehavioral damage following neonatal seizures is uncertain. We have previously shown upregulated expression of ZnT-3; MT-3 in hippocampus of neonatal rats submitted to flurothyl-induced recurrent seizures, which was restored by pretreatment with ketogenic diet (KD). In this study, utilizing a novel "twist" seizure model by coupling early-life flurothyl-induced seizures with later exposure to penicillin, we further investigated the long-term effects of KD on cortical expression of zinc homeostasis-related genes in a systemic scale. Ten Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned each averagely into the non-seizure plus normal diet (NS + ND), non-seizure plus KD (NS + KD), recurrent seizures plus normal diet (RS + ND) and recurrent seizures plus KD (RS + KD) group. Recurrent seizures were induced by volatile flurothyl during P9-P21. During P23-P53, rats in NS + KD and RS + KD groups were dieted with KD. Neurological behavioral parameters of brain damage (plane righting reflex, cliff avoidance reflex, and open field test) were observed at P43. At P63, we examined seizure threshold using penicillin, then the cerebral cortex were evaluated for real-time RT-PCR and western blot study. The RS + ND group showed worse performances in neurological reflex tests and reduced latencies to myoclonic seizures induced by penicillin compared with the control, which was concomitant with altered expressions of ZnT-7, MT-1, MT-2, and ZIP7. Specifically, there was long-term elevated expression of ZIP7 in RS + ND group compared with that in NS + ND that was restored by chronic ketogenic diet (KD) treatment in RS + KD group, which was quite in parallel with the above neurobehavioral changes. Taken together, these findings indicate that the long-term altered expression of the metal transporter ZIP7 in adult cerebral cortex might

  4. Discrepancy in Expression of β-Secretase and Amyloid-β Protein Precursor in Alzheimer-Related Genes in the Rat Medial Temporal Lobe Cortex Following Transient Global Brain Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluta, Ryszard; Kocki, Janusz; Ułamek-Kozioł, Marzena; Petniak, Alicja; Gil-Kulik, Paulina; Januszewski, Sławomir; Bogucki, Jacek; Jabłoński, Mirosław; Brzozowska, Judyta; Furmaga-Jabłońska, Wanda; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2016-01-01

    Brain ischemia may be causally related with Alzheimer's disease. Presumably, β-secretase and amyloid-β protein precursor gene expression changes may be associated with Alzheimer's disease neuropathology. Consequently, we have examined quantitative changes in both β-secretase and amyloid-β protein precursor genes in the medial temporal lobe cortex with the use of quantitative rtPCR analysis following 10-min global brain ischemia in rats with survival of 2, 7, and 30 days. The greatest significant overexpression of β-secretase gene was noted on the 2nd day, while on days 7-30 the expression of this gene was only modestly downregulated. Amyloid-β protein precursor gene was downregulated on the 2nd day, but on days 7-30 postischemia, there was a significant reverse tendency. Thus, the demonstrated alterations indicate that the considerable changes of expression of β-secretase and amyloid-β protein precursor genes may be connected with a response of neurons in medial temporal lobe cortex to transient global brain ischemia. Finally, the ischemia-induced gene changes may play a key role in a late and slow onset of Alzheimer-type pathology.

  5. Sexual imprinting leads to lateralized and non-lateralized expression of the immediate early gene zenk in the zebra finch brain.

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    Lieshoff, Carsten; Grosse-Ophoff, Jürgen; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2004-01-05

    Sexual imprinting is an early learning process by which young birds acquire the features of a potential sexual partner. The physiological basis of this learning process is an irreversible reduction of spine densities in two forebrain areas, the lateral neo- and hyperstriatum (LNH) and the medial neo- and hyperstriatum (MNH). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immediate early gene zenk, which has been shown frequently to play a role in plastic processes in the song system of zebra finches, may also be involved in the structural changes observed in these areas. The first exposure to a female after an isolation period enhances zenk expression in a variety of brain areas including LNH, MNH, and optic tectum. In contrast to earlier results, it was only the neostriatal part of LNH which showed an enhancement on first courtship, while exposure to a nestbox enhanced the label within the entire LNH area. Unexpectedly, the IEG expression was clearly lateralized in some layers of the optic tectum. Because lateralization occurred independent of the experimental condition, our study adds to recent results which also support the idea of a lateralized organization of the avian visual system.

  6. Sex differences in the expression of vasotocin/isotocin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylase family genes in the medaka brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Y; Hiraki, T; Takeuchi, A; Okubo, K

    2012-08-30

    In teleost fish, sex differences in several behavioral and physiological traits have been assumed to reflect underlying sex differences in the central expression of neurotransmitter/neuromodulator-related molecules, including vasotocin (VT)/isotocin (IT), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases (TH and TPH). However, the sex-dependent expression patterns of these molecules have not been fully characterized in the teleost brain. In the present study, we therefore systematically evaluated sex differences in their expression in the medaka (Oryzias latipes) brain. The most prominent sex difference was observed in vt expression in the nucleus posterior tuberis (NPT) and the posterior part of the nucleus ventral tuberis (NVT) in the hypothalamus, where the expression was completely male-specific. Male-biased expression of gnrh1, tph1, and tph2 was also evident in the supracommissural and posterior nuclei of the ventral telencephalic area (Vs/Vp), medial nucleus of the dorsal telencephalic area (Dm), and thalamic dorsal posterior nucleus (DP), respectively. In contrast, the overall expression levels of it and gnrh3 were higher in the female brain than in the male brain. Equally importantly, no conspicuous sex differences were observed in the expression of gnrh2, th1, and th2, despite several previous reports of their sex-biased expression in the brains of other teleost species. Taken together, these data have uncovered previously unidentified sex differences in the expression of VT/IT, GnRH, and TPH in the teleost brain, which may possibly be relevant to sexual dimorphism in some behavioral and/or physiological traits, and have simultaneously highlighted potential species differences in the roles of these molecules. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of continuous light on daily levels of plasma melatonin and cortisol and expression of clock genes in pineal gland, brain, and liver in atlantic salmon postsmolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tien-Sheng; Ruoff, Peter; Fjelldal, Per G

    2010-10-01

    Continuous light is a common practice in salmon farming, where it is used to enhance growth, induce smoltification, and regulate puberty. However, knowledge about how different tissues receive information about daylength is limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the daily expression of clock (Per1-like, Cry2, and Clock), the nuclear transcription factor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, PPAR; CCAAT/enhancer binding protein, C/EBP), and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (protein disulfide isomerase associated 3, PDIA3) genes in the pineal gland, brain, and liver of Atlantic salmon postsmolts reared under 12-h light:12-h dark (LD) regimes or under continuous light (LL) for 6 wks following transfer to seawater. All measured clock mRNAs displayed daily variations in one or more organs under LD, as well as plasma levels of melatonin. Similar variations were noted in the liver c/ebpα, pineal c/ebpδ, and pdia3 mRNAs. Under LL, the clock and nuclear transcription factor mRNAs did not show any daily variation in the studied organs, with the exception of pineal pdia3. Furthermore, LL had the opposite effect on the levels of melatonin and cortisol, as observed by the increase in pineal Clock, Per2, pparα, and c/ebpα and c/ebpδ mRNAs and decrease in liver Clock, Per2, and pparα mRNAs compared to those under LD. The present findings show that the expression of clock genes is affected by the light across organs and that there is a relation between PPAR, C/EBP, and clock mRNAs; however, the functional role of the individual nuclear transcription factors related to this observation remains to be established in the pineal gland and liver. (Author correspondence: Tihu@nifes.no ).

  8. CDRI-08 Attenuates REST/NRSF-Mediated Expression of NMDAR1 Gene in PBDE-209-Exposed Mice Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CDRI-08 is a standardized bacoside enriched ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri, a nootropic plant. We reported that CDRI-08 attenuated oxidative stress and memory impairment in mice, induced by a flame retardant, PBDE-209. In order to explore the mechanism, present study was designed to examine the role of CDRI-08 on the expression of NMDAR1 (NR1 and the binding of REST/NRSF to NR1 promoter against postnatal exposure of PBDE-209. Male mice pups were orally supplemented with CDRI-08 at the doses of 40, 80, or 120 mg/kg along with PBDE-209 (20 mg/kg during PND 3–10 and frontal cortex and hippocampus were collected at PND 11 and 60 to study the expression and regulation of NR1 by RT-PCR and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. The findings showed upregulated expression of NR1 and decreased binding of REST/NRSF to NR1 promoter after postnatal exposure of PBDE-209. Interestingly, supplementation with CDRI-08 significantly restored the expression of NR1 and binding of REST/NRSF to NR1 promoter near to the control value at the dose of 120 mg/kg. In conclusion, the results suggest that CDRI-08 possibly acts on glutamatergic system through expression and regulation of NR1 and may restore memory, impaired by PBDE-209 as reported in our previous study.

  9. High-Throughput Analysis of Dynamic Gene Expression Associated with Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep in the Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    sleep deprivation followed by recovery sleep (ZT10), 4) control for recovery sleep (ZT10), 5) spontaneous waking (ZT18). cDNA synthesis , cRNA...associated VLPO Dbi Diazepam binding inhibitor SD and RS associated PMCO 31 Dscr3 Down syndrome critical region gene 3 RS associated HCRT Dusp4

  10. Evolution of gene expression after gene amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Nelson; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Yongrui; Messing, Joachim

    2015-04-24

    We took a rather unique approach to investigate the conservation of gene expression of prolamin storage protein genes across two different subfamilies of the Poaceae. We took advantage of oat plants carrying single maize chromosomes in different cultivars, called oat-maize addition (OMA) lines, which permitted us to determine whether regulation of gene expression was conserved between the two species. We found that γ-zeins are expressed in OMA7.06, which carries maize chromosome 7 even in the absence of the trans-acting maize prolamin-box-binding factor (PBF), which regulates their expression. This is likely because oat PBF can substitute for the function of maize PBF as shown in our transient expression data, using a γ-zein promoter fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Despite this conservation, the younger, recently amplified prolamin genes in maize, absent in oat, are not expressed in the corresponding OMAs. However, maize can express the oldest prolamin gene, the wheat high-molecular weight glutenin Dx5 gene, even when maize Pbf is knocked down (through PbfRNAi), and/or another maize transcription factor, Opaque-2 (O2) is knocked out (in maize o2 mutant). Therefore, older genes are conserved in their regulation, whereas younger ones diverged during evolution and eventually acquired a new repertoire of suitable transcriptional activators. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Effect of full flavor and denicotinized cigarettes exposure on the brain microvascular endothelium: a microarray-based gene expression study using a human immortalized BBB endothelial cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Pooja; Sajja, Ravi K; Prasad, Shikha; Cucullo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoke (TS) toxicity to the brain microvasculature is still an understudied area till date. NF-E2 related factor (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor responsible for activating the antioxidant response element (ARE) genes following an oxidative insult. Till date, several studies targeting the blood brain barrier (BBB) have shown some protective role of Nrf2 in ischemia?reperfusion (IR) injury, however, its functional role in chronic smokers subjected to a life-long oxidative...

  12. Associating transcription factors and conserved RNA structures with gene regulation in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecker, Nikolai; Seemann, Stefan E.; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2017-01-01

    Anatomical subdivisions of the human brain can be associated with different neuronal functions. This functional diversification is reflected by differences in gene expression. By analyzing post-mortem gene expression data from the Allen Brain Atlas, we investigated the impact of transcription...... factors (TF) and RNA secondary structures on the regulation of gene expression in the human brain. First, we modeled the expression of a gene as a linear combination of the expression of TFs. We devised an approach to select robust TF-gene interactions and to determine localized contributions to gene...

  13. Contusive spinal cord injury up regulates mu-opioid receptor (mor) gene expression in the brain and down regulates its expression in the spinal cord: possible implications in spinal cord injury research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Felicia Mary; Mohapatra, Alok Nath; Venkitasamy, Lavanya; Chandrasekar, Kirubhanand; Seldon, Tenzin; Venkatachalam, Sankar

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the dreaded neurological conditions and finding a cure for it has been a hot area of research. Naloxone - a mu-opiate receptor (mor) antagonist was considered for SCI treatment based on its positive effects under shock conditions. In contrary to animal studies based reports about the potential benefits of naloxone in treating SCI, a large scale clinical trial [National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study II (NASCIS II)] conducted in USA failed to witness any effectiveness. The inconsistency noticed was intriguing. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to re-examine the role of naloxone in treating SCI using a highly standardised Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study (MASCIS) animal model of contusive SCI. Results indicated that naloxone produced negligible and insignificant neuroprotection. In an attempt to understand the cause for the failure, it was found that mu-opioid receptor (mor) gene expression was upregulated in the brain but was down regulated in the spinal cord after contusive SCI. Given that the beneficial effects of naloxone are through its action on the mor, the results indicate that unlike the brain, spinal cord might not be bracing to utilise the opiate system in the repair process. This could possibly explain the failure of naloxone treatment in NASCIS II. To conclude, opiate antagonists like naloxone may be neuroprotective for treating traumatic brain injuries, but not for traumatic/contusive spinal cord injuries.

  14. Increasing BMI is associated with reduced expression of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1 gene) in the human brain with a stronger association in African-Americans than Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Vendelbo; Olesen, Rasmus Hansen; Lauridsen, Jesper Krogh

    2016-01-01

    The efflux pump, p-glycoprotein, controls bioavailability and excretion of pharmaceutical compounds. In the blood-brain barrier, p-glycoprotein regulates the delivery of pharmaceutical substances to the brain, influencing efficacy and side effects for some drugs notably antipsychotics. Common side....... Using microarray data analysis from 145 neurologically sound adults, this study investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and ABCB1 expression in the frontal cortex. Increasing BMI values were associated with a statistically significantly reduced expression of ABCB1. Investigation...

  15. Analysis of multiplex gene expression maps obtained by voxelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Desmond J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression signatures in the mammalian brain hold the key to understanding neural development and neurological disease. Researchers have previously used voxelation in combination with microarrays for acquisition of genome-wide atlases of expression patterns in the mouse brain. On the other hand, some work has been performed on studying gene functions, without taking into account the location information of a gene's expression in a mouse brain. In this paper, we present an approach for identifying the relation between gene expression maps obtained by voxelation and gene functions. Results To analyze the dataset, we chose typical genes as queries and aimed at discovering similar gene groups. Gene similarity was determined by using the wavelet features extracted from the left and right hemispheres averaged gene expression maps, and by the Euclidean distance between each pair of feature vectors. We also performed a multiple clustering approach on the gene expression maps, combined with hierarchical clustering. Among each group of similar genes and clusters, the gene function similarity was measured by calculating the average gene function distances in the gene ontology structure. By applying our methodology to find similar genes to certain target genes we were able to improve our understanding of gene expression patterns and gene functions. By applying the clustering analysis method, we obtained significant clusters, which have both very similar gene expression maps and very similar gene functions respectively to their corresponding gene ontologies. The cellular component ontology resulted in prominent clusters expressed in cortex and corpus callosum. The molecular function ontology gave prominent clusters in cortex, corpus callosum and hypothalamus. The biological process ontology resulted in clusters in cortex, hypothalamus and choroid plexus. Clusters from all three ontologies combined were most prominently expressed in

  16. Homeobox gene expression in Brachiopoda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Martinez, Pedro; Wanninger, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The molecular control that underlies brachiopod ontogeny is largely unknown. In order to contribute to this issue we analyzed the expression pattern of two homeobox containing genes, Not and Cdx, during development of the rhynchonelliform (i.e., articulate) brachiopod Terebratalia transversa....... Not is a homeobox containing gene that regulates the formation of the notochord in chordates, while Cdx (caudal) is a ParaHox gene involved in the formation of posterior tissues of various animal phyla. The T. transversa homolog, TtrNot, is expressed in the ectoderm from the beginning of gastrulation until...... formation. TtrNot expression is absent in unfertilized eggs, in embryos prior to gastrulation, and in settled individuals during and after metamorphosis. Comparison with the expression patterns of Not genes in other metazoan phyla suggests an ancestral role for this gene in gastrulation and germ layer...

  17. A comparative expression analysis of gene transcripts in brain tissue of non-transgenic and GH-transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio using a DDRT-PCR approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda A. Alves-Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of higher level of exogenous growth hormone (GH in transgenic animals could lead to several physiological alterations. A GH transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio line was compared to nontransgenic (NT samples of the species through a DDRT-PCR approach, with the goal of identifying candidate differentially expressed transcripts in brain tissues that could be involved in GH overexpression. Densitometric analyses of two selected amplification products, p300 and ADCY2, pointed to a significant lower gene expression in the transgenic zebrafish (104.02 ± 57.71; 224.10 ± 91.73 when compared to NT samples (249.75 ± 30.08; 342.95 ± 65.19. The present data indicate that p300 and ADCY2 are involved in a regulation system for GH when high circulating levels of this hormone are found in zebrafishes.A presença de níveis mais elevados do hormônio de crescimento (GH em animais transgênicos poderia levar a várias alterações fisiológicas. Uma linhagem transgênica de paulistinha (Danio rerio para o GH foi comparada com amostras não transgênicas (NT desta espécie, através de uma abordagem de DDRT-PCR, com o objetivo de identificar transcritos candidatos diferencialmente expressos em tecido cerebral que poderiam estar envolvidos na superexpressão de GH. Análises densitométricas de dois produtos de amplificação selecionados, p300 e ADCY2, apontaram uma expressão gênica significativamente menor nas amostras transgênicas de paulistinha (104.02 ± 57.71; 224.10 ± 91.73, quando comparadas com as amostras NT (249.75 ± 30.08; 342.95±65.19. Os presentes dados indicam que p300 e ADCY2 estão envolvidos em um sistema de regulação do GH, quando altos níveis circulantes desse hormônio são encontrados em paulistinha.

  18. Human Lacrimal Gland Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar Aakalu

    Full Text Available The study of human lacrimal gland biology and development is limited. Lacrimal gland tissue is damaged or poorly functional in a number of disease states including dry eye disease. Development of cell based therapies for lacrimal gland diseases requires a better understanding of the gene expression and signaling pathways in lacrimal gland. Differential gene expression analysis between lacrimal gland and other embryologically similar tissues may be helpful in furthering our understanding of lacrimal gland development.We performed global gene expression analysis of human lacrimal gland tissue using Affymetrix ® gene expression arrays. Primary data from our laboratory was compared with datasets available in the NLM GEO database for other surface ectodermal tissues including salivary gland, skin, conjunctiva and corneal epithelium.The analysis revealed statistically significant difference in the gene expression of lacrimal gland tissue compared to other ectodermal tissues. The lacrimal gland specific, cell surface secretory protein encoding genes and critical signaling pathways which distinguish lacrimal gland from other ectodermal tissues are described.Differential gene expression in human lacrimal gland compared with other ectodermal tissue types revealed interesting patterns which may serve as the basis for future studies in directed differentiation among other areas.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Casey W; Luo, Xi; Wu, Zhijin

    2013-11-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of gene expression have great potential for addressing a wide range of questions. These analyses will, for example, identify genes that have evolutionary shifts in expression that are correlated with evolutionary changes in morphological, physiological, and developmental characters of interest. This will provide entirely new opportunities to identify genes related to particular phenotypes. There are, however, 3 key challenges that must be addressed for such studies to realize their potential. First, data on gene expression must be measured from multiple species, some of which may be field-collected, and parameterized in such a way that they can be compared across species. Second, it will be necessary to develop comparative phylogenetic methods suitable for large multidimensional datasets. In most phylogenetic comparative studies to date, the number n of independent observations (independent contrasts) has been greater than the number p of variables (characters). The behavior of comparative methods for these classic problems is now well understood under a wide variety of conditions. In studies of gene expression, and in studies based on other high-throughput tools, the number n of samples is dwarfed by the number p of variables. The estimated covariance matrices will be singular, complicating their analysis and interpretation, and prone to spurious results. Third, new approaches are needed to investigate the expression of the many genes whose phylogenies are not congruent with species phylogenies due to gene loss, gene duplication, and incomplete lineage sorting. Here we outline general considerations of project design for phylogenetic analyses of gene expression and suggest solutions to these three categories of challenges. These topics are relevant to high-throughput phenotypic data well beyond gene expression.

  20. Ruminant brain ribonucleases : expression and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, W; Confalone, E; Breukelman, HJ; Sasso, MP; Jekel, PA; Hodge, E; Furia, A; Beintema, JJ

    2001-01-01

    Molecular evolutionary analyses of mammalian ribonucleases have shown that gene duplication events giving rise to three paralogous genes occurred in ruminant ancestors. One of these genes encodes a ribonuclease identified in bovine brain. A peculiar feature of this enzyme and orthologous sequences

  1. Idiomatic (gene) expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockman, Matthew V

    2003-05-01

    Hidden among the myriad nucleotide variants that constitute each species' gene pool are a few variants that contribute to phenotypic variation. Many of these differences that make a difference are non-coding cis-regulatory variants, which, unlike coding variants, can only be identified through laborious experimental analysis. Recently, Cowles et al.1 described a screening method that does an end-run around this problem by searching for genes whose cis regulation varies without having to find the polymorphic nucleotides that influence transcription. While we will continue to require a diverse arsenal of experimental methods, this versatile method will speed the identification of functional genetic variation. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Aberrant expression of long noncoding RNAs in autistic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziats, Mark N; Rennert, Owen M

    2013-03-01

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a significant hereditary component, but the implicated genetic loci are heterogeneous and complex. Consequently, there is a gap in understanding how diverse genomic aberrations all result in one clinical ASD phenotype. Gene expression studies from autism brain tissue have demonstrated that aberrantly expressed protein-coding genes may converge onto common molecular pathways, potentially reconciling the strong heritability and shared clinical phenotypes with the genomic heterogeneity of the disorder. However, the regulation of gene expression is extremely complex and governed by many mechanisms, including noncoding RNAs. Yet no study in ASD brain tissue has assessed for changes in regulatory long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which represent a large proportion of the human transcriptome, and actively modulate mRNA expression. To assess if aberrant expression of lncRNAs may play a role in the molecular pathogenesis of ASD, we profiled over 33,000 annotated lncRNAs and 30,000 mRNA transcripts from postmortem brain tissue of autistic and control prefrontal cortex and cerebellum by microarray. We detected over 200 differentially expressed lncRNAs in ASD, which were enriched for genomic regions containing genes related to neurodevelopment and psychiatric disease. Additionally, comparison of differences in expression of mRNAs between prefrontal cortex and cerebellum within individual donors showed ASD brains had more transcriptional homogeneity. Moreover, this was also true of the lncRNA transcriptome. Our results suggest that further investigation of lncRNA expression in autistic brain may further elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of this disorder.

  3. Correction of gene expression data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darbani Shirvanehdeh, Behrooz; Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.; Noeparvar, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    This report investigates for the first time the potential inter-treatment bias source of cell number for gene expression studies. Cell-number bias can affect gene expression analysis when comparing samples with unequal total cellular RNA content or with different RNA extraction efficiencies....... For maximal reliability of analysis, therefore, comparisons should be performed at the cellular level. This could be accomplished using an appropriate correction method that can detect and remove the inter-treatment bias for cell-number. Based on inter-treatment variations of reference genes, we introduce...

  4. MicroRNA expression profiling of the porcine developing brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Podolska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in the control of developmental and physiological processes. In particular, the developing brain contains an impressive diversity of microRNAs. Most microRNA expression profiling studies have been performed in human or rodents and relatively limited knowledge exists in other mammalian species. The domestic pig is considered to be an excellent, alternate, large mammal model for human-related neurological studies, due to its similarity in both brain development and the growth curve when compared to humans. Considering these similarities, studies examining microRNA expression during porcine brain development could potentially be used to predict the expression profile and role of microRNAs in the human brain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MicroRNA expression profiling by use of microRNA microarrays and qPCR was performed on the porcine developing brain. Our results show that microRNA expression is regulated in a developmentally stage-specific, as well as a tissue-specific manner. Numerous developmental stage or tissue-specific microRNAs including, miR-17, miR-18a, miR-29c, miR-106a, miR-135a and b, miR-221 and miR-222 were found by microarray analysis. Expression profiles of selected candidates were confirmed by qPCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The differential expression of specific microRNAs in fetal versus postnatal samples suggests that they likely play an important role in the regulation of developmental and physiological processes during brain development. The data presented here supports the notion that microRNAs act as post-transcriptional switches which may regulate gene expression when required.

  5. Prolyl carboxypeptidase mRNA expression in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin Kwon; Diano, Sabrina

    2014-01-13

    Prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP), a serine protease, is widely expressed in the body including liver, lung, kidney and brain, with a variety of known substrates such as plasma prekallikrein, bradykinin, angiotensins II and III, and α-MSH, suggesting its role in the processing of tissue-specific substrates. In the brain, PRCP has been shown to inactivate hypothalamic α-MSH, thus modulating melanocortin signaling in the control of energy metabolism. While its expression pattern has been reported in the hypothalamus, little is known on the distribution of PRCP throughout the mouse brain. This study was undertaken to determine PRCP expression in the mouse brain. Radioactive in situ hybridization was performed to determine endogenous PRCP mRNA expression. In addition, using a gene-trap mouse model for PRCP deletion, X-gal staining was performed to further determine PRCP distribution. Results from both approaches showed that PRCP gene is broadly expressed in the brain. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Alterations in the expression of a neurodevelopmental gene exert long-lasting effects on cognitive-emotional phenotypes and functional brain networks: translational evidence from the stress-resilient Ahi1 knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, A; Lifschytz, T; Mernick, B; Lory, O; Levi, E; Ben-Shimol, E; Goelman, G; Lerer, B

    2017-06-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are highly heritable and may represent the clinical outcome of early aberrations in the formation of neural networks. The placement of brain connectivity as an 'intermediate phenotype' renders it an attractive target for exploring its interaction with genomics and behavior. Given the complexity of genetic make up and phenotypic heterogeneity in humans, translational studies are indicated. Recently, we demonstrated that a mouse model with heterozygous knockout of the key neurodevelopmental gene Ahi1 displays a consistent stress-resilient phenotype. Extending these data, the current research describes our multi-faceted effort to link early variations in Ahi1 expression with long-term consequences for functional brain networks and cognitive-emotional phenotypes. By combining behavioral paradigms with graph-based analysis of whole-brain functional networks, and then cross-validating the data with robust neuroinformatic data sets, our research suggests that physiological variation in gene expression during neurodevelopment is eventually translated into a continuum of global network metrics that serve as intermediate phenotypes. Within this framework, we suggest that organization of functional brain networks may result, in part, from an adaptive trade-off between efficiency and resilience, ultimately culminating in a phenotypic diversity that encompasses dimensions such as emotional regulation and cognitive function.

  7. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Activates KiSS-1 Gene Expression in the Brain of the Prepubertal Female Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiney, Jill K.; Srivastava, Vinod K.; Pine, Michelle D.; Dees, W. Les

    2009-01-01

    KiSS-1 gene expression has been shown to increase as puberty approaches, and its peptide products, kisspeptins, are involved in LHRH secretion at puberty. Factors contributing to increased KiSS-1 expression, however, have not been identified; thus, the purpose of this study was to assess whether IGF-I could induce transcription of this gene in prepubertal female rats. IGF-I or saline was centrally administered to immature rats that were killed 2, 4, and 6 h later. Real-time PCR revealed that IGF-I induced (P < 0.01) KiSS-1 gene expression at 6 h in a tissue fragment that contained both the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei. Subsequently, the AVPV and ARC nuclei were separated to assess whether region-specific effects could be identified. IGF-I stimulated (P < 0.01) KiSS-1 gene expression in the AVPV nucleus at 6 h after injection, with no change observed in the ARC nucleus. Serum estradiol (E2) levels were not altered at any time point after IGF-I, demonstrating that the increased KiSS-1 expression observed was not caused by an elevation in E2. Additionally, the IGF-I action to induce KiSS-1 gene expression in the AVPV nucleus was further demonstrated when the IGF-I was administered systemically. E2 appears to play an important permissive role because 1-d ovariectomized rats responded to IGF-I with increased (P < 0.01) KiSS-1 expression, whereas, 20 d after ovariectomy, when the E2 levels had fallen below assay sensitivity, the IGF-I was unable to induce KiSS-1 expression. The IGF-I effect was further demonstrated by showing that the IGF-I receptor antagonist, JB-1, blocked the IGF-I-induced increase in KiSS-1 expression. Collectively, these data indicate that IGF-I is an activator of the KiSS-1 gene in the prepubertal female rat. PMID:18703622

  8. Expression of the brain creatine kinase gene in rat RT4 peripheral neurotumor cell lines and its modulation by cell confluence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C D; Shen, W; Kuzhikandathil, E V; Molloy, G R

    1997-01-01

    Creatine kinases (CK) catalyze the reversible transfer of a high energy phosphate group between creatine phosphate and ADP to regenerate ATP in cell types where the requirements for ATP are extensive and/or sudden. Previously, we have shown in primary rat brain cell cultures that brain CK (CKB) mRNA levels are highest in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and much lower in neuronal cells. However, little is known of the factors which regulate CKB expression in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. To begin to investigate these factors, we asked in this report (1) if this pattern of CKB expression was also characteristic of some established glial and neuronal cell lines derived from the PNS; (2) whether CKB expression could be rapidly modulated by culture conditions, and (3) if CKB is expressed in cells with characteristics of glial cell progenitors. In subconfluent cells, CKB mRNA and enzyme activity were found to be high in both the rat RT4 peripheral neurotumor stem cell RT4-AC36A and its glial cell derivative RT4-D6. Conversely, CKB mRNA and activity were 5- and 8-fold lower, respectively, in the neuronal derivative RT4-E5 and, more dramatically, CKB was undetectable in neuronal RT4-B8 cells. Maintaining RT4-D6 glial cells at confluence rapidly increased CKB enzyme activity by 7-fold, such that D6 cells contained about 25% of the CKB level in lysates prepared from either whole adult rat brain or primary cultures of rat brain astrocytes. The levels of CKB mRNA and immunoreactive protein were also correspondingly increased in confluent D6 cells. These confluence-mediated increases in CKB appeared to be due to cell-cell contact and not the depletion of serum growth factors or an increase in intracellular cAMP. This study indicates that CKB expression is highest in cells displaying glial properties and can be rapidly modulated by appropriate culture conditions. The results are discussed in relation to the factors which may regulate CKB expression in

  9. MicroRNA expression profiling of the porcine developing brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolska, Agnieszka; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Busk, Peter Kamp

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in the control of developmental and physiological processes. In particular, the developing brain contains an impressive diversity of microRNAs. Most micro......RNA expression profiling studies have been performed in human or rodents and relatively limited knowledge exists in other mammalian species. The domestic pig is considered to be an excellent, alternate, large mammal model for human-related neurological studies, due to its similarity in both brain development...

  10. Gene expression based cancer classification

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Tarek; Reda Abd Elwahab; Mahmoud Shoman

    2017-01-01

    Cancer classification based on molecular level investigation has gained the interest of researches as it provides a systematic, accurate and objective diagnosis for different cancer types. Several recent researches have been studying the problem of cancer classification using data mining methods, machine learning algorithms and statistical methods to reach an efficient analysis for gene expression profiles. Studying the characteristics of thousands of genes simultaneously offered a deep in...

  11. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  12. Gene expression in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Olesen, Sanne Harder

    2002-01-01

    Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each......%). Fifteen nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins were all down-regulated in CRC. We identified several chromosomal locations with clusters of either potential oncogenes or potential tumor suppressors. Some of these, such as aminopeptidase N/CD13 and sigma B3 protein on chromosome 15q25, coincided...

  13. Common Hepatic Branch of Vagus Nerve-Dependent Expression of Immediate Early Genes in the Mouse Brain by Intraportal L-Arginine: Comparison with Cholecystokinin-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yamada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Information from the peripheral organs is thought to be transmitted to the brain by humoral factors and neurons such as afferent vagal or spinal nerves. The common hepatic branch of the vagus (CHBV is one of the main vagus nerve branches, and consists of heterogeneous neuronal fibers that innervate multiple peripheral organs such as the bile duct, portal vein, paraganglia, and gastroduodenal tract. Although, previous studies suggested that the CHBV has a pivotal role in transmitting information on the status of the liver to the brain, the details of its central projections remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the brain regions activated by the CHBV. For this purpose, we injected L-arginine or anorexia-associated peptide cholecystokinin-8 (CCK, which are known to increase CHBV electrical activity, into the portal vein of transgenic Arc-dVenus mice expressing the fluorescent protein Venus under control of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc promotor. The brain slices were prepared from these mice and the number of Venus positive cells in the slices was counted. After that, c-Fos expression in these slices was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. Intraportal administration of L-arginine increased the number of Venus positive or c-Fos positive cells in the insular cortex. This action of L-arginine was not observed in CHBV-vagotomized Arc-dVenus mice. In contrast, intraportal administration of CCK did not increase the number of c-Fos positive or Venus positive cells in the insular cortex. Intraportal CCK induced c-Fos expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus, while intraportal L-arginine did not. This action of CCK was abolished by CHBV vagotomy. Intraportal L-arginine reduced, while intraportal CCK increased, the number of c-Fos positive cells in the nucleus tractus solitarii in a CHBV-dependent manner. The present results suggest that the CHBV

  14. Mining Association Rules among Gene Functions in Clusters of Similar Gene Expression Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Li; Obradovic, Zoran; Smith, Desmond; Bodenreider, Olivier; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios

    2009-11-01

    Association rules mining methods have been recently applied to gene expression data analysis to reveal relationships between genes and different conditions and features. However, not much effort has focused on detecting the relation between gene expression maps and related gene functions. Here we describe such an approach to mine association rules among gene functions in clusters of similar gene expression maps on mouse brain. The experimental results show that the detected association rules make sense biologically. By inspecting the obtained clusters and the genes having the gene functions of frequent itemsets, interesting clues were discovered that provide valuable insight to biological scientists. Moreover, discovered association rules can be potentially used to predict gene functions based on similarity of gene expression maps.

  15. Effects of long-term environmental enrichment on anxiety, memory, hippocampal plasticity and overall brain gene expression in C57BL6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Hüttenrauch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is ample evidence that physical activity exerts positive effects on a variety of brain functions by facilitating neuroprotective processes and influencing neuroplasticity. Accordingly, numerous studies have shown that continuous exercise can successfully diminish or prevent the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease in transgenic mouse models. However, the long-term effect of physical activity on brain health of aging WT mice has not been studied in detail yet. Here, we show that prolonged physical and cognitive stimulation, mediated by an enriched environment (EE paradigm for a duration of eleven months, leads to reduced anxiety and improved spatial reference memory in C57BL6 wildtype (WT mice. While the number of CA1 pyramidal neurons remained unchanged between standard housed (SH and EE mice, the number of dentate gyrus (DG neurons, as well as the CA1 and DG volume were significantly increased in EE mice. A whole-brain deep sequencing transcriptome analysis, carried out to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed effects, revealed an up-regulation of a variety of genes upon EE, mainly associated with synaptic plasticity and transcription regulation. The present findings corroborate the impact of continuous physical activity as a potential prospective route in the prevention of age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disorders.

  16. Gene Expression Analysis of Breast Cancer Progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerald, Wiliam L

    2004-01-01

    ... to identify genes, gene expression profiles and molecular pathways associated with metastatic BC we have performed genome-wide gene expression analysis of a large number of breast cancer samples...

  17. The chicken immediate-early gene ZENK is expressed in the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale, a brain region involved in acoustic imprinting, and is up-regulated after exposure to an auditory stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thode, C; Bock, J; Braun, K; Darlison, M G

    2005-01-01

    The immediate-early gene zenk (an acronym for the avian orthologue of the mammalian genes zif-268, egr-1, ngfi-a and krox-24) has been extensively employed, in studies on oscine birds, as a marker of neuronal activity to reveal forebrain structures that are involved in the memory processes associated with the acquisition, perception and production of song. Audition-induced expression of this gene, in brain, has also recently been reported for the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Whilst the anatomical distribution of zenk expression was described for the quail, corresponding data for the chicken were not reported. We have, therefore, used in situ hybridisation to localise the mRNA that encodes the product of the zenk gene (which we call ZENK) within the brain of the 1-day-old chick. We demonstrate that this transcript is present in a number of forebrain structures including the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH), a region that has been strongly implicated in auditory imprinting (which is a form of recognition memory), and Field L, the avian analog of the mammalian auditory cortex. Because of this pattern of gene expression, we have compared the level of the ZENK mRNA in chicks that have been subjected to a 30-min acoustic imprinting paradigm and in untrained controls. Our results reveal a significant increase (Pimprinting, which is an established model of juvenile learning. In addition, our results indicate that the ZENK mRNA may be used as a molecular marker for MNH, a region that is difficult to anatomically and histochemically delineate.

  18. Vascular Gene Expression: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Concepción eMartínez-Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a primitive vascular tissue (a lycophyte, as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte, and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non- vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants.

  19. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Hurst, Laurence D.

    2015-01-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene’s expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking. PMID:25743543

  20. Gene expression profile of pulpitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia, Johnah C.; Henson, Brett R.; Parker, Joel S.; Khan, Asma A.

    2016-01-01

    The cost, prevalence and pain associated with endodontic disease necessitate an understanding of the fundamental molecular aspects of its pathogenesis. This study was aimed to identify the genetic contributors to pulpal pain and inflammation. Inflamed pulps were collected from patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis (n=20). Normal pulps from teeth extracted for various reasons served as controls (n=20). Pain level was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Genome-wide microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix GeneTitan Multichannel Instrument. The difference in gene expression levels were determined by the Significance Analysis of Microarray program using a false discovery rate (q-value) of 5%. Genes involved in immune response, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and signaling, integrin cell surface interactions, and others were expressed at relatively higher levels in the in the pulpitis group. Moreover, several genes known to modulate pain and inflammation showed differential expression in asymptomatic and mild pain patients (≥30mm on VAS) compared to those with moderate to severe pain. This exploratory study provides a molecular basis for the clinical diagnosis of pulpitis. With an enhanced understanding of pulpal inflammation, future studies on treatment and management of pulpitis and on pain associated with it can have a biological reference to bridge treatment strategies with pulpal biology. PMID:27052691

  1. Gene Expression in Trypanosomatid Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Martínez-Calvillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The parasites Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma cruzi are the trypanosomatid protozoa that cause the deadly human diseases leishmaniasis, African sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease, respectively. These organisms possess unique mechanisms for gene expression such as constitutive polycistronic transcription of protein-coding genes and trans-splicing. Little is known about either the DNA sequences or the proteins that are involved in the initiation and termination of transcription in trypanosomatids. In silico analyses of the genome databases of these parasites led to the identification of a small number of proteins involved in gene expression. However, functional studies have revealed that trypanosomatids have more general transcription factors than originally estimated. Many posttranslational histone modifications, histone variants, and chromatin modifying enzymes have been identified in trypanosomatids, and recent genome-wide studies showed that epigenetic regulation might play a very important role in gene expression in this group of parasites. Here, we review and comment on the most recent findings related to transcription initiation and termination in trypanosomatid protozoa.

  2. Gene expression profile of pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia, J C; Henson, B R; Parker, J S; Khan, A A

    2016-06-01

    The cost, prevalence and pain associated with endodontic disease necessitate an understanding of the fundamental molecular aspects of its pathogenesis. This study was aimed to identify the genetic contributors to pulpal pain and inflammation. Inflamed pulps were collected from patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis (n=20). Normal pulps from teeth extracted for various reasons served as controls (n=20). Pain level was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Genome-wide microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix GeneTitan Multichannel Instrument. The difference in gene expression levels were determined by the significance analysis of microarray program using a false discovery rate (q-value) of 5%. Genes involved in immune response, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and signaling, integrin cell surface interactions, and others were expressed at relatively higher levels in the pulpitis group. Moreover, several genes known to modulate pain and inflammation showed differential expression in asymptomatic and mild pain patients (⩾30 mm on VAS) compared with those with moderate to severe pain. This exploratory study provides a molecular basis for the clinical diagnosis of pulpitis. With an enhanced understanding of pulpal inflammation, future studies on treatment and management of pulpitis and on pain associated with it can have a biological reference to bridge treatment strategies with pulpal biology.

  3. Systems Biophysics of Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Jose M.G.; Saiz, Leonor

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression is a process central to any form of life. It involves multiple temporal and functional scales that extend from specific protein-DNA interactions to the coordinated regulation of multiple genes in response to intracellular and extracellular changes. This diversity in scales poses fundamental challenges to the use of traditional approaches to fully understand even the simplest gene expression systems. Recent advances in computational systems biophysics have provided promising avenues to reliably integrate the molecular detail of biophysical process into the system behavior. Here, we review recent advances in the description of gene regulation as a system of biophysical processes that extend from specific protein-DNA interactions to the combinatorial assembly of nucleoprotein complexes. There is now basic mechanistic understanding on how promoters controlled by multiple, local and distal, DNA binding sites for transcription factors can actively control transcriptional noise, cell-to-cell variability, and other properties of gene regulation, including precision and flexibility of the transcriptional responses. PMID:23790365

  4. Control of Renin Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Sean T.; Jones, Craig A.; Gross, Kenneth W.; Pan, Li

    2015-01-01

    Renin, as part of the renin-angiotensin system, plays a critical role in the regulation of blood pressure, electrolyte homeostasis, mammalian renal development and progression of fibrotic/hypertrophic diseases. Renin gene transcription is subject to complex developmental and tissue-specific regulation. Initial studies using the mouse As4.1 cell line, which has many characteristics of the renin-expressing juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney, have identified a proximal promoter region (−197 to −50 bp) and an enhancer (−2866 to −2625 bp) upstream of the Ren-1c gene, which are critical for renin gene expression. The proximal promoter region contains several transcription factor-binding sites including a binding site for the products of the developmental control genes Hox. The enhancer consists of at least 11 transcription factor-binding sites and is responsive to various signal transduction pathways including cAMP, retinoic acid, endothelin-1, and cytokines, all of which are known to alter renin mRNA levels. Furthermore, in vivo models have validated several of these key components found within the proximal promoter region and the enhancer as well as other key sites necessary for renin gene transcription. PMID:22576577

  5. Synthetic promoter libraries- tuning of gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Karin; Mijakovic, Ivan; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2006-01-01

    The study of gene function often requires changing the expression of a gene and evaluating the consequences. In principle, the expression of any given gene can be modulated in a quasi-continuum of discrete expression levels but the traditional approaches are usually limited to two extremes: gene ...

  6. 5-HT1A receptor gene silencers Freud-1 and Freud-2 are differently expressed in the brain of rats with genetically determined high level of fear-induced aggression or its absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondaurova, Elena M; Ilchibaeva, Tatiana V; Tsybko, Anton S; Kozhemyakina, Rimma V; Popova, Nina K; Naumenko, Vladimir S

    2016-09-01

    Serotonin 5-HT1A receptor is known to play a crucial role in the mechanisms of genetically defined aggression. In its turn, 5-HT1A receptor functional state is under control of multiple factors. Among others, transcriptional factors Freud-1 and Freud-2 are known to be involved in the repression of 5-HT1A receptor gene expression. However, implication of these factors in the regulation of behavior is unclear. Here, we investigated the expression of 5-HT1A receptor and silencers Freud-1 and Freud-2 in the brain of rats selectively bred for 85 generations for either high level of fear-induced aggression or its absence. It was shown that Freud-1 and Freud-2 levels were different in aggressive and nonaggressive animals. Freud-1 protein level was decreased in the hippocampus, whereas Freud-2 protein level was increased in the frontal cortex of highly aggressive rats. There no differences in 5-HT1A receptor gene expression were found in the brains of highly aggressive and nonaggressive rats. However, 5-HT1A receptor protein level was decreased in the midbrain and increased in the hippocampus of highly aggressive rats. These data showed the involvement of Freud-1 and Freud-2 in the regulation of genetically defined fear-induced aggression. However, these silencers do not affect transcription of the 5-HT1A receptor gene in the investigated rats. Our data indicate the implication of posttranscriptional rather than transcriptional regulation of 5-HT1A receptor functional state in the mechanisms of genetically determined aggressive behavior. On the other hand, the implication of other transcriptional regulators for 5-HT1A receptor gene in the mechanisms of genetically defined aggression could be suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Early gene response of human brain endothelial cells to Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gene expression of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) to Listeria monocytogenes at 4 hour infection was analyzed. Four hours after infection, the expression of 456 genes of HBMEC had changed (p<0.05). We noted that many active genes were involved in the formyl-methionylleucylph...

  8. Molecular cloning of kisspeptin receptor genes (gpr54-1 and gpr54-2) and their expression profiles in the brain of a tropical damselfish during different gonadal stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Satoshi; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Takeuchi, Yuki; Bouchekioua, Selma; Takemura, Akihiro

    2017-01-01

    The kisspeptin receptor (GPR54) mediates neuroendocrine control of kisspeptin in the brain and acts as a gateway for a pulsatile release of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone. This study aimed to clone two GPR54 genes (gpr54-1 and gpr54-2) from the brain of the sapphire devil Chrysiptera cyanea, a tropical damselfish, and to study their involvement in reproduction. The partial sequences of the sapphire devil gpr54-1 cDNA (1059bp) and gpr54-2 cDNA (1098bp) each had an open reading frame encoding a protein of 353 and 366 amino acids, respectively, both of which had structural features of a G-protein-coupled receptor. The expression of gpr54-1 mRNA was observed in the diencephalon and telencephalon, and gpr54-2 mRNA was found in the optic tectum of sapphire devil. When gpr54-1 and gpr54-2 mRNA levels were examined in the brain of sapphire devil by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), they were found to increase during late vitellogenesis and post-spawning. Treatment of fish with estradiol-17β (Ε2) resulted in an increase in gpr54-1 and gpr54-2 expression in the brain of sapphire devil. Thus, kisspeptin receptors likely mediate the activity of kisspeptin in the brain and are involved in controlling reproductive events in a tropical damselfish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Protective effect of chronic caffeine intake on gene expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor signaling and the immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein and Ki-67 in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Khalaf, Hanaa A; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Abo El-Khair, Salwa M; Helaly, Ahmed M N; Mahmoud, El-Hassanin M; Elshafey, Saad H

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with progressive degeneration of the hippocampal and cortical neurons. This study was designed to demonstrate the protective effect of caffeine on gene expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor neural receptor protein-tyrosine kinase-β (TrkB) as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Ki-67 immunoreactivity in Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) induced animal model of AD. Fifty adult rats included in this study were classified into 5 group (10 rats each); negative and positive control groups (I&II), AD model group (III), group treated with caffeine from the start of AD induction (IV) and group treated with caffeine two weeks before AD induction (V). Hippocampal tissue BDNF and its receptor (TrkB) gene expression by real time RT-PCR in addition to immunohistochemical study of GFAP and Ki67 immunoreactivity were performed for all rats in the study. The results of this study revealed that caffeine has protective effect through improving the histological and immunohistochemical findings induced by AlCl3 as well as BDNF and its receptor gene expression. It could be concluded from the current study, that chronic caffeine consumption in a dose of 1.5 mg/kg body weight daily has a potentially good protective effect against AD.

  10. Functional characterization of an oxytocin receptor gene variant (rs2268498) previously associated with social cognition by expression analysis in vitro and in human brain biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Martin; Montag, Christian; Altmann, Steffen; Bendlow, Fabian; Elger, Christian; Kirsch, Peter; Becker, Albert; Schoch-McGovern, Susanne; Simon, Matthias; Weber, Bernd; Felten, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    The oxytocin system plays a prominent role in social behavior across species, and numerous genetic studies in humans have reported associations between polymorphisms on the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and phenotypes related to social cognition, affiliation, perspective taking, and sociability in healthy subjects and in patients with atypical social behavior, such as in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recently, the first study demonstrating altered agonist-induced OXTR internalization and recycling for the exonic variant rs35062132 emerged. Beside this, there has been no further demonstration of the functionality of the OXTR variants especially there does not exist any for the regulatory units. To address this gap in the literature, we tested the functionality of the promoter flanking single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2268498, which has proven an interesting candidate for predicting social behavior in recent association studies. Results of genetic expression analyses in human hippocampal tissue showed a twofold difference in messenger RNA transcription, dependent on the presence or absence of the C-allele. This finding was corroborated by cloning, i.e., in vitro reporter gene expression analysis after transfection of OXTR promoter plasmids into HEK-293 cells. Our results underline the importance of OXTR rs2268498 for genetic research in social behavior and ASD.

  11. Using gene expression noise to understand gene regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsky, B.; Neuert, G.; van Oudenaarden, A.

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypic variation is ubiquitous in biology and is often traceable to underlying genetic and environmental variation. However, even genetically identical cells in identical environments display variable phenotypes. Stochastic gene expression, or gene expression "noise," has been suggested as a

  12. Social Regulation of Gene Expression in Threespine Sticklebacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Greenwood

    Full Text Available Identifying genes that are differentially expressed in response to social interactions is informative for understanding the molecular basis of social behavior. To address this question, we described changes in gene expression as a result of differences in the extent of social interactions. We housed threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus females in either group conditions or individually for one week, then measured levels of gene expression in three brain regions using RNA-sequencing. We found that numerous genes in the hindbrain/cerebellum had altered expression in response to group or individual housing. However, relatively few genes were differentially expressed in either the diencephalon or telencephalon. The list of genes upregulated in fish from social groups included many genes related to neural development and cell adhesion as well as genes with functions in sensory signaling, stress, and social and reproductive behavior. The list of genes expressed at higher levels in individually-housed fish included several genes previously identified as regulated by social interactions in other animals. The identified genes are interesting targets for future research on the molecular mechanisms of normal social interactions.

  13. The gene expression signatures of melanoma progression

    OpenAIRE

    Haqq, Christopher; Nosrati, Mehdi; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Crothers, Julia; Khodabakhsh, Daniel; Pulliam, Brian L.; Federman, Scot; Miller, James R.; Allen, Robert E.; Singer, Mark I.; Leong, Stanley P L; Ljung, Britt-Marie; Sagebiel, Richard W.; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

    2005-01-01

    Because of the paucity of available tissue, little information has previously been available regarding the gene expression profiles of primary melanomas. To understand the molecular basis of melanoma progression, we compared the gene expression profiles of a series of nevi, primary melanomas, and melanoma metastases. We found that metastatic melanomas exhibit two dichotomous patterns of gene expression, which unexpectedly reflect gene expression differences already apparent in comparing laser...

  14. Nongenomic regulation of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Monk, David

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent advances in epigenetic regulation and chromatin biology for a better understanding of gene regulation related to human disease. Alterations to chromatin influence genomic function, including gene transcription. At its most simple level, this involves DNA methylation and posttranscriptional histone modifications. However, recent developments in biochemical and molecular techniques have revealed that transcriptional regulation is far more complex, involving combinations of histone modifications and discriminating transcription factor binding, and long-range chromatin loops with enhancers, to generate a multifaceted code. Here, we describe the most recent advances, culminating in the example of genomic imprinting, the parent-of-origin monoallelic expression that utilizes the majority of these mechanisms to attain one active and one repressed allele. It is becoming increasingly evident that epigenetic mechanisms work in unison to maintain tight control of gene expression and genome function. With the wealth of knowledge gained from recent molecular studies, future goals should focus on the application of this information in deciphering their role in developmental diseases.

  15. Validation of commonly used reference genes for sleep-related gene expression studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Rosa MRPS

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep is a restorative process and is essential for maintenance of mental and physical health. In an attempt to understand the complexity of sleep, multidisciplinary strategies, including genetic approaches, have been applied to sleep research. Although quantitative real time PCR has been used in previous sleep-related gene expression studies, proper validation of reference genes is currently lacking. Thus, we examined the effect of total or paradoxical sleep deprivation (TSD or PSD on the expression stability of the following frequently used reference genes in brain and blood: beta-actin (b-actin, beta-2-microglobulin (B2M, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT. Results Neither TSD nor PSD affected the expression stability of all tested genes in both tissues indicating that b-actin, B2M, GAPDH and HPRT are appropriate reference genes for the sleep-related gene expression studies. In order to further verify these results, the relative expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase1 (GPD1 was evaluated in brain and blood, respectively. The normalization with each of four reference genes produced similar pattern of expression in control and sleep deprived rats, but subtle differences in the magnitude of expression fold change were observed which might affect the statistical significance. Conclusion This study demonstrated that sleep deprivation does not alter the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in brain and blood. Nonetheless, the use of multiple reference genes in quantitative RT-PCR is required for the accurate results.

  16. Protection by neuroglobin expression in brain pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Baez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes play an important role in physiological, metabolic and structural functions and, when impaired, they can be involved in various pathologies including Alzheimer, focal ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. These disorders involve an imbalance in the blood flow and nutrients such as glucose and lactacte, leading to biochemical and molecular changes that cause neuronal damage, which is followed by loss of cognitive and motor functions. Previous studies have shown that astrocytes are more resilient than neurons during brain insults as a consequence of their more effective antioxidant systems, transporters and enzymes, which made them less susceptible to excitotoxicity. In addition, astrocytes synthesize and release different protective molecules for neurons, including neuroglobin, a member of the globin family of proteins. After brain injury neuroglobin expression is induced in astrocytes. Since neuroglobin promotes neuronal survival, its increased expression in astrocytes after brain injury may represent an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism. Here, we review the role of neuroglobin in the CNS, its relationship with different pathologies, and the role of different factors that regulate its expression in astrocytes.

  17. Transduction of brain dopamine neurons by adenoviral vectors is modulated by CAR expression: rationale for tropism modified vectors in PD gene therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis B Lewis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene-based therapy is a new paradigm for the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD and offers considerable promise for precise targeting and flexibility to impact multiple pathobiological processes for which small molecule agents are not available. Some success has been achieved utilizing adeno-associated virus for this approach, but it is likely that the characteristics of this vector system will ultimately create barriers to progress in clinical therapy. Adenovirus (Ad vector overcomes limitations in payload size and targeting. The cellular tropism of Ad serotype 5 (Ad5-based vectors is regulated by the Ad attachment protein binding to its primary cellular receptor, the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR. Many clinically relevant tissues are refractory to Ad5 infection due to negligible CAR levels but can be targeted by tropism-modified, CAR-independent forms of Ad. Our objective was to evaluate the role of CAR protein in transduction of dopamine (DA neurons in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ad5 was delivered to the substantia nigra (SN in wild type (wt and CAR transgenic animals. Cellular tropism was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC in the SN and striatal terminals. CAR expression was assessed by western blot and IHC. We found in wt animals, Ad5 results in robust transgene expression in astrocytes and other non-neuronal cells but poor infection of DA neurons. In contrast, in transgenic animals, Ad5 infects SNc neurons resulting in expression of transduced protein in their striatal terminals. Western blot showed low CAR expression in the ventral midbrain of wt animals compared to transgenic animals. Interestingly, hCAR protein localizes with markers of post-synaptic structures, suggesting synapses are the point of entry into dopaminergic neurons in transgenic animals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that CAR deficiency limits infection of wild type DA neurons by Ad5 and provide a rationale for the

  18. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Joanne R; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies.

  19. FTO is expressed in neurones throughout the brain and its expression is unaltered by fasting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S McTaggart

    Full Text Available Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the first intron of the ubiquitously expressed FTO gene are associated with obesity. Although the physiological functions of FTO remain unclear, food intake is often altered when Fto expression levels are manipulated. Furthermore, deletion of FTO from neurones alone has a similar effect on food intake to deletion of FTO in all tissues. These results indicate that FTO expression in the brain is particularly important. Considerable focus has been placed on the dynamic regulation of Fto mRNA expression in the hypothalamus after short-term (16-48 hour fasting, but results have been controversial. There are no studies that quantify FTO protein levels across the brain, and assess its alteration following short-term fasting. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that FTO protein is widely expressed in mouse brain, and present in the majority of neurones. Using quantitative Western blotting and RT-qPCR we show that FTO protein and mRNA levels in the hypothalamus, cerebellum and rostral brain are relatively uniform, and levels in the brain are higher than in skeletal muscles of the lower limbs. Fasting for 18 hours does not alter the expression pattern, or levels, of FTO protein and mRNA. We further show that the majority of POMC neurones, which are critically involved in food intake regulation, also express FTO, but that the percentage of FTO-positive POMC neurones is not altered by fasting. In summary, we find no evidence that Fto/FTO expression is regulated by short-term (18-hour fasting. Thus, it is unlikely that the hunger and increased post-fasting food intake caused by such food deprivation is driven by alterations in Fto/FTO expression. The widespread expression of FTO in neurones also suggests that physiological studies of this protein should not be limited to the hypothalamus.

  20. Modeling and Targeting MYC Genes in Childhood Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Sonja; Bolin, Sara; Weishaupt, Holger; Swartling, Fredrik J

    2017-03-23

    Brain tumors are the second most common group of childhood cancers, accounting for about 20%-25% of all pediatric tumors. Deregulated expression of the MYC family of transcription factors, particularly c-MYC and MYCN genes, has been found in many of these neoplasms, and their expression levels are often correlated with poor prognosis. Elevated c-MYC/MYCN initiates and drives tumorigenesis in many in vivo model systems of pediatric brain tumors. Therefore, inhibition of their oncogenic function is an attractive therapeutic target. In this review, we explore the roles of MYC oncoproteins and their molecular targets during the formation, maintenance, and recurrence of childhood brain tumors. We also briefly summarize recent progress in the development of therapeutic approaches for pharmacological inhibition of MYC activity in these tumors.

  1. Modulation of gene expression made easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2002-01-01

    A new approach for modulating gene expression, based on randomization of promoter (spacer) sequences, was developed. The method was applied to chromosomal genes in Lactococcus lactis and shown to generate libraries of clones with broad ranges of expression levels of target genes. In one example...... that the method can be applied to modulating the expression of native genes on the chromosome. We constructed a series of strains in which the expression of the las operon, containing the genes pfk, pyk, and ldh, was modulated by integrating a truncated copy of the pfk gene. Importantly, the modulation affected...

  2. Adaptive Evolution of Gene Expression in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armita Nourmohammad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression levels are important quantitative traits that link genotypes to molecular functions and fitness. In Drosophila, population-genetic studies have revealed substantial adaptive evolution at the genomic level, but the evolutionary modes of gene expression remain controversial. Here, we present evidence that adaptation dominates the evolution of gene expression levels in flies. We show that 64% of the observed expression divergence across seven Drosophila species are adaptive changes driven by directional selection. Our results are derived from time-resolved data of gene expression divergence across a family of related species, using a probabilistic inference method for gene-specific selection. Adaptive gene expression is stronger in specific functional classes, including regulation, sensory perception, sexual behavior, and morphology. Moreover, we identify a large group of genes with sex-specific adaptation of expression, which predominantly occurs in males. Our analysis opens an avenue to map system-wide selection on molecular quantitative traits independently of their genetic basis.

  3. Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Catherine J.; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression and decreased ERα promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

  4. A novel brain receptor is expressed in a distinct population of olfactory sensory neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conzelmann, S; Levai, O; Bode, B; Eisel, U; Raming, K; Breer, H; Strotmann, J

    2000-01-01

    Three novel G-protein-coupled receptor genes related to the previously described RA1c gene have been isolated from the mouse genome. Expression of these genes has been detected in distinct areas of the brain and also in the olfactory epithelium of the nose. Developmental studies revealed a

  5. Gene expression analysis identifies global gene dosage sensitivity in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; Karjalainen, Juha M.; Krajewska, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Many cancer-associated somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) are known. Currently, one of the challenges is to identify the molecular downstream effects of these variants. Although several SCNAs are known to change gene expression levels, it is not clear whether each individual SCNA affects gene...... expression. We reanalyzed 77,840 expression profiles and observed a limited set of 'transcriptional components' that describe well-known biology, explain the vast majority of variation in gene expression and enable us to predict the biological function of genes. On correcting expression profiles...... for these components, we observed that the residual expression levels (in 'functional genomic mRNA' profiling) correlated strongly with copy number. DNA copy number correlated positively with expression levels for 99% of all abundantly expressed human genes, indicating global gene dosage sensitivity. By applying...

  6. Expression of evolutionarily novel genes in tumors

    OpenAIRE

    A. P. Kozlov

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionarily novel genes originated through different molecular mechanisms are expressed in tumors. Sometimes the expression of evolutionarily novel genes in tumors is highly specific. Moreover positive selection of many human tumor-related genes in primate lineage suggests their involvement in the origin of new functions beneficial to organisms. It is suggested to consider the expression of evolutionarily young or novel genes in tumors as a new biological phenomenon, a phenomenon of TS...

  7. Gene expression of serotonin and dopamine receptors and monoamine oxidase-A in the brain of dominant and subordinate pubertal domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) fed a β-adrenoreceptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Rosangela; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Meisel, Robert L; Richert, Brian T; Marchant-Forde, Jeremy N

    2011-03-24

    Aggression is a major source of social stress with negative effects on health and well-being, yet limited information is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating aggressive behavior in swine. Ractopamine (RAC) is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist that enhances growth but increases aggressive behaviors in female pigs. Thus, the effects of RAC, sex, and social rank on the mRNA abundance of genes encoding serotonin and dopamine receptors, and monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A in brains of sub-adult pigs were evaluated. Top dominant and bottom subordinate pigs (16/sex) in pens of 4 pigs were determined, and fed either the control or RAC diets. At day 31, their raphe nuclei (RN), amygdala (AMY), frontal cortex (FC), and hypothalamus (HYP) were dissected; relative mRNA abundance for 5-HT₁(B), 5-HT₂(A), 5-HT₂(B), and D₁ receptors, and MAO-A was determined by Q-RT-PCR and data subjected to multivariate linear mixed model analysis and Tukey post-hoc test. Expression of 5-HT₁(B) and MAO-A was suppressed in the AMY of female pigs; 5-HT₂(B) expression was also suppressed in the RN, FC and HYP of females and RN of dominant pigs (P brain of pigs, especially in females independent of social rank, may be mediating the inter-individual offensive aggression. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Brain death induces renal expression of heme oxygenase-1 and heat shock protein 70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dullemen Leon FA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidneys derived from brain dead donors have lower graft survival and higher graft-function loss compared to their living donor counterpart. Heat Shock Proteins (HSP are a large family of stress proteins involved in maintaining cell homeostasis. We studied the role of stress-inducible genes Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1, HSP27, HSP40, and HSP70 in the kidney following a 4 hour period of brain death. Methods Brain death was induced in rats (n=6 by inflating a balloon catheter in the epidural space. Kidneys were analysed for HSPs using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Results RT-PCR data showed a significant increase in gene expression for HO-1 and HSP70 in kidneys of brain dead rats. Western blotting revealed a massive increase in HO-1 protein in brain dead rat kidneys. Immunohistochemistry confirmed these findings, showing extensive HO-1 protein expression in the renal cortical tubules of brain dead rats. HSP70 protein was predominantly increased in renal distal tubules of brain dead rats treated for hypotension. Conclusion Renal stress caused by brain death induces expression of the cytoprotective genes HO-1 and HSP70, but not of HSP27 and HSP40. The upregulation of these cytoprotective genes indicate that renal damage occurs during brain death, and could be part of a protective or recuperative mechanism induced by brain death-associated stress.

  9. Gene expression, neurogenesis, and healing: psychosocial genomics of therapeutic hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest L

    2003-01-01

    The historical lineage of therapeutic hypnosis in James Braid's "psychophysiology", Pierre Janet's "physiological modification", and Milton Erickson's "neuro-psycho-physiology" is extended to include current neuroscience research on activity-dependent gene expression, neurogenesis, and stem cells in memory, learning, behavior change, and healing. Three conditions that optimize gene expression and neurogenesis--novelty, environmental enrichment, and exercise--could integrate fundamentals of the theory, research, and practice of therapeutic hypnosis. Continuing research on immediate-early, activity-dependent, behavior state-related, and clock gene expression could enhance our understanding of how relaxation, sleep, dreaming, consciousness, arousal, stress and trauma are modulated by therapeutic hypnosis. It is speculated that therapeutic and post-hypnotic suggestion could be focused more precisely with the time parameters of gene expression and neurogenesis that range from minutes and hours for synthesizing new synapses to weeks and months for the generation and maturation of new, functioning neurons in the adult brain.

  10. Intracerebral transplants of primary muscle cells: a potential 'platform' for transgene expression in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, S.; Schultz, E.; Wolff, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    After the transplantation of rat primary muscle cells into the caudate or cortex of recipient rats, the muscle cells were able to persist for at least 6 months. Muscle cells transfected with expression plasmids prior to transplantation were able to express reporter genes in the brains for at least 2 months. These results suggest that muscle cells might be a useful 'platform' for transgene expression in the brain.

  11. Genetics of human gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranger, Barbara E; Raj, Towfique

    2013-12-01

    A steadily growing number of studies have identified and characterized expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in human cell-lines, primary cells, and tissues. This class of variation has been shown to play a role in complex traits, including disease. Here, we discuss how eQTLs have the potential to accelerate discovery of disease genes and functional mechanisms underlying complex traits. We discuss how context-specificity of eQTLs is being characterized at an unprecedented scale and breadth, and how this both informs on the intricacy of human genome function, and has important ramifications for elucidating function of genetic variants of interest, particularly for those contributing to disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Obesity in aging exacerbates blood-brain barrier disruption, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress in the mouse hippocampus: effects on expression of genes involved in beta-amyloid generation and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Toth, Peter; Sosnowska, Danuta; Gautam, Tripti; Mitschelen, Matthew; Koller, Akos; Szalai, Gabor; Sonntag, William E; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna

    2014-10-01

    There is growing evidence that obesity has deleterious effects on the brain and cognitive function in the elderly population. However, the specific mechanisms through which aging and obesity interact to promote cognitive decline remain unclear. To test the hypothesis that aging exacerbates obesity-induced cerebromicrovascular damage and neuroinflammation, we compared young (7 months) and aged (24 months) high fat diet-fed obese C57BL/6 mice. Aging exacerbated obesity-induced systemic inflammation and blood-brain barrier disruption, as indicated by the increased circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines and increased presence of extravasated immunoglobulin G in the hippocampus, respectively. Obesity-induced blood-brain barrier damage was associated with microglia activation, upregulation of activating Fc-gamma receptors and proinflammatory cytokines, and increased oxidative stress. Treatment of cultured primary microglia with sera derived from aged obese mice resulted in significantly more pronounced microglia activation and oxidative stress, as compared with treatment with young sera. Serum-induced activation and oxidative stress were also exacerbated in primary microglia derived from aged animals. Hippocampal expression of genes involved in regulation of the cellular amyloid precursor protein-dependent signaling pathways, beta-amyloid generation, and the pathogenesis of tauopathy were largely unaffected by obesity in aged mice. Collectively, obesity in aging is associated with a heightened state of systemic inflammation, which exacerbates blood-brain barrier disruption. The resulting neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in the mouse hippocampus likely contribute to the significant cognitive decline observed in aged obese animals. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The Trojan Horse Liposome Technology for Nonviral Gene Transfer across the Blood-Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben J. Boado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of blood-borne gene therapy protocols to the brain is limited by the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. Viruses have been extensively used as gene delivery systems. However, their efficacy in brain is limited by the lack of transport across the BBB following intravenous (IV administration. Recent progress in the “Trojan Horse Liposome” (THL technology applied to transvascular non-viral gene therapy of the brain presents a promising solution to the trans-vascular brain gene delivery problem. THLs are comprised of immunoliposomes carrying nonviral gene expression plasmids. The tissue target specificity of the THL is provided by peptidomimetic monoclonal antibody (MAb component of the THL, which binds to specific endogenous receptors located on both the BBB and on brain cellular membranes, for example, insulin receptor and transferrin receptor. These MAbs mediate (a receptor-mediated transcytosis of the THL complex through the BBB, (b endocytosis into brain cells and (c transport to the brain cell nuclear compartment. The expression of the transgene in brain may be restricted using tissue/cell specific gene promoters. This manuscript presents an overview on the THL transport technology applied to brain disorders, including lysosomal storage disorders and Parkinson's disease.

  14. The Trojan Horse Liposome Technology for Nonviral Gene Transfer across the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boado, Ruben J; Pardridge, William M

    2011-01-01

    The application of blood-borne gene therapy protocols to the brain is limited by the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Viruses have been extensively used as gene delivery systems. However, their efficacy in brain is limited by the lack of transport across the BBB following intravenous (IV) administration. Recent progress in the "Trojan Horse Liposome" (THL) technology applied to transvascular non-viral gene therapy of the brain presents a promising solution to the trans-vascular brain gene delivery problem. THLs are comprised of immunoliposomes carrying nonviral gene expression plasmids. The tissue target specificity of the THL is provided by peptidomimetic monoclonal antibody (MAb) component of the THL, which binds to specific endogenous receptors located on both the BBB and on brain cellular membranes, for example, insulin receptor and transferrin receptor. These MAbs mediate (a) receptor-mediated transcytosis of the THL complex through the BBB, (b) endocytosis into brain cells and (c) transport to the brain cell nuclear compartment. The expression of the transgene in brain may be restricted using tissue/cell specific gene promoters. This manuscript presents an overview on the THL transport technology applied to brain disorders, including lysosomal storage disorders and Parkinson's disease.

  15. Olive oil-enriched diet reduces brain oxidative damages and ameliorates neurotrophic factor gene expression in different life stages of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Camila Simonetti; Teixeira, Angélica Martelli; Roversi, Karine; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Calabrese, Francesca; Molteni, Raffaella; Franchi, Silvia; Panerai, Alberto Emilio; Riva, Marco Andrea; Burger, Marilise Escobar

    2015-11-01

    Our aim was to assess the influence of maternal diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids on oxidative and molecular parameters in brains of mouse pups as well as their body weight during their lifetime. Female rats received a diet containing 20% of olive oil-enriched diet (OOED) and a standard diet control diet (CD) in different periods: pregnancy, lactation and after weaning until pups' adulthood. On the last prenatal day (Group 1), embryos from OOED group showed smaller body weight, brain weight and lower levels of sulphydryl groups glutathione reduced (GSH) in the brain. On postnatal delay-21 (PND21) (Group 2), pups from OOED group showed higher body weight and brain weight, reduced brain weight/body weight ratio and lower brain lipid peroxidation (LP). On PND70 (Group 3), pups from OOED group showed lower brain LP and higher levels of GSH in prefrontal cortex and lower brain levels of reactive species in the hippocampus. Interestingly, the group of animals whose diet was modified from OOED to CD on PND21 showed greater weight gain compared to the group that remained in the same original diet (OOED) until adulthood. Furthermore, OOED consumption during pregnancy and lactation significantly increased BDNF only, as well as its main transcripts exon IV and VI mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, OOED significantly up-regulated FGF-2 mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex. These findings open a pioneering line of investigation about dietary adjunctive therapeutic strategies and the potential of healthy dietary habits to prevent neonatal conditions and their influence on adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification and expression analysis of nervous wreck, which is preferentially expressed in the brain of the male silkworm moth, Bombyx mori

    OpenAIRE

    Kiya, Taketoshi; Iwami, Masafumi

    2011-01-01

    Sexually dimorphic neural circuits are essential for reproductive behaviour. The molecular basis of sexual dimorphism in the silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) brain, however, is unclear. We conducted cDNA subtraction screening and identified nervous wreck (Bmnwk), a synaptic growth regulatory gene, whose expression is higher in the male brain than in the female brain of the silkworm. Bmnwk was preferentially expressed in the brain at the late pupae and adult stages. In situ hybridization revealed t...

  17. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, Randy [Davis, CA; Bachkirova, Elena [Davis, CA; Rey, Michael [Davis, CA

    2012-05-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  18. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berka, Randy; Bachkirova, Elena; Rey, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  19. Investigation of G72 (DAOA expression in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirsch Steven

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms at the G72/G30 locus on chromosome 13q have been associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in more than ten independent studies. Even though the genetic findings are very robust, the physiological role of the predicted G72 protein has thus far not been resolved. Initial reports suggested G72 as an activator of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO, supporting the glutamate dysfunction hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, these findings have subsequently not been reproduced and reports of endogenous human G72 mRNA and protein expression are extremely limited. In order to better understand the function of this putative schizophrenia susceptibility gene, we attempted to demonstrate G72 mRNA and protein expression in relevant human brain regions. Methods The expression of G72 mRNA was studied by northern blotting and semi-quantitative SYBR-Green and Taqman RT-PCR. Protein expression in human tissue lysates was investigated by western blotting using two custom-made specific anti-G72 peptide antibodies. An in-depth in silico analysis of the G72/G30 locus was performed in order to try and identify motifs or regulatory elements that provide insight to G72 mRNA expression and transcript stability. Results Despite using highly sensitive techniques, we failed to identify significant levels of G72 mRNA in a variety of human tissues (e.g. adult brain, amygdala, caudate nucleus, fetal brain, spinal cord and testis human cell lines or schizophrenia/control post mortem BA10 samples. Furthermore, using western blotting in combination with sensitive detection methods, we were also unable to detect G72 protein in a number of human brain regions (including cerebellum and amygdala, spinal cord or testis. A detailed in silico analysis provides several lines of evidence that support the apparent low or absent expression of G72. Conclusion Our results suggest that native G72 protein is not normally present in the tissues that we analysed

  20. Gene expression profiling and qRT-PCR expression of RRP1B ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    file of human Down syndrome leukocytes. Croat. Med. J. 46,. 647–656. Mao R., Zielke C. L., Zielke H. R. and Pevsner J. 2003 Global up- regulation of chromosome 21 gene expression in the developing. Down syndrome brain. Genomics 81, 457–467. Marszalek J. R., Weiner J. A., Farlow S. J., Chun J. and Goldstein.

  1. AAV2-mediated CLN2 gene transfer to rodent and non-human primate brain results in long-term TPP-I expression compatible with therapy for LINCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhi, D; Peterson, D A; Giannaris, E L; Sanders, C T; Mendez, B S; De, B; Rostkowski, A B; Blanchard, B; Bjugstad, K; Sladek, J R; Redmond, D E; Leopold, P L; Kaminsky, S M; Hackett, N R; Crystal, R G

    2005-11-01

    Late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL) is a fatal, autosomal recessive disease resulting from mutations in the CLN2 gene with consequent deficiency in its product tripeptidyl peptidase I (TPP-I). In the central nervous system (CNS), the deficiency of TPP-I results in the accumulation of proteins in lysosomes leading to a loss of neurons causing progressive neurological decline, and death by ages 10-12 years. To establish the feasibility of treating the CNS manifestations of LINCL by gene transfer, an adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vector encoding the human CLN2 cDNA (AAV2CUhCLN2) was assessed for its ability to establish therapeutic levels of TPP-I in the brain. In vitro studies demonstrated that AAV2CUhCLN2 expressed CLN2 and produced biologically active TPP-I protein of which a fraction was secreted as the pro-TPP-I precursor and was taken up by nontransduced cells (ie, cross-correction). Following AAV2-mediated CLN2 delivery to the rat striatum, enzymatically active TPP-I protein was detected. By immunohistochemistry TPP-I protein was detected in striatal neurons (encompassing nearly half of the target structure) for up to 18 months. At the longer time points following striatal administration, TPP-I-positive cell bodies were also observed in the substantia nigra, frontal cerebral cortex and thalamus of the injected hemisphere, and the frontal cerebral cortex of the noninjected hemisphere. These areas of the brain contain neurons that extend axons into the striatum, suggesting that CNS circuitry may aid the distribution of the gene product. To assess the feasibility of human CNS delivery, a total of 3.6 x 10(11) particle units of AAV2CUhCLN2 was administered to the CNS of African green monkeys in 12 distributed doses. Assessment at 5 and 13 weeks demonstrated widespread detection of TPP-I in neurons, but not glial cells, at all regions of injection. The distribution of TPP-I-positive cells was similar between the two time points at all injection

  2. SVA retrotransposons as potential modulators of neuropeptide gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfrancesco, Olympia; Bubb, Vivien J; Quinn, John P

    2017-08-01

    Many facets of human behaviour are likely to have developed in part due to evolutionary changes in the regulation of neuropeptide and other brain-related genes. This has allowed species-specific expression patterns and unique epigenetic modulation in response to our environment, regulating response not only at the molecular level, but also contributing to differences in behaviour between individuals. As such, genetic variants or epigenetic changes that may alter neuropeptide gene expression are predicted to play a role in behavioural conditions and psychiatric illness. It is therefore of interest to identify regulatory elements that have the potential to drive differential gene expression. Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements that are known to be drivers of genomic diversity, with the ability to alter expression of nearby genes. In particular, the SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA) class of retrotransposons is specific to hominids, and its appearance and expansion across the genome has been associated with the evolution of numerous behavioural traits, presumably through their ability to confer unique regulatory properties at the site of their insertion. We review the evidence for SVAs as regulatory elements, exploring how polymorphic variation within these repetitive sequences can drive allele specific gene expression, which would be associated with changes in behaviour and disease risk through the alteration of molecular pathways that are central to healthy brain function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasticity-Related Gene Expression During Eszopiclone-Induced Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerashchenko, Dmitry; Pasumarthi, Ravi K; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2017-07-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that restorative processes depend on synaptic plasticity changes in the brain during sleep. We used the expression of plasticity-related genes to assess synaptic plasticity changes during drug-induced sleep. We first characterized sleep induced by eszopiclone in mice during baseline conditions and during the recovery from sleep deprivation. We then compared the expression of 18 genes and two miRNAs critically involved in synaptic plasticity in these mice. Gene expression was assessed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus by the TaqMan reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and correlated with sleep parameters. Eszopiclone reduced the latency to nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and increased NREM sleep amounts. Eszopiclone had no effect on slow wave activity (SWA) during baseline conditions but reduced the SWA increase during recovery sleep (RS) after sleep deprivation. Gene expression analyses revealed three distinct patterns: (1) four genes had higher expression either in the cortex or hippocampus in the group of mice with increased amounts of wakefulness; (2) a large proportion of plasticity-related genes (7 out of 18 genes) had higher expression during RS in the cortex but not in the hippocampus; and (3) six genes and the two miRNAs showed no significant changes across conditions. Even at a relatively high dose (20 mg/kg), eszopiclone did not reduce the expression of plasticity-related genes during RS period in the cortex. These results indicate that gene expression associated with synaptic plasticity occurs in the cortex in the presence of a hypnotic medication.

  4. [The expression of GFAP after brain concussion in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Bing; Li, Yong-Hong

    2006-04-01

    To study the expression of GFAP and pathologic changes after rats brain concussion, so that to provide evidence on brain concussion for forensic identification. Forty-five SD rats were divided into 3, 6, 12, 24 h and 2, 4, 7, 10 d and normal control groups in terms of different wounding time after brain concussion model established, and the expression of GFAP after rats brain concussion were then observed by using SP immunohistochemical method. In normal control brain, low-level GFAP expressions could be observed. After six hours' brain concussion, GFAP positive cells increased obviously. The trend reached to the peak at 7d, partly declined at 10d, then decreased gradually. Brain concussion induced the expression of GFAP. The detection of GFAP could be useful for diagnosis of brain concussion on forensic pathology, and could be a reference index for timing of injury after brain concussion.

  5. Manipulating gene expression in projection-specific neuronal populations using combinatorial viral approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Bryan B; Soden, Marta E; Zweifel, Larry S

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian brain contains tremendous structural and genetic complexity that is vital for its function. The elucidation of gene expression profiles in the brain, coupled with the development of large-scale connectivity maps and emerging viral vector-based approaches for target-selective gene manipulation, now allow for detailed dissection of gene-circuit interfaces. This protocol details how to perform combinatorial viral injections to manipulate gene expression in subsets of neurons interconnecting two brain regions. This method utilizes stereotaxic injection of a retrograde transducing CAV2-Cre virus into one brain region, combined with injection of a locally transducing Cre-dependent AAV virus into another brain region. This technique is widely applicable to the genetic dissection of neural circuitry, as it enables selective expression of candidate genes, dominant-negatives, fluorescent reporters, or genetic tools within heterogeneous populations of neurons based upon their projection targets.

  6. Gene expression inference with deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yifei; Li, Yi; Narayan, Rajiv; Subramanian, Aravind; Xie, Xiaohui

    2016-06-15

    Large-scale gene expression profiling has been widely used to characterize cellular states in response to various disease conditions, genetic perturbations, etc. Although the cost of whole-genome expression profiles has been dropping steadily, generating a compendium of expression profiling over thousands of samples is still very expensive. Recognizing that gene expressions are often highly correlated, researchers from the NIH LINCS program have developed a cost-effective strategy of profiling only ∼1000 carefully selected landmark genes and relying on computational methods to infer the expression of remaining target genes. However, the computational approach adopted by the LINCS program is currently based on linear regression (LR), limiting its accuracy since it does not capture complex nonlinear relationship between expressions of genes. We present a deep learning method (abbreviated as D-GEX) to infer the expression of target genes from the expression of landmark genes. We used the microarray-based Gene Expression Omnibus dataset, consisting of 111K expression profiles, to train our model and compare its performance to those from other methods. In terms of mean absolute error averaged across all genes, deep learning significantly outperforms LR with 15.33% relative improvement. A gene-wise comparative analysis shows that deep learning achieves lower error than LR in 99.97% of the target genes. We also tested the performance of our learned model on an independent RNA-Seq-based GTEx dataset, which consists of 2921 expression profiles. Deep learning still outperforms LR with 6.57% relative improvement, and achieves lower error in 81.31% of the target genes. D-GEX is available at https://github.com/uci-cbcl/D-GEX CONTACT: xhx@ics.uci.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. [Expression of c-myc protein on rats' brains after brain concussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Dong-Liang; Wang, Feng

    2006-10-15

    To study the changes of expression of c-myc protein on rats' brains after brain concussion. sixty rats were randomly divided into brain concussion groups and control group. The expression of c-myc protein was microscopically observed by immunohistochemical method. No expression of c-myc protein in control group were observed. However, positive expression of c-myc protein in some neurons was seen at 20 min after brain concussion, and reach to the peak at 8h after brain concussion and then decreased gradually. These findings suggest that the detection of c-myc protein could be an index of diagnosis of brain concussion.

  8. Expression and regulation of brain metallothionein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, M; Iversen, P L; Hao, R; Cerutis, D R; Rojas, P; Happe, H K; Murrin, L C; Pfeiffer, R F

    1995-07-01

    Many, but not all, zinc-containing neurons in the brain are a subclass of the glutamatergic neurons, and they are found predominantly in the telencephalon. These neurons store zinc in their presynaptic terminals and release it by a calcium-dependent mechanism. These "vesicular" pools of zinc are viewed as endogenous modulators of ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels. Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight zinc-binding proteins consisting of 25-30% cysteine, with no aromatic amino acids or disulfide bonds. The areas of the brain containing high contents of zinc such as the retina, the pineal gland, and the hippocampus synthesize unique isoforms of MT on a continuous basis. The four MT isoforms are thought to provide the neurons and glial elements with mechanisms to distribute, donate, and sequester zinc at presynaptic terminals; or buffer the excess zinc at synaptic junctions. In this cause, glutathione disulfide may participate in releasing zinc from MT. A similar nucleotide and amino acid sequence has made it difficult to obtain cDNA probes and antibodies capable of distinguishing indisputably among MT isoforms. MT-I and MT-II isoforms are found in the brain and in the peripheral tissues; MT-III isoform, possessing an additional seven amino acids, is expressed mostly in the brain and to a very minute extent in the intestine and pancreas; whereas MT-IV isoform is found in tissues containing stratified squamous epithelial cells. Since MTs are expressed in neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles, the regulation of the expression of MT isoforms is extremely important in terms of maintaining the steady-state level of zinc and controlling redox potentials. The concentration of zinc has been shown to be altered in an extensive number of disorders of the central nervous system, including alcoholism. Alzheimer-type dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Down's syndrome, epilepsy, Friedreich's ataxia, Guillaine-Barré syndrome, hepatic

  9. Disease association and inter-connectivity analysis of human brain specific co-expressed functional modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kimin; Hwang, Taeho; Cha, Kihoon; Yi, Gwan-Su

    2015-12-16

    In the recent studies, it is suggested that the analysis of transcriptomic change of functional modules instead of individual genes would be more effective for system-wide identification of cellular functions. This could also provide a new possibility for the better understanding of difference between human and chimpanzee. In this study, we analyzed to find molecular characteristics of human brain functions from the difference of transcriptome between human and chimpanzee's brain using the functional module-centric co-expression analysis. We performed analysis of brain disease association and systems-level connectivity of species-specific co-expressed functional modules. Throughout the analyses, we found human-specific functional modules and significant overlap between their genes in known brain disease genes, suggesting that human brain disorder could be mediated by the perturbation of modular activities emerged in human brain specialization. In addition, the human-specific modules having neurobiological functions exhibited higher networking than other functional modules. This finding suggests that the expression of neural functions are more connected than other functions, and the resulting high-order brain functions could be identified as a result of consolidated inter-modular gene activities. Our result also showed that the functional module based transcriptome analysis has a potential to expand molecular understanding of high-order complex functions like cognitive abilities and brain disorders.

  10. Paternal irradiation perturbs the expression of circadian genes in offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Andre M.G.F.; Barber, Ruth C.; Dubrova, Yuri E., E-mail: yed2@le.ac.uk

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have analysed gene expression in the offspring of irradiated male mice. • CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice were used in our study. • The pattern of gene expression was established in four tissues. • Expression of genes in involved in rhythmic process/circadian rhythm is compromised. • Our data may explain the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. - Abstract: The circadian system represents a complex network which influences the timing of many biological processes. Recent studies have established that circadian alterations play an important role in the susceptibility to many human diseases, including cancer. Here we report that paternal irradiation in mice significantly affects the expression of genes involved in rhythmic processes in their first-generation offspring. Using microarrays, the patterns of gene expression were established for brain, kidney, liver and spleen samples from the non-exposed offspring of irradiated CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice. The most over-represented categories among the genes differentially expressed in the offspring of control and irradiated males were those involved in rhythmic process, circadian rhythm and DNA-dependent regulation of transcription. The results of our study therefore provide a plausible explanation for the transgenerational effects of paternal irradiation, including increased transgenerational carcinogenesis described in other studies.

  11. Gene expression profiling during murine tooth development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A dos Santos silva Landin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the expression of genes, including ameloblastin (Ambn, amelogenin X chromosome (Amelx and enamelin (Enam during early (pre-secretory tooth development. The expression of these genes has predominantly been studied at post-secretory stages. Deoxyoligonucleotide microarrays were used to study gene expression during development of the murine first molar tooth germ at 24h intervals, starting at the eleventh embryonic day (E11.5 and up to the seventh day after birth (P7. The profile search function of Spotfire software was used to select genes with similar expression profile as the enamel genes (Ambn, Amelx and Enam. Microarray results where validated using real-time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (real-time RT-PCR, and translated proteins identified by Western blotting. In situ localisation of the Ambn, Amelx and Enam mRNAs were monitored from E12.5 to E17.5 using deoxyoligonucleotide probes. Bioinformatics analysis was used to associate biological functions with differentially (p ≤0.05 expressed (DE genes.Microarray results showed a total of 4362 genes including Ambn, Amelx and Enam to be significant differentially expressed throughout the time-course. The expression of the three enamel genes was low at pre-natal stages (E11.5-P0 increasing after birth (P1-P7. Profile search lead to isolation of 87 genes with significantly similar expression to the three enamel proteins. The mRNAs expressed in dental epithelium and epithelium derived cells. Although expression of Ambn, Amelx and Enam were lower during early tooth development compared to secretory stages enamel proteins were detectable by Western blotting. Bioinformatic analysis associated the 87 genes with multiple biological functions. Around thirty-five genes were associated with fifteen transcription factors.

  12. Chromatin loops, gene positioning, and gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, S.; de Laat, W.

    2012-01-01

    Technological developments and intense research over the last years have led to a better understanding of the 3D structure of the genome and its influence on genome function inside the cell nucleus. We will summarize topological studies performed on four model gene loci: the alpha- and beta-globin

  13. Gene Expression and Microarray Investigation of Dendrobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Progressive therapy with Dendrobium mixture, which has glucose- and lipid-lowering effects, is associated with multi-gene expression pathways. By treating diabetic r and wild-type rats with the mixture, the disorder is further understood at the transcriptomic level. Keywords: Diabetes, Gene expression, ...

  14. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruissen, Fred; Baas, Frank

    2007-01-01

    In 1995, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was developed as a versatile tool for gene expression studies. SAGE technology does not require pre-existing knowledge of the genome that is being examined and therefore SAGE can be applied to many different model systems. In this chapter, the SAGE

  15. Brain expressed microRNAs implicated in schizophrenia etiology.

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    Thomas Hansen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein encoding genes have long been the major targets for research in schizophrenia genetics. However, with the identification of regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs as important in brain development and function, miRNAs genes have emerged as candidates for schizophrenia-associated genetic factors. Indeed, the growing understanding of the regulatory properties and pleiotropic effects that miRNA have on molecular and cellular mechanisms, suggests that alterations in the interactions between miRNAs and their mRNA targets may contribute to phenotypic variation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have studied the association between schizophrenia and genetic variants of miRNA genes associated with brain-expression using a case-control study design on three Scandinavian samples. Eighteen known SNPs within or near brain-expressed miRNAs in three samples (Danish, Swedish and Norwegian: 420/163/257 schizophrenia patients and 1006/177/293 control subjects, were analyzed. Subsequently, joint analysis of the three samples was performed on SNPs showing marginal association. Two SNPs rs17578796 and rs1700 in hsa-mir-206 (mir-206 and hsa-mit-198 (mir-198 showed nominal significant allelic association to schizophrenia in the Danish and Norwegian sample respectively (P = 0.0021 & p = 0.038, of which only rs17578796 was significant in the joint sample. In-silico analysis revealed that 8 of the 15 genes predicted to be regulated by both mir-206 and mir-198, are transcriptional targets or interaction partners of the JUN, ATF2 and TAF1 connected in a tight network. JUN and two of the miRNA targets (CCND2 and PTPN1 in the network have previously been associated with schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found nominal association between brain-expressed miRNAs and schizophrenia for rs17578796 and rs1700 located in mir-206 and mir-198 respectively. These two miRNAs have a surprising large number (15 of targets in common, eight of which are also connected

  16. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for analysis of mouse (Mus musculus sex-dimorphic brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya T. Cheung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the brain is sex-dimorphic, and as a result so are many neurological disorders. One approach for studying sex-dimorphic brain development is to measure gene expression in biological samples using RT-qPCR. However, the accuracy and consistency of this technique relies on the reference gene(s selected. We analyzed the expression of ten reference genes in male and female samples over three stages of brain development, using popular algorithms NormFinder, GeNorm and Bestkeeper. The top ranked reference genes at each time point were further used to quantify gene expression of three sex-dimorphic genes (Wnt10b, Xist and CYP7B1. When comparing gene expression between the sexes expression at specific time points the best reference gene combinations are: Sdha/Pgk1 at E11.5, RpL38/Sdha E12.5, and Actb/RpL37 at E15.5. When studying expression across time, the ideal reference gene(s differs with sex. For XY samples a combination of Actb/Sdha. In contrast, when studying gene expression across developmental stage with XX samples, Sdha/Gapdh were the top reference genes. Our results identify the best combination of two reference genes when studying male and female brain development, and emphasize the importance of selecting the correct reference genes for comparisons between developmental stages.

  17. Expression of Sox genes in tooth development

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAWASAKI, KATSUSHIGE; KAWASAKI, MAIKO; WATANABE, MOMOKO; IDRUS, ERIK; NAGAI, TAKAHIRO; OOMMEN, SHELLY; MAEDA, TAKEYASU; HAGIWARA, NOBUKO; QUE, JIANWEN; SHARPE, PAUL T.; OHAZAMA, ATSUSHI

    2017-01-01

    Members of the Sox gene family play roles in many biological processes including organogenesis. We carried out comparative in situ hybridization analysis of seventeen sox genes (Sox1-14, 17, 18, 21) during murine odontogenesis from the epithelial thickening to the cytodifferentiation stages. Localized expression of five Sox genes (Sox6, 9, 13, 14 and 21) was observed in tooth bud epithelium. Sox13 showed restricted expression in the primary enamel knots. At the early bell stage, three Sox genes (Sox8, 11, 17 and 21) were expressed in pre-ameloblasts, whereas two others (Sox5 and 18) showed expression in odontoblasts. Sox genes thus showed a dynamic spatio-temporal expression during tooth development. PMID:26864488

  18. Expression of Sox genes in tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Katsushige; Kawasaki, Maiko; Watanabe, Momoko; Idrus, Erik; Nagai, Takahiro; Oommen, Shelly; Maeda, Takeyasu; Hagiwara, Nobuko; Que, Jianwen; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Sox gene family play roles in many biological processes including organogenesis. We carried out comparative in situ hybridization analysis of seventeen sox genes (Sox1-14, 17, 18, 21) during murine odontogenesis from the epithelial thickening to the cytodifferentiation stages. Localized expression of five Sox genes (Sox6, 9, 13, 14 and 21) was observed in tooth bud epithelium. Sox13 showed restricted expression in the primary enamel knots. At the early bell stage, three Sox genes (Sox8, 11, 17 and 21) were expressed in pre-ameloblasts, whereas two others (Sox5 and 18) showed expression in odontoblasts. Sox genes thus showed a dynamic spatio-temporal expression during tooth development.

  19. Gearbox gene expression and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldea, M; Garrido, T; Tormo, A

    1993-07-01

    Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotic cells usually takes place at the level of transcription initiation. Different forms of RNA polymerase recognizing specific promoters are engaged in the control of many prokaryotic regulons. This also seems to be the case for some Escherichia coli genes that are induced at low growth rates and by nutrient starvation. Their gene products are synthesized at levels inversely proportional to growth rate, and this mode of regulation has been termed gearbox gene expression. This kind of growth-rate modulation is exerted by specific transcriptional initiation signals, the gearbox promoters, and some of them depend on a putative new σ factor (RpoS). Gearbox promoters drive expression of morphogenetic and cell division genes at constant levels per cell and cycle to meet the demands of cell division and septum formation. A mechanism is proposed that could sense the growth rate of the cell to alter gene expression by the action of specific σ factors.

  20. Endogenous IL-33 is highly expressed in mouse epithelial barrier tissues, lymphoid organs, brain, embryos, and inflamed tissues: in situ analysis using a novel Il-33-LacZ gene trap reporter strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichery, Mélanie; Mirey, Emilie; Mercier, Pascale; Lefrancais, Emma; Dujardin, Arnaud; Ortega, Nathalie; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2012-04-01

    IL-33 (previously known as NF from high endothelial venules) is an IL-1 family cytokine that signals through the ST2 receptor and drives cytokine production in mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, invariant NKT and NK cells, Th2 lymphocytes, and type 2 innate immune cells (natural helper cells, nuocytes, and innate helper 2 cells). Little is known about endogenous IL-33; for instance, the cellular sources of IL-33 in mouse tissues have not yet been defined. In this study, we generated an Il-33-LacZ gene trap reporter strain (Il-33(Gt/Gt)) and used this novel tool to analyze expression of endogenous IL-33 in vivo. We found that the Il-33 promoter exhibits constitutive activity in mouse lymphoid organs, epithelial barrier tissues, brain, and embryos. Immunostaining with anti-IL-33 Abs, using Il-33(Gt/Gt) (Il-33-deficient) mice as control, revealed that endogenous IL-33 protein is highly expressed in mouse epithelial barrier tissues, including stratified squamous epithelia from vagina and skin, as well as cuboidal epithelium from lung, stomach, and salivary gland. Constitutive expression of IL-33 was not detected in blood vessels, revealing the existence of species-specific differences between humans and mice. Importantly, IL-33 protein was always localized in the nucleus of producing cells with no evidence for cytoplasmic localization. Finally, strong expression of the Il-33-LacZ reporter was also observed in inflamed tissues, in the liver during LPS-induced endotoxin shock, and in the lung alveoli during papain-induced allergic airway inflammation. Together, our findings support the possibility that IL-33 may function as a nuclear alarmin to alert the innate immune system after injury or infection in epithelial barrier tissues.

  1. Gene set analysis for longitudinal gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piepho Hans-Peter

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene set analysis (GSA has become a successful tool to interpret gene expression profiles in terms of biological functions, molecular pathways, or genomic locations. GSA performs statistical tests for independent microarray samples at the level of gene sets rather than individual genes. Nowadays, an increasing number of microarray studies are conducted to explore the dynamic changes of gene expression in a variety of species and biological scenarios. In these longitudinal studies, gene expression is repeatedly measured over time such that a GSA needs to take into account the within-gene correlations in addition to possible between-gene correlations. Results We provide a robust nonparametric approach to compare the expressions of longitudinally measured sets of genes under multiple treatments or experimental conditions. The limiting distributions of our statistics are derived when the number of genes goes to infinity while the number of replications can be small. When the number of genes in a gene set is small, we recommend permutation tests based on our nonparametric test statistics to achieve reliable type I error and better power while incorporating unknown correlations between and within-genes. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method has a greater power than other methods for various data distributions and heteroscedastic correlation structures. This method was used for an IL-2 stimulation study and significantly altered gene sets were identified. Conclusions The simulation study and the real data application showed that the proposed gene set analysis provides a promising tool for longitudinal microarray analysis. R scripts for simulating longitudinal data and calculating the nonparametric statistics are posted on the North Dakota INBRE website http://ndinbre.org/programs/bioinformatics.php. Raw microarray data is available in Gene Expression Omnibus (National Center for Biotechnology Information with

  2. Gene expression in cortex and hippocampus during acute pneumococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittwer Matthias

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with high mortality (~30% and morbidity. Up to 50% of survivors are affected by neurological sequelae due to a wide spectrum of brain injury mainly affecting the cortex and hippocampus. Despite this significant disease burden, the genetic program that regulates the host response leading to brain damage as a consequence of bacterial meningitis is largely unknown. We used an infant rat model of pneumococcal meningitis to assess gene expression profiles in cortex and hippocampus at 22 and 44 hours after infection and in controls at 22 h after mock-infection with saline. To analyze the biological significance of the data generated by Affymetrix DNA microarrays, a bioinformatics pipeline was used combining (i a literature-profiling algorithm to cluster genes based on the vocabulary of abstracts indexed in MEDLINE (NCBI and (ii the self-organizing map (SOM, a clustering technique based on covariance in gene expression kinetics. Results Among 598 genes differentially regulated (change factor ≥ 1.5; p ≤ 0.05, 77% were automatically assigned to one of 11 functional groups with 94% accuracy. SOM disclosed six patterns of expression kinetics. Genes associated with growth control/neuroplasticity, signal transduction, cell death/survival, cytoskeleton, and immunity were generally upregulated. In contrast, genes related to neurotransmission and lipid metabolism were transiently downregulated on the whole. The majority of the genes associated with ionic homeostasis, neurotransmission, signal transduction and lipid metabolism were differentially regulated specifically in the hippocampus. Of the cell death/survival genes found to be continuously upregulated only in hippocampus, the majority are pro-apoptotic, while those continuously upregulated only in cortex are anti-apoptotic. Conclusion Temporal and spatial analysis of gene expression in experimental pneumococcal meningitis identified potential

  3. Arsenic affects inflammatory cytokine expression in Gallus gallus brain tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; He, Ying; Guo, Ying; Li, Siwen; Zhao, Hongjing; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Jingyu; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-06-05

    The heavy metal arsenic is widely distributed in nature and posses a serious threat to organism's health. However, little is known about the arsenic-induced inflammatory response in the brain tissues of birds and the relationship and mechanism of the inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of dietary arsenic on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the brains of Gallus gallus. Seventy-two 1-day-old male Hy-line chickens were divided into a control group, a low arsenic trioxide (As2O3)-treated (7.5 mg/kg) group, a middle As2O3-treated (15 mg/kg) group, and a high As2O3-treated (30 mg/kg) group. Arsenic exposure caused obvious ultrastructural changes. The mRNA levels of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and prostaglandin E synthase (PTGEs), in chicken brain tissues (cerebrum, cerebellum, thalamus, brainstem and myelencephalon) on days 30, 60 and 90, respectively, were measured by real-time PCR. The protein expression of iNOS was detected by western blot. The results showed that after being treated with As2O3, the levels of inflammatory-related factor NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokines in chicken brain tissues increased (P Arsenic exposure in the chickens triggered host defence and induced an inflammatory response by regulating the expression of inflammatory-related genes in the cerebrum, cerebellum, thalamus, brainstem and myelencephalon. These data form a foundation for further research on arsenic-induced neurotoxicity in Gallus gallus.

  4. A regulatory toolbox of MiniPromoters to drive selective expression in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Swanson, Douglas J.; Liu, Li; de Leeuw, Charles N.; Banks, Kathleen G.; Ho Sui, Shannan J.; Fulton, Debra L.; Ali, Johar; Amirabbasi, Mahsa; Arenillas, David J.; Babyak, Nazar; Black, Sonia F.; Bonaguro, Russell J.; Brauer, Erich; Candido, Tara R.; Castellarin, Mauro; Chen, Jing; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Jason C. Y.; Chopra, Vik; Docking, T. Roderick; Dreolini, Lisa; D'Souza, Cletus A.; Flynn, Erin K.; Glenn, Randy; Hatakka, Kristi; Hearty, Taryn G.; Imanian, Behzad; Jiang, Steven; Khorasan-zadeh, Shadi; Komljenovic, Ivana; Laprise, Stéphanie; Liao, Nancy Y.; Lim, Jonathan S.; Lithwick, Stuart; Liu, Flora; Liu, Jun; Lu, Meifen; McConechy, Melissa; McLeod, Andrea J.; Milisavljevic, Marko; Mis, Jacek; O'Connor, Katie; Palma, Betty; Palmquist, Diana L.; Schmouth, Jean-François; Swanson, Magdalena I.; Tam, Bonny; Ticoll, Amy; Turner, Jenna L.; Varhol, Richard; Vermeulen, Jenny; Watkins, Russell F.; Wilson, Gary; Wong, Bibiana K. Y.; Wong, Siaw H.; Wong, Tony Y. T.; Yang, George S.; Ypsilanti, Athena R.; Jones, Steven J. M.; Holt, Robert A.; Goldowitz, Daniel; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Simpson, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The Pleiades Promoter Project integrates genomewide bioinformatics with large-scale knockin mouse production and histological examination of expression patterns to develop MiniPromoters and related tools designed to study and treat the brain by directed gene expression. Genes with brain expression patterns of interest are subjected to bioinformatic analysis to delineate candidate regulatory regions, which are then incorporated into a panel of compact human MiniPromoters to drive expression to brain regions and cell types of interest. Using single-copy, homologous-recombination “knockins” in embryonic stem cells, each MiniPromoter reporter is integrated immediately 5′ of the Hprt locus in the mouse genome. MiniPromoter expression profiles are characterized in differentiation assays of the transgenic cells or in mouse brains following transgenic mouse production. Histological examination of adult brains, eyes, and spinal cords for reporter gene activity is coupled to costaining with cell-type–specific markers to define expression. The publicly available Pleiades MiniPromoter Project is a key resource to facilitate research on brain development and therapies. PMID:20807748

  5. Gene expression trees in lymphoid development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schliep Alexander

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The regulatory processes that govern cell proliferation and differentiation are central to developmental biology. Particularly well studied in this respect is the lymphoid system due to its importance for basic biology and for clinical applications. Gene expression measured in lymphoid cells in several distinguishable developmental stages helps in the elucidation of underlying molecular processes, which change gradually over time and lock cells in either the B cell, T cell or Natural Killer cell lineages. Large-scale analysis of these gene expression trees requires computational support for tasks ranging from visualization, querying, and finding clusters of similar genes, to answering detailed questions about the functional roles of individual genes. Results We present the first statistical framework designed to analyze gene expression data as it is collected in the course of lymphoid development through clusters of co-expressed genes and additional heterogeneous data. We introduce dependence trees for continuous variates, which model the inherent dependencies during the differentiation process naturally as gene expression trees. Several trees are combined in a mixture model to allow inference of potentially overlapping clusters of co-expressed genes. Additionally, we predict microRNA targets. Conclusion Computational results for several data sets from the lymphoid system demonstrate the relevance of our framework. We recover well-known biological facts and identify promising novel regulatory elements of genes and their functional assignments. The implementation of our method (licensed under the GPL is available at http://algorithmics.molgen.mpg.de/Supplements/ExpLym/.

  6. Inducible gene manipulations in brain serotonergic neurons of transgenic rats.

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    Tillmann Weber

    Full Text Available The serotonergic (5-HT system has been implicated in various physiological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders, but in many aspects its role in normal and pathologic brain function is still unclear. One reason for this might be the lack of appropriate animal models which can address the complexity of physiological and pathophysiological 5-HT functioning. In this respect, rats offer many advantages over mice as they have been the animal of choice for sophisticated neurophysiological and behavioral studies. However, only recently technologies for the targeted and tissue specific modification of rat genes - a prerequisite for a detailed study of the 5-HT system - have been successfully developed. Here, we describe a rat transgenic system for inducible gene manipulations in 5-HT neurons. We generated a Cre driver line consisting of a tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase under the control of mouse Tph2 regulatory sequences. Tissue-specific serotonergic Cre recombinase expression was detected in four transgenic TPH2-CreERT2 rat founder lines. For functional analysis of Cre-mediated recombination, we used a rat Cre reporter line (CAG-loxP.EGFP, in which EGFP is expressed after Cre-mediated removal of a loxP-flanked lacZ STOP cassette. We show an in-depth characterisation of this rat Cre reporter line and demonstrate its applicability for monitoring Cre-mediated recombination in all major neuronal subpopulations of the rat brain. Upon tamoxifen induction, double transgenic TPH2-CreERT2/CAG-loxP.EGFP rats show selective and efficient EGFP expression in 5-HT neurons. Without tamoxifen administration, EGFP is only expressed in few 5-HT neurons which confirms minimal background recombination. This 5-HT neuron specific CreERT2 line allows Cre-mediated, inducible gene deletion or gene overexpression in transgenic rats which provides new opportunities to decipher the complex functions of the mammalian serotonergic system.

  7. Regulation of expression of atrial and brain natriuretic peptide, biomarkers for heart development and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sergeeva, Irina A.; Christoffels, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian heart expresses two closely related natriuretic peptide (NP) hormones, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). The excretion of the NPs and the expression of their genes strongly respond to a variety of cardiovascular disorders. NPs act to increase

  8. Methodological limitations in determining astrocytic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liang; Guo, Chuang; Wang, Tao; Li, Baoman; Gu, Li; Wang, Zhanyou

    2013-11-25

    Traditionally, astrocytic mRNA and protein expression are studied by in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemically. This led to the concept that astrocytes lack aralar, a component of the malate-aspartate-shuttle. At least similar aralar mRNA and protein expression in astrocytes and neurons isolated by fluorescence-assisted cell sorting (FACS) reversed this opinion. Demonstration of expression of other astrocytic genes may also be erroneous. Literature data based on morphological methods were therefore compared with mRNA expression in cells obtained by recently developed methods for determination of cell-specific gene expression. All Na,K-ATPase-α subunits were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), but there are problems with the cotransporter NKCC1. Glutamate and GABA transporter gene expression was well determined immunohistochemically. The same applies to expression of many genes of glucose metabolism, whereas a single study based on findings in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic animals showed very low astrocytic expression of hexokinase. Gene expression of the equilibrative nucleoside transporters ENT1 and ENT2 was recognized by ISH, but ENT3 was not. The same applies to the concentrative transporters CNT2 and CNT3. All were clearly expressed in FACS-isolated cells, followed by biochemical analysis. ENT3 was enriched in astrocytes. Expression of many nucleoside transporter genes were shown by microarray analysis, whereas other important genes were not. Results in cultured astrocytes resembled those obtained by FACS. These findings call for reappraisal of cellular nucleoside transporter expression. FACS cell yield is small. Further development of cell separation methods to render methods more easily available and less animal and cost consuming and parallel studies of astrocytic mRNA and protein expression by ISH/IHC and other methods are necessary, but new methods also need to be thoroughly checked.

  9. Modular reorganization of the global network of gene regulatory interactions during perinatal human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzón-Sandoval, Jimena; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Urrutia, Araxi O; Gutierrez, Humberto

    2016-05-12

    During early development of the nervous system, gene expression patterns are known to vary widely depending on the specific developmental trajectories of different structures. Observable changes in gene expression profiles throughout development are determined by an underlying network of precise regulatory interactions between individual genes. Elucidating the organizing principles that shape this gene regulatory network is one of the central goals of developmental biology. Whether the developmental programme is the result of a dynamic driven by a fixed architecture of regulatory interactions, or alternatively, the result of waves of regulatory reorganization is not known. Here we contrast these two alternative models by examining existing expression data derived from the developing human brain in prenatal and postnatal stages. We reveal a sharp change in gene expression profiles at birth across brain areas. This sharp division between foetal and postnatal profiles is not the result of pronounced changes in level of expression of existing gene networks. Instead we demonstrate that the perinatal transition is marked by the widespread regulatory rearrangement within and across existing gene clusters, leading to the emergence of new functional groups. This rearrangement is itself organized into discrete blocks of genes, each targeted by a distinct set of transcriptional regulators and associated to specific biological functions. Our results provide evidence of an acute modular reorganization of the regulatory architecture of the brain transcriptome occurring at birth, reflecting the reassembly of new functional associations required for the normal transition from prenatal to postnatal brain development.

  10. Changes in brain ribonuclease (BRB) messenger RNA in granulosa cells (GCs) of dominant vs subordinate ovarian follicles of cattle and the regulation of BRB