WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain computed tomography

  1. Reconstructing cetacean brain evolution using computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Lori; Uhen, Mark D; Pyenson, Nicholas D; Frohlich, Bruno

    2003-05-01

    Until recently, there have been relatively few studies of brain mass and morphology in fossil cetaceans (dolphins, whales, and porpoises) because of difficulty accessing the matrix that fills the endocranial cavity of fossil cetacean skulls. As a result, our knowledge about cetacean brain evolution has been quite limited. By applying the noninvasive technique of computed tomography (CT) to visualize, measure, and reconstruct the endocranial morphology of fossil cetacean skulls, we can gain vastly more information at an unprecedented rate about cetacean brain evolution. Here, we discuss our method and demonstrate it with several examples from our fossil cetacean database. This approach will provide new insights into the little-known evolutionary history of cetacean brain evolution.

  2. Brain computed tomography of the hypertensive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, W. K.; Park, C. K.; Cho, O. K.; Hahm, C. K. [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Now a day, hypertension is more increasing in frequency and ranked the top of the causes of death in Korea and other nations. Most of cerebrovascular accidents in hypertensive patients are composed of vascular occlusive changes and hemorrhages. In cerebral angiogram, we can only detect occlusion of large artery and large mass effect from hematoma or cerebral infarction without identification of its entity. The computed tomogram, however, is the best way for evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases including detection of nature, location, amount, and associated changes. This study includes evaluation of computed tomograms of 106 patients with hypertension during the period of 17 months from Feb. 1979 to June 1980 in the department of radiology, college of Medicine, Hanyang University. The results were as follows. 1. Age distribution of the total 106 patients was broad ranging from 25 years to 76 years. 67.9% of patients were over the age of 50. The male and female sex ratio was 3:2. 2. 28 out of 106 patients were normal and 78 patients revealed abnormal on C. T. findings; those were intracranial hemorrhage (35 patients), cerebral infarction (32 patients) and brain atrophy (11 patients). 3. All of the intracranial hemorrhage except one were intracerebral hemorrhage; those were located in the cerebral hemisphere (19 patients), basal ganglia (15 patients) and brain stem (1 patient). The except one case of intracranial hemorrhage was subdural hematoma. 7 patients of intraventricular hemorrhage and 1 patient of subarachnoid hemorrhage were combined with intracerebral hemorrhage. 2/3 of patients who had hemorrhage in cerebral hemisphere revealed lesions in the parietal and temporal lobes. 4. In cases of cerebral infarction, the cerebral hemisphere was most common site of lesion (20 cases), and the next was basal ganglia (11 cases). Most of the infarcts in cerebral hemisphere were located in the parietal and temporal lobes. The left basal ganglia was more commonly involved

  3. Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Orazio; Filippi, Luca; Manni, Carlo; Santoni, Riccardo

    2007-01-01

    Anatomic imaging procedures (computed tomography [CT] and magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) have become essential tools for brain tumor assessment. Functional images (positron emission tomography [PET] and single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT]) can provide additional information useful during the diagnostic workup to determine the degree of malignancy and as a substitute or guide for biopsy. After surgery and/or radiotherapy, nuclear medicine examinations are essential to assess persistence of tumor, to differentiate recurrence from radiation necrosis and gliosis, and to monitor the disease. The combination of functional images with anatomic ones is of the utmost importance for a full evaluation of these patients, which can be obtained by means of imaging fusion. Despite the fast-growing diffusion of PET, in most cases of brain tumors, SPECT studies are adequate and provide results that parallel those obtained with PET. The main limitation of SPECT imaging with brain tumor-seeking radiopharmaceuticals is the lack of precise anatomic details; this drawback is overcome by the fusion with morphological studies that provide an anatomic map to scintigraphic data. In the past, software-based fusion of independently performed SPECT and CT or MRI demonstrated usefulness for brain tumor assessment, but this process is often time consuming and not practical for everyday nuclear medicine studies. The recent development of dual-modality integrated imaging systems, which allow the acquisition of SPECT and CT images in the same scanning session, and their co-registration by means of the hardware, has facilitated this process. In SPECT studies of brain tumors with various radiopharmaceuticals, fused images are helpful in providing the precise localization of neoplastic lesions, and in excluding the disease in sites of physiologic tracer uptake. This information is useful for optimizing diagnosis, therapy monitoring, and radiotherapy treatment planning, with a

  4. CENTRAL ASSESSMENT OF COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY BRAIN SCANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Ann Cala

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of multislice CT (MSCT scanners since 1998 has resulted in submillimetre thick slices being able to be acquired, without increasing the radiation dose to the patient. Although the incident x-ray beam is widened in the slice thickness direction (Z-direction, the emergent x-rays fall upon multiple rows of small detectors. This means data can be collected simultaneously for more than one slice per rotation of the x-ray tube. For example, the dose received by the patient will be the same for four thin slices of 2.5 mm, as for one slice of 10 mm thickness. A 64-slice MSCT can create 0.625 mm thick slices. This leads to high diagnostic value in the detection of small abnormalities in stroke patients and in the reconstruction of data from CT angiography (CTA of the brain.

  5. Quality Criteria Implementation for Brain Computed Tomography Examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzado, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Munoz, A

    1998-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to implement the quality criteria proposed by the European Commission for brain computed tomography (CT) examinations. The proposed criteria were evaluated for 102 brain CT examinations, with a special emphasis on the diagnostic and radiation dose requirements. The examinations were selected at random from brain examinations performed over a period of a month at eight scanners of the CT Pace range. Achievement of image criteria was evaluated by two independent observers. The most important preliminary findings concerning image criteria fulfilment or lack of it and disagreements between observers are presented and discussed. The mean values of the proposed dosimetric quantities are compared to the reference values. The examinations performed with and without injection of a contrast agent are also analysed in relation to dosimetric quantities and criteria fulfilment. (author)

  6. Cysticercosis of the brain. The value of computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida-Pinto, J.; Veiga-Pires, J.A.; Stocker, A.; Coelho, T.; Monteiro, L.

    Incidence and radiologic findings of neurocysticercosis were investigated in a series of 23 800 consecutive head examinations using computed tomography (CT). The condition was diagnosed in 168 case (0.7%). The parenchymatous form was the most common presentation (96.3%), while the meningeal form corresponded to only 11.9% of cases. These two forms coexisted in some cases. These findings reversed the knowledge on the condition based on conventional radiography. The different CT appearances in the brain are described and a new radiologic protocol for the CT evaluation of the condition is advocated, which includes a follow-up after a trial cure with Praziquantel in the presence of cysts not associated with suggestive brain calcifications. CT were more sensitive than conventional radiography in the differentiation between dead and living larvae, thus having an impact on the therapeutic management of the patients.

  7. Brain single photon emission computed tomography in neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denays, R.; Van Pachterbeke, T.; Tondeur, M.; Spehl, M.; Toppet, V.; Ham, H.; Piepsz, A.; Rubinstein, M.; Nol, P.H.; Haumont, D. (Free Universities of Brussels (Belgium))

    1989-08-01

    This study was designed to rate the clinical value of ({sup 123}I)iodoamphetamine (IMP) or ({sup 99m}Tc) hexamethyl propylene amine oxyme (HM-PAO) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in neonates, especially in those likely to develop cerebral palsy. The results showed that SPECT abnormalities were congruent in most cases with structural lesions demonstrated by ultrasonography. However, mild bilateral ventricular dilatation and bilateral subependymal porencephalic cysts diagnosed by ultrasound were not associated with an abnormal SPECT finding. In contrast, some cortical periventricular and sylvian lesions and all the parasagittal lesions well visualized in SPECT studies were not diagnosed by ultrasound scans. In neonates with subependymal and/or intraventricular hemorrhage the existence of a parenchymal abnormality was only diagnosed by SPECT. These results indicate that ({sup 123}I)IMP or ({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO brain SPECT shows a potential clinical value as the neurodevelopmental outcome is clearly related to the site, the extent, and the number of cerebral lesions. Long-term clinical follow-up is, however, mandatory in order to define which SPECT abnormality is associated with neurologic deficit.

  8. Computed tomography of the brain in kwashiorkor: a follow up study.

    OpenAIRE

    Househam, K C

    1991-01-01

    Computed tomography of the brain was performed initially and after nutritional rehabilitation on 12 children with kwashiorkor. The severe cerebral shrinkage evident initially resolved after nutritional rehabilitation. The mechanism and significance of this reversible abnormality remains to be determined.

  9. Evaluating the microstructure of human brain tissues using synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Georg; Morel, Anne; Imholz, Martha S.; Deyhle, Hans; Weitkamp, Timm; Zanette, Irene; Pfeiffer, Franz; David, Christian; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Müller, Bert

    2010-09-01

    Minimally invasive deep brain neurosurgical interventions require a profound knowledge of the morphology of the human brain. Generic brain atlases are based on histology including multiple preparation steps during the sectioning and staining. In order to correct the distortions induced in the anisotropic, inhomogeneous soft matter and therefore improve the accuracy of brain atlases, a non-destructive 3D imaging technique with the required spatial and density resolution is of great significance. Micro computed tomography provides true micrometer resolution. The application to post mortem human brain, however, is questionable because the differences of the components concerning X-ray absorption are weak. Therefore, magnetic resonance tomography has become the method of choice for three-dimensional imaging of human brain. Because the spatial resolution of this method is limited, an alternative has to be found for the three-dimensional imaging of cellular microstructures within the brain. Therefore, the present study relies on the synchrotron radiationbased micro computed tomography in the recently developed grating-based phase contrast mode. Using data acquired at the beamline ID 19 (ESRF, Grenoble, France) we demonstrate that grating-based tomography yields premium images of human thalamus, which can be used for the correction of histological distortions by 3D non-rigid registration.

  10. Value of Whole Brain Computed Tomography Perfusion for Predicting Outcome after TIA or Minor Ischemic Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Wijngaard, Ido R.; Algra, Ale; Lycklama À Nijeholt, Geert J.; Boiten, Jelis; Wermer, Marieke J H; Van Walderveen, Marianne A A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction About 15% of patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor ischemic stroke have functional impairment after 3 months. We studied the role of whole brain computed tomography perfusion (WB-CTP) in the emergency diagnosis of TIA or minor stroke in predicting disability at 3 months

  11. Blood-brain barrier permeability imaging using perfusion computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avsenik Jernej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The blood-brain barrier represents the selective diffusion barrier at the level of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Other functions of blood-brain barrier include transport, signaling and osmoregulation. Endothelial cells interact with surrounding astrocytes, pericytes and neurons. These interactions are crucial to the development, structural integrity and function of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Dysfunctional blood-brain barrier has been associated with pathologies such as acute stroke, tumors, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Blood-brain barrier permeability imaging using perfusion computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Avsenik Jernej; Bisdas Sotirios; Popovic Katarina Surlan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The blood-brain barrier represents the selective diffusion barrier at the level of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Other functions of blood-brain barrier include transport, signaling and osmoregulation. Endothelial cells interact with surrounding astrocytes, pericytes and neurons. These interactions are crucial to the development, structural integrity and function of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Dysfunctional blood-brain barrier has been associated with patholog...

  13. Impact of Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) and Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) in the Diagnosis of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Vicenty, Irma L; Santiago-Sánchez, Michelaldemar; Vélez-Miró, Iván; Motta-Valencia, Keryl

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as damage to the brain resulting from an external force. TBI, a global leading cause of death and disability, is associated with serious social, economic, and health problems. In cases of mild-to-moderate brain damage, conventional anatomical imaging modalities may or may not detect the cascade of metabolic changes that have occurred or are occurring at the intracellular level. Functional nuclear medicine imaging and neurophysiological parameters can be used to characterize brain damage, as the former provides direct visualization of brain function, even in the absence of overt behavioral manifestations or anatomical findings. We report the case of a 30-year-old Hispanic male veteran who, after 2 traumatic brain injury events, developed cognitive and neuropsychological problems with no clear etiology in the presence of negative computed tomography (CT) findings.

  14. (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/Computed Tomography for Primary Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen Segtnan, Eivind; Hess, Søren; Grupe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Structural imaging with computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging is the mainstay in primary diagnosis of primary brain tumors, but these modalities depend on morphologic appearance and an intact blood-brain barrier, and important aspects of tumor biology are not addressed. Such issues may...... be alleviated by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET and FDG-PET/CT imaging, which may provide clinically important information with regard to primary differentiation between tumor types, initial staging and risk stratification, therapy planning, response evaluation, and recurrence detection. This article...... describes some of the potential contemporary applications of FDG and PET in primary brain tumors....

  15. Brain neuroimaging of domestic cats: correlation between computed tomography and cross- sectional anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Nepomuceno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Computed tomography of the brain is necessary as part of the diagnosis of lesions of the central nervous system. In this study we used six domestic cats, male or female, aged between one and five years, evaluated by Computed Tomography (CT examination without clinical signs of central nervous system disorders. Two euthanized animals stating a condition unrelated to the nervous system were incorporated into this study. The proposal consisted in establishing detailed anatomical description of tomographic images of normal brain of cats, using as reference anatomical images of cross sections of the stained brain and cranial part, with thicknesses similar to the planes of the CT images. CT examinations were performed with and without intravenous iodinated contrast media for live animals. With one euthanized animal, the brain was removed and immediately preserved in 10% formalin for later achievement in cross-sectional thickness of approximately 4mm and staining technique of Barnard, and Robert Brown. The head of another animal was disarticulated in the Atlanto-occipital region and frozen at -20ºC then sliced to a thickness of about 5mm. The description of visualized anatomical structures using tomography is useful as a guide and allows transcribing with relative accuracy the brain region affected by an injury, and thus correlating it with the clinical symptoms of the patient, providing additional information and consequent improvement to veterinarians during the course of surgical clinic in this species.

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the ... of CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly ...

  17. Perfusion imaging with computed tomography: brain and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, K.A. [Div. of Clinical and Lab. Investigation, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Univ. of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-10

    The availability of rapid imaging with multidetector CT systems and commercial analysis software has made perfusion imaging with CT an everyday technique, not only for the brain but also for other body organs. Perfusion imaging is usually performed as an adjunct to a conventional CT examination and is therefore particularly appropriate when a conventional CT is part of routine clinical protocols. The derived values are reproducible and have been validated against a range of reference techniques. Within neuroradiology, perfusion CT has attracted interest in the assessment of acute stroke but can also be used to assess secondary injury in head trauma and as an adjunct to CT angiography to evaluate cerebral spasm in subarachnoid haemorrhage. Within oncology, perfusion CT provides an imaging correlate for tumour vascularity that can be used to discriminate benign and malignant lesions, as an indicator of tumour aggressiveness, to reveal occult tumour and improve the delineation of tumours during radiotherapy planning, and as a functional assessment of tumour response to therapy. By exploiting the ability of CT systems to quantify contrast enhancement. CT perfusion imaging uses contrast media to assess vascular physiology and so improve diagnosis, prognosis, treatment selection and therapy monitoring. (orig.)

  18. [Brain changes in patients on chronic hemodialysis recorded by computed axial tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, V; Penkova, S; Boneva, R; Kiuchukov, G

    1988-01-01

    The brain changes in patients with chronic renal failure treated by chronic hemodialysis were studied with the help of computed tomography. The results showed the development of internal hydrocephalus in the patients in whose treatment "hard" water was used. In some of these patients the hydrocephalus was accompanied by clinical manifestations of the "disequilibrium" syndrome and the "hard water" syndrome. The patients dialyzed with "soft" water showed no brain changes and clinical signs. Hydrocephalus is probably the main pathogenetic factor for the development of the "hard water" syndrome which later develops in dialysis encephalopathy.

  19. Analysis of computed X-ray tomography of the brain in incontinence patients with senile dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Machida, Toyohei; Oishi, Yukihiko (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Kamachi, Chikahumi; Okabe, Tsutomu; Akazawa, Kouhei; Takasaka, Satoshi

    1994-02-01

    To evaluate the condition of incontinence in patients with senile dementia, we performed computed tomography X-rays to the brain and analyzed the relationship among the circulatory defect of the brain, the brain atrophy and the degree of incontinence. There were 92 patients subjected to this study who were hospitalised due to senile dementia; 74 patients had vascular dementia, 10 patients had senile dementia of Alzheimer type, and 8 patients had the mixed type. (age range: 54-95 years; mean: 80.3 years). The degree of incontinence in these patients varied as follows: 18 patients with continence, 16 patients with moderate incontinence, 58 patients with total incontinence. The diagnosis of circulatory defect of the brain was based on computed tomography observation of periventricular lucency (P.V.L.), and the degree of brain atrophy was evaluated based on 4 criteria: the Lateral body ratio, the Huckman number, the Evans ratio, and the enlargement of the subarachnoid space. Among the 92 patients, P.V.L. was present in 31 patients, among them 27 patients suffered from incontinence. There was a significant correlation between P.V.L. and incontinence (p<0.001). As the incontinence progressively worsened (Continence, Moderate incontinence, Total incontinence), the lateral body ratio increased to 24.8, 27.8, 28.6, (p<0.05). The Huckman number also increased to 18.3, 19.3, 21.3, (p<0.01), and the evans ratio likewise 29.9, 32.3, 33.7 (p<0.01). The enlargement of the subarachnoid space was also correlated with the severity of incontinence. We conclude that urinary incontinence originating from senile dememtia is connected to brain atrophy and is strongly influenced by the circulatory disorders of the brain. (author).

  20. Incidental Diagnosis of Cerebral Cortical Venous Thrombosis in Postdural Puncture Headache on Brain Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbertjean, Lisa; Ducrocq, Xavier; Lacour, Jean-Christophe; Mione, Gioia; Richard, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of cerebral cortical venous thrombosis in patients with postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is usually secondary to changes in headache pattern or cerebral infarctions. Nevertheless, incidental discovery of asymptomatic forms on brain imaging has never been reported before and its management thus remains ill-defined. We describe 2 cases of patients with asymptomatic cortical vein thrombosis in the context of PDPH. In both cases, brain computed tomography (CT) scans showed an isolated cortical vein thrombosis without cerebral damage. Neurological examination revealed the typical orthostatic feature of PDPH, independently of cortical vein thrombosis which was considered as a radiological incidental finding. Clinical and radiological signs resolved after bed rest, oral caffeine, and anticoagulation therapy. Asymptomatic cortical vein thrombosis may be found on radiological exploration, even basic like brain CT scan without contrast, of PDPH. Utility of anticoagulation therapy, which could increase the risk of cerebral hemorrhagic complications in this specific context, has to be assessed.

  1. Two Cases of Legionella pneumophila Pneumonia with Prolonged Neurologic Symptoms and Brain Hypoperfusion on Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromitsu Ohta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral and cerebellar symptoms are frequently associated with Legionnaires’ disease. However, corresponding brain lesions are difficult to demonstrate using either computed tomography (CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We report here two patients with Legionella pneumophila pneumonia accompanied by prolonged neurologic symptoms. In contrast to brain CT and MRI, which failed to detect any abnormalities, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT showed multiple sites of hypoperfusion within the brains of both patients. These cases suggest that vasculopathy, which is detectable by SPECT, might be one of the causes of neurologic symptoms in patients with Legionnaires’ disease.

  2. Racking the brain: Detection of cerebral edema on postmortem computed tomography compared with forensic autopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Nicole [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Schweitzer, Wolf; Ross, Steffen G.; Gascho, Dominic [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Ruder, Thomas D. [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, University Hospital of Bern, Freiburgstrasse, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Thali, Michael J. [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Flach, Patricia M., E-mail: patricia.flach@irm.uzh.ch [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Postmortem swelling of the brain is a typical finding on PMCT and occurs concomitant with potential antemortem or agonal brain edema. •Cerebral edema despite normal postmortem swelling is indicated by narrowed temporal horns and symmetrical herniation of the cerebral tonsils on PMCT. •Cases with intoxication or asphyxia demonstrated higher deviations of the attenuation between white and gray matter (>20 Hounsfield Units) and a ratio >1.58 between the gray and white matter. •The Hounsfield measurements of the white and gray matter help to determine the cause of death in cases of intoxication or asphyxia. -- Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare postmortem computed tomography with forensic autopsy regarding their diagnostic reliability of differentiating between pre-existing cerebral edema and physiological postmortem brain swelling. Materials and methods: The study collective included a total of 109 cases (n = 109/200, 83 male, 26 female, mean age: 53.2 years) and were retrospectively evaluated for the following parameters (as related to the distinct age groups and causes of death): tonsillar herniation, the width of the outer and inner cerebrospinal fluid spaces and the radiodensity measurements (in Hounsfield Units) of the gray and white matter. The results were compared with the findings of subsequent autopsies as the gold standard for diagnosing cerebral edema. p-Values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Cerebellar edema (despite normal postmortem swelling) can be reliably assessed using postmortem computed tomography and is indicated by narrowed temporal horns and symmetrical herniation of the cerebellar tonsils (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) between intoxication (or asphyxia) and all other causes of death; the former causes demonstrated higher deviations of the attenuation between white and gray matter (>20 Hounsfield Units), and the gray to

  3. High resolution functional photoacoustic computed tomography of the mouse brain during electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanaki, Mohammad R. N.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-03-01

    Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is an emerging imaging technique which is based on the acoustic detection of optical absorption from tissue chromophores, such as oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin. An important application of PACT is functional brain imaging of small animals. The conversion of light to acoustic waves allows PACT to provide high resolution images of cortical vasculatures through the intact scalp. Here, PACT was utilized to study the activated areas of the mouse brain during forepaw and hindpaw stimulations. Temporal PACT images were acquired enabling computation of hemodynamic changes during stimulation. The stimulations were performed by trains of pulses at different stimulation currents (between 0.1 to 2 mA) and pulse repetition rates (between 0.05 Hz to 0.01Hz). The response at somatosensory cortex-forelimb, and somatosensory cortex-hindlimb, were investigated. The Paxinos mouse brain atlas was used to confirm the activated regions. The study shows that PACT is a promising new technology that can be used to study brain functionality with high spatial resolution.

  4. Clinical study on eating disorders. Brain atrophy revealed by cranial computed tomography scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, Shinichi

    1988-06-01

    Cranial computed tomography (CT) scans were reviewed in 34 patients with anorexia nervosa (Group I) and 22 with bulimia (Group II) to elucidate the cause and pathological significance of morphological brain alterations. The findings were compared with those from 47 normal women. The incidence of brain atrophy was significantly higher in Group I (17/34, 50%) and Group II (11/22, 50%) than the control group (3/47, 6%). In Group I, there was a significant increase in the left septum-caudate distance, the maximum width of interhemispheric fissure, the width of the both-side Sylvian fissures adjacent to the skull, and the maximum width of the third ventricle. A significant increase in the maximum width of interhemispheric fissure and the width of the left-side Sylvian fissure adjacent to the skull were noted as well in Group II. Ventricular brain ratios were significantly higher in Groups I and II than the control group (6.76 and 7.29 vs 4.55). Brain atrophy did not correlate with age, body weight, malnutrition, eating behavior, depression, thyroid function, EEG findings, or intelligence scale. In Group I, serum cortisol levels after the administration of dexamethasone were correlated with ventricular brain ratio. (Namekawa, K) 51 refs.

  5. The brain morphology of Homo Liujiang cranium fossil by three-dimensional computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU XiuJie; LIU Wu; DONG Wei; QUE JieMin; WANG YanFang

    2008-01-01

    The Liujiang cranium is the most complete and well-preserved late Pleistocene human fossils ever unearthed in south China.Because the endocranial cavity is filled with hard stone matrix,earlier stud-ies focused only on the exterior morphology of the specimen using the traditional methods.In order to derive more information for the phyletic evaluation of the Liujiang cranium,high-resolution industrial computed tomography (CT) was used to scan the fossil,and the three-dimensional (3D) brain image was reconstructed.Compared with the endocasts of the hominin fossils (Hexian,Zhoukoudian,KNM-WT 15000,Sm 3,Kabwe,Brunn 3,Predmost) and modern Chinese,most morphological features of the Liujiang brain are in common with modern humans,including a round brain shape,bulged and wide frontal lobes,an enlarged brain height,a full orbital margin and long parietal lobes.A few differ-ences exist between Liujiang and the modern Chinese in our sample,including a strong posterior pro-jection of the occipital lobes,and a reduced cerebellar lobe.The measurement of the virtual endocast shows that the endocranial capacity of Liujiang is 1567 cc,which is in the range of Late Homo sapiens and much beyond the mean of modern humans.The brain morphology of Liujiang is assigned to Late Homo sapiens.

  6. Statistical parametric mapping in brain single photon computed emission tomography after carbon monoxide intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N; Nohara, S; Matsuda, H; Sumiya, H; Noguchi, K; Shimizu, M; Tsuji, S; Kinuya, S; Shuke, N; Yokoyama, K; Seto, H

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess regional cerebral blood flow in patients after carbon monoxide intoxication by using brain single photon emission computed tomography and statistical parametric mapping. Eight patients with delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae and ten patients with no neuropsychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide intoxication were studied with brain single photon emission tomography imaging with 99mTc-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime. Forty-four control subjects were also studied. We used the adjusted regional cerebral blood flow images in relative flow distribution (normalization of global cerebral blood flow for each subject to 50 ml x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) with proportional scaling) to compare these groups with statistical parametric mapping. Using this technique, significantly decreased regional cerebral blood flow was noted extensively in the bilateral frontal lobes as well as the bilateral insula and a part of the right temporal lobe in the patients with delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae as compared with normal volunteers (Pparametric mapping is a useful technique for highlighting differences in regional cerebral blood flow in patients following carbon monoxide intoxication as compared with normal volunteers. The selectively reduced blood flow noted in this investigation supports the contention that the decrease following carbon monoxide intoxication may be prolonged and further worsen in the frontal lobe. In addition, the present study may help to clarify the characteristics of the pathophysiological alteration underlying delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae.

  7. Treatment of bacterial brain abscess by repeated aspiration. Follow up by serial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Fukushima, Takeo; Hirakawa, Katsuyuki; Kimura, Hideo; Tomonaga, Masamichi [Fukuoka Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-02-01

    Bacterial brain abscess often requires repeated aspiration before the abscess finally resolves. However, there are no guidelines for treatment by aspiration; for example, when should the abscess be tapped again, or when can an abscess be treated by antibiotics alone without further aspiration. Eleven patients with bacterial brain abscess treated by aspiration were evaluated to establish treatment guidelines for brain abscess, in particular the abscess size on serial computed tomography (CT) after aspiration. CT was performed about 24 hours after aspiration to evaluate the size of the abscess, and almost weekly during follow up. The diameter of the brain abscess before and after the initial and last aspirations were reviewed. In eight of the 11 patients, abscesses were aspirated repeatedly: two to three times in most patients. The diameter of the abscesses was 2.5-4.5 cm (mean 3.5 cm) before the last aspiration, and 1.4-3.4 cm (mean 2.3 cm) after the last aspiration, or when continuous drainage was discontinued. Perifocal edema was moderately decreased within 3 weeks after the last aspiration by medical treatment alone, with a concomitant decrease in the volume of the abscess. There were no deaths, and most patients had a favorable outcome. These results suggest that after the diameter of the abscess becomes less than 2 to 3 cm and does not increase anymore on serial CT, medical treatment alone can be anticipated to give satisfactory results without further aspiration. (author)

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) - Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Spine Computed tomography (CT) of the ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ...

  10. Calculation of brain atrophy using computed tomography and a new atrophy measurement tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zahid, Abdullah; Mikheev, Artem; Yang, Andrew Il; Samadani, Uzma; Rusinek, Henry

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To determine if brain atrophy can be calculated by performing volumetric analysis on conventional computed tomography (CT) scans in spite of relatively low contrast for this modality. Materials & Method: CTs for 73 patients from the local Veteran Affairs database were selected. Exclusion criteria: AD, NPH, tumor, and alcohol abuse. Protocol: conventional clinical acquisition (Toshiba; helical, 120 kVp, X-ray tube current 300mA, slice thickness 3-5mm). Locally developed, automatic algorithm was used to segment intracranial cavity (ICC) using (a) white matter seed (b) constrained growth, limited by inner skull layer and (c) topological connectivity. ICC was further segmented into CSF and brain parenchyma using a threshold of 16 Hu. Results: Age distribution: 25-95yrs; (Mean 67+/-17.5yrs.). Significant correlation was found between age and CSF/ICC(r=0.695, patrophy among elderly VA patients is attributable to the presence of other comorbidities. Conclusion: Brain atrophy can be reliably calculated using automated software and conventional CT. Compared to MRI, CT is more widely available, cheaper, and less affected by head motion due to ~100 times shorter scan time. Work is in progress to improve the precision of the measurements, possibly leading to assessment of longitudinal changes within the patient.

  11. Cone beam computed tomography guided treatment delivery and planning verification for magnetic resonance imaging only radiotherapy of the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmund, Jens M.; Andreasen, Daniel; Mahmood, Faisal;

    2015-01-01

    Background. Radiotherapy based on MRI only (MRI-only RT) shows a promising potential for the brain. Much research focuses on creating a pseudo computed tomography (pCT) from MRI for treatment planning while little attention is often paid to the treatment delivery. Here, we investigate if cone beam...

  12. Automated Quantification of Stroke Damage on Brain Computed Tomography Scans: e-ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hampton-Till

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Emergency radiological diagnosis of acute ischaemic stroke requires the accurate detection and appropriate interpretation of relevant imaging findings. Non-contrast computed tomography (CT provides fast and low-cost assessment of the early signs of ischaemia and is the most widely used diagnostic modality for acute stroke. The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS is a quantitative and clinically validated method to measure the extent of ischaemic signs on brain CT scans. The CE-marked electronic-ASPECTS (e-ASPECTS software automates the ASPECTS score. Anglia Ruskin Clinical Trials Unit (ARCTU independently carried out a clinical investigation of the e-ASPECTS software, an automated scoring system which can be integrated into the diagnostic pathway of an acute ischaemic stroke patient, thereby assisting the physician with expert interpretation of the brain CT scan. Here we describe a literature review of the clinical importance of reliable assessment of early ischaemic signs on plain CT scans, and of technologies automating these processed scoring systems in ischaemic stroke on CT scans focusing on the e-ASPECTS software. To be suitable for critical appraisal in this evaluation, the published studies needed a sample size of a minimum of 10 cases. All randomised studies were screened and data deemed relevant to demonstration of performance of ASPECTS were appraised. The literature review focused on three domains: i interpretation of brain CT scans of stroke patients, ii the application of the ASPECTS score in ischaemic stroke, and iii automation of brain CT analysis. Finally, the appraised references are discussed in the context of the clinical impact of e-ASPECTS and the expected performance, which will be independently evaluated by a non-inferiority study conducted by the ARCTU.

  13. Patient radiation dose from computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netwong, Y.; Krisanachinda, A.

    2016-03-01

    The 64-row multidetector computed tomography angiography (64-MDCTA) provides vascular image quality of the brain similar to digital subtraction angiography (DSA), but the effective dose of CTA is lower than DSA studied in phantom. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effective dose from 64-MDCTA and DSA. Effective dose (according to ICRP 103) from 64-MDCTA and DSA flat panel detector for cerebral vessels examination of the brain using standard protocols as recommended by the manufacturer was calculated for 30 cases of MDCTA (15 male and 15 female).The mean patient age was 49.5 (23-89) yrs. 30 cases of DSA (14 male and 16 female), the mean patient age was 46.8 (21-81) yrs. For CTA, the mean effective dose was 3.7 (2.82- 5.19) mSv. For DSA, the mean effective dose was 5.78 (3.3-10.06) mSv. The effective dose of CTA depends on the scanning protocol and scan length. Low tube current can reduce patient dose whereas the number of exposures and number of series in 3D rotational angiography (3D RA) resulted in increasing effective dose in DSA patients.

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT of the sinuses is primarily used ...

  15. Brain Swelling and Loss of Gray and White Matter Differentiation in Human Postmortem Cases by Computed Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Shirota

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the brain by postmortem computed tomography (PMCT versus antemortem computed tomography (AMCT using brains from the same patients. We studied 36 nontraumatic subjects who underwent AMCT, PMCT, and pathological autopsy in our hospital between April 2009 and December 2013. PMCT was performed within 20 h after death, followed by pathological autopsy including the brain. Autopsy confirmed the absence of intracranial disorders that might be related to the cause of death or might affect measurements in our study. Width of the third ventricle, width of the central sulcus, and attenuation in gray matter (GM and white matter (WM from the same area of the basal ganglia, centrum semiovale, and high convexity were statistically compared between AMCT and PMCT. Both the width of the third ventricle and the central sulcus were significantly shorter in PMCT than in AMCT (P < 0.0001. GM attenuation increased after death at the level of the centrum semiovale and high convexity, but the differences were not statistically significant considering the differences in attenuation among the different computed tomography scanners. WM attenuation significantly increased after death at all levels (P<0.0001. The differences were larger than the differences in scanners. GM/WM ratio of attenuation was significantly lower by PMCT than by AMCT at all levels (P<0.0001. PMCT showed an increase in WM attenuation, loss of GM-WM differentiation, and brain swelling, evidenced by a decrease in the size of ventricles and sulci.

  16. A study of cerebral perfusion using single photon emission computed tomography in neonates with brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, J.; Contantinesco, A.; Brunot, B.; Messer, J. (Hospital Universitaire de Strasbourg (France))

    1994-03-01

    In this study the authors used a single photon emission computed tomography technique (SPECT) with radiolabelled [sup 99m]Tc HMPAO to assess cerebral perfusion in newborn infants with documented cerebral lesions and to determine to what extent brain SPECT might be useful in the neonatal period. A total of 15 newborn infants with the following cerebral pathologies were enrolled: severe parietal bilateral periventricular leucomalacia; moderate parietal bilateral PVL; intraventricular haemorrhage grade II with unilateral parietal parenchymal extension; cerebral infarction in the zone of middle cerebral artery; and post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Follow-up was available in all infants. Alterations in cerebral perfusion were seen in only 12 of 15 infants and at the location of severe PVL, PE and CI. It was noted that the regions of diminished perfusion extended beyond the apparent extent of cerebral pathology delineated by ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. Markedly diminished perfusion was seen in one infant with hydrocephalus, which recovered following placement of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Regarding outcome, SPECT data failed to provide additional information than that of neuroradiological investigations. It is concluded that the use of SPECT, under these conditions, to assess alteration of cerebral perfusion in the neonatal period will not provide any additional information than that of neuroradiological investigations. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Contrast-enhanced three-dimensional computed tomography of brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Deguchi, Jun; Arai, Motohiro; Tanaka, Hideo; Ohta, Tomio; Narabayashi, Isamu [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of contrast-enhanced spiral (helical) scanning computed tomography (CT) in patients with various brain tumors, a non ionic contrast medium was injected intravenously in ten patients with meningioma, five with vestibular schwannoma, and five with pituitary adenoma. Images were taken by spiral scan at an X-ray beam width of 1 or 2 mm. The volume data obtained were combined at 0.5-1 mm intervals for the three-dimensional (3-D) image reconstruction, by the volume rendering method. Each image was separated by CT number into bone, blood vessel, contrast-enhanced tumor, and cerebral parenchyma. In some subjects, a pair of images was reconstructed to allow stereoscopic viewing at a parallax angle of 6 degrees. Three-dimensional relationship between tumors and other structures was easily understood, permitting pre-operative prediction of the operative field and also a view of the area after tumor excision. The present method surpassed conventional CT techniques in terms of clarity of the 3-D relationship, and surpassed MRI and MRA in terms of clarity of relationship between the tumor and skull. These results confirm that this method appears to be applicable in routine clinical situations with minimal invasiveness, high degree of safety, and short examination time. (author)

  18. Clinical manifestations that predict abnormal brain computed tomography (CT in children with minor head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin Alharthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computed tomography (CT used in pediatric pediatrics brain injury (TBI to ascertain neurological manifestations. Nevertheless, this practice is associated with adverse effects. Reports in the literature suggest incidents of morbidity and mortality in children due to exposure to radiation. Hence, it is found imperative to search for a reliable alternative. Objectives: The aim of this study is to find a reliable clinical alternative to detect an intracranial injury without resorting to the CT. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study was undertaken in patients (1-14 years with blunt head injury and having a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS of 13-15 who had CT performed on them. Using statistical analysis, the correlation between clinical examination and positive CT manifestation is analyzed for different age-groups and various mechanisms of injury. Results: No statistically significant association between parameteres such as Loss of Consciousness, ′fall′ as mechanism of injury, motor vehicle accidents (MVA, more than two discrete episodes of vomiting and the CT finding of intracranial injury could be noted. Analyzed data have led to believe that GCS of 13 at presentation is the only important clinical predictor of intracranial injury. Conclusion: Retrospective data, small sample size and limited number of factors for assessing clinical manifestation might present constraints on the predictive rule that was derived from this review. Such limitations notwithstanding, the decision to determine which patients should undergo neuroimaging is encouraged to be based on clinical judgments. Further analysis with higher sample sizes may be required to authenticate and validate findings.

  19. Adherence to Head Computed Tomography Guidelines for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landon A. Jones

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a significant health concern. While 70-90% of TBI cases are considered mild, decision-making regarding imaging can be difficult. This survey aimed to assess whether clinicians’ decision-making was consistent with the most recent American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP clinical recommendations regarding indications for a non-contrast head computed tomography (CT in patients with mild TBI. Methods: We surveyed 2 academic emergency medicine departments. Six realistic clinical vignettes were created. The survey software randomly varied 2 factors: age (30, 59, or 61 years old and presence or absence of visible trauma above the clavicles. A single important question was asked: “Would you perform a non-contrast head CT on this patient?” Results: Physician decision-making was consistent with the guidelines in only 62.8% of total vignettes. By age group (30, 59, and 61, decision-making was consistent with the guidelines in 66.7%, 47.4%, and 72.7% of cases, respectively. This was a statistically-significant difference when comparing the 59- and 61-year-old age groups. In the setting of presence/absence of trauma above the clavicles, respondents were consistent with the guidelines in 57.1% of cases. Decision-making consistent with the guidelines was significantly better in the absence of trauma above the clavicles. Conclusion: Respondents poorly differentiated the “older” patients from one another, suggesting that respondents either inappropriately apply the guidelines or are unaware of the recommendations in this setting. No particular cause for inconsistency could be determined, and respondents similarly under-scanned and over-scanned in incorrect vignettes. Improved dissemination of the ACEP clinical policy and recommendations is a potential solution to this problem.

  20. Assessment of murine brain tissue shrinkage caused by different histological fixatives using magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrl, Hans F; Bezrukov, Ilja; Wiehr, Stefan; Lehnhoff, Mareike; Fuchs, Kerstin; Mannheim, Julia G; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Kohlhofer, Ursula; Kneilling, Manfred; Pichler, Bernd J; Sauter, Alexander W

    2015-05-01

    Especially for neuroscience and the development of new biomarkers, a direct correlation between in vivo imaging and histology is essential. However, this comparison is hampered by deformation and shrinkage of tissue samples caused by fixation, dehydration and paraffin embedding. We used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT) imaging to analyze the degree of shrinkage on murine brains for various fixatives. After in vivo imaging using 7 T MRI, animals were sacrificed and the brains were dissected and immediately placed in different fixatives, respectively: zinc-based fixative, neutral buffered formalin (NBF), paraformaldehyde (PFA), Bouin-Holland fixative and paraformaldehyde-lysine-periodate (PLP). The degree of shrinkage based on mouse brain volumes, radiodensity in Hounsfield units (HU), as well as non-linear deformations were obtained. The highest degree of shrinkage was observed for PLP (68.1%, P brain shrinkage and only small deformations and is therefore recommended for in vivo ex vivo comparison studies.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging and micro-computed tomography combined atlas of developing and adult mouse brains for stereotaxic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, M; Zhang, J; Miller, M I; Sidman, R L; Mori, S

    2009-09-15

    Stereotaxic atlases of the mouse brain are important in neuroscience research for targeting of specific internal brain structures during surgical operations. The effectiveness of stereotaxic surgery depends on accurate mapping of the brain structures relative to landmarks on the skull. During postnatal development in the mouse, rapid growth-related changes in the brain occur concurrently with growth of bony plates at the cranial sutures, therefore adult mouse brain atlases cannot be used to precisely guide stereotaxis in developing brains. In this study, three-dimensional stereotaxic atlases of C57BL/6J mouse brains at six postnatal developmental stages: postnatal day (P) 7, P14, P21, P28, P63 and in adults (P140-P160) were developed, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and micro-computed tomography (CT). At present, most widely-used stereotaxic atlases of the mouse brain are based on histology, but the anatomical fidelity of ex vivo atlases to in vivo mouse brains has not been evaluated previously. To account for ex vivo tissue distortion due to fixation as well as individual variability in the brain, we developed a population-averaged in vivo magnetic resonance imaging adult mouse brain stereotaxic atlas, and a distortion-corrected DTI atlas was generated by nonlinearly warping ex vivo data to the population-averaged in vivo atlas. These atlas resources were developed and made available through a new software user-interface with the objective of improving the accuracy of targeting brain structures during stereotaxic surgery in developing and adult C57BL/6J mouse brains.

  2. Emission Computed Tomography: A New Technique for the Quantitative Physiologic Study of Brain and Heart in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, M. E.; Hoffman, E. J.; Huang, S. C.; Schelbert, H. R.; Kuhl, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    Emission computed tomography can provide a quantitative in vivo measurement of regional tissue radionuclide tracer concentrations. This facility when combined with physiologic models and radioactively labeled physiologic tracers that behave in a predictable manner allow measurement of a wide variety of physiologic variables. This integrated technique has been referred to as Physiologic Tomography (PT). PT requires labeled compounds which trace physiologic processes in a known and predictable manner, and physiologic models which are appropriately formulated and validated to derive physiologic variables from ECT data. In order to effectively achieve this goal, PT requires an ECT system that is capable of performing truly quantitative or analytical measurements of tissue tracer concentrations and which has been well characterized in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity and signal to noise ratios in the tomographic image. This paper illustrates the capabilities of emission computed tomography and provides examples of physiologic tomography for the regional measurement of cerebral and myocardial metabolic rate for glucose, regional measurement of cerebral blood volume, gated cardiac blood pools and capillary perfusion in brain and heart. Studies on patients with stroke and myocardial ischemia are also presented.

  3. Effect of expression of P-glycoprotein on technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile single photon emission computed tomography of brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Yasushi; Matsumura, Akira; Nose, Tadao [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2002-08-01

    The expression of P-glycoprotein was investigated imunohistochemically in 26 brain tumor tissues and compared with the findings of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile single photon emission computed tomography ({sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SPECT) to clarify the effect of P-glycoprotein on the diagnostic accuracy. P-glycoprotein labeling index of both tumor cells and vascular endothelial cells showed no clear relationship with the findings of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SPECT imaging. Expression of P-glycoprotein has no effect on the diagnostic accuracy of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SPECT. (author)

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is typically ...

  5. Automatic brain matter segmentation of computed tomography images using a statistical model: A tool to gain working time!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertè, Francesco; Lamponi, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco S

    2015-10-01

    Brain computed tomography (CT) is useful diagnostic tool for the evaluation of several neurological disorders due to its accuracy, reliability, safety and wide availability. In this field, a potentially interesting research topic is the automatic segmentation and recognition of medical regions of interest (ROIs). Herein, we propose a novel automated method, based on the use of the active appearance model (AAM) for the segmentation of brain matter in CT images to assist radiologists in the evaluation of the images. The method described, that was applied to 54 CT images coming from a sample of outpatients affected by cognitive impairment, enabled us to obtain the generation of a model overlapping with the original image with quite good precision. Since CT neuroimaging is in widespread use for detecting neurological disease, including neurodegenerative conditions, the development of automated tools enabling technicians and physicians to reduce working time and reach a more accurate diagnosis is needed.

  6. Hypoxic injury of all deep nuclei of the brain. A case report from computed tomography; Hypoxischer Schaden aller tiefen Kerngebiete des Gehirns. Ein Fallbericht aus der Computertomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, S.A.; Bautz, W.A.; Uder, M.; Alibek, S. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Richter, G. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Neuroradiologische Abt.

    2008-07-01

    Though being inferior to magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography (CT) of the brain is the most frequently applied imaging modality in the diagnostic workup of acute cerebral Ischaemia. We report on a case of a comatose 53-year-old man who was brought to the emergency room after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The CT of the brain showed a diffuse brain oedema with an explicit hypodense demarcation of all deep nuclei. (orig.)

  7. Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA) Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ...

  8. Results of Non-contrast Brain Computed Tomography Scans of 1-18 Year Old Epileptic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh FALLAH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Fallah R, Nafisi Moghadam R, Fallah Tafti M, Salmani Nodoushan M. Results of Noncontrast Brain Computed Tomography Scans of 1-18 Year Old Epileptic Children. Iran J Child Neurol 2012; 6(3: 33-38.ObjectiveThe advent of computed tomography (CT scan revolutionized the diagnosticevaluation of neurologic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate brain CTresults of epileptic children.Materials & MethodsIn a descriptive cross-sectional study, noncontrast brain CT scan of 150 consecutive1-18 year old epileptic children whom were referred to pediatric neurology clinic ofShahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, from May 2008 to October 2010 inYazd-Iran, evaluated.ResultsSixty two girls and 88 boys with mean age of 6.6 ± 4.3 years were evaluated.In 38 (25.3 % children, seizure onset age was under one year and 38 others hadabnormal mental / developmental status. Fifty three children (35.3 % and 97 (64.7%had partial and generalized seizures, respectively. Partial seizures were more prevalentin children with seizure onset in < 1 year [41.5% (22/53 vs. 16.5% (16/97] Result of CT was normal in 74 % (n=111. Among the patients with abnormalresults, 18(46% had brain atrophy, 10 (25.6% structural CNS dysgenesia, six (15.4%intracranial calcification, three (7.8% hydrocephaly and two had (5.2% brain tumor.Abnormal brain CT was more prevalent in patients with seizure onset in less than oneyear of age [60.5% (23 of 38 vs. 14.3% (16 of 112, p = 0.003], partial epilepsy [51% (27of 53 vs. 12% (12/97], and abnormal developmental status [ 81.5% (31 of 38 vs.7% (8of 112]. Mean age of seizure onset in epileptic children with abnormal brain CT scanwas less (M ± SD:1/17 ± 0.6 years versus 4.02±1.9 years.ConclusionBrain CT scan might be considered in evaluation of epileptic children with partialseizures, seizure onset in less than one year of age or neurodevelopmental delay.ReferencesJagoda A, Gupta K. The emergency department

  9. Relationship of brain imaging with radionuclides and with x-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1981-03-03

    Because of high sensitivity and specificity for altered local cerebral structure, x-ray computed tomography (CT) is the preferred initial diagnostic imaging study under most circumstances when cerebral disease is suspected. CT has no competitor for detecting fresh intracerebral hemorrhage. Radionuclide imaging (RN) scan is preferred when relative perfusion is to be assessed, in patients allergic to contrast media, and when an adequate CT study is not technically possible. (RN) plays an important complementary role to CT, especially for patients suspected of subacute or chronic subdura hematoma, cerebral infarction, arteriovenous malformations, meningitis, encephalitis, normal pressure hydrocephalus, or when CT findings are inconclusive. When CT is not available, RN serves as a good screening study for suspected cerebral tumor, infection, recent infarction, arteriovenous malformation, and chronic subdural hematoma. Future improvement in radionuclide imaging by means of emission composition potential. The compound plating approacl threshold for all the investigated transistors and fast neutron spectra lies within the raal. The value of the potential slightly changes with the coordinate change in this region, i.e. the charge on a collecting electrode is not practically guided up to a certain moment of time during the movement of nonequilibrium carriers.

  10. Comparison of Cerebral Oxygen Saturation and Cerebral Perfusion Computed Tomography in Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients with Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Alexey O; Kalentiev, George; Voennov, Oleg; Grigoryeva, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between cerebral tissue oxygen saturation and cerebral blood volume in patients with traumatic brain injury. Perfusion computed tomography of the brain was performed in 25 patients with traumatic brain injury together with simultaneous SctO2 level measurement using cerebral near-infrared oxymetry. The mean age of the injured persons was 34.5±15.6 years (range 15-65); 14 men, 11 women. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) values were 44.4±9.7 (range 25-81). The Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) mean value before the study was 10.6±2.1 (range 5-13). SctO2 ranged from 51 to 89%, mean 62±8.2%. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) values were 2.1±0.67 ml/100 g (min 1.1; max 4.3 ml/100 g). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was 31.99±13.6 ml/100 g×min. Mean transit time (MTT) values were 5.7±4.5 s (min 2.8; max 34.3 s). The time to peak (TTP) was 22.2±3.1 s. A statistically significant correlation was found between SctO2 level and cerebral blood volume (CBV) level (R=0.9; pperfusion.

  11. Brain computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah N. Abdulkader

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain computer interface technology represents a highly growing field of research with application systems. Its contributions in medical fields range from prevention to neuronal rehabilitation for serious injuries. Mind reading and remote communication have their unique fingerprint in numerous fields such as educational, self-regulation, production, marketing, security as well as games and entertainment. It creates a mutual understanding between users and the surrounding systems. This paper shows the application areas that could benefit from brain waves in facilitating or achieving their goals. We also discuss major usability and technical challenges that face brain signals utilization in various components of BCI system. Different solutions that aim to limit and decrease their effects have also been reviewed.

  12. A computer tomography-based spatial normalization for the analysis of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hanna; Choi, Jae Yong; Ryu, Young Hoon; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Su [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We developed a new computed tomography (CT)-based spatial normalization method and CT template to demonstrate its usefulness in spatial normalization of positron emission tomography (PET) images with [{sup 18}F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET studies in healthy controls. Seventy healthy controls underwent brain CT scan (120 KeV, 180 mAs, and 3 mm of thickness) and [{sup 18}F] FDG PET scans using a PET/CT scanner. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired for all subjects. By averaging skull-stripped and spatially-normalized MR and CT images, we created skull-stripped MR and CT templates for spatial normalization. The skull-stripped MR and CT images were spatially normalized to each structural template. PET images were spatially normalized by applying spatial transformation parameters to normalize skull-stripped MR and CT images. A conventional perfusion PET template was used for PET-based spatial normalization. Regional standardized uptake values (SUV) measured by overlaying the template volume of interest (VOI) were compared to those measured with FreeSurfer-generated VOI (FSVOI). All three spatial normalization methods underestimated regional SUV values by 0.3-20% compared to those measured with FSVOI. The CT-based method showed slightly greater underestimation bias. Regional SUV values derived from all three spatial normalization methods were correlated significantly (p < 0.0001) with those measured with FSVOI. CT-based spatial normalization may be an alternative method for structure-based spatial normalization of [18F] FDG PET when MR imaging is unavailable. Therefore, it is useful for PET/CT studies with various radiotracers whose uptake is expected to be limited to specific brain regions or highly variable within study population.

  13. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses special x-ray equipment ... period of time. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they can scan through large sections of ...

  14. 23.4% saline decreases brain tissue volume in severe hepatic encephalopathy as assessed by a quantitative computed tomography marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Eric M; Lizza, Bryan D; Romanova, Anna L; Guth, James C; Berman, Michael D; Carroll, Timothy J; Francis, Brandon; Ganger, Daniel; Ladner, Daniela P; Maas, Matthew B; Naidech, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cerebral edema is common in severe hepatic encephalopathy and may be life-threatening. Bolus 23.4% hypertonic saline (HTS) improves surveillance neuromonitoring scores, although its mechanism of action is not clearly established. We investigated the hypothesis that bolus HTS decreases cerebral edema in severe hepatic encephalopathy utilizing a quantitative technique to measure brain and CSF volume changes. Design Retrospective analysis of serial computed tomography (CT) scans and clinical data for a case-control series was performed. Setting Intensive care units of a tertiary care hospital. Patients Patients with severe hepatic encephalopathy treated with 23.4% HTS and control patients who did not receive 23.4% HTS. Methods We used clinically obtained CT scans to measure volumes of the ventricles, intracranial CSF, and brain using a previously validated semi-automated technique (Analyze Direct; Overland Park, KS). Volumes before and after 23.4% HTS were compared with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Associations between total CSF volume, ventricular volume, serum sodium, and Glasgow Coma Scale Scores were assessed using Spearman correlation. Results Eleven patients with 18 administrations of 23.4% HTS met inclusion criteria. Total CSF (median 47.6 [35.1–69.4] to 61.9 [47.7–87.0] mL, pbrain tissue volume. Total CSF and ventricular volume change may be useful quantitative measures to assess cerebral edema in severe hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:26308431

  15. Single photon emission computed tomography of the brain with a rotating gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Knopp, R.; Winkler, C.; Wappenschmidt, J.

    1981-08-01

    In 471 patients SPECT of the brain was performed in addition to conventional serial brain scintigraphy using a rotating gamma camera (GAMMATOME T 9000). 23 patients had tumorous lesions, 26 had vascular lesions, and 422 patients revealed normal brain findings. 5 of the 23 patients with tumorous lesion and 5 of the 12 patients with vascular lesion (anamnesis shorter than 4 weeks) showed positive SPECT results but false negative conventional brain scans. Specificity could be improved up to 98% (412 out of 422 patients) using SPECT and conventional scintigraphy.

  16. Proton computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciantonio, Martina; Sauli, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    Proton computed tomography (pCT) is a diagnostic method capable of in situ imaging the three-dimensional density distribution in a patient before irradiation with charged particle beams. Proposed long time ago, this technology has been developed by several groups, and may become an essential tool for advanced quality assessment in hadrontherapy. We describe the basic principles of the method, its performance and limitations as well as provide a summary of experimental systems and of results achieved.

  17. Positron Computed Tomography: Current State, Clinical Results and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelbert, H. R.; Phelps, M. E.; Kuhl, D. E.

    1980-09-01

    An overview is presented of positron computed tomography: its advantages over single photon emission tomography, its use in metabolic studies of the heart and chemical investigation of the brain, and future trends. (ACR)

  18. Single-photon emission computed tomography imaging for brain death donor counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayanand Palaniswamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ donation awareness is very poor in India. We have a high demand for transplant organs with poor supply. Apnea test is the confirmatory test for brain death in our country. The Transplantation of Human Organs Act does not support any ancillary testing for the confirmation of brain death in our country. Radionuclide scan is used widely in western countries as a confirmatory test. We in our institution used this as a tool for family counseling with successful conversion rate.

  19. A comparison study of 11C-methionine and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans in evaluation of patients with recurrent brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajnish; D’Souza, Maria; Jaimini, Abhinav; Hazari, Puja Panwar; Saw, Sanjeev; Pandey, Santosh; Singh, Dinesh; Solanki, Yachna; Kumar, Nitin; Mishra, Anil K.; Mondal, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: 11C-methonine ([11C]-MET) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is a well-established technique for evaluation of tumor for diagnosis and treatment planning in neurooncology. [11C]-MET reflects amino acid transport and has been shown to be more sensitive than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in stereotactic biopsy planning. This study compared fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-CT and MET PET-CT in the detection of various brain tumors. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four subjects of brain tumor treated by surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy were subjected to [18F]-FDG, [11C]-MET, and MRI scan. The lesion was analyzed semiquantitatively using tumor to normal contralateral ratio. The diagnosis was confirmed by surgery, stereotactic biopsy, clinical follow-up, MRI, or CT scans. Results: Tumor recurrence was found in 5 out of 22 patients on [F-18] FDG scan while [11C]-MET was able to detect recurrence in 18 out of 22 patients in low-grade gliomas. Two of these patients were false positive for the presence of recurrence of tumor and later found to be harboring necrosis. Among oligodendroglioma, medulloblastoma and high-grade glioma out of 42 patients 39 were found to be concordant MET and FDG scans. On semiquantitative analysis, mean T/NT ratio was found to be 2.96 ± 0.94 for lesions positive for recurrence of tumors and 1.18 ± 0.74 for lesions negative for recurrence of tumor on [11C]-MET scan. While the ratio for FDG scan on semiquantitative analysis was found to be 2.05 ± 1.04 for lesions positive for recurrence of tumors and 0.52 ± 0.15 for lesions negative for recurrence of tumors. Conclusion: The study highlight that [11C]-MET is superior to [18F]-FDG PET scans to detect recurrence in low-grade glioma. A cut-off value of target to nontarget value of 1.47 is a useful parameter to distinguish benign from malignant lesion on an [11C]-MET Scan. Both [18F]-FDG and [11C]-MET scans were found to be useful in high-grade astrocytoma

  20. Clinical studies of brain functional images by motor activation using single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Masahiro [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-09-01

    Thirty participants (10 normal controls; group A, 5 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus without hemiparesis; group B, 10 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus with hemiparesis; group C, and 5 patients with brain tumors besides the central regions with hemiparesis; group D) were enrolled. The images were performed by means of split-dose method with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD at rest condition (SPECT 1) and during hand grasping (SPECT 2). The activation SPECT were obtained by subtracting SPECT 1 from SPECT 2, and the functional mapping was made by the strict registration of the activation SPECT with 3D MRI. To evaluate the changes of CBF (%{Delta}CBF) of the sensorimotor and supplementary motor areas on the functional mapping, ratio of the average counts of SPECT 1 and SPECT 2 was calculated and statistically compared. The functional activation paradigms caused a significant increase of CBF in the sensorimotor area contra-lateral to the stimulated hand, although the sensorimotor area and the central sulcus in groups B and C were dislocated, compared with hemisphere of non-tumor side. The sensorimotor area ipsi-lateral to the stimulated hand could be detected in almost of all subjects. The supplementary motor area could be detected in all subjects. In group A, the average %{Delta}CBF were up 24.1{+-}4.3% in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area, and 22.3{+-}3.6% in the supplementary motor area, respectively. The average %{Delta}CBF in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area of group D was significantly higher than that of group A. The brain functional mapping by motor activation using SPECT could localize the area of cortical motor function in normal volunteers and patients with brain tumors. The changes of regional CBF by activation SPECT precisely assess the cortical motor function even in patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus. (K.H.)

  1. Computer processing of tomography data

    OpenAIRE

    Konečný, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Computer processing of tomography data Tomographs are one of the most important diagnostic devices, which are used in every hospital nowadays; they have already been so for a considerable period of time. The different types of tomographs and the processing of tomographic data and imaging of these data are the subject of this thesis. I have described the four most common types of tomography: X-ray Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Positron Emission Tomography and Single Photon E...

  2. Outcome prediction in moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: a focus on computed tomography variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.; Beems, T.; Vliet, T.M. van der; Vugt, A.B. van; Hoedemaekers, C.W.; Horn, J.; Franschman, G.; Haitsma, I.; Naalt, J. van der; Andriessen, T.M.J.C.; Borm, G.F.; Vos, P.E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With this study we aimed to design validated outcome prediction models in moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) using demographic, clinical, and radiological parameters. METHODS: Seven hundred consecutive moderate or severe TBI patients were included in this observational pros

  3. Outcome Prediction in Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury : A Focus on Computed Tomography Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Bram; Beems, Tjemme; van der Vliet, Ton M.; van Vugt, Arie B.; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia; Horn, Janneke; Franschman, Gaby; Haitsma, Ian; van der Naalt, Joukje; Andriessen, Teuntje M. J. C.; Borm, George F.; Vos, Pieter E.

    2013-01-01

    With this study we aimed to design validated outcome prediction models in moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) using demographic, clinical, and radiological parameters. Seven hundred consecutive moderate or severe TBI patients were included in this observational prospective cohort study.

  4. Multiplanner spine computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H. K.; Jeon, H. J.; Hong, K. C.; Chung, K. B.; Suh, W. H. [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    The computed tomography is useful in evaluation of bony structures and adjacent soft tissues of the spine. Recently, the multiplanar spine CT scan is highly superior than usual axial scan, because of easily demonstrable longitudinal dimension, level of spine and spinal canal. We evaluated 62 cases of spine CT, whom complains of spinal symptoms, from July, 1982 to January, 1983. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution of cases were 45 male and 17 female, ages were from 15 years to 76 years, and sites were 15 cervical spine, 7 thoracic spine, 42 lumbar spine and 21 sacral spine. 2. Sixty two cases of the CT diagnosis were reviewed and shows 19 cases of herniated intervertebral disc, 7 cases of spine fracture, 5 cases of degenerative disease, 4 cases of metastatic cancer, 2 cases of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, 1 case of cord injury and 24 cases of normal. 3. The CT findings of herniated intervertebral disc were protruding disc, obliteration of anterior epidural fat, with or without indentation of dural sac and calcification within posterior disc margin. In cases of trauma, the multiplanar spine CT scan detects more specific extension of the fracture sites, and it is able to demonstrate relationship between fracture fragment and spinal cord, therefore operability can be decided. In case of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, it is easy to demonstrate linear high density along posterior margin of vertebral bodies on sagittal reconstruction scan. 4. The computed tomography is diagnostic in detection of spinal disease. However, multiplanar spine CT is more diagnostic than axial computed tomography such as detecting the longitudinal dimension and demonstration of spinal canal.

  5. The study of neuropsychological alterations following coronary artery bypass operation as predicted by computed tomography scan of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Atsushi; Sato, Kiyoharu (Sendai Tokushu-kai Hospital (Japan)); Sadahiro, Mitsuaki; Endo, Masato; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Ohmi, Mikio

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this clinical study is to provide information regarding the association between coexistent cerebrovascular disease and neuropsychological abnormalities after coronary artery bypass operations. Computed tomography scan of the brain was performed in 104 patients pre-operatively, and their post-operative neuropsychological functions were evaluated. The patients were categorized as follows according to the CT findings. Seventy-three patients showed normal or slight cerebral cortical atrophy which usually seen in patients over fifty of age (group A). Sixteen showed moderate or severe cortical atrophy (group B). Fifteen patients demonstrated the characteristic findings of Binswanger type; severe white matter hypodensity especially in frontal horns and dilated ventricles (group C). Overt neuropsychological dysfunction was not observed in patients in groups A and B. Six patients in group C showed a combination of dementia, bizarre behavior, disorientation and gait dyspraxia following bypass operations. The pseudobulbar signs were also found in 3 patients. These clinical abnormalities persisted for six days to three weeks, and were most often reversible. Although the underlying mechanism of these deleterious alterations is not elucidated, the ischemic nature of the characteristic white matter lesions was highly suspected. The arteriosclerotic changes of the arteriole of the cerebral cortex and hypoperfusion during cardio-pulmonary bypass were supposed to be responsible. Therefore it was concluded that special attention should be focused on neurological evaluation for bypass surgery in group C patients. (author).

  6. Dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography for dopamine and serotonin transporters in normal and parkinsonian monkey brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, I-H. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Huang, W.-S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Yeh, C.-B. [Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Liao, M.-H.; Chen, C.-C.; Shen, L.-H. [Division of Isotope Application, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyaun, 325 Taiwan (China); Liu, J.-C. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Ma, K.-H. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kuohsing91@yahoo.com.tw

    2009-08-15

    Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) affects both dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated dopamine and serotonin transporters in primates using dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and compared the results with traditional single-isotope imaging. Methods: Four healthy and one 6-OHDA-induced PD monkeys were used for this study. SPECT was performed over 4 h after individual or simultaneous injection of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 (a dopamine transporter imaging agent) and [{sup 123}I]ADAM (a serotonin transporter imaging agent). Results: The results showed that the image quality and uptake ratios in different brain regions were comparable between single- and dual-isotope studies. The striatal [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 uptake in the PD monkey was markedly lower than that in normal monkeys. The uptake of [{sup 123}I]ADAM in the midbrain of the PD monkey was comparable to that in the normal monkeys, but there were decreased uptakes in the thalamus and striatum of the PD monkey. Conclusions: Our results suggest that dual-isotope SPECT using [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 and [{sup 123}I]ADAM can simultaneously evaluate changes in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in a PD model.

  7. Stored Luminescence Computed Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2013-01-01

    The phosphor nanoparticles made of doped semiconductors, pre-excited by well-collimated X-ray radiation, were recently reported for their light emission upon NIR light stimulation. The characteristics of X-ray energy storage and NIR stimulated emission is highly desirable to design targeting probes and improve molecular and cellular imaging. Here we propose stored luminescence computed tomography (SLCT), perform realistic numerical simulation, and demonstrate a much-improved spatial resolution in a preclinical research context. The future opportunities are also discussed along this direction.

  8. Chest computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Rosenfeld, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Clinical trials for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease are important to test and optimize new therapeutic interventions. To evaluate the effect of these interventions, sensitive and accurate outcome measures are needed. The most commonly used endpoints are spirometric variables...... are not suitable to study CF lung disease in young children. Chest computed tomography (CT) holds great promise for use as a sensitive surrogate endpoint in CF. A large body of evidence has been produced to validate the use of chest CT as primary endpoint to study CF lung disease. However, before chest CT can...

  9. Abdominal perfusion computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis.

  10. Brain computed tomography in morbid obesity before and after gastric restriction surgery: A prospective quantitative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berginer, V.M.; Solomon, H.; Charuz, I.; Hirsch, M.; Berginer, J.; Weitzman, S.; Friedman, L.

    1987-11-01

    Linear brain parameters were measured by CT in 19 patients with morbid obesity (mean weight 126.4 +- 20.5 kg) and 20 age and sex matched normal weight subjects (mean weight 62.6 +- 14.9 kg). Ventricular parameters were slightly smaller and cortical parameters were slightly larger in the preoperative obese than in control subjects. However, only the '4 cortical sulci ratio' was significantly different in the two groups (p=0.02). After gastric restriction surgery and drastic weight loss (mean postoperative weight 82.9 +- 27.4 kg), all the ventricular and cortical parameters increased, with significant change in the frontal interhemispheric fissure ratio (P<0.05). Obese patients followed for 23 months after surgery had less striking changes than those followed for 6 months. Morbidly obese subjects have altered brain CT dimensions which are partly reversible after weight correction.

  11. Forensic postmortem computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lykke Schrøder; Lundemose, Sissel; Banner, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) images in estimating organ sizes and to examine the use of the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR). METHODS: We included 45 individuals (19 females), who underwent a medico-legal autopsy. Using...... the computer software program Mimics(®), we determined in situ heart and liver volumes derived from linear measurements (width, height and depth) on a whole body PMCT-scan, and compared the volumes with ex vivo volumes derived by CT-scan of the eviscerated heart and liver. The ex vivo volumes were also...... differences. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive in situ PMCT methods for organ measuring, as performed in this study, are not useful tools in forensic pathology. The best method to estimate organ volume is a CT-scan of the eviscerated organ. PMCT-determined CTR seems to be useless for ascertaining cardiomegaly...

  12. Computed tomography of the brain in children with early infantile autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Yoshihiko; Manome, Taei; Kaneko, Motohisa; Yashima, Yuko; Kumashiro, Hisashi

    1984-01-01

    In order to examine the cranial CT of autistic children and investigate the etiological significance of CT scan findings, the CT of the brain was surveyed in 24 children with early infantile autism (3 to 17 years with a mean age of 7.6), and 179 children with the normal CT despite their medical histories such as headaches or febrile convulsions. According to their ages, the autistic and normal children were divided into the following three groups: Group I (age ranging from 3 to 5), Group II (age: 6 to 9) and Group III (age: 10 to 17). 1) There was no significant difference between the bifrontal CVI of the autistic children and that of the normal children. However, in Group III, the bifrontal CVI of the autistic children was significantly higher than that of the normal children. 2) There was no significant difference between the bicaudate CVI of the autistic children and that of the normal children. However, in Groups I and II, the bicaudate CVI of the autistic children was significantly lower than that of the normal children. 3) The maximum widths of the third ventricle showed no significant difference between the autistic and normal children. However, in Groups II and III, those of the autistic children were wider than those of the normal children. In the autistic children, as the age increases, the difference becomes significantly wider. A positive correlation was observed between the width of the third ventricle and ages of the autistic children. 4) An examination of the right-left ratio of maximum transverse diameter of the brain showed that there was no significant difference between the autistic and normal children. The above mentioned results (1)-4)) might suggest a progressive disorder of the brain structure surrounding the third ventricle or lateral ventricles in the autistic children. (author).

  13. Usefulness of preoperative coronary angiography and brain computed tomography in cases of coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease undergoing revascularization for arteriosclerosis obliterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurada, Tall; Shibata, Yoshiki [Southern Tohoku Fukushima Hospital (Japan)

    2003-05-01

    Coronary angiography and brain computed tomography were preoperatively performed to evaluate the clinical condition of coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease in 101 patients (mean age, 68.4 years) with revascularization for arteriosclerosis obliterans. Eighty patients had hypertension, 12 had diabetes, and 26 had hyperlipidemia. Seventy-one patients (70.3%) had coronary stenosis. Significant stenoses in major coronary artery branches were confirmed in 35 patients, including 13 patients with old myocardial infarction. Coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous coronary angioplasty were performed in 2 and 7 patients with critical stenosis, respectively. Of 57 patients, who underwent brain computed tomography, abnormalities were found in 52 patients (91.2%), including cortical infarction in 9, lacunar infarction in 35, and leukoaraiosis in 27 patients. During the follow-up period 13 patients died (including 3 cases of myocardial infarction and 3 cases of stroke). Actuarial survival rate at 5 years was 80.4%. The influence of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease on early and late mortality after surgical reconstruction for peripheral occlusive vascular disease is significant. Using visual diagnostic techniques, such as coronary angiography and brain computed tomography, long term survivor should be closely observed for multiple arteriosclerotic vascular diseases. (author)

  14. Clinical significance of ventricular enlargement and cortical atrophy in computed tomography of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, O.; Agnoli, A.L.; Lippmann, R.; Schuetz, H.J.

    1981-02-01

    The diagnosis of atrophy of the brain based on the visual interpretation of CT findings appears questionable. In 56 patients there was no correlation between the CT findings of enlarged ventricles and sulci and clinical findings of psychoorganic syndromes. Only the group of 60 to 80 year old patients showed a statistically significant correlation between psychoorganic findings and the area of the lateral ventricles - measured planimetrically - and the diameter of the cella medica, but not the group of the 40 to 60 year old. There was no relationship between the number of cortical sulci and psychopathology. The morphological findings of ventricular enlargement and cortical atrophy in CT - even with exact measurements - do not allow any conclusions in regard to psychoorganic findings.

  15. Brain Abscess in the Computed Tomography Era: A 10-year Experience from Auckland, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJ Holland

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Notes were reviewed for 68 patients with brain abscess diagnosed at Auckland Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand between 1978 and 1988. Mean age was 30 years (range one week to 74 years. There were 48 men and 40% were Maori or Pacific Island Polynesians. Seventy-two per cent of patients had headache, 54% had fever and 72% had lateralizing neurological signs. Thirty-one per cent of abscesses were associated with contiguous infection (otic, sinus, dental. Forty-four per cent were in the frontal lobe. Two abscesses were sterile; 197 bacterial isolates were cultured from the remainder. Fifty-four per cent contained obligate anaerobes, which were the only isolates in 22%. Streptococcus anginosus was the single most common isolate present in 22% of the abscesses. Amoxycillin plus metronidazole provided cover for approximately 95% of the total isolates on the basis of sensitivity testing. Treatment was with surgery and antibiotics in all but three patients, who were cured with antibiotics alone. Sixty per cent had a definitive regimen of penicillin (or ampicillin/amoxycillin and/or metronidazole, always intravenous initially but subsequently often orally. Median duration of antibiotic treatment was 57 days (range 28 to 206. Seventy-five per cent had initial aspiration, 9% open drainage and 7% were excised initially. Seventy-one per cent had a good functional outcome. Mortality was 8.8%. Factors associated with a poor outcome were trauma as a cause, and delays after admission of more than seven days to diagnosis and/or operation.

  16. In vivo imaging of brain dopaminergic neurotransmission system in small animals with high-resolution single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saji, Hideo; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Ogawa, Mikako; Kitamura, Youji; Mukai, Takahiro [Kyoto University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Iida, Yasuhiko; Shimazu, Seiichiro; Yoneda, Fumiro [Fujimoto Pharmaceutical Corporation, Matsubara, Osaka (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides a unique capability to image the biodistribution of radiolabeled molecules in small laboratory animals. Thus, we applied the high-resolution SPECT to in vivo imaging of the brain dopaminergic neurotransmission system in common marmosets using two radiolabeled ligands, [{sup 123}I]2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ({beta}-CIT) as a dopamine transporter(DAT) ligand and [{sup 123}I]iodobenzamide (IBZM) as a dopamine D{sub 2} receptor (D{sub 2}R) ligand. Specific images of the striatum, a region with a high density of dopaminergic synapses, were obtained at 240 min and 60 min after injection of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT and [{sup 123}I]IBZM, respectively. Furthermore, a significantly low accumulation of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT in the striatum was observed in MPTP-treated animals compared with results for a control group, and a similar accumulation in the control group was observed with the pretreatment of deprenyl in the MPTP-treated animals. However, the striatal accumulation of [{sup 123}I]IBZM showed no changes among the control, MPTP-treated, and deprenyl-MPTP-treated groups. These SPECT imaging results agreed well with those of DA concentration and motor behavior. Since MPTP destroys nigrostriatal dopamine nerves and produces irreversible neurodegeneration associated with Parkinsonian syndrome, SPECDT imaging data in this study demonstrated that deprenyl shows its neuroprotective effect on Parkinsonism by protecting against the destruction of presynaptic dopamine neutrons. (author)

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography of the Brain-50 Years of Innovation, With a Focus on the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Val M; Aoki, Shigeki; Bradley, William G; Chang, Kee-Hyun; Essig, Marco; Ma, Lin; Ross, Jeffrey S; Valavanis, Anton

    2015-09-01

    This review focuses specifically on the developments in brain imaging, as opposed to the spine, and specifically conventional, clinical, cross-sectional imaging, looking primarily at advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). These fields are viewed from a perspective of landmark publications in the last 50 years and subsequently more in depth using sentinel publications from the last 5 years. It is also written from a personal perspective, with the authors having witnessed the evolution of both fields from their initial clinical introduction to their current state. Both CT and MRI have made tremendous advances during this time, regarding not only sensitivity and spatial resolution, but also in terms of the speed of image acquisition. Advances in CT in recent years have focused in part on reduced radiation dose, an important topic for the years to come. Magnetic resonance imaging has seen the development of a plethora of scan techniques, with marked superiority to CT in terms of tissue contrast due to the many parameters that can be assessed, and their intrinsic sensitivity. Future advances in MRI for clinical practice will likely focus both on new acquisition techniques that offer advances in speed and resolution, for example, simultaneous multislice imaging and data sparsity, and on standardization and further automation of image acquisition and analysis. Functional imaging techniques including specifically perfusion and functional magnetic resonance imaging will be further integrated into the workflow to provide pathophysiologic information that influence differential diagnosis, assist treatment decision and planning, and identify and follow treatment-related changes.

  18. Metrizamide computed tomography in syringomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, T.; Tamakawa, Y.; Arii, H. (Akita Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Takahashi, M.; Hirota, K.

    1981-11-01

    Serial computed tomography of the cervical cord was performed following metrizamide myelography in five cases of clinically suspected syringomyelia. The syrinx filled with refluxed metrizamide was demonstrated in all of the cases. The reflux of metrizamide into the syrinx was most marked several hours following intrathecal injection of metrizamide. Computed tomography combined with metrizamide myelography is essential in the diagnosis of communicating syringomyelia.

  19. Single photon emission computed tomography of the brain in Sturge-Weber syndrome using N-isopropyl-p-( sup 123 I) iodoamphetamine; A comparative study with X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horita, Hideki; Nozaki, Hidetsugu; Hamano, Shinichiro; Aihara, Toshinori (Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan))

    1990-07-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain using N-isopropyl-p-({sup 123}I) iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) was performed in 11 children with port wine stain on the face or head, aged 1.0{approx}14.2 years at investigation. Four cases without neurologic symptoms had no specific abnormality on SPECT and X-ray computed tomography (CT). In 4 cases of so-called Sturge-Weber syndrome with developmental quotients (DQ) or intelligence quotients (IQ) more than 80 and the neurologic symptoms consisting of seizures and hemiplegia, SPECT showed localized reduction of IMP accumulation, and CT exhibited calcification, atrophy and enhancement in 2 cases of 3 with contrast medium infusion in the same areas. In 3 cases with DQ of 50{approx}60 and severer neurologic symptoms, SPECT showed diffuse reduction or defect of IMP accumulation in the ipsilateral hemisphere, and CT exhibited remarkable atrophy, calcifications and enhancement in 2 cases with contrast medium infusion in the same hemisphere. In one case with severe neurologic symptoms, SPECT performed at an early stage showed high IMP accumulation in the ipsilateral hemisphere. (author).

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor ... scanning provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular ...

  1. [Computed tomography of the heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T.S.; Kofoed, K.F.; der, Recke P. von;

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive evaluation of the coronary arteries by multi-detector row computed tomography is a promising new alternative to conventional invasive coronary angiography. This article describes the technical background, methods, limitations and clinical applications and reviews current literature...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like ... contrast materials and a metallic taste in your mouth that lasts for at most a minute or ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like ... contrast materials and a metallic taste in your mouth that lasts for at most a minute or ...

  4. Computed tomography of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Engelshoven, J M; Kreel, L

    1979-02-01

    The conventional anatomy of the prostate is reviewed and the computed tomography (CT) anatomy described and illustrated. The results of 55 "normal" cases were analyzed for size and relationship to the symphysis pubis, retropubic space, and bladder, as shown on CT sections correlating the features with age and possible urinary symptoms. Attention is also drawn to the differences between phleboliths and prostatic calcification. Computed tomography is an effective method of demonstrating the prostate and surrounding structures and of assessing prostatic enlargement.

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... membranes covering the brain. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate ... and skull or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... skull or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries ... in the paranasal sinuses. plan radiation therapy for cancer of the brain or other tissues. guide the ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your face, ... radiation therapy for brain cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough ...

  9. Comparison of computed tomography and radionuclide scanning for detection of brain metastases in small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, J.M.; Nelson, M.J.; Ihde, D.C.; Makuch, R.W.; Glatstein, E.; Zabell, A.; Johnston-Early, A.; Bates, H.R.; Saini, N.; Cohen, M.H.

    1984-09-01

    Neurologic history and examination, radionuclide brain scans (RN), and computed tomographic brain scans (CT) were performed at diagnosis and sequentially in 153 consecutive patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) to assess the sensitivity and accuracy of these screening methods and to determine whether the early detection of brain metastases influences survival. CT scans (sensitivity, 98%; positive predictive accuracy, 98%) were superior to RN scans (sensitivity, 71%; positive predictive accuracy, 86%) in patients with or without neurologic signs or symptoms. However, CT scans were positive in only 6% of asymptomatic patients at diagnosis and 13% of asymptomatic patients after systemic therapy. Brain metastases detected by CT scan were the sole site of extensive-stage disease in 6% of patients at diagnosis. Despite the enhanced ability of CT scans to detect asymptomatic lesions, survival after therapeutic cranial irradiation was similar for asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. The results suggest that CT brain scans should be used routinely in SCLC patients with neurologic signs or symptoms, at diagnosis (when treatment decisions are based on stage), and at six-month intervals in patients with prior brain metastases and in whom erratic follow-up is likely.

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a stroke. a stroke, especially with a new technique called Perfusion CT. brain tumors. enlarged brain ... be asked to remove hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras ... does the equipment look like? The CT scanner is typically a ...

  11. Computed tomography of ancient Egyptian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood-Nash, D C

    1979-12-01

    This first report of the application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of ancient mummies, the desiccated brain of a boy and the body of a young woman within her cartonnage, shows that CT is uniquely suitable for the study of such antiquities, a study that does not necessitate destruction of the mummy or its cartonnage. Exquisite images result that are of great paleoanatomical, paleopathological, and archeological significance.

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and ... generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ... other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ... other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ...

  15. Quantification of Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer brain single photon emission computed tomography images using statistical probabilistic brain atlas in depressive end-stage renal disease patients Correlation with disease severity and symptom factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heeyoung Kim; In Joo Kim; Seong-Jang Kim; Sang Heon Song; Kyoungjune Pak; Keunyoung Kim

    2012-01-01

    This study adapted a statistical probabilistic anatomical map of the brain for single photon emission computed tomography images of depressive end-stage renal disease patients. This research aimed to investigate the relationship between symptom clusters, disease severity, and cerebral blood flow. Twenty-seven patients (16 males, 11 females) with stages 4 and 5 end-stage renal disease were enrolled, along with 25 healthy controls. All patients underwent depressive mood assessment and brain single photon emission computed tomography. The statistical probabilistic anatomical map images were used to calculate the brain single photon emission computed tomography counts. Asymmetric index was acquired and Pearson correlation analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between symptom factors, severity, and regional cerebral blood flow. The depression factors of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale showed a negative correlation with cerebral blood flow in the left amygdale. The insomnia factor showed negative correlations with cerebral blood flow in the left amygdala, right superior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left middle frontal gyrus. The anxiety factor showed a positive correlation with cerebral glucose metabolism in the cerebellar vermis and a negative correlation with cerebral glucose metabolism in the left globus pallidus, right inferior frontal gyrus, both temporal poles, and left parahippocampus. The overall depression severity (total scores of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale) was negatively correlated with the statistical probabilistic anatomical map results in the left amygdala and right inferior frontal gyrus. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the disease severity and extent of cerebral blood flow quantified by a probabilistic brain atlas was related to various brain areas in terms of the overall severity and symptom factors in end-stage renal disease patients.

  16. Relationship between brain atrophy estimated by a longitudinal computed tomography study and blood pressure control in patients with essential hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Shigeru; Sawai, Fuyuki; Yamamoto, Yuta [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)] [and others

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between blood pressure control and the progression of brain atrophy in the elderly, patients with essential hypertension and brain atrophy were longitudinally evaluated using computerized tomography (CT). The study evaluated 48 patients with essential hypertension aged 46-78 years, and 30 sex- and age-matched normotensive control subjects. The extent of brain atrophy as determined by caudate head index (CHI), the inverse cella media index (iCMI), and Evans` ratio (ER) was estimated twice at an interval of 5-9 years (mean, 6.9 years). The mean annual increases in CHI ({Delta}CHI), iCMI ({Delta}iCMI), and ER ({Delta}ER) were evaluated. Mean blood volume in the common carotid artery (BF) and the decrease in BF per year ({Delta}BF) were also determined. The {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER increased with age in the hypertensive subjects as well as the control group across all age groups evaluated. The {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER were significantly greater in the patients with essential hypertension in their 50s as compared with the controls. In patients with essential hypertension aged 65 years or older, the {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER were significantly lower in the group in whom the blood pressure was controlled within the range of borderline hypertension than the groups in which it was controlled in the range of normal or mild hypertension. In the younger patients under the age of 65 with essential hypertension, blood pressure control did not affect the {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER. The {Delta}CHI, {Delta}iCMI, and {Delta}ER were significantly correlated with {Delta}BF in both groups. These findings indicate that control of systolic blood pressure within the range of borderline hypertension may delay the progression of brain atrophy in elderly patients with essential hypertension. (author)

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  19. Computed tomography:the details.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2007-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a well established technique, particularly in medical imaging, but also applied in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging. Basic CT imaging via back-projection is treated in many texts, but often with insufficient detail to appreciate subtleties such as the role of non-uniform sampling densities. Herein are given some details often neglected in many texts.

  20. Viewing Welds By Computer Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascua, Antonio G.; Roy, Jagatjit

    1990-01-01

    Computer tomography system used to inspect welds for root penetration. Source illuminates rotating welded part with fan-shaped beam of x rays or gamma rays. Detectors in circular array on opposite side of part intercept beam and convert it into electrical signals. Computer processes signals into image of cross section of weld. Image displayed on video monitor. System offers only nondestructive way to check penetration from outside when inner surfaces inaccessible.

  1. Receptor binding characterization of the benzodiazepine radioligand sup 125 I-Ro16-0154: Potential probe for SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.W.; Woods, S.W.; Zoghbi, S.; Baldwin, R.M.; Innis, R.B. (Yale Univ., West Haven, CT (USA)); McBride, B.J. (Medi-Physics, Inc., Emeryville, CA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The binding of an iodinated benzodiazepine (BZ) radioligand has been characterized, particularly in regard to its potential use as a neuroreceptor brain imaging agent with SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography). Ro16-0154 is an iodine-containing BZ antagonist and a close analog of Ro15-1788. In tissue homogenates prepared from human and monkey brain, the binding of {sup 125}I-labeled Ro16-0154 was saturable, of high affinity, and had high ratios of specific to non-specific binding. Physiological concentrations of NaCl enhanced specific binding approximately 15% compared to buffer without this salt. Kinetic studies of association and dissociation demonstrated a temperature dependent decrease in affinity with increasing temperature. Drug displacement studies confirmed that {sup 125}I-Ro16-0154 binds to the central type BZ receptor: binding is virtually identical to that of {sup 3}H-Ro15-1788 except that {sup 125}I-Ro16-0154 shows an almost 10 fold higher affinity at 37{degree}C. These in vitro results suggest that {sup 123}I-labeled Ro16-0154 shows promise as a selective, high affinity SPECT probe of the brain's BZ receptor.

  2. Cranial computed tomography in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltshauser, E. (Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland). Kinderklinik)

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with methodical aspects (such as sedation, intravenous and intrathecal application of contrast media) and with common difficulties in interpretation of computed tomography images. The indications for cranial CT are discussed in respect to probable therapeutic consequences and expected diagnostic yield. In the view of the author CT is, as a rule, not required in assessing chronic headache, generalised epileptic convulsions, non-specific mental retardation and cerebral palsy.

  3. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V.

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultras...

  4. Computed tomography in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valavanis, A.; Schubiger, O.; Hayek, J.; Friede, R.L

    1981-01-01

    The computed tomography (CT) findings in a verified case of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are presented. CT revealed diffuse and severe cerebral atrophy, reflected by generalized subarachnoid space enlargement and symmetric ventricular dilatation. There was no evidence of abnormalities of the white matter. The CT features in our case of NCL correspond perfectly with the neuropathologic changes of the disease mentioned in the literature. Furthermore, CT is of considerable help in differentiating between those inherited metabolic brain diseases characterized primarily by white matter involvement and those presenting predominantly with changes of grey matter.

  5. Industrial applications of computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.; Kruth, J. -P.;

    2014-01-01

    contains a survey of application examples from the manufacturing industry as well as from other industries, e.g., electrical and electronic devices, inhomogeneous materials, and from the food industry. Challenges as well as major national and international coordinated activities in the field of industrial......The number of industrial applications of Computed Tomography(CT) is large and rapidly increasing. After a brief market overview, the paper gives a survey of state of the art and upcoming CT technologies, covering types of CT systems, scanning capabilities, and technological advances. The paper...

  6. Computed Tomography in Forensic Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2015-01-01

    Modern diagnostic imagining techniques are gaining popularity in forensic medicine. Denmark has been involved in the development of this use of imaging techniques from the beginning. The Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Southern Denmark acquired a helical computed tomography (CT...... AND METHODS: This thesis investigated 900 forensic cases that were CT-scanned and autopsied at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, from 2006-2011. The scanner was a Siemens Somatom Spirit dual-slice CT-scanner with a Siemens Syngo MultiModality workstation. Contrast enhancement...

  7. Detecting brain tumor in computed tomography images using Markov random fields and fuzzy C-means clustering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulbaqi, Hayder Saad [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11700, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Physics, College of Education, University of Al-Qadisiya, Al-Qadisiya (Iraq); Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim Bin [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11700, Penang (Malaysia); Abood, Loay Kadom [Department of Computer Science, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2015-04-24

    Brain tumors, are an abnormal growth of tissues in the brain. They may arise in people of any age. They must be detected early, diagnosed accurately, monitored carefully, and treated effectively in order to optimize patient outcomes regarding both survival and quality of life. Manual segmentation of brain tumors from CT scan images is a challenging and time consuming task. Size and location accurate detection of brain tumor plays a vital role in the successful diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Brain tumor detection is considered a challenging mission in medical image processing. The aim of this paper is to introduce a scheme for tumor detection in CT scan images using two different techniques Hidden Markov Random Fields (HMRF) and Fuzzy C-means (FCM). The proposed method has been developed in this research in order to construct hybrid method between (HMRF) and threshold. These methods have been applied on 4 different patient data sets. The result of comparison among these methods shows that the proposed method gives good results for brain tissue detection, and is more robust and effective compared with (FCM) techniques.

  8. Future of cardiac computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlo N De Cecco; U Joseph Schoepf

    2015-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography(CCTA)has become an integral tool in the noninvasive diagnostic workup of patients with suspected coronary artery disease in both elective and emergency settings. Today, it represents a mature technique providing accurate, non-invasive morphological assessment of the coronary arteries and atherosclerotic plaque burden. Iterative reconstruction algorithms, low kV imaging, and single-heart beat acquisitions hold promise to further reduce dose requirements and improve the safety and robustness of the technique in several circumstances including imaging of heavily calcified vessels, patients with morbid obesity or irregular heart rates, and assessment in the emergency setting. However, it has become clear over recent years that cardiac radiologists need to take further steps towards the development and integration of functional imaging with morphological CCTA assessment to truly provide a comprehensive evaluation of the heart. Computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging, including both dynamic and static dual-energy approaches, has demonstrated the ability to directly assess and quantify myocardial ischemia with simultaneous CCTA acquisition with a reasonable contrast medium volume and radiation dose delivered to the patient. In order to promote CCTA in the clinical and research environments, radiologists should prepare to embrace the change from morphological to functional imaging, furnishing all the necessary resources and information to referring clinicians.

  9. Brain computed tomography findings of aged schizophrenics; Comparison with healthy aged controls and aged schizophrenics with a history of psychosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oomori, Masao; Koshino, Yoshifumi; Murata, Tetsuhito; Murata, Ichirou; Tani, Kazuhiko; Horie, Tan; Isaki, Kiminori (Fukui Medical School, Matsuoka (Japan))

    1992-05-01

    Brain CT was performed in a total of 30 aged schizophrenic patients, consisting of 20 with no history of psychosurgery (lobotomy) and the other 10 lobotomized patients. The CT findings were compared with those from healthy aged persons. The group of schizophrenic patients had marked atrophy of the frontal lobe and dilatated Sylvian fissure as compared with the control group. There was no significant difference in ventricular factors between the two groups. These findings may have implications for the different mechanisms of the occurrence of atrophied brain surface and enlarged ventricle. The cerebral cortex involved in the occurrence of schizophrenia may be affected by aging-related cerebral atrophy, in addition to the morphological changes due to schizophrenia. Thus, schizophrenic cerebral atrophy was more noticeable than physiological aging-related atrophy. However, enlargement of the ventricle in the schizophrenic group progressed with aging in the same manner as that in the normal group. In comparing schizophrenic patients with or without a history of lobotomy, atrophy of the brain surface and enlargement of the ventricle were more marked in the lobotomized patients than the non-lobotomized patients. This confirmed that lobotomy, as well as surgical scar, is involved in the morphology of schizophrenic brain. (N.K.).

  10. Clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction for brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Itaru; Doi, Kenji; Komori, Tsuyoshi; Hou, Nobuyoshi; Tabuchi, Koujirou; Matsui, Ritsuo; Sueyoshi, Kouzou; Utsunomiya, Keita; Narabayashi, Isamu [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction (SAC) of brain SPECT in infants to compare the standard reconstruction (STD). The brain SPECT was performed in 31 patients with 19 epilepsy, 5 cerebro-vascular disease, 2 brain tumor, 3 meningitis, 1 hydrocephalus and psychosis (mean age 5.0{+-}4.9 years old). Many patients was necessary to be injected sedatives for restraining body motion after Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) was injected at the convulsion or rest. Brain SPECT data were acquired with triple detector gamma camera (GCA-9300 Toshiba Japan). These data were reconstructed by filtered backprojection after the raw data were corrected by triple energy windows method of scatter correction and Chang filtered method of attenuation correction. The same data was reconstructed by filtered backprojection without these corrections. Both SAC and STD SPECT images were analyzed by the visual interpretation. The uptake ratio of cerebral basal nuclei was calculated by the counts of the thalamus or lenticular nuclei divided by the cortex. All images of SAC method were excellent than that of STD method. The thalamic uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.22{+-}0.09>0.87{+-}0.22 p<0.01). The lenticular nuclear uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.26{+-}0.15>1.02{+-}0.16 p<0.01). Transmission scan is the most suitable method of absorption correction. But the transmission scan is not adequate for examination of children, because this scan needs a lot of time and the infants are exposed by the line source radioisotope. It was concluded that these scatter and absorption corrections were most suitable method for brain SPECT in pediatrics. (author)

  11. Adaptive Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The present proposal describes the development of an adaptive Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS), or "Snapshot" spectrometer which can "instantaneously"...

  12. Brain MRI and single photon emission computed tomography in severe athetotic cerebral palsy. A comparative study with mental and motor disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Kazutaka; Tsuzura, Shigenobu [Metropolitan Medical Center of the Severely Handicapped, Fuchu, Tokyo (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi

    1995-07-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]-iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) was performed in twelve patients with severe athetotic cerebral palsy (Ath; 5 males and 7 females) who had both motor delay (unable to move) and mental retardation (I.Q, or D.Q, below 30). The neuroimaging findings of those patients were compared with those of patients mental and motor disorders. In five caes suffering from neonatal asphyxia, SPECT demonstrated a decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in corpus striatum, thalamus, orbitofrontal areas, pericentral gyrus areas, prefrontal areas and medial temporal areas. In seven cases suffering from neonatal jaundice, SPECT demonstrated a decreased rCBF in orbito-frontal areas, prefrontal areas and medial temporal areas. SPECT showed hypoperfusion of peri-central gyrus areas in cases with complications of spastic palsy. The decreased rCBF in medial temporal areas mostly corresponded to an alteration in hippocampal formation as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cases with hypoperfusion of bilateral medial temporal areas showed a lower score of language understanding than those with the unilateral damage. In cases with hypofusion of bilateral prefrontal areas and bilateral medial temporal areas, the grade of understanding of language was almost below 12 months. In cases with hypoperfusion of orbitofrontal areas, psychomotor hypersensitivity had been observed. Those results suggest that IMP-SPECT and MRI of the brain is useful tool for neurological assessment in handicapped patients with athetotic cerebral palsy. (author).

  13. Comparative yield of positive brain Computed Tomography after implementing the NICE or SIGN head injury guidelines in two equivalent urban populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summerfield, R., E-mail: ruth.summerfield@uhns.nhs.u [Medical Imaging, University Hospital of North Staffordshire, City General Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire ST4 6QG (United Kingdom); Macduff, R. [Glasgow Royal Infirmary, 84 Castle Street, Glasgow G4 0SF (United Kingdom); Davis, R. [Medical Imaging, University Hospital of North Staffordshire, City General Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire ST4 6QG (United Kingdom); Sambrook, M. [Glasgow Royal Infirmary, 84 Castle Street, Glasgow G4 0SF (United Kingdom); Britton, I. [Medical Imaging, University Hospital of North Staffordshire, City General Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire ST4 6QG (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Aims: To compare the yield of positive computed tomography (CT) brain examinations after the implementation of the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) or the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidance Network (SIGN) guidelines, in comparable urban populations in two teaching hospitals in England and Scotland. Materials and methods: Four hundred consecutive patients presenting at each location following a head injury who underwent a CT examination of the head according to the locally implemented guidelines were compared. Similar matched populations were compared for indication and yield. Yield was measured according to (1) positive CT findings of the sequelae of trauma and (2) intervention required with anaesthetic or intensive care unit (ICU) support, or neurosurgery. Results: The mean ages of patients at the English and Scottish centres were 49.9 and 49.2 years, respectively. Sex distribution was 64.1% male and 66.4% male respectively. Comparative yield was 23.8 and 26.5% for positive brain scans, 3 and 2.75% for anaesthetic support, and 3.75 and 2.5% for neurosurgical intervention. Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) <13 (NICE) and GCS {<=}12 and radiological or clinical evidence of skull fracture (SIGN) demonstrated the greatest statistical association with a positive CT examination. Conclusion: In a teaching hospital setting, there is no significant difference in the yield between the NICE and SIGN guidelines. Both meet the SIGN standard of >10% yield of positive scans. The choice of guideline to follow should be at the discretion of the local institution. The indications GCS <13 and clinical or radiological evidence of a skull fracture are highly predictive of intracranial pathology, and their presence should be an absolute indicator for fast-tracking the management of the patient.

  14. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultrasound signal attenuation and distortion caused by a relatively thick skull.

  15. [Computer tomography of sports injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, M; Rupp, N

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) provides axial slices plane and shows excellent details of bones and different soft tissues, favoring its use in traumatic lesions caused by sporting activities. Complex anatomical structures such as the shoulder, the vertebral column, the pelvis, the knee, the tarsal and carpal bones are often better recognized in detail than by conventional radiography. Fracture lines, localization of bone fragments and involvement of soft tissues are clearly demonstrated. Luxations and bone changes leading to luxations can be shown. CT arthrography provides for the first time a direct visualization of joint cartilage and of cruciate ligaments in the knee joint, so traumatic lesions such as chondropathia patellae or rupture of the cruciate ligaments are shown with a high degree of reliability.

  16. Computed tomography in sport injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, M.; Rupp, N.

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) provides axial slices plane and shows excellent details of bones and different soft tissues, favoring its use in traumatic lesions caused by sporting activities. Complex anatomical structures such as the shoulder, the vertebral column, the pelvis, the knee, the tarsal and carpal bones are often better recognized in detail than by conventional radiography. Fracture lines, localization of bone fragments and involvement of soft tissues are clearly demonstrated. Luxations and bone changes leading to luxations can be shown. CT arthrography provides for the first time a direct visualization of joint cartilage and of cruciate ligaments in the knee joint, so traumatic lesions such as chondropathia patellae or rupture of the cruciate ligaments are shown with a high degree of reliability.

  17. Computed tomography of the gallbladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havrilla, T R; Reich, N E; Haaga, J R; Seidelmann, F E; Cooperman, A M; Alfidi, R J

    1978-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was used to study 79 patients with suspected gallbladder disease. First and second generation scanners were used to determine the efficacy of CT in detecting cholecystitis or cholelithiasis. Manifestations of gallbladder disease such as hydrops, opaque and nonopaque gallstones, chronic cholecystitis with thickened inflammatory walls, and secondary liver abscesses can be easily detected. It is a useful technique for individuals in whom the gallbladder has failed to opacity on oral cholecystography. The scanning method is described, and estimates of reliability are given including its accuracy, limitations, and place in the management of gallbladder disease, especially cholelithiasis. When conventional radiographic examinations or ultrasound fail to give definitive diagnostic information, CT can be a useful alternative with an overall diagnostic accuracy greater than 80%.

  18. Computed tomography of cryogenic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Gerd; Anderson, E.; Vogt, S.; Knochel, C.; Weiss, D.; LeGros, M.; Larabell, C.

    2001-08-30

    Due to the short wavelengths of X-rays and low numerical aperture of the Fresnel zone plates used as X-ray objectives, the depth of field is several microns. Within the focal depth, imaging a thick specimen is to a good approximation equivalent to projecting the specimen absorption. Therefore, computed tomography based on a tilt series of X-ray microscopic images can be used to reconstruct the local linear absorption coefficient and image the three-dimensional specimen structure. To preserve the structural integrity of biological objects during image acquisition, microscopy is performed at cryogenic temperatures. Tomography based on X-ray microscopic images was applied to study the distribution of male specific lethal 1 (MSL-1), a nuclear protein involved in dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster, which ensures that males with single X chromosome have the same amount of most X-linked gene products as females with two X chromosomes. Tomographic reconstructions of X-ray microscopic images were used to compute the local three-dimensional linear absorption coefficient revealing the arrangement of internal structures of Drosophila melanogaster cells. Combined with labelling techniques, nanotomography is a new technique to study the 3D distribution of selected proteins inside whole cells. We want to improve this technique with respect to resolution and specimen preparation. The resolution in the reconstruction can be significantly improved by reducing the angular step size to collect more viewing angles, which requires an automated data acquisition. In addition, fast-freezing with liquid ethane instead of cryogenic He gas will be applied to improve the vitrification of the hydrated samples. We also plan to apply cryo X-ray nanotomography in order to study different types of cells and their nuclear protein distributions.

  19. Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT) Updated:Sep 19, ... The ECG is also needed to help the computer that is connected to the CT scanner create ...

  20. [Computed tomography and cranial paleoanthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanis, Emmanuel Alain; Badawi-Fayad, Jackie; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Istoc, Adrian; de Lumley, Henry; de Lumley, Marie-Antoinette; Coppens, Yves

    2007-06-01

    Since its invention in 1972, computed tomography (C.T.) has significantly evolved. With the advent of multi-slice detectors (500 times more sensitive than conventional radiography) and high-powered computer programs, medical applications have also improved. CT is now contributing to paleoanthropological research. Its non-destructive nature is the biggest advantage for studying fossil skulls. The second advantage is the possibility of image analysis, storage, and transmission. Potential disadvantages include the possible loss of files and the need to keep up with rapid technological advances. Our experience since the late 1970s, and a recent PhD thesis, led us to describe routine applications of this method. The main contributions of CT to cranial paleoanthropology are five-fold: --Numerical anatomy with rapid acquisition and high spatial resolution (helicoidal and multidetector CT) offering digital storage and stereolithography (3D printing). --Numerical biometry (2D and 3D) can be used to create "normograms" such as the 3D craniofacial reference model used in maxillofacial surgery. --Numerical analysis offers thorough characterization of the specimen and its state of conservation and/or restoration. --From "surrealism" to virtual imaging, anatomical structures can be reconstructed, providing access to hidden or dangerous zones. --The time dimension (4D imaging) confers movement and the possibility for endoscopic simulation and internal navigation (see Iconography). New technical developments will focus on data processing and networking. It remains our duty to deal respectfully with human fossils.

  1. Cranial computed tomography in psychiatry. Kraniale Computertomographie in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkai, P. (Rheinische Landes- und Hochschulklinik Duesseldorf, Psychiatrische Klinik der Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet (Germany)); Bogerts, B. (Rheinische Landes- und Hochschulklinik Duesseldorf, Psychiatrische Klinik der Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    Computed tomography has gained importance as a diagnostic tool in psychiatry to exclude structural brain pathology, but has passed on its role in research to magnetic resonance tomography. It helps to distinguish between senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia. The enlargement of the ventricular system and cortical sulci is well established in schizophrenic and affective psychosis. Some alcohol addicts show a considerable degree of cerebral atrophy, only exceeded by demented patients, but this condition is potentially reversible. To screen psychiatric patients by CT is recommendable, as 2-10% of hospitalized psychiatric patients have structural brain disease. (orig.)

  2. Optical tomography of the neonatal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebden, Jeremy C. [University College London, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, London (United Kingdom); Austin, Topun [University College London, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    A new method of assessing neurological function and pathology in the newborn infant is being developed based on the transmission of near-infrared light across the brain. Absorption by blood over a range of wavelengths reveals a strong dependency on oxygenation status, and measurements of transmitted light enable the spatial variation in the concentrations of the oxygenated and de-oxygenated forms of hemoglobin to be derived. Optical tomography has so far provided static three-dimensional maps of blood volume and oxygenation as well as dynamic images revealing the brain's response to sensory stimulation and global hemodynamic changes. The imaging modality is being developed as a safe and non-invasive tool that can be utilized at the cotside in intensive care. Optical tomography of the healthy infant brain is also providing a means of studying neurophysiological processes during early development and the potential consequences of prematurity. (orig.)

  3. X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalender, Willi A [Institute of Medical Physics, University Erlangen-Nuernberg, Henkestr. 91, D-91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2006-07-07

    X-ray computed tomography (CT), introduced into clinical practice in 1972, was the first of the modern slice-imaging modalities. To reconstruct images mathematically from measured data and to display and to archive them in digital form was a novelty then and is commonplace today. CT has shown a steady upward trend with respect to technology, performance and clinical use independent of predictions and expert assessments which forecast in the 1980s that it would be completely replaced by magnetic resonance imaging. CT not only survived but exhibited a true renaissance due to the introduction of spiral scanning which meant the transition from slice-by-slice imaging to true volume imaging. Complemented by the introduction of array detector technology in the 1990s, CT today allows imaging of whole organs or the whole body in 5 to 20 s with sub-millimetre isotropic resolution. This review of CT will proceed in chronological order focussing on technology, image quality and clinical applications. In its final part it will also briefly allude to novel uses of CT such as dual-source CT, C-arm flat-panel-detector CT and micro-CT. At present CT possibly exhibits a higher innovation rate than ever before. In consequence the topical and most recent developments will receive the greatest attention. (review)

  4. Computed tomography of arachnoid cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Min Gi; Bae, Weon Tae; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chung, Hyun De [College of Medicine, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-02-15

    The preoperative diagnosis of intracranial arachnoid cysts has been simplified, and made more rapid and accurate with computed tomography (CT). Using CT cisternography, detailed anatomic and physiologic information of arachnoid cysts could be obtained. CT features of pathologically proven 21 arachnoid cysts that were examined at Chonnam National University Hospital from June 1983 to May 1987 were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1.Prevalent age group was the 1st decade (8 cases) and male to female ratio was 17:4. 2.Clinical features were related to the location of arachnoid cyst, common symptoms were headache (53.3%), convulsion, mental change and walking disturbance. 3.Location of the arachnoid cyst were in supratentorial region (15 cases) most in middle cranial fossa (12 cases), and infratentorial region (6 cases), common at the retrocerebellar cisternal space (3 cases). 4.Shapes of arachnoid cyst were biconvex with straight inner margin (8 cases), spherical (7 cases), simple biconvex (3 cases) and others (3 cases). 5.Size of the arachnoid cyst, in the greatest dimension, was ranged from 2cm to 9cm and commonly distributed between 3cm to 5cm (14 cases). 6.Of all 14 cases, who did CT cisternography using metrizamide (11 cases) and iopamidol (3 cases), 2 cases had communication with the subarachnoid space.

  5. First multiphoton tomography of brain in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Karsten; Kantelhardt, Sven R.; Kalasauskas, Darius; Kim, Ella; Giese, Alf

    2016-03-01

    We report on the first two-photon in vivo brain tissue imaging study in man. High resolution in vivo histology by multiphoton tomography (MPT) including two-photon FLIM was performed in the operation theatre during neurosurgery to evaluate the feasibility to detect label-free tumor borders with subcellular resolution. This feasibility study demonstrates, that MPT has the potential to identify tumor borders on a cellular level in nearly real-time.

  6. Thermoacoustic tomography arising in brain imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanov, Plamen

    2010-01-01

    We study the mathematical model of thermoacoustic and photoacoustic tomography when the sound speed has a jump across a smooth surface. This models the change of the sound speed in the skull when trying to image the human brain. We derive an explicit inversion formula in the form of a convergent Neumann series under the assumptions that all singularities from the support of the source reach the boundary.

  7. Iterative Reconstruction for Cardiopulmonary Computed Tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemink, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The number of computed tomography (CT) examinations has increased rapidly since CT became commercially available. This resulted in growing concerns regarding the risk of malignancies induced by application of medical ionizing radiation. Therefore, radiation dose reduction strategies ar

  8. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like ... materials and a metallic taste in his/her mouth that lasts for a few minutes. Occasionally, a ...

  9. Examination of weld defects by computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jovanović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Defects in metal arc gas (MAG welds made in S235JR low carbon steel of 6 mm thickness were examined. A sample containing lack of fusion (LOF and pores was examined by computed tomography – CT. The computed tomography examination was performed in order to define LOF size and position as well as dimensions and distribution of accompanying pores in the weld metal.

  10. Computed tomography in abnormalities of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, J.D.; Jonkers, A.; Klasen, H.J. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Hillen, B. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Lab. voor Anatomie en Embryologie)

    1982-06-26

    The value of computed tomography in the assessment of abnormalities of the hip is demonstrated with the aid of an anatomical preparation and in patients with, respectively, congenital dislocation of a hip, dislocation of the hip in spina bifida, an acetabular fracture and a Ewing tumour. The anteversion of the acetabulum and femur and the instability index of the hip joint can be measured by means of computed tomography.

  11. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of the skull in malignant otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Dhritiman; Bhattacharya, Anish; Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2012-01-01

    Malignant otitis externa is a severe, rare infective condition of the external auditory canal and skull base. The diagnosis is generally made from a range of clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings. Technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy is known to detect osteomyelitis earlier than computed tomography. The authors present a patient with bilateral malignant otitis externa where the extent of skull base involvement was determined on 3-phase bone scintigraphy with single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography.

  12. Dopamine transporter distribution in patients with Parkinson disease of different stages detected using single-photon emission computed tomography brain imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiwu Zhang; Lijuan Zhu; Jianqiang Du; Bo Liu

    2007-01-01

    . Following injection, image was collected using scanner for single photon emission computed tomography (ADAC Company, USA). Matrix was 64 × 64, each detecting head revolved 180 ° ,1 frame/60 s. Sixty-four frames were collected with double detecting heads, 50 K/frame. Faultages with clearest image of corpora striatum were selected. Regions of interest (ROI) of caudate nucleus, anterior and posterior putamen and thalamic region in bilateral corpora striata were radioactively counted, and mean value of radioactive counting of ROI was used as the mean value of pixel in each region of bilateral corpora striata.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of radioactive uptake in each region of brain between healthy persons and patients with PD.RESULTS: Thirty patients with PD and six healthy persons who received body examination participated in the final result. Comparison of radioactive uptake in each region between healthy persons and patients with PD: ①In the healthy persons, high-density radioactive uptake was found in bilateral corpora striata;Structures of caudate nucleus, anterior and posterior putamen, and thalamus were clear with eudipleural radioactive distribution, and the background of peripheral brain tissue was very low. ②Radioactive intakes in opposite anterior and posterior putamen of patients with mild PD were significantly inferior to those in homolateral ones(70.45 ±3.35, 87.64±2.65, t =15.82, P < 0.05). Structures of bilateral caudate nucleus and Corresponding author: Jiwu Zhang,Department of Imageology, Second Hospital Affiliated to Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong Province, China E-mail:zh-j-u@sohu.comthalamus were clear with eudipleural radioactive distribution (P > 0.05). ③ Radioactive intakes in anterior and posterior putamen and thalamus of patients with moderate PD were significantly reduced as compared with healthy persons. There were significant differences in mean radioactive counting of ROI between patients

  13. Computed Tomography evaluation of maxillofacial injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Natraj Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: The maxillofacial region, a complex anatomical structure, can be evaluated by conventional (plain films, Tomography, Multidetector Computed Tomography, Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography, Orthopantomogram and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The study was conducted with objective of describing various forms of maxillofacial injuries, imaging features of different types of maxillofacial fractures and the advantage of using Three- Dimensional Computed Tomography reconstructed image. Materials & Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 patients during April 2014 to September 2016 using Toshiba Aquilion Prime 160 slice Multi Detector Computed Tomography scanner.Results: The maxillofacial fractures were significantly higher in male population (88% than female population (12 %. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause of injury others being physical assault and fall from height. It was most common in 31-40 years (26% and 21-30 (24% years age group. Maxillary sinus was the commonest fracture (36% followed by nasal bone and zygomatic bone (30%, mandible and orbital bones (28%. Soft tissue swelling was the commonest associated finding. Three dimensional images (3 D compared to the axial scans missed some fractures. However, the extension of the complex fracture lines and degree of displacement were more accurately assessed. Complex fractures found were Le fort (6% and naso-orbito-ethmoid (4% fractures.Conclusion: The proper evaluation of complex anatomy of the facial bones requires Multidetector Computed Tomography which offers excellent spatial resolution enabling multiplanar reformations and three dimensional reconstructions for enhanced diagnostic accuracy and surgical planning.

  14. Brain-computer interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A computer-implemented method of providing an interface between a user and a processing unit, the method comprising : presenting one or more stimuli to a user, each stimulus varying at a respective stimulation frequency, each stimulation frequency being associated with a respective user......-selectable input; receiving at least one signal indicative of brain activity of the user; and determining, from the received signal, which of the one or more stimuli the user attends to and selecting the user-selectable input associated with the stimulation frequency of the determined stimuli as being a user...

  15. Proton computed tomography images with algebraic reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzi, M.; Civinini, C.; Scaringella, M.; Bonanno, D.; Brianzi, M.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Presti, D. Lo; Maccioni, G.; Pallotta, S.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Sipala, V.; Talamonti, C.; Vanzi, E.

    2017-02-01

    A prototype of proton Computed Tomography (pCT) system for hadron-therapy has been manufactured and tested in a 175 MeV proton beam with a non-homogeneous phantom designed to simulate high-contrast material. BI-SART reconstruction algorithms have been implemented with GPU parallelism, taking into account of most likely paths of protons in matter. Reconstructed tomography images with density resolutions r.m.s. down to 1% and spatial resolutions CT in hadron-therapy.

  16. Application of computed tomography in paleoanthropological research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiujie Wu; Lynne A.Schepartz

    2009-01-01

    Hominin fossils are the most important materials for exploring questions about human origins and evolution. Because human fossils are very rare, it is impossible to use highly destructive techniques in order to study their morphology. Traditional analyses can only rely on the information gained from the study of the external morphology of specimens, and these approaches limited the study of human evolution. The application of computed tomography (CT) has facilitated major developments in paleoanthropology. To date, few studies on Chinese hominin fossils have used CT scanning methodology, but this is rapidly changing. In order to better understand the appli-cation of CT methodology in paleoanthropology, we review the applications of CT scanning on hominin fossils throughout the world.Studies examined include virtual fossil reconstruction, the use of endocasts to elucidate brain morphology, biomechanical analyses of bone distribution, imaging of mummies and research on early human health, and skeletal and dental microanatomical research.2009 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press. All rights reserved.

  17. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ... a gantry, which rotates around the patient. The computer that processes the imaging information and monitor are ...

  18. Comparison of detection results of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at different degrees in infant patients between brain electrical activity mapping, transcranial Doppler sonography and computer tomography examinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongruo He; Xiaoying Xu; Yinghui Zhang; Guochao Han

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND; It has been proved that brain electrical activity mapping (BEAM) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) detection can reflect the function of brain cell and its diseased degree of infant patients with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).OBJECTIVE: To observe the abnormal results of HIE at different degrees detected with BEAM and TCD in infant patients, and compare the detection results at the same time point between BEAM, TCD and computer tomography (CT) examinations.DESTGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Departments of Neuro-electrophysiology and Pediatrics, Second Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical College.PARTICTPANTS: Totally 416 infant patients with HIE who received treatment in the Department of Newborn Infants, Second Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical College during January 2001 and December 2005. The infant patients, 278 male and 138 female, were at embryonic 37 to 42 weeks and weighing 2.0 to 4.1 kg, and they were diagnosed with CT and met the diagnostic criteria of HIE of newborn infants compiled by Department of Neonatology, Pediatric Academy, Chinese Medical Association. According to diagnostic criteria, 130patients were mild abnormal, 196 moderate abnormal and 90 severe abnormal. The relatives of all the infant patients were informed of the experiment.METHODS: BEAM and TCD examinations were performed in the involved 416 infant patients with HIE at different degrees with DYD2000 16-channel BEAM instrument and EME-2000 ultrasonograph before preliminary diagnosis treatment (within 1 month after birth) and 1,3,6,12 and 24 months after birth, and detected results were compared between BEAM, TCD and CT examinations.MATN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of detection results of HIE at different time points in infant patients between BEAM, TCD and CT examinations. RESULTS: All the 416 infant patients with HIE participated in the result analysis. ① Comparison of the detected results in infant patients with mild HIE at different

  19. The diagnostic contribution of computed tomography in intranasal carcinoma with retrobulbar, oral and brain invasion in a canine: case report; Contribuicao da tomografia computadorizada no diagnostico de carcinoma intranasal com invasao retrobular, oral e cerebral em canino: relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardo, Karen Maciel, E-mail: kmz@bol.com.br; Belotta, Alexandra Frey; Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria; Zanoni, Diogo Souza; Costa, Denis Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Clinica Veterinaria

    2012-07-01

    Intranasal tumors are uncommon and in most cases are malignant, aggressive and with low to moderate potential for metastasis. Clinical signs are usually caused by progressive obstruction of the upper airways. The test cytopathological also is a diagnosis method, but the definitive diagnosis is made by histopathological. Computed tomography (CT) is recommended to treatment planning. A poodle was attended at the veterinary hospital with a clinical history of epistaxis and nasal and ocular secretions, seizures and severe dyspnoea. The animal underwent to radiographic examination of the chest and skull as well as helical computed tomography of the nasal cavity and brain before and after the administration of intravenous contrast. The CT findings revealed an expansive bilateral nasal cavity neoformation, with involvement of the retrobulbar space, right frontal sinus, brain and oral cavity, suggesting a neoplastic or an infectious process. The CT examination allowed the material collection, directly from the mass, to cytological examination, providing the diagnosis of carcinoma. CT also allowed the determination of the unfavorable prognosis of the patient and the treatment planning which not included the surgical excision of the neoformation. Although CT was not conclusive in the diagnosis of carcinoma, it was essential to accurately define the extent of the lesion, to guide the collection of material directly from the tumor and to determine the prognosis of the animal, proving to be an extremely useful tool in cases of tumors intranasal in dogs. (author)

  20. Computed tomography versus invasive coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napp, Adriane E; Haase, Robert; Laule, Michael

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: More than 3.5 million invasive coronary angiographies (ICA) are performed in Europe annually. Approximately 2 million of these invasive procedures might be reduced by noninvasive tests because no coronary intervention is performed. Computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate noninva...... angiography (ICA) is the reference standard for detection of CAD. • Noninvasive computed tomography angiography excludes CAD with high sensitivity. • CT may effectively reduce the approximately 2 million negative ICAs in Europe. • DISCHARGE addresses this hypothesis in patients with low...

  1. Brain emotional learning based Brain Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Asadi Ghanbari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A brain computer interface (BCI enables direct communication between a brain and a computer translating brain activity into computer commands using preprocessing, feature extraction and classification operations. Classification is crucial as it has a substantial effect on the BCI speed and bit rate. Recent developments of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs bring forward some challenging problems to the machine learning community, of which classification of time-varying electrophysiological signals is a crucial one. Constructing adaptive classifiers is a promising approach to deal with this problem. In this paper, we introduce adaptive classifiers for classify electroencephalogram (EEG signals. The adaptive classifier is brain emotional learning based adaptive classifier (BELBAC, which is based on emotional learning process. The main purpose of this research is to use a structural model based on the limbic system of mammalian brain, for decision making and control engineering applications. We have adopted a network model developed by Moren and Balkenius, as a computational model that mimics amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, thalamus, sensory input cortex and generally, those parts of the brain thought responsible for processing emotions. The developed method was compared with other methods used for EEG signals classification (support vector machine (SVM and two different neural network types (MLP, PNN. The result analysis demonstrated an efficiency of the proposed approach.

  2. Paradoxical emboli: demonstration using helical computed tomography of the pulmonary artery associated with abdominal computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delalu, P.; Ferretti, G.R.; Bricault, I.; Ayanian, D.; Coulomb, M. [Service Central de Radiologie et Imagerie Medicale, CHU Grenoble (France)

    2000-02-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old woman with a recent history of a cerebrovascular accident. Because of clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism and negative Doppler ultrasound findings of the lower limbs, spiral computed tomography of the pulmonary artery was performed and demonstrated pulmonary emboli. We emphasize the role of computed tomography of the abdomen, performed 3 min after the thoracic acquisition, which showed an unsuspected thrombus within the abdominal aorta and the left renal artery with infarction of the left kidney. Paradoxical embolism was highly suspected on computed tomography data and confirmed by echocardiography which demonstrated a patent foramen ovale. (orig.)

  3. [Diagnosis of toxic lesions of the brain using computerized tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushev, I I; Karpova, M N; Tskhovrebov, T M

    1990-01-01

    X-ray computerized tomography was used to examine the brain in 39 patients aged 14 to 39 years with different experience of using volatile narcotically acting substances. The discovered alterations make it possible to appraise the influence of toxic substances and the degree of brain atrophy, which attests to the diagnostic value of computerized tomography in patients with toxicomanias.

  4. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which are then displayed on a monitor. Special software can also generate three-dimensional (3-D) images ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special image recording plate . Bones appear ...

  6. Computed tomography demonstration of cholecystogastric fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Kuao Chou, MD, MPH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cholecystogastric fistula is a rare complication of chronic cholecystitis or long-standing cholelithiasis. It results from the gradual erosion of the approximated, chronically inflamed wall of the gall bladder and stomach with fistulous tract formation. The present case describes the direct visualization of a cholecystogastric fistula by computed tomography in a patient without prior biliary system complaints.

  7. Cone beam computed tomography in veterinary dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thielen, B.; Siguenza, F.; Hassan, B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in imaging dogs and cats for diagnostic dental veterinary applications. CBCT scans of heads of six dogs and two cats were made. Dental panoramic and multi-planar reformatted (MPR) para-sagittal reconstruc

  8. Cervical diplomyelia revealed by computed tomography (CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, G.B.; Davidovits, P.; Cerisoli, M.; Giulioni, M.

    1982-05-01

    An unusual case of cervical diplomyelia diagnosed by Computed Tomography (CT) is reported. The usefulness of CT examination in the evaluation of spinal dysraphic defects is emphasized, though performed without CSF enhancement. Visualisation of spinal cord splitting in the absence of bony spicula allows the authors to differentiate between diplomyelia and diastematomyelia which have been often described by using both terms interchangeably.

  9. Neutron computed tomography of rat lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzke, R W; Wall, W A [Institute for Computational Mechanics at Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany); Runck, H; Stahl, C A; Schneider, M; Guttmann, J [Department of Anesthesiology, Section for Experimental Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Schillinger, B; Calzada, E; Muehlbauer, M; Schulz, M [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II) and Fakultaet fuer Physik E21 at Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Priebe, H-J, E-mail: metzke@lnm.mw.tum.d [Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-01-07

    Using conventional methods, three-dimensional imaging of the lung is challenging because of the low contrast between air and tissue and the large differences in dimensions between various pulmonary structures. The small distal airway structures and the high air-to-tissue ratio of lung tissue require an imaging technique which reliably discriminates between air and water. The objective of this study was to assess whether neutron computed tomography would satisfy such a requirement. This method utilizes the unique characteristic of neutrons of directly interacting with the atomic nucleus rather than being scattered by the atomic shell. Neutron computed tomography was tested in rats and allowed differentiation of larger lung structures (e.g., lobes) and distal airways. Airways could be identified reliably down to the sixth bronchial generation, in some cases even down to the tenth generation. The lung could be stabilized for sufficiently long exposure times to achieve an image resolution of 50-60 {mu}m, which is the current physical resolution limit of the neutron computed tomography facility. Neutron computed tomography allowed excellent lung imaging without the need for additional tissue preparation or contrast media. The enhanced structural resolution obtained by applying this new research technique may improve understanding of lung physiology and respiratory therapy. (note)

  10. Label-free structural photoacoustic tomography of intact mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Xia, Jun; Li, Guo; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    Capitalizing on endogenous hemoglobin contrast, photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT), a deep-tissue highresolution imaging modality, has drawn increasing interest in neuro-imaging. However, most existing studies are limited to functional imaging on the cortical surface, and the deep-brain structural imaging capability of PACT has never been demonstrated. Here, we explicitly studied the limiting factors of deep-brain PACT imaging. We found that the skull distorted the acoustic signal and blood suppressed the structural contrast from other chromophores. When the two effects are mitigated, PACT can provide high-resolution label-free structural imaging through the entire mouse brain. With 100 μm in-plane resolution, we can clearly identify major structures of the brain, and the image quality is comparable to that of magnetic resonance microscopy. Spectral PACT studies indicate that structural contrasts mainly originate from cytochrome and lipid. The feasibility of imaging the structure of the brain in vivo has also been discussed. Our results demonstrate that PACT is a promising modality for both structural and functional brain imaging.

  11. Robust brain-computer interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, Boris

    2011-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) enables direct communication from the brain to devices, bypassing the traditional pathway of peripheral nerves and muscles. Current BCIs aimed at patients require that the user invests weeks, or even months, to learn the skill to intentionally modify their brain sign

  12. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography for malignant otitis externa: lesion not shown on planar image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hung; Hsieh, Hung-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Malignant otitis externa is a severe and rare infection of the external acoustic meatus. Triphasic bone and (67)Ga scintigraphies are used to initial detect and follow-up the response of therapy. With single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images, the diagnostic sensitivity is higher. We presented a case with malignant otitis externa with initial negative planar scintigraphic finding. The lesion was detected by photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images. We concluded that the photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography should be performed routinely for patients with suspected malignant otitis externa, even without evidence of lesion on planar images.

  13. Computed tomography of tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Noriko; Sato, Hiromi; Kawaguchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Katsuzo; Tanaka, Makoto (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-12-01

    Recently, tuberculous meningitis has become rather rare except in areas where tuberculosis is still endemic. Six adolescents and young adults with tuberculous meningitis were evaluated by means of serial computerized tomography (CT), and the results were correlated with the findings of surgical specimens or autopsies. All cases showed meningeal irritation and fever at onset. CSF cultures revealed the presence of tuberculous bacilli. Four cases advanced rapidly to the clinical stage III and expired in a short period-between two weeks to one month from onset. On initial CT scanning, the disappearance of the basal cistern was a characteristic finding in all these cases. With the progression, an enhancement of the basal cistern on contrast injection, a localized hypodensity in adjacent parenchyma, and symmetrical ventricular dilatation appeared. Two autopsied cases showed tuberculous granulomas with purulent materials, thickened meninges, and caseous necrosis in the parenchyma around the basal cistern. The other two cases progressed rather slowly. CT findings at Stage II showed multiple enhanced spots in the basal subcortical area following contrast injection. Tuberculous granulomas were identified in these parts by means of explorative craniotomy. The authors point out the pathognomonic CT findings of tuberculous meningitis and emphasize the necessity of serial CT for the early detection and management of tuberculous meningitis.

  14. Parallel Computing for the Computed-Tomography Imaging Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2008-01-01

    This software computes the tomographic reconstruction of spatial-spectral data from raw detector images of the Computed-Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS), which enables transient-level, multi-spectral imaging by capturing spatial and spectral information in a single snapshot.

  15. Computed tomography in meningeal carcinomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, H.; Ono, N.; Horikoshi, S.; Uki, J.; Takeda, F. (Saitama Cancer Center (Japan))

    1982-04-01

    CT findings of meningeal carcinomatosis were studied in 17 patients (seven with lung cancer, two with breast cancer, one with gastric cancer, one with malignant melanoma, five with leukemia, and one with malignant lymphoma). The diagnosis was confirmed by a cytological survey of the cerebrospinal fluid and/or autopsy. Signs and symptoms caused by meningeal carcinomatosis at the CT examination varied from individual to individual. Those most frequently observed were signs of increased intracranial pressure, often accompanied by cranial nerve palsies, paresthesia, motor weakness, cerebellar signs, and nuchal stiffness, CT scan revealed evidence of meningeal carcinomatosis in ten cases out of the seventeen. CT evidences were obtained in 16.7% of the cases with hematologic malignancy and in 81.8% of those with non-hematologic malignancies. The CT findings of meningeal carcinomatosis may be summarized as follows: I. 1) Obliteration and narrowing of the cisterns and sulci, with contrast enhancement along them. 2) Enhanced spots/areas beneath the brain surface, with contrast enhancement. 3) Diffuse, slightly high density of the brain surface, with contrast enhancement. 4) Enhancement of the ventricular wall. 5) Hydrocephalus. II. 1) No CT abnormalities.

  16. Trip report: Marshall Space Center computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, J. R.; Andrews, M. K.

    BIR Inc. is a small company out of the Chicago area which sells equipment for producing images by tomography. They have built a relatively large instrument, called ACTIS, for NASA at the Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama and still gave access to this instrument. BIR has a grant from the Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the utility of computed tomography (CT) for characterization of nuclear and hazardous waste within the DOE complex. As part of this effort, the potential of this technique for obtaining images of canistered waste forms has been investigated. Funding for data acquisition was provided through this grant.

  17. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara C, A.; Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Osorio V, M. [ISSSTE, Centro Medico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, Felix Cuevas 540, Col. del Valle, 03100 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez O, O., E-mail: armando_lara_cam@yahoo.com.mx [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we studied the dosimetry performed on CT scan in two different equipment, SOMATOM and Phillips, with 16 and 64 slice respectively. We used 51 pellets of lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF: Mg, Ti) also knows as TLD-100 due to its physical properties and its easy of use, in this study, first analysis a batch of 56 pellets, but only 53 pellets were optimal for this study, cesium-137 was used as source irradiation, then proceeded to calibrate the batch with X-rays source, measuring the corresponding dose in a Farmers ionization chamber, then, we obtained a calibration curve, and we used as reference to calculation of the applied dose, finally designing ergonomic mesh, were it was deposited a TLD 100, placed in a regions of interest were made to each scan type. Once characterized our material proceeded to testing in 30 patients, which were irradiated with X-ray tube, whose operation was performed at 80, 120 kV with a current of 100, 300 and 400 m A according to scanning protocol. Overall we measured dose of 5 mGy to 53 mGy, these measurements reflect significant dose to can induced cancer, due previous reports published, that doses greater than 20 mGy there is a risk of developing cancer in the long term, but in practice when it assigned a medical diagnosis, there are no dose limits due to benefits patients, however, IAEA publish recommendations that allow us to carry out optimum handling of ionizing radiation, among these is the quality control of the tomography equipment that helps greatly reduce patient dose. (Author)

  18. Optical Coherence Tomography for Brain Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping

    Recently, there has been growing interest in using OCT for brain imaging. A feasibility study of OCT for guiding deep brain probes has found that OCT can differentiate the white matter and gray matter because the white matter tends to have a higher peak reflectivity and steeper attenuation rate compared to gray matter. In vivo 3D visualization of the layered organization of a rat olfactory bulb with OCT has been demonstrated. OCT has been used for single myelin fiber imaging in living rodents without labeling. The refractive index in the rat somatosensory cortex has also been measured with OCT. In addition, functional extension of OCT, such as Doppler-OCT (D-OCT), polarization sensitive-OCT (PS-OCT), and phase-resolved-OCT (PR-OCT), can image and quantify physiological parameters in addition to the morphological structure image. Based on the scattering changes during neural activity, OCT has been used to measure the functional activation in neuronal tissues. PS-OCT, which combines polarization sensitive detection with OCT to determine tissue birefringence, has been used for the localization of nerve fiber bundles and the mapping of micrometer-scale fiber pathways in the brain. D-OCT, also named optical Doppler tomography (ODT), combines the Doppler principle with OCT to obtain high resolution tomographic images of moving constituents in highly scattering biological tissues. D-OCT has been successfully used to image cortical blood flow and map the blood vessel network for brain research. In this chapter, the principle and technology of OCT and D-OCT are reviewed and examples of potential applications are described.

  19. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  20. Computed tomography of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haughton, V.M.; Williams, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The book describes the computed tomographic (CT) techniques for imaging the different elements comprising the spinal column and canal. The use of intravenous and intrathecal contrast enhancement and of xenon enhancement is briefly mentioned. Reconstruction techniques and special problems regarding CT of the spine are presented. CT of the spinal cord, meninges and subarachnoid space, epidural space, intervertebral discs, facet joints, and vertebrae present normal anatomy, and several common pathologic conditions. (KRM)

  1. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-05-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis.

  2. Computed tomography in mitochondrial cytopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, J.; Kendall, B.E.

    1981-10-01

    The clinical and computed tomographic (CT) findings in 11 proven cases of mitochondrial cytopathy (mitochondrial myopathy, Kearns Sayre syndrome, ophthalmoplegia plus) were studied. The CT changes included focal low density lesions in the basal ganglia and white matter and atrophy which could be slight or diffuse and severe. Calcification has been described in the basal ganglia, but did not occur in our series. Serial CT showed progression of the abnormalities. The differential diagnosis is discussed.

  3. Introducing Seismic Tomography with Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, R.; Neves, M. L.; Teodoro, V.

    2011-12-01

    Learning seismic tomography principles and techniques involves advanced physical and computational knowledge. In depth learning of such computational skills is a difficult cognitive process that requires a strong background in physics, mathematics and computer programming. The corresponding learning environments and pedagogic methodologies should then involve sets of computational modelling activities with computer software systems which allow students the possibility to improve their mathematical or programming knowledge and simultaneously focus on the learning of seismic wave propagation and inverse theory. To reduce the level of cognitive opacity associated with mathematical or programming knowledge, several computer modelling systems have already been developed (Neves & Teodoro, 2010). Among such systems, Modellus is particularly well suited to achieve this goal because it is a domain general environment for explorative and expressive modelling with the following main advantages: 1) an easy and intuitive creation of mathematical models using just standard mathematical notation; 2) the simultaneous exploration of images, tables, graphs and object animations; 3) the attribution of mathematical properties expressed in the models to animated objects; and finally 4) the computation and display of mathematical quantities obtained from the analysis of images and graphs. Here we describe virtual simulations and educational exercises which enable students an easy grasp of the fundamental of seismic tomography. The simulations make the lecture more interactive and allow students the possibility to overcome their lack of advanced mathematical or programming knowledge and focus on the learning of seismological concepts and processes taking advantage of basic scientific computation methods and tools.

  4. Transcranial photoacoustic tomography of the monkey brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Liming; Huang, Chao; Guo, Zijian; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    A photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using a virtual point ultrasonic transducer was developed for transcranial imaging of monkey brains. The virtual point transducer provided a 10 times greater field-of-view (FOV) than finiteaperture unfocused transducers, which enables large primate imaging. The cerebral cortex of a monkey brain was accurately mapped transcranially, through up to two skulls ranging from 4 to 8 mm in thickness. The mass density and speed of sound distributions of the skull were estimated from adjunct X-ray CT image data and utilized with a timereversal algorithm to mitigate artifacts in the reconstructed image due to acoustic aberration. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. Our experimental results demonstrate that PAT can overcome the optical and ultrasound attenuation of a relatively thick skull, and the imaging aberration caused by skull can be corrected to a great extent.

  5. Cone beam computed tomography in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durack, Conor; Patel, Shanon

    2012-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a contemporary, radiological imaging system designed specifically for use on the maxillo-facial skeleton. The system overcomes many of the limitations of conventional radiography by producing undistorted, three-dimensional images of the area under examination. These properties make this form of imaging particularly suitable for use in endodontics. The clinician can obtain an enhanced appreciation of the anatomy being assessed, leading to an improvement in the detection of endodontic disease and resulting in more effective treatment planning. In addition, CBCT operates with a significantly lower effective radiation dose when compared with conventional computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature relating to the limitations and potential applications of CBCT in endodontic practice.

  6. [Pneumothorax revealed by postoperative computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shizuka; Katori, Kiyoshi; Fujimoto, Minoru; Nitahara, Keiichi; Higa, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    We report a case of pneumothorax revealed by postoperative computed tomography. A 39-year-old obese woman (height 153 cm, weight 70 kg) with fractures of the radius, ulna, clavicle, and femur in a traffic accident, was scheduled for osteosynthesis. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental and maintained with 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen and sevoflurane. The Spo2 decreased from 99% to 94% during the surgery. Bilateral chest sounds were symmetrical. The Spo2 increased to 100% after discontinuation of nitrous oxide. Pneumothorax was not evident on a postoperative chest X-ray, but computed tomography of the chest demonstrated right-sided pneumothorax. An ECG electrode had overlapped the fractured rib on the preoperative chest X-ray.

  7. Contrast-induced nephropathy after computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano da Silva Selistre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contrast induced nephropathy is the third most prevalent preventable cause of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients. It defined as an absolute increase in serum creatinine ≥ 0.5 mg/dL and relative ≥ 25% increase. Objective: We studied the risk factors to intravenous injection contrast nephropathy after computed tomography. Methods: We studied 400 patients prospectively. Results: The incidence of contrast induced nephropathy, with an absolute or a relative increase were 4.0% and 13.9%, respectively. Diabetes and cardiac failure were independent risk factors for CIN a relative increase de serum creatinine (O.R.: 3.5 [95% CI: 1.92-6.36], p < 0.01, 2.61 [95% CI: 1.14-6.03%], p < 0.05, respectively. Conclusions: We showed association between uses of intravenous injection contrast after computed tomography with acute injury renal, notably with diabetes and heart failure.

  8. The Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    -CCTR, showed that coronary CT angiographies accounted for only 23% of all nonregistered cardiac CTs, indicating >90% completeness of coronary CT angiographies in the WDHR-CCTR. The completeness of individual variables varied substantially (range: 0%-100%), but was >85% for more than 70% of all variables. Using......BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We...... expected numbers; and 4) positive predictive values as well as negative predictive values of 19 main patient and procedure variables. RESULTS: By December 31, 2012, almost 22,000 cardiac CTs with up to 40 variables for each procedure have been registered. Of these, 87% were coronary CT angiography...

  9. Cone beam computed tomography in endodontic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durack, Conor; Patel, Shanon, E-mail: conordurack1@hotmail.com [Unit of Endodontology, Department of Conservative Dentistry, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a contemporary, radiological imaging system designed specifically for use on the maxillofacial skeleton. The system overcomes many of the limitations of conventional radiography by producing undistorted, three-dimensional images of the area under examination. These properties make this form of imaging particularly suitable for use in endodontic. The clinician can obtain an enhanced appreciation of the anatomy being assessed, leading to an improvement in the detection of endodontic disease and resulting in more effective treatment planning. In addition, CBCT operates with a significantly lower effective radiation dose when compared with conventional computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature relating to the limitations and potential applications of CBCT in endodontic practice. (author)

  10. Correlation of brain cell glucose metabolism and patient's condition in children with epileptic encephalopathy An assessment using fluorine-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiongxiang Zhai; Yuxiong Guo; Yuxin Zhang; Zhihong Chen; Jian Ding; Juan Gui; Ying Hao

    2011-01-01

    We examined a total of 16 children with epileptic encephalopathy using fluorine-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission computed tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography.Children with infantile spasms showed significant mental retardation, severely abnormal electroencephalogram recordings, and bilateral diffuse cerebral cortex hypometabolism with 18F-FDG PET imaging.MRI in these cases showed brain atrophy, multi-micropolygyria, macrogyria, and porencephalia.In cases with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, 18F-FDG PET showed bilateral diffuse glucose hypometabolism, while MRI showed cortical atrophy, heterotopic gray matter and tuberous sclerosis.MRI in cases with myoclonic encephalopathy demonstrated bilateral frontal and temporal cortical and white matter atrophy and 18F-FDG PET imaging showed bilateral frontal lobe atrophy with reduced bilateral frontal cortex, occipital cortex, temporal cortex and cerebellar glucose uptake.In children who could not be clearly classified, MRI demonstrated cerebral cortical atrophy and 18F-FDG PET exhibited multifocal glucose hypometabolism.Overall, this study demonstrated that the degree of brain metabolic abnormality was consistent with clinical seizure severity.In addition, 18F-FDG PET imaging after treatment was consistent with clinical outcomes.These findings indicate that 18F-FDG PET can be used to assess the severity of brain injury and prognosis in children with epileptic encephalopathy.

  11. Cone beam computed tomography use in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nervina, J M

    2012-03-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is widely used by orthodontists to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) images of their patients. This is of value as malocclusion results from discrepancies in three planes of space. This review tracks the use of CBCT in orthodontics, from its validation as an accurate and reliable tool, to its use in diagnosing and treatment planning, and in assessing treatment outcomes in orthodontics.

  12. Encapsulating peritonitis: computed tomography and surgical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadow, Juliana Santos; Fingerhut, Carla Jeronimo Peres; Fernandes, Vinicius de Barros; Coradazzi, Klaus Rizk Stuhr; Silva, Lucas Marciel Soares; Penachim, Thiago Jose, E-mail: vinicius.barros.fernandes@gmail.com [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Hospital e Maternidade Celso Pierro

    2014-07-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare and frequently severe entity characterized by total or partial involvement of small bowel loops by a membrane of fibrous tissue. The disease presents with nonspecific clinical features of intestinal obstruction, requiring precise imaging diagnosis to guide the treatment. The present report emphasizes the importance of computed tomography in the diagnosis of this condition and its confirmation by surgical correlation. (author)

  13. Computed Tomography of Transverse Phase Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, A. [Fermilab; Johnstone, C. [Fermilab; Johnstone, J. [Fermilab

    2016-09-19

    Two computed tomography techniques are explored to reconstruct beam transverse phase space using both simulated beam and multi-wire profile data in the Fermilab Muon Test Area ("MTA") beamline. Both Filtered Back-Projection ("FBP") and Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique ("SART") algorithms [2] are considered and compared. Errors and artifacts are compared as a function of each algorithm’s free parameters, and it is shown through simulation and MTA beamline profiles that SART is advantageous for reconstructions with limited profile data.

  14. Computed tomography and obstructive biliary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havrilla, T R; Haaga, J R; Alfidi, R J; Reich, N E

    1977-05-01

    Forty-four patients with confirmed biliary diseases were studied to determine the value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of biliary pathology. The results indicate that CT is useful and highly accurate in differentiating between obstructive (surgical) and nonobstructive (medical) disease entities. Of the cases with proved obstruction, 88% were correctly identified. All of the nonobstructive cases had positive CT correlation. In addition, the underlying cause of the occlusion was determined in the majority of cases.

  15. Cone Beam Computed Tomography - Know its Secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Mohan; Shanavas, Muhammad; Sidappa, Ashwin; Kiran, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an advanced imaging modality that has high clinical applications in the field of dentistry. CBCT proved to be a successful investigative modality that has been used for dental and maxillofacial imaging. Radiation exposure dose from CBCT is 10 times less than from conventional CT scans during maxillofacial exposure. Furthermore, CBCT is highly accurate and can provide a three-dimensional volumetric data in axial, sagittal and coronal planes. This article...

  16. Therapy response evaluation with positron emission tomography-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, George M

    2010-12-01

    Positron emission tomography-computed tomography with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose is widely used for evaluation of therapy response in patients with solid tumors but has not been as readily adopted in clinical trials because of the variability of acquisition and processing protocols and the absence of universal response criteria. Criteria proposed for clinical trials are difficult to apply in clinical practice, and gestalt impression is probably accurate in individual patients, especially with respect to the presence of progressive disease and complete response. Semiquantitative methods of determining tissue glucose metabolism, such as standard uptake value, can be a useful descriptor for levels of tissue glucose metabolism and changes in response to therapy if technical quality control measures are carefully maintained. The terms partial response, complete response, and progressive disease are best used in clinical trials in which the terms have specific meanings and precise definitions. In clinical practice, it may be better to use descriptive terminology agreed upon by imaging physicians and clinicians in their own practice.

  17. Reconstruction Algorithms for Positron Emission Tomography and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography and their Numerical Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Fokas, A S; Marinakis, V

    2004-01-01

    The modern imaging techniques of Positron Emission Tomography and of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography are not only two of the most important tools for studying the functional characteristics of the brain, but they now also play a vital role in several areas of clinical medicine, including neurology, oncology and cardiology. The basic mathematical problems associated with these techniques are the construction of the inverse of the Radon transform and of the inverse of the so called attenuated Radon transform respectively. We first show that, by employing mathematical techniques developed in the theory of nonlinear integrable equations, it is possible to obtain analytic formulas for these two inverse transforms. We then present algorithms for the numerical implementation of these analytic formulas, based on approximating the given data in terms of cubic splines. Several numerical tests are presented which suggest that our algorithms are capable of producing accurate reconstruction for realistic phanto...

  18. Whole brain imaging with Serial Two-Photon Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Amato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Imaging entire mouse brains at submicron resolution has historically been a challenging undertaking and largely confined to the province of dedicated atlasing initiatives. The has limited systematic investigations into important areas of neuroscience, such as neural circuits, brain mapping and neurodegeneration. In this paper, we describe in detail Serial Two-Photon (STP tomography, a robust, reliable method for imaging entire brains with histological detail. We provide examples of how the basic methodology can be extended to other imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography, in order to provide unique contrast mechanisms. Furthermore we provide a survey of the research that STP tomography has enabled in the field of neuroscience, provide examples of how this technology enables quantitative whole brain studies, and discuss the current limitations of STP tomography-based approaches

  19. Diffuse Optical Tomography for Brain Imaging: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhen; Jiang, Huabei

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive, nonionizing, and inexpensive imaging technique that uses near-infrared light to probe tissue optical properties. Regional variations in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations as well as blood flow and oxygen consumption can be imaged by monitoring spatiotemporal variations in the absorption spectra. For brain imaging, this provides DOT unique abilities to directly measure the hemodynamic, metabolic, and neuronal responses to cells (neurons), and tissue and organ activations with high temporal resolution and good tissue penetration. DOT can be used as a stand-alone modality or can be integrated with other imaging modalities such as fMRI/MRI, PET/CT, and EEG/MEG in studying neurophysiology and pathology. This book chapter serves as an introduction to the basic theory and principles of DOT for neuroimaging. It covers the major aspects of advances in neural optical imaging including mathematics, physics, chemistry, reconstruction algorithm, instrumentation, image-guided spectroscopy, neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling, and clinical applications.

  20. Computed tomography to quantify tooth abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofmehl, Lukas; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Filippi, Andreas; Hotz, Gerhard; Berndt-Dagassan, Dorothea; Kramis, Simon; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert

    2010-09-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography, also termed digital volume tomography, has become a standard technique in dentistry, allowing for fast 3D jaw imaging including denture at moderate spatial resolution. More detailed X-ray images of restricted volumes for post-mortem studies in dental anthropology are obtained by means of micro computed tomography. The present study evaluates the impact of the pipe smoking wear on teeth morphology comparing the abraded tooth with its contra-lateral counterpart. A set of 60 teeth, loose or anchored in the jaw, from 12 dentitions have been analyzed. After the two contra-lateral teeth were scanned, one dataset has been mirrored before the two datasets were registered using affine and rigid registration algorithms. Rigid registration provides three translational and three rotational parameters to maximize the overlap of two rigid bodies. For the affine registration, three scaling factors are incorporated. Within the present investigation, affine and rigid registrations yield comparable values. The restriction to the six parameters of the rigid registration is not a limitation. The differences in size and shape between the tooth and its contra-lateral counterpart generally exhibit only a few percent in the non-abraded volume, validating that the contralateral tooth is a reasonable approximation to quantify, for example, the volume loss as the result of long-term clay pipe smoking. Therefore, this approach allows quantifying the impact of the pipe abrasion on the internal tooth morphology including root canal, dentin, and enamel volumes.

  1. Mapping distributed brain function and networks with diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggebrecht, Adam T.; Ferradal, Silvina L.; Robichaux-Viehoever, Amy; Hassanpour, Mahlega S.; Dehghani, Hamid; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Hershey, Tamara; Culver, Joseph P.

    2014-06-01

    Mapping of human brain function has revolutionized systems neuroscience. However, traditional functional neuroimaging by positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging cannot be used when applications require portability, or are contraindicated because of ionizing radiation (positron emission tomography) or implanted metal (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Optical neuroimaging offers a non-invasive alternative that is radiation free and compatible with implanted metal and electronic devices (for example, pacemakers). However, optical imaging technology has heretofore lacked the combination of spatial resolution and wide field of view sufficient to map distributed brain functions. Here, we present a high-density diffuse optical tomography imaging array that can map higher-order, distributed brain function. The system was tested by imaging four hierarchical language tasks and multiple resting-state networks including the dorsal attention and default mode networks. Finally, we imaged brain function in patients with Parkinson's disease and implanted deep brain stimulators that preclude functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. Tomography and spectroscopy as quantum computations

    CERN Document Server

    Miquel, C; Saraceno, M; Knill, E H; Laflamme, R; Negrevergne, C; Miquel, Cesar; Paz, Juan Pablo; Saraceno, Marcos; Knill, Emmanuel; Laflamme, Raymond; Negrevergne, Camille

    2001-01-01

    Determining the state of a system and measuring properties of its evolution are two of the most important tasks a physicist faces. For the first purpose one can use tomography, a method that after subjecting the system to a number of experiments determines all independent elements of the density matrix. For the second task, one can resort to spectroscopy, a set of techniques used to determine the spectrum of eigenvalues of the evolution operator. In this letter, we show that tomography and spectroscopy can be naturally interpreted as dual forms of quantum computation. We show how to adapt the simplest case of the well-known phase estimation quantum algorithm to perform both tasks, giving it a natural interpretation as a simulated scattering experiment. We show how this algorithm can be used to implement an interesting form of tomography by performing a direct measurement of the Wigner function of a quantum system. We present results of such measurements performed on a system of three qubits using liquid state...

  3. Computed tomography appearances of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, C. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cheriangeorge@hotmail.com; Al-Zwae, K. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Nair, S. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Cast, J.E.I. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) characterized by thickened peritoneal membranes, which lead to decreased ultra-filtration and intestinal obstruction. Its early clinical features are nonspecific, and it is often diagnosed late following laparotomy and peritoneal biopsy, when the patient develops small bowel obstruction, which can be a life-threatening complication. However, this is changing with increasing awareness of computed tomography (CT) findings in SEP. CT can yield an early, non-invasive diagnosis that may improve patient outcome. We present a review of the CT appearances of SEP.

  4. Sparse Image Reconstruction in Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer

    In recent years, increased focus on the potentially harmful effects of x-ray computed tomography (CT) scans, such as radiation-induced cancer, has motivated research on new low-dose imaging techniques. Sparse image reconstruction methods, as studied for instance in the field of compressed sensing...... and limitations of sparse reconstruction methods in CT, in particular in a quantitative sense. For example, relations between image properties such as contrast, structure and sparsity, tolerable noise levels, suficient sampling levels, the choice of sparse reconstruction formulation and the achievable image...

  5. Comparison on Computed Tomography using industrial items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In a comparison involving 27 laboratories from 8 countries, measurements on two common industrial items, a polymer part and a metal part, were carried out using X-ray Computed Tomography. All items were measured using coordinate measuring machines before and after circulation, with reference...... measurement uncertainties in the range 1.5–5.5 μm, showing a good stability over the 6 months of the circulation. The comparison has shown that CT measurements on the industrial parts used lie in the range 6–53 μm, with maximum values up to 158 μm....

  6. SADMFR guidelines for the use of cone-beam computed tomography/ Digital Volume Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Dula, Karl; Bornstein, Michael M.; Buser, Daniel; Dagassan-Berndt, Dorothea; Ettlin, Dominik A; Filippi, Andreas; Gabioud, François; Katsaros, Christos; Krastl, Gabriel; Lambrecht, J. Thomas; Lauber, Roland; Luebbers, Heinz-Theo; Pazera, Pawel; Türp, Jens C.

    2014-01-01

    Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has been introduced in 1998. This radiological imaging procedure has been provided for dentistry and is comparable to computed tomography (CT) in medicine. It is expected that CBCT will have the same success in dental diagnostic imaging as computed tomography had in medicine. Just as CT is responsible for a significant rise in radiation dose to the population from medical X-ray diagnostics, CBCT studies will be accompanied by a significant increase of the ...

  7. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF TOOTH RESORPTION IN CATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Linda G; Wilkinson, Thomas E; White, Tammy L; Farnsworth, Raelynn K; Potter, Kathleen A

    2016-09-01

    Tooth resorption is the most common dental disease in cats and can be a source of oral pain. The current clinical gold standard for diagnosis includes a combination of oral exam and dental radiography, however early lesions are not always detected. Computed tomography (CT) of the skull, including the dental arches, is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure, however the appearance of tooth resorption on CT and the diagnostic ability of CT to detect tooth resorption have not been evaluated. The purpose of this prospective, descriptive, diagnostic accuracy study was to characterize the CT appearance of tooth resorption in a sample of affected cats and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CT for tooth resorption compared to the clinical gold standard of oral exam and intraoral dental radiography. Twenty-eight cat cadaver specimens were recruited for inclusion. Each specimen was evaluated using oral exam, intraoral dental radiography, and computed tomography (four different slice thicknesses). Each tooth was evaluated for the presence or absence of tooth resorption. Teeth with lesions and a subset of normal teeth were evaluated with histopathology. On CT, tooth resorption appeared as irregularly marginated hypoattenuating defects in the mineral attenuating tooth components, most commonly involving the root or cementoenamel junction. Sensitivity for CT detection of tooth resorption was fair to poor (42.2-57.7%) and specificity was good to excellent (92.8-96.3%). Findings from this study indicated that CT has high specificity but low sensitivity for detection of tooth resorption in cats.

  8. Computed tomography in pelvic and acetabular fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Born, H.; Schmidt, C.

    1988-06-01

    In a retrospective study we analyzed the results of 127 patients, who were examined not only by means of conventional radiography but also by means of computed tomography after a trauma of the pelvic. Our investigations were based upon such patients, to whom a definite diagnostic procedure of plain radiography had been performed. Therefore all polytraumatized patients were inapplicable. They were only examined by computed tomography because of other more important accompanying injuries of other body regions. We compared the results of 127 patients with pelvic trauma. The results of the CT were in accordance with the results of the plain radiography for 103 patients. The results of the CT concerning the availability and the localization of the fractures were basically coincident with the plain radiography for 22 patients, but the CT showed a higher degree of trauma and additional intraarticular fragments. Two isolated lesions of the sacroiliac joint could not be recognized by both methods. They could only be diagnosed by bone scintigraphy on the third day after trauma.

  9. Computed Tomography Technology: Development and Applications for Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheti, G. L.; Saxena, Nisheet; Tripathi, D. K.; Songara, K. C.; Meghwal, L. R.; Meena, V. L.

    2008-09-01

    Computed Tomography(CT) has revolutionized the field of Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT&E). Tomography for industrial applications warrants design and development of customized solutions catering to specific visualization requirements. Present paper highlights Tomography Technology Solutions implemented at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (DLJ). Details on the technological developments carried out and their utilization for various Defence applications has been covered.

  10. Use of high-resolution computed tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the management of stage IA adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Yoshihiro; Tsutani, Yasuhiro; Okada, Morihito

    2012-01-01

    Preoperative determination of malignant behavior is critical in choosing suitable therapeutic strategies such as sublobar resection for patients with small lung cancers. The aim of present review was to evaluate high-resolution computed tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography as tools for management of clinical stage IA adenocarcinoma.

  11. Spatiotemporal computed tomography of dynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Anders; Münch, Beat; Trtik, Pavel; Butler, Les

    2011-12-01

    Modern computed tomography (CT) equipment allowing fast 3-D imaging also makes it possible to monitor dynamic processes by 4-D imaging. Because the acquisition time of various 3-D-CT systems is still in the range of at least milliseconds or even hours, depending on the detector system and the source, the balance of the desired temporal and spatial resolution must be adjusted. Furthermore, motion artifacts will occur, especially at high spatial resolution and longer measuring times. We propose two approaches based on nonsequential projection angle sequences allowing a convenient postacquisition balance of temporal and spatial resolution. Both strategies are compatible with existing instruments, needing only a simple reprograming of the angle list used for projection acquisition and care with the projection order list. Both approaches will reduce the impact of artifacts due to motion. The strategies are applied and validated with cold neutron imaging of water desorption from originally saturated particles during natural air-drying experiments and with x-ray tomography of a polymer blend heated during imaging.

  12. Computed tomography in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Nyree; Grant, Lee Alexander; Bharwani, Nishat; Sohaib, S Aslam

    2009-08-01

    Recent developments in chemotherapy have resulted in several new drug treatments for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). These therapies have shown improved progression-free survival and are applicable to many more patients than the conventional cytokine-based treatments for metastatic RCC. Consequently imaging is playing a greater part in the management of such patients. Computed tomography (CT) remains the primary imaging modality with other imaging modalities playing a supplementary role. CT is used in the diagnosis and staging of metastatic RCC. It is used in the follow-up of patients after nephrectomy, in assessing the extent of metastatic disease, and in evaluating response to treatment. This review looks at the role of CT in patients with metastatic RCC and describes the appearances of metastatic RCC before and following systemic therapy.

  13. Computed tomography findings of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiota, Yutaro; Sato, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Ono, Tetsuya; Kaji, Masaro; Niiya, Harutaka (Kure Kyosai Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) findings were assessed in 7 patients with malignant mesothelioma. CT findings were also reviewed in 9 patients with lung cancer and pleuritis carcinomatosa and in 11 patients with tuberculous pleuritis. Five patients with malignant mesothelioma underwent CT scans twice, on admission and from 1 to 7 months after admission. Tuberculous pleuritis could be distinguished from pleuritis carcinomatosa and malignant mesothelioma by the presence or absence of pleural nodularity and chest wall invasion. Although it was difficult to identify specific CT features clearly distinguishing malignant mesothelioma from pleuritis carcinomatosa, characteristic findings of malignant mesothelioma appeared to include the rapid development and progression of pleural rind and a tendency to spread directly into the chest wall. We divided the pleural into the four regions; upper anterior, upper posterior, lower anterior and lower posterior regions. Pleural changes were more frequently seen in the lower pleural regions than in the upper pleural regions in malignant mesothelioma. (author).

  14. Analysis of airways in computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is major cause of death and disability world-wide. It affects lung function through destruction of lung tissue known as emphysema and inflammation of airways, leading to thickened airway walls and narrowed airway lumen. Computed Tomography (CT) imaging...... have become the standard with which to assess emphysema extent but airway abnormalities have so far been more challenging to quantify. Automated methods for analysis are indispensable as the visible airway tree in a CT scan can include several hundreds of individual branches. However, automation...... of scan on airway dimensions in subjects with and without COPD. The results show measured airway dimensions to be affected by differences in the level of inspiration and this dependency is again influenced by COPD. Inspiration level should therefore be accounted for when measuring airways, and airway...

  15. Findings of computed tomography in intracranial tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, H. G.; Bae, K. S.; Lee, H. K.; Kwon, K. H.; Kim, K. J. [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    In intracranial tuberculosis, the Computed Tomography (CT) is a new radiological technique which is helpful in diagnosis and determining the location, extents of the lesion. It can also make it possible to assess the presence and degree of the complications and to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. 25 cases of clinically proven intracranial tuberculosis were studied by CT, in Soonchunhyang hospital from Jun. 1980 to Jun. 1983. The result were as follows; 1. 4 cases were normal in CT finding, despite of the clinically proven tuberculous meningitis. 2. Total or partial obliteration of cisterns were observed in 13 cases. 3. Intense abnormal contrast enhancement of the cisterns were observed in 8 cases. 4. 19 cases show moderate to marked ventricular dilatation. 5. 2 cases of cerebral infarction were observed. 6. One case of tuberculoma was observed.

  16. Computed Tomography in the Modern Slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb

    of technology. Recently, the use of X-ray computed tomography (CT) coupled with methods from image analysis has been introduced as a powerful means to optimise production, by providing detailed information on the raw materials. This thesis covers two aspects of the application of CT in the modern abattoir...... concerns measurements of each single carcass, to improve the raw material utilisation by individually adapted processing. Measurements performed online in the abattoir demand fast, robust and cost-effective imaging. We propose a tomographic reconstruction algorithm, enabling a substantial reduction...... of the subject-specific X-ray data needed to produce high quality images for accurate measurements. This is very beneficial for the abattoirs, as a reduction in acquired data translates directly into higher speed and a lower cost. The thesis demonstrates the great potential of CT as a technology for improving...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion in Abdominal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Lundsgaard; Norling, Rikke; Lauridsen, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    on the market today based on different perfusion algorithms. However, there is no consensus on which protocol and algorithm to use for specific organs. In this article, the authors give an introduction to CT perfusion in abdominal imaging introducing technical aspects for calculation of perfusion parameters......Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion is an evolving method to visualize perfusion in organs and tissue. With the introduction of multidetector CT scanners, it is now possible to cover up to 16 cm in one rotation, and thereby making it possible to scan entire organs such as the liver with a fixed...... table position. Advances in reconstruction algorithms make it possible to reduce the radiation dose for each examination to acceptable levels. Regarding abdominal imaging, CT perfusion is still considered a research tool, but several studies have proven it as a reliable non-invasive technique...

  18. Computed tomography of the abnormal thymus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, R.L.; Lee, J.K.T.; Sagel, S.S.; Levitt, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) should be the imaging method of choice following plain chest radiographs when a suspected thymic abnormality requires further evaluation. Based upon a six-year experience, including the evaluation of 25 patients with thymic pathology, CT was found useful in suggesting or excluding a diagnosis of thymoma and in distinguishing thymic hyperplasis from thymoma in patients with myasthenia gravis. The thickness of the thymic lobes determined by CT was found to be a more accurate indicator of infiltrative disease (thymic hyperplasia and lymphoma) than the width. CT was helpful in differentiating benign thymic cysts from solid tumors, and in defining the extent of a thymic neoplasms. On occasion, CT may suggest the specific histologic nature of a thymic lesion.

  19. Imaging of Cardiac Valves by Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Feuchtner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes “how to” examine cardiac valves with computed tomography, the normal, diseased valves, and prosthetic valves. A review of current scientific literature is provided. Firstly, technical basics, “how to” perform and optimize a multislice CT scan and “how to” interpret valves on CT images are outlined. Then, diagnostic imaging of the entire spectrum of specific valvular disease by CT, including prosthetic heart valves, is highlighted. The last part gives a guide “how to” use CT for planning of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI, an emerging effective treatment option for patients with severe aortic stenosis. A special focus is placed on clinical applications of cardiac CT in the context of valvular disease.

  20. Advanced proton imaging in computed tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Mattiazzo, S; Giubilato, P; Pantano, D; Pozzobon, N; Snoeys, W; Wyss, J

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the use of hadrons for cancer radiation treatment has grown in importance, and many facilities are currently operational or under construction worldwide. To fully exploit the therapeutic advantages offered by hadron therapy, precise body imaging for accurate beam delivery is decisive. Proton computed tomography (pCT) scanners, currently in their R&D phase, provide the ultimate 3D imaging for hadrons treatment guidance. A key component of a pCT scanner is the detector used to track the protons, which has great impact on the scanner performances and ultimately limits its maximum speed. In this article, a novel proton-tracking detector was presented that would have higher scanning speed, better spatial resolution and lower material budget with respect to present state-of-the-art detectors, leading to enhanced performances. This advancement in performances is achieved by employing the very latest development in monolithic active pixel detectors (to build high granularity, low material budget, ...

  1. Inter laboratory comparison on Industrial Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    An interlaboratory comparison on industrial X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) was organized by the Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and carried out within the project “Centre for Industrial Application of CT scanning...... - CIA-CT”. In the comparison, 27 laboratories from 8 countries were involved, and CT scanned two items selected among common industrial parts: a polymer part and a metal part. Altogether, 27 sets of items were circulated in parallel to the participants. Different measurands are considered, encompassing...... influence from the surrounding wall thickness on the measurement of roundness was documented for the metal item. The comparison shows that CT scanning on small industrial parts, generally speaking, is connected with uncertainties in the range 8-53 μm, as compared to an uncertainty range of 1.5-5.5 μm using...

  2. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN); Sari-Sarraf, Hamed (Knoxville, TN); Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  3. Brain computer interfaces, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Gomez-Gil, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or 'locked in' by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices.

  4. Brain Computer Interfaces, a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Gomez-Gil, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or ‘locked in’ by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices. PMID:22438708

  5. Brain Computer Interfaces, a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Nicolas-Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A brain-computer interface (BCI is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or ‘locked in’ by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices.

  6. Cone beam computed tomography in Endodontics - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, S.; Durack, C.; Abella, F.; Shemesh, H.; Roig, M.; Lemberg, K.

    2015-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) produces undistorted three-dimensional information of the maxillofacial skeleton, including the teeth and their surrounding tissues with a lower effective radiation dose than computed tomography. The aim of this paper is to: (i) review the current literature on t

  7. Diagnosis of lumbar disc hernia with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizumi, Atsuro; Ohira, Nobuhiro; Ojima, Tadashi; Oshida, Midori; Horaguchi, Mitsuru (Tohoku Rosai Hospital, Sendai (Japan))

    1982-07-01

    Results of computed tomography performed on patients with clinically diagnosed hernia were compared with those of myelography and operative findings. This comparative study suggested that computed tomography is quite different from other methods and very useful in diagnosis of hernia. Some cases of hernia were shown, and the characteristics of CT were reviewed.

  8. Computed tomography in traumatic defects of the diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, T C; Solomon, C; Posniak, H V; Flisak, M J

    1989-03-01

    Two patients with traumatic diaphragmatic defects visible on computed tomography are presented. The diagnosis was delayed for several years in both patients. The diagnosis of these acquired diaphragmatic defects is often difficult. Computed tomography can lead to earlier diagnosis by demonstrating the defect in some patients when radiographic studies are not diagnostic.

  9. Intravenous coronary angiography using electron beam computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensing, B J; Bongaerts, A H; van Geuns, R J; van Ooijen, P M; Oudkerk, M; de Feyter, P J

    1999-01-01

    Intravenous coronary angiography with electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) allows for the noninvasive visualisation of coronary arteries. With dedicated computer hardware and software, three-dimensional renderings of the coronary arteries, veins, and other cardiac structures can be constructed f

  10. Study of 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 Imaging on Human Brain with Children Autism by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the application values of 99mTc-2 β [ N, N'-bis( 2-mercaptoethy1 ) ethylenediamino ] methyl, 3 β -(4-chlorophenyl) tropane ( TRODAT-1 ) dopamine transporter (DAT) SPECT imaging in children autism, and offer the academic foundation to etiology, mechanism and clinical therapy of autism. Methods:Ten autistic children and ten healthy controls were examined with 99mTc-TRODAT-1 DAT SPECT imaging.Striatal specific uptake of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 was calculated with region of interest analysis according to the ratios between striatum and cerebellum [ (STR-BKG)/BKG]. Results:There was no difference in semiquantitative dopamine transporter between bilateral striatum in autistic children ( P = 0. 562) and in normal controls ( P = 0. 573 ); dopamine transporter in brain of patients with autism increased more significantly than that in normal controls ( P = 0. 017 ). Conclusion: Dopaminergic nervous system is dysfunction in human brain with children autism, and DAT 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT imaging on human brain will help the imaging diagnosis of children autism.

  11. Computed tomography of the dog's brain: normal aspects and anatomical correlation; Tomografia computadorizada do encefalo do cao: aspectos da normalidade e correlacao anatomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorigados, C.A.B., E-mail: clorigados@usp.br [Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas (UniFMU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pinto, A.C.B.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    2013-06-15

    Normal tomographic images of dog's heads were obtained, aimed to familiarize them with the normal aspects of the brain and correlate these findings with the relevant anatomy of the region studied. Several anatomical structures, such as the parenchyma of the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, the longitudinal fissure, the ventricular system, the cerebellum, the olfactory bulb, the corpus callosum, diencephalon, the pons, the medulla oblongata and the chiasmatic sulcus were directly identified or were related to neighboring structures which helped in their identification. (author)

  12. Radiological management of blunt polytrauma with computed tomography and angiography: an integrated approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurdziel, J.C.; Dondelinger, R.F.; Hemmer, M.

    1987-01-01

    107 polytraumatized patients, who had experienced blunt trauma have been worked up at admission with computed tomography of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis following computed tomography study of the brain: significant lesions were revealed in 98 (90%) patients. 79 (74%) patients showed trauma to the thorax, in 69 (64%) patients abdominal or pelvic trauma was evidenced. No false positive diagnosis was established. 5 traumatic findings were missed. Emergency angiography was indicated in 3 (3%) patients, following computed tomography examination. 3 other trauma patients were submitted directly to angiography without computed tomography examination during the time period this study was completed. Embolization was carried out in 5/6 patients. No thoracotomy was needed. 13 (12%) patients underwent laparotomy following computed tomography. Overall mortality during hospital stay was 14% (15/107). No patient died from visceral bleeding. Conservative management of blunt polytrauma patients can be advocated in almost 90% of visceral lesions. Computed tomography coupled with angiography and embolization represent an adequate integrated approach to the management of blunt polytrauma patients.

  13. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow by single photon emission computed tomography of CBF-tracer combined with whole-brain CBF; A comparison between [sup 123]I-IMP and [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO in healthy volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Imaizumi, Masatoshi; Ashida, Keiichi; Ohe, Yosuke; Okamoto, Masaya; Abe, Tohru; Tanaka, Seiji (Osaka National Hospital (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    A simple, noninvasive method of measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) that uses single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of CBF-tracer and whole brain CBF obtained by xenon-133 ([sup 133]Xe) clearance technique was developed. In nine healthy volunteers, SPECT data were normalized to the count density of [sup 123]I-IMP or [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO uptake in the whole-brain, and then converted to the absolute units of CBF by multiplying average [sup 133]Xe-CBF in the whole brain. The CBF values measured by [sup 99m]Tc-HMPA CBF-SPECT was significantly lower in the high flow regions of cortical gray matter (bilateral frontal lobe; p<0.05 and right occipital lobe; p<0.05), and was significantly higher in the bilateral white matter (p<0.05 or 0.01) and the cerebellum (p<0.005) compared with the flow values measured by [sup 123]I-IMP CBF-SPECT. Whereas, the IMP-CBF values were significantly lower in the bilateral striatum (p<0.02 or 0.05) compared with the HMPAO-CBF values. Good correlations were found between IMP-CBF and the HMPAO-CBF values in the cortical gray matter (r[sub s]=0.761; p<0.001, n=108), the white matter (r[sub s]=0.739; p<0.001, n=18) and the cerebellum (r[sub s]=0.731; p<0.001, n=18). In the striatum (r[sub s]=0.58; p<0.05, n=18) and the thalamus (r[sub s]=0.628; p<0.05, n=18), the correlations between IMP-CBF and HMPAO-CBF values were inferior to those of the other three regions. The results indicated that the contrast between high and low CBF regions in the HMPAO CBF-SPECT was significantly less than that in the IMP CBF-SPECT. However, this assumption is not applicable in all of the cerebral regions. (author).

  14. SU-E-J-39: Comparison of PTV Margins Determined by In-Room Stereoscopic Image Guidance and by On-Board Cone Beam Computed Tomography Technique for Brain Radiotherapy Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, T; Paul, S; Munshi, A; Sarkar, B; Krishnankutty, S; Sathya, J; George, S; Jassal, K; Roy, S; Mohanti, B [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon (India)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Stereoscopic in room kV image guidance is a faster tool in daily monitoring of patient positioning. Our centre, for the first time in the world, has integrated such a solution from BrainLAB (ExacTrac) with Elekta's volumetric cone beam computed tomography (XVI). Using van Herk's formula, we compared the planning target volume (PTV) margins calculated by both these systems for patients treated with brain radiotherapy. Methods: For a total of 24 patients who received partial or whole brain radiotherapy, verification images were acquired for 524 treatment sessions by XVI and for 334 sessions by ExacTrac out of the total 547 sessions. Systematic and random errors were calculated in cranio-caudal, lateral and antero-posterior directions for both techniques. PTV margins were then determined using van Herk formula. Results: In the cranio-caudal direction, systematic error, random error and the calculated PTV margin were found to be 0.13 cm, 0.12 cm and 0.41 cm with XVI and 0.14 cm, 0.13 cm and 0.44 cm with ExacTrac. The corresponding values in lateral direction were 0.13 cm 0.1 cm and 0.4 cm with XVI and 0.13 cm, 0.12 cm and 0.42 cm with ExacTrac imaging. The same parameters for antero-posterior were for 0.1 cm, 0.11 cm and 0.34 cm with XVI and 0.13 cm, 0.16 cm and 0.43 cm with ExacTrac imaging. The margins estimated with the two imaging modalities were comparable within ± 1 mm limit. Conclusion: Verification of setup errors in the major axes by two independent imaging systems showed the results are comparable and within ± 1 mm. This implies that planar imaging based ExacTrac can yield equal accuracy in setup error determination as the time consuming volumetric imaging which is considered as the gold standard. Accordingly PTV margins estimated by this faster imaging technique can be confidently used in clinical setup.

  15. Dedicated breast computed tomography: Basic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni, E-mail: mettivier@na.infn.it; Russo, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cintia, Napoli I-80126, Italy and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli I-80126 (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    X-ray mammography of the compressed breast is well recognized as the “gold standard” for early detection of breast cancer, but its performance is not ideal. One limitation of screening mammography is tissue superposition, particularly for dense breasts. Since 2001, several research groups in the USA and in the European Union have developed computed tomography (CT) systems with digital detector technology dedicated to x-ray imaging of the uncompressed breast (breast CT or BCT) for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. This CT technology—tracing back to initial studies in the 1970s—allows some of the limitations of mammography to be overcome, keeping the levels of radiation dose to the radiosensitive breast glandular tissue similar to that of two-view mammography for the same breast size and composition. This paper presents an evaluation of the research efforts carried out in the invention, development, and improvement of BCT with dedicated scanners with state-of-the-art technology, including initial steps toward commercialization, after more than a decade of R and D in the laboratory and/or in the clinic. The intended focus here is on the technological/engineering aspects of BCT and on outlining advantages and limitations as reported in the related literature. Prospects for future research in this field are discussed.

  16. REVIEW: X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalender, Willi A.

    2006-07-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT), introduced into clinical practice in 1972, was the first of the modern slice-imaging modalities. To reconstruct images mathematically from measured data and to display and to archive them in digital form was a novelty then and is commonplace today. CT has shown a steady upward trend with respect to technology, performance and clinical use independent of predictions and expert assessments which forecast in the 1980s that it would be completely replaced by magnetic resonance imaging. CT not only survived but exhibited a true renaissance due to the introduction of spiral scanning which meant the transition from slice-by-slice imaging to true volume imaging. Complemented by the introduction of array detector technology in the 1990s, CT today allows imaging of whole organs or the whole body in 5 to 20 s with sub-millimetre isotropic resolution. This review of CT will proceed in chronological order focussing on technology, image quality and clinical applications. In its final part it will also briefly allude to novel uses of CT such as dual-source CT, C-arm flat-panel-detector CT and micro-CT. At present CT possibly exhibits a higher innovation rate than ever before. In consequence the topical and most recent developments will receive the greatest attention.

  17. Perfusion computed tomography in renal cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chandan; J; Das; Usha; Thingujam; Ananya; Panda; Sanjay; Sharma; Arun; Kumar; Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Various imaging modalities are available for the diagnosis, staging and response evaluation of patients with renal cell carcinoma(RCC). While contrast enhanced computed tomography(CT) is used as the standard of imaging for size, morphological evaluation and response assessment in RCC, a new functional imaging technique like perfusion CT(p CT), goes down to the molecular level and provides new perspectives in imaging of RCC. p CT depicts regional tumor perfusion and vascular permeability which are indirect parameters of tumor angiogenesis and thereby provides vital information regarding tumor microenvironment. Also response evaluation using p CT may predate the size criteria used in Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, as changes in the perfusion occurs earlier following tissue kinase inhibitors before any actual change in size. This may potentially help in predicting prognosis, better selection of therapy and more accurate and better response evaluation in patients with RCC. This article describes the techniques and role of p CT in staging and response assessment in patients with RCCs.

  18. Portable Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-11-01

    This user manual describes the function and use of the portable digital radiography and computed tomography (DRCT) scanner. The manual gives a general overview of x-ray imaging systems along with a description of the DRCT system. An inventory of the all the system components, organized by shipping container, is also included. In addition, detailed, step-by-step procedures are provided for all of the exercises necessary for a novice user to successfully collect digital radiographs and tomographic images of an object, including instructions on system assembly and detector calibration and system alignment. There is also a short section covering the limited system care and maintenance needs. Descriptions of the included software packages, the DRCT Digital Imager used for system operation, and the DRCT Image Processing Interface used for image viewing and tomographic data reconstruction are given in the appendixes. The appendixes also include a cheat sheet for more experienced users, a listing of known system problems and how to mitigate them, and an inventory check-off sheet suitable for copying and including with the machine for shipment purposes.

  19. Radiation doses from computed tomography in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J.E.M.; Tingey, D.R.C

    1997-11-01

    Recent surveys in various countries have shown that computed tomography (CT) is a significant and growing contributor to the radiation dose from diagnostic radiology. Australia, with 332 CT scanners (18 per million people), is well endowed with CT equipment compared to European countries (6 to 13 per million people). Only Japan, with 8500 units (78 per million people), has a significantly higher proportion of CT scanners. In view of this, a survey of CT facilities, frequency of examinations, techniques and patient doses has been performed in Australia. It is estimated that there are 1 million CT examinations in Australia each year, resulting in a collective effective dose of 7000 Sv and a per caput dose of 0.39 mSv. This per caput dose is much larger than found in earlier studies in the UK and New Zealand but is less than 0.48 mSv in Japan. Using the ICRP risk factors, radiation doses from CT could be inducing about 280 fatal cancers per year in Australia. CT is therefore a significant, if not the major, single contributor to radiation doses and possible risk from diagnostic radiology. (authors) 28 refs., 11 tabs., 10 figs.

  20. Computed tomography characterisation of additive manufacturing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibb, Richard; Thompson, Darren; Winder, John

    2011-06-01

    Additive manufacturing, covering processes frequently referred to as rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing, provides new opportunities in the manufacture of highly complex and custom-fitting medical devices and products. Whilst many medical applications of AM have been explored and physical properties of the resulting parts have been studied, the characterisation of AM materials in computed tomography has not been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the CT number of commonly used AM materials. There are many potential applications of the information resulting from this study in the design and manufacture of wearable medical devices, implants, prostheses and medical imaging test phantoms. A selection of 19 AM material samples were CT scanned and the resultant images analysed to ascertain the materials' CT number and appearance in the images. It was found that some AM materials have CT numbers very similar to human tissues, FDM, SLA and SLS produce samples that appear uniform on CT images and that 3D printed materials show a variation in internal structure.

  1. Micro computed tomography for vascular exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Zhen W

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vascular exploration of small animals requires imaging hardware with a very high spatial resolution, capable of differentiating large as well as small vessels, in both in vivo and ex vivo studies. Micro Computed Tomography (micro-CT has emerged in recent years as the preferred modality for this purpose, providing high resolution 3D volumetric data suitable for analysis, quantification, validation, and visualization of results. The usefulness of micro-CT, however, can be adversely affected by a range of factors including physical animal preparation, numerical quantification, visualization of results, and quantification software with limited possibilities. Exacerbating these inherent difficulties is the lack of a unified standard for micro-CT imaging. Most micro-CT today is aimed at particular applications and the software tools needed for quantification, developed mainly by imaging hardware manufacturers, lack the level of detail needed to address more specific aims. This review highlights the capabilities of micro-CT for vascular exploration, describes the current state of imaging protocols, and offers guidelines and suggestions aimed at making micro-CT more accurate, replicable, and robust.

  2. Computed Tomography Following Body Stuffing Heroin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P. Nordt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED in police custody for “medical clearance” before being taken to jail. The patient was approached by police officers for suspicion of selling illicit drugs. When approached by police he ran away and was witnessed to swallow several small plastic baggies suspected to contain heroin. He was apprehended and brought to the ED. On arrival, he was asymptomatic with a blood pressure 144/83mmHg, heart rate 67bpm, respiratory rate of 19bpm, oxygen saturation of 99% on room air and afebrile. A Glasgow coma score was 15 and he was alert and oriented to person, place and time. Patient had a negative review of systems. On physical examination pupils were 4mm and reactive to light, lungs clear to auscultation and had normal respiratory rate with normal cardiovascular exam. Abdomen was soft, non-tender and non-distended with present bowel sounds. The patient admitted to ingesting approximately 20 packets of heroin to avoid being charged with possession. The patient declined activated charcoal and whole bowel irrigation (WBI with polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ELS. The patient declined a urine toxicology immunoassay screen. A computed tomography (CT of his abdomen with contrast was obtained and read as normal except for a cluster of foreign bodies within the distal stomach likely contained within a plastic bag.

  3. Application of computed tomography to spinal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, N.; Kurihara, A.; Kataoka, O. (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1980-08-01

    The axial tomographic examination of the spine and its soft tissues is now readily available for orthopaedic surgery. If the appropriate conditions are maintained, computed tomography (CT) can provide useful information concerning the diagnosis and the treatment of spinal diseases. There are, however, some pitfalls in interpreting CT scans: 1) the existence of the lesion may be masked, and 2) its extent and configuration may be over- or under-evaluated depending on such technical factors as the slicing level, the slicing angle, the window width, and the window level. Experimental studies were carried out on a plaster of Paris model of the spine and a cadaver spine to determine the appropriate technical factors by which the CT (EMI whole body CT scanner 5005) can be applied accurately to a diseased spine. The factors obtained were then applied in examining ninety-nine patients with various spinal disorders. Window levels ranging between 100 and 150 were found to be most appropriate. The slicing angle should be 90/sup 0/, or perpendicular to the long axis of the object under study. However, deviations of +10 or -10 degrees are acceptable. The CT view of the spine may be divided into two patterns at the cervical and thoracic levels and into three patterns at the lumbar level. In addition, the usefulness and the diagnostic value of CT for various spinal problems are discussed based on our clinical material.

  4. Computed tomography in acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevblad, Karl-Olof [HUG-Geneva University Hospital, Geneva University Medical School, Department of Neuroradiology, Department of Imaging and Medical Informatics, Geneva (Switzerland); Baird, Alison E. [SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Cerebrovascular Disease and Stroke, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Box 1213, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Stroke remains the third most important cause of mortality in industrialized countries; this has prompted research for improvements in both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for patients with signs of acute cerebral ischemia. Over the last decade, there has been a parallel in progress in techniques in both diagnostic and therapeutic options. While previously only used for excluding hemorrhage, imaging now has the possibility to detect ischemia, vascular occlusion, as well as detect tissue at risk in one setting. It should also allow to monitor treatment and predict/exclude therapeutic complications. Parallel to advances in magnetic resonance imaging of stroke, computed tomography has improved immensely over the last decade due to the development of CT scanners that are faster and that allow to acquire studies such as CT perfusion or CT angiography in a reliable way. CT can detect many signs that might help us detect impending signs of massive infarction, but we still lack the experience to use these alone to prevent a patient from benefitting from possible therapy. (orig.)

  5. Intraperitoneal tuberculous abscess: computed tomography features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Dong; Jing-Jing; Chen; Xi-Zhen; Wang; Ya-Qin; Wang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the computed tomography(CT) features of intraperitoneal tuberculous abscess(IPTA). METHODS: Eight patients with IPTA confirmed by pathology were analyzed retrospectively. The clinical symptoms, medical images, and surgical findings were evaluated. Involvement of the intestine, peritoneum, viscera, and lymph nodes was also assessed. RESULTS: All 8 patients had a history of abdominal discomfort for 1 to 6 mo. Physical examination revealed a palpable abdominal mass in 6 patients. Three patients had no evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis(TB). All IPTAs(11 abscesses) were seen as a multiseptated, peripherally enhanced, hypodense mass with enlarged, rim-enhanced lymph nodes. The largest abscess diameter ranged from 4.5 cm to 12.2 cm. CT showed 2 types of IPTA: Lymph node fusion and encapsulation. Of the 8 patients, one had liver tuberculosis and one had splenic and ovarian tuberculosis. Two cases showed involvement of the terminal ileum and ileocecal junction. Ascites were found in 4 cases. Three patients had peritonitis and mesenteritis. Three patients showed involvement of the omentum. Three patients had histological evidence of caseating granuloma, and 5 had histological evidence of acid-fast bacilli. CONCLUSION: CT is crucial in the detection and characterization of IPTA. Certain CT findings are necessary for correct diagnosis.

  6. A Detector for Proton Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazey, G.; et al.

    2013-12-06

    Radiation therapy is a widely recognized treatment for cancer. Energetic protons have distinct features that set them apart from photons and make them desirable for cancer therapy as well as medical imaging. The clinical interest in heavy ion therapy is due to the fact that ions deposit almost all of their energy in a sharp peak – the Bragg peak- at the very end of their path. Proton beams can be used to precisely localize a tumor and deliver an exact dose to the tumor with small doses to the surrounding tissue. Proton computed tomography (pCT) provides direct information on the location on the target tumor, and avoids position uncertainty caused by treatment planning based on imaging with X-ray CT. The pCT project goal is to measure and reconstruct the proton relative stopping power distribution directly in situ. To ensure the full advantage of cancer treatment with 200 MeV proton beams, pCT must be realized.

  7. Computer tomography-aided ventriculography and cisternography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernoch, Z.; Sercl, M.; Heger, L.; Parizek, J. (Karlova Univ., Hradec Kralove (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)

    1983-01-28

    Computer tomography was used in 42 patients for the exploration of ventricular and subarachnoidal spaces following intraventricular, lumbar or suboccipital injections of 3 to 5 ml Amipaque using the kind of manoeuvre to permit optimum filling of the region concerned. This type of CT ventriculo- or cisternography is a significant supplement to plain CT examination particularly because it supplies data on the causes of CSF passage blocks. Thus, in two female patients it proved possible to localize cysts in the 3rd ventricle, the density of which was no different from that of CSF. As regards benign stenoses of the aqueduct, it is likely to yield less information than conventional specific ventriculography. On the other hand, the technique gives perfect visualization of all possible communications between pathological intracranial cavities and the ventricular system. CT cisternography proved useful for the identification of small-size isodense growths in the region of the sella turcica, and brought convincing evidence of the causes of profuse liquorrhea by demonstrating the presence of nasal meningocele. It was also found helpful in the analysis of the craniocervical region, otherwise difficult to survey.

  8. Acute Calculous Cholecystitis Missed on Computed Tomography and Ultrasound but Diagnosed with Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Mari Aparici

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 69-year-old patient who underwent ascending aortic aneurysm repair with aortic valve replacement. On postsurgical day 12, he developed leukocytosis and low-grade fevers. The chest computed tomography (CT showed a periaortic hematoma which represents a postsurgical change from aortic aneurysm repair, and a small pericardial effusion. The abdominal ultrasound showed cholelithiasis without any sign of cholecystitis. Finally, a fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-positron emission tomography (PET/CT examination was ordered to find the cause of fever of unknown origin, and it showed increased FDG uptake in the gallbladder wall, with no uptake in the lumen. FDG-PET/CT can diagnose acute cholecystitis in patients with nonspecific clinical symptoms and laboratory results.

  9. Brain Neurons as Quantum Computers:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershadskii, A.; Dremencov, E.; Bershadskii, J.; Yadid, G.

    The question: whether quantum coherent states can sustain decoherence, heating and dissipation over time scales comparable to the dynamical timescales of brain neurons, has been actively discussed in the last years. A positive answer on this question is crucial, in particular, for consideration of brain neurons as quantum computers. This discussion was mainly based on theoretical arguments. In the present paper nonlinear statistical properties of the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) of genetically depressive limbic brain are studied in vivo on the Flinders Sensitive Line of rats (FSL). VTA plays a key role in the generation of pleasure and in the development of psychological drug addiction. We found that the FSL VTA (dopaminergic) neuron signals exhibit multifractal properties for interspike frequencies on the scales where healthy VTA dopaminergic neurons exhibit bursting activity. For high moments the observed multifractal (generalized dimensions) spectrum coincides with the generalized dimensions spectrum calculated for a spectral measure of a quantum system (so-called kicked Harper model, actively used as a model of quantum chaos). This observation can be considered as a first experimental (in vivo) indication in the favor of the quantum (at least partially) nature of brain neurons activity.

  10. Diffuse abnormalities of the trachea: computed tomography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com; Pozes, Aline Serfaty [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Escuissato, Dante Luiz [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Irion, Klaus Loureiro [The Cardiothoracic Centre NHS Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Araujo Neto, Cesar de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Barillo, Jorge Luiz; Zanetti, Glaucia [Faculdade de Medicina de Petropolis (FMP), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia Clinica; Souza, Carolina Althoff [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-01-15

    The aim of this pictorial essay was to present the main computed tomography findings seen in diffuse diseases of the trachea. The diseases studied included amyloidosis, tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica, tracheobronchomegaly, laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis, lymphoma, neurofibromatosis, relapsing polychondritis, Wegener's granulomatosis, tuberculosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and tracheobronchomalacia. The most common computed tomography finding was thickening of the walls of the trachea, with or without nodules, parietal calcifications, or involvement of the posterior wall. Although computed tomography allows the detection and characterization of diseases of the central airways, and the correlation with clinical data reduces the diagnostic possibilities, bronchoscopy with biopsy remains the most useful procedure for the diagnosis of diffuse lesions of the trachea. (author)

  11. Abdominal alterations in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis: computed tomography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermelho, Marli Batista Fernandes; Correia, Ademir Silva; Michailowsky, Tania Cibele de Almeida; Suzart, Elizete Kazumi Kuniyoshi; Ibanes, Aline Santos; Almeida, Lanamar Aparecida; Khoury, Zarifa; Barba, Mario Flores, E-mail: marlivermelho@globo.com [Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas (IIER), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Objective: to evaluate the incidence and spectrum of abdominal computed tomography imaging findings in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis of abdominal computed tomography images of 26 patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. Results: abnormal abdominal tomographic findings were observed in 18 patients (69.2%), while no significant finding was observed in the other 8 (30.8%) patients. Conclusion: computed tomography has demonstrated to play a relevant role in the screening and detection of abdominal abnormalities in patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. (author)

  12. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle W

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present...

  13. Assessment of coronary artery bypass graft patency by multidetector computed tomography and electron-beam tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piers, LH; Dorgelo, J; Tio, RA; Jessurun, GAJ; Oudkerk, M; Zijlstra, F

    2005-01-01

    This case report describes the use of retrospectively ECG-gated 16-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and electron-beam tomography (EBT) for assessing bypass graft patency in two patients with recurrent angina after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The results of each tomographic mo

  14. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography for optimized colon cancer staging and follow up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Bodil Elisabeth; Loft, Annika; Kjær, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Optimal management of colon cancer (CC) requires detailed assessment of extent of disease. This study prospectively investigates the diagnostic accuracy of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for staging and detection of recurrence...

  15. Calcium score of small coronary calcifications on multidetector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groen, J M; Kofoed, K F; Zacho, M;

    2013-01-01

    Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) underestimates the coronary calcium score as compared to electron beam tomography (EBT). Therefore clinical risk stratification based on MDCT calcium scoring may be inaccurate. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a new phantom which ena...

  16. Playing with your Brain: Brain-Computer Interfaces and Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Tan, Desney; Bernhaupt, R.; Tscheligi, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this workshop we investigate a possible role of brain-computer interaction in computer games and entertainment computing. The assumption is that brain activity, whether it is consciously controlled and directed by the user or just recorded in order to obtain information about the user’s affective

  17. Dose Assessment in Computed Tomography Examination and Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels in Mazandaran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janbabanezhad Toori A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical X-rays are the largest man-made source of public exposure to ionizing radiation. While the benefits of Computed Tomography (CT are well known in accurate diagnosis, those benefits are not risk-free. CT is a device with higher patient dose in comparison with other conventional radiation procedures. Objective: This study is aimed at evaluating radiation dose to patients from Computed Tomography (CT examination in Mazandaran hospitals and defining diagnostic reference level (DRL. Methods: Patient-related data on CT protocol for four common CT examinations including brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic were collected. In each center, Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI measurements were performed using pencil ionization chamber and CT dosimetry phantom according to AAPM report No. 96 for those techniques. Then, Weighted Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIW, Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI vol and Dose Length Product (DLP were calculated. Results: The CTDIw for brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic ranged (15.6- 73, (3.8-25. 8, (4.5-16.3 and (7-16.3, respectively. Values of DLP had a range of (197.4-981, (41.8-184, (131-342.3 and (283.6-486 for brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic, respectively. The 3rd quartile of CTDIW, derived from dose distribution for each examination is the proposed quantity for DRL. The DRLs of brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic are measured 59.5, 17, 7.8 and 11 mGy, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated large scales of dose for the same examination among different centers. For all examinations, our values were lower than international reference doses.

  18. Measurement of the glial fibrillary acidic protein and its breakdown products GFAP-BDP biomarker for the detection of traumatic brain injury compared to computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Paul J; Panczykowski, David M; Yue, John K; Puccio, Ava M; Inoue, Tomoo; Sorani, Marco D; Lingsma, Hester F; Maas, Andrew I R; Valadka, Alex B; Yuh, Esther L; Mukherjee, Pratik; Manley, Geoffrey T; Okonkwo, David O

    2015-04-15

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein and its breakdown products (GFAP-BDP) are brain-specific proteins released into serum as part of the pathophysiological response after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We performed a multi-center trial to validate and characterize the use of GFAP-BDP levels in the diagnosis of intracranial injury in a broad population of patients with a positive clinical screen for head injury. This multi-center, prospective, cohort study included patients 16-93 years of age presenting to three level 1 trauma centers with suspected TBI (loss of consciousness, post-trauma amnesia, and so on). Serum GFAP-BDP levels were drawn within 24 h and analyzed, in a blinded fashion, using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The ability of GFAP-BDP to predict intracranial injury on admission computed tomography (CT) as well as delayed magnetic resonance imaging was analyzed by multiple regression and assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Utility of GFAP-BDP to predict injury and reduce unnecessary CT scans was assessed utilizing decision curve analysis. A total of 215 patients were included, of which 83% suffered mild TBI, 4% moderate, and 12% severe; mean age was 42.1±18 years. Evidence of intracranial injury was present in 51% of the sample (median Rotterdam Score, 2; interquartile range, 2). GFAP-BDP demonstrated very good predictive ability (AUC=0.87) and demonstrated significant discrimination of injury severity (odds ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.64). Use of GFAP-BDP yielded a net benefit above clinical screening alone and a net reduction in unnecessary scans by 12-30%. Used in conjunction with other clinical information, rapid measurement of GFAP-BDP is useful in establishing or excluding the diagnosis of radiographically apparent intracranial injury throughout the spectrum of TBI. As an adjunct to current screening practices, GFAP-BDP may help avoid unnecessary CT scans without sacrificing

  19. The Use of GPUs for Solving the Computed Tomography Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Kovtanyuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT is a widespread method used to study the internal structure of objects. The method has applications in medicine, industry and other fields of human activity. In particular, Electronic Imaging, as a species CT, can be used to restore the structure of nanosized objects. Accurate and rapid results are in high demand in modern science. However, there are computational limitations that bound the possible usefulness of CT. On the other hand, the introduction of high-performance calculations using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs provides improving quality and performance of computed tomography investigations. Moreover, parallel computing with GPUs gives significantly higher computation speeds when compared with (Central Processing Units CPUs, because of architectural advantages of the former. In this paper a computed tomography method of recovering the image using parallel computations powered by NVIDIA CUDA technology is considered. The implementation of this approach significantly reduces the required time for solving the CT problem.

  20. Optimisation of post mortem cardiac computed tomography compared to optical coherence tomography and histopathology - Technical note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Helle; Leth, Peter Mygind; Thygesen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Coronary atherosclerosis is a leading cause of mortality. New technological developments in computed tomography (CT), including dual energy, iterative reconstructions and high definition scanning, could significantly improve the non-invasive identification of atherosclerosis plaques...

  1. Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate key elements of feasibility for a high speed automated time domain terahertz computed axial tomography (TD-THz CT) non destructive...

  2. Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase 2 project, we propose to develop, construct, and deliver to NASA a computed axial tomography time-domain terahertz (CT TD-THz) non destructive...

  3. Computed tomography (CT) and diastematomyelia's diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, M.B. dos; Luca, V. de; Ferreira, M.A.S. (Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina); Barros, A.P. de (Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Hospital Universitario)

    After a case of diastematomyelia observed at the University Hospital (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) a review is done of the pertaining literature, and the contribution of the computed tomography for the diagnosis of this disease is emphasized.

  4. Comparison between conventional tomography and computer tomography in diseases of the sacroiliac joints. Vergleich von konventioneller Tomographie und Computertomographie bei Erkrankungen der Sakroiliakalgelenke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritz, J.D.; Ganter, H.; Winter, C. (Bundeswehrkrankenhaus, Giessen (Germany, F.R.). Roentgenabteilung Evangelisches Krankenhaus, Giessen (Germany, F.R.). Roentgenabteilung)

    1990-10-01

    16 patients with diseases of the sacroiliac joints were examined both with computer tomography and with conventional tomography. Both techniques were characterized by a high sensitivity. Computer tomography was superior in exactly delineating the extent of the pathologic changes. In conventional tomography the joint surface was more blurred, erosions were larger, and signs of ankylosis were more expanded, so that the joints seemed to be more altered in 8 cases than demonstrated by computer tomography. Very accurate changes like subchondral cysts were recognized only in the computer tomograms. In all cases in which anteroposterior radiographs revealed no clear result, the authors recommend to additionally employ computer tomography. (orig.).

  5. Cone beam computed tomography in Endodontics - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Durack, C; Abella, F; Shemesh, H; Roig, M; Lemberg, K

    2015-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) produces undistorted three-dimensional information of the maxillofacial skeleton, including the teeth and their surrounding tissues with a lower effective radiation dose than computed tomography. The aim of this paper is to: (i) review the current literature on the applications and limitations of CBCT; (ii) make recommendations for the use of CBCT in Endodontics; (iii) highlight areas of further research of CBCT in Endodontics.

  6. Computed tomography of the mediastinum in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guertler, K.F.; Janzen, R.W.C.; Hagemann, J.; Otto, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography of the mediastinum was performed in 45 patients with myasthenia gravis. Surgery was carried out in fourteen. Amongst these, there were four thymomas, one thymolipoma, eight thymic hyperplasias and one normal thymus gland. A further patient, who did not have surgery, probably also had a thymic tumour. The normal thymus and thymic hyperplasia cannot be distinguished on computed tomography. Differentiation of small thymomas from normal thymus is not always possible. Invasion by thymomas can only be appreciated with large tumours.

  7. A Clinical Evaluation of Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    multidetector computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography in the assessment of dental implant site dimensions. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2011;40:67-75...submitted to the Faculty of the Endodontics Graduate Program Naval Postgraduate Dental School Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences...in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Science in Oral Biology June 2013 Naval Postgraduate Dental

  8. Evaluation of computer tomography in cerebro-vascular disease (Strokes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Sik; Baek, Seung Yon; Rhee, Chung Sik; Kim, Hee Seup [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-06-15

    Most of cerebrovascular disease are composed of vascular occulusive changes and hemorrhage. Now a day, the computed tomography is the best way for evaluation of cerebrovascular disease including detection of nature, location, and associated changes. This study includes evaluation of computed tomography of 70 patients with cerebrovascular disease during the period of 10 months from April. 1983 to Feb. 1984 in Department of Radiology, Ewha Womans University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. Age distribution of the total 70 patients was broad ranging from 25 years to 79 years. 78.6% of patients were over the age of 50. The male and female sex ratio was 1.4:1. 2. 4 out of 70 patients were normal and 66 patients revealed abnormal on C.T. findings; those were intracranial hemorrhage (28 patients), cerebral infarction (34 patients) and brain atrophy (4 patients). 3. In cases of cerebral infarction, the cerebral hemisphere was most common site of lesion (28 cases), and next was basal ganglia (2 cases). Most of the infarcts in cerebral hemisphere were located in the parietal and temporal lobes. 4. In cases of intracranial hemorrhage, the basal ganglia was most common site of lesion (15 cases). The next common site was cerebral hemisphere (9 cases). 6 patients of all intracranial hemorrhage were combined with intraventricular hemorrhage. Ratio of right and left was 2:3. 5. In patients with motor weakness or hemiparesis, more common findings on CT scan were cerebral infarction. In case with hemiplegia, more common CT findings were intracerebral hemorrhage. 6. Of the 40 cases thought to be cerebral infarction initially by clinical findings and spinal tap. 8 cases (20.0%) were proved to be cerebral hemorrhage by the CT scan. However, of the 22 cases thought to be cerebral hemorrhage, initially, only two cases (9.0%) were cerebral infarction.

  9. Actinomycosis involving the liver. Computed tomography/ultrasound correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, S; Fishman, E K; Sanders, R

    1987-06-01

    The clinical profile of pelvic actinomycosis, which is being recognized with increased frequency in IUD users, can be misleading in such patients and lead to dangerous delays in diagnosis. The authors present a case in which an IUD user initially sought medical attention for multiple liver abscesses secondary to spread from unsuspected ovarian actinomycosis. The 43-year-old patient, who was admitted with right upper quadrant pain and fever, had a 15-year history of IUD use, although the device had been removed 1 year prior to admission for apparent infection in the left ovary. Ultrasound revealed mixed cystic and solid liver lesions as well as a complex subcapsular fluid collection. A solid left adnexal mass was demonstrated in the pelvis. Computed tomography scan indicated extension of 1 of the complex cystic liver lesions through the liver capsule and into the abdominal wall. Needle aspirations of the liver lesions yielded thick pus that was later identified as Actinomyces israelii. Actinomycosis was evident in the ovarian lesion. Colonization of the vagina and uterus by actinomycosis has been reported by 1.6-5.3% of IUD users, and the risk appears to increase when the same IUD is used for a prolonged time period. In this case, neither the computed tomography scan nor ultrasound suggested an inflammatory process of the left ovary. Aspiration of a liver lesion under ultrasound guidance was necessary for the correct diagnosis. Since actinomycosis has the potential to spread to extrapelvic organs such as the peritoneum, liver, and brain, early diagnosis is essential.

  10. Photoacoustic tomography of monkey brain using virtual point ultrasonic transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Liming; Guo, Zijian; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-01-01

    A photoacoustic tomography system (PAT) using virtual point ultrasonic transducers was developed and applied to image a monkey brain. The custom-built transducers provide a 10-fold greater field-of-view (FOV) than finite-aperture unfocused transducers as well as an improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reduced artifacts rather than negative-lens transducers. Their tangential resolution, radial resolution, and (SNR) improvements were quantified using tissue phantoms. Our PAT system can achi...

  11. Computed tomography of congenital brain malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarwar, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book is illustrated showing each condition. This book is designed to correlate the pathology of CNS malformations with their CT scan appearance, mainly on the axial images. The author has drawn upon his personal experience and the information gleaned from the literature dealing with the description of the CT scan findings of these malformations. The emphasis is on simplicity of description. Since a large degree of morphological variation exists in each entity, numerous illustrations (wherever applicable) are shown to depict those variations. When appropriate, deficiency of the CT scan in the evaluation of these CNS malformations also is indicated. A description of CNS embryology is included as well.

  12. Interfacing with the computational brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; Fetz, Eberhard E

    2011-10-01

    Neuroscience is just beginning to understand the neural computations that underlie our remarkable capacity to learn new motor tasks. Studies of natural movements have emphasized the importance of concepts such as dimensionality reduction within hierarchical levels of redundancy, optimization of behavior in the presence of sensorimotor noise and internal models for predictive control. These concepts also provide a framework for understanding the improvements in performance seen in myoelectric-controlled interface and brain-machine interface paradigms. Recent experiments reveal how volitional activity in the motor system combines with sensory feedback to shape neural representations and drives adaptation of behavior. By elucidating these mechanisms, a new generation of intelligent interfaces can be designed to exploit neural plasticity and restore function after neurological injury.

  13. Single-photon emission computed tomography and positron-emission tomography assays for tissue oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J D; Schneider, R F; Urbain, J L; Hanks, G E

    2001-01-01

    Radiotherapy prescription can now be customized to target the major mechanism(s) of resistance of individual tumors. In that regard, functional imaging techniques should be exploited to identify the dominant mechanism(s). Tumor biology research has identified several mechanisms of tumor resistance that may be unique to radiation treatments. These fall into 3 broad areas associated with (1) tumor hypoxic fraction, (2) tumor growth rate, (3) and the intrinsic radiosensitivity of tumor clonogens. Imaging research has markers in various stages of development for quantifying relevant information about each of these mechanisms, and those that measure tumor oxygenation and predict for radioresistance are the most advanced. Positron-emission tomography (PET) measurement of oxygen 15 has yielded important information, particularly about brain tissue perfusion, metabolism, and function. Indirect markers of tumor hypoxia have exploited the covalent binding of bioreductive intermediates of azomycin-containing compounds whose uptakes are inversely proportional to intracellular oxygen concentrations. Pilot clinical studies with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and PET detection of radiolabeled markers to tumor hypoxia have been reported. Recently, other studies have attempted to exploit the reduction properties of both technetium and copper chelates for the selective deposition of radioactive metals in hypoxic tissues. A growing number of potentially useful isotopes are now available for labeling several novel chemicals that could have the appropriate specificity and sensitivity. Preclinical studies with "microSPECT" and "microPET" will be important to define the optimal radiodiagnostic(s) for measuring tissue oxygenation and for determining the time after their administration for optimal hypoxic signal acquisition. Radiolabeled markers of growth kinetics and intrinsic radiosensitivity of cells in solid tumors are also being developed. We conclude that

  14. Foveola pharyngea - demonstration in conventional tomography and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiegler, W.; Stolle, E.

    1980-08-01

    The foveola pharyngea is a cavity on the underside of the clivus, located before the tuberculum pharyngeum and, as a larger pit it was detectable in approx. 1% overall in approx. 4% of the personally examined X-rays (11/284) and computed tomograms (6/154) of the skull base. The canalis basilaris medianus inferior and canalis basilaris medianus bifurcatus almost always empties into one of the three forms of the foveola pharyngea (foveola pharyngea infundibuliformis posterior). The differential diagnosis to canalis basilaris medianus, canalis craniopharyngeus, sutura sphenooccipitalis and bone destruction is discussed.

  15. Photoacoustic tomography of monkey brain using virtual point ultrasonic transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Liming; Guo, Zijian; Wang, Lihong V

    2011-07-01

    A photoacoustic tomography system (PAT) using virtual point ultrasonic transducers was developed and applied to image a monkey brain. The custom-built transducers provide a 10-fold greater field-of-view (FOV) than finite-aperture unfocused transducers as well as an improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reduced artifacts rather than negative-lens transducers. Their tangential resolution, radial resolution, and (SNR) improvements were quantified using tissue phantoms. Our PAT system can achieve high uniformity in both resolution (8) within a large FOV of 6 cm in diameter, even when the imaging objects are enclosed by a monkey skull. The cerebral cortex of a monkey brain was accurately mapped transcranially, through a skull ranging from 2 to 4 mm in thickness. This study demonstrates that PAT can overcome the optical and ultrasound attenuation of a relatively thick skull and can potentially be applied to human neonatal brain imaging.

  16. Rhesus monkey brain imaging through intact skull with thermoacoustic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Wang, Lihong V

    2006-03-01

    Two-dimensional microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is applied to imaging the Rhesus monkey brain through the intact skull. To reduce the wavefront distortion caused by the skull, only the low-frequency components of the thermoacoustic signals (images. The methods of signal processing and image reconstruction are validated by imaging a lamb kidney. The resolution of the system is found to be 4 mm when we image a 1-month-old monkey head containing inserted needles. We also image the coronal and axial sections of a 7-month-old monkey head. Brain features that are 3 cm deep in the head are imaged clearly. Our results demonstrate that TAT has potential for use in portable, cost-effective imagers for pediatric brains.

  17. Development of a proton Computed Tomography detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimuddin, Md.; Coutrakon, G.; Blazey, G.; Boi, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Erdelyi, B.; Hedin, D.; Johnson, E.; Krider, J.; Rukalin, V.; Uzunyan, S. A.; Zutshi, V.; Fordt, R.; Sellberg, G.; Rauch, J. E.; Roman, M.; Rubinov, P.; Wilson, P.

    2016-02-01

    Computer tomography is one of the most promising new methods to image abnormal tissues inside the human body. Tomography is also used to position the patient accurately before radiation therapy. Hadron therapy for treating cancer has become one of the most advantegeous and safe options. In order to fully utilize the advantages of hadron therapy, there is a necessity of performing radiography with hadrons as well. In this paper we present the development of a proton computed tomography system. Our second-generation proton tomography system consists of two upstream and two downstream trackers made up of fibers as active material and a range detector consisting of plastic scintillators. We present details of the detector system, readout electronics, and data acquisition system as well as the commissioning of the entire system. We also present preliminary results from the test beam of the range detector.

  18. Development of a proton Computed Tomography Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Naimuddin, Md; Blazey, G; Boi, S; Dyshkant, A; Erdelyi, B; Hedin, D; Johnson, E; Krider, J; Rukalin, V; Uzunyan, S A; Zutshi, V; Fordt, R; Sellberg, G; Rauch, J E; Roman, M; Rubinov, P; Wilson, P

    2015-01-01

    Computer tomography is one of the most promising new methods to image abnormal tissues inside the human body. Tomography is also used to position the patient accurately before radiation therapy. Hadron therapy for treating cancer has become one of the most advantageous and safe options. In order to fully utilize the advantages of hadron therapy, there is a necessity of performing radiography with hadrons as well. In this paper we present the development of a proton computed tomography system. Our second-generation proton tomography system consists of two upstream and two downstream trackers made up of fibers as active material and a range detector consisting of plastic scintillators. We present details of the detector system, readout electronics, and data acquisition system as well as the commissioning of the entire system. We also present preliminary results from the test beam of the range detector.

  19. Lens dosimetry during examination of the sella turcica: comparison between conventional tomography and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, O.; Bette, L.; Noseda, A.

    1986-01-01

    Lens irradiation measurements were performed with thermo-luminescent lithium fluoride dosimeters during tomographic examinations of the sella turcica, simulated on a phantom head. Lens dosimetry during linear or hypocycloidal conventional tomography was compared with that during computed tomography (CT). Results showed that CT involved much lower radiation exposure to the lens than did conventional tomography and that the major part of the irradiation delivered by CT was related to axial scanning. Therefore, the major finding was that lens irradiation during CT of the sella can be kept at a particularly low level (< 1 m Gy/8 sections) when only coronal scanning is performed.

  20. Multifocal sparganosis mimicking lymphoma involvement: Multimodal imaging findings of ultrasonography, CT, MRI, and position emission tomography-computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, So Young; Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Noh Hyuck; Park, Chan Sub; Kim, Tae Jung [Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Seong Yoon [Dev. of Hematology-Omcology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Hyun Jung [Dev. of Hematology-Omcology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Sparganosis is a rare parasitic disease caused by the migrating plerocercoid larva of Spirometra species tapeworms. The most frequent clinical manifestation is a subcutaneous nodule resembling a neoplasm. In this study, we presented multimodal findings of ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography-computed tomography and follow-up imagings on multifocal sparganosis, mimicking lymphoma involvement in a patient with lymphoma.

  1. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle Westergren;

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present...... study investigates the positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of PET-CT in stage I disease and the clinical impact of the scan results in all disease stages....

  2. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle W;

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present s...... study investigates the positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of PET-CT in stage I disease and the clinical impact of the scan results in all disease stages....

  3. Reliability of the NINDS common data elements cranial tomography (CT) rating variables for traumatic brain injury (TBI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harburg, Leah; McCormack, Erin; Kenney, Kimbra; Moore, Carol; Yang, Kelly; Vos, Pieter; Jacobs, Bram; Madden, Christopher J; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Bogoslovsky, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-contrast head computer tomography (CT) is widely used to evaluate eligibility of patients after acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) for clinical trials. The NINDS Common Data Elements (CDEs) TBI were developed to standardize collection of CT variables. The objectives of this study wer

  4. Acute mediastinitis: multidetector computed tomography findings following cardiac surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Clarissa Aguiar de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto do Coracao (InCor)]. E-mail: clarissaaguiarm@yahoo.com.br; Baena, Marcos Eduardo da Silva [Instituto do Coracao (InCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Unit of Ultrasonography; Uezumi, Kiyomi Kato [Instituto do Coracao (InCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Unit of Computed Tomography; Castro, Claudio Campi de [Instituto do Coracao (InCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Unit of Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz [Instituto do Coracao (InCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Center of Diagnosis; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). School of Medicine. Dept. of Radiology

    2008-07-15

    Postoperative mediastinitis is defined as an infection of the organs and tissues in the mediastinal space, with an incidence ranging between 0.4% and 5% of cases. This disease severity varies from infection of superficial tissues in the chest wall to fulminant mediastinitis with sternal involvement. Diagnostic criterion for postoperative detection of acute mediastinitis at computed tomography is the presence of fluid collections and gas in the mediastinal space, which might or might not be associated with peristernal abnormalities such as edema of soft tissues, separation of sternal segments with marginal bone resorption, sclerosis and osteomyelitis. Other associated findings include lymphadenomegaly, pulmonary consolidation and pleural/ pericardial effusion. Some of these findings, such as mediastinal gas and small fluid collections can be typically found in the absence of infection, early in the period following thoracic surgery where the effectiveness of computed tomography is limited. After approximately two weeks, computed tomography achieves almost 100% sensitivity and specificity. Patients with clinical suspicion of mediastinitis should be submitted to computed tomography for investigating the presence of fluid collections to identify the extent and nature of the disease. Multidetector computed tomography allows 3D images reconstruction, contributing particularly to the evaluation of the sternum. (author)

  5. Computed tomography before lumbar puncture in acute meningitis: a review of the risks and benefits.

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, B D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the indications, if any, for routine computed tomography (CT) of the brain before lumbar puncture in the management of acute meningitis. DATA SOURCES: Original research papers, reviews and editorials published in English from 1965 to 1991 were retrieved from MEDLINE. The bibliographies of these articles and of numerous standard texts were examined for pertinent references. A survey of local neurologists was conducted, and legal opinion was sought from the Canadian Medi...

  6. Computed tomography perfusion imaging denoising using Gaussian process regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Carpenter, Trevor; Rodriguez Gonzalez, David; Atkinson, Malcolm; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Brain perfusion weighted images acquired using dynamic contrast studies have an important clinical role in acute stroke diagnosis and treatment decisions. However, computed tomography (CT) images suffer from low contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) as a consequence of the limitation of the exposure to radiation of the patient. As a consequence, the developments of methods for improving the CNR are valuable. The majority of existing approaches for denoising CT images are optimized for 3D (spatial) information, including spatial decimation (spatially weighted mean filters) and techniques based on wavelet and curvelet transforms. However, perfusion imaging data is 4D as it also contains temporal information. Our approach using Gaussian process regression (GPR), which takes advantage of the temporal information, to reduce the noise level. Over the entire image, GPR gains a 99% CNR improvement over the raw images and also improves the quality of haemodynamic maps allowing a better identification of edges and detailed information. At the level of individual voxel, GPR provides a stable baseline, helps us to identify key parameters from tissue time-concentration curves and reduces the oscillations in the curve. GPR is superior to the comparable techniques used in this study.

  7. Shielding Calculations for Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baasandorj, Khashbayar [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jeongseon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Integrated PET-CT has been shown to be more accurate for lesion localization and characterization than PET or CT alone, and the results obtained from PET and CT separately and interpreted side by side or following software based fusion of the PET and CT datasets. At the same time, PET-CT scans can result in high patient and staff doses; therefore, careful site planning and shielding of this imaging modality have become challenging issues in the field. In Mongolia, the introduction of PET-CT facilities is currently being considered in many hospitals. Thus, additional regulatory legislation for nuclear and radiation applications is necessary, for example, in regulating licensee processes and ensuring radiation safety during the operations. This paper aims to determine appropriate PET-CT shielding designs using numerical formulas and computer code. Since presently there are no PET-CT facilities in Mongolia, contact was made with radiological staff at the Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Cancer Center of Mongolia (NCCM) to get information about facilities where the introduction of PET-CT is being considered. Well-designed facilities do not require additional shielding, which should help cut down overall costs related to PET-CT installation. According to the results of this study, building barrier thicknesses of the NCCM building is not sufficient to keep radiation dose within the limits.

  8. Computed tomography angiography and perfusion to assess coronary artery stenosis causing perfusion defects by single photon emission computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rochitte, Carlos E; George, Richard T; Chen, Marcus Y

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the diagnostic power of integrating the results of computed tomography angiography (CTA) and CT myocardial perfusion (CTP) to identify coronary artery disease (CAD) defined as a flow limiting coronary artery stenosis causing a perfusion defect by single photon emission computed ...

  9. Evaluation of myocardial ischemia by multiple detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fabio Vieira, E-mail: rccury@me.com [Hospital do Coracao (HCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cury, Roberto Caldeira [Hospital Samaritano, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    For years, cardiovascular diseases have been the leading cause of death worldwide, bringing on important social and economic consequences. Given this scenario, the search for a method capable of diagnosing coronary artery diseases in an early and accurate way is increasingly higher. The coronary computed tomography angiogram is already widely established for the stratification of coronary artery diseases, and, more recently, the computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging has been providing relevant information by correlating ischemia and the coronary anatomy. The objective of this review is to describe the evaluation of myocardial ischemia by multiple detector computed tomography. This study will resort to controlled clinical trials that show the possibility of a single method to identify the atherosclerotic load, presence of coronary artery luminal narrowing and possible myocardial ischemia, by means of a fast, practical and reliable method validated by a multicenter study. (author)

  10. Utility of the computed tomography indices on cone beam computed tomography images in the diagnosis of osteoporosis in women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kwang Joon; Kim, Kyung A [School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    This study evaluated the potential use of the computed tomography indices (CTI) on cone beam CT (CBCT) images for an assessment of the bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Twenty-one postmenopausal osteoporotic women and 21 postmenopausal healthy women were enrolled as the subjects. The BMD of the lumbar vertebrae and femur were calculated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using a DXA scanner. The CBCT images were obtained from the unilateral mental foramen region using a PSR-9000N Dental CT system. The axial, sagittal, and coronal images were reconstructed from the block images using OnDemend3D. The new term 'CTI' on CBCT images was proposed. The relationship between the CT measurements and BMDs were assessed and the intra-observer agreement was determined. There were significant differences between the normal and osteoporotic groups in the computed tomography mandibular index superior (CTI(S)), computed tomography mandibular index inferior (CTI(I)), and computed tomography cortical index (CTCI). On the other hand, there was no difference between the groups in the computed tomography mental index (CTMI: inferior cortical width). CTI(S), CTI(I), and CTCI on the CBCT images can be used to assess the osteoporotic women.

  11. Computed tomography of sellar and parasellar lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Mitsunori; Aoki, Hideo (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-06-01

    Neuroradiological modalities, particularly CT, for sellar and parasellar lesions were reviewed. Although accurate preoperative diagnosis is sometimes difficult, CT diagnosed 83% as far as pituitary adenoma, craniopharyngioma and meningioma were concerned and demonstrated abnormal findings in 95% of parasellar tumors. At the authors' department, CT visualized abnormalities in all cases, with the exception of suprasellar arachnoid cyst, but a histological diagnosis was possible only in 84%. Since lesions including tumors cannot be completely denied even if CT shows normal images, findings by modalities such as plain craniography, cerebral tomography, cerebral angiography and cisternography should be judged comprehensively.

  12. Rhesus monkey brain imaging through intact skull with thermoacoustic tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yuan; Wang, Lihong V.

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is applied to imaging the Rhesus monkey brain through the intact skull. To reduce the wavefront distortion caused by the skull, only the low-frequency components of the thermoacoustic signals (< 1 MHz) are used to reconstruct the TAT images. The methods of signal processing and image reconstruction are validated by imaging a lamb kidney. The resolution of the system is found to be 4 mm when we image a 1-month-old monkey head co...

  13. Investigation of a near-infrared-ray computed tomography scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Eiichi; Oda, Yasuyuki; Satoi, Yuichi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Ishii, Tomotaka; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Manabu; Kusachi, Shinya

    2016-10-01

    In the near-infrared-ray computed tomography (NIR-CT) scanner, NIR rays are produced from a light-emitting diode (LED) and detected using an NIR phototransistor (PT). The wavelengths of the LED peak intensity and the PT high sensitivity in the data table are both 940 nm. The photocurrents flowing through the PTR are converted into voltages using an emitter-follower circuit, and the output voltages are sent to a personal computer through an analog-digital converter. The NIR projection curves for tomography are obtained by repeated linear scans and rotations of the object, and the scanning is conducted in both directions of its movement.

  14. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the pericardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M C; Posniak, H V; McDonald, V; Wisniewski, R; Moncada, R

    1989-07-01

    Computed tomography is an established modality for the evaluation of the pericardium. It is used to evaluate complicated pericardial effusions, pericardial thickening, calcific pericarditis, pericardial cysts, postoperative changes and primary and metastatic neoplasms of the pericardium. Magnetic resonance imaging is being used with increasing frequency in the evaluation of pericardial disease. It offers advantages over computed tomography, including a potential for tissue characterization, absence of ionizing radiation or need for intravenous contrast medium, and the ability to scan in any plane. Disadvantages include greater cost, longer examination times and the inability to identify calcification positively.

  15. Direct sagital computed tomography of the temporomandibular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzione, J.V. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA); Seltzer, S.E.; Katzberg, R.W.; Hammerschlag, S.B.; Chiango, B.F.

    1983-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint dysfunction is a common clinical problem that has been reported to affect 4%-28% of adults. Temporomandibular joint arthrography has shown that many of these patients have intraarticular abnormalities involving the meniscus. A noninvasive test that could demonstrate the meniscus as well as bony abnormalities of the joint would be an important advance. In an attempt to develop such a noninvasive test, we have performed direct sagittal computed tomography (CT) on cadaver temporomandibular joints and have correlated the images with anatomic sections. We are currently applying this technique clinically and report one representative example in which direct sagittal computed tomography of the temporomandibular joint accurately demonstrated an anteriorly displaced meniscus.

  16. Competing and collaborating brains: multi-brain computer interfacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Hassanieu, Aboul Ella; Azar, Ahmad Taher

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we survey the possibilities of brain-computer interface applications that assume two or more users, where at least one of the users’ brain activity is used as input to the application. Such ‘applications’ were already explored by artists who introduced artistic EEG applications in th

  17. Cranial computed tomography in pediatric migraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Cermeno, J.C.; Gobernado, J.M.; Freije, R.; Zaragoza, E.; Gimeno, A.

    1984-04-01

    Two migraine children showed low-density areas with irregular enhancement patterns on CT scans of the head after contrast infusion. Angiography was normal in both patients. These abnormalities probably were due to transient blood-brain barrier damage. This knowledge is important when excluding other disorders like vascular malformations.

  18. Studies of the brain cannabinoid system using positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatley, S.J.; Volkow, N.D.

    1995-10-01

    Studies using radiolabeled psychoactive drugs in conjunction with positron emission tomography (PET) have permitted the imaging of binding sites in the human brain. Similar studies of marijuana have been hampered by the unsuitability of radiolabeled THC for PET studies, and the current unavailability of other in vivo imaging agents for cannabinoid receptors. Recent developments in medicinal chemistry suggest that a PET radiotracer for cannabinoid receptors will soon become available. This chapter briefly reviews these developments, together with the results of PET studies of the effects of marijuana and other abused drugs on brain metabolism. It also reviews PET studies of cocaine binding sites, to demonstrate the kind of investigations that will be possible when a cannabinoid receptor PET radioligand becomes available.

  19. Endocrine radionuclide scintigraphy with fusion single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ka-Kit Wong; Arpit Gandhi; Benjamin L Viglianti; Lorraine M Fig; Domenico Rubello; Milton D Gross

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review the benefits of single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT)/computed tomography(CT) hybrid imaging for diagnosis of various endocrine disorders.METHODS: We performed MEDLINE and Pub Med searches using the terms: "SPECT/CT"; "functional anatomic mapping"; "transmission emission tomography"; "parathyroid adenoma"; "thyroid cancer"; "neuroendocrine tumor"; "adrenal"; "pheochromocytoma"; "paraganglioma"; in order to identify relevant articles published in English during the years 2003 to 2015. Reference lists from the articles were reviewed to identify additional pertinent articles. Retrieved manuscripts(case reports, reviews, meta-analyses and abstracts) concerning the application of SPECT/CT to endocrine imaging were analyzed to provide a descriptive synthesis of the utility of this technology.RESULTS: The emergence of hybrid SPECT/CT camera technology now allows simultaneous acquisition of combined multi-modality imaging, with seamless fusion of three-dimensional volume datasets. The usefulness of combining functional information to depict the biodistribution of radiotracers that map cellular processes of the endocrine system and tumors of endocrine origin, with anatomy derived from CT, has improved the diagnostic capability of scintigraphy for a range of disorders of endocrine gland function. The literature describes benefits of SPECT/CT for 99mTc-sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy and 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy, 123I- or 131I-radioiodine for staging of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, 111In- and 99mTclabeled somatostatin receptor analogues for detection of neuroendocrine tumors, 131I-norcholesterol(NP-59) scans for assessment of adrenal cortical hyperfunction, and 123I- or 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging for evaluation of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.CONCLUSION: SPECT/CT exploits the synergism between the functional information from radiopharmaceutical imaging and anatomy from CT, translating to

  20. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming

    2016-04-14

    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  1. Computed tomographic imaging of the brain of normal neonatal foals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Cabrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide a more complete description of normal cross-sectional anatomy of the neonatal brain of the foal and associated structures by computed tomography (CT and gross anatomical sections. Using a fourth-generation CT scanner, 2-mm contiguous transverse images were acquired from two neonatal 5-days-old Quarter horse foals. After the study the animals were euthanised for reasons unrelated to head pathology. To assist in the accurate identification of brain and associated structures, transverse CT images were obtained and compared with the corresponding frozen cross-sections of the head. CT images matched well with their corresponding transverse gross sections and provided good differentiation between the bones and the soft tissues of the head. These CT images are intended to be a useful initial anatomic reference in the interpretation for clinical CT imaging studies of the brain and associated structures in live neonatal foals.

  2. Brain architecture: A design for natural computation

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    Fifty years ago, John von Neumann compared the architecture of the brain with that of computers that he invented and which is still in use today. In those days, the organisation of computers was based on concepts of brain organisation. Here, we give an update on current results on the global organisation of neural systems. For neural systems, we outline how the spatial and topological architecture of neuronal and cortical networks facilitates robustness against failures, fast processing, and balanced network activation. Finally, we discuss mechanisms of self-organization for such architectures. After all, the organization of the brain might again inspire computer architecture.

  3. 重型颅脑外伤灌注CT结果与脑灌注压的相关性%Correlation of brain perfusion computed tomography results and cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with severe head trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐裕; 冯东侠; 高恒; 那汉荣; 徐伟东; 周新民

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨重型颅脑外伤患者灌注CF结果与脑灌注压监测结果的相关性.方法 50例重型颅脑外伤患者分为两组:T组28例,C组22例,人院时头颅CT平扫有明显异常.在行灌注CT时,同时监测平均动脉压(MAP)及颅内压(ICP),计算脑灌注压(CPP).应用直线回归分析灌注CT参数[局部脑血容量(rCBV)、局部脑血流(rCBF)和平均通过时间(MTT)]与CPP的相关性.结果 根据灌注CT结果,T组分为两个亚组:T1组,16例,灌注CT结果与CPP呈弱相关;T2组,12例,两者存在强相关.T1、T2和C组间的灌注CT参数均有明显差异.T1组的rCBF为(18.8±8.0)cm3·100g1·min-2,明显低于T2组的(60.2±21.3)cm3·100g1·min-1和C组的(48.3±11.0)CM3·100g1·min-1(P<0.01).T1、T2组灌注CT参数与相应CPP值之间均显著相关(P<0.01).结论 灌注CT结合ICP监测能提供有价值的评估脑血管自动调节功能是否完好的信息,有助于指导治疗.%Objective To investigate the correlation of brain perfusion computed tomography (CT) results and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in patients with severe head trauma. Methods Perfusion CT results of 50 patients with head trauma were analyzed , who were divided into two groups of T(28 cases, severe head trauma with abnormal CT findings during admission) and C(22 cases,head trauma with normal CT findings during admission). The patients underwent perfusion CT and MAP and ICP were measured at the same time, by which CPP was calculated. The correlation between perfusion CT results [regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and MTT] and corresponding CPP was analyzed using linear regression analysis. Results According to perfusion CT results, group T was divided into two subgroups of Tl (16 cases, characterized by a weak correlation between the perfusion-CT results and the corresponding CPP values) and T2(12 cases,characterized by a strong correlation between the perfusion-CT results and the corresponding

  4. Position emission tomography with or without computed tomography in the primary staging of Hodgkin's lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin; Jakobsen, Annika Loft; Hansen, Mads;

    2006-01-01

    In order to receive the most appropriate therapy, patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) must be accurately stratified into different prognostic staging groups. Computed tomography (CT) plays a pivotal role in the conventional staging. The aim of the present study was to investigate the value...

  5. Human brain mapping: Experimental and computational approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.C.; George, J.S.; Schmidt, D.M.; Aine, C.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Sanders, J. [Albuquerque VA Medical Center, NM (US); Belliveau, J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (US)

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This program developed project combined Los Alamos' and collaborators' strengths in noninvasive brain imaging and high performance computing to develop potential contributions to the multi-agency Human Brain Project led by the National Institute of Mental Health. The experimental component of the project emphasized the optimization of spatial and temporal resolution of functional brain imaging by combining: (a) structural MRI measurements of brain anatomy; (b) functional MRI measurements of blood flow and oxygenation; and (c) MEG measurements of time-resolved neuronal population currents. The computational component of the project emphasized development of a high-resolution 3-D volumetric model of the brain based on anatomical MRI, in which structural and functional information from multiple imaging modalities can be integrated into a single computational framework for modeling, visualization, and database representation.

  6. Fractional flow reserve derived from coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Ashkan; Min, James; Achenbach, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) derived from coronary computed tomography (FFRCT) has high diagnostic performance in stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The diagnostic performance of FFRCT in patients with hypertension (HTN) and diabetes (DM), who are at risk of microvascular impairment, is...

  7. Coronary computed tomography - present status and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apfaltrer, P.; Schoepf, U. J.; Vliegenthart, R.; Rowe, G. W.; Spears, J. R.; Fink, C.; Nance, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    The use of coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) is growing rapidly, in large part because of fast-paced technical innovations that have increased diagnostic accuracy while providing new opportunities for radiation dose reduction. cCTA using recent generation CT scanners has been repeatedl

  8. Use of Computed Tomography Scans for Cochlear Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Holden, Timothy A.; Brunsden, Barry S.; Finley, Charles C.; Skinner, Margaret W.

    2007-01-01

    While 3-dimensional (3D) imaging by computed tomography has long been desirable for research and treatment of cochlear-implant patients, technical challenges have limited its wide application. Recent developments in scanner hardware and image processing techniques now allow image quality improvements that make clinical applications feasible. Validation experiments were performed to characterize a new methodology and its imaging performance.

  9. Computed tomography diagnosis of partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posniak, H V; Dudiak, C M; Olson, M C

    1993-01-01

    A case of the rarely occurring partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage of the right upper lobe into the azygos arch is presented. Computed tomography (CT) clearly demonstrated the abnormal vessel coursing through the right upper lobe and draining into the azygos arch.

  10. Coronary artery fly-through using electron beam computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, P M; Oudkerk, M; van Geuns, R J; Rensing, B J; de Feyter, P J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality techniques have recently been introduced into clinical medicine. This study examines the possibility of coronary artery fly-through using a dataset obtained by noninvasive coronary angiography with contrast-enhanced electron-beam computed tomography. METHODS AND RESULTS:

  11. Computed tomography of the human developing anterior skull base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Loosen (J.); A.I.J. Klooswijk (A. I J); D. van Velzen (D.); C.D.A. Verwoerd (Carel)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The ossification of the anterior skull base, especially the lamina cribrosa, has been studied by computed tomography and histopathology. Sixteen human fetuses, (referred to our laboratory for pathological examination after spontaneous abortion between 18 and 32 weeks of ge

  12. Computer tomography in Caisson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, F.; Csobaly, S.

    1981-07-01

    Computer tomography was performed on 20 patients with the early stages of Caisson osteoarthropathy, as well as in other patients with chronic bone infarcts. From their results the authors have formed the opinion that CT is valuable, not only in the diagnosis of early cases, but that it can provide significant information concerning the osteopathy and bone infarcts.

  13. Computed Tomography Features of Spontaneously Perforated Pyometra: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.S.; Tan, C.K.; Mak, C.W.; Chia, C.C.; Kuo, C.Y.; Yu, W.L. [Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China). Depts. of Intensive Care Medicine, Radiology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Surgery

    2006-03-15

    Spontaneous perforation of pyometra is an extremely rare emergent gynecologic disease. We report a 73-year-old woman with a spontaneously perforated pyometra presenting with acute abdomen in the emergency department. A dedicated computed tomography examination of the abdominal and pelvic regions revealed the diagnosis. The patient recovered well after surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment.

  14. Dimensional measurement of micro-moulded parts by computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ontiveros, S.; Yagüe-Fabra, J.A.; Jiménez, R.

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is progressively assuming an important role in metrology applications and great efforts are being made in order to turn it into a reliable and standardized measuring technology. CT is typically used for non-destructive tests, but it is currently becoming very popular for ...

  15. Paradigm of pretest risk stratification before coronary computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Møller; Øvrehus, Kristian; Nielsen, Lene H;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal method of determining the pretest risk of coronary artery disease as a patient selection tool before coronary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the ability of 3 different clinical risk scores to predict the outcome of coronary ...

  16. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN HYDATID CYST OF THE ORBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abbassioun

    1982-07-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of hydatid cysts of the orbit causing unilateral exophthalmos are reported. Diagnosis were suspected by means of computed tomography (CT and confirmed at Operation. CT changes are described and its value in diagnosis of this lesion particularly in the endemic areas is stressed.

  17. Operator radiation exposure in cone-beam computed tomography guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, S.J.; Strijen Van, M. J L; Meijer, E.; Heesewijk Van, J. P M; Mali, W. P T M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Quantitative analysis of operator dose in cone-beam computed tomography guidance (CBCT-guidance) and the effect of protective shielding. Methods: Using a Rando phantom, a model was set-up to measure radiation dose for the operator hand, thyroid and gonad region. The effect of sterile rad

  18. Traceability investigation in Computed Tomography using industry-inspired workpieces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraemer, Alexandra; Stolfi, Alessandro; Schneider, Timm

    2017-01-01

    This paper concerns an investigation of the accuracy of Computed Tomography (CT) measurements using four industry-inspired workpieces. A total of 16 measurands were selected and calibrated using CMMs. CT measurements on industry-inspired workpieces were carried out using two CTs having different...

  19. Moulding process characterization of paper bottles using computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an approach of evaluating the moulding process for production of paper bottlesusing Computed Tomography (CT). Moulded Pulp Products (MPP) are made of a formed, dewateredand dried mixture of pulp fibers and water. Modern industrial pulp moulding is datedback to the year 1903 whe...

  20. Computed Tomography characterization of the Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    The work carried out in this research aims at identifying suitable ways for thorough characterization of the quality of paper bottles. Industrial X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) is particularly advantageous in determining the quality of paper bottles and thus correlating it with the production pr...

  1. Tracheo-oesophageal fistula diagnosed with multidetector computed tomography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hodnett, Pa

    2009-04-01

    This case highlights important issues in investigation of patients with suspected tracheo-oesophageal fistula including the value of multidetector computed tomography, the importance of thorough imaging evaluation when high clinical suspicion of tracheo-oesophageal fistula exists and the value of close interaction between radiologists and intensive care physicians in the investigation of these patients.

  2. 3D artefact for concurrent scale calibration in Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolfi, Alessandro; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    A novel artefact for calibration of the scale in 3D X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is presented. The artefact comprises a carbon fibre tubular structure on which a number of reference ruby spheres are glued. The artefact is positioned and scanned together with the workpiece inside the CT scanner ...

  3. Tolerance Verification of an Industrial Assembly using Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolfi, Alessandro; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Regi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on results of tolerance verification of a multi-material assembly by using Computed Tomography (CT). The workpiece comprises three parts which are made out of different materials. Five different measurands were inspected. The calculation of measurement uncertainties was attempt...

  4. Brain-Computer Interfaces : Beyond Medical Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Lotte, F.; Tangermann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Brain-computer interaction has already moved from assistive care to applications such as gaming. Improvements in usability, hardware, signal processing, and system integration should yield applications in other nonmedical areas.

  5. Experiencing Brain-Computer Interface Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van de B.L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) are systems that extract information from the user’s brain activity and employ it in some way in an interactive system. While historically BCIs were mainly catered towards paralyzed or otherwise physically handicapped users, the last couple of years applications with

  6. High-performance computing and networking as tools for accurate emission computed tomography reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passeri, A. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica - Sezione di Medicina Nucleare, Universita` di Firenze (Italy); Formiconi, A.R. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica - Sezione di Medicina Nucleare, Universita` di Firenze (Italy); De Cristofaro, M.T.E.R. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica - Sezione di Medicina Nucleare, Universita` di Firenze (Italy); Pupi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica - Sezione di Medicina Nucleare, Universita` di Firenze (Italy); Meldolesi, U. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica - Sezione di Medicina Nucleare, Universita` di Firenze (Italy)

    1997-04-01

    It is well known that the quantitative potential of emission computed tomography (ECT) relies on the ability to compensate for resolution, attenuation and scatter effects. Reconstruction algorithms which are able to take these effects into account are highly demanding in terms of computing resources. The reported work aimed to investigate the use of a parallel high-performance computing platform for ECT reconstruction taking into account an accurate model of the acquisition of single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) data. An iterative algorithm with an accurate model of the variable system response was ported on the MIMD (Multiple Instruction Multiple Data) parallel architecture of a 64-node Cray T3D massively parallel computer. The system was organized to make it easily accessible even from low-cost PC-based workstations through standard TCP/IP networking. A complete brain study of 30 (64 x 64) slices could be reconstructed from a set of 90 (64 x 64) projections with ten iterations of the conjugate gradients algorithm in 9 s, corresponding to an actual speed-up factor of 135. This work demonstrated the possibility of exploiting remote high-performance computing and networking resources from hospital sites by means of low-cost workstations using standard communication protocols without particular problems for routine use. The achievable speed-up factors allow the assessment of the clinical benefit of advanced reconstruction techniques which require a heavy computational burden for the compensation effects such as variable spatial resolution, scatter and attenuation. The possibility of using the same software on the same hardware platform with data acquired in different laboratories with various kinds of SPET instrumentation is appealing for software quality control and for the evaluation of the clinical impact of the reconstruction methods. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Inter laboratory comparison on Industrial Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Larsen, Erik

    The ‘CIA-CT comparison - Inter laboratory comparison on industrial Computed Tomography” is organized by DTU Department of Mechanical Engineering within the Danish project “Centre for Industrial Application of CT scanning - CIA-CT”. The project is co-financed by the Danish Ministry of Science, Tec...

  8. Mycosis fungoides: manifestations on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapeero, L.G.; Young, S.W.

    1983-07-01

    Mtcosis fungoides is a malignant lymphoma of the skin that causes intense erythema, plaques, edema, and induration. The primary computed tomographic findings of mycosis fungoides, i.e., skin thickening, tumorous infiltration, edema of the soft tissues, and lymphadenopathy, are presented in two patients.

  9. Coordinate Metrology by Traceable Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel

    metrology and coordinate metrology and is currently becoming more and more important measuring technique for dimensional measurements. This is mainly due to the fact that with CT, a complete three-dimensional model of the scanned part is in a relatively short time visualized using a computer...

  10. Assessment of asthmatic inflammation using hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography-x-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaopeng; Prakash, Jaya; Ruscitti, Francesca; Glasl, Sarah; Stellari, Fabio Franco; Villetti, Gino; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear imaging plays a critical role in asthma research but is limited in its readings of biology due to the short-lived signals of radio-isotopes. We employed hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and x-ray computed tomography (XCT) for the assessment of asthmatic inflammation based on resolving cathepsin activity and matrix metalloproteinase activity in dust mite, ragweed, and Aspergillus species-challenged mice. The reconstructed multimodal fluorescence distribution showed good correspondence with ex vivo cryosection images and histological images, confirming FMT-XCT as an interesting alternative for asthma research.

  11. Proceedings of clinical SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    It has been five years since the last in-depth American College of Nuclear Physicians/Society of Nuclear Medicine Symposium on the subject of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was held. Because this subject was nominated as the single most desired topic we have selected SPECT imaging as the basis for this year's program. The objectives of this symposium are to survey the progress of SPECT clinical applications that have taken place over the last five years and to provide practical and timely guidelines to users of SPECT so that this exciting imaging modality can be fully integrated into the evaluation of pathologic processes. The first half was devoted to a consideration of technical factors important in SPECT acquisition and the second half was devoted to those organ systems about which sufficient clinical SPECT imaging data are available. With respect to the technical aspect of the program we have selected the key areas which demand awareness and attention in order to make SPECT operational in clinical practice. These include selection of equipment, details of uniformity correction, utilization of phantoms for equipment acceptance and quality assurance, the major aspect of algorithms, an understanding of filtered back projection and appropriate choice of filters and an awareness of the most commonly generated artifacts and how to recognize them. With respect to the acquisition and interpretation of organ images, the faculty will present information on the major aspects of hepatic, brain, cardiac, skeletal, and immunologic imaging techniques. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  12. Clinico-radiological correlation of Wilson's disease by magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Ken; Sakata, Chigusa; Nemoto, Hiroshi; Yokoi, Fuji; Sunohara, Nobuhiko (National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan)); Iio, Masaaki

    1991-02-01

    Five patients with Wilson's disease received repeated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) examinations at intervals from 6 to 29 months. Four patients, except for asymptomatic one, also underwent positron emission tomography (PET). The significance and limitations of these imaging modalities were examined in the light of their correlation with clinical manifestations and their therapeutic evaluation. The following focal regions, detected on MRI, had a strong positive correlation with clinical manifestations: the lenticular nuclei for dystonia, the brain stem for abnormality of smooth persuit eye movements, and the caudate and lenticular nuclei for severe dysarthria/dysphagia. Follow-up MRI for 3 patients showed an improvement of findings in the lenticular nuclei, lateral part of the putamen, and brain stem, that was in accordance with improved clinical or neurologic manifestations, such as dystonia and cerebellar symptoms. Severe abnormality in the caudate nucleus was associated with poor prognosis. Repeated CT failed to show serial changes in any of the patients. Regional blood flow and oxygen metabolic rate, obtained by PET examinations, were slightly decreased in the thalamus that had normal findings on both MRI and CT, as well as in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. PET was, however, inferior to MRI in detecting fine foci within the basal ganglia. In conclusion, there was a good correlation between MRI findings, particularly foci of the caudate and lenticular nuclei, and clinical manifestations. Repeated MRI examinations were the most useful approach to the evaluation of therapeutic effects and prognosis. (N.K.).

  13. Single-photon emission computed tomography in human immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy: A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masdeu, J.C.; Yudd, A.; Van Heertum, R.L.; Grundman, M.; Hriso, E.; O' Connell, R.A.; Luck, D.; Camli, U.; King, L.N. (St. Vincent' s Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Depression or psychosis in a previously asymptomatic individual infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be psychogenic, related to brain involvement by the HIV or both. Although prognosis and treatment differ depending on etiology, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are usually unrevealing in early HIV encephalopathy and therefore cannot differentiate it from psychogenic conditions. Thirty of 32 patients (94%) with HIV encephalopathy had single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings that differed from the findings in 15 patients with non-HIV psychoses and 6 controls. SPECT showed multifocal cortical and subcortical areas of hypoperfusion. In 4 cases, cognitive improvement after 6-8 weeks of zidovudine (AZT) therapy was reflected in amelioration of SPECT findings. CT remained unchanged. SPECT may be a useful technique for the evaluation of HIV encephalopathy.

  14. Proton computed tomography from multiple physics processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, C.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Finck, Ch; Labalme, M.; Rousseau, M.; Brasse, D.

    2013-10-01

    Proton CT (pCT) nowadays aims at improving hadron therapy treatment planning by mapping the relative stopping power (RSP) of materials with respect to water. The RSP depends mainly on the electron density of the materials. The main information used is the energy of the protons. However, during a pCT acquisition, the spatial and angular deviation of each particle is recorded and the information about its transmission is implicitly available. The potential use of those observables in order to get information about the materials is being investigated. Monte Carlo simulations of protons sent into homogeneous materials were performed, and the influence of the chemical composition on the outputs was studied. A pCT acquisition of a head phantom scan was simulated. Brain lesions with the same electron density but different concentrations of oxygen were used to evaluate the different observables. Tomographic images from the different physics processes were reconstructed using a filtered back-projection algorithm. Preliminary results indicate that information is present in the reconstructed images of transmission and angular deviation that may help differentiate tissues. However, the statistical uncertainty on these observables generates further challenge in order to obtain an optimal reconstruction and extract the most pertinent information.

  15. Invasive thymoma; Radiologic evaluation by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Choon Sik; Choe, Kyu Ok [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-04-15

    In 6 cases of invasive thymoma proved histologically from 1981 to 1984 in Yonsei University Medical Center, the CT findings and pattern were analysed. The results were as follows; 1. Of 6 cases, 4 were males and 2 were females. All cases were between 40-64 years and the average was 51 year old. 2. Of 6 cases, 2 female patients were associated with myasthenia gravis. 3. By the histological examination, 2 were confirmed as mixed cell type, 2 spindle cell type, 1 lymphocytic type and 1 epithelial cell type. 4. CT findings of invasive thymoma were 1) A discrete but lobulated and irregular marginated soft tissue mass in the superoanterior mediastinum replacing the normal mediastinal fat tissue. 2) Usually irregular low density areas within the mass suggesting central necrosis or calcification in 1 of 6 cases was noted. 3) Local invasiveness of the mass shown as obliteration of the normal fat plans surrounding great vessels, irregular thickening or nodular shadows of the pleura, diagphragm and pericardium and irregular and ragged tumor-lung interfaces if the tumor invade to the structures. 4) Frequent extension of tumor to middle and post. mediastinum along pericardium or mediastinal pleura with resultant extrinsic indentation and/or invasion of the hilar region. 5). Extensive tumor infiltration to middle and post. mediastinum in 1 case, indistinguishable from lymphoma. 6) Low attenuation numbered area of brain in another 1 case, but not confirmed histologically.

  16. Affective Brain-Computer Interfaces: Preface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mühl, Christian; Heylen, Dirk; Nijholt, Anton; Mühl, Christian; Heylen, Dirk; Nijholt, Anton

    2009-01-01

    These are the proceedings of ABCI 2009, Affective Brain Computer Interfaces, a workshop that was organized in conjunction with ACII 2009, the International Conference on Affective Computation and Intelligent Interaction, held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 2009. The workshop took place on

  17. Computed tomography of the acetabular fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ho Young; Suh, Jin Suck; Park, Chang Yun; Lee, Kil Woo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-04-15

    In a retrospective study of 21 patients, in whom the acetabular fractures were suspected on initial radiographs, we compared and analysed the computed tomographic findings and plain radiographic findings. The results were as follow: 1. In patients with multiple trauma, no further change in position was required during CT examinations. 2. CT showed intraarticular loose bodies, which were invisible on plain radiographs. 3. CT was useful in detecting the fractures of acetabular rims, medial wall of acetabulum, and femoral head. 4. CT permitted better evaluation of shape, extent, and degree of separation of fracture fragments. 5. CT was helpful in detecting the associated fractures and soft tissue injuries. 6. CT also demonstrated the adequacy of reduction, the position of metallic fixation devices, and the presence or absence of remaining intraarticular osseous fragments after surgery.

  18. Computed tomography of human joints and radioactive waste drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, E; Bernardi, R; Hollerbach, K; Logan, C; Martz, H; Roberson, G P

    1999-06-01

    X- and gamma-ray imaging techniques in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and assay (NDA) have been increasing use in an array of industrial, environmental, military, and medical applications. Much of this growth in recent years is attributed to the rapid development of computed tomography (CT) and the use of NDE throughout the life-cycle of a product. Two diverse examples of CT are discussed. (1) The computational approach to normal joint kinematics and prosthetic joint analysis offers an opportunity to evaluate and improve prosthetic human joint replacements before they are manufactured or surgically implanted. Computed tomography data from scanned joints are segmented, resulting in the identification of bone and other tissues of interest, with emphasis on the articular surfaces. (2) They are developing NDE and NDE techniques to analyze closed waste drums accurately and quantitatively. Active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT) is a comprehensive and accurate gamma-ray NDA method that can identify all detectable radioisotopes present in a container and measure their radioactivity.

  19. Initial water quantification results using neutron computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.K. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States)], E-mail: axh174@psu.edu; Shi, L.; Brenizer, J.S.; Mench, M.M. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    2009-06-21

    Neutron computed tomography is an important imaging tool in the field of non-destructive testing and in fundamental research for many engineering applications. Contrary to X-rays, neutrons can be attenuated by some light materials, such as hydrogen, but can penetrate many heavy materials. Thus, neutron computed tomography is useful in obtaining important three-dimensional information about a sample's interior structure and material properties that other traditional methods cannot provide. The neutron computed tomography system at Pennsylvania State University's Radiation Science and Engineering Center is being utilized to develop a water quantification technique for investigation of water distribution in fuel cells under normal conditions. A hollow aluminum cylinder test sample filled with a known volume of water was constructed for purposes of testing the quantification technique. Transmission images of the test sample at different angles were easily acquired through the synthesis of a dedicated image acquisition computer driving a rotary table controller and an in-house developed synchronization software package. After data acquisition, Octopus (version 8.2) and VGStudio Max (version 1.2) were used to perform cross-sectional and three-dimensional reconstructions of the sample, respectively. The initial reconstructions and water quantification results are presented.

  20. Role of computed tomography in pancreatic trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Hee; Kim, Ki Whang; Lee, Jong Tae; Oh, Sei Jung [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    At Yonsei University Hospital from January 1984 to August 1990, computed tomographic (CT) scans of 13 patients with surgically proven pancreatic injuries after blunt abdominal trauma, including 6 pancreatic lacerations or contusions, 6 pancreatic fractures, and one post-traumatic pseudocyst, were retrospectively reviewed to determine the role and accuracy of the CT in evaluating pancreatic injury. CT can document gross pancreatic injury by showing focal or diffuse enlargement (1), area of diminished attenuation (3), separation (5), focal hematoma (2), and peripancreatic change, including peripancreatic hematoma (2), fluid collection (11), perirenal fascial thickening (10), omental and mesenteric change (5), and bowel change (2). CT correctly diagnosed pancreatic fracture in 5 cases, post-raumatic pseudocyst in 1 case, and pancreatic laceration in 3 cases in 9 of these patients. There were 4 false negative diagnoses, including 3 pancreatic lacerations and 1 pancreatic fracture. A CT is of pancreatic trauma could be difficult to diagnosis in patients who are scanned within 24 hrs after an injury or to distinguish a motion or streak artifact caused by a nasogastric tube or air-oral contrast fluid level in the stomach.

  1. Didactics and training in cardiovascular computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojraj, Sanjay D; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2009-01-01

    As the role of cardiovascular computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is further expanded through research, the use of this technology will expand as a result of demand both from medical professionals and the public. To ensure a standardized quality of interpretation of these scans in the face of an increased demand for physicians qualified to interpret these studies, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, along with several other professional societies, has proposed a didactic curriculum for the study of CCTA. This review highlights the currently proposed didactic curriculum for the study of CCTA, examines current trends in training for both medical trainees and physicians in practice, and proposes future directions for the study of CCTA.

  2. High Resolution Muon Computed Tomography at Neutrino Beam Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Suerfu, Burkhant

    2015-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has an indispensable role in constructing 3D images of objects made from light materials. However, limited by absorption coefficients, X-rays cannot deeply penetrate materials such as copper and lead. Here we show via simulation that muon beams can provide high resolution tomographic images of dense objects and of structures within the interior of dense objects. The effects of resolution broadening from multiple scattering diminish with increasing muon momentum. As the momentum of the muon increases, the contrast of the image goes down and therefore requires higher resolution in the muon spectrometer to resolve the image. The variance of the measured muon momentum reaches a minimum and then increases with increasing muon momentum. The impact of the increase in variance is to require a higher integrated muon flux to reduce fluctuations. The flux requirements and level of contrast needed for high resolution muon computed tomography are well matched to the muons produced in the pio...

  3. Mandibular condyle position in cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ. School of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    To evaluate position of the mandibular condyle within articular fossa in an asymptomatic population radiographically by a cone beam computed tomography. Cone beam computed tomography of 60 temporomandibular joints was performed on 15 males and 15 females with no history of any temporomandibular disorders, or any other orthodontic or photoconductors treatments. Position of mandibular condyle within articular fossa at centric occlusion was evaluated. A statistical evaluation was done using a SPSS. In the sagittal views, mandibular condyle within articular fossa was laterally located at central section. Mandibular condyles in the right and left sides were showed asymmetric positional relationship at medial, central, and lateral sections. Mandibular condyle within articular fossa in an asymptomatic population was observed non-concentric position in the sagittal and coronal views.

  4. Resting-state functional connectivity imaging of the mouse brain using photoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Xia, Jun; Wan, Hanlin; Bauer, Adam Q.; Culver, Joseph P.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) imaging is an emerging neuroimaging approach that aims to identify spontaneous cerebral hemodynamic fluctuations and their associated functional connections. Clinical studies have demonstrated that RSFC is altered in brain disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's, autism, and epilepsy. However, conventional neuroimaging modalities cannot easily be applied to mice, the most widely used model species for human brain disease studies. For instance, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of mice requires a very high magnetic field to obtain a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution. Functional connectivity mapping with optical intrinsic signal imaging (fcOIS) is an alternative method. Due to the diffusion of light in tissue, the spatial resolution of fcOIS is limited, and experiments have been performed using an exposed skull preparation. In this study, we show for the first time, the use of photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) to noninvasively image resting-state functional connectivity in the mouse brain, with a large field of view and a high spatial resolution. Bilateral correlations were observed in eight regions, as well as several subregions. These findings agreed well with the Paxinos mouse brain atlas. This study showed that PACT is a promising, non-invasive modality for small-animal functional brain imaging.

  5. Common findings and pseudolesions at computed tomography colonography: pictorial essay

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Castelli von Atzingen; Dario Ariel Tiferes; Carlos Alberto Matsumoto; Thiago Franchi Nunes; Marcos Vinicius Alvim Soares Maia; Giuseppe D'Ippolito

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography colonography is a minimally invasive method for screening for polyps and colorectal cancer, with extremely unusual complications, increasingly used in the clinical practice. In the last decade, developments in bowel preparation, imaging, and in the training of investigators have determined a significant increase in the method sensitivity. Images interpretation is accomplished through a combined analysis of two-dimensional source images and several types of three-dimensiona...

  6. Use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Scarfe, William C.; Martin D. Levin; David Gane; Farman, Allan G.

    2009-01-01

    Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is a diagnostic imaging modality that provides high-quality, accurate three-dimensional (3D) representations of the osseous elements of the maxillofacial skeleton. CBCT systems are available that provide small field of view images at low dose with sufficient spatial resolution for applications in endodontic diagnosis, treatment guidance, and posttreatment evaluation. This article provides a literature review and pictorial demonstration of CBCT as an imagin...

  7. Soil Macropore Structure Characterized by X-Ray Computed Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jie; ZHANG Jia-Bao; ZHU An-Ning; BI Jing-Wei

    2003-01-01

    Undisturbed soil core with many macropores and disturbed soil core with only one macropore (diameter is 10 mm) were probed by x-ray computed tomography (CT). The size, number, shape and continuity of macropores in the transverse and vertical sections of soil were characterized using CT scanning images. The probability densities of macropores in the transverse section of soil core exhibited a logarithmic Γ distribution.Results indicated that CT scanning was a promising nondestructive method for characterizing macropores in soils.

  8. Ureterolithiasis: classical and atypical findings on unenhanced helical computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaswani, Kuldeep K; El-Dieb, Adam; Vitellas, Kenneth M; Bennett, William F; Bova, James G

    2002-03-01

    Evaluation of patients with acute flank pain using helical computed tomography (CT) is a well-accepted, rapid, and safe procedure in the emergency setting. Various primary and secondary signs are described in the literature for evaluation of these patients. Our purpose is to demonstrate both the classical findings associated with ureteral calculi on unenhanced helical CT and atypical findings and potential pitfalls. We also provide readers with a systematic approach to interpreting unenhanced helical CT scans performed for acute flank pain.

  9. Role of computed tomography in the study of vascular pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procacci, C.; Bicego, E.; Bergamo, I.A. and others

    1988-01-01

    The most important indications to the use of computed tomography (CT) in the study of vascular pathology are considered. They may be divided as follows: 1) demonstration of vascular involvement by thoraco-abdominal neoplasms; 2) differential diagnosis between primary vascular and extra-vascular pathology; 3) assessment of primary arterial pathology. For each group, those pathologies are considered, for which CT plays a fundamental role.

  10. Computed tomography of partial unilateral agenesis of the pectoralis muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, T C; Johnson, C; Love, L; Posniak, H

    1985-01-01

    The most common congenitally absent muscles are the pectoralis major and minor. Absence is usually incomplete. This anomaly is often one component of a syndrome associated with other hand (Poland syndrome) and thoracic anomalies. Computed tomography can identify partial absence of the pectoralis muscle and exactly define the altered anatomy. A patient with myasthenia gravis and isolated partial agenesis of the pectoralis muscle is presented.

  11. Computed tomography of common congenital lesions of the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuen, H.Y. E-mail: drhyyuen@doctors.org.uk; Ahuja, A.T.; Wong, K.T.; Yue, V.; Hasselt, A.C. van

    2003-09-01

    This pictorial review describes the application of high-resolution computed tomography to the investigation and pre-operative work-up of the common lesions of congenital hearing loss, including congenital aural dysplasia, various congenital ossicular anomalies, inner ear dysmorphology, large vestibular aqueduct syndrome, and congenital absence of cochlear nerve and labyrinthitis ossificans from previous infection. The aim is to help radiologists to provide a more accurate diagnosis of underlying aetiology and assist in surgical planning.

  12. Computed tomography of the pathological temporal bone. Malformations. Otospongiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azais, O.; Drouineau, J.; Vandermarcq, P.; Barret, D.; Gasquet, C.

    1988-01-01

    The authors evaluate the value of computed tomography in the investigation of malformations and otospongiosis of the ear. Although the CT scan appears to be essential in the preoperative of malformations of the ear, especially as otological examination frequently contributes little to the evaluation of the middle ear, otospongiosis seems to be a less formal indication, except in the predominantly cochlear forms of the disease.

  13. Geometrical metrology on silicone rubber by computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; Pacurar, Ramona Alexandra; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) represents a suitable measuring technique for investigation of deformable materials, since no forces are developed on the part during scanning. As for any other measuring instruments, the traceability of the CT scanners needs to be assured. An investigation on geometrical...... measurements on silicone rubber using CT was carried out. Measurements performed on a CT scanner were compared to measurements on a coordinate measuring machine (CMM), being used as reference....

  14. Analysis of Multilayered Printed Circuit Boards using Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    resistors harder to identify as Carbon is lower in the periodic table than Aluminium Oxide . Sample 2: Colour Bar Appendix D.2...Aluminium Al2O3 Aluminium Oxide BGA Ball Grid Array Coronal XZ Plane COTS Commercial Off The Shelf C Carbon CT Computed Tomography DC Direct Current...encapsulated in steel housing. Red Circle: Thin film resistors harder to identify as Carbon is lower in the periodic table than Aluminium Oxide . Sample 2

  15. Predicting Neck Abscess with Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Neck abscesses are difficult to diagnose and treat. Currently, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is the imaging modality of choice. The study aims to determine the predictive value of CECT findings in diagnosing neck abscess, causes of neck abscess and the most common neck space involved in the local population. 84 consecutive patients clinically suspected to have neck abscess who underwent CECT and surgical confirmation of pus were included. Demographic and clinical data were reco...

  16. The role of computed tomography in modern paediatric uroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maudgil, D.D.; McHugh, K. E-mail: kmchugh@gosh.nhs.uk

    2002-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has developed a well-recognised role within paediatric uroradiology, especially in imaging of trauma, malignancy (in particular Wilms' tumour), atypical infection, and congenital urogenital abnormalities. CT can also be used for problem solving in nephrolithiasis and renal transplant assessment. These applications are illustrated and discussed, with an emphasis on particular information that can be gained from the CT study.

  17. Hypoplasia of the parotid gland: computed tomography sialography diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lisha; Sun, Zhipeng; Ma, Xuchen

    2013-10-01

    We report two unusual cases of non-syndromic hypoplasia of the parotid gland. The hypoplastic parotid gland mimicked a preauricular parotid tumor in one case and presented as an incidental image finding in the other case. Absence of the deep lobe and isthmus of the parotid parenchyma could be determined on axial computed tomography (CT) by revealing fat tissue composition of the parotid space. The underdeveloped superficial lobe of the gland was observed on three-dimensional CT sialography.

  18. Contraindications to lumbar puncture as defined by computed cranial tomography.

    OpenAIRE

    Gower, D. J.; Baker, A. L.; Bell, W O; Ball, M R

    1987-01-01

    Papilloedema is not always an adequate predictor of potential complications from lumbar puncture, and many clinicians are using computed tomography (CT) before lumbar puncture in an effort to identify more accurately the "at risk" patient. This paper identifies the following anatomical criteria defined by CT scanning that correlate with unequal pressures between intracranial compartments and predispose a patient to herniation following decompression of the spinal compartment: lateral shift of...

  19. Computed tomography changes following cryotherapy for hepatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.; Morris, D. L. [University of NSW, Sydney (Australia). Department of Surgery; Glenn, D. [St George Hospital, Kogarah, Sydney (Australia). Department of Radiology

    1997-05-01

    Encouraging survival and tumour marker results have been described in patients where the focally destructive technique, hepatic cryotherapy, is used to treat primary and secondary hepatic malignancy. Radiology allows assessment of the cryotherapy procedure and follow-up treatment. This paper aims to review and describe the appearance of hepatic cryotherapy by computed tomography which allows assessment of the adequacy of surgical technique and offers the ability to identify recurrences that may be suitable for further treatment. 11 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  20. SADMFR guidelines for the use of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/ Digital Volume Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dula, Karl; Bornstein, Michael M; Buser, Daniel; Dagassan-Berndt, Dorothea; Ettlin, Dominik A; Filippi, Andreas; Gabioud, François; Katsaros, Christos; Krastl, Gabriel; Lambrecht, J Thomas; Lauber, Roland; Luebbers, Heinz-Theo; Pazera, Pawel; Türp, Jens C

    2014-01-01

    Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has been introduced in 1998. This radiological imaging procedure has been provided for dentistry and is comparable to computed tomography (CT) in medicine. It is expected that CBCT will have the same success in dental diagnostic imaging as computed tomography had in medicine. Just as CT is responsible for a significant rise in radiation dose to the population from medical X-ray diagnostics, CBCT studies will be accompanied by a significant increase of the dose to our patients by dentistry. Because of the growing concern for an uncritical and consequently rapidly increasing use of CBCT the Swiss Society of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology convened a first consensus conference in 2011 to formulate indications for CBCT, which can be used as guidelines. In this meeting, oral and maxillofacial surgery, orthodontics and temporomandibular joint disorders and diseases were treated and the most important and most experienced users of DVT in these areas were asked to participate. In general, a highly restrictive use of CBCT is required. Justifying main criterion for CBCT application is that additional, therapy-relevant information is expected that should lead to a significant benefit in patient care. All users of CBCT should have completed a structured, high-level training, just like that offered by the Swiss Society of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology.

  1. Helical computed tomography in the assessment of abdominal aortic pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicaretti, M.; Young, N.; Jenkins, J.; Fletcher, J. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia)

    1997-05-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the role of helical computed tomography in the assessment of abdominal aortic pathology. A total of 17 patients underwent intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IADSA) and helical computed tomography, with eight patients undergoing subsequent operative intervention. A comparison of radiological findings between IADSA and helical computed tomography (CT) was made and, where applicable, a comparison was made with operative findings. Pathology included abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) (n=12), thoraco abdominal aneurysm (n=2) and dissection (n=1), graft distension following AAA repair (n=1) and plaque haemorrhage in the distal aorta following percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the iliac artery (n=1). Planned operative management as based on pre-operative helical CT imaging findings, in particular with reference to the type of graft used (straight or bifurcated) was not changed at operation. Our findings on helical CT in regards to AAA, thoraco-abdominal aneurysm and dissection correlated well with angiography and surgery findings. (authors). 26 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  2. Efficacy of multislice computed tomography for gastroenteric and hepatic surgeries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Ohtani; Mitsuo Tsubakimoto; Hidemi Kawajiri; Yuichi Arimoto; Koichi Ohno; Yasuhisa Fujimoto; Hiroko Oba; Kenji Adachi; Masaya Hirano; Shoichi Terakawa

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the efficacy of multislice CT for gastroenteric and hepatic surgery.METHODS: Dual-phase helical computed tomography was performed in 50 of 51 patients who underwent gastroenteric and hepatic surgeries. Twenty-eight, eighteen and four patients suffering from colorectal cancer, gastric cancer,and liver cancer respectively underwent colorectal surgery (laparoscopic surgery: 6 cases), gastrectomy, and hepatectomy. Three-dimensional computed tomography imaging of the inferior mesenteric artery, celiac artery and hepatic artery was performed. And in the follow-up examination of postoperative patients, multiplanar reconstruction image was made in case of need.RESULTS: Scans in 50 patients were technically satisfactory and included in the analysis. Depiction of major visceral arteries, which were important for surgery and other treatments, could be done in all patients.Preoperative visualization of the left colic artery and sigmoidal arteries, the celiac artery and its branches, and hepatic artery was very useful to lymph node dissection,the planning of a reservoir and hepatectomy. And multiplanar reconstruction image was helpful to diagnosis for the postoperative follow-up of patients.CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional volume rendering or multiplanar reconstruction imaging performed by multislice computed tomography was very useful for gastroenteric and hepatic surgeries.

  3. Multidetector computed tomography in the preoperative staging of gastric adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Ricardo Hoelz de Oliveira; Penachim, Thiago Jose; Martins, Daniel Lahan; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Caserta, Nelson Marcio Gomes, E-mail: rhobarros@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the role of multidetector computed tomography in the preoperative investigation of tumor invasion depth and lymph node and metastatic involvement according to the TNM classification, in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients with biopsy-confirmed gastric cancer underwent preoperative staging with 64-channel multidetector computed tomography. Two independent radiologists analyzed the images and classified the findings. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and overall accuracy were calculated for each observer. The interobserver agreement was also evaluated. Results: The accuracy in the classification of categories T ranged from 74% to 96% for observer 1 and from 80% to 92% for observer 2. The overall accuracy was 70% for both observers. The weighted kappa index was 0.75, consistent with a significant interobserver agreement. The accuracy in the classification of lymph node involvement (category N) ranged from 55% to 79% for observer 1 and from 73% to 82% for observer 2. The evaluation of metastatic involvement showed an overall accuracy of 89.6% for both observers. Conclusion: 64-channel multidetector computed tomography demonstrated clinically relevant accuracy in the preoperative staging of gastric adenocarcinoma as regards invasion depth (T category) and metastatic involvement (M category). (author)

  4. Dosimetry in abdominal imaging by 6-slice computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Sonia Isabel [Hospital de Faro, EPE (Portugal); Abrantes, Antonio Fernando; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Almeida, Rui Pedro Pereira [University of Algarve (Portugal). School of Health. Dept. of Radiology

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To determine the effective dose in abdominal computed tomography imaging and to study the influence of patients' characteristics on the received dose. Materials and Methods: Dose values measurements were performed with an ionization chamber on phantoms to check the agreement between dose values and those presented by the computed tomography apparatus, besides their compliance with the recommended reference dose levels. Later, values of dose received by physically able patients submitted to abdominal computed tomography (n = 100) were measured and correlated with their anthropometric characteristics. Finally, the dose to organs was simulated with the Monte Carlo method using the CT-Expo V 1.5 software, and the effect of automatic exposure control on such examinations. Results: The main characteristics directly influencing the dose include the patients' body mass, abdominal perimeter and body mass index, whose correlation is linear and positive. Conclusion: The radiation dose received from abdominal CT scans depends on some patient's characteristics, and it is important to adjust the acquisition parameters to their dimensions (author)

  5. Anatomical structure of lingual foramen in cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ki, Min Woo; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-15

    To evaluate whether cone beam computed tomography can depict the distribution, position, frequency, relative vertical dimension, and the diameter of the lingual foramen and direction of lingual bone canal. Cone beam computed tomography of mandible was performed on 25 males and 25 females with no history of any orthodontic treatments or any other dental surgeries. A statistical comparison was done on the mean values of males and females. In the location and distribution of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was found in all subjects and lateral lingual foramen in 58%. In the lateral lingual foramen, bilateral type was found in 28% and unilateral type in 30%. In the number of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen had two foramina and lateral lingual foramen had one foramen, mostly. In the relative mean vertical dimension of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.03 {+-} 0.08, and both lateral lingual foramina was 0.20 {+-} 0.04. The mean diameter of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.9 mm {+-} 0.28, right lateral lingual foramen was 0.92 mm {+-} 0.23, and left lateral lingual foramen was 0.88 mm {+-} 0.27. The most frequent direction of the lingual bone canals, median lingual bone canal proceeded in anteroinferior direction and lateral lingual bone canal in anterosuperolateral direction. Cone beam computed tomography can be helpful for surgery and implantation on the mandibular area. Radiologist should be aware of this anatomical feature and its possible implications.

  6. Clinical utility of dental cone-beam computed tomography: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaju PP

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prashant P Jaju,1 Sushma P Jaju21Oral Medicine and Radiology, 2Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Rishiraj College of Dental Sciences and Research Center, Bhopal, IndiaAbstract: Panoramic radiography and computed tomography were the pillars of maxillofacial diagnosis. With the advent of cone-beam computed tomography, dental practice has seen a paradigm shift. This review article highlights the potential applications of cone-beam computed tomography in the fields of dental implantology and forensic dentistry, and its limitations in maxillofacial diagnosis.Keywords: dental implants, cone-beam computed tomography, panoramic radiography, computed tomography

  7. Brain computer interface for operating a robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Humaira; Balasubramaniam, Hari Chand; Malik, Aamir Saeed

    2013-10-01

    A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a hardware/software based system that translates the Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals produced by the brain activity to control computers and other external devices. In this paper, we will present a non-invasive BCI system that reads the EEG signals from a trained brain activity using a neuro-signal acquisition headset and translates it into computer readable form; to control the motion of a robot. The robot performs the actions that are instructed to it in real time. We have used the cognitive states like Push, Pull to control the motion of the robot. The sensitivity and specificity of the system is above 90 percent. Subjective results show a mixed trend of the difficulty level of the training activities. The quantitative EEG data analysis complements the subjective results. This technology may become very useful for the rehabilitation of disabled and elderly people.

  8. Multi-scale analysis of lung computed tomography images

    CERN Document Server

    Gori, I; Fantacci, M E; Preite Martinez, A; Retico, A; De Mitri, I; Donadio, S; Fulcheri, C

    2007-01-01

    A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the identification of lung internal nodules in low-dose multi-detector helical Computed Tomography (CT) images was developed in the framework of the MAGIC-5 project. The three modules of our lung CAD system, a segmentation algorithm for lung internal region identification, a multi-scale dot-enhancement filter for nodule candidate selection and a multi-scale neural technique for false positive finding reduction, are described. The results obtained on a dataset of low-dose and thin-slice CT scans are shown in terms of free response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves and discussed.

  9. Computed Tomography and Computed Radiography of late Bronze Age Cremation Urns from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, Lise Lock; Lynnerup, Niels; Amsgaard Ebsen, Jannie

    2012-01-01

    To improve methods used to study prehistoric cremation rituals, cremation urns from the Danish late Bronze Age were examined using Computed Tomography and Computed Radiography (Digital X-ray). During microexcavation, the digital images were used as registration tool. Our results suggest...

  10. [Role of cone-beam computed tomography in diagnostic otorhinolaryngological imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perényi, Ádám; Bella, Zsolt; Baráth, Zoltán; Magyar, Péter; Nagy, Katalin; Rovó, László

    2016-01-10

    Accurate diagnosis and preoperative planning in modern otorhinolaryngology is strongly supported by imaging with enhanced visualization. Computed tomography is often used to examine structures within bone frameworks. Given the hazards of ionizing radiation, repetitive imaging studies exponentially increase the risk of damages to radiosensitive tissues. The authors compare multislice and cone-beam computed tomography and determine the role, advantages and disadvantages of cone-beam computed tomography in otorhinolaryngological imaging. They summarize the knowledge from the international literature and their individual imaging studies. They conclude that cone-beam computed tomography enables high-resolution imaging and reconstruction in any optional plane and in space with considerably lower effective radiation dose. Cone-beam computed tomography with appropriate indications proved to be an excellent diagnostic tool in otorhinolaryngological imaging. It makes an alternative to multislice computed tomography and it is an effective tool in perioperative and postoperative follow-up, especially in those cases which necessitate repetitive imaging with computed tomography.

  11. Computed tomography and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings in adrenal candidiasis and histoplasmosis: two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinmakas, Emre; Guo, Ming; Kundu, Uma R; Habra, Mouhammed Amir; Ng, Chaan

    2015-01-01

    We report the contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography findings in adrenal histoplasmosis and candidiasis. Both demonstrated bilateral hypermetabolic heterogeneous adrenal masses with limited wash-out on delayed CT. Adrenal candidiasis has not been previously reported, nor have the CT wash-out findings in either infection. The adrenal imaging findings are indistinguishable from malignancy, which is more common; but in this setting, physicians should be alert to the differential diagnosis of fungal infections, since it can be equally deadly.

  12. [Spiral computed tomography in the diagnosis of limb osteomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, A Iu; Bulanova, T V; Onishchenko, M P

    2003-01-01

    The results of radiation studies in 121 patients of different age (4 to 75 years) examined for limb osteomyelitis are analyzed. All the patients underwent routine X-ray study and computed tomography (CT), 26 patients had X-ray fistulography; 8, linear tomography; 10, CT fistulography; 6, scintigraphy, and 15, ultrasound study. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO), chronic hematogenous osteomyelitis (CHO), and atypical (here Garre's sclerosing osteomyelitis and Brodie's abscess) osteomyelitis were ascertained in 10.6, 26.4, and 10.1% of cases, respectively. Posttraumatic osteomyelitis was diagnosed in almost 50% of the patients. CT defined the phase of chronic limb osteomyelitis. Spiral CT has proven to be the most effective technique for diagnosing limb osteomyelitis as compared with routine X-ray study: the accuracy of X-ray study was 81.8%, its sensitivity, 84.9%, and specificity, 60.0% and those of computed tomography were 96.7, 99.1, and 80.0%, respectively.

  13. CO2BOLD assessment of moyamoya syndrome: Validation with single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellaton, Alain; Bijlenga, Philippe; Bouchez, Laurie; Cuvinciuc, Victor; Barnaure, Isabelle; Garibotto, Valentina; Lövblad, Karl-Olof; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the assessment of cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) using CO2BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) vs positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as reference standard. METHODS Ten consecutive patients (8 women, mean age of 41 ± 26 years) with moyamoya syndrome underwent 14 pre-surgical evaluations for external-internal carotid artery bypass surgery. CVR was assessed using CO2BOLD and PET (4)/SPECT (11) with a maximum interval of 36 d, and evaluated by two experienced neuroradiologists. RESULTS The inter-rater agreement was 0.81 for SPECT (excellent), 0.43 for PET (fair) and 0.7 for CO2BOLD (good). In 9/14 cases, there was a correspondence between CO2BOLD and PET/SPECT. In 4/14 cases, CVR was over-estimated in CO2BOLD, while in 1/14 case, CVR was underestimated in CO2BOLD. The sensitivity of CO2BOLD was 86% and a specificity of 43%. CONCLUSION CO2BOLD can be used for pre-surgical assessment of CVR in patients with moyamoya syndrome and combines the advantages of absent irradiation, high availability of MRI and assessment of brain parenchyma, cerebral vessels and surrogate CVR in one stop. PMID:27928470

  14. Quantitative cone beam X-ray luminescence tomography/X-ray computed tomography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dongmei; Zhu, Shouping, E-mail: zhusp2009@gmail.com; Chen, Xueli; Chao, Tiantian; Cao, Xu; Zhao, Fengjun; Huang, Liyu; Liang, Jimin [Engineering Research Center of Molecular and Neuro Imaging of Ministry of Education and School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China)

    2014-11-10

    X-ray luminescence tomography (XLT) is an imaging technology based on X-ray-excitable materials. The main purpose of this paper is to obtain quantitative luminescence concentration using the structural information of the X-ray computed tomography (XCT) in the hybrid cone beam XLT/XCT system. A multi-wavelength luminescence cone beam XLT method with the structural a priori information is presented to relieve the severe ill-posedness problem in the cone beam XLT. The nanophosphors and phantom experiments were undertaken to access the linear relationship of the system response. Then, an in vivo mouse experiment was conducted. The in vivo experimental results show that the recovered concentration error as low as 6.67% with the location error of 0.85 mm can be achieved. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can accurately recover the nanophosphor inclusion and realize the quantitative imaging.

  15. Fasciola Hepatica Mimicking Malignancy on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sürücü, Erdem; Demir, Yusuf; Dülger, Ahmet C.; Batur, Abdüssamed; Ölmez, Şehmus; Kitapçı, Mehmet T.

    2016-01-01

    A 48-year-old female with complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, fatigue, vomiting, nausea, and weight loss was diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumor after removal of a 2 mm lesion from the stomach with endoscopic biopsy. Her magnetic resonance imaging that was performed due to on-going symptoms showed multiple linear hypointense lesions in the liver. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan was performed for differential diagnosis, which showed high fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in these lesions. Clinical and laboratory findings revealed the final diagnosis as Fasciola hepatica. The imaging features of this case is presented to aid in differentiating this infectious disease from malignancy and avoid misdiagnosis on FDG-PET/CT. PMID:27751978

  16. Fasciola Hepatica Mimicking Malignancy on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Sürücü

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old female with complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, fatigue, vomiting, nausea, and weight loss was diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumor after removal of a 2 mm lesion from the stomach with endoscopic biopsy. Her magnetic resonance imaging that was performed due to on-going symptoms showed multiple linear hypointense lesions in the liver. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT scan was performed for differential diagnosis, which showed high fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG uptake in these lesions. Clinical and laboratory findings revealed the final diagnosis as Fasciola hepatica. The imaging features of this case is presented to aid in differentiating this infectious disease from malignancy and avoid misdiagnosis on FDG-PET/CT.

  17. Right parietal stroke with Gerstmann's syndrome. Appearance on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and single-photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M R; Saver, J L; Johnson, K A; Romero, J A

    1991-04-01

    We examined a patient who exhibited Gerstmann's syndrome (left-right disorientation, finger agnosia, dyscalculia, and dysgraphia) in association with a perioperative stroke in the right parietal lobe. This is the first description of the Gerstmann tetrad occurring in the setting of discrete right hemisphere pathologic findings. A well-localized vascular lesion was demonstrated by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and single-photon emission computed tomographic studies. The patient had clinical evidence of reversed functional cerebral dominance and radiologic evidence of reversed anatomic cerebral asymmetries.

  18. Clinical Symptoms of Minor Head Trauma and Abnormal Computed Tomography Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghsoudi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Minor head trauma accounts for 70% to 90% of all head traumas. Previous studies stated that minor head traumas were associated with 7% - 20% significant abnormal findings in brain computed tomography (CT-scans. Objectives The aim of this study was to reevaluate clinical criteria of taking brain CT scan in patients who suffered from minor head trauma. Patients and Methods We enrolled 680 patients presented to an academic trauma hospital with minor head trauma in a prospective manner. All participants underwent brain CT scan if they met the inclusion criteria and the results of scans were compared with clinical examination finding. Results Loss of consciousness (GCS drop or amnesia was markedly associated with abnormal brain CT scan (P < 0.05. Interestingly, we found 7 patients with normal clinical examination but significant abnormal brain CT scan. Conclusions According to the results of our study, we recommend that all patients with minor head trauma underwent brain CT scan in order not to miss any life-threatening head injuries.

  19. Brain-Computer Interfaces and Quantum Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Pessa, Eliano

    2009-01-01

    The actual (classical) Brain-Computer Interface attempts to use brain signals to drive suitable actuators performing the actions corresponding to subject's intention. However this goal is not fully reached, and when BCI works, it does only in particular situations. The reason of this unsatisfactory result is that intention cannot be conceived simply as a set of classical input-output relationships. It is therefore necessary to resort to quantum theory, allowing the occurrence of stable coherence phenomena, in turn underlying high-level mental processes such as intentions and strategies. More precisely, within the context of a dissipative Quantum Field Theory of brain operation it is possible to introduce generalized coherent states associated, within the framework of logic, to the assertions of a quantum metalanguage. The latter controls the quantum-mechanical computing corresponding to standard mental operation. It thus become possible to conceive a Quantum Cyborg in which a human mind controls, through a qu...

  20. Is the Brain a Quantum Computer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Abninder; Eliasmith, Chris; Kroon, Frederick W.; Weinstein, Steven; Thagard, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We argue that computation via quantum mechanical processes is irrelevant to explaining how brains produce thought, contrary to the ongoing speculations of many theorists. First, quantum effects do not have the temporal properties required for neural information processing. Second, there are substantial physical obstacles to any organic…

  1. Brain-Computer Interfacing and Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plass-Oude Bos, Danny; Reuderink, Boris; Laar, van de Bram; Gürkök, Hayrettin; Mühl, Christian; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Anton; Heylen, Dirk; Tan, D.; Nijholt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recently research into Brain-Computer Interfacing (BCI) applications for healthy users, such as games, has been initiated. But why would a healthy person use a still-unproven technology such as BCI for game interaction? BCI provides a combination of information and features that no other input modal

  2. F-18 Fluorodeoxy Glucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Findings in a Rare Case of Penile Leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuruva Manohar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is a rare entity accounting for only 0.4% all male malignancies. Penile leiomyosarcomas are even rarer with only around 35 cases reported in literature. We report a rare case of penile leiomyosarcoma illustrating F-18 Fluorodeoxy glucose (FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT features and histopathology correlation.

  3. Ex vivo brain tumor analysis using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Marcel; Krug, Robin; Welp, Hubert; Schmieder, Kirsten; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2016-03-01

    A big challenge during neurosurgeries is to distinguish between healthy tissue and cancerous tissue, but currently a suitable non-invasive real time imaging modality is not available. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a potential technique for such a modality. OCT has a penetration depth of 1-2 mm and a resolution of 1-15 μm which is sufficient to illustrate structural differences between healthy tissue and brain tumor. Therefore, we investigated gray and white matter of healthy central nervous system and meningioma samples with a Spectral Domain OCT System (Thorlabs Callisto). Additional OCT images were generated after paraffin embedding and after the samples were cut into 10 μm thin slices for histological investigation with a bright field microscope. All samples were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. In all cases B-scans and 3D images were made. Furthermore, a camera image of the investigated area was made by the built-in video camera of our OCT system. For orientation, the backsides of all samples were marked with blue ink. The structural differences between healthy tissue and meningioma samples were most pronounced directly after removal. After paraffin embedding these differences diminished. A correlation between OCT en face images and microscopy images can be seen. In order to increase contrast, post processing algorithms were applied. Hence we employed Spectroscopic OCT, pattern recognition algorithms and machine learning algorithms such as k-means Clustering and Principal Component Analysis.

  4. Position emission tomography with or without computed tomography in the primary staging of Hodgkin's lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin; Loft, Annika; Hansen, Mads

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In order to receive the most appropriate therapy, patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) must be accurately stratified into different prognostic staging groups. Computed tomography (CT) plays a pivotal role in the conventional staging. The aim of the present study...... standard limits the reliability of accuracy calculations. RESULTS: FDG-PET would have upstaged 19% of patients and downstaged 5% of patients, leading to a different treatment in 9% of patients. For FDG-PET/CT, the corresponding figures are 17%, 5%, and 7%. In nodal regions, the sensitivity of FDG...

  5. Benign breast lesions detected by positron emission tomography-computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benveniste, Ana P., E-mail: apbenveniste@mdanderson.org [Department of Diagnostic Radiology,The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yang, Wei, E-mail: wyang@mdanderson.org [Department of Diagnostic Radiology,The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Benveniste, Marcelo F., E-mail: mfbenveniste@mdanderson.org [Department of Diagnostic Radiology,The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mawlawi, Osama R., E-mail: omawlawi@mdanderson.org [Department of imaging physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Marom, Edith M., E-mail: emarom@mdanderson.org [Department of Diagnostic Radiology,The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography (FDG PET-CT) is widely used in the initial staging and response evaluation of patients with malignancy. This review describes a spectrum of benign breast findings incidentally detected by FDG PET-CT at staging that may be misinterpreted as malignancy. We describe the pattern of distribution and intensity of FDG uptake in a spectrum of benign breast diseases with their corresponding typical morphological imaging characteristics to help the nuclear medicine physician and/or general radiologist identify benign lesions, avoiding unnecessary breast imaging work-up and biopsies.

  6. Laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis: findings on computed tomography scans of the chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Araujo Neto, Cesar de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Meirelles, Gustavo Souza Portes [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil); Irion, Klaus Loureiro [The Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Zanetti, Glaucia [Faculdade de Medicina de Petropolis (FMP), RJ (Brazil); Missrie, Israel [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Sato, Juliana [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeca e Pescoco

    2008-12-15

    Objectives: To present the findings of computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest in patients with laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed CT scans of eight patients, five males and three females, ranging from 5 to 18 years of age with a mean age of 10.5 years. Images were independently reviewed by two radiologists. In discrepant cases, a consensus was reached. Results: The most common CT findings were intratracheal polypoid lesions and pulmonary nodules, many of which were cavitated. Conclusions: In patients with laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis, the most common tomographic finding was the combination of intratracheal polypoid lesions and multiple pulmonary nodules, many of which were cavitated. (author)

  7. Computed tomography in the evaluation of thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, P.M.; Newman, G.E.; Korobkin, M.; Workman, J.B.; Moore, A.V.; Coleman, R.E.

    1984-05-01

    Traditionally, thyroid imaging has been performed primarily using radionuclide scanning. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) was performed in 18 patients to evaluate the CT appearance of various thyroid abnormalities including diffuse toxic goiter, multinodular goiter, Hashimoto thyroiditis, thyroid adenoma, and malignant thyroid tumors. CT images of the thyroid were correlated with radionuclide scanning, surgical findings, and clinical and laboratory results. CT provided a complementary method for evaluation of the thyroid by defining the morphology of the thyroid gland and more precisely defining the anatomic extent of thyroid abnormalities in relation to the normal structures of the neck and mediastinum.

  8. Cone-beam computed tomography: A miracle for orthodontics!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan M Khatri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The branch of oral medicine and radiology has always played a role of back stage worker for the branch of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopaedics. It would have been difficult for an orthodontist to gift the bright smiles to his/her patients without the 2D and 3D black and white pictures provided by the oral radiologist. Moreover, the series of advances in the various imaging modalities are playing the role of a magician for the branch of orthodontia. The present article provides valuable information about one such miracle for the field of orthodontics-cone beam computed tomography (CBCT.

  9. PRaVDA: High Energy Physics towards proton Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, T., E-mail: t.price@bham.ac.uk

    2016-07-11

    Proton radiotherapy is an increasingly popular modality for treating cancers of the head and neck, and in paediatrics. To maximise the potential of proton radiotherapy it is essential to know the distribution, and more importantly the proton stopping powers, of the body tissues between the proton beam and the tumour. A stopping power map could be measured directly, and uncertainties in the treatment vastly reduce, if the patient was imaged with protons instead of conventional x-rays. Here we outline the application of technologies developed for High Energy Physics to provide clinical-quality proton Computed Tomography, in so reducing range uncertainties and enhancing the treatment of cancer.

  10. Computed Tomography Appearances of Various Complications Associated with Pancreatic Pseudocysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheol Kim, Hyun; Mo Yang, Dal; Jung Kim, Hyoung; Ho Lee, Dong; Tae Ko, Young; Won Lim, Joo (Dept. of Radiology, East-West Neo Medical Center, Kyung-Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea))

    2008-09-15

    Most pancreatic pseudocysts are common complications of acute or chronic pancreatitis. They usually occur within the pancreas or in peripancreatic tissues, and are visualized as round or oval fluid collections with thin or thick walls on computed tomography (CT) scans. However, pancreatic pseudocysts are often combined with various complications, e.g., various organ involvements, infection, hemorrhage with pseudoaneurysm formation, rupture with fistula formation, or gastrointestinal or biliary obstruction, which may necessitate prompt intervention or surgery. This review illustrates the CT appearances of various complications associated with pancreatic pseudocysts

  11. X-ray computed tomography investigations of Cucuteni ceramic statuettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pavel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering the internal structure of prehistoric artefacts can provide spectacular insights that might help us understand the people who made them. In order to preserve the integrity of these relics of past civilisations, it is desirable to make such investigations using non-destructive techniques. Recent decades have witnessed a growth in the X-ray computed tomography (CT applications in the study of cultural heritage objects. This paper presents and discusses tomographic investigations of two Cucuteni ceramic statuettes discovered in Romania. The study was made with a CT device specially designed for archaeometric applications.

  12. Unusual causes of colonic wall thickening on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D.R.; Markose, G.; Arends, M.J.; Ng, C.S.; Freeman, A.H

    2003-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) appearances in 'colitis' are often non-specific, and include mural thickening and mesenteric fat stranding. In the western world, the majority of cases will have, or be subsequently diagnosed with, inflammatory bowel disease, pseudomembranous colitis or ischaemic colitis. However, other rare conditions may also produce these rather non-specific signs. We present a number of cases demonstrating colonic wall thickening on CT due to rarer diagnoses, which are correlated with the histopathological features. Some of these CT appearances have not been described previously in the literature.

  13. Incidental findings on cone beam computed tomography: Relate and relay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas P Pande

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the presence of incidental findings on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images and to recognize their clinical importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 700 CBCT scans between January 2013 to August 2014 at Government Dental College and Hospital were evaluated retrospectively. Results: 459 incidental findings (65.57% were observed in 700 patients. Most common individual incidental finding was mucosal thickening (119 followed by pineal/habenula calcification (99 and choroid plexus (77. Conclusion: The oral and maxillofacial radiologist should carefully interpret all scans and should not ignore the incidental findings and hence avoid untoward snowballing effects.

  14. Aortic valve area assessed with 320-detector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Linnea Hornbech; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang; Carstensen, Helle Gervig;

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of aortic valve area (AVA) assessment with 320-detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) compared to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in a population with mild to severe aortic valve stenosis. AVA was estimated in 169 patients by planimetry on MDCT images (AVAMDCT......) and by the continuity equation with TTE (AVATTE). To generate a reference AVA (AVAREF) we used the stroke volume from MDCT divided by the velocity time integral from CW Doppler by TTE (according to the continuity equation: stroke volume in LVOT = stroke volume passing the aortic valve). AVAREF was used as the reference...

  15. Urologic applications of multiplanar and three-dimensional computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M C; Posniak, H V

    1995-01-01

    The introduction of helical computed tomography (CT) has resulted in improved quality of multiplanar reformations and three-dimensional reconstructions in the chest and abdomen and has made CT angiography a clinical reality. These imaging techniques are useful for evaluating the urinary tract, adding a new dimension to its display, resulting in improved diagnosis of renal and perirenal disease. This article reviews the indications and techniques utilized for multiplanar and three-dimensional CT for urology. The advantages and limitations are discussed, and normal and pathologic findings in the urinary tract illustrated.

  16. Multidetector Computer Tomography: Evaluation of Blunt Chest Trauma in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Palas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging plays an essential part of chest trauma care. By definition, the employed imaging technique in the emergency setting should reach the correct diagnosis as fast as possible. In severe chest blunt trauma, multidetector computer tomography (MDCT has become part of the initial workup, mainly due to its high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of the technique for the detection and characterization of thoracic injuries and also due to its wide availability in tertiary care centers. The aim of this paper is to review and illustrate a spectrum of characteristic MDCT findings of blunt traumatic injuries of the chest including the lungs, mediastinum, pleural space, and chest wall.

  17. Precision Medicine and PET/Computed Tomography: Challenges and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2017-01-01

    Precision Medicine is about selecting the right therapy for the right patient, at the right time, specific to the molecular targets expressed by disease or tumors, in the context of patient's environment and lifestyle. Some of the challenges for delivery of precision medicine in oncology include biomarkers for patient selection for enrichment-precision diagnostics, mapping out tumor heterogeneity that contributes to therapy failures, and early therapy assessment to identify resistance to therapies. PET/computed tomography offers solutions in these important areas of challenges and facilitates implementation of precision medicine.

  18. Material reconstruction for spectral computed tomography with detector response function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiulong; Gao, Hao

    2016-11-01

    Different from conventional computed tomography (CT), spectral CT using energy-resolved photon-counting detectors is able to provide the unprecedented material compositions. However accurate spectral CT needs to account for the detector response function (DRF), which is often distorted by factors such as pulse pileup and charge-sharing. In this work, we propose material reconstruction methods for spectral CT with DRF. The simulation results suggest that the proposed methods reconstructed more accurate material compositions than the conventional method without DRF. Moreover, the proposed linearized method with linear data fidelity from spectral resampling had improved reconstruction quality from the nonlinear method directly based on nonlinear data fidelity.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of PET and PET/Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Hermansson, Ronnie; Hess, Søren

    2015-01-01

    measure by means of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios when considering the replacement of the standard regimen by a new diagnostic procedure. This article discusses economic assessments of PET and PET/computed tomography reported until mid-July 2014. Forty-seven studies on cancer and noncancer......The development of clinical diagnostic procedures comprises early-phase and late-phase studies to elucidate diagnostic accuracy and patient outcome. Economic assessments of new diagnostic procedures compared with established work-ups indicate additional cost for 1 additional unit of effectiveness...

  20. Computed tomography of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorvinger, B.; Lyttkens, K.; Samuelsson, L.

    Sixteen consecutive patients with myasthenia gravis were examined by computed tomography (CT) before thymectomy. Surgical and histologic findings were compared with those obtained at CT. The results, like those of most other recent studies, indicate that CT is a reliable method for identifying thymoma. In all three patients with thymoma, and in five out of eight patients with hyperplasia, the lesion was observed at CT, giving an overall accuracy of 80%. Although tymic hyperplasia is a basically histological diagnosis an enlarged gland may give a correct diagnosis of this abnormality.

  1. The value of computed tomography in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.R.; Muhm, J.R.; Sheedy, P.F. II; Unni, K.K.; Bernatz, P.E.; Hermann, R.C. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    In a 5 year study, 19 patients with myasthenia gravis were studied by computed tomography (CT) and underwent thymectomy. CT was accurate in detecting the nine true thymic masses but could not differentiate thymomas from nonthymomatous masses, including thymic cysts. No thymoma was found in a patient under 25 years of age. In one case, the 18 sec scanner could not differentiate a large gland from a thymoma. In eight cases, glands with histologic thymic hyperplasia and histologically normal thymus appeared to be similar and could not be differentiated by CT.

  2. Multidetector computer tomography: evaluation of blunt chest trauma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palas, João; Matos, António P; Mascarenhas, Vasco; Herédia, Vasco; Ramalho, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Imaging plays an essential part of chest trauma care. By definition, the employed imaging technique in the emergency setting should reach the correct diagnosis as fast as possible. In severe chest blunt trauma, multidetector computer tomography (MDCT) has become part of the initial workup, mainly due to its high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of the technique for the detection and characterization of thoracic injuries and also due to its wide availability in tertiary care centers. The aim of this paper is to review and illustrate a spectrum of characteristic MDCT findings of blunt traumatic injuries of the chest including the lungs, mediastinum, pleural space, and chest wall.

  3. PET/Computed Tomography in Renal, Bladder, and Testicular Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Choyke, Peter L

    2015-07-01

    Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of cancer patients. Hybrid imaging with PET/computed tomography (CT) is having a broad impact in oncology, and in recent years PET/CT is beginning to have an impact in urooncology. In both bladder and renal cancers, there is a need to study the efficacy of other tracers than F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), particularly tracers with limited renal excretion. Thus, new tracers are being introduced. This review focuses on the clinical role of FDG and other PET agents in renal, bladder, and testicular cancers.

  4. Improved proton computed tomography by dual modality image reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David Christoffer; Bassler, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen B.B.;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Proton computed tomography (CT) is a promising image modality for improving the stopping power estimates and dose calculations for particle therapy. However, the finite range of about 33 cm of water of most commercial proton therapy systems limits the sites that can be scanned from a full...... nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm, minimizing total variation and the x-ray CT prior while remaining consistent with the proton projection data. The proton histories were reconstructed along curved cubic-spline paths. Results: The spatial resolution of the cone beam CT prior was retained for the fully...

  5. Multiparametric multidetector computed tomography scanning on suspicion of hyperacute ischemic stroke: validating a standardized protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Torres Pacheco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT scanning has enabled the early diagnosis of hyperacute brain ischemia. We aimed at validating a standardized protocol to read and report MDCT techniques in a series of adult patients. The inter-observer agreement among the trained examiners was tested, and their results were compared with a standard reading. No false positives were observed, and an almost perfect agreement (Kappa>0.81 was documented when the CT angiography (CTA and cerebral perfusion CT (CPCT map data were added to the noncontrast CT (NCCT analysis. The inter-observer agreement was higher for highly trained readers, corroborating the need for specific training to interpret these modern techniques. The authors recommend adding CTA and CPCT to the NCCT analysis in order to clarify the global analysis of structural and hemodynamic brain abnormalities. Our structured report is suitable as a script for the reproducible analysis of the MDCT of patients on suspicion of ischemic stroke.

  6. Establishment of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) reference level in Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bakar, K. A.; Muhammad, H.; Sabarudin, A.; Ang, W. C.; Bahruddin, N. A.

    2016-03-01

    Radiation doses from computed tomography (CT) are the highest and most hazardous compared to other imaging modalities. This study aimed to evaluate radiation dose in Johor, Malaysia to patients during computed tomography examinations of the brain, chest and abdomen and to establish the local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as are present with the current, state- of-art, multi-slice CT scanners. Survey forms were sent to five centres performing CT to obtain data regarding acquisition parameters as well as the dose information from CT consoles. CT- EXPO (Version 2.3.1, Germany) was used to validate the dose information. The proposed DRLs were indicated by rounding the third quartiles of whole dose distributions where mean values of CTDIw (mGy), CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy.cm) were comparable with other reference levels; 63, 63, and 1015 respectively for CT Brain; 15, 14, and 450 respectively for CT thorax and 16, 17, and 590 respectively for CT abdomen. The study revealed that the CT practice and dose output were revolutionised, and must keep up with the pace of introductory technology. We suggest that CTDIvol should be included in current national DRLs, as modern CTs are configured with a higher number of detectors and are independent of pitch factors.

  7. Brain-Computer Link Restores Some Movement to Quadraplegic Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164322.html Brain-Computer Link Restores Some Movement to Quadraplegic Man ... aspirin -- in the motor cortex area of his brain. That's the brain region responsible for hand movement. ...

  8. Case of acute meningitis with clear cerebrospinal fluid: value of computed tomography for the diagnosis of central nervous system tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesari, V.

    1986-11-06

    The author reports a case of acute meningitis with clear cerebrospinal fluid in which extensive bacteriologic investigations were negative making the etiologic diagnosis exceedingly difficult. Initiation of empiric antituberculous therapy was rapidly followed by clinical and biological improvement, without complications, and by resolution of abnormal findings on computed tomography of the brain. On these grounds, meningitis secondary to a tuberculoma in the temporal lobe was diagnosed. The author points out that tuberculous meningitis is still a severe, potentially fatal condition; this, together with the fact that tubercle bacilli are often very scarce or absent, requires that tuberculous meningitis be routinely considered in every patient with clear cerebrospinal fluid meningitis whose condition deteriorates. Computed tomography of the brain is essential to ensure rapid diagnosis and prompt initiation of antituberculous therapy. Lastly, the author points out that nowadays herpes simplex virus encephalopathy should also be considered.

  9. Computational systems biology in cancer brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huiming; Tan, Hua; Zhao, Weiling; Jin, Guangxu; Sharma, Sambad; Xing, Fei; Watabe, Kounosuke; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases occur in 20-40% of patients with advanced malignancies. A better understanding of the mechanism of this disease will help us to identify novel therapeutic strategies. In this review, we will discuss the systems biology approaches used in this area, including bioinformatics and mathematical modeling. Bioinformatics has been used for identifying the molecular mechanisms driving brain metastasis and mathematical modeling methods for analyzing dynamics of a system and predicting optimal therapeutic strategies. We will illustrate the strategies, procedures, and computational techniques used for studying systems biology in cancer brain metastases. We will give examples on how to use a systems biology approach to analyze a complex disease. Some of the approaches used to identify relevant networks, pathways, and possibly biomarkers in metastasis will be reviewed into details. Finally, certain challenges and possible future directions in this area will also be discussed.

  10. Hardware enhance of brain computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jerry; Szu, Harold; Chen, Yuechen; Guo, Ran; Gu, Xixi

    2015-05-01

    The history of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) starts with Hans Berger's discovery of the electrical activity of the human brain and the development of electroencephalography (EEG). Recent years, BCI researches are focused on Invasive, Partially invasive, and Non-invasive BCI. Furthermore, EEG can be also applied to telepathic communication which could provide the basis for brain-based communication using imagined speech. It is possible to use EEG signals to discriminate the vowels and consonants embedded in spoken and in imagined words and apply to military product. In this report, we begin with an example of using high density EEG with high electrode density and analysis the results by using BCIs. The BCIs in this work is enhanced by A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board with optimized two dimension (2D) image Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis.

  11. Computed tomography angiography in patients with active gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Fatima Regina Silva; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: fatima.rsreis@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Cardia, P.P. [Hospital Vera Cruz, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Gastrointestinal bleeding represents a common medical emergency, with considerable morbidity and mortality rates, and a prompt diagnosis is essential for a better prognosis. In such a context, endoscopy is the main diagnostic tool; however, in cases where the gastrointestinal hemorrhage is massive, the exact bleeding site might go undetected. In addition, a trained professional is not always present to perform the procedure. In an emergency setting, optical colonoscopy presents limitations connected with the absence of bowel preparation, so most of the small bowel cannot be assessed. Scintigraphy cannot accurately demonstrate the anatomic location of the bleeding and is not available at emergency settings. The use of capsule endoscopy is inappropriate in the acute setting, particularly in the emergency department at night, and is a highly expensive method. Digital angiography, despite its high sensitivity, is invasive, presents catheterization-related risks, in addition to its low availability at emergency settings. On the other hand, computed tomography angiography is fast, widely available and minimally invasive, emerging as a promising method in the diagnostic algorithm of these patients, being capable of determining the location and cause of bleeding with high accuracy. Based on a critical literature review and on their own experience, the authors propose a computed tomography angiography protocol to assess the patient with gastrointestinal bleeding. (author)

  12. Quantitative analysis of cholesteatoma using high resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Shigeru; Yamasoba, Tatsuya (Kameda General Hospital, Chiba (Japan)); Iinuma, Toshitaka

    1992-05-01

    Seventy-three cases of adult cholesteatoma, including 52 cases of pars flaccida type cholesteatoma and 21 of pars tensa type cholesteatoma, were examined using high resolution computed tomography, in both axial (lateral semicircular canal plane) and coronal sections (cochlear, vestibular and antral plane). These cases were classified into two subtypes according to the presence of extension of cholesteatoma into the antrum. Sixty cases of chronic otitis media with central perforation (COM) were also examined as controls. Various locations of the middle ear cavity were measured in terms of size in comparison with pars flaccida type cholesteatoma, pars tensa type cholesteatoma and COM. The width of the attic was significantly larger in both pars flaccida type and pars tensa type cholesteatoma than in COM. With pars flaccida type cholesteatoma there was a significantly larger distance between the malleus and lateral wall of the attic than with COM. In contrast, the distance between the malleus and medial wall of the attic was significantly larger with pars tensa type cholesteatoma than with COM. With cholesteatoma extending into the antrum, regardless of the type of cholesteatoma, there were significantly larger distances than with COM at the following sites: the width and height of the aditus ad antrum, and the width, height and anterior-posterior diameter of the antrum. However, these distances were not significantly different between cholesteatoma without extension into the antrum and COM. The hitherto demonstrated qualitative impressions of bone destruction in cholesteatoma were quantitatively verified in detail using high resolution computed tomography. (author).

  13. Proton Computed Tomography: iterative image reconstruction and dose evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civinini, C.; Bonanno, D.; Brianzi, M.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Maccioni, G.; Pallotta, S.; Randazzo, N.; Scaringella, M.; Romano, F.; Sipala, V.; Talamonti, C.; Vanzi, E.; Bruzzi, M.

    2017-01-01

    Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) is a medical imaging method with a potential for increasing accuracy of treatment planning and patient positioning in hadron therapy. A pCT system based on a Silicon microstrip tracker and a YAG:Ce crystal calorimeter has been developed within the INFN Prima-RDH collaboration. The prototype has been tested with a 175 MeV proton beam at The Svedberg Laboratory (Uppsala, Sweden) with the aim to reconstruct and characterize a tomographic image. Algebraic iterative reconstruction methods (ART), together with the most likely path formalism, have been used to obtain tomographies of an inhomogeneous phantom to eventually extract density and spatial resolutions. These results will be presented and discussed together with an estimation of the average dose delivered to the phantom and the dependence of the image quality on the dose. Due to the heavy computation load required by the algebraic algorithms the reconstruction programs have been implemented to fully exploit the high calculation parallelism of Graphics Processing Units. An extended field of view pCT system is in an advanced construction stage. This apparatus will be able to reconstruct objects of the size of a human head making possible to characterize this pCT approach in a pre-clinical environment.

  14. Incidental cardiac findings on computed tomography imaging of the thorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Gendi Hossam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of pulmonary pathology with computed tomography also allows visualisation of the heart and major vessels. We sought to explore whether clinically relevant cardiac pathology could be identified on computed tomography pulmonary angiograms (CTPA requested for the exclusion of pulmonary embolism (PE. 100 consecutive CT contrast-enhanced pulmonary angiograms carried out for exclusion of PE at a single centre were assessed retrospectively by two cardiologists. Findings Evidence of PE was reported in 5% of scans. Incidental cardiac findings included: aortic wall calcification (54%, coronary calcification (46%, cardiomegaly (41%, atrial dilatation (18%, mitral annulus calcification (15%, right ventricular dilatation (11%, aortic dilatation (8% and right ventricular thrombus (1%. Apart from 3 (3% reports describing cardiomegaly, no other cardiac findings were described in radiologists' reports. Other reported pulmonary abnormalities included: lung nodules (14%, lobar collapse/consolidation (8%, pleural effusion (2%, lobar collapse/consolidation (8%, emphysema (6% and pleural calcification (4%. Conclusions CTPAs requested for the exclusion of PE have a high yield of cardiac abnormalities. Although these abnormalities may not have implications for acute clinical management, they may, nevertheless, be important in long-term care.

  15. Estimation of feline renal volume using computed tomography and ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Reid; Logsdon, Stacy A; Werre, Stephen R; Daniel, Gregory B

    2013-01-01

    Renal volume estimation is an important parameter for clinical evaluation of kidneys and research applications. A time efficient, repeatable, and accurate method for volume estimation is required. The purpose of this study was to describe the accuracy of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) for estimating feline renal volume. Standardized ultrasound and CT scans were acquired for kidneys of 12 cadaver cats, in situ. Ultrasound and CT multiplanar reconstructions were used to record renal length measurements that were then used to calculate volume using the prolate ellipsoid formula for volume estimation. In addition, CT studies were reconstructed at 1 mm, 5 mm, and 1 cm, and transferred to a workstation where the renal volume was calculated using the voxel count method (hand drawn regions of interest). The reference standard kidney volume was then determined ex vivo using water displacement with the Archimedes' principle. Ultrasound measurement of renal length accounted for approximately 87% of the variability in renal volume for the study population. The prolate ellipsoid formula exhibited proportional bias and underestimated renal volume by a median of 18.9%. Computed tomography volume estimates using the voxel count method with hand-traced regions of interest provided the most accurate results, with increasing accuracy for smaller voxel sizes in grossly normal kidneys (-10.1 to 0.6%). Findings from this study supported the use of CT and the voxel count method for estimating feline renal volume in future clinical and research studies.

  16. Computed tomography of intra - and extramural ethmoid cells: iconographic essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabricio Guimaraes [McGill University Health Centre (MUHC), Montreal, QC (Canada). Montreal General Hospital; Jovem, Cassio Lemos [Med Imagem, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Moura, Leonardo de Oliveira [Centro de Treinamento em Imagenologia (CETRIM), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    The development of the paranasal sinuses is an intricate process that begins in the intrauterine life and terminates in early adulthood. Among the paranasal sinuses, the ethmoid cells or labyrinth are probably the most complex structures, being associated with the highest number of normal variants. Variations in the pattern of pneumatization of the ethmoid cells can be divided into intra - and extramural cells. Intramural cells are those which develop within the ethmoid labyrinth. Extramural cells are those that develop isolatedly. Computed tomography is the most useful tool in the evaluation of inflammatory processes of the paranasal sinuses. Computed tomography also plays a relevant role in the preoperative planning as well as in the postoperative follow-up, since it demonstrates exact anatomical details of normal structures with accuracy in the detection of variants. In the present pictorial essay, the authors describe the most common anatomical variants of the ethmoid labyrinth and their relationship with adjacent structures. Endoscopic sinonasal surgery has become increasingly less invasive, requiring more detailed anatomical imaging of this region. (author)

  17. Computed tomography findings of paracoccidiodomycosis in musculoskeletal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Junior, Francisco Valtenor Araujo; Savarese, Leonor Garbin; Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Martinez, Roberto; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique, E-mail: fvaltenor@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina

    2015-01-15

    Objective: to evaluate musculoskeletal involvement in paracoccidioidomycosis at computed tomography. Materials and methods: development of a retrospective study based on a review of radiologic and pathologic reports in the institution database. Patients with histopathologically confirmed musculoskeletal paracoccidioidomycosis and submitted to computed tomography were included in the present study. The imaging findings were consensually described by two radiologists. In order to avoid bias in the analysis, one patient with uncountable bone lesions was excluded from the study. Results: a total of seven patients were included in the present study. A total of 18 bone lesions were counted. The study group consisted of 7 patients. A total number of 18 bone lesions were counted. Osteoarticular lesions were the first manifestation of the disease in four patients (57.14%). Bone lesions were multiple in 42.85% of patients. Appendicular and axial skeleton were affected in 85.71% and 42.85% of cases, respectively. Bone involvement was characterized by well-demarcated osteolytic lesions. Marginal osteosclerosis was identified in 72.22% of the lesions, while lamellar periosteal reaction and soft tissue component were present in 5.55% of them. One patient showed multiple small lesions with bone sequestra. Conclusion: paracoccidioidomycosis can be included in the differential diagnosis of either single or multiple osteolytic lesions in young patients even in the absence of a previous diagnosis of pulmonary or visceral paracoccidioidomycosis. (author)

  18. Limited-data computed tomography algorithms for the physical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, D

    1993-07-10

    Five limited-data computed tomography algorithms are compared. The algorithms used are adapted versions of the algebraic reconstruction technique, the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique, the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm, a spectral extrapolation algorithm descended from that of Harris [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 931-936 (1964)], and an algorithm based on the singular value decomposition technique. These algorithms were used to reconstruct phantom data with realistic levels of noise from a number of different imaging geometries. The phantoms, the imaging geometries, and the noise were chosen to simulate the conditions encountered in typical computed tomography applications in the physical sciences, and the implementations of the algorithms were optimized for these applications. The multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique algorithm gave the best results overall; the algebraic reconstruction technique gave the best results for very smooth objects or very noisy (20-dB signal-to-noise ratio) data. My implementations of both of these algorithms incorporate apriori knowledge of the sign of the object, its extent, and its smoothness. The smoothness of the reconstruction is enforced through the use of an appropriate object model (by use of cubic B-spline basis functions and a number of object coefficients appropriate to the object being reconstructed). The average reconstruction error was 1.7% of the maximum phantom value with the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique of a phantom with moderate-to-steep gradients by use of data from five viewing angles with a 30-dB signal-to-noise ratio.

  19. Use of cone beam computed tomography in periodontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Buket; Kamburoğlu, Kıvanç

    2014-05-28

    Diagnosis of periodontal disease mainly depends on clinical signs and symptoms. However, in the case of bone destruction, radiographs are valuable diagnostic tools as an adjunct to the clinical examination. Two dimensional periapical and panoramic radiographs are routinely used for diagnosing periodontal bone levels. In two dimensional imaging, evaluation of bone craters, lamina dura and periodontal bone level is limited by projection geometry and superpositions of adjacent anatomical structures. Those limitations of 2D radiographs can be eliminated by three-dimensional imaging techniques such as computed tomography. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) generates 3D volumetric images and is also commonly used in dentistry. All CBCT units provide axial, coronal and sagittal multi-planar reconstructed images without magnification. Also, panoramic images without distortion and magnification can be generated with curved planar reformation. CBCT displays 3D images that are necessary for the diagnosis of intra bony defects, furcation involvements and buccal/lingual bone destructions. CBCT applications provide obvious benefits in periodontics, however; it should be used only in correct indications considering the necessity and the potential hazards of the examination.

  20. Denoising Message Passing for X-ray Computed Tomography Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Perelli, Alessandro; Can, Ali; Davies, Mike E

    2016-01-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) reconstruction from sparse number of views is becoming a powerful way to reduce either the radiation dose or the acquisition time in CT systems but still requires a huge computational time. This paper introduces an approximate Bayesian inference framework for CT reconstruction based on a family of denoising approximate message passing (DCT-AMP) algorithms able to improve both the convergence speed and the reconstruction quality. Approximate Message Passing for Compressed Sensing has been extensively analysed for random linear measurements but there are still not clear solutions on how AMP should be modified and how it performs with real world problems. In particular to overcome the convergence issues of DCT-AMP with structured measurement matrices, we propose a disjoint preconditioned version of the algorithm tailored for both the geometric system model and the noise model. In addition the Bayesian DCT-AMP formulation allows to measure how the current estimate is close to the pr...

  1. Temporomandibular joint computed tomography: development of a direct sagittal technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Kuijl, B.; Vencken, L.M.; de Bont, L.G.; Boering, G. (Univ. of Groningen, (Netherlands))

    1990-12-01

    Radiology plays an important role in the diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders. Different techniques are used with computed tomography offering simultaneous imaging of bone and soft tissues. It is therefore suited for visualization of the articular disk and may be used in patients with suspected internal derangements and other disorders of the temporomandibular joint. Previous research suggests advantages to direct sagittal scanning, which requires special positioning of the patient and a sophisticated scanning technique. This study describes the development of a new technique of direct sagittal computed tomographic imaging of the temporomandibular joint using a specially designed patient table and internal light visor positioning. No structures other than the patient's head are involved in the imaging process, and misleading artifacts from the arm or the shoulder are eliminated. The use of the scanogram allows precise correction of the condylar axis and selection of exact slice level.

  2. The Brain Dynamics of Linguistic Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot eMurphy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neural oscillations at distinct frequencies are increasingly being related to a number of basic and higher cognitive faculties. Oscillations enable the construction of coherently organised neuronal assemblies through establishing transitory temporal correlations. By exploring the elementary operations of the language faculty – labeling, concatenation, cyclic transfer – alongside neural dynamics, a new model of linguistic computation is proposed. It is argued that the universality of language, and the true biological source of Universal Grammar, is not to be found purely in the genome as has long been suggested, but more specifically within the extraordinarily preserved nature of mammalian brain rhythms employed in the computation of linguistic structures. Computational-representational theories are used as a guide in investigating the neurobiological foundations of the human ‘cognome’ – the set of computations performed by the nervous system – and new directions are suggested for how the dynamics of brain (the ‘dynome’ operates and execute linguistic operations. The extent to which brain rhythms are the suitable neuronal processes which can capture the computational properties of the human language faculty is considered against a backdrop of existing cartographic research into the localisation of linguistic interpretation. Particular focus is placed on labeling, the operation elsewhere argued to be species-specific. A Basic Label model of the human cognome-dynome is proposed, leading to clear, causally-addressable empirical predictions, to be investigated by a suggested research program, Dynamic Cognomics. In addition, a distinction between minimal and maximal degrees of explanation is introduced to differentiate between the depth of analysis provided by cartographic, rhythmic, neurochemical and other approaches to computation.

  3. The brain dynamics of linguistic computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    Neural oscillations at distinct frequencies are increasingly being related to a number of basic and higher cognitive faculties. Oscillations enable the construction of coherently organized neuronal assemblies through establishing transitory temporal correlations. By exploring the elementary operations of the language faculty-labeling, concatenation, cyclic transfer-alongside neural dynamics, a new model of linguistic computation is proposed. It is argued that the universality of language, and the true biological source of Universal Grammar, is not to be found purely in the genome as has long been suggested, but more specifically within the extraordinarily preserved nature of mammalian brain rhythms employed in the computation of linguistic structures. Computational-representational theories are used as a guide in investigating the neurobiological foundations of the human "cognome"-the set of computations performed by the nervous system-and new directions are suggested for how the dynamics of the brain (the "dynome") operate and execute linguistic operations. The extent to which brain rhythms are the suitable neuronal processes which can capture the computational properties of the human language faculty is considered against a backdrop of existing cartographic research into the localization of linguistic interpretation. Particular focus is placed on labeling, the operation elsewhere argued to be species-specific. A Basic Label model of the human cognome-dynome is proposed, leading to clear, causally-addressable empirical predictions, to be investigated by a suggested research program, Dynamic Cognomics. In addition, a distinction between minimal and maximal degrees of explanation is introduced to differentiate between the depth of analysis provided by cartographic, rhythmic, neurochemical, and other approaches to computation.

  4. An Educative Brain-Computer Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Sorudeykin, Kirill A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we will describe all necessary parts of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI), such as source of signals, hardware, software, analysis, architectures of complete system. We also will go along various applications of BCI, view some subject fields and their specifics. After preface we will consider the main point of this work-concepts of using BCI in education. Represented direction of BCI development has not been reported prior. In this work a computer system, currently being elaborated in author's laboratory, will be specified. A purpose of it is to determine a degree of clearness of studied information for certain user according to their indications of brain electrical signals. On the basis of this information the system is able to find an optimal approach to interact with each single user. Feedback individualization leads to learning effectiveness increasing. Stated investigations will be supplemented by author's analytical reasoning on the nature of thinking process.

  5. Brain-Computer Interfaces Revolutionizing Human-Computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Graimann, Bernhard; Allison, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) establishes a direct output channel between the human brain and external devices. BCIs infer user intent via direct measures of brain activity and thus enable communication and control without movement. This book, authored by experts in the field, provides an accessible introduction to the neurophysiological and signal-processing background required for BCI, presents state-of-the-art non-invasive and invasive approaches, gives an overview of current hardware and software solutions, and reviews the most interesting as well as new, emerging BCI applications. The book is intended not only for students and young researchers, but also for newcomers and other readers from diverse backgrounds keen to learn about this vital scientific endeavour.

  6. Evaluation of external beam hardening filters on image quality of computed tomography and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Nivedita; Rawat, Dinesh; Parmar, Madan; Dhawan, Devinder Kumar; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of external metal filters on the image quality of computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT images. Images of Jaszack phantom filled with water and containing iodine contrast filled syringes were acquired using CT (120 kV, 2.5 mA) component of SPECT/CT system, ensuring fixation of filter on X-ray collimator. Different thickness of filters of Al and Cu (1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm) and filter combinations Cu 1 mm, Cu 2 mm, Cu 3 mm each in combination with Al (1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm), respectively, were used. All image sets were visually analyzed for streak artifacts and contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was derived. Similar acquisition was done using Philips CT quality control (QC) phantom and CNR were calculated for its lexan, perspex, and teflon inserts. Attenuation corrected SPECT/CT images of Jaszack phantom filled with 444-555 MBq (12-15 mCi) of (99m)Tc were obtained by applying attenuation correction map generated by hardened X-ray beam for different filter combination, on SPECT data. Uniformity, root mean square (rms) and contrast were calculated in all image sets. Less streak artifacts at iodine water interface were observed in images acquired using external filters as compared to those without a filter. CNR for syringes, spheres, and inserts of Philips CT QC phantom was almost similar to Al 2 mm, Al 3 mm, and without the use of filters. CNR decreased with increasing copper thickness and other filter combinations. Uniformity and rms were lower, and value of contrast was higher for SPECT/CT images when CT was acquired with Al 2 mm and 3 mm filter than for images acquired without a filter. The study suggests that for Infinia Hawkeye 4, SPECT/CT system, Al 2 mm, and 3 mm are the optimum filters for improving image quality of SPECT/CT images of Jaszack or Philips CT QC phantom keeping other parameters of CT constant.

  7. Computational Analysis of LDDMM for Brain Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can eCeritoglu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One goal of computational anatomy is to develop tools to accurately segment brain structures in healthy and diseased subjects. In this paper, we examine the performance and complexity of such segmentation in the framework of the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM registration method with reference to atlases and parameters. First we report the application of a multi-atlas segmentation approach to define basal ganglia structures in healthy and diseased kids’ brains. The segmentation accuracy of the multi-atlas approach is compared with the single atlas LDDMM implementation and two state-of-the-art segmentation algorithms – Freesurfer and FSL – by computing the overlap errors between automatic and manual segmentations of the six basal ganglia nuclei in healthy subjects as well as subjects with diseases including ADHD and Autism. The high accuracy of multi-atlas segmentation is obtained at the cost of increasing the computational complexity because of the calculations necessary between the atlases and a subject. Second, we examine the effect of parameters on total LDDMM computation time and segmentation accuracy for basal ganglia structures. Single atlas LDDMM method is used to automatically segment the structures in a population of 16 subjects using different sets of parameters. The results show that a cascade approach and using fewer time steps can reduce computational complexity as much as five times while maintaining reliable segmentations.

  8. Is there a role for the use of volumetric cone beam computed tomography in periodontics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bois, A H; Kardachi, B; Bartold, P M

    2012-03-01

    Volumetric computed cone beam tomography offers a number of significant advantages over conventional intraoral and extraoral panoramic radiography, as well as computed tomography. To date, periodontal diagnosis has relied heavily on the assessment of both intraoral radiographs and extraoral panoramic radiographs. With emerging technology in radiology there has been considerable interest in the role that volumetric cone beam computed tomography might play in periodontal diagnostics. This narrative reviews the current evidence and considers whether there is a role for volumetric cone beam computed tomography in periodontics.

  9. Brain Computer Interface Boulevard of Smarter Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Ghulyani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brain Computer Interface is a major breakthrough for the technical industry, medical world, military and the society on a whole. It is concerned with the control of devices around us such as computing gears & even automobiles in the near future without really the physical intervention of the user. It helps bridge the communication gap between the society and the disabled. This mainly lays its focus on people suffering from brainstem stroke, going through a spinal cord injury or even blindness. BCI helps such patients to retain or restore communication with the outside world through intelligent signals from the brain due to the high risk of paralysis under such circumstances. This is achieved by a signal acquisition technique and converting these signals available from the sensors placed on the scalp into real-time computer commands that can be visually operated and understood. It has nothing to do with the natural neural transmission of brain signals but extracts them with the help of sensors to be processed and direct the outputs to an external device. This may also prove to be a major military gadget where troops may communicate their thoughts in highly stressed situations without breaking the hush. But, as every technology have some merits and demerits, so does BCI.

  10. Automatic individualized contrast medium dosage during hepatic computed tomography by using computed tomography dose index volume (CTDI{sub vol})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Anders; Cederlund, Kerstin; Aspelin, Peter; Brismar, Torkel B. [Intervention and Technology at Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Science, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital in Huddinge, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Bjoerk, Jonas [FoU-centrum Skaane Skaanes Universitetssjukhus i Lund, Lund (Sweden); Nyman, Ulf [University of Lund, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Lasarettet Trelleborg, Trelleborg (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    To compare hepatic parenchymal contrast media (CM) enhancement during multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) and its correlation with volume pitch-corrected computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and body weight (BW). One hundred patients referred for standard three-phase thoraco-abdominal MDCT examination were enrolled. BW was measured in the CT suite. Forty grams of iodine was administered intravenously (iodixanol 320 mg I/ml at 5 ml/s or iomeprol 400 mg I/ml at 4 ml/s) followed by a 50-ml saline flush. CTDI{sub vol} presented by the CT equipment during the parenchymal examination was recorded. The CM enhancement of the liver was defined as the attenuation HU of the liver parenchyma during the hepatic parenchymal phase minus the attenuation in the native phase. Liver parenchymal enhancement was negatively correlated to both CTDI{sub vol} (r = -0.60) and BW (r = -0.64), but the difference in correlation between those two was not significant. CTDI{sub vol} may replace BW when adjusting CM doses to body size. This makes it potentially feasible to automatically individualize CM dosage by CT. (orig.)

  11. Two-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Gao; Yuan Xue; Huijuan Zhao; Takashi Kusaka; Masanori Ueno; Yukio Yamada

    2007-01-01

    Our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain are reported. We use the established 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection and generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that diffuse optical tomography may be a potent means for investigating brain functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.

  12. Two-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Xue, Yuan; Zhao, Huijuan; Kusaka, Takashi; Ueno, Masanori; Yamada, Yukio

    2007-08-01

    Our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain are reported. We use the established 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection and generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that diffuse optical tomography may be a potent means for investigating brain functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.

  13. Small-Animal Imaging Using Clinical Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Super-Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank P. DiFilippo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high cost of dedicated small-animal positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT, an acceptable alternative in many situations might be clinical PET/CT. However, spatial resolution and image quality are of concern. The utility of clinical PET/CT for small-animal research and image quality improvements from super-resolution (spatial subsampling were investigated. National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA NU 4 phantom and mouse data were acquired with a clinical PET/CT scanner, as both conventional static and stepped scans. Static scans were reconstructed with and without point spread function (PSF modeling. Stepped images were postprocessed with iterative deconvolution to produce super-resolution images. Image quality was markedly improved using the super-resolution technique, avoiding certain artifacts produced by PSF modeling. The 2 mm rod of the NU 4 phantom was visualized with high contrast, and the major structures of the mouse were well resolved. Although not a perfect substitute for a state-of-the-art small-animal PET/CT scanner, a clinical PET/CT scanner with super-resolution produces acceptable small-animal image quality for many preclinical research studies.

  14. Virtual positron emission tomography/computed tomography-bronchoscopy: possibilities, advantages and limitations of clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemann, Marcus D. [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); Schaefer, Juergen F. [Eberhard-Karls University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Englmeier, Karl-Hans [Institute of Medical Informatics, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the possibilities, advantages and limitations of virtual bronchoscopy using data sets from positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT). Twelve consecutive patients with lung cancer underwent PET/CT. PET was performed with F-18-labelled 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG). The tracheobronchial system was segmented with a volume-growing algorithm, using the CT data sets, and visualized with a shaded-surface rendering method. The primary tumours and the lymph node metastases were segmented for virtual CT-bronchoscopy using the CT data set and for virtual PET/CT-bronchoscopy using the PET/CT data set. Virtual CT-bronchoscopy using the low-dose or diagnostic CT facilitates the detection of anatomical/morphological structure changes of the tracheobronchial system. Virtual PET/CT-bronchoscopy was superior to virtual CT-bronchoscopy in the detection of lymph node metastases (P=0.001), because it uses the CT information and the molecular/metabolic information from PET. Virtual PET/CT-bronchoscopy with a transparent colour-coded shaded-surface rendering model is expected to improve the diagnostic accuracy of identification and characterization of malignancies, assessment of tumour staging, differentiation of viable tumour tissue from atelectases and scars, verification of infections, evaluation of therapeutic response and detection of an early stage of recurrence that is not detectable or is misjudged in comparison with virtual CT-bronchoscopy. (orig.)

  15. Use of Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Radiation Treatment Planning for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezban Berberoğlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy (RT plays an important role in the treatment of lung cancer. Accurate diagnosis and staging are crucial in the delivery of RT with curative intent. Target miss can be prevented by accurate determination of tumor contours during RT planning. Currently, tumor contours are determined manually by computed tomography (CT during RT planning. This method leads to differences in delineation of tumor volume between users. Given the change in RT tools and methods due to rapidly developing technology, it is now more significant to accurately delineate the tumor tissue. F18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (F18 FDG PET/CT has been established as an accurate method in correctly staging and detecting tumor dissemination in lung cancer. Since it provides both anatomic and biologic information, F18 FDG PET decreases interuser variability in tumor delineation. For instance, tumor volumes may be decreased as atelectasis and malignant tissue can be more accurately differentiated, as well as better evaluation of benign and malignant lymph nodes given the difference in FDG uptake. Using F18 FDG PET/CT, the radiation dose can be escalated without serious adverse effects in lung cancer. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of F18 FDG PET/CT for RT planning in lung cancer.

  16. Positron emission tomography/computer tomography in guidance of extrahepatic hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common primary cancers in the world. Surgery is the gold standard for treatment of patients with HCC. Recurrence and metastasis are the major obstacles to further improve the prognosis of HCC. Most recurrences are intrahepatic. However, 30% of the recurrences are extrahepatic. The role of resection in intrahepatic recurrences is widely accepted. The role of resection in extrahepatic HCC recurrence and metastasis is not well established. 18F fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET/CT) is useful in detecting distant metastasis from a variety of malignancies and shows superior accuracy to conventional imaging modalities in identification of intrahepatic and extrahepatic metastasis. We present one patient with one new isolated omental lymph node metastasis, who had a history of huge HCC resected six years ago. The metastatic focus was identified with 18 F-FDG PET/CT and resected. The follow-up revealed good prognosis with a long-term survival potential after resection of the omental lymphatic metastasis.

  17. Computed tomography image reconstruction from only two projections

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammad-Djafari, Ali

    2007-01-01

    English: This paper concerns the image reconstruction from a few projections in Computed Tomography (CT). The main objective of this paper is to show that the problem is so ill posed that no classical method, such as analytical methods based on inverse Radon transform, nor the algebraic methods such as Least squares (LS) or regularization theory can give satisfactory result. As an example, we consider in detail the case of image reconstruction from two horizontal and vertical projections. We then show how a particular composite Markov modeling and the Bayesian estimation framework can possibly propose satisfactory solutions to the problem. For demonstration and educational purpose a set of Matlab programs are given for a live presentation of the results. ----- French: Ce travail, \\`a but p\\'edagogique, pr\\'esente le probl\\`eme inverse de la reconstruction d'image en tomographie X lorsque le nombre des projections est tr\\`es limit\\'e. voir le texte en Anglais et en Fran\\c{c}ais.

  18. Quantifying the debonding of inclusions through tomography and computational homology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Yang; Johnson, George C. (University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA); Mota, Alejandro; Foulk, James W., III; Jin, Huiqing

    2010-09-01

    This report describes a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to use of synchrotron-radiation computed tomography (SRCT) data to determine the conditions and mechanisms that lead to void nucleation in rolled alloys. The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has provided SRCT data of a few specimens of 7075-T7351 aluminum plate (widely used for aerospace applications) stretched to failure, loaded in directions perpendicular and parallel to the rolling direction. The resolution of SRCT data is 900nm, which allows elucidation of the mechanisms governing void growth and coalescence. This resolution is not fine enough, however, for nucleation. We propose the use statistics and image processing techniques to obtain sub-resolution scale information from these data, and thus determine where in the specimen and when during the loading program nucleation occurs and the mechanisms that lead to it. Quantitative analysis of the tomography data, however, leads to the conclusion that the reconstruction process compromises the information obtained from the scans. Alternate, more powerful reconstruction algorithms are needed to address this problem, but those fall beyond the scope of this project.

  19. Simulation of emission tomography using grid middleware for distributed computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, M G; Longton, R F; Gregor, J; Smith, G T; Hutson, R K

    2004-09-01

    SimSET is Monte Carlo simulation software for emission tomography. This paper describes a simple but effective scheme for parallel execution of SimSET using NetSolve, a client-server system for distributed computation. NetSolve (version 1.4.1) is "grid middleware" which enables a user (the client) to run specific computations remotely and simultaneously on a grid of networked computers (the servers). Since the servers do not have to be identical machines, computation may take place in a heterogeneous environment. To take advantage of diversity in machines and their workloads, a client-side scheduler was implemented for the Monte Carlo simulation. The scheduler partitions the total decay events by taking into account the inherent compute-speeds and recent average workloads, i.e., the scheduler assigns more decay events to processors expected to give faster service and fewer decay events to those expected to give slower service. When compute-speeds and sustained workloads are taken into account, the speed-up is essentially linear in the number of equivalent "maximum-service" processors. One modification in the SimSET code (version 2.6.2.3) was made to ensure that the total number of decay events specified by the user is maintained in the distributed simulation. No other modifications in the standard SimSET code were made. Each processor runs complete SimSET code for its assignment of decay events, independently of others running simultaneously. Empirical results are reported for simulation of a clinical-quality lung perfusion study.

  20. Enhancement of photoacoustic tomography in the tissue with speed-of-sound variance using ultrasound computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程任翔; 陶超; 刘晓峻

    2015-01-01

    The speed-of-sound variance will decrease the imaging quality of photoacoustic tomography in acoustically inhomo-geneous tissue. In this study, ultrasound computed tomography is combined with photoacoustic tomography to enhance the photoacoustic tomography in this situation. The speed-of-sound information is recovered by ultrasound computed to-mography. Then, an improved delay-and-sum method is used to reconstruct the image from the photoacoustic signals. The simulation results validate that the proposed method can obtain a better photoacoustic tomography than the conventional method when the speed-of-sound variance is increased. In addition, the influences of the speed-of-sound variance and the fan-angle on the image quality are quantitatively explored to optimize the image scheme. The proposed method has a good performance even when the speed-of-sound variance reaches 14.2%. Furthermore, an optimized fan angle is revealed, which can keep the good image quality with a low cost of hardware. This study has a potential value in extending the biomedical application of photoacoustic tomography.

  1. Brain glucose utilization in systemic lupus erythematosus with neuropsychiatric symptoms: a controlled positron emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otte, A. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland)]|[Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Weiner, S.M. [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Peter, H.H. [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Mueller-Brand, J. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Goetze, M. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Moser, E. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Gutfleisch, J. [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Hoegerle, S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Juengling, F.D. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Nitzsche, E.U. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    In contrast to morphological imaging [such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography], functional imaging may be of advantage in the detection of brain abnormalities in cases of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therefore, we studied 13 patients (aged 40{+-}14 years, 11 female, 2 male) with neuropsychiatric SLE who met four of the American Rheumatism Association criteria for the classification of SLE. Ten clinically and neurologically healthy volunteers served as controls (aged 40{+-}12 years, 5 female, 5 male). Both groups were investigated using fluorine-18-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography (PET) and cranial MRI. The normal controls and 11 of the 13 patients showed normal MRI scans. However, PET scan was abnormal in all 13 SLE patients. Significant group-to-group differences in the glucose metabolic index (GMI=region of interest uptake/global uptake at the level of the basal ganglia and thalamus) were found in the parieto-occipital region on both sides: the GMI of the parieto-occipital region on the right side was 0.922{+-}0.045 in patients and 1.066{+-}0.081 in controls (P<0.0001, Mann Whitney U test), while on the left side it was 0.892{+-}0.060 in patients and 1.034{+-}0.051 in controls (P=0.0002). Parieto-occipital hypometabolism is a conspicuous finding in mainly MRI-negative neuropsychiatric SLE. As the parieto-occipital region is located at the boundary of blood supply of all three major arteries, it could be the most vulnerable zone of the cerebrum and may be affected at an early stage of the cerebrovascular disease. (orig.). With 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Survey of patient dose in computed tomography in Syria 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharita, M H; Khazzam, S

    2010-09-01

    The radiation doses to patient in computed tomography (CT) in Syria have been investigated and compared with similar studies in different countries. This work surveyed 30 CT scanners from six different manufacturers distributed all over Syria. Some of the results in this paper were part of a project launched by the International Atomic Energy Agency in different regions of the world covering Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe. The dose quantities covered are CT dose index (CTDI(w)), dose-length product (DLP), effective dose (E) and collective dose. It was found that most CTDI(w) and DLP values were similar to the European reference levels and in line with the results of similar surveys in the world. The results were in good agreement with the UNSCEAR Report 2007. This study concluded a recommendation for national diagnostic reference level for the most common CT protocols in Syria. The results can be used as a base for future optimisation studies in the country.

  3. Software innovations in computed tomography for structural heart disease interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, Michaela; Marwan, Mohamed; Gaede, Luise; Achenbach, Stephan

    2016-05-17

    Computed tomography (CT) provides high, isotropic spatial resolution and has become firmly established in pre-procedural imaging for structural heart disease interventions. It allows determination of the exact dimensions of the target structure, provides information regarding the access route and permits identification of fluoroscopic projection angles to provide optimal visualisation for device placement. Several software solutions are available and have been systematically evaluated in the context of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The use of software products to perform automated measurements can be useful, especially when the experience and expertise regarding evaluation of CT in the context of structural heart disease are limited. In scientific studies, software has been demonstrated to provide accurate support for annulus sizing and prosthesis selection, to aid in reliably identifying patients in whom a transfemoral access may be problematic, and to suggest suitable angulations for fluoroscopic imaging to achieve an orthogonal view onto the aortic valve during implantation.

  4. Application of cone beam computed tomography in facial imaging science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zacharias Fourie; Janalt Damstra; Yijin Ren

    2012-01-01

    The use of three-dimensional (3D) methods for facial imaging has increased significantly over the past years.Traditional 2D imaging has gradually being replaced by 3D images in different disciplines,particularly in the fields of orthodontics,maxillofacial surgery,plastic and reconstructive surgery,neurosurgery and forensic sciences.In most cases,3D facial imaging overcomes the limitations of traditional 2D methods and provides the clinician with more accurate information regarding the soft-tissues and the underlying skeleton.The aim of this study was to review the types of imaging methods used for facial imaging.It is important to realize the difference between the types of 3D imaging methods as application and indications thereof may differ.Since 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging will play an increasingly importanl role in orthodontics and orthognathic surgery,special emphasis should be placed on discussing CBCT applications in facial evaluations.

  5. Complicated cholecystitis: the complementary roles of sonography and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalel, Resmi A; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Shin, Lewis K

    2011-09-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a common cause of abdominal pain in the Western world. Unless treated promptly, patients with acute cholecystitis may develop complications such as gangrenous, perforated, or emphysematous cholecystitis. Because of the increased morbidity and mortality of complicated cholecystitis, early diagnosis and treatment are essential for optimal patient care. Nevertheless, complicated cholecystitis may pose significant challenges with cross-sectional imaging, including sonography and computed tomography (CT). Interpreting radiologists should be familiar with the spectrum of sonographic findings seen with complicated cholecystitis and as well as understand the complementary role of CT. Worrisome imaging findings for complicated cholecystitis include intraluminal findings (sloughed mucosa, hemorrhage, abnormal gas), gallbladder wall abnormalities (striations, asymmetric wall thickening, abnormal gas, loss of sonoreflectivity and contrast enhancement), and pericholecystic changes (echogenic fat, pericholecystic fluid, abscess formation). Finally, diagnosis of complicated cholecystitis by sonography and CT can guide alternative treatments including minimally invasive percutaneous and endoscopic options.

  6. Computed tomography dose optimisation in cystic fibrosis: A review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferris, Helena

    2016-04-28

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive disease of the Caucasian population worldwide, with respiratory disease remaining the most relevant source of morbidity and mortality. Computed tomography (CT) is frequently used for monitoring disease complications and progression. Over the last fifteen years there has been a six-fold increase in the use of CT, which has lead to a growing concern in relation to cumulative radiation exposure. The challenge to the medical profession is to identify dose reduction strategies that meet acceptable image quality, but fulfil the requirements of a diagnostic quality CT. Dose-optimisation, particularly in CT, is essential as it reduces the chances of patients receiving cumulative radiation doses in excess of 100 mSv, a dose deemed significant by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. This review article explores the current trends in imaging in CF with particular emphasis on new developments in dose optimisation.

  7. Dose reduction with adaptive bolus chasing computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhijun; Bai, Er-Wei; Wang, Ge; Sharafuddin, Melhem J; Abada, Hicham T

    2010-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) has become an effective diagnosis and evaluating tool in clinical; however, its radiation exposure has drawn great attention as more and more CT scans are performed every year. How to reduce the radiation dose and meanwhile keep the resultant CT images diagnosable becomes an important research topic. In this paper, we propose a dose reduction approach along with the adaptive bolus chasing CT Angiography (CTA) techniques, which are capable of tracking the contrast bolus peak over all the blood vessel segments during the CTA scan. By modulating the tube current (and collimator width) online, we can reduce the total radiation dose and maintain the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of the blood vessel. Numerical experiments on reference DSA data sets show that by using the proposed dose reduction method, the effective radiation dose can be saved about 39%.

  8. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki and others

    1988-09-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis.

  9. Building a 3D Computed Tomography Scanner From Surplus Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidekker, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanners are expensive imaging devices, often out of reach for small research groups. Designing and building a CT scanner from modular components is possible, and this article demonstrates that realization of a CT scanner from components is surprisingly easy. However, the high costs of a modular X-ray source and detector limit the overall cost savings. In this article, the possibility of building a CT scanner with available surplus X-ray parts is discussed, and a practical device is described that incurred costs of less than $16,000. The image quality of this device is comparable with commercial devices. The disadvantage is that design constraints imposed by the available components lead to slow scan speeds and a resolution of 0.5 mm. Despite these limitations, a device such as this is attractive for imaging studies in the biological and biomedical sciences, as well as for advancing CT technology itself.

  10. Cholecystocolonic fistula mimicking acute cholecystitis diagnosed unequivocally by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Jeffrey Forris Beecham; Chauhan, Nikunj Rashmikant; Paulson, Vera Ashley; Adduci, Alexander J

    2013-12-01

    Cholecystocolonic fistula is an uncommon potential complication of cholecystitis found intraoperatively in 0.06-0.14 % of patients undergoing cholecystectomy and 0.1-0.5 % of autopsy series. Although cholecystocolonic fistula is the second most common cholecystoenteric fistula, second only to cholecystoduodenal fistula, it is diagnosed preoperatively in only 7.9 % of patients. Failure to preoperatively diagnose cholecystocolonic fistula places surgeons in precarious positions, as they may be forced to convert a seemingly routine cholecystectomy to a more sophisticated procedure coupled with adhesiolysis, colonic suturing, or colonic resection. We report a young patient who presented to the emergency department with complaints indicative of acute cholecystitis; however, preoperative ultrasound was suggestive of a cholecystoenteric fistula. Computed tomography and pathology were pathognomonic with clear visualization of the cholecystocolonic fistulous tract.

  11. Systematic Errors in Dimensional X-ray Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the measurement. As a consequence, there is a high risk that on the basis of defective measurement results, a manufactured product is wrongly rejected in conformance testing. According to guidelines and standards, systematic error influences on a final measurand must be avoided or at least known so......A result of a measurement is usually affected by a measurement error which cannot be avoided in practice. Particularly in production metrology, systematic errors from, e.g, temperature influences, drift effects, etc., may lead to high measurement deviation in respect to the true value...... that it is possible to compensate them. In dimensional X-ray computed tomography (CT), many physical quantities influence the final result. However, it is important to know which factors in CT measurements potentially lead to systematic errors. In this talk, typical error sources in dimensional X-ray CT are discussed...

  12. Temporal bone trauma and complications: computed tomography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Couto, Caroline Laurita Batista; Gomes, Natalia Delage; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho, E-mail: anadoffemond@yahoo.com.br [Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Unit of Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis

    2013-03-15

    Most temporal bone fractures result from high-energy blunt head trauma, and are frequently related to other skull fractures or to polytrauma. Fractures and displacements of ossicular chain in the middle ear represent some of the main complications of temporal bone injury, and hence they will be more deeply approached in the present article. Other types of injuries include labyrinthine fractures, dural fistula, facial nerve paralysis and extension into the carotid canal. Computed tomography plays a fundamental role in the initial evaluation of polytrauma patients, as it can help to identify important structural injuries that may lead to severe complications such as sensorineural hearing loss, conductive hearing loss, dizziness and balance dysfunction, perilymphatic fistulas, facial nerve paralysis, vascular injury and others. (author)

  13. Computed tomography of the retroperitoneum in patients with femoral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustace, S; McCarthy, C; O'Byrne, J; Breatnach, E; Fitzgerald, E

    1994-08-01

    The authors illustrate the value of computed tomography (CT) of the retroperitoneum in patients presenting with femoral nerve signs. They describe 28 such patients, examined at a tertiary-care hospital between June 1990 and January 1993, in whom CT of the retroperitoneum contributed significantly to the diagnosis. The patients, 19 males and 9 females, ranged in age from 11 to 81 years. CT showed disease of the psoas compartment in 17 cases; the condition was due to a malignant lesion in 9 cases and was secondary to infection in 5 and to other causes in 3. Disease of the iliacus compartment was shown in 11 cases; it was due to a malignant lesion in 6 cases and was secondary to hemorrhage in 2, to infection in 1 and to a bursa in 1. The diagnostic features of the diseases encountered are discussed, and the importance of performing CT early is stressed.

  14. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation of Inverted Mesiodentes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sehaibany, Fares S; Marzouk, Hazem M; Salama, Fouad S

    2016-01-01

    A mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary teeth. The purpose of this report is to present a rare occurrence of non-syndromic impacted inverted mesiodentes in an 8.5-year-old boy who presented with a chief complaint of delayed eruption of his permanent maxillary left central incisor. Occlusal and panoramic radiographs, as well as cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with a three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction image, confirmed that one supernumerary tooth had perforated the nasal fossa floor and the other was in close approximation to the to the same site. Surgical removal of both mesiodentes was indicated. Radiographic evidence of complete healing was observed 12 months following surgical removal. The use of CBCT with a 3-D reconstruction image as a tool in diagnosis and evaluation of healing after surgical removal is recommended.

  15. Experimental determination of the segregation process using computer tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Beckmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modelling methods such as DEM and CFD are increasingly used for developing high efficient combine cleaning systems. For this purpose it is necessary to verify the complex segregation and separation processes in the combine cleaning system. One way is to determine the segregation and separation function using 3D computer tomography (CT. This method makes it possible to visualize and analyse the movement behaviour of the components of the mixture during the segregation and separation process as well as the derivation of descriptive process parameters. A mechanically excited miniature test rig was designed and built at the company CLAAS Selbstfahrende Erntemaschinen GmbH to achieve this aim. The investigations were carried out at the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS. Through the evaluation of the recorded images the segregation process is described visually. A more detailed analysis enabled the development of segregation and separation function based on the different densities of grain and material other than grain.

  16. Non-diffusing photochromic gel for optical computed tomography phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, K.

    2013-06-01

    This study examines photochromic response in radiation sensitive hydrogels. Genipin, crosslinked, gelatin gel can support high resolution images because the chromophores do not diffuse. A low power, 633 nm He-Ne laser was used to write lines into the gels by a photobleaching reaction. Optical cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans mapped the high resolution images in 3D with 0.25 mm voxel resolution. A straight line was written into a deformed gel and then readout in its relaxed, initial shape. The curved, photo-bleached line demonstrated deformable 3D dosimetry is possible with this system to the balloon edge. High resolution, photochromic images provide key information for characterizing optical CT scanners and 3D dosimeters. Many, ionizing radiation, dosimeter materials demonstrate either a photochromic or photothermal response, allowing this approach to be widely used in quantitative 3D scanning.

  17. Meningitis tuberculosa: Clinical findings and results of cranial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loddenkemper, R.; Hoffmann, H.G.

    1982-10-01

    Guided by 9 own observations between 1977 and 1981, new diagnostic facilities in tuberculous meningitis are discussed. For differentiation from viral meningitis, measurement of CSF lactic acid concentration in addition to that of CSF glucose has proved to be of value in recent years. In accordance with the literature, two cases of this series which were examined for CSF lactic acid concentration showed markedly elevated levels of 8,4 rsp. 10,4 mmol/l. In contrast to this, in viral meningitis usually values of less than 3.5 mmol/l are found. Additionally, the presence of hypochlor- and hyponatremia, which could be demonstrated in 6 of our 9 patients, may raise the suspicion of tuberculous etiology. In the series presented, cranial computed tomography was of greatest diagnostic value, enabling the diagnosis of hydrocephalus internus in 5, and basal arachnoiditis in 2 cases.

  18. Use and impact of positron computed tomography scanning in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazziotta, J.C.; Engel, J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Through the effective combination of instrumentation, tracer kinetic principles, and radiopharmaceuticals, positron computed tomography (PET) allows for the analytic, noninvasive measurement of local tissue physiology in humans. A large number of studies have already been performed in patients with epilepsy using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to measure local cerebral glucose utilization. In patients with complex partial epilepsy who are candidates for surgery, hypometabolic zones have been seen consistently (70%) in the interictal state. The complex anatomical and pathophysiological investigation of these hypometabolic zones is discussed. Ictal studies of patients with partial seizures have demonstrated a much more variable metabolic pattern which usually consists of hypermetabolism relative to baseline or interictal studies. Generalized epilepsy produced by electroconvulsive shock and petit mal epilepsy have been studied using FDG to estimate glucose metabolism.

  19. Dacryocystography using computed tomography prior to external dacryocystorhinostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Ikue; Chijiiwa, Taeko [National Kyushu Medical Center, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    We performed dacryocystography using computed tomography in 47 eyes of 45 patients of chronic dacryocystitis prior to external dacryocystorhinostomy. The radiopaque agent was injected into the lower canaliculus. The findings were useful in estimating the thickness of the bony wall of lacrimal fossa. The ethmoidal sinus was located adjacent and nasal to the lacrimal fossa in 11 eyes (23%). Care was needed in these cases not to create an anastomosis between the lacrimal sac and the ethmoidal sinus. The contrast medium was located in the nasolacrimal duct in 14 eyes (30%), suggesting that the obstruction was located in the lower nasolacrimal duct. Intraoperative irrigation-aspiration appeared to be indicated in these cases. Traumatic bony fracture with hypertrophy was present in one case, suggesting that nasolacrimal obstruction may be induced by facial trauma. (author)

  20. Initial results of finger imaging using Photoacoustic Computed Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    van Es, Peter; Moens, Hein J Bernelot; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2014-01-01

    We present a photoacoustic computed tomography investigation on a healthy human finger, to image blood vessels with a focus on vascularity across the interphalangeal joints. The cross-sectional images were acquired using an imager specifically developed for this purpose. The images show rich detail of the digital blood vessels with diameters between 100 $\\mu$m and 1.5 mm in various orientations and at various depths. Different vascular layers in the skin including the subpapillary plexus could also be visualized. Acoustic reflections on the finger bone of photoacoustic signals from skin were visible in sequential slice images along the finger except at the location of the joint gaps. Not unexpectedly, the healthy synovial membrane at the joint gaps was not detected due to its small size and normal vascularization. Future research will concentrate on studying digits afflicted with rheumatoid arthritis to detect the inflamed synovium with its heightened vascularization, whose characteristics are potential marke...

  1. Gamma-ray computed tomography to characterize soil surface sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, L.F.Luiz F. E-mail: lfpires@cena.usp.br; Macedo, Jose R. de; Souza, Manoel D. de; Bacchi, Osny O.S.; Reichardt, Klaus

    2002-09-01

    The application of sewage sludge as a fertilizer on soils may cause compacted surface layers (surface sealing), which can promote changes on soil physical properties. The objective of this work was to study the use of gamma-ray computed tomography, as a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of this sealing process through the measurement of soil bulk density distribution of the soil surface layer of samples subjected to sewage sludge application. Tomographic images were taken with a first generation tomograph with a resolution of 1 mm. The image analysis opened the possibility to obtain soil bulk density profiles and average soil bulk densities of the surface layer and to detect the presence of soil surface sealing. The sealing crust thickness was estimated to be in the range of 2-4 mm.

  2. Inspection of a Medieval Wood Sculpture Using Computer Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitany, K.; Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.

    2016-06-01

    Computer tomography (CT) is an excellent technique for obtaining accurate 3D information about the human body. It allows to visualize the organs, bones and blood vessels, furthermore it enables to diagnose anomalies and diseases. Its spatial reconstruction capability supports other interesting applications, such as inspecting different, even valuable objects like ancient sculptures. Current paper presents a methodology of evaluating CT and video imagery through the example of investigating a wood Madonna with infant Jesus sculpture from the 14th century. The developed techniques extract the outer boundary of the statue, which has been triangulated to derive the surface model. The interior of the sculpture has also been revealed: the iron bolts and rivets as well as the woodworm holes can be mapped. By merging the interior and outer data (geometry and texture) interesting visualizations (perspective views, sections etc.) have been created.

  3. The possibilities of computer tomography in paecilomycosis of lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdusalom Ashurov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed computed tomography (CT results of chest in 56 patients with lung injures caused by paecilomycosis fungus at the age from 17 to 59 years. In our investigations, the perverted lung pattern due to pathology of interstitial tissue was observed in 52 (93% patients of 56 (with chronic bronchitis - 100%, exogenous-allergic alveolitis - 93%, recurrent pneumonia - 100% and with bronchial asthma - 80%. Analysis showed that CT provides wide opportunities in visualization of all spectrum of symptoms in lung tissue injury and could allow to increase the accuracy of determining the character and degree of injury, and also it could allow to determine localization and spreading of the pathological process.

  4. Fossa navicularis magna detection on cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, Ali Z. [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland(United States); Mupparapu, Mel [Div. of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine, Philadelphia (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Herein, we report and discuss the detection of fossa navicularis magna, a close radiographic anatomic variant of canalis basilaris medianus of the basiocciput, as an incidental finding in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. The CBCT data of the patients in question were referred for the evaluation of implant sites and to rule out pathology in the maxilla and mandible. CBCT analysis showed osseous, notch-like defects on the inferior aspect of the clivus in all four cases. The appearance of fossa navicularis magna varied among the cases. In some, it was completely within the basiocciput and mimicked a small rounded, corticated, lytic defect, whereas it appeared as a notch in others. Fossa navicularis magna is an anatomical variant that occurs on the inferior aspect of the clivus. The pertinent literature on the anatomical variations occurring in this region was reviewed.

  5. Lung cancer screening: Computed tomography or chest radiographs?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edwin; JR; van; Beek; Saeed; Mirsadraee; John; T; Murchison

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of mortalitydue to malignancy. The vast majority of cases of lung cancer are smoking related and the most effective way of reducing lung cancer incidence and mortality is by smoking cessation. In the Western world, smoking cessation policies have met with limited success. The other major means of reducing lung cancer deaths is to diagnose cases at an earlier more treatable stage employing screening programmes using chest radiographs or low dose computed tomography. In many countries smoking is still on the increase, and the sheer scale of the problem limits the affordability of such screening programmes. This short review article will evaluate the current evidence and potential areas of research which may benefit policy making across the world.

  6. Glasses for 3D ultrasound computer tomography: phase compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapf, M.; Hopp, T.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT), developed at KIT, is a promising new imaging system for breast cancer diagnosis, and was successfully tested in a pilot study. The 3D USCT II prototype consists of several hundreds of ultrasound (US) transducers on a semi-ellipsoidal aperture. Spherical waves are sequentially emitted by individual transducers and received in parallel by many transducers. Reflectivity volumes are reconstructed by synthetic aperture focusing (SAFT). However, straight forward SAFT imaging leads to blurred images due to system imperfections. We present an extension of a previously proposed approach to enhance the images. This approach includes additional a priori information and system characteristics. Now spatial phase compensation was included. The approach was evaluated with a simulation and clinical data sets. An increase in the image quality was observed and quantitatively measured by SNR and other metrics.

  7. Micro-computed tomography for small animal imaging: Technological details

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Li; Hui Zhang; Zhiwei Tang; Guangshu Hu

    2008-01-01

    The high-resolution micro-computed tomography(micro-CT)system has now become an important tool for biological research.The micro-CT system enables a non-invasive inspection to screen anatomical changes in small animals.The promising advantages include high-spatial resolution,high sensitivity to bone and lung,short scan time and cost-effectiveness.The dose received by the small animal might be a critical concern in the research.In this article,the choice of the components,fundamental physical problems,the image reconstruction algorithm and the representative applications of micro-CT are summarized.Some results from our research group are also presented to show high-resolution images obtained by the micro-CT system.

  8. Experimental determination of the segregation process using computer tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Beckmann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Modelling methods such as DEM and CFD are increasingly used for developing high efficient combine cleaning systems. For this purpose it is necessary to verify the complex segregation and separation processes in the combine cleaning system. One way is to determine the segregation and separation function using 3D computer tomography (CT. This method makes it possible to visualize and analyse the movement behaviour of the components of the mixture during the segregation and separation process as well as the derivation of descriptive process parameters. A mechanically excited miniature test rig was designed and built at the company CLAAS Selbstfahrende Erntemaschinen GmbH to achieve this aim. The investigations were carried out at the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS. Through the evaluation of the recorded images the segregation process is described visually. A more detailed analysis enabled the development of segregation and separation function based on the different densities of grain and material other than grain.

  9. Low-dose computed tomography to diagnose fetal bone dysplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Filardi, A; Guasp Vizcaíno, M; Gómez Fernández-Montes, J; Llorens Salvador, R

    We present a case of cleidocranial dysplasia diagnosed by low-dose fetal computed tomography (CT) in the 25th week of gestation. Severe bone dysplasia was suspected because of the fetus' low percentile in long bones length and the appearance of craniosynostosis on sonography. CT found no abnormalities incompatible with life. The effective dose was 5 mSv, within the recommended range for this type of examination. Low-dose fetal CT is a new technique that makes precision study of the bony structures possible from the second trimester of pregnancy. In Spain, abortion is legal even after the 22nd week of gestation in cases of severe fetal malformations. Therefore, in cases in which severe bone dysplasia is suspected, radiologists must know the strategies for reducing the dose of radiation while maintaining sufficient diagnostic quality, and they must also know which bony structures to evaluate.

  10. Common findings and pseudolesions at computed tomography colonography: pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atzingen, Augusto Castelli von [Clinical Radiology, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tiferes, Dario Ariel; Matsumoto, Carlos Alberto; Nunes, Thiago Franchi; Maia, Marcos Vinicius Alvim Soares [Abdominal Imaging Section, Department of Imaging Diagnosis - Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    Computed tomography colonography is a minimally invasive method for screening for polyps and colorectal cancer, with extremely unusual complications, increasingly used in the clinical practice. In the last decade, developments in bowel preparation, imaging, and in the training of investigators have determined a significant increase in the method sensitivity. Images interpretation is accomplished through a combined analysis of two-dimensional source images and several types of three-dimensional renderings, with sensitivity around 96% in the detection of lesions with dimensions equal or greater than 10 mm in size, when analyzed by experienced radiologists. The present pictorial essay includes examples of diseases and pseudolesions most frequently observed in this type of imaging study. The authors present examples of flat and polypoid lesions, benign and malignant lesions, diverticular disease of the colon, among other conditions, as well as pseudolesions, including those related to inappropriate bowel preparation and misinterpretation. (author)

  11. Three-dimensional computed tomography of the acetabulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi Mucelli, R.S.; Muner, G.; Pozzi Mucelli, F.; Pozzi Mucelli, M.; Marotti, F.; Dalla Palma, L.

    1986-08-01

    Acetabular fractures represent a complex variety that are classified in different types. Conventional radiology is often inadequate to demonstrate and classify the fractures. Computed tomography (CT) has already been shown to be superior in this field. A further advantage of CT is represented by the recent availability of three-dimensional (3D) images that are realized from axial CT scans by means of a new software. The Authors report the applications of this new software to the study of the normal acetabulum and in patients with fractures. 3D images allows an effective demonstration of the fracture, its irradiation and the dislocation of bone fragments. The information is contained in one or few images rather than many axial images. Therefore the role of 3D images may be considered complementary to axial CT scans.

  12. Malignant uveal melanoma and similar lesions studied by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mafee, M.F.; Peyman, G.A.; McKusick, M.A.

    1985-08-01

    Forty-four patients with intraocular disease were studied by computed tomography (CT); in 19 cases malignant uveal melanoma was considered the likely diagnosis. CT proved to be accurate in determining the location and size of uveal melanomas, demonstrating scleral invasion, and differentiating melanoma from choroidal detachment or angioma, toxocariasis, and senile macular degeneration. On CT, uveal melanomas appeared as hyperdense lesions with slight to moderate contrast enhancement. Tumors thinner than 2 mm could not be seen. Using dynamic CT, the authors noted moderate peak amplitude, normal or delayed tissue transit time, and persistently elevated washout phase (downslope), indicating increased permeability as the result of an impaired tumor blood barrier. Histological types of uveal melanoma could not be differentiated on the basis of circulatory patterns. Dynamic CT may be useful in distinguishing uveal melanoma from choroidal hemangioma or hematoma.

  13. Recent Developments in Computed Tomography for Urolithiasis: Diagnosis and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Mc Laughlin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To critically evaluate the current literature in an effort to establish the current role of radiologic imaging, advances in computed tomography (CT and standard film radiography in the diagnosis, and characterization of urinary tract calculi. Conclusion. CT has a valuable role when utilized prudently during surveillance of patients following endourological therapy. In this paper, we outline the basic principles relating to the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation as a result of CT scanning. We discuss the current developments in low-dose CT technology, which have resulted in significant reductions in CT radiation doses (to approximately one-third of what they were a decade ago while preserving image quality. Finally, we will discuss an important recent development now commercially available on the latest generation of CT scanners, namely, dual energy imaging, which is showing promise in urinary tract imaging as a means of characterizing the composition of urinary tract calculi.

  14. 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography improves the diagnostic accuracy of osteoid osteoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squier, Samuel Brian; Lewis, Jacob Ian; Accurso, Joseph Matthew; Jain, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 17-year-old football player who had previously received multiple facet joint injections for presumed secondary osteoarthritis. 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging of the cervical spine demonstrated focal increased radiopharmaceutical activity in the right C2 lamina, which was associated with an osteolytic lesion with a central irregular sclerotic nidus. Surgical pathology confirmed an osteoid osteoma. PMID:27833319

  15. The contribution of single photon emission computed tomography in the clinical assessment of Alzheimer type dementia; Apport de la tomographie d'emission monophonique cerebrale dans l'evaluation des demences de type Alzheimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudousq, V.; Collombier, L.; Kotzki, P.O. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nimes, 30 (France)

    1999-12-01

    Interest of brain single-photon emission computed tomography to support clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer-type dementia is now established. Numerous studies have reported a decreased perfusion in the association cortex of the parietal lobe and the posterior temporal regions. In patients with mild cognitive complaints, the presence of focal hypoperfusion may increase substantially the probability of the disease. In addition, emission tomography emerges as a helpful tool in situation in which there is diagnostic doubt. In this case, the presence of temporo-parietal perfusion deficit associated with hippocampal atrophy on MRI or X-ray computed tomography contributes to diagnostic accuracy. However, some studies suggest that emission tomography may be useful for preclinical prediction of Alzheimer's disease and to predict cognitive decline. (author)

  16. Contrast-enhanced fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/contrast-enhanced computed tomography in mediastinal T-cell lymphoma with superior vena cava syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Sampath; Gorla, Arun Kumar Reddy; Bhattacharya, Anish; Varma, Subhash Chander; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) is a routine investigation for the staging of lymphomas. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is mandatory whenever parenchymal lesions, especially in the liver and spleen are suspected. We report a rare case of primary mediastinal T-cell lymphoma evaluated with contrast-enhanced PET/CT that showed features of superior vena cava syndrome.

  17. Multiscale and multimodality computed tomography for cortical bone analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, A.; Peyrin, F.; Gouttenoire, P. J.; Laredo, J. D.; DeVernejoul, M. C.; Cohen Solal, M.; Chappard, C.

    2016-12-01

    In clinical studies, high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) is used to separately evaluate cortical bone and trabecular bone with an isotropic voxel of 82 µm3, and typical cortical parameters are cortical density (D.comp), thickness (Ct.Th), and porosity (Ct.Po). In vitro, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is used to explore the internal cortical bone micro-structure with isotropic voxels and high resolution synchrotron radiation (SR); micro-CT is considered the ‘gold standard’. In 16 tibias and 8 femurs, HR-pQCT measurements were compared to conventional micro-CT measurements. To test modality effects, conventional micro-CT measurements were compared to SR micro-CT measurements at 7.5 µm3 SR micro-CT measurements were also tested at different voxel sizes for the femurs, specifically, 7.5 µm3 versus 2.8 µm3. D.comp (r  =  -0.88, p  images provided consistent results compared to those obtained using conventional micro-CT at the distal tibia. D.comp was highly correlated to Po.V/TV because it considers both the micro-porosity (Haversian systems) and macro-porosity (resorption lacunae) of cortical bone. The complexity of canal organization, (including shape, connectivity, and surface) are not fully considered in conventional micro-CT in relation to beam hardening and cone beam reconstruction artifacts. With the exception of Po.V/TV measurements, morphological and topological measurements depend on the characteristics of the x-ray beam, and to a lesser extent, on image resolution.

  18. Sex estimation from sternal measurements using multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Hocaoglu, Elif; Inci, Ercan; Bilgili, Mustafa Gokhan; Solmaz, Dilek; Erdil, Irem; Can, Ismail Ozgur

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to show the utility and reliability of sternal morphometric analysis for sex estimation.Sex estimation is a very important step in forensic identification. Skeletal surveys are main methods for sex estimation studies. Morphometric analysis of sternum may provide high accuracy rated data in sex discrimination. In this study, morphometric analysis of sternum was evaluated in 1 mm chest computed tomography scans for sex estimation. Four hundred forty 3 subjects (202 female, 241 male, mean age: 44 ± 8.1 [distribution: 30-60 year old]) were included the study. Manubrium length (ML), mesosternum length (2L), Sternebra 1 (S1W), and Sternebra 3 (S3W) width were measured and also sternal index (SI) was calculated. Differences between genders were evaluated by student t-test. Predictive factors of sex were determined by discrimination analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Male sternal measurement values are significantly higher than females (P < 0.001) while SI is significantly low in males (P < 0.001). In discrimination analysis, MSL has high accuracy rate with 80.2% in females and 80.9% in males. MSL also has the best sensitivity (75.9%) and specificity (87.6%) values. Accuracy rates were above 80% in 3 stepwise discrimination analysis for both sexes. Stepwise 1 (ML, MSL, S1W, S3W) has the highest accuracy rate in stepwise discrimination analysis with 86.1% in females and 83.8% in males. Our study showed that morphometric computed tomography analysis of sternum might provide important information for sex estimation.

  19. Centre of Rotation Determination Using Projection Data in X-ray Micro Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Olander, Birger

    1994-01-01

    There are several methods available to determine the Centre Of Rotation, COR, and align detectors and X-ray focus to COR in X-ray computed tomography. Some methods use narrow rods/needles or specially made alignment objects or phantoms. In X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (or Computerized Micro Tomography), μCT (CMT), methods using sample projection data for COR measurements are preferred since the replacement of alignment objects with samples often displace translation stages and make the ali...

  20. Brain-computer interfaces and neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabalona, Roberta; Castiglioni, Paolo; Gramatica, Furio

    2009-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) directly uses brain-activity signals to allow users to operate the environment without any muscular activation. Thanks to this feature, BCI systems can be employed not only as assistive devices, but also as neurorehabilitation tools in clinical settings. However, several critical issues need to be addressed before using BCI in neurorehabilitation, issues ranging from signal acquisition and selection of the proper BCI paradigm to the evaluation of the affective state, cognitive load and system acceptability of the users. Here we discuss these issues, illustrating how a rehabilitation program can benefit from BCI sessions, and summarize the results obtained so far in this field. Also provided are experimental data concerning two important topics related to BCI usability in rehabilitation: the possibility of using dry electrodes for EEG acquisition, and the monitoring of psychophysiological effects during BCI tasks.

  1. Artifacts in computed tomography scanning of moving objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, George T Y; Kung, Jong H; Beaudette, Kevin P

    2004-01-01

    Target volumes in the thorax and abdomen are commonly computed tomography (CT) scanned during light respiration. In this article, we analyze the distortions introduced in helical scanning of moving objects. Objects of known geometry are placed on a moving sled and scanned in a multirow helical CT scanner. The motion of the sled approximates the magnitude and velocity of organ movement in patients during light respiration (amplitude 1 cm, period 4 seconds). Scans of the phantom are obtained in high speed mode at incremental phases of respiration, and the resulting images are compared with scans obtained when the phantom is static. Computer simulations of the scan process are also performed to interpret the results and extend the analysis to a greater range of parameters in scanning, motion, and object size. Resulting scans show that spherical test objects can be shortened by as much as 2 cm or twice the periodic motion amplitude. Object shape was significantly distorted, and the geometric center of the object was displaced by as much as +/-0.8 cm. Computer simulation results qualitatively agree with the experimentally observed phantom images. These simulations predict that the effect is clearly observable even if the amplitude is decreased to 0.5 cm. Implications of scanning moving objects on treatment planning are discussed.

  2. Time-Domain Terahertz Computed Axial Tomography NDE System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimdars, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA has identified the need for advanced non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods to characterize aging and durability in aircraft materials to improve the safety of the nation's airline fleet. 3D THz tomography can play a major role in detection and characterization of flaws and degradation in aircraft materials, including Kevlar-based composites and Kevlar and Zylon fabric covers for soft-shell fan containment where aging and durability issues are critical. A prototype computed tomography (CT) time-domain (TD) THz imaging system has been used to generate 3D images of several test objects including a TUFI tile (a thermal protection system tile used on the Space Shuttle and possibly the Orion or similar capsules). This TUFI tile had simulated impact damage that was located and the depth of damage determined. The CT motion control gan try was designed and constructed, and then integrated with a T-Ray 4000 control unit and motion controller to create a complete CT TD-THz imaging system prototype. A data collection software script was developed that takes multiple z-axis slices in sequence and saves the data for batch processing. The data collection software was integrated with the ability to batch process the slice data with the CT TD-THz image reconstruction software. The time required to take a single CT slice was decreased from six minutes to approximately one minute by replacing the 320 ps, 100-Hz waveform acquisition system with an 80 ps, 1,000-Hz waveform acquisition system. The TD-THZ computed tomography system was built from pre-existing commercial off-the-shelf subsystems. A CT motion control gantry was constructed from COTS components that can handle larger samples. The motion control gantry allows inspection of sample sizes of up to approximately one cubic foot (.0.03 cubic meters). The system reduced to practice a CT-TDTHz system incorporating a COTS 80- ps/l-kHz waveform scanner. The incorporation of this scanner in the system allows acquisition of 3D

  3. Multi-dimensional visualization of coronary aberrancies using multi detector computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, P; Dorgelo, J; Tukker, W; Willemsen, H; Oudkerk, M; Lewis, BS; Halon, DA; Flugelman, MY; Gensini, GF

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of three and four dimensional visualization of multi detector computed tomography datasets for the evaluation of coronary aberrancies. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) datasets were obtained in thirteen patients following a standard p

  4. Quantitative computed tomography measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness are related to respiratory symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grydeland, Thomas B; Dirksen, Asger; Coxson, Harvey O

    2010-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about the relationship between respiratory symptoms and quantitative high-resolution computed tomography measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness.......There is limited knowledge about the relationship between respiratory symptoms and quantitative high-resolution computed tomography measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness....

  5. Just Scan It!-Weapon Reconstruction in Computed Tomography on Historical and Current Swiss Military Guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckenberg, Sabine; Binder, Thomas; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen G

    2016-09-01

    Cross-sectional imaging, such as computed tomography, has been increasingly implemented in both historic and recent postmortem forensic investigations. It aids in determining cause and manner of death as well as in correlating injuries to possible weapons. This study illuminates the feasibility of reconstructing guns in computed tomography and gives a distinct overview of historic and recent Swiss Army guns.

  6. Role of computed tomography and radionuclide scintigraphy in the localization of osteomyelitis in flat bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, R.J.; Conway, J.J.; Poznanski, A.K.; Tachdjian, M.O.; Dias, L.S.; Kelikian, A.S.

    1985-03-01

    The combined use of radionuclide scintigraphy and computed tomography is recommended for evaluating children with laboratory and clinical data suggestive of flat bone osteomyelitis despite normal conventional radiographs. In addition, computed tomography may be helpful in the presence of abnormal radiographs in determining the exact location of the focus of osteomyelitis and the most suitable route for appropriate drainage or to obtain culture material.

  7. 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging in paediatric oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John; Freebody; Eva; A; Wegner; Monica; A; Rossleigh

    2014-01-01

    Positron emission tomography(PET) is a minimally in-vasive technique which has been well validated for the diagnosis, staging, monitoring of response to therapy, and disease surveillance of adult oncology patients. Tra-ditionally the value of PET and PET/computed tomogra-phy(CT) hybrid imaging has been less clearly defined for paediatric oncology. However recent evidence has emerged regarding the diagnostic utility of these mo-dalities, and they are becoming increasingly important tools in the evaluation and monitoring of children with known or suspected malignant disease. Important indi-cations for 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose(FDG) PET in paediatric oncology include lymphoma, brain tumours, sarcoma, neuroblastoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, urogenital tumours and neurofibromatosis type Ⅰ. This article aims to review current evidence for the use of FDG PET and PET/CT in these indications. Attention will also be given to technical and logistical issues, the description of common imaging pitfalls, and dosimetric concerns as they relate to paediatric oncology.

  8. Adaptive multiclass classification for brain computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llera, A; Gómez, V; Kappen, H J

    2014-06-01

    We consider the problem of multiclass adaptive classification for brain-computer interfaces and propose the use of multiclass pooled mean linear discriminant analysis (MPMLDA), a multiclass generalization of the adaptation rule introduced by Vidaurre, Kawanabe, von Bünau, Blankertz, and Müller (2010) for the binary class setting. Using publicly available EEG data sets and tangent space mapping (Barachant, Bonnet, Congedo, & Jutten, 2012) as a feature extractor, we demonstrate that MPMLDA can significantly outperform state-of-the-art multiclass static and adaptive methods. Furthermore, efficient learning rates can be achieved using data from different subjects.

  9. Efficacy of navigation in skull base surgery using composite computer graphics of magnetic resonance and computed tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Nakamasa; Kurimoto, Masanori; Hirashima, Yutaka; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Shibata, Takashi; Tomita, Takahiro; Endo, Shunro [Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The efficacy of a neurosurgical navigation system using three-dimensional composite computer graphics (CGs) of magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images was evaluated in skull base surgery. Three-point transformation was used for integration of MR and CT images. MR and CT image data were obtained with three skin markers placed on the patient's scalp. Volume-rendering manipulations of the data produced three-dimensional CGs of the scalp, brain, and lesions from the MR images, and the scalp and skull from the CT. Composite CGs of the scalp, skull, brain, and lesion were created by registering the three markers on the three-dimensional rendered scalp images obtained from MR imaging and CT in the system. This system was used for 14 patients with skull base lesions. Three-point transformation using three-dimensional CGs was easily performed for multimodal registration. Simulation of surgical procedures on composite CGs aided in comprehension of the skull base anatomy and selection of the optimal approaches. Intraoperative navigation aided in determination of actual spatial position in the skull base and the optimal trajectory to the tumor during surgical procedures. (author)

  10. The frontal ventriculocerebral ratio no normal computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Yeon Jung; Hah, Hae Koo [College of Medicine, Han Yang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    From the Hanyng University hospital's computer memory bank containing the CT scans of over 3000 patients, 400 normal patients between age of 1 to 69 years were selected at random. These scans were performed as a screening test in patient with minimal, vague neurologic manifestations such as headache, dizziness, convulsion and depression or suffering the traffic accident. Determination of ventridulocerebral ratio between the width of brain and dimension representing the distance between the outer border of the lateral ventricle was made at the two sites, using the image 4 or 5 at the demonstrating the level of Monro's formen.

  11. Value of computer tomography and sonography in the investigation of the pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, K.; Frommhold, H.; Grauthoff, H.; Moedder, U.; Heuser, L. Braun, G.; Buurman, R.; Scherer, K. (Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Klinik; Hamburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Klinik und Strahleninstitut; Koeln Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Radiologisches Inst. und Poliklinik)

    1980-05-01

    Three hundred and five patients were examined by computer tomography and sonography. In 117 patients no abnormalities were found in the pancreas. The accuracy of computer tomography was 87%, of sonography 85%. In 41 patients the presence of a carcinoma of the pancreas was confirmed histologically. In this group the sensitivity of computer tomography was 83%, of sonography 85%. Thirty-four patients suffered from acute pancreatitis. In this group sensitivity of the two methods was equal at 79%. 113 patients had changes of chronic pancreatitis. Sensitivity of computer tomography was 84%, of sonography 70%. Computer tomography is better at demonstrating calcification in the pancreas. Atrophy of the pancreas cannot be diagnosed by sonography.

  12. Touch-based Brain Computer Interfaces: State of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Brouwer, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) rely on the user's brain activity to control equipment or computer devices. Many BCIs are based on imagined movement (called active BCIs) or the fact that brain patterns differ in reaction to relevant or attended stimuli in comparison to irrelevant or unattended stim

  13. Comparison of Adsorbed Skin Dose Received by Patients in Cone Beam Computed Tomography, Spiral and Conventional Computed Tomography Scanninng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The evaluation of absorbed dose received by patients could give useful information for radiation risk estimation. This study was performed to compare the entrance skin dose received by patients in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, conventional and spiral computed tomography (CT.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 81 calibrated TLD chips were used. the TLD chips were placed on facial, thyroid and end of sternum skin surface in patients referred for CT of the paranasal sinuses(3 TLD chips for each area to estimate the absorbed dose received by central part of radiation field, thyroid and out of field areas, respectively. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The dose delivered to the center of irradiated field was about 0.79±0.09 mGy in CBCT technique compared with 16.31±3.71 and 18.84±4.12 mGy for spiral and conventional CT, respectively. The received dose by the out of field areas was about 54 percent of central area dose. There was statistical significant relationship between the imaging modalities and absorbed dose received by patients (P=0.016. The least absorbed dose was for CBCT and the greatest dose was for conventional CT imaging technique.Conclusion: The dose delivered to central area of irradiated field in conventional and spiral CT imaging modalities was about 24 times greater than of that in CBCT. Also, the highest received dose was for central area of radiated field and the lowest dose was for the out of field areas.

  14. Dynamic 3D computed tomography scanner for vascular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark K.; Holdsworth, David W.; Fenster, Aaron

    2000-04-01

    A 3D dynamic computed-tomography (CT) scanner was developed for imaging objects undergoing periodic motion. The scanner system has high spatial and sufficient temporal resolution to produce quantitative tomographic/volume images of objects such as excised arterial samples perfused under physiological pressure conditions and enables the measurements of the local dynamic elastic modulus (Edyn) of the arteries in the axial and longitudinal directions. The system was comprised of a high resolution modified x-ray image intensifier (XRII) based computed tomographic system and a computer-controlled cardiac flow simulator. A standard NTSC CCD camera with a macro lens was coupled to the electro-optically zoomed XRII to acquire dynamic volumetric images. Through prospective cardiac gating and computer synchronized control, a time-resolved sequence of 20 mm thick high resolution volume images of porcine aortic specimens during one simulated cardiac cycle were obtained. Performance evaluation of the scanners illustrated that tomographic images can be obtained with resolution as high as 3.2 mm-1 with only a 9% decrease in the resolution for objects moving at velocities of 1 cm/s in 2D mode and static spatial resolution of 3.55 mm-1 with only a 14% decrease in the resolution in 3D mode for objects moving at a velocity of 10 cm/s. Application of the system for imaging of intact excised arterial specimens under simulated physiological flow/pressure conditions enabled measurements of the Edyn of the arteries with a precision of +/- kPa for the 3D scanner. Evaluation of the Edyn in the axial and longitudinal direction produced values of 428 +/- 35 kPa and 728 +/- 71 kPa, demonstrating the isotropic and homogeneous viscoelastic nature of the vascular specimens. These values obtained from the Dynamic CT systems were not statistically different (p less than 0.05) from the values obtained by standard uniaxial tensile testing and volumetric measurements.

  15. Beamforming in noninvasive brain-computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse-Wentrup, Moritz; Liefhold, Christian; Gramann, Klaus; Buss, Martin

    2009-04-01

    Spatial filtering (SF) constitutes an integral part of building EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Algorithms frequently used for SF, such as common spatial patterns (CSPs) and independent component analysis, require labeled training data for identifying filters that provide information on a subject's intention, which renders these algorithms susceptible to overfitting on artifactual EEG components. In this study, beamforming is employed to construct spatial filters that extract EEG sources originating within predefined regions of interest within the brain. In this way, neurophysiological knowledge on which brain regions are relevant for a certain experimental paradigm can be utilized to construct unsupervised spatial filters that are robust against artifactual EEG components. Beamforming is experimentally compared with CSP and Laplacian spatial filtering (LP) in a two-class motor-imagery paradigm. It is demonstrated that beamforming outperforms CSP and LP on noisy datasets, while CSP and beamforming perform almost equally well on datasets with few artifactual trials. It is concluded that beamforming constitutes an alternative method for SF that might be particularly useful for BCIs used in clinical settings, i.e., in an environment where artifact-free datasets are difficult to obtain.

  16. Prognostic value of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in resectable colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jang Eun Lee; Sang Woo Kim; Jin Su Kim; Kyu Yong Choi; Won Kyung Kang; Seong Taek Oh; Ie Ryung Yoo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To assess the prognostic value of preoperative 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) in patients with resectable colorectal cancer.METHODS:One hundred sixty-three patients with resectable colorectal cancer who underwent FDG-PET/CT before surgery were included.Patient data including pathologic stage at presentation,histology,treatment,disease-free survival and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumor on FDGPET/CT were retrospectively analyzed.Median follow up duration was 756 (range,419-1355).The primary end point was disease-free survival.RESULTS:Twenty-five of 163 patients (15.3%) had recurrences.The median SUVmax values of the recurrence and no-recurrence groups were 8.9 (range,5-24) and 8.2 (range,0-23,P =0.998).Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed no significant association between SUVmax and recurrence (area under the curve =0.5,P =0.998,95%CI:0.389-0.611).Because a statistically significant value was not found,SUVmax was dichotomized at its median of 8.6.The disease-free survival curve was analyzed using the median SUVmax (8.6) as the cut off.Univariate and multivariate analysis did not provide evidence that disease-free survival rates for the subgroups defined by the median SUVmax were significantly different (P =0.52,P =0.25).CONCLUSION:Our study suggests that the high FDG uptake of primary mass in resectable colorectal cancer doesn't have a significant relationship with tumor recurrence and disease-free survival.

  17. Diagnostic value for extrahepatic metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma in positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Eun Lee; Jae Young Jang; Soung Won Jeong; Sae Hwan Lee; Sang Gyune Kim; Sang-Woo Cha; Young Seok Kim

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluated the value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scan in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and extrahepatic metastases.METHODS:A total of 138 patients with HCC who had both conventional imaging modalities and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan done between November 2006 and March 2011 were enrolled.Diagnostic value of each imaging modality for detection of extrahepatic metastases was evaluated.Clinical factors and tumor characteristics including PET imaging were analyzed as indicative factors for metastases by univariate and multivariate methods.RESULTS:The accuracy of chest CT was significantly superior compared with the accuracy of PET imaging for detecting lung metastases.The detection rate of metastatic pulmonary nodule ≥ 1 cm was 12/13(92.3%),when < 1 cm was 2/10 (20%) in PET imaging.The accuracy of PET imaging was significantly superior compared with the accuracy of bone scan for detecting bone metastases.In multivariate analysis,increased tumor size (≥ 5 cm) (P =0.042) and increased average standardized uptake value (SUV)uptake (P =0.028) were predictive factors for extrahepatic metastases.Isometabolic HCC in PET imaging was inversely correlated in multivariate analysis (P =0.035).According to the receiver operating characteristic curve,the optimal cutoff of average SUV to predict extrahepatic metastases was 3.4.CONCLUSION:18F-FDG PET/CT scan is invaluable for detection of lung metastases larger than 1 cm and bone metastases.Primary HCC having larger than 5 cm and increased average SUV uptake more than 3.4should be considered for extrahepatic metastases.

  18. Pitfalls in Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging: Causes and Their Classifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-ran Li; Jia-he Tian; Hui Wang; Zi-qian Chen; Chun-lei Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the pitfalls in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging and classify them according to the principles of their generation. Methods We summarized retrospectively the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDP) PET/CT imaging pitfalls through reviewing the PET/CT images of 872 patients. The pitfalls were divided into artifacts and infrequent physiological uptake, and the artifacts were further classified according to their causes. Meanwhile, we calculated the incidences of various pitfalls. Whether the PET/CT pitfalls influenced the diagnostic decision was analyzed. The appearances of pitfalls in PET were also described. Results Pitfalls could be found in PET/CT images of 684 (78.4%) patients. Artifacts were found in 664 (76.15%) patients, and could be classified into self-factor artifacts and equipment- or technology- related artifacts. Among self-factor artifacts, respiratory motion (57.5%), postprandial or hyperglycemia artifacts (2.41%), and metal or high density matter artifacts (1.38%) were frequent. As for equipment- or technology-related factors, injection point outleakage or radiotracer contamination (13.88%) and truncation artifacts (1.83%) were most common ones. Infrequent physiological FDG uptakes, including fatty uptake, endometrial uptake, and bilateral breast feeding period uptake, were found in 20 (2.29%) patients. Among all pitfalls, the artifacts in 92 (13.4%) patients and infrequent physiological uptakes in 6 (0.88%) patients affected the diagnostic results. Artifact images in PET could be described as hot or cold area and the images of infrequent physiological uptake were always shown as hot area. Conclusions The incidence of pitfall in PET/CT imaging was high and the causes of pitfalls are various. Among all causes that artifacts generated, respiratory motion is the most common. Some pitfalls may disturb clinical physicians' decision, so it is important to recognize artifacts and physiological uptake, and

  19. Relationship of computed tomography perfusion and positron emission tomography to tumour progression in malignant glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, Timothy P C [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Yartsev, Slav [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Lee, Ting-Yim [Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, Victoria Hospital, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5W9 (Australia); Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4V2 (Canada); Wong, Eugene [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 3K7 (Canada); He, Wenqing [Department of Statistical and Actuarial Sciences, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Fisher, Barbara; VanderSpek, Lauren L [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Macdonald, David [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, University Hospital, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5A5 (Canada); Bauman, Glenn, E-mail: glenn.bauman@lhsc.on.ca [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: This study aimed to explore the potential for computed tomography (CT) perfusion and 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in predicting sites of future progressive tumour on a voxel-by-voxel basis after radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Methods: Ten patients underwent pre-radiotherapy magnetic resonance (MR), FDG-PET and CT perfusion near the end of radiotherapy and repeated post-radiotherapy follow-up MR scans. The relationships between these images and tumour progression were assessed using logistic regression. Cross-validation with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the value of these images in predicting sites of tumour progression. Results: Pre-radiotherapy MR-defined gross tumour; near-end-of-radiotherapy CT-defined enhancing lesion; CT perfusion blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and permeability-surface area (PS) product; FDG-PET standard uptake value (SUV); and SUV:BF showed significant associations with tumour progression on follow-up MR imaging (P < 0.0001). The mean sensitivity (±standard deviation), specificity and area under the ROC curve (AUC) of PS were 0.64 ± 0.15, 0.74 ± 0.07 and 0.72 ± 0.12 respectively. This mean AUC was higher than that of the pre-radiotherapy MR-defined gross tumour and near-end-of-radiotherapy CT-defined enhancing lesion (both AUCs = 0.6 ± 0.1, P ≤ 0.03). The multivariate model using BF, BV, PS and SUV had a mean AUC of 0.8 ± 0.1, but this was not significantly higher than the PS only model. Conclusion: PS is the single best predictor of tumour progression when compared to other parameters, but voxel-based prediction based on logistic regression had modest sensitivity and specificity.

  20. Motion management in positron emission tomography/computed tomography for radiation treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinardi, Valentino; Picchio, Maria; Di Muzio, Nadia; Gilardi, Maria Carla

    2012-09-01

    Hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scanners combine, in a unique gantry, 2 of the most important diagnostic imaging systems, a CT and a PET tomograph, enabling anatomical (CT) and functional (PET) studies to be performed in a single study session. Furthermore, as the 2 scanners use the same spatial coordinate system, the reconstructed CT and PET images are spatially co-registered, allowing an accurate localization of the functional signal over the corresponding anatomical structure. This peculiarity of the hybrid PET/CT system results in improved tumor characterization for oncological applications, and more recently, it was found to be also useful for target volume definition (TVD) and treatment planning in radiotherapy (RT) applications. In fact, the use of combined PET/CT information has been shown to improve the RT treatment plan when compared with that obtained by a CT alone. A limiting factor to the accuracy of TVD by PET/CT is organ and tumor motion, which is mainly due to patient respiration. In fact, respiratory motion has a degrading effect on PET/CT image quality, and this is also critical for TVD, as it can lead to possible tumor missing or undertreatment. Thus, the management of respiratory motion is becoming an increasingly essential component in RT treatment planning; indeed, it has been recognized that the use of personalized motion information can improve TVD and, consequently, permit increased tumor dosage while sparing surrounding healthy tissues and organs at risk. This review describes the methods used for motion management in PET/CT for radiation treatment planning. The article covers the following: (1) problems caused by organ and lesion motion owing to respiration, and the artifacts generated on CT, PET, and PET/CT images; (2) data acquisition and processing techniques used to manage respiratory motion in PET/CT studies; and (3) the use of personalized motion information for TVD and radiation treatment planning.

  1. 3D ultrasound computer tomography: update from a clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, T.; Zapf, M.; Kretzek, E.; Henrich, J.; Tukalo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Kaiser, C.; Knaudt, J.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT) is a promising new imaging method for breast cancer diagnosis. We developed a 3D USCT system and tested it in a pilot study with encouraging results: 3D USCT was able to depict two carcinomas, which were present in contrast enhanced MRI volumes serving as ground truth. To overcome severe differences in the breast shape, an image registration was applied. We analyzed the correlation between average sound speed in the breast and the breast density estimated from segmented MRIs and found a positive correlation with R=0.70. Based on the results of the pilot study we now carry out a successive clinical study with 200 patients. For this we integrated our reconstruction methods and image post-processing into a comprehensive workflow. It includes a dedicated DICOM viewer for interactive assessment of fused USCT images. A new preview mode now allows intuitive and faster patient positioning. We updated the USCT system to decrease the data acquisition time by approximately factor two and to increase the penetration depth of the breast into the USCT aperture by 1 cm. Furthermore the compute-intensive reflectivity reconstruction was considerably accelerated, now allowing a sub-millimeter volume reconstruction in approximately 16 minutes. The updates made it possible to successfully image first patients in our ongoing clinical study.

  2. Compensation for air voids in photoacoustic computed tomography image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas P.; Li, Lei; Wang, Lihong V.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    Most image reconstruction methods in photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) assume that the acoustic properties of the object and the surrounding medium are homogeneous. This can lead to strong artifacts in the reconstructed images when there are significant variations in sound speed or density. Air voids represent a particular challenge due to the severity of the differences between the acoustic properties of air and water. In whole-body small animal imaging, the presence of air voids in the lungs, stomach, and gastrointestinal system can limit image quality over large regions of the object. Iterative reconstruction methods based on the photoacoustic wave equation can account for these acoustic variations, leading to improved resolution, improved contrast, and a reduction in the number of imaging artifacts. However, the strong acoustic heterogeneities can lead to instability or errors in the numerical wave solver. Here, the impact of air voids on PACT image reconstruction is investigated, and procedures for their compensation are proposed. The contributions of sound speed and density variations to the numerical stability of the wave solver are considered, and a novel approach for mitigating the impact of air voids while reducing the computational burden of image reconstruction is identified. These results are verified by application to an experimental phantom.

  3. Iterative image reconstruction and its role in cardiothoracic computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Pourjabbar, Sarvenaz; Padole, Atul; Lira, Diego; Kalra, Mannudeep K

    2013-11-01

    Revolutionary developments in multidetector-row computed tomography (CT) scanner technology offer several advantages for imaging of cardiothoracic disorders. As a result, expanding applications of CT now account for >85 million CT examinations annually in the United States alone. Given the large number of CT examinations performed, concerns over increase in population-based risk for radiation-induced carcinogenesis have made CT radiation dose a top safety concern in health care. In response to this concern, several technologies have been developed to reduce the dose with more efficient use of scan parameters and the use of "newer" image reconstruction techniques. Although iterative image reconstruction algorithms were first introduced in the 1970s, filtered back projection was chosen as the conventional image reconstruction technique because of its simplicity and faster reconstruction times. With subsequent advances in computational speed and power, iterative reconstruction techniques have reemerged and have shown the potential of radiation dose optimization without adversely influencing diagnostic image quality. In this article, we review the basic principles of different iterative reconstruction algorithms and their implementation for various clinical applications in cardiothoracic CT examinations for reducing radiation dose.

  4. Embolic intracranial arterial occlusion visualized by non-enhanced computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Masaaki; Minematsu, Kazuo; Choki, Junichiro; Yamaguchi, Takenori (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

    1984-12-01

    A 77-year-old woman with a history of valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation and a massive infarction in the right cerebral hemisphere developed contralateral infarction due to occlusion of the internal carotid artery. A string-like structure with higher density than normal brain was demonstrated on non-enhanced computed tomography that was performed in the acute stage. This abnormal structure seen in the left hemisphere was thought to be consistent with the middle cerebral artery trunk of the affected side. Seventeen days after the onset, the abnormal structure was no more visualized on non-enhanced CT. These findings suggested that the abnormal structure with increased density was compatible with thromboembolus or intraluminal clot formed in the distal part of the occluded internal carotid artery. The importance of this finding as a diagnostic sign of the cerebral arterial occlusion was discussed.

  5. 3-D reconstruction of an ancient Egyptian mummy using X-ray computer tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldock, C; Hughes, S W; Whittaker, D K; Taylor, J; Davis, R; Spencer, A J; Tonge, K; Sofat, A

    1994-12-01

    Computer tomography has been used to image and reconstruct in 3-D an Egyptian mummy from the collection of the British Museum. This study of Tjentmutengebtiu, a priestess from the 22nd dynasty (945-715 BC) revealed invaluable information of a scientific, Egyptological and palaeopathological nature without mutilation and destruction of the painted cartonnage case or linen wrappings. Precise details on the removal of the brain through the nasal cavity and the viscera from the abdominal cavity were obtained. The nature and composition of the false eyes were investigated. The detailed analysis of the teeth provided a much closer approximation of age at death. The identification of materials used for the various amulets including that of the figures placed in the viscera was graphically demonstrated using this technique.

  6. Hot water epilepsy: Phenotype and single photon emission computed tomography observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the anatomical correlates of reflex hot water epilepsy (HWE using multimodality investigations viz. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, electroencephalography (EEG, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. Five men (mean age: 27.0 ΁ 5.8 years with HWE were subjected to MRI of brain, video-EEG studies, and SPECT scan. These were correlated with phenotypic presentations. Seizures could be precipitated in three patients with pouring of hot water over the head and semiology of seizures was suggestive of temporal lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT showed hyperperfusion in: left medial temporal - one, left lateral temporal - one, and right parietal - one. Interictal SPECT was normal in all five patients and did not help in localization. MRI and interictal EEG was normal in all the patients. The clinical and SPECT studies suggested temporal lobe as the seizure onset zone in some of the patients with HWE.

  7. Multimodal use of computed tomography in early acute stroke, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambasco, Nicola; Scaroni, Reana; Corea, Francesco; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Rossi, Aroldo; Bocola, Vittorio; Parnetti, Lucilla

    2006-01-01

    Brain Computed tomography (CT) scan has been used in the past to exclude a hemorrhagic stroke, to determine a possible cause of the stroke patient symptoms, and to demonstrate a stabilized area of hypoperfusional flow. Several results from CT scan studies suggested that we could have new information on prognosis and outcome, localization, and risk of infarction. In this view, CT scan in acute stroke may contribute, using objective measures, to evaluate the inclusion in clinical and therapeutical trials, such as thrombolytic therapy. The lack of consensus among clinicians does not allow a secure and definitive system of CT scan evaluation. Besides its common uses, more recently brain CT scan provides new techniques utilizing advanced algorithms of reconstruction, with promising properties not yet completely verified, to highlight more aspects of acute stroke in the early phase. Despite this limitation, progress on neuroradiological techniques reinforces the concept that brain CT scan remains the key of studies, as well as of validation and routine treatment in terms of feasibility, low cost, and widely availability.

  8. Brain-computer interfaces as new brain output pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2007-03-15

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can provide non-muscular communication and control for people with severe motor disabilities. Current BCIs use a variety of invasive and non-invasive methods to record brain signals and a variety of signal processing methods. Whatever the recording and processing methods used, BCI performance (e.g. the ability of a BCI to control movement of a computer cursor) is highly variable and, by the standards applied to neuromuscular control, could be described as ataxic. In an effort to understand this imperfection, this paper discusses the relevance of two principles that underlie the brain's normal motor outputs. The first principle is that motor outputs are normally produced by the combined activity of many CNS areas, from the cortex to the spinal cord. Together, these areas produce appropriate control of the spinal motoneurons that activate muscles. The second principle is that the acquisition and life-long preservation of motor skills depends on continual adaptive plasticity throughout the CNS. This plasticity optimizes the control of spinal motoneurons. In the light of these two principles, a BCI may be viewed as a system that changes the outcome of CNS activity from control of spinal motoneurons to, instead, control of the cortical (or other) area whose signals are used by the BCI to determine the user's intent. In essence, a BCI attempts to assign to cortical neurons the role normally performed by spinal motoneurons. Thus, a BCI requires that the many CNS areas involved in producing normal motor actions change their roles so as to optimize the control of cortical neurons rather than spinal motoneurons. The disconcerting variability of BCI performance may stem in large part from the challenge presented by the need for this unnatural adaptation. This difficulty might be reduced, and BCI development might thereby benefit, by adopting a 'goal-selection' rather than a 'process- control' strategy. In 'process control', a BCI manages all

  9. Diagnostic value of high resolutional computed tomography of spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S. M.; Im, S. K.; Sohn, M. H.; Lim, K. Y.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, K. C. [Jeonbug National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    Non-enhanced high resolution computed tomography provide clear visualization of soft tissue in the canal and bony details of spine, particularly of the lumbar spine. We observed 70 cases of spine CT using GE CT/T 8800 scanner during the period from Dec. 1982 to Sep. 1983 at Jeonbug National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution of cases were 55 males and 15 females : age was from 17 years to 67 years; sites were 11 cervical spine, 5 thoracic spine and 54 lumbosacral spine. 2. CT diagnosis showed 44 cases of lumbar disc herniation, 7 cases of degenerative disease, 3 cases of spine fracture and each 1 cases of cord tumor, metastatic tumor, spontaneous epidural hemorrhage, epidural abscess, spine tbc., meningocele with diastematomyelia. 3. Sites of herniated nucleus pulposus were 34 cases (59.6%) between L4-5 interspace and 20 cases (35.1%) between L5-S1 interspace. 13 cases (29.5%) of lumbar disc herniation disclosed multiple lesions. Location of herniation were central type in 28 cases(49.1%), right-central type in 12 cases(21.2%), left-central type in 11 cases (19.2%) and far lateral type in 6 cases(10.5%). 4. CT findings of herniated nucleus pulposus were as follows : focal protrusion of posterior disc margin and obliteration of anterior epidural fat in all cases, dural sac indentation in 26 cases(45.6%), soft tissue mass in epidural fat in 21 cases(36.8%), displacement or compression of nerve root sheath in 12 cases(21%). 5. Multiplanar reformatted images and Blink mode provide more effective evaluation about definite level and longitudinal dimension of lesion, such as obscure disc herniation, spine fracture, cord tumor and epidural abscess. 6. Non-enhanced and enhanced high resolutional computed tomography were effectively useful in demonstrating compression or displacement of spinal cord and nerve root, examing congenital anomaly such as meningocele and primary or metastatic spinal lesions.

  10. Design of brain imaging agents for positron emission tomography: do large bioconjugates provide an opportunity for in vivo brain imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmacher, Ralf; Bernard-Gauthier, Vadim; Reader, Andrew; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Schirrmacher, Esther; Wängler, Björn; Wängler, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    The development of brain imaging agents for positron emission tomography and other in vivo imaging modalities mostly relies on small compounds of low MW as a result of the restricted transport of larger molecules, such as peptides and proteins, across the blood-brain barrier. Besides passive transport, only a few active carrier mechanisms, such as glucose transporters and amino acid transporters, have so far been exploited to mediate the accumulation of imaging probes in the brain. An important question for the future is whether some of the abundant active carrier systems located at the blood-brain barrier can be used to shuttle potential, but non-crossing, imaging agents into the brain. What are the biological and chemical constrictions toward such bioconjugates and is it worthwhile to persue such a delivery strategy?

  11. Computer-aided classification of lung nodules on computed tomography images via deep learning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kai-Lung; Hsu, Che-Hao; Hidayati, Shintami Chusnul; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has a poor prognosis when not diagnosed early and unresectable lesions are present. The management of small lung nodules noted on computed tomography scan is controversial due to uncertain tumor characteristics. A conventional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme requires several image processing and pattern recognition steps to accomplish a quantitative tumor differentiation result. In such an ad hoc image analysis pipeline, every step depends heavily on the performance of the previous step. Accordingly, tuning of classification performance in a conventional CAD scheme is very complicated and arduous. Deep learning techniques, on the other hand, have the intrinsic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature and tuning of performance in a seamless fashion. In this study, we attempted to simplify the image analysis pipeline of conventional CAD with deep learning techniques. Specifically, we introduced models of a deep belief network and a convolutional neural network in the context of nodule classification in computed tomography images. Two baseline methods with feature computing steps were implemented for comparison. The experimental results suggest that deep learning methods could achieve better discriminative results and hold promise in the CAD application domain.

  12. In vivo multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of human brain tumor tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantelhardt, Sven R; Kalasauskas, Darius; König, Karsten; Kim, Ella; Weinigel, Martin; Uchugonova, Aisada; Giese, Alf

    2016-05-01

    High resolution multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging differentiates glioma from adjacent brain in native tissue samples ex vivo. Presently, multiphoton tomography is applied in clinical dermatology and experimentally. We here present the first application of multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging for in vivo imaging on humans during a neurosurgical procedure. We used a MPTflex™ Multiphoton Laser Tomograph (JenLab, Germany). We examined cultured glioma cells in an orthotopic mouse tumor model and native human tissue samples. Finally the multiphoton tomograph was applied to provide optical biopsies during resection of a clinical case of glioblastoma. All tissues imaged by multiphoton tomography were sampled and processed for conventional histopathology. The multiphoton tomograph allowed fluorescence intensity- and fluorescence lifetime imaging with submicron spatial resolution and 200 picosecond temporal resolution. Morphological fluorescence intensity imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging of tumor-bearing mouse brains and native human tissue samples clearly differentiated tumor and adjacent brain tissue. Intraoperative imaging was found to be technically feasible. Intraoperative image quality was comparable to ex vivo examinations. To our knowledge we here present the first intraoperative application of high resolution multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of human brain tumors in situ. It allowed in vivo identification and determination of cell density of tumor tissue on a cellular and subcellular level within seconds. The technology shows the potential of rapid intraoperative identification of native glioma tissue without need for tissue processing or staining.

  13. Hepatic angiomyolipoma: Dynamic computed tomography features and clinical correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Yang; Wen-Hui Chen; Qiao-Yun Li; Jing-Jing Xiang; Ru-Jun Xu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the dynamic computed tomography (CT) features of hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML) in patients with or without tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). METHODS: The clinical information, CT findings and histopathological results of hepatic AML were analyzed retrospectively in 10 patients. RESULTS: Hepatic AML was prone to occur in female patients (7/10), and most of the patients (8/10) had no specific symptoms. All tumors presented as welldefined, unenveloped nodules in the liver. Six patients with sporadic hepatic AML had a solitary hepatic nodule with a definite fat component. Non-fat components of the hepatic lesions were enhanced earlier and persistently. Prominent central vessels were noted in the portal venous phase in three patients. In four patients with hepatic AML and TSC, most of the nodules were within the peripheral liver. Seven fatdeficient nodules were found with earlier contrast enhancement and rapid contrast material washout in two patients. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis was found in one patient.CONCLUSION: Imaging features of hepatic AML are characteristic. Correct diagnosis preoperatively can be made in combination with clinical features.

  14. X-ray computed tomography for additive manufacturing: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A.; Maskery, I.; Leach, R. K.

    2016-07-01

    In this review, the use of x-ray computed tomography (XCT) is examined, identifying the requirement for volumetric dimensional measurements in industrial verification of additively manufactured (AM) parts. The XCT technology and AM processes are summarised, and their historical use is documented. The use of XCT and AM as tools for medical reverse engineering is discussed, and the transition of XCT from a tool used solely for imaging to a vital metrological instrument is documented. The current states of the combined technologies are then examined in detail, separated into porosity measurements and general dimensional measurements. In the conclusions of this review, the limitation of resolution on improvement of porosity measurements and the lack of research regarding the measurement of surface texture are identified as the primary barriers to ongoing adoption of XCT in AM. The limitations of both AM and XCT regarding slow speeds and high costs, when compared to other manufacturing and measurement techniques, are also noted as general barriers to continued adoption of XCT and AM.

  15. Thyroid lymphography-computed tomography (TLG-CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Koukichi (Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    There are several useful diagnostic examinations for thyroid disease. The diagnostic value of CT in thyroid disease is still controvertial, although CT has become a routine clinical examination, since the plain CT does not always identify tumors accurately. In this paper, we introduce for the first time thyroid lymphography-computed tomography (TLG-CT) which may improve the diagnostic value of CT. The technique combines CT with thyroid lymphography. We performed TLG-CT in 92 patients with various thyroid diseases and 20 normal controls and classified the radiological features into the following 6 types: entire (normal thyroid); moth-eaten (Hashimoto's thyroiditis); defect (follicular adenoma and adenomatous goiter); lobate (papillary carcinoma); localized (various thyroid diseases); and extrathyroid defect (parathyroid tumor). In addition, we examined the relationship between TLG-CT type and the macroscopic appearance of the cut surface of the thyroid and lymph node metastasis in 20 patients with papillary carcinoma. The results suggest that papillary TLG-CT type carcinomas have a high incidence of lymph node metastasis. Our preliminary results suggest that TLG-CT is a potentially valuable diagnostic tool in the detection of thyroid disease and the assessment of the pathologic diagnosis as well as lymph node metastasis. (author).

  16. Evaluation of myocardial bridging by coronary computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Marcio Vinicius Lins; Rabelo, Daniel Rocha; Siqueira, Maria Helena Albernaz, E-mail: marciovlbarros@uol.com.br [Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Garretto, Luiza Samarane; Paula, Marcela Mascarenhas De; Carvalho, Marina Oliveira; Alves, Marina Rangel Moreira Barros [Faculdade de Saude e Ecologia Humana (FASEH), Vespasiano, MG (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    The myocardial bridge (MB) is defined as a segment of an epicardial coronary artery that has an intramural course in the myocardium. Although MB is clinically silent in most cases, has been associated with myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias and sudden death. Coronary conventional angiography is the gold standard for detection of MB, but is invasive and cannot be sufficiently sensitive compared to autopsy studies. Recently, multislice computed tomography of coronary arteries (MCTCA) has allowed the detection of coronary artery course, including PM. Objectives: to evaluate MB prevalence in patients with suspected coronary artery disease undergoing MCTCA and to evaluate the predictive value of this method at medium term. Methods: during the period 2008 to 2011, 498 consecutive patients were examined by TMC for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, being conducted to evaluate the presence of BM and followed for a mean follow-up of 23 months for the occurrence of cardiovascular hard events (death, hospitalization or revascularization). Results: patients mean age was 55.3 ± 14.2, being male 71.1%. Among the patients, 7.6% (38 patients) showed MB. Main findings included angina pectoris in 40% and a positive stress test in 34%. 34.2% had atherosclerotic disease, and one patient had significant coronary stenosis. During follow-up, no patients showed adverse events. Conclusion: MCTCA is a noninvasive technique with high accuracy in anatomical evaluation of the coronary arteries and may be particularly useful to assess the incidence, location and morphology of myocardial bridging in vivo. (author)

  17. Reproducibility of aortic annulus measurements by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhbaeck, Annika; Achenbach, Stephan [University of Erlangen, Department of Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); University of Giessen, Department of Cardiology, Giessen (Germany); Pflederer, Tobias; Marwan, Mohamed; Schmid, Jasmin; Arnold, Martin [University of Erlangen, Department of Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); Nef, Holger; Rixe, Johannes; Hecker, Franziska [University of Giessen, Department of Cardiology, Giessen (Germany); Schneider, Christian [University of Giessen, Department of Radiology, Giessen (Germany); Lell, Michael; Uder, Michael [University of Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    To evaluate a systematic approach for measurement of aortic annulus dimensions by cardiac computed tomography. CT data sets of 64 patients were evaluated. An oblique cross-section aligned with the aortic root was created by systematically identifying the caudal insertion points of the three aortic cusps and sequentially aligning them in a double oblique plane. Aortic annulus dimensions, distances of coronary ostia and a suitable fluoroscopic projection angle were independently determined by two observers. Interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for aortic annulus diameters were excellent (ICC 0.89-0.93). Agreement for prosthesis size selection was excellent (k = 0.86 for mean, k = 0.84 for area-derived and k = 0.91 for circumference-derived diameter). Mean distances of the left/right coronary ostium were 13.4 ± 2.4/14.4 ± 2.8 mm for observer 1 and 13.2 ± 2.7/13.5 ± 3.2 mm for observer 2 (p = 0.30 and p = 0.0001, respectively; ICC 0.76/0.77 for left/right coronary artery). A difference of less than 10 for fluoroscopic projection angle was achieved in 84.3 % of patients. A systematic approach to generate a double oblique imaging plane exactly aligned with the aortic annulus demonstrates high interobserver and intraobserver agreements for derived measurements which are not influenced by aortic root calcification. (orig.)

  18. Compressing industrial computed tomography images by means of contour coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haina; Zeng, Li

    2013-10-01

    An improved method for compressing industrial computed tomography (CT) images is presented. To have higher resolution and precision, the amount of industrial CT data has become larger and larger. Considering that industrial CT images are approximately piece-wise constant, we develop a compression method based on contour coding. The traditional contour-based method for compressing gray images usually needs two steps. The first is contour extraction and then compression, which is negative for compression efficiency. So we merge the Freeman encoding idea into an improved method for two-dimensional contours extraction (2-D-IMCE) to improve the compression efficiency. By exploiting the continuity and logical linking, preliminary contour codes are directly obtained simultaneously with the contour extraction. By that, the two steps of the traditional contour-based compression method are simplified into only one. Finally, Huffman coding is employed to further losslessly compress preliminary contour codes. Experimental results show that this method can obtain a good compression ratio as well as keeping satisfactory quality of compressed images.

  19. Dual-energy computed tomography for gout diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbeth, Nicola; Choi, Hyon K

    2013-01-01

    The central feature of gout is deposition of monosodium urate crystals. Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is a recently developed advanced imaging method that enables visualisation of urate deposits by analysis of the chemical composition of the scanned materials. This review summarises recent research describing the use of DECT in gout management. This technology may assist in both diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Studies of patients with established disease indicate diagnostic accuracy for gout is high. Excellent inter-reader agreement has been reported for detection of urate deposits by use of DECT. Automated volume assessment software also enables rapid and reproducible measurement of urate deposits within tophi, suggesting that this modality may be useful for monitoring the disease. Although several case reports indicate DECT can be used to reveal reduction in the size of urate deposits, the sensitivity to change in response to urate-lowering therapy has not yet been systematically reported. DECT images reveal variable urate deposition within tophi of the same physical size. The ability to visualise urate deposits in tissue may provide new insights into the pathology and mechanisms of gout.

  20. Quantitative Computed Tomography and image analysis for advanced muscle assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Joseph Edmunds

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging is of particular interest in the field of translational myology, as extant literature describes the utilization of a wide variety of techniques to non-invasively recapitulate and quantity various internal and external tissue morphologies. In the clinical context, medical imaging remains a vital tool for diagnostics and investigative assessment. This review outlines the results from several investigations on the use of computed tomography (CT and image analysis techniques to assess muscle conditions and degenerative process due to aging or pathological conditions. Herein, we detail the acquisition of spiral CT images and the use of advanced image analysis tools to characterize muscles in 2D and 3D. Results from these studies recapitulate changes in tissue composition within muscles, as visualized by the association of tissue types to specified Hounsfield Unit (HU values for fat, loose connective tissue or atrophic muscle, and normal muscle, including fascia and tendon. We show how results from these analyses can be presented as both average HU values and compositions with respect to total muscle volumes, demonstrating the reliability of these tools to monitor, assess and characterize muscle degeneration.