WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain central nervous

  1. Central nervous system: brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    Present radiopharmaceuticals and detector systems have provided nuclear medicine physicians with tools capable of detecting a variety of brain abnormalities with little radiation exposure to pediatric patients. It is essential that the referring physician as well as the physician performing the procedure recognize both the limitations and virtues of these techniques. Appropriate selection of brain imaging procedures in each specific case must be the rule. Brain scintigraphy reliably solves certain problems, such as detecting or excluding intracranial tumors and identifying early cerebral inflammatory disease, cerebral ischemic disease, and a variety of congenital anomalies. Other situations, such as seizures without a focal neurologic deficit, acute meningitis, and hydrocephalus, are less often benefited by these studies. The role of these procedures in acute trauma and its sequelae is at the present time limited in pediatric practice. (auth)

  2. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiqun; Han, Yong; Du, Jing; Liu, Renzhong; Jin, Ketao; Yi, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated ...

  3. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiqun; Han, Yong; Du, Jing; Liu, Renzhong; Jin, Ketao; Yi, Wei

    2017-08-08

    The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis. In this paper, we will review the latest advances of studies on the correlation between gut microorganisms and CNS functions & diseases.

  4. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  5. Regulation of Central Nervous System Myelination in Higher Brain Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Nickel, Mara; Gu, Chen

    2018-01-01

    The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are interconnected brain regions, playing central roles in higher brain functions, including learning and memory, planning complex cognitive behavior, and moderating social behavior. The axons in these regions continue to be myelinated into adulthood in humans, which coincides with maturation of personality and decision-making. Myelin consists of dense layers of lipid membranes wrapping around the axons to provide electrical insulation and trophic sup...

  6. Regulation of Central Nervous System Myelination in Higher Brain Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Nickel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are interconnected brain regions, playing central roles in higher brain functions, including learning and memory, planning complex cognitive behavior, and moderating social behavior. The axons in these regions continue to be myelinated into adulthood in humans, which coincides with maturation of personality and decision-making. Myelin consists of dense layers of lipid membranes wrapping around the axons to provide electrical insulation and trophic support and can profoundly affect neural circuit computation. Recent studies have revealed that long-lasting changes of myelination can be induced in these brain regions by experience, such as social isolation, stress, and alcohol abuse, as well as by neurological and psychiatric abnormalities. However, the mechanism and function of these changes remain poorly understood. Myelin regulation represents a new form of neural plasticity. Some progress has been made to provide new mechanistic insights into activity-independent and activity-dependent regulations of myelination in different experimental systems. More extensive investigations are needed in this important but underexplored research field, in order to shed light on how higher brain functions and myelination interplay in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

  7. The Diagnostic Value of Brain Scanning in the Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Won; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung; Choi, Kil Su; Son, Hyo Chung; Cho, Byung Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning and compare the diagnostic accuracy between the scan and carotid angiography. 109 cases which are proved by specific method to each disease, are analyzed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning. The 70 cases among the proven 109 case are performed both the scanning and the arteriography and analyzed to compare the accuracy between the scanning and the arteriography. The results are as follows; 1) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the diseases of the central nervous system is 64.2%. 2) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the brain tumor is 88%, especially brain abscess, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma and metastic tumor show high positive rate. 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessels is 54%. The comparison of the diagnostic value between the scanning and the arteriography is as follows;1) The diagnostic value in all diseases of the central nervous system is nearly equal. 2) The diagnostic accuracy in the intracranial tumor is slightly higher in the brain scanning (90. 9%) than in the arteriography (81.8%). 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessel is higher in the arteriography (77.3%) than in the scanning (54.5%). 5) The diagnostic value when combining the scanning and the arteriography, is 83% in the all central nervous system-lesions, 97% in the cranial tumor and 81.8% in the disease of the central nervous system-vessel. The brain scanning is simple and safe procedure, and moreover has excellent diagnostic value in the diagnosis of the central nervous system lesion.

  8. The Diagnostic Value of Brain Scanning in the Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Won; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung; Choi, Kil Su; Son, Hyo Chung; Cho, Byung Kyu

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning and compare the diagnostic accuracy between the scan and carotid angiography. 109 cases which are proved by specific method to each disease, are analyzed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning. The 70 cases among the proven 109 case are performed both the scanning and the arteriography and analyzed to compare the accuracy between the scanning and the arteriography. The results are as follows; 1) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the diseases of the central nervous system is 64.2%. 2) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the brain tumor is 88%, especially brain abscess, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma and metastic tumor show high positive rate. 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessels is 54%. The comparison of the diagnostic value between the scanning and the arteriography is as follows;1) The diagnostic value in all diseases of the central nervous system is nearly equal. 2) The diagnostic accuracy in the intracranial tumor is slightly higher in the brain scanning (90. 9%) than in the arteriography (81.8%). 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessel is higher in the arteriography (77.3%) than in the scanning (54.5%). 5) The diagnostic value when combining the scanning and the arteriography, is 83% in the all central nervous system-lesions, 97% in the cranial tumor and 81.8% in the disease of the central nervous system-vessel. The brain scanning is simple and safe procedure, and moreover has excellent diagnostic value in the diagnosis of the central nervous system lesion.

  9. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Vasculitis / Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Swap out your current Facebook Profile ... Facebook personal page. Replace with this image. Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessel walls ...

  10. The central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The first section presents a comprehensive evaluation of radionuclide imaging of the central nervous system and provides a comparison of the detection accuracies of radionuclide imaging (RNI) and XCT in certain lesions, realizing that the XCT results may vary when radiocontrast or newer generation XCT scanners are used. Although conventional radionuclide imaging of the central nervous system has experienced no significant changes over the last 7 years except for mild refinements, a new section has been added on positron emission tomography (PET). Most positron radiopharmaceuticals passively cross the intact blood-brain barrier, and their localization has catalyzed renewed interest in our ability to metabolically study and obtain images of the central nervous system. The section on radionuclide cisternography has been rewritten to reflect present day practice and the wider application of XCT in describing conditions affecting the ventricular system

  11. [The blood-brain barrier and drug delivery in the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch-Neckel, Gecioni; Koepp, Janice

    2010-08-01

    To provide an updated view of the difficulties due to barriers and strategies used to allow the release of drugs in the central nervous system. The difficulty for the treatment of many diseases of the central nervous system, through the use of intra-venous drugs, is due to the presence of barriers that prevent the release of the same: the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebro-spinal fluid barrier and the blood-arachnoid barrier. The blood-brain barrier is the main barrier for the transport of drugs in the brain that also acts as a immunologic and metabolic barrier. The endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier are connected to a junction complex through the interaction of transmembrane proteins that protrude from de inside to the outside, forming a connection between the endothelial cells. The transport of substances to the brain depends on the mechanisms of transport present in the barrier and the diffusion of these compounds also depends on the physicochemical characteristics of the molecule. Some diseases alter the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and thus the passage of drugs. Strategies such as the use of methods for drug delivery in the brain have been investigated. Further details regarding the mechanisms of transport across the blood-brain barrier and the changes in neuropathology would provide important information about the etiology of diseases and lead to better therapeutic strategies.

  12. Pathways for Small Molecule Delivery to the Central Nervous System Across the Blood-Brain Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Mikitsh, John L; Chacko, Ann-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disease has long been difficult due to the ineffectiveness of drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This review summarizes important concepts of the BBB in normal versus pathophysiology and how this physical, enzymatic, and efflux barrier provides necessary protection to the CNS during drug delivery, and consequently treatment challenging. Small molecules account for the vast majority of available CNS drugs primarily due to their abi...

  13. Nanowired Drug Delivery Across the Blood-Brain Barrier in Central Nervous System Injury and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aruna; Menon, Preeti; Muresanu, Dafin F; Ozkizilcik, Asya; Tian, Z Ryan; Lafuente, José V; Sharma, Hari S

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physiological regulator of transport of essential items from blood to brain for the maintenance of homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) within narrow limits. The BBB is also responsible for export of harmful or metabolic products from brain to blood to keep the CNS fluid microenvironment healthy. However, noxious insults to the brain caused by trauma, ischemia or environmental/chemical toxins alter the BBB function to small as well as large molecules e.g., proteins. When proteins enter the CNS fluid microenvironment, development of brain edema occurs due to altered osmotic balance between blood and brain. On the other hand, almost all neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic insults to the CNS and subsequent BBB dysfunction lead to edema formation and cell injury. To treat these brain disorders suitable drug therapy reaching their brain targets is needed. However, due to edema formation or only a focal disruption of the BBB e.g., around brain tumors, many drugs are unable to reach their CNS targets in sufficient quantity. This results in poor therapeutic outcome. Thus, new technology such as nanodelivery is needed for drugs to reach their CNS targets and be effective. In this review, use of nanowires as a possible novel tool to enhance drug delivery into the CNS in various disease models is discussed based on our investigations. These data show that nanowired delivery of drugs may have superior neuroprotective ability to treat several CNS diseases effectively indicating their role in future therapeutic strategies.

  14. Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Brain and Nervous System KidsHealth / For Parents / Brain and ... healthy, and remove waste products. All About the Brain The brain is made up of three main ...

  15. Checkpoints to the Brain: Directing Myeloid Cell Migration to the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Harrison-Brown

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid cells are a unique subset of leukocytes with a diverse array of functions within the central nervous system during health and disease. Advances in understanding of the unique properties of these cells have inspired interest in their use as delivery vehicles for therapeutic genes, proteins, and drugs, or as “assistants” in the clean-up of aggregated proteins and other molecules when existing drainage systems are no longer adequate. The trafficking of myeloid cells from the periphery to the central nervous system is subject to complex cellular and molecular controls with several ‘checkpoints’ from the blood to their destination in the brain parenchyma. As important components of the neurovascular unit, the functional state changes associated with lineage heterogeneity of myeloid cells are increasingly recognized as important for disease progression. In this review, we discuss some of the cellular elements associated with formation and function of the neurovascular unit, and present an update on the impact of myeloid cells on central nervous system (CNS diseases in the laboratory and the clinic. We then discuss emerging strategies for harnessing the potential of site-directed myeloid cell homing to the CNS, and identify promising avenues for future research, with particular emphasis on the importance of untangling the functional heterogeneity within existing myeloid subsets.

  16. Next generation of non-mammalian blood-brain barrier models to study parasitic infections of the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Flynn, Robin; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Transmigration of neuropathogens across the blood-brain barrier is a key step in the development of central nervous system infections, making it a prime target for drug development. The ability of neuropathogens to traverse the blood-brain barrier continues to inspire researchers to understand the specific strategies and molecular mechanisms that allow them to enter the brain. The availability of models of the blood-brain barrier that closely mimic the situation in vivo offers unprecedented o...

  17. Astrocytic TYMP and VEGFA drive blood-brain barrier opening in inflammatory central nervous system lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapouly, Candice; Tadesse Argaw, Azeb; Horng, Sam; Castro, Kamilah; Zhang, Jingya; Asp, Linnea; Loo, Hannah; Laitman, Benjamin M; Mariani, John N; Straus Farber, Rebecca; Zaslavsky, Elena; Nudelman, German; Raine, Cedric S; John, Gareth R

    2015-06-01

    In inflammatory central nervous system conditions such as multiple sclerosis, breakdown of the blood-brain barrier is a key event in lesion pathogenesis, predisposing to oedema, excitotoxicity, and ingress of plasma proteins and inflammatory cells. Recently, we showed that reactive astrocytes drive blood-brain barrier opening, via production of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). Here, we now identify thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP; previously known as endothelial cell growth factor 1, ECGF1) as a second key astrocyte-derived permeability factor, which interacts with VEGFA to induce blood-brain barrier disruption. The two are co-induced NFκB1-dependently in human astrocytes by the cytokine interleukin 1 beta (IL1B), and inactivation of Vegfa in vivo potentiates TYMP induction. In human central nervous system microvascular endothelial cells, VEGFA and the TYMP product 2-deoxy-d-ribose cooperatively repress tight junction proteins, driving permeability. Notably, this response represents part of a wider pattern of endothelial plasticity: 2-deoxy-d-ribose and VEGFA produce transcriptional programs encompassing angiogenic and permeability genes, and together regulate a third unique cohort. Functionally, each promotes proliferation and viability, and they cooperatively drive motility and angiogenesis. Importantly, introduction of either into mouse cortex promotes blood-brain barrier breakdown, and together they induce severe barrier disruption. In the multiple sclerosis model experimental autoimmune encephalitis, TYMP and VEGFA co-localize to reactive astrocytes, and correlate with blood-brain barrier permeability. Critically, blockade of either reduces neurologic deficit, blood-brain barrier disruption and pathology, and inhibiting both in combination enhances tissue preservation. Suggesting importance in human disease, TYMP and VEGFA both localize to reactive astrocytes in multiple sclerosis lesion samples. Collectively, these data identify TYMP as an

  18. Adult central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Historically, the adult central nervous system (CNS) was regarded as relatively immune to the effects of ionising radiation, and the recognition of the CNS as a radio-vulnerable structure occurred later than was the case for many other tissues. Increasingly precise knowledge of the time-dose-volume relationships for CNS tolerance has had two important consequences: (1) it has permitted the avoidance of catastrophic and usually lethal late effects in the brain and spinal cord when these tissues are unavoidably irradiated during the treatment of adjacent non-CNS tumours, and (2) it has encouraged referral for irradiation of certain technically benign lesions which, although compatible with prolonged survival, represent a continuing threat to the patient - for example arteriovenous malformations, pituitary adenomas, and some meningiomas. Many of these can now be controlled for very long periods following radiation doses consistent with the long-term functional integrity of the CNS

  19. Central Nervous System Infections in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-04

    Central Nervous System Infections; Bacterial Meningitis; Viral Meningitis; Aseptic Meningitis; Encephalitis; Brain Abscess; Neuroborreliosis; Neurosyphilis; Lyme Disease; Tertiary Syphilis; Cerebral Abscess; Meningitis

  20. Brain MRI screening showing evidences of early central nervous system involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Reem Hamdy A; Sabry, Yousriah Y; Nasef, Amr A

    2011-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a multisystem autoimmune collagen disease where structural and functional abnormalities of small blood vessels prevail. Transient ischemic attacks, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhage have been reported as primary consequence of vascular central nervous system affection in systemic sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered to be the most sensitive diagnostic technique for detecting symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions in the brain in cases of multifocal diseases. The objective of this study is to detect subclinical as well as clinically manifest cerebral vasculopathy in patients with systemic sclerosis using magnetic resonance imaging. As much as 30 female patients with systemic sclerosis aged 27-61 years old, with disease duration of 1-9 years and with no history of other systemic disease or cerebrovascular accidents, were enrolled. Age-matched female control group of 30 clinically normal subjects, underwent brain magnetic resonance examination. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the form of white matter hyperintense foci of variable sizes were found in significantly abundant forms in systemic sclerosis patients on magnetic resonance evaluation than in age-related control group, signifying a form of CNS vasculopathy. Such foci showed significant correlation to clinical features of organic CNS lesion including headaches, fainting attacks and organic depression as well as to the severity of peripheral vascular disease with insignificant correlation with disease duration. In conclusion, subclinical as well as clinically manifest CNS ischemic vasculopathy is not uncommon in systemic sclerosis patients and magnetic resonance imaging is considered a sensitive noninvasive screening tool for early detection of CNS involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  1. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  2. Endothelial β-Catenin Signaling Is Required for Maintaining Adult Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and Central Nervous System Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Khiem A; Zhang, Xianming; Predescu, Dan; Huang, Xiaojia; Machado, Roberto F; Göthert, Joachim R; Malik, Asrar B; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Zhao, You-Yang

    2016-01-12

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by brain endothelial cells interconnected by tight junctions is essential for the homeostasis of the central nervous system. Although studies have shown the importance of various signaling molecules in BBB formation during development, little is known about the molecular basis regulating the integrity of the adult BBB. Using a mouse model with tamoxifen-inducible endothelial cell-restricted disruption of ctnnb1 (iCKO), we show here that endothelial β-catenin signaling is essential for maintaining BBB integrity and central nervous system homeostasis in adult mice. The iCKO mice developed severe seizures accompanied by neuronal injury, multiple brain petechial hemorrhages, and central nervous system inflammation, and all had postictal death. Disruption of endothelial β-catenin induced BBB breakdown and downregulation of the specific tight junction proteins claudin-1 and -3 in adult brain endothelial cells. The clinical relevance of the data is indicated by the observation of decreased expression of claudin-1 and nuclear β-catenin in brain endothelial cells of hemorrhagic lesions of hemorrhagic stroke patients. These results demonstrate the prerequisite role of endothelial β-catenin in maintaining the integrity of adult BBB. The results suggest that BBB dysfunction secondary to defective β-catenin transcription activity is a key pathogenic factor in hemorrhagic stroke, seizure activity, and central nervous system inflammation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. A Case of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Located at Brain Stem in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Kim, Young Zoon

    2016-10-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an extranodal Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is confined to the brain, eyes, and/or leptomeninges without evidence of a systemic primary tumor. Although the tumor can affect all age groups, it is rare in childhood; thus, its incidence and prognosis in children have not been well defined and the best treatment strategy remains unclear. A nine-year old presented at our department with complaints of diplopia, dizziness, dysarthria, and right side hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance image suggested a diffuse brain stem glioma with infiltration into the right cerebellar peduncle. The patient was surgically treated by craniotomy and frameless stereotactic-guided biopsy, and unexpectedly, the histopathology of the mass was consistent with diffuse large B cell lymphoma, and immunohistochemical staining revealed positivity for CD20 and CD79a. Accordingly, we performed a staging work-up for systemic lymphoma, but no evidence of lymphoma elsewhere in the body was obtained. In addition, she had a negative serologic finding for human immunodeficient virus, which confirmed the histopathological diagnosis of PCNSL. She was treated by radiosurgery at 12 Gy and subsequent adjuvant combination chemotherapy based on high dose methotrexate. Unfortunately, 10 months after the tissue-based diagnosis, she succumbed due to an acute hydrocephalic crisis.

  4. Dasatinib crosses the blood-brain barrier and is an efficient therapy for central nervous system philadelphia chromosome positive leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Porkka (Kimmo); P. Koskenvesa (Perttu); T. Lundan (Tuija); J. Rimpiläinen (Johanna); S. Mustjoki (Satu); R. Smykla (Richard); R. Wild (Robert); R. Luo (Roger); M. Arnan (Montserrat); B. Brethon (Benoit); L. Eccersley (Lydia); H. Hjorth-Hansen (Henrik); M. Höglund (Martin); H. Klamova (Hana); H. Knutsen (Håvar); S. Parikh (Suhag); E. Raffoux (Emmanuel); F. Gruber (Franz); F. Brito-Babapulle (Finella); H. Dombret (Hervé); R.F. Duarte (Rafael); E. Elonen (Erkki); R. Paquette (Ron); C.M. Zwaan (Christian Michel); F.Y.F. Lee (Francis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAlthough imatinib, a BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is used to treat acute Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) leukemia, it does not prevent central nervous system (CNS) relapses resulting from poor drug penetration through the blood-brain barrier. Imatinib and dasatinib (a

  5. Gpr124 is essential for blood-brain barrier integrity in central nervous system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Junlei; Mancuso, Michael R; Maier, Carolina; Liang, Xibin; Yuki, Kanako; Yang, Lu; Kwong, Jeffrey W; Wang, Jing; Rao, Varsha; Vallon, Mario; Kosinski, Cynthia; Zhang, J J Haijing; Mah, Amanda T; Xu, Lijun; Li, Le; Gholamin, Sharareh; Reyes, Teresa F; Li, Rui; Kuhnert, Frank; Han, Xiaoyuan; Yuan, Jenny; Chiou, Shin-Heng; Brettman, Ari D; Daly, Lauren; Corney, David C; Cheshier, Samuel H; Shortliffe, Linda D; Wu, Xiwei; Snyder, Michael; Chan, Pak; Giffard, Rona G; Chang, Howard Y; Andreasson, Katrin; Kuo, Calvin J

    2017-04-01

    Although blood-brain barrier (BBB) compromise is central to the etiology of diverse central nervous system (CNS) disorders, endothelial receptor proteins that control BBB function are poorly defined. The endothelial G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Gpr124 has been reported to be required for normal forebrain angiogenesis and BBB function in mouse embryos, but the role of this receptor in adult animals is unknown. Here Gpr124 conditional knockout (CKO) in the endothelia of adult mice did not affect homeostatic BBB integrity, but resulted in BBB disruption and microvascular hemorrhage in mouse models of both ischemic stroke and glioblastoma, accompanied by reduced cerebrovascular canonical Wnt-β-catenin signaling. Constitutive activation of Wnt-β-catenin signaling fully corrected the BBB disruption and hemorrhage defects of Gpr124-CKO mice, with rescue of the endothelial gene tight junction, pericyte coverage and extracellular-matrix deficits. We thus identify Gpr124 as an endothelial GPCR specifically required for endothelial Wnt signaling and BBB integrity under pathological conditions in adult mice. This finding implicates Gpr124 as a potential therapeutic target for human CNS disorders characterized by BBB disruption.

  6. Chapter 1. Central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planiol, T.; Veyre, A.; Plagne, R.

    1975-01-01

    The present situation with regard to explorations of the central nervous system by radioactive compounds is reviewed. For the sake of clarity the brain and cerebrospinal fluid examinations are described separately, with emphasis nevertheless on their complementarity. The tracers used in each of these examinations are listed, together with the criteria governing their choice. The different techniques employed are described. Scintigraphy is presented apart from gamma-angio-encephalography since it is not possible with rectilinear scintigraphs to observe the circulatory phase. The results are interpreted by an analysis of normal and pathological aspects of the different stages of the central nervous system [fr

  7. Distribution of alarin in the mouse brain and in tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, N.

    2011-01-01

    Alarin is a 25 amino acid peptide that belongs to the galanin neuropeptide family and is a splice variant of the galanin-like peptide (GALP) gene. It was first identified in gangliocytes of neuroblastic tumors and recently, alarin was demonstrated to stimulate food intake as well as the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in rodents. However, mRNA and protein expression of alarin in the central nervous system have not been described yet. Therefore, we investigated GALP/alarin promoter activity using a transgenic reporter mouse model. This mouse model expresses YFP when the GALP/alarin promoter is active and therefore is a suitable tool to indicate nuclei where GALP/alarin mRNA is expressed. Immunohistochemical analysis of YFP expression in these transgenic mice revealed a wide distribution of GALP/alarin promoter activity throughout the whole murine brain. As the promoter activity studies cannot discriminate between GALP and alarin expression the next aim was to determine the distribution of alarin peptide- in the adult murine brain with an anti-alarin antibody. The specificity of the antibody against alarin was demonstrated by the absence of labeling after pre-absorption of the antiserum with synthetic alarin peptide and in transgenic mouse brains depleted of cells expressing the GALP/alarin gene. In wild type animals alarin-like immunoreacitivity (alarin-LI) was observed in different areas of the murine brain including the accessory olfactory bulb, medial preoptic area and the hypothalamus. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis of alarin expression in peripheral tissues revealed high alarin levels in the testis of adult mice, whereas no alarin-Li was detected in the oesophagus of mice and trachea of rats. The galanin peptide family is known to play a role in cancer and alarin was first described in human neuroblastic tumors. Therefore, alarin expression in different CNS-tumor types was determined in the present study. Immunohistochemical analysis of a variety

  8. Next generation of non-mammalian blood-brain barrier models to study parasitic infections of the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Flynn, Robin; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Transmigration of neuropathogens across the blood-brain barrier is a key step in the development of central nervous system infections, making it a prime target for drug development. The ability of neuropathogens to traverse the blood-brain barrier continues to inspire researchers to understand the specific strategies and molecular mechanisms that allow them to enter the brain. The availability of models of the blood-brain barrier that closely mimic the situation in vivo offers unprecedented opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:21921682

  9. Your brain on drugs: imaging of drug-related changes in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrazi, Benita; Almast, Jeevak

    2012-01-01

    Drug abuse is a substantial problem in society today and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Various drugs are associated with serious complications affecting the brain, and it is critical to recognize the imaging findings of these complications to provide prompt medical management. The central nervous system (CNS) is a target organ for drugs of abuse as well as specific prescribed medications. Drugs of abuse affecting the CNS include cocaine, heroin, alcohol, amphetamines, toluene, and cannabis. Prescribed medications or medical therapies that can affect the CNS include immunosuppressants, antiepileptics, nitrous oxide, and total parenteral nutrition. The CNS complications of these drugs include neurovascular complications, encephalopathy, atrophy, infection, changes in the corpus callosum, and other miscellaneous changes. Imaging abnormalities indicative of these complications can be appreciated at both magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT). It is critical for radiologists to recognize complications related to drugs of abuse as well as iatrogenic effects of various medications. Therefore, diagnostic imaging modalities such as MR imaging and CT can play a pivotal role in the recognition and timely management of drug-related complications in the CNS.

  10. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, W.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Intrinsic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a particularly challenging problem to practicing oncologists. These tumors rarely metastasize outside the CNS, yet even histologically benign tumors can be life-threatening due to their local invasiveness and strategic location. The surrounding normal tissues of the nervous system is often incapable of full functional regeneration, therefore prohibiting aggressive attempts to use either complete surgical resection or high doses of irradiation. Despite these limitations, notable achievements have recently been recorded in the management of these tumors

  11. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Fike, J.R.; Hoopes, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  12. Early Cognitive Outcomes Following Proton Radiation in Pediatric Patients With Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsifer, Margaret B.; Sethi, Roshan V.; Kuhlthau, Karen A.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report, from a longitudinal study, cognitive outcome in pediatric patients treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT) for central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients receiving PRT for medulloblastoma (38.3%), gliomas (18.3%), craniopharyngioma (15.0%), ependymoma (11.7%), and other CNS tumors (16.7%) were administered age-appropriate measures of cognitive abilities at or near PRT initiation (baseline) and afterward (follow-up). Patients were aged ≥6 years at baseline to ensure consistency in neurocognitive measures. Results: Mean age was 12.3 years at baseline; mean follow-up interval was 2.5 years. Treatment included prior surgical resection (76.7%) and chemotherapy (61.7%). Proton radiation therapy included craniospinal irradiation (46.7%) and partial brain radiation (53.3%). At baseline, mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ was 104.6; means of all 4 Index scores were also in the average range. At follow-up, no significant change was observed in mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning/Organization, or Working Memory. However, Processing Speed scores declined significantly (mean 5.2 points), with a significantly greater decline for subjects aged <12 years at baseline and those with the highest baseline scores. Cognitive outcome was not significantly related to gender, extent of radiation, radiation dose, tumor location, histology, socioeconomic status, chemotherapy, or history of surgical resection. Conclusions: Early cognitive outcomes after PRT for pediatric CNS tumors are encouraging, compared with published outcomes from photon radiation therapy

  13. Early Cognitive Outcomes Following Proton Radiation in Pediatric Patients With Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulsifer, Margaret B., E-mail: mpulsifer@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sethi, Roshan V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kuhlthau, Karen A. [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); MacDonald, Shannon M.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To report, from a longitudinal study, cognitive outcome in pediatric patients treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT) for central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients receiving PRT for medulloblastoma (38.3%), gliomas (18.3%), craniopharyngioma (15.0%), ependymoma (11.7%), and other CNS tumors (16.7%) were administered age-appropriate measures of cognitive abilities at or near PRT initiation (baseline) and afterward (follow-up). Patients were aged ≥6 years at baseline to ensure consistency in neurocognitive measures. Results: Mean age was 12.3 years at baseline; mean follow-up interval was 2.5 years. Treatment included prior surgical resection (76.7%) and chemotherapy (61.7%). Proton radiation therapy included craniospinal irradiation (46.7%) and partial brain radiation (53.3%). At baseline, mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ was 104.6; means of all 4 Index scores were also in the average range. At follow-up, no significant change was observed in mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning/Organization, or Working Memory. However, Processing Speed scores declined significantly (mean 5.2 points), with a significantly greater decline for subjects aged <12 years at baseline and those with the highest baseline scores. Cognitive outcome was not significantly related to gender, extent of radiation, radiation dose, tumor location, histology, socioeconomic status, chemotherapy, or history of surgical resection. Conclusions: Early cognitive outcomes after PRT for pediatric CNS tumors are encouraging, compared with published outcomes from photon radiation therapy.

  14. Central Nervous System Involvement of T-cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia Diagnosed with Stereotactic Brain Biopsy: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Göçmen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL is a generalized malignancy of the lymphoid tissue characterized by the accumulation of monoclonal lymphocytes, usually of B cell type. Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS is an extremely rare complication of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL. We describe a case of T-PLL presenting with symptomatic infiltration of the brain that was histopathologically proven by stereotactic brain biopsy. We emphasize the importance of rapid diagnosis and immediate treatment for patients presenting with CNS involvement and a history of leukemia or lymphoma.

  15. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.F.; Tobias, C.A.; Born, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  16. Design of Drug Delivery Methods for the Brain and Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueshen, Eric

    Due to the impermeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to macromolecules delivered systemically, drug delivery to the brain and central nervous system (CNS) is quite difficult and has become an area of intense research. Techniques such as convection-enhanced intraparenchymal delivery and intrathecal magnetic drug targeting offer a means of circumventing the blood-brain barrier for targeted delivery of therapeutics. This dissertation focuses on three aspects of drug delivery: pharmacokinetics, convection-enhanced delivery, and intrathecal magnetic drug targeting. Classical pharmacokinetics mainly uses black-box curve fitting techniques without biochemical or biological basis. This dissertation advances the state-of-the-art of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics by incorporating first principles and biochemical/biotransport mechanisms in the prediction of drug fate in vivo. A whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) modeling framework is engineered which creates multiscale mathematical models for entire organisms composed of organs, tissues, and a detailed vasculature network to predict drug bioaccumulation and to rigorously determine kinetic parameters. These models can be specialized to account for species, weight, gender, age, and pathology. Systematic individual therapy design using the proposed mechanistic PBPK modeling framework is also a possibility. Biochemical, anatomical, and physiological scaling laws are also developed to accurately project drug kinetics in humans from small animal experiments. Our promising results demonstrate that the whole-body mechanistic PBPK modeling approach not only elucidates drug mechanisms from a biochemical standpoint, but offers better scaling precision. Better models can substantially accelerate the introduction of drug leads to clinical trials and eventually to the market by offering more understanding of the drug mechanisms, aiding in therapy design, and serving as an accurate dosing tool. Convection

  17. A case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with abnormal brain CT scan after cranial irradiation for central nervous system leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Junko; Abe, Takanori; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    1988-01-01

    A 21-year-old woman with acute lymphoblastic leukemia presented with central neurologic symptoms immediately after the second irradiation (20 Gy to the brain and 10 Gy to the spinal cord) for central nervous system (CNS)-leukemia 3 years and 2 months after the first cranial irradiation with 20 Gy. White matter was depicted as diffusely high density area on CT; histology revealed necrosis of leukemic cells. In the present patient with repeated recurrent CNS-leukemia, leukemic cells seemed to have been damaged simultaneously after irradiation because of parenchymal widespread involvement of leukemic cells, resulting in brain edema, an increased intracranial pressure and parenchymal disturbance. This finding may have an important implication for the risk of cranial irradiation in the case of widespread involvement of leukemic cells. Re-evaluation of cranial irradiation in such cases is suggested. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Ultrasound-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption for targeted drug delivery in the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Muna; Arvanitis, Costas D.; Alexander, Phillip M.; McDannold, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The physiology of the vasculature in the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and other factors, complicates the delivery of most drugs to the brain. Different methods have been used to bypass the BBB, but they have limitations such as being invasive, non-targeted or requiring the formulation of new drugs. Focused ultrasound (FUS), when combined with circulating microbubbles, is a noninvasive method to locally and transiently disrupt the BBB at discrete targets. This review provides insight on the current status of this unique drug delivery technique, experience in preclinical models, and potential for clinical translation. If translated to humans, this method would offer a flexible means to target therapeutics to desired points or volumes in the brain, and enable the whole arsenal of drugs in the CNS that are currently prevented by the BBB. PMID:24462453

  19. Central nervous system affecting drugs and road traffic accidents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system affecting drugs and road traffic accidents among commercial motorcyclists. ... including driving under the influence of drugs that affect the central nervous system (CNS). ... Keywords: Brain, influence, riders, substances ...

  20. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors in the central nervous system: role in brain function and as a drug target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eRoesler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides acting on specific cell membrane receptors of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR superfamily regulate a range of important aspects of nervous and neuroendocrine function. Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP is a mammalian neuropeptide that binds to the GRP receptor (GRPR, BB2. Increasing evidence indicates that GRPR-mediated signaling in the central nervous system (CNS plays an important role in regulating brain function, including aspects related to emotional responses, social interaction, memory, and feeding behavior. In addition, some alterations in GRP or GRPR expression or function have been described in patients with neurodegenerative, neurodevelopmental, and psychiatric disorders, as well as in brain tumors. Findings from preclinical models are consistent with the view that the GRPR might play a role in brain disorders, and raise the possibility that GRPR agonists might ameliorate cognitive and social deficits associated with neurological diseases, while antagonists may reduce anxiety and inhibit the growth of some types of brain cancer. Further preclinical and translational studies evaluating the potential therapeutic effects of GRPR ligands are warranted.

  1. Your Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Brain & Nervous System KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Brain & Nervous ... The coolest wetsuit? Nope — he needs his cerebellum! Brain Stem Keeps You Breathing — and More Another brain ...

  2. Role of Transporters in Central Nervous System Drug Delivery and Blood-Brain Barrier Protection: Relevance to Treatment of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Brzica

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The only approved pharmacologic treatment for ischemic stroke is thrombolysis via recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA. A short therapeutic window and serious adverse events (ie, hemorrhage, excitotoxicity greatly limit r-tPA therapy, which indicates an essential need to develop novel stroke treatment paradigms. Transporters expressed at the blood-brain barrier (BBB provide a significant opportunity to advance stroke therapy via central nervous system delivery of drugs that have neuroprotective properties. Examples of such transporters include organic anion–transporting polypeptides (Oatps and organic cation transporters (Octs. In addition, multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps are transporter targets in brain microvascular endothelial cells that can be exploited to preserve BBB integrity in the setting of stroke. Here, we review current knowledge on stroke pharmacotherapy and demonstrate how endogenous BBB transporters can be targeted for improvement of ischemic stroke treatment.

  3. [Sex differentiation of central nervous system--brain of man and woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yasumasa

    2004-02-01

    Sex differentiation of human brain is mostly dependent on the prenatal exposure to androgen(testosterone). Congenital aromatase deficiency does not disturb male brain development in men. This is quite different from experimental evidence from rodents whose brains need intraneuronal aromatization from androgen to estrogen to induce sex differentiation. There is evidence for male-female differences in brain structures. Some of them(INHA-3) appear to be related with sexual orientation. The other(BNST) might participate in forming gender-identity. In addition, sexually dimorphic features are recognized in some cognitive activities. The possible involvement of genetic factors in human brain sex differentiation is also discussed.

  4. Central nervous system imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1973, computed tomography (CT) of the brain has had a revolutionary impact on neuroradiologic diagnosis. It has largely replaced radionuclide brain imaging as the initial, noninvasive neurologic screening examination. Although conventional radionuclide brain imaging still contributes useful and unique diagnostic information in a few clinical situations, it appears that new technology and applications must be found if nuclear imaging is to play a prominent future role in neurologic diagnosis as it did in the past. One of the main advantages of CT over radionuclide brain imaging at present is CT's ability to demonstrate the size, shape, and position of the cerebral ventricles and subarachnoid spaces. Another important strength of CT is the ability to differentiate ischemic cerebral infarction from intracerebral hemorrhage. The overall sensitivity of CT in detecting intracranial neoplasms is also greater than that of radionuclide brain imaging, and CT is very useful in demonstrating the effects of head trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging appears superior to CT in the evaluation of neurologic disorders. A renewed interest in radionuclide brain imaging has developed because of recent advances in emission computed tomographic imaging. When tracer kinetic models are used, cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume, metabolic rate, and glucose and amino acid transport can be measured. Other applications involve investigation of receptor bindings, evaluation of the blood-brain barrier, brain blood-volume measurement, and cisternography

  5. The Second Brain: Is the Gut Microbiota a Link Between Obesity and Central Nervous System Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Repáraz, Javier; Kasper, Lloyd H

    2016-03-01

    The gut-brain axis is a bi-directional integrated system composed by immune, endocrine, and neuronal components by which the gap between the gut microbiota and the brain is significantly impacted. An increasing number of different gut microbial species are now postulated to regulate brain function in health and disease. The westernized diet is hypothesized to be the cause of the current obesity levels in many countries, a major socio-economical health problem. Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggest that the gut microbiota is responsible for significant immunologic, neuronal, and endocrine changes that lead to obesity. We hypothesize that the gut microbiota, and changes associated with diet, affect the gut-brain axis and may possibly contribute to the development of mental illness. In this review, we discuss the links between diet, gut dysbiosis, obesity, and immunologic and neurologic diseases that impact brain function and behavior.

  6. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kioumehr, F.; Dadsetan, M.R.; Rooholamini, S.A.; Au, A.

    1994-02-01

    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  7. 201Tl brain SPECT in differentiating central nervous system lymphoma from toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Noriko; Suzuki, Kenzo; Abe, Katsumi; Yokoyama, Yoshiaki; Ushimi, Hisashi; Terada, Kazushi

    1997-01-01

    In AIDS patients, toxoplasmosis and lymphoma are the leading causes of CNS mass lesions. It is important to make the correct diagnosis expeditiously, since the two diseases require markedly different treatments and have different prognoses. In general, CT and MR imaging have failed to provide specific distinguishing characteristics to differentiate CNS lymphoma from toxoplasmosis, and it is difficult to differentiate these entities clinically. We performed 201 Tl brain SPECT in order to differentiate two diseases. Counts ratio of a lesion to the normal brain (L/N ratio) was elevated in patients of lymphoma compared in patients of toxoplasmosis. 201 Tl brain SPECT is useful to differentiate CNS lymphoma from toxoplasmosis. (author)

  8. Solving the Blood-Brain Barrier Challenge for the Effective Treatment of HIV Replication in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Luc; Nair, Madhavan; Toborek, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Recent decades mark a great progress in the treatment of HIV infection. What was once a deadly disease is now a chronic infection. However, HIV-infected patients are prone to develop comorbidities, which severely affect their daily functions. For example, a large population of patients develop a variety of neurological and cognitive complications, called HIV associated neurological disorders (HAND). Despite efficient repression of viral replication in the periphery, evidence shows that the virus can remain active in the central nervous system (CNS). This low level of replication is believed to result in a progression of neurocognitive dysfunction in infected individuals. Insufficient viral inhibition in the brain results from the inability of several treatment drugs in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and reaching therapeutic concentrations in the CNS. The current manuscript discusses several strategies that are being developed to enable therapeutics to cross the BBB, including bypassing BBB, inhibition of efflux transporters, the use of active transporters present at the BBB, and nanotechnology. The increased concentration of therapeutics in the CNS is desirable to prevent viral replication; however, potential side effects of anti-retroviral drugs need also to be taken into consideration.

  9. The subtle body: an interoceptive map of central nervous system function and meditative mind-brain-body integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Joseph J

    2016-06-01

    Meditation research has begun to clarify the brain effects and mechanisms of contemplative practices while generating a range of typologies and explanatory models to guide further study. This comparative review explores a neglected area relevant to current research: the validity of a traditional central nervous system (CNS) model that coevolved with the practices most studied today and that provides the first comprehensive neural-based typology and mechanistic framework of contemplative practices. The subtle body model, popularly known as the chakra system from Indian yoga, was and is used as a map of CNS function in traditional Indian and Tibetan medicine, neuropsychiatry, and neuropsychology. The study presented here, based on the Nalanda tradition, shows that the subtle body model can be cross-referenced with modern CNS maps and challenges modern brain maps with its embodied network model of CNS function. It also challenges meditation research by: (1) presenting a more rigorous, neural-based typology of contemplative practices; (2) offering a more refined and complete network model of the mechanisms of contemplative practices; and (3) serving as an embodied, interoceptive neurofeedback aid that is more user friendly and complete than current teaching aids for clinical and practical applications of contemplative practice. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Brain parenchyma involvement as isolated central nervous system relapse of systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma: An International Primary CNS Lymphoma Collaborative Group report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Doolittle (Nancy); L.E. Abrey (Lauren); T.N. Shenkier (Tamara); T. Siegal (Tali); J.E.C. Bromberg (Jacolien); E.A. Neuwelt (Edward); C. Soussain (Carole); K. Jahnke (Kristoph); P. Johnston (Patrick); G. Illerhaus (Gerald); D. Schiff (David); T.T. Batchelor (Tracy); S. Montoto (Silvia); D.F. Kraemer (Dale); E. Zucca (Emanuele)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIsolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse involving the brain parenchyma is a rare complication of systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We retrospectively analyzed patient characteristics, management, and outcomes of this complication. After complete response to initial non-Hodgkin

  11. Central nervous system (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... receive nerve impulses from the spinal cord and cranial nerves. The spinal cord contains the nerves that carry messages between the brain and the body. Spinal cord injury can occur when there is damage to the cells within the spinal cord or ...

  12. Hydrogels for central nervous system therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Tunesi, Marta; Giordano, Carmen; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The central nervous system shows a limited regenerative capacity, and injuries or diseases, such as those in the spinal, brain and retina, are a great problem since current therapies seem to be unable to achieve good results in terms of significant functional recovery. Different promising therapies have been suggested, the aim being to restore at least some of the lost functions. The current review deals with the use of hydrogels in developing advanced devices for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. Several approaches, involving cell-based therapy, delivery of bioactive molecules and nanoparticle-based drug delivery, will be first reviewed. Finally, some examples of injectable hydrogels for the delivery of bioactive molecules in central nervous system will be reported, and the key features as well as the basic principles in designing multifunctional devices will be described. © IMechE 2015.

  13. Viral Infection of the Central Nervous System and Neuroinflammation Precede Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption during Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Wang, Yueyun; Yu, Lan; Cao, Shengbo; Wang, Ke; Yuan, Jiaolong; Wang, Chong; Wang, Kunlun; Cui, Min; Fu, Zhen F

    2015-05-01

    Japanese encephalitis is an acute zoonotic, mosquito-borne disease caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Japanese encephalitis is characterized by extensive inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, the pathogenic mechanisms contributing to the BBB disruption are not known. Here, using a mouse model of intravenous JEV infection, we show that virus titers increased exponentially in the brain from 2 to 5 days postinfection. This was accompanied by an early, dramatic increase in the level of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the brain. Enhancement of BBB permeability, however, was not observed until day 4, suggesting that viral entry and the onset of inflammation in the CNS occurred prior to BBB damage. In vitro studies revealed that direct infection with JEV could not induce changes in the permeability of brain microvascular endothelial cell monolayers. However, brain extracts derived from symptomatic JEV-infected mice, but not from mock-infected mice, induced significant permeability of the endothelial monolayer. Consistent with a role for inflammatory mediators in BBB disruption, the administration of gamma interferon-neutralizing antibody ameliorated the enhancement of BBB permeability in JEV-infected mice. Taken together, our data suggest that JEV enters the CNS, propagates in neurons, and induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which result in the disruption of the BBB. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, resulting in 70,000 cases each year, in which approximately 20 to 30% of cases are fatal, and a high proportion of patients survive with serious neurological and psychiatric sequelae. Pathologically, JEV infection causes an acute encephalopathy accompanied by BBB dysfunction; however, the mechanism is not clear. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of BBB disruption in JEV infection is important. Our data demonstrate

  14. Oxidative stress, aging, and central nervous system disease in the canine model of human brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Elizabeth; Rofina, Jaime; Zicker, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Decline in cognitive functions that accompany aging in dogs may have a biologic basis, and many of the disorders associated with aging in dogs may be mitigated through dietary modifications that incorporate specific nutraceuticals. Based on previous research and the results of laboratory and clinical studies, antioxidants may be one class of nutraceutical that provides benefits to aged dogs. Brains of aged dogs accumulate oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, which may lead to dysfunction of neuronal cells. The production of free radicals and lack of increase in compensatory antioxidant enzymes may lead to detrimental modifications to important macromolecules within neurons. Reducing oxidative damage through food ingredients rich in a broad spectrum of antioxidants significantly improves, or slows the decline of, learning and memory in aged dogs.

  15. Brain damage in relation to irradiation and chemotherapy of central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Similae, S; Heikkinen, E; Blanco, G; Taskinen, P J; Kouvalainen, K; Lanning, M; Saukkonen, A -L [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1977-05-07

    Measurements have been made of the concentrations of 3',5'-mono-phosphate, protein and sugar, and of the activities of lactic dehydrogenase (LD), aspartate aminotransferase (AsAT), creatine kinase (CK), and acid phosphatase (AcPhos) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during /sup 60/Co CNS radiotherapy and chemotherapy in eight children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (A.L.L.). The CSF white-blood-cell count of the A.L.L. patients did not differ significantly from that of the controls, but protein content rose and sugar content fell during CNS irradiation and chemotherapy (intrathecal methotrexate). LD and AsAT activities were significantly higher during CNS treatment, and a similar tendency was seen for AcPhos and CK activities. The results provide clear biochemical signs of brain injury caused by prophylactic CNS irradiation and chemotherapy.

  16. Prediction of Central Nervous System Side Effects Through Drug Permeability to Blood-Brain Barrier and Recommendation Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jun; Yang, Jing; Jiang, Zhenran

    2018-04-01

    Drug side effects are one of the public health concerns. Using powerful machine-learning methods to predict potential side effects before the drugs reach the clinical stages is of great importance to reduce time consumption and protect the security of patients. Recently, researchers have proved that the central nervous system (CNS) side effects of a drug are closely related to its permeability to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Inspired by this, we proposed an extended neighborhood-based recommendation method to predict CNS side effects using drug permeability to the BBB and other known features of drug. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to predict CNS side effects considering drug permeability to the BBB. Computational experiments demonstrated that drug permeability to the BBB is an important factor in CNS side effects prediction. Moreover, we built an ensemble recommendation model and obtained higher AUC score (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) and AUPR score (area under the precision-recall curve) on the data set of CNS side effects by integrating various features of drug.

  17. Embryonal Central Nervous System Neoplasms Arising in Infants: A Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLendon, Roger E.; Adekunle, Adesina; Rajaram, Veena; Kocak, Mehmet; Blaney, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Context Medulloblastomas (MBs) and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) can be difficult to distinguish; however, histologic characterization is prognostically important. Objective To determine histologic and phenotypic markers associated with utility progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in children under 3 years of age with MBs and AT/RTs. Design We undertook a histologic and immunophenotypic study of MBs and AT/RTs arising in infants treated on a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study. The 41 girls and 55 boys (aged 2 to 36 months at enrollment) exhibited 42 MBs, 26 AT/RTs and 28 other tumors. Median follow-up was 17.2 months from diagnosis (range: 1.4–93 months). Results Infants with AT/RT exhibited shorter PFS and OS when compared to infants with MBs (P=.0003 and P=.0005, respectively). A lack of nuclear BAF47 immunohistochemical reactivity (IHC) proved reliable in identifying AT/RTs. Among MBs, our data demonstrate that anaplasia correlated with OTX2 reactivity and both OTX2 and moderate to severe anaplasia correlated with PFS but not OS. “Nodularity” may be a positive prognostic factor. Conclusion Distinguishing AT/RT from MBs is clinically important. The diagnoses of AT/RT and MB can be reliably made from H&E stains in the majority of cases. However certain rare small cell variants of AT/RT can be confused with MB. IHC for BAF47 is clinically useful in diagnosing AT/RTs, particularly certain small cell AT/RTs. Among MBs, “nodularity”, absent or mild anaplasia, and lack of OTX2 expression may be important prognostic factors for improved PFS and OS in infants. PMID:21809989

  18. Blood-brain barrier-on-a-chip: Microphysiological systems that capture the complexity of the blood-central nervous system interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Duc Tt; Bender, R Hugh F; Andrejecsk, Jillian W; Sobrino, Agua; Hachey, Stephanie J; George, Steven C; Hughes, Christopher Cw

    2017-11-01

    The blood-brain barrier is a dynamic and highly organized structure that strictly regulates the molecules allowed to cross the brain vasculature into the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier pathology has been associated with a number of central nervous system diseases, including vascular malformations, stroke/vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and various neurological tumors including glioblastoma multiforme. There is a compelling need for representative models of this critical interface. Current research relies heavily on animal models (mostly mice) or on two-dimensional (2D) in vitro models, neither of which fully capture the complexities of the human blood-brain barrier. Physiological differences between humans and mice make translation to the clinic problematic, while monolayer cultures cannot capture the inherently three-dimensional (3D) nature of the blood-brain barrier, which includes close association of the abluminal side of the endothelium with astrocyte foot-processes and pericytes. Here we discuss the central nervous system diseases associated with blood-brain barrier pathology, recent advances in the development of novel 3D blood-brain barrier -on-a-chip systems that better mimic the physiological complexity and structure of human blood-brain barrier, and provide an outlook on how these blood-brain barrier-on-a-chip systems can be used for central nervous system disease modeling. Impact statement The field of microphysiological systems is rapidly evolving as new technologies are introduced and our understanding of organ physiology develops. In this review, we focus on Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) models, with a particular emphasis on how they relate to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, cancer, and vascular malformations. We emphasize the importance of capturing the three-dimensional nature of the brain and the unique architecture of the BBB - something that until recently

  19. CHOD/BVAM Chemotherapy and Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for Newly Diagnosed Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laack, Nadia N.; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Ballman, Karla V.; O'Fallon, Judith Rich; Carrero, Xiomara W.; Kurtin, Paul J.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Brown, Paul D.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Hawkins, Roland B.; Morton, Roscoe F.; Windschitl, Harry E.; Fitch, Tom R.; Pajon, Eduardo R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), vincristine, and dexamethasone (CHOD) plus bis-chloronitrosourea (BCNU), cytosine arabinoside, and methotrexate (BVAM) followed by whole-brain irradiation (WBRT) for patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Methods and Materials: Patients 70 years old and younger with newly diagnosed, biopsy-proven PCNSL received one cycle of CHOD followed by two cycles of BVAM. Patients then received WBRT, 30.6 Gy, if a complete response was evoked, or 50.4 Gy if the response was less than complete; both doses were given in 1.8-Gy daily fractions. The primary efficacy endpoint was 1-year survival. Results: Thirty-six patients (19 men, 17 women) enrolled between 1995 and 2000. Median age was 60.5 years (range, 34 to 69 years). Thirty (83%) patients had baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance scores of 0 to 1. All 36 patients were eligible for survival and response evaluations. Median time to progression was 12.3 months, and median survival was 18.5 months. The percentages of patients alive at 1, 2, and 3 years were 64%, 36%, and 33%, respectively. The best response was complete response in 10 patients and immediate progression in 7 patients. Ten (28%) patients had at least one grade 3 or higher neurologic toxicity. Conclusions: This regimen did improve the survival of PCNSL patients but also caused substantial toxicity. The improvement in survival is less than that reported with high-dose methotrexate-based therapies.

  20. Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvati, M.; Frati, A.; Piccirilli, M.; Agrillo, A.; Brogna, C.; Occhiogrosso, G.; Giangaspero, F. [INM Neuromed IRCCS, Pozzilli (Italy). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Caroli, E. [Policlinico S. Andrea, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Neurological Sciences, Neurosurgery

    2005-06-15

    Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors that constitute a separate entity from the classical chondrosarcoma and myxoid variant. Clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas is still unknown. We describe two rare examples of intracranial mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with a review of the literature, in an attempt to clarify the clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment of choice of these unusual tumors. Among the 55 reported cases, 23 had postoperative radiotherapy. Although there is no statistical significance according to the Log-Rank test (p=0.7), the patients treated with radiation therapy seem to have a better chance of survival. Patients who had adjuvant chemotherapy (only 5) showed survival times similar to those patients who had none. Although clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas remains to be defined, data from our series as well as literature show that radical removal is the best therapeutic choice. In addition, patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy seem to show a trend toward increased survival.

  1. Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvati, M.; Frati, A.; Piccirilli, M.; Agrillo, A.; Brogna, C.; Occhiogrosso, G.; Giangaspero, F.; Caroli, E.

    2005-01-01

    Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors that constitute a separate entity from the classical chondrosarcoma and myxoid variant. Clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas is still unknown. We describe two rare examples of intracranial mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with a review of the literature, in an attempt to clarify the clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment of choice of these unusual tumors. Among the 55 reported cases, 23 had postoperative radiotherapy. Although there is no statistical significance according to the Log-Rank test (p=0.7), the patients treated with radiation therapy seem to have a better chance of survival. Patients who had adjuvant chemotherapy (only 5) showed survival times similar to those patients who had none. Although clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas remains to be defined, data from our series as well as literature show that radical removal is the best therapeutic choice. In addition, patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy seem to show a trend toward increased survival

  2. [Central nervous system control of energy homeostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machleidt, F; Lehnert, H

    2011-03-01

    The brain is continuously supplied with information about the distribution and amount of energy stores from the body periphery. Endocrine, autonomic and cognitive-hedonic signals are centrally integrated and exert effects on the whole organism via anabolic and catabolic pathways. The adiposity signals insulin and leptin reflect the amount of body fat and are part of a negative feedback mechanism between the periphery and the central nervous system. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is the most important central nervous structure, which integrates this information. Furthermore, the CNS is able to directly measure and to respond to changes in the concentration of certain nutrients. In order to develop effective therapies for the treatment of disorders of energy balance the further elucidation of these neuro-biological processes is of crucial importance. This article provides an overview of the CNS regulation of metabolism and its underlying molecular mechanisms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Central nervous system complications after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the diversity of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation in terms of clinical manifestations and temporal course. Liver transplantation is a lifesaving option for end stage liver disease patients but post-transplantation neurologic complications can hamper recovery. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010, patients who had undergone liver transplantation at a single tertiary university hospital were included. We reviewed their medical records and brain imaging data and classified central nervous system complications into four categories including vascular, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic. The onset of central nervous system complications was grouped into five post-transplantation intervals including acute (within 1 month), early subacute (1-3 months), late subacute (3-12 months), chronic (1-3 years), and long-term (after 3 years). During follow-up, 65 of 791 patients (8.2%) experienced central nervous system complications, with 30 occurring within 1 month after transplantation. Vascular etiology was the most common (27 patients; 41.5%), followed by metabolic (23; 35.4%), infectious (nine patients; 13.8%), and neoplastic (six patients). Metabolic encephalopathy with altered consciousness was the most common etiology during the acute period, followed by vascular disorders. An initial focal neurologic deficit was detected in vascular and neoplastic complications, whereas metabolic and infectious etiologies presented with non-focal symptoms. Our study shows that the etiology of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation changes over time, and initial symptoms can help to predict etiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacotherapy for Adults with Tumors of the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Schor, Nina F.

    2008-01-01

    Tumors of the adult central nervous system are among the most common and most chemoresistant neoplasms. Malignant tumors of the brain and spinal cord collectively account for approximately 1.3% of all cancers and 2.2% of all cancer-related deaths. Novel pharmacological approaches to nervous system tumors are urgently needed. This review presents the current approaches and challenges to successful pharmacotherapy of adults with malignant tumors of the central nervous system and discusses novel...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in evaluation of central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolicki, L.; Bak, M.; Grieb, P.

    1996-01-01

    The article presents the current results of MR spectroscopy in evaluation of central nervous system. This method is useful in examination of brain ischemia, brain tumors, epilepsy; white matter disorders and degeneration diseases. MR spectroscopy is unique technique for in vivo examination of the brain in physiological and pathophysiological states. (author)

  6. Advances in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Lauren B; Mohile, Nimish A

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is limited to the CNS. Although novel imaging techniques aid in discriminating lymphoma from other brain tumors, definitive diagnosis requires brain biopsy, vitreoretinal biopsy, or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Survival rates in clinical studies have improved over the past 20 years due to the addition of high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens to whole-brain radiotherapy. Long-term survival, however, is complicated by clinically devastating delayed neurotoxicity. Newer regimens are attempting to reduce or eliminate radiotherapy from first-line treatment with chemotherapy dose intensification. Significant advances have also been made in the fields of pathobiology and treatment, with more targeted treatments on the horizon. The rarity of the disease makes conducting of prospective clinical trials challenging, requiring collaborative efforts between institutions. This review highlights recent advances in the biology, detection, and treatment of PCNSL in immunocompetent patients.

  7. Central nervous system in leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phair, J P; Anderson, R E; Namiki, Hideo

    1964-03-12

    The present report summarizes the pertinent clinical and pathologic findings in 165 cases of leukemia in atomic bomb exposed victims autopsied during the period 1949 to 1962 at ABCC in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Significant parenchymal hemorrhage occurred most often in acute myelogenous leukemia and was markedly increased in patients dying with high terminal white blood cell counts. Possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral hemorrhage in leukemia are discussed. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and subdural hematoma were not related to leukocytosis but appeared to be influenced by marked thrombocytopenia. Leukemic infiltrates of a diffuse nature involving the meninges were paradoxically increased in patients receiving adequate chemotherapy. Meningeal tumors did not show this peculiar relationship to therapy and were not found in association with lymphatic leukemia. Infections involving the central nervous system were confined to patients receiving chemotherapy including steroids. 39 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  8. Statin therapy inhibits remyelination in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miron, Veronique E; Zehntner, Simone P; Kuhlmann, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Remyelination of lesions in the central nervous system contributes to neural repair following clinical relapses in multiple sclerosis. Remyelination is initiated by recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Simvastatin, a blood...... that OPCs were maintained in an immature state (Olig2(strong)/Nkx2.2(weak)). NogoA+ oligodendrocyte numbers were decreased during all simvastatin treatment regimens. Our findings suggest that simvastatin inhibits central nervous system remyelination by blocking progenitor differentiation, indicating...... the need to monitor effects of systemic immunotherapies that can access the central nervous system on brain tissue-repair processes....

  9. Neural stem cells and neuro/gliogenesis in the central nervous system: understanding the structural and functional plasticity of the developing, mature, and diseased brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Seki, Tatsunori; Imayoshi, Itaru; Tamamaki, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Hitoshi, Seiji

    2016-05-01

    Neurons and glia in the central nervous system (CNS) originate from neural stem cells (NSCs). Knowledge of the mechanisms of neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is fundamental to our understanding of how complex brain architecture and function develop. NSCs are present not only in the developing brain but also in the mature brain in adults. Adult neurogenesis likely provides remarkable plasticity to the mature brain. In addition, recent progress in basic research in mental disorders suggests an etiological link with impaired neuro/gliogenesis in particular brain regions. Here, we review the recent progress and discuss future directions in stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology by introducing several topics presented at a joint meeting of the Japanese Association of Anatomists and the Physiological Society of Japan in 2015. Collectively, these topics indicated that neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is a common event occurring in many brain regions at various ages in animals. Given that significant structural and functional changes in cells and neural networks are accompanied by neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs and the integration of newly generated cells into the network, stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology provides a good platform from which to develop an integrated understanding of the structural and functional plasticity that underlies the development of the CNS, its remodeling in adulthood, and the recovery from diseases that affect it.

  10. Central nervous system depressant activityof Leonurus sibiricus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of aerial parts of Leonurus sibiricus was shown to possess central nervous system depressant action by significantly decreased the time of onset of sleep and potentiated the pentobarbital induced sleeping time in mice. Keywords: Leonurus sibiricus, labiatae, central nervous depressant, sedation

  11. Bilastine and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Sastre, J; Bartra, J; Jáuregui, I; del Cuvillo, A; Valero, A

    2011-01-01

    Antihistamines have been classifed as first or second generation drugs, according to their pharmacokinetic properties, chemical structure and adverse effects. The adverse effects of antihistamines upon the central nervous system (CNS) depend upon their capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and bind to the central H1 receptors (RH1). This in turn depends on the lipophilicity of the drug molecule, its molecular weight (MW), and affinity for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (CNS xenobiotic substances extractor protein). First generation antihistamines show scant affinity for P-gp, unlike the second generation molecules which are regarded as P-gp substrates. Histamine in the brain is implicated in many functions (waking-sleep cycle, attention, memory and learning, and the regulation of appetite), with numerous and complex interactions with different types of receptors in different brain areas. Bilastine is a new H1 antihistamine that proves to be effective in treating allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (seasonal and perennial) and urticaria. The imaging studies made, as well as the objective psychomotor tests and subjective assessment of drowsiness, indicate the absence of bilastine action upon the CNS. This fact, and the lack of interaction with benzodiazepines and alcohol, define bilastine as a clinically promising drug with a good safety profile as regards adverse effects upon the CNS.

  12. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenner, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  13. Hypoxic Stress and Inflammatory Pain Disrupt Blood-Brain Barrier Tight Junctions: Implications for Drug Delivery to the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhead, Jeffrey J; Ronaldson, Patrick T; Davis, Thomas P

    2017-07-01

    A functional blood-brain barrier (BBB) is necessary to maintain central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis. Many diseases affecting the CNS, however, alter the functional integrity of the BBB. It has been shown that various diseases and physiological stressors can impact the BBB's ability to selectively restrict passage of substances from the blood to the brain. Modifications of the BBB's permeability properties can potentially contribute to the pathophysiology of CNS diseases and result in altered brain delivery of therapeutic agents. Hypoxia and/or inflammation are central components of a number of diseases affecting the CNS. A number of studies indicate hypoxia or inflammatory pain increase BBB paracellular permeability, induce changes in the expression and/or localization of tight junction proteins, and affect CNS drug uptake. In this review, we look at what is currently known with regard to BBB disruption following a hypoxic or inflammatory insult in vivo. Potential mechanisms involved in altering tight junction components at the BBB are also discussed. A more detailed understanding of the mediators involved in changing BBB functional integrity in response to hypoxia or inflammatory pain could potentially lead to new treatments for CNS diseases with hypoxic or inflammatory components. Additionally, greater insight into the mechanisms involved in TJ rearrangement at the BBB may lead to novel strategies to pharmacologically increase delivery of drugs to the CNS.

  14. Effects of pesticides on the peripheral and central nervous system in tobacco farmers in Malaysia: studies on peripheral nerve conduction, brain-evoked potentials and computerized posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Sato, Hajime; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Naing, Lin; Kimura, Satoshi; Okabe, Shingo; Maeno, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yasuki; Kitamura, Fumihiko; Araki, Shunichi

    2005-04-01

    We examined the effects of pesticides on the central and peripheral nervous system in the setting of a tobacco farm at a developing country. Maximal motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities (MCV and SCV, respectively) in the median, sural and tibial nerves, postural sway, and brain-evoked potentials (auditory event-related and visual-evoked potentials) were measured in 80 male tobacco farmers and age- and sex-matched 40 controls in Kelantan, Malaysia. Median SCV (finger-wrist) in farmers using Delsen (mancozeb, dithiocarbamate fungicide), who showed significant decrease of serum cholinesterase activities, were significantly lower compared with the controls. Sural SCV in farmers using Fastac (alpha-cypermethrin, pyrethroid insecticide) and median MCV (elbow-wrist) in farmers using Tamex (butralin, dinitroaniline herbicide) were significantly slowed compared with their respective controls. In Delsen (mancozeb, dithiocarbamate) users, the power of postural sway of 0-1 Hz was significantly larger than that in the controls both in the anterior-posterior direction with eyes open and in the right-left direction with eyes closed. The former type of sway was also significantly increased in Tamaron (methamidophos, organophosphorus insecticide) users. In conclusion, nerve conduction velocities and postural sway seem to be sensitive indicators of the effects of pesticides on the central and peripheral nervous system.

  15. Case report of a 28-year-old male with the rapid progression of steroid-resistant central nervous system vasculitis diagnosed by a brain biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keigo; Sato, Hideki; Hattori, Hidenori; Takao, Masaki; Takahashi, Shinichi; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2017-09-30

    A 28-year-old Japanese male without a significant past medical history presented with new-onset generalized clonic seizure and headache. A brain MRI revealed multiple enhanced lesions on both cerebral hemispheres. Laboratory exams showed no evidence of systemic inflammation or auto-immune antibodies such as ANCAs. Despite four courses of high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy and five treatments with plasmapheresis, his symptoms worsened and the MRI lesions progressed rapidly. During these treatments, we performed a targeted brain biopsy, that revealed histological findings consistent with a predominant angiitis of parenchymal and subdural small vessels. He was provided with diagnosis of central nervous system vasculitis (CNSV). Subsequent cyclophosphamide pulse therapy enabled a progressive successful improvement of his symptoms. While diagnostic methods for CNSV remain controversial, histological findings are thought to be more useful in obtaining a more definitive diagnosis than findings in image studies, such as MRI and angiography. We suggest that a brain biopsy should be considered during the early period of cases with suspected CNSV and rapid clinical deterioration. We also detected human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) using PCR technology in brain biopsy specimens, however the relationship between CNSV and HHV-7 infection is unknow.

  16. Central nervous system lupus erythematosus in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kimura, Kazue; Yoshida, Naotaka; Mitsuda, Toshihiro; Ibe, Masa-aki; Shimizu, Hiroko (Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-12-01

    Clinical features of central nervous system (CNS) invlvement in childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was investigated. Neuropsychiatric manifestations including seizures, chorea, headache, overt psychosis, tremor, increase of muscle spastisity, and disturbed memory were found in 47% of 15 patients with SLE. There was a well correlatin between CNS abnormalities and SLE disease activity judged by serum complement levels and anti-nuclear antibody and anti-DNA antibody titers. The administration of Prednisolon was effective for the treatment of these CNS abnormalities and steroid psychosis was rare in the present study. EEG abnormalities involving diffuse slowing and slowing bursts were found in 73% of the patients. Cranial CT scan revealed basel ganglia calcifications in 2 patients, and marked brain atrophy in 3 patients. This study indicated that in the long term following of SLE children CNS abnormalities need to be serially checked by EEG and cranial CT scans as well as serological investigations. (author).

  17. Imaging of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Y.Z., E-mail: yenzhitang@doctors.net.uk [Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Booth, T.C.; Bhogal, P.; Malhotra, A.; Wilhelm, T. [Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) comprises 5% of all primary brain tumours. PCNSL demonstrates a variety of well-documented imaging findings, which can vary depending on immune status and histological type. Imaging features of PCNSL may overlap with other tumours and infection making definitive diagnosis challenging. In addition, several rare variants of PCNSL have been described, each with their own imaging characteristics. Advanced imaging techniques including 2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}FDG) and {sup 11}C positron-emission tomography (PET), {sup 201}Tl single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and MR perfusion, have been used to aid differentiation of PCNSL from other tumours. Ultimately, no imaging method can definitively diagnose PCNSL, and histology is required.

  18. [Primary central nervous system lymphoma mimicking ventriculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shiro; Nagano, Seiji; Shibata, Sumiya; Kunieda, Takeharu; Imai, Yukihiro; Kohara, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    A 66-year-old man presented with deteriorated bradykinesia, gait disturbance, disorientation, and urinary incontinence for three weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed dilatation of the ventricles. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination demonstrated lymphocytic pleocytosis, elevation of protein levels, and decreased of glucose levels. A gadolinium-enhanced MRI revealed lesions in the ventricular wall and choroid plexus, mimicking ventriculitis. No evidence of bacterial, fungal, mycobacterial, or viral infections were observed in the CSF. Flow cytometry of CSF showed predominance of CD20+, λ+ cells. PCR examination of CSF revealed positive IgH gene rearrangement, suggesting B cell lymphoma. Endoscopic brain biopsy showed diffuse large B cell lymphoma. As the patient had no evidence of lymphoma in the other organs, we made a diagnosed of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). A limited intraventricular spread of PCNSL is rare but important as one of differential diagnosis of ventriculitis.

  19. Central nervous system lupus erythematosus in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kimura, Kazue; Yoshida, Naotaka; Mitsuda, Toshihiro; Ibe, Masa-aki; Shimizu, Hiroko

    1989-01-01

    Clinical features of central nervous system (CNS) invlvement in childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was investigated. Neuropsychiatric manifestations including seizures, chorea, headache, overt psychosis, tremor, increase of muscle spastisity, and disturbed memory were found in 47% of 15 patients with SLE. There was a well correlatin between CNS abnormalities and SLE disease activity judged by serum complement levels and anti-nuclear antibody and anti-DNA antibody titers. The administration of Prednisolon was effective for the treatment of these CNS abnormalities and steroid psychosis was rare in the present study. EEG abnormalities involving diffuse slowing and slowing bursts were found in 73% of the patients. Cranial CT scan revealed basel ganglia calcifications in 2 patients, and marked brain atrophy in 3 patients. This study indicated that in the long term following of SLE children CNS abnormalities need to be serially checked by EEG and cranial CT scans as well as serological investigations. (author)

  20. Injectable hydrogels for central nervous system therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakulska, Malgosia M; Shoichet, Molly S; Ballios, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    Diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) including those in the brain, spinal cord and retina are devastating because the CNS has limited intrinsic regenerative capacity and currently available therapies are unable to provide significant functional recovery. Several promising therapies have been identified with the goal of restoring at least some of this lost function and include neuroprotective agents to stop or slow cellular degeneration, neurotrophic factors to stimulate cellular growth, neutralizing molecules to overcome the inhibitory environment at the site of injury, and stem cell transplant strategies to replace lost tissue. The delivery of these therapies to the CNS is a challenge because the blood–brain barrier limits the diffusion of molecules into the brain by traditional oral or intravenous routes. Injectable hydrogels have the capacity to overcome the challenges associated with drug delivery to the CNS, by providing a minimally invasive, localized, void-filling platform for therapeutic use. Small molecule or protein drugs can be distributed throughout the hydrogel which then acts as a depot for their sustained release at the injury site. For cell delivery, the hydrogel can reduce cell aggregation and provide an adhesive matrix for improved cell survival and integration. Additionally, by choosing a biodegradable or bioresorbable hydrogel material, the system will eventually be eliminated from the body. This review discusses both natural and synthetic injectable hydrogel materials that have been used for drug or cell delivery to the CNS including hyaluronan, methylcellulose, chitosan, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Matrigel. (paper)

  1. Radiation response of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, T.E.; Kun, L.E.; Ang, K.K.; Stephens, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the anatomical, pathophysiological, and clinical aspects of radiation injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the lack of pathognomonic characteristics for CNS radiation lesions, demyelination and malacia are consistently the dominant morphological features of radiation myelopathy. In addition, cerebral atrophy is commonly observed in patients with neurological deficits related to chemotherapy and radiation, and neurocognitive deficits are associated with diffuse white matter changes. Clinical and experimental dose-response information have been evaluated and summarized into specific recommendations for the spinal cord and brain. The common spinal cord dose limit of 45 Gy in 22 to 25 fractions is conservative and can be relaxed if respecting this limit materially reduces the probability of tumor control. It is suggested that the 5% incidence of radiation myelopathy probably lies between 57 and 61 Gy to the spinal cord in the absence of dose modifying chemotherapy. A clinically detectable length effect for the spinal cord has not been observed. The effects of chemotherapy and altered fractionation are also discussed. Brain necrosis in adults is rarely noted below 60 Gy in conventional fractionation, with imaging and clinical changes being observed generally only above 50 Gy. However, neurocognitive effects are observed at lower doses, especially in children. A more pronounced volume effect is believed to exist in the brain than in the spinal cord. Tumor progression may be hard to distinguish from radiation and chemotherapy effects. Diffuse white matter injury can be attributed to radiation and associated with neurological deficits, but leukoencephalopathy is rarely observed in the absence of chemotherapy. Subjective, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) parameters related to radiation spinal cord and brain injury have been developed and presented on ordinal scales

  2. Radiation response of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, T.E.; Kun, L.E.; Stephens, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the anatomical, pathophysiological, and clinical aspects of radiation injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the lack of pathoGyomonic characteristics for CNS radiation lesions, demyelination and malacia are consistently the dominant morphological features of radiation myelopathy. In addition, cerebral atrophy is commonly observed in patients with neurological deficits related to chemotherapy and radiation, and neurocognitive deficits are associated with diffuse white matter changes. Clinical and experimental dose-response information have been evaluated and summarized into specific recommendations for the spinal cord and brain. The common spinal cord dose limit of 45 Gn in 22 to 25 fractions is conservative and can be relaxed if respecting this limit materially reduces the probability of tumor control. It is suggested that the 5% incidence of radiation myelopathy probably lies between 57 and 61 Gy to the spinal cord in the absence of dose modifying chemotherapy. A clinically detectable length effect for the spinal cord has not been observed. The effects of chemotherapy and altered fractionation are also discussed. Brain necrosis in adults is rarely noted below 60 Gy in conventional fractionation, with imaging and clinical changes being observed generally only above 50 Gy. However, neurocognitive effects are observed at lower doses, especially in children. A more pronounced volume effect is believed to exist in the brain than in the spinal cord. Tumor progression may be hard to distinguish from radiation and chemotherapy effects. Diffuse white matter injury can be attributed to radiation and associated with neurological deficits, but leukoencephalopathy is rarely observed in the absence of chemotherapy. Subjective, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) parameters related to radiation spinal cord and brain injury have been developed and presented on ordinal scales. 140 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Primary granulomatous angeitis of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrena, R.; Sevilla, G.; Olivan, M.; Gutierrez, P.; Guelbenzo, S.; Ayuso, T.

    1995-01-01

    A case of a young man with primary granulomatous angeitis of the central nervous system manifesting as a seizure is presented. The patient did not show previous pathology. Laboratory tests, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed, but the definitive diagnosis was made only by means of brain biopsy. Administration of steroids showed and improvement in symptoms. 8 refs

  4. Adverse effects of radiotherapy on the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocquard, Y.; Marion, J.L.; Goas, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Adverse effects of radiotherapy on the central nervous system are increasingly met with. Both the brain and spinal cord may be involved. Whereas some forms have a favorable outcome, many run a relentlessly progressive course, failing to respond to treatment. Improvement of radiation protocols should achieve a lower complication rate [fr

  5. Some Central Nervous System Activities of Nerium Oleander Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Nerium oleander Linn. on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The effect of the 50 % hydroalcohol extract of N. oleander flowers at dosage levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg ..... in the brain and inhibition of neuronal output could be ...

  6. Characteristic radionuclide appearance of certain pediatric central nervous system neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    The results of 5 years experience in the localization of brain neoplasms in children are summarized. The radiopharmaceutical of choice was /sup 99m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate administered in a dosage of 100μ Ci/lb. The appearance of the most common neoplasms of the central nervous system in childhood is characterized. (U.S.)

  7. Innate immune responses in central nervous system inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finsen, Bente; Owens, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    In autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), innate glial cell responses play a key role in determining the outcome of leukocyte infiltration. Access of leukocytes is controlled via complex interactions with glial components of the blood-brain barrier that include angiotensin II...

  8. Metalloproteinases control brain inflammation induced by pertussis toxin in mice overexpressing the chemokine CCL2 in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Buist, Richard; Sun, Xue-Jun

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory leukocytes infiltrate the CNS parenchyma in neuroinflammation. This involves cellular migration across various structures associated with the blood-brain barrier: the vascular endothelium, the glia limitans, and the perivascular space between them. Leukocytes accumulate spontaneously...

  9. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  10. Regulation of Neurotransmitter Responses in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP J’-aminobutyric acid; yclic AM’P; neuromodulation ; brain 1ABTAT(Continue on reverse if necessary and...crucial enzyme for regulating neuromodulation in brain. Given the ultimate goal of developing novel pharmacological agents for N! manipulating...central nervous system function, the discovery of a biochemical response to a neuromodulator can be considered a major step in that direction. Thus, up to

  11. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severino, Mariasavina [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); Schwartz, Erin S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Rydland, Jana [MR Center, St. Olav' s Hospital HF, Trondheim (Norway); Nikas, Ioannis [Agia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Imaging Department, Athens (Greece); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors

  12. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severino, Mariasavina; Schwartz, Erin S.; Thurnher, Majda M.; Rydland, Jana; Nikas, Ioannis; Rossi, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors, where aggressive surgical treatment leads to disease

  13. Smart electromechanical systems the central nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Kurbanov, Vugar

    2017-01-01

    This book describes approaches to solving the problems of developing the central nervous system of robots (CNSR) based on smart electromechanical systems (SEMS) modules, principles of construction of the various modules of the central nervous system and variants of mathematical software CNSR in control systems for intelligent robots. It presents the latest advances in theory and practice at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Developers of intelligent robots to solve modern problems in robotics are increasingly addressing the use of the bionic approach to create robots that mimic the complexity and adaptability of biological systems. These have smart electromechanical system (SEMS), which are used in various cyber-physical systems (CPhS), and allow the functions of calculation, control, communications, information storage, monitoring, measurement and control of parameters and environmental parameters to be integrated. The behavior of such systems is based on the information received from the central nervous syst...

  14. Non-invasive electrical brain stimulation: from acute to late-stage treatment of central nervous system damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Henrich-Noack

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive brain current stimulation (NIBS is a promising and versatile tool for inducing neuroplasticity, protection and functional rehabilitation of damaged neuronal systems. It is technically simple, requires no surgery, and has significant beneficial effects. However, there are various technical approaches for NIBS which influence neuronal networks in significantly different ways. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, alternating current stimulation (ACS and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS all have been applied to modulate brain activity in animal experiments under normal and pathological conditions. Also clinical trials have shown that tDCS, rTMS and ACS induce significant behavioural effects and can – depending on the parameters chosen – enhance or decrease brain excitability and influence performance and learning as well as rehabilitation and protective mechanisms. The diverse phaenomena and partially opposing effects of NIBS are not yet fully understood and mechanisms of action need to be explored further in order to select appropriate parameters for a given task, such as current type and strength, timing, distribution of current densities and electrode position. In this review, we will discuss the various parameters which need to be considered when designing a NIBS protocol and will put them into context with the envisaged applications in experimental neurobiology and medicine such as vision restoration, motor rehabilitation and cognitive enhancement.

  15. CT findings of central nervous system in congenital syphilis infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Cheng; Yang Xinghui; Wang Man

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT features of the central nervous system in congenital syphilis infant. Methods: CT findings of central nervous system in 11 infants with clinically proved congenital syphilis were analyzed retrospectively. Results: CT findings in 10 syphilis neonates were diffuse hypodense lesions in the white matter, with subarachnoid and intra-encephalic hemorrhage in 3 and 1 cases, respectively. One 2-month-old syphilis infant case and 5 cases of follow-up after 45 days to 6 months of treatment demonstrated bilateral widened sulci and cistern with enlarged ventricles in 3 of them. Conclusion: CT findings of the central nervous system in congenital syphilis infant are similar to those of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in neonates, and extra-encephalic hydrocephalus or brain hypogenesis ensues later on. (authors)

  16. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.).

  17. Effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nencioni, Ana Leonor Abrahão; Neto, Emidio Beraldo; de Freitas, Lucas Alves; Dorce, Valquiria Abrão Coronado

    2018-01-01

    In Brazil, the scorpion species responsible for most severe incidents belong to the Tityus genus and, among this group, T. serrulatus , T. bahiensis , T. stigmurus and T. obscurus are the most dangerous ones. Other species such as T. metuendus , T. silvestres, T. brazilae , T. confluens , T. costatus , T. fasciolatus and T. neglectus are also found in the country, but the incidence and severity of accidents caused by them are lower. The main effects caused by scorpion venoms - such as myocardial damage, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary edema and shock - are mainly due to the release of mediators from the autonomic nervous system. On the other hand, some evidence show the participation of the central nervous system and inflammatory response in the process. The participation of the central nervous system in envenoming has always been questioned. Some authors claim that the central effects would be a consequence of peripheral stimulation and would be the result, not the cause, of the envenoming process. Because, they say, at least in adult individuals, the venom would be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. In contrast, there is some evidence showing the direct participation of the central nervous system in the envenoming process. This review summarizes the major findings on the effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system, both clinically and experimentally. Most of the studies have been performed with T. serrulatus and T. bahiensis . Little information is available regarding the other Brazilian Tityus species.

  18. Phenylketonuria: central nervous system and microbiome interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Arturo Herrera Morban

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by increased phenylalanine (Phe levels causing an inadequate neurodevelopment; the treatment of PKU is a Phe-restricting diet, and as such it can modulate the intestinal microbiome of the individual, generating central nervous system secondary disturbances that, added to the baseline disturbance, can influence the outcome of the disease.

  19. Central nervous system tuberculomata presenting as internuclear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculoma can have variable presentation depending upon the site and number of tuberculomata. We are reporting a rare case of a 15 years old girl who presented to our hospital with binocular diplopia on right gaze. Clinical examination revealed left sided internuclear ophthalmoplegia ...

  20. Central nervous system tuberculosis | Cherian | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, one of the most devastating clinical manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) is noted in 5 to 10% of extrapulmonary TB cases, and accounts for approximately 1% of all TB cases. Definitive diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) depends upon the detection of the tubercle bacilli in ...

  1. Imaging of the fetal central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction : Ultrasound and MR imaging of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) develop at an ever-increasing rate. Theoretically, the two modalities should be synergistic, but a literature review revealed the difficulties of determining the merit of either technique and revealed gaps in our

  2. Hypersensitivity Responses in the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Asgari, Nasrin; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen

    2015-01-01

    of pathology in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease where activated neutrophils infiltrate, unlike in MS. The most widely used model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, is an autoantigen-immunized disease that can be transferred to naive animals...

  3. Interferons in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are implicated as an important component of the innate immune system influencing viral infections, inflammation, and immune surveillance. We review here the complex biological activity of IFNs in the central nervous system (CNS) and associated glial–immune interactions...

  4. Sjogrens Syndrome Presenting with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Terzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjogren’s syndrome is a slowly progressive autoimmune disease. Neurological involvement occurs in approximately 20-25% cases in Sjogren’s syndrome. 87% of the neurological involvement is peripheral nervous system, almost 13% in the form of central nervous system involvement. Affected central nervous system may show similar clinical and radiological findings as in multiple sclerosis (MS. In this paper, a 43-year-old patient is discussed who was referred with the complaint of dizziness, there was MS- like lesions in brain imaging studies and was diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome. MS- like clinical and radiologic tables can be seen, albeit rarely in Sjogren’s syndrome. In these cases, early diagnosis and early treatment for the sjögren has a great importance for the prognosis of the disease.

  5. Vitamin D and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzosek, Małgorzata; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Wrzosek, Michał; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Matsumoto, Halina; Piątkiewicz, Paweł; Radziwoń-Zaleska, Maria; Wojnar, Marcin; Nowicka, Grażyna

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is formed in human epithelial cells via photochemical synthesis and is also acquired from dietary sources. The so-called classical effect of this vitamin involves the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Apart from this, non-classical effects of vitamin D have recently gained renewed attention. One important yet little known of the numerous functions of vitamin D is the regulation of nervous system development and function. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin D is associated with its influence on neurotrophin production and release, neuromediator synthesis, intracellular calcium homeostasis, and prevention of oxidative damage to nervous tissue. Clinical studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency may lead to an increased risk of disease of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Adequate intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and the neonatal period seems to be crucial in terms of prevention of these diseases.

  6. Rituximab treatment in primary angiitis of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreeya; Ross, Laura; Oon, Shereen; Nikpour, Mandana

    2018-06-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare autoimmune vasculitis affecting the brain and spinal cord. Treatment with biological agents has revolutionised the treatment of many rheumatic conditions but there is scant literature regarding the use of biological agents in PACNS. We present three cases of PACNS treated with rituximab, including two cases of relapsed disease, and a literature review suggesting a role for rituximab in this condition. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  7. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur; Toorn, Ronald van

    2009-01-01

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  8. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Toorn, Ronald van [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  9. Utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for differentiating glioblastoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma and brain metastatic tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shanshan, E-mail: lushan1118@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Gao, Qianqian, E-mail: gaoqian123011@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Yu, Jing, E-mail: yujing0303@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Li, Yang, E-mail: yuhao040511@163.com [Department of Pathology,The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Cao, Peng, E-mail: peng.cao@ge.com [GE healthcare, Shanghai (China); Shi, Haibin, E-mail: hbshi346@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Hong, Xunning, E-mail: hongxunning@sina.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: The study aimed to investigate the use of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived permeability parameters for the differentiation of glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs), primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs), and brain metastatic tumors (MTs). Materials and methods: Seventy-five patients with histopathologically confirmed GBMs (n = 38), PCNSLs (n = 16) and MTs (n = 21) underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRIs before surgery. The volume transfer constant K{sup trans}, the flux rate constant between extravascular extracellular space and plasma K{sub ep}, the extravascular extracellular volume V{sub e} and the fractional plasma volume V{sub p} were measured within the entire contrast-enhancing tumor by extended Tofts model. A one-way analysis of variance was used to compare all of the parameters among these three tumors, followed by the post-hoc test. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the permeability parameters. Results: Mean K{sup trans} value and V{sub e} value were significantly higher in PCNSLs than in GBMs (P < 0.001 and P = 0.011) and MTs (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in all of the permeability parameters between GBMs and MTs. According to the receiver operating characteristic analyses, both K{sup trans} and V{sub e} had good diagnostic performance for discriminating between PCNSLs and GBMs (the area under the curve: 0.847 and 0.785, respectively), as well as between PCNSLs and MTs (the area under the curve: 0.851 and 0.884, respectively). Conclusions: The K{sup trans} and V{sub e} derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI facilitate the differentiation of PCNSLs from GBMs and MTs.

  10. A 2D-QSPR approach to predict blood-brain barrier penetration of drugs acting on the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Malta de Sá

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS have to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB in order to perform their pharmacological actions. Passive BBB diffusion can be partially expressed by the blood/brain partition coefficient (logBB. As the experimental evaluation of logBB is time and cost consuming, theoretical methods such as quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR can be useful to predict logBB values. In this study, a 2D-QSPR approach was applied to a set of 28 drugs acting on the CNS, using the logBB property as biological data. The best QSPR model [n = 21, r = 0.94 (r² = 0.88, s = 0.28, and Q² = 0.82] presented three molecular descriptors: calculated n-octanol/water partition coefficient (ClogP, polar surface area (PSA, and polarizability (α. Six out of the seven compounds from the test set were well predicted, which corresponds to good external predictability (85.7%. These findings can be helpful to guide future approaches regarding those molecular descriptors which must be considered for estimating the logBB property, and also for predicting the BBB crossing ability for molecules structurally related to the investigated set.Fármacos que atuam no sistema nervoso central (SNC devem atravessar a barreira hematoencefálica (BHE para exercerem suas ações farmacológicas. A difusão passiva através da BHE pode ser parcialmente expressa pelo coeficiente de partição entre os compartimentos encefálico e sanguíneo (logBB, brain/blood partition coefficient. Considerando-se que a avaliação experimental de logBB é dispendiosa e demorada, métodos teóricos como estudos das relações entre estrutura química e propriedade (QSPR, Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships podem ser utilizados na previsão dos valores de logBB. Neste estudo, uma abordagem de QSPR-2D foi aplicada a um conjunto de 28 moléculas com ação central, usando logBB como propriedade biológica. O melhor modelo de QSPR [n = 21, r = 0,94 (r

  11. Diverse roles of neurotensin agonists in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona eBoules

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NT is a tridecapeptide that is found in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. NT behaves as a neurotransmitter in the brain and as a hormone in the gut. Additionally, NT acts as a neuromodulator to several neurotransmitter systems including dopaminergic, sertonergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and cholinergic systems. Due to its association with such a wide variety of neurotransmitters, NT has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several central nervous system (CNS disorders such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, Parkinson’s disease, pain, central control of blood pressure, eating disorders, as well as, cancer and inflammation. The present review will focus on the role that NT and its analogs play in schizophrenia, endocrine function, pain, psychostimulant abuse, and Parkinson’s disease.

  12. Is Ghrelin Synthesized in the Central Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Agustina; López Soto, Eduardo J; Epelbaum, Jacques; Perelló, Mario

    2017-03-15

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide that acts via its specific receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a), and regulates a vast variety of physiological functions. It is well established that ghrelin is predominantly synthesized by a distinct population of endocrine cells located within the gastric oxyntic mucosa. In addition, some studies have reported that ghrelin could also be synthesized in some brain regions, such as the hypothalamus. However, evidences of neuronal production of ghrelin have been inconsistent and, as a consequence, it is still as a matter of debate if ghrelin can be centrally produced. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and discussion of the data supporting, or not, the notion that the mammalian central nervous system can synthetize ghrelin. We conclude that no irrefutable and reproducible evidence exists supporting the notion that ghrelin is synthetized, at physiologically relevant levels, in the central nervous system of adult mammals.

  13. Is Ghrelin Synthesized in the Central Nervous System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Cabral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide that acts via its specific receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a, and regulates a vast variety of physiological functions. It is well established that ghrelin is predominantly synthesized by a distinct population of endocrine cells located within the gastric oxyntic mucosa. In addition, some studies have reported that ghrelin could also be synthesized in some brain regions, such as the hypothalamus. However, evidences of neuronal production of ghrelin have been inconsistent and, as a consequence, it is still as a matter of debate if ghrelin can be centrally produced. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and discussion of the data supporting, or not, the notion that the mammalian central nervous system can synthetize ghrelin. We conclude that no irrefutable and reproducible evidence exists supporting the notion that ghrelin is synthetized, at physiologically relevant levels, in the central nervous system of adult mammals.

  14. Focal lesions in the central nervous system: stereotaxic radioneurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.f.; Hosobuchi, Y.; Born, J.L.; Tobias, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The application of heavy-ion beams for fundamental and applied brain research has unusual potential. Methods are being developed in our laboratory for producing focal lesions in the central nervous system (e.g., the hypothalamus, thalamus, pituitary gland) to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating certain pathological disorders of the brain with stereotaxic Bragg peak heavy-ion radiosurgery. Studies in animals are demonstrating the value of this neuroscience tool for investigating mammalian brain response to induction of discrete focal lesions in the hypothalamus or in the cerebral cortex. These studies are also elucidating the neuroendocrinological response follwing ablation of various portions of the midbrain, without requiring complex neurosurgical preparations. Clinical studies are demonstrating the feasibility of stereotaxic neurological radiosurgery for treating certain inoperable vascular disorders of the brain [e.g., arteriovenous malformations (AVM), internal carotid artery-cavernous sinus fistulas and other cerebrovascular disorders] in patients who are already demonstrating progressive neurological deficit. Further applications of focal lesion production with the Bragg ionization peak can be extended to include localized radiation to centers of the brain and spinal cord for treatment of such disorders as Parkinson's disease, pituitary microadenomas, acoustic neuromas, and the control of pain. The eventual application of radioactive beams will provide accurate localization of the stopping points of the beam, thereby making it feasible to stop the beam accurately at a defined depth within the central nervous system

  15. Effects of the Autonomic Nervous System, Central Nervous System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gastrointestinal tract is chiefly involved in the digestion of ingested food, facilitation of absorption process and expulsion of the undigested food material through motility process. Motility is influenced by neurohormonal system which is associated with the enteric nervous system , autonomic nervous system and the ...

  16. Brain Facts: A Primer on the Brain and Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Joseph, Ed.

    This booklet describes only a glimpse of what is known about the nervous system, brain disorders, and the exciting avenues of research that promise new therapies for many of the most devastating neurological and psychiatric diseases. The neuron, brain development, sensation and perception, learning and memory, movement, advances and challenges in…

  17. Mild hypothermia as a treatment for central nervous system injuries: Positive or negative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwazeh, Rami; Yan, Yi

    2013-10-05

    Besides local neuronal damage caused by the primary insult, central nervous system injuries may secondarily cause a progressive cascade of related events including brain edema, ischemia, oxida-tive stress, excitotoxicity, and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis. Hypothermia is a beneficial strategy in a variety of acute central nervous system injuries. Mild hypothermia can treat high intra-cranial pressure following traumatic brain injuries in adults. It is a new treatment that increases sur-vival and quality of life for patients suffering from ischemic insults such as cardiac arrest, stroke, and neurogenic fever following brain trauma. Therapeutic hypothermia decreases free radical produc-tion, inflammation, excitotoxicity and intracranial pressure, and improves cerebral metabolism after traumatic brain injury and cerebral ischemia, thus protecting against central nervous system dam-age. Although a series of pathological and physiological changes as well as potential side effects are observed during hypothermia treatment, it remains a potential therapeutic strategy for central nervous system injuries and deserves further study.

  18. Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult central nervous system tumor treatment may include surgery, radiosurgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surveillance, and targeted therapy. Treatment depends on the tumor type. Learn more about brain and spinal tumor treatment in this expert-reviewed summary.

  19. Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult central nervous system tumor treatment options include surgery, radiosurgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surveillance, and supportive care. Get detailed information about the types and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent brain and spinal tumors in this clinician summary.

  20. Reorganization of the human central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalow, G; Zäch, G A

    2000-10-01

    The key strategies on which the discovery of the functional organization of the central nervous system (CNS) under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions have been based included (1) our measurements of phase and frequency coordination between the firings of alpha- and gamma-motoneurons and secondary muscle spindle afferents in the human spinal cord, (2) knowledge on CNS reorganization derived upon the improvement of the functions of the lesioned CNS in our patients in the short-term memory and the long-term memory (reorganization), and (3) the dynamic pattern approach for re-learning rhythmic coordinated behavior. The theory of self-organization and pattern formation in nonequilibrium systems is explicitly related to our measurements of the natural firing patterns of sets of identified single neurons in the human spinal premotor network and re-learned coordinated movements following spinal cord and brain lesions. Therapy induced cell proliferation, and maybe, neurogenesis seem to contribute to the host of structural changes during the process of re-learning of the lesioned CNS. So far, coordinated functions like movements could substantially be improved in every of the more than 100 patients with a CNS lesion by applying coordination dynamic therapy. As suggested by the data of our patients on re-learning, the human CNS seems to have a second integrative strategy for learning, re-learning, storing and recalling, which makes an essential contribution of the functional plasticity following a CNS lesion. A method has been developed by us for the simultaneous recording with wire electrodes of extracellular action potentials from single human afferent and efferent nerve fibres of undamaged sacral nerve roots. A classification scheme of the nerve fibres in the human peripheral nervous system (PNS) could be set up in which the individual classes of nerve fibres are characterized by group conduction velocities and group nerve fibre diameters. Natural impulse patterns

  1. Cholesterol: Its Regulation and Role in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Orth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a major constituent of the human brain, and the brain is the most cholesterol-rich organ. Numerous lipoprotein receptors and apolipoproteins are expressed in the brain. Cholesterol is tightly regulated between the major brain cells and is essential for normal brain development. The metabolism of brain cholesterol differs markedly from that of other tissues. Brain cholesterol is primarily derived by de novo synthesis and the blood brain barrier prevents the uptake of lipoprotein cholesterol from the circulation. Defects in cholesterol metabolism lead to structural and functional central nervous system diseases such as Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Niemann-Pick type C disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. These diseases affect different metabolic pathways (cholesterol biosynthesis, lipid transport and lipoprotein assembly, apolipoproteins, lipoprotein receptors, and signaling molecules. We review the metabolic pathways of cholesterol in the CNS and its cell-specific and microdomain-specific interaction with other pathways such as the amyloid precursor protein and discuss potential treatment strategies as well as the effects of the widespread use of LDL cholesterol-lowering drugs on brain functions.

  2. Central nervous system regulation of intestinal lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Sarah; Taher, Jennifer; Adeli, Khosrow

    2016-02-01

    In response to nutrient availability, the small intestine and brain closely communicate to modulate energy homeostasis and metabolism. The gut-brain axis involves complex nutrient sensing mechanisms and an integration of neuronal and hormonal signaling. This review summarizes recent evidence implicating the gut-brain axis in regulating lipoprotein metabolism, with potential implications for the dyslipidemia of insulin resistant states. The intestine and brain possess distinct mechanisms for sensing lipid availability, which triggers subsequent regulation of feeding, glucose homeostasis, and adipose tissue metabolism. More recently, central receptors, neuropeptides, and gut hormones that communicate with the brain have been shown to modulate hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein metabolism via parasympathetic and sympathetic signaling. Gut-derived glucagon-like peptides appear to be particularly important in modulating the intestinal secretion of chylomicron particles via a novel brain-gut axis. Dysregulation of these pathways may contribute to postprandial diabetic dyslipidemia. Emerging evidence implicates the central and enteric nervous systems in controlling many aspects of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Bidirectional communication between the gut and brain involving neuronal pathways and gut peptides is critical for regulating feeding and metabolism, and forms a neuroendocrine circuit to modulate dietary fat absorption and intestinal production of atherogenic chylomicron particles.

  3. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Traumatic Brain Injury-Related Mortality: Interrelationships Between Genetics and Acute Systemic and Central Nervous System BDNF Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, Michelle D; Conley, Yvette P; Wagner, Amy K

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have higher mortality rates after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to younger adults. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling is altered in aging and is important to TBI given its role in neuronal survival/plasticity and autonomic function. Following experimental TBI, acute BDNF administration has not been efficacious. Clinically, genetic variation in BDNF (reduced signaling alleles: rs6265, Met-carriers; rs7124442, C-carriers) can be protective against acute mortality. Postacutely, these genotypes carry lower mortality risk in older adults and greater mortality risk among younger adults. Investigate BDNF levels in mortality/outcome following severe TBI in the context of age and genetic risk. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum BDNF were assessed prospectively during the first week following severe TBI (n = 203) and in controls (n = 10). Age, BDNF genotype, and BDNF levels were assessed as mortality/outcome predictors. CSF BDNF levels tended to be higher post-TBI (P = .061) versus controls and were associated with time until death (P = .042). In contrast, serum BDNF levels were reduced post-TBI versus controls (P BDNF serum and gene * age interactions were mortality predictors post-TBI in the same multivariate model. CSF and serum BDNF tended to be negatively correlated post-TBI (P = .07). BDNF levels predicted mortality, in addition to gene * age interactions, suggesting levels capture additional mortality risk. Higher CSF BDNF post-TBI may be detrimental due to injury and age-related increases in pro-apoptotic BDNF target receptors. Negative CSF and serum BDNF correlations post-TBI suggest blood-brain barrier transit alterations. Understanding BDNF signaling in neuronal survival, plasticity, and autonomic function may inform treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. [The Role of Imaging in Central Nervous System Infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Hajime; Tazoe, Jun; Yamada, Kei

    2015-07-01

    Many infections invade the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the main tool that is used to evaluate infectious lesions of the central nervous system. The useful sequences on MRI are dependent on the locations, such as intra-axial, extra-axial, and spinal cord. For intra-axial lesions, besides the fundamental sequences, including T1-weighted images, T2-weighted images, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, advanced sequences, such as diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and MR spectroscopy, can be applied. They are occasionally used as determinants for quick and correct diagnosis. For extra-axial lesions, understanding the differences among 2D-conventional T1-weighted images, 2D-fat-saturated T1-weighted images, 3D-Spin echo sequences, and 3D-Gradient echo sequence after the administration of gadolinium is required to avoid wrong interpretations. FLAIR plus gadolinium is a useful tool for revealing abnormal enhancement on the brain surface. For the spinal cord, the sequences are limited. Evaluating the distribution and time course of the spinal cord are essential for correct diagnoses. We summarize the role of imaging in central nervous system infections and show the pitfalls, key points, and latest information in them on clinical practices.

  5. Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S.C.; Perez, M.R. Del

    1997-01-01

    The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed

  6. Liposomal Conjugates for Drug Delivery to the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Helm

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatments of central nervous system (CNS diseases often fail due to the blood–brain barrier. Circumvention of this obstacle is crucial for any systemic treatment of such diseases to be effective. One approach to transfer drugs into the brain is the use of colloidal carrier systems—amongst others, liposomes. A prerequisite for successful drug delivery by colloidal carriers to the brain is the modification of their surface, making them invisible to the reticuloendothelial system (RES and to target them to specific surface epitopes at the blood–brain barrier. This study characterizes liposomes conjugated with cationized bovine serum albumin (cBSA as transport vectors in vitro in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCEC and in vivo in rats using fluorescently labelled liposomes. Experiments with PBCEC showed that sterically stabilized (PEGylated liposomes without protein as well as liposomes conjugated to native bovine serum albumin (BSA were not taken up. In contrast, cBSA-liposomes were taken up and appeared to be concentrated in intracellular vesicles. Uptake occurred in a concentration and time dependent manner. Free BSA and free cBSA inhibited uptake. After intravenous application of cBSA-liposomes, confocal fluorescence microscopy of brain cryosections from male Wistar rats showed fluorescence associated with liposomes in brain capillary surrounding tissue after 3, 6 and 24 h, for liposomes with a diameter between 120 and 150 nm, suggesting successful brain delivery of cationized-albumin coupled liposomes.

  7. Dendrimer Advances for the Central Nervous System Delivery of Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of noninvasive treatment for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is generally limited by the poor access of therapeutic agents into the CNS. Most CNS drugs cannot permeate into the brain parenchyma because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and overcoming this has become one of the most significant challenges in the development of CNS therapeutics. Rapid advances in nanotechnology have provided promising solutions to this challenge. This review discusses the latest applications of dendrimers in the treatment of CNS diseases with an emphasis on brain tumors. Dendrimer-mediated drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis are also reviewed. The toxicity, biodistribution, and transport mechanisms in dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents bypassing or crossing the BBB are also discussed. Future directions and major challenges of dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents are included. PMID:24274162

  8. Dendrimer advances for the central nervous system delivery of therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Leyuan; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Yue

    2014-01-15

    The effectiveness of noninvasive treatment for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is generally limited by the poor access of therapeutic agents into the CNS. Most CNS drugs cannot permeate into the brain parenchyma because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and overcoming this has become one of the most significant challenges in the development of CNS therapeutics. Rapid advances in nanotechnology have provided promising solutions to this challenge. This review discusses the latest applications of dendrimers in the treatment of CNS diseases with an emphasis on brain tumors. Dendrimer-mediated drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis are also reviewed. The toxicity, biodistribution, and transport mechanisms in dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents bypassing or crossing the BBB are also discussed. Future directions and major challenges of dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents are included.

  9. Monitoring In Patients With Infections Of Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunoday G R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of brain injury in infections of central nervous system (CNS are complex. While the primary injury may be due to meningeal and/or parenchymal invasion by the pathogen and release of toxins, a variety of secondary insults occur, which may influence the outcome as much as the primary insult. This concept is well recognized in brain trauma(1,2 where early recognition of secondary injuries and their appropriate treatment has been shown to improve outcome. Hypoxia, ischemia and metabolic disturbances are important secondary insults recognized in brain trauma, These are known to cause permanent neurological damage and worsening of outcome if undetected and untreated. In CNS infections, with their complex pathophysiologies, there is ample scope for such secondary insults. Monitoring in patients with CNS infections is to detect these secondary insults, allowing for a more informed approach to treatment.

  10. Involvement of the central nervous system in myotonic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Ritsuko; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Kuroiwa, Yoshigoro; Iwashita, Hiroshi; Kato, Motohiro.

    1985-01-01

    In order to evaluate the central nervous system involvement in myotonic dystrophy, intelligence quotient (IQ), brain CT scan, EEG and pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (VEP) were analyzed in 10 patients with myotonic dystrophy. Impaired intelligence was observed in 9 out of 10 patients, abnormal brain CT in 7, and EEG abnormality in 7. The brain CT showed a diffuse cortical atrophy, a dilatation of the ventricles, and a periventricular lucency, mainly around the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle. The EEG findings showed a tendency toward generalized slowing of the background activity. These abnormal findings were well related to the clinical severity of MD, indicating that there is a diffuse cerebral involvement in the majority of the MD patients. VEP showed a prolonged P100 latency in 5 out of 10 patints, or 7 out of 19 eyes examined. These prolonged latency of the P100 component was considered to be due to dysfunctions of the visual pathway in the cerebral hemisphere, rather than due to cataracts and retinal dysfunctions because it was observed only in moderate and severe cases. These severe and moderate cases showed abnormalities in all four examinations. It was concluded that combination of different parameters might be useful to evaluate the central nervous system involvement in patients with MD. (author)

  11. Area 51: How do Acanthamoeba invade the central nervous system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Emes, Richard; Elsheikha, Hany; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2011-05-01

    Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis generally develops as a result of haematogenous spread, but it is unclear how circulating amoebae enter the central nervous system (CNS) and cause inflammation. At present, the mechanisms which Acanthamoeba use to invade this incredibly well-protected area of the CNS and produce infection are not well understood. In this paper, we propose two key virulence factors: mannose-binding protein and extracellular serine proteases as key players in Acanthamoeba traversal of the blood-brain barrier leading to neuronal injury. Both molecules should provide excellent opportunities as potential targets in the rational development of therapeutic interventions against Acanthamoeba encephalitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Central nervous system frontiers for the use of erythropoietin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO; epoetin alfa) is well established as safe and effective for the treatment of anemia. In addition to the erythropoietic effects of endogenous erythropoietin (EPO), recent evidence suggests that it may elicit a neuroprotective effect in the central nervous...... system (CNS). Preclinical studies have demonstrated the presence of EPO receptors in the brain that are up-regulated under hypoxic or ischemic conditions. Intracerebral and systemic administration of epoetin alfa have been demonstrated to elicit marked neuroprotective effects in multiple preclinical...

  13. Immune response induction in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Babcock, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The primary function of the immune response is protection of the host against infection with pathogens, including viruses. Since viruses can infect any tissue of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS), it is logical that cells of the immune system should equally have access to all...... tissues. Nevertheless, the brain and spinal cord are noted for their lack of immune presence. Relative to other organ systems, the CNS appears immunologically privileged. Furthermore, when immune responses do occur in the CNS, they are frequently associated with deleterious effects such as inflammatory...

  14. Axonal Elongation into Peripheral Nervous System ``Bridges'' after Central Nervous System Injury in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Samuel; Aguayo, Albert J.

    1981-11-01

    The origin, termination, and length of axonal growth after focal central nervous system injury was examined in adult rats by means of a new experimental model. When peripheral nerve segments were used as ``bridges'' between the medulla and spinal cord, axons from neurons at both these levels grew approximately 30 millimeters. The regenerative potential of these central neurons seems to be expressed when the central nervous system glial environment is changed to that of the peripheral nervous system.

  15. [Tumors of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Loyola, Marco Antonio; Galnares-Olalde, Javier Andrés; Mercado, Moisés

    2017-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a considerable morbidity and mortality rate. Recent advances in the underlying oncogenic mechanisms of these tumors have led to new classification systems, which, in turn, allow for a better diagnostic approach and therapeutic planning. Most of these neoplasms occur sporadically and several risk factors have been found to be associated with their development, such as exposure to ionizing radiation or electromagnetic fields and the concomitant presence of conditions like diabetes, hypertension and Parkinson's disease. A relatively minor proportion of primary CNS tumors occur in the context of hereditary syndromes. The purpose of this review is to analyze the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and therapy of CNS tumors with particular emphasis in the putative risk factors mentioned above.

  16. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Ezra A.; Orbach, Darren B.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  17. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  18. VIIP: Central Nervous System (CNS) Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jerry; Mulugeta, Lealem; Nelson, Emily; Raykin, Julia; Feola, Andrew; Gleason, Rudy; Samuels, Brian; Ethier, C. Ross; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Current long-duration missions to the International Space Station and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit expose astronauts to increased risk of Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. It has been hypothesized that the headward shift of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood in microgravity may cause significant elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), which in turn may then induce VIIP syndrome through interaction with various biomechanical pathways. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm this hypothesis. In this light, we are developing lumped-parameter models of fluid transport in the central nervous system (CNS) as a means to simulate the influence of microgravity on ICP. The CNS models will also be used in concert with the lumped parameter and finite element models of the eye described in the related IWS works submitted by Nelson et al., Feola et al. and Ethier et al.

  19. Central nervous system involvement by multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Grzasko, Norbert; Gozzetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate......, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated...... untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  20. Corticosteroids In Infections Of Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena AK

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections of central nervous system are still a major problem. Despite the introduction of newer antimicrobial agents, mortality and long-term sequelace associated with these infections is unacceptably high. Based on the evidence that proinflammtory cytokines have a role in pathophysiology of bacterial and tuberculous meningitis, corticosteroids with a potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effect have been tested and found to be of use in experimental and clinical studies, Review of the available literature suggests steroid administration just prior to antimicrobial therapy is effective in decreasing audiologic and neurologic sequelae in childern with H. influenzae nenigitis. Steroid use for bacterial meningitis in adults is found to be beneficial in case of S. pneumoniae. The value of adjunctive steroid therapy for other bacterial causes of meningitis remains unproven. Corticocorticoids are found to be of no benefit in viral meningitis, Role of steroids in HIV positive patients needs to be studied.

  1. Central nervous system tumors and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1988-01-01

    Among the female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of brain or central nervous system tumors. A significant excess did appear, however, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumors outside the brain was observed, and is consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, which are coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. 12 refs., 11 tabs

  2. Central nervous system tumours and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1989-01-01

    Among female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of fatal brain or central nervous system tumours. A significant excess did appear, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumours outside of the brain was observed, consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Excess tumours of the eye, pituitary or pineal did not occur. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. (author)

  3. Whole-brain radiotherapy and high-dose methylprednisolone for elderly patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma: Results of North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) 96-73-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laack, Nadia N.; Ballman, Karla V.; Brown, Paul B.; O'Neill, Brian Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, toxicity, and survival of whole-brain radiotherapy-treated (WBRT) and high-dose methylprednisolone (HDMP)-treated in elderly patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Methods and Materials: Patients with PCNSL who were 70 years and older received 1 g of methylprednisolone daily for 5 days, 30 days after WBRT. Patients then received 1 g of methylprednisolone every 28 days until progression. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) at 6 months. Results were compared with those in patients on the previous North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) trial who received pre-WBRT cytoxan, adriamycin, vincristine, prednisone (CHOP) and high-dose cytarabine (CHOP-WBRT). A planned interim analysis was performed. The current regimen would be considered inactive if survival was not improved from patients treated with CHOP-WBRT. Results: Nineteen patients were accrued between 1998 and 2003. Median age was 76 years. Interim analysis revealed a 6-month survival of 33%, resulting in closure of the trial. Toxicity, OS, and event-free survival (EFS) were similar to those in patients more than 70 years of age who received CHOP-WBRT. The subgroup of patients who received HDMP had longer OS (12.1 vs. 7.0 months, p = 0.76) and EFS (11.7 vs. 4.0 months, p = 0.04) compared with the CHOP-WBRT patients alive 60 days after the start of treatment. Conclusions: Patients on-study long enough to receive HDMP had prolongation of OS and EFS compared to patients receiving CHOP-WBRT. Although the numbers of patients are too small for statistical conclusions, the HDMP regimen deserves further study

  4. Central- and autonomic nervous system coupling in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Steffen; Bolz, Mathias; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction has been well described in schizophrenia (SZ), a severe mental disorder. Nevertheless, the coupling between the ANS and central brain activity has been not addressed until now in SZ. The interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and ANS need to be considered as a feedback–feed-forward system that supports flexible and adaptive responses to specific demands. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, this study investigates central–autonomic couplings (CAC) studying heart rate, blood pressure and electroencephalogram in paranoid schizophrenic patients, comparing them with age–gender-matched healthy subjects (CO). The emphasis is to determine how these couplings are composed by the different regulatory aspects of the CNS–ANS. We found that CAC were bidirectional, and that the causal influence of central activity towards systolic blood pressure was more strongly pronounced than such causal influence towards heart rate in paranoid schizophrenic patients when compared with CO. In paranoid schizophrenic patients, the central activity was a much stronger variable, being more random and having fewer rhythmic oscillatory components. This study provides a more in-depth understanding of the interplay of neuronal and autonomic regulatory processes in SZ and most likely greater insights into the complex relationship between psychotic stages and autonomic activity. PMID:27044986

  5. Primary central nervous system lymphoma: is absence of intratumoral hemorrhage a characteristic finding on MRI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Akihiko; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Dodo, Toshiki; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C; Miyamoto, Susumu; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that intratumoral hemorrhage is a common finding in glioblastoma multi-forme, but is rarely observed in primary central nervous system lymphoma. Our aim was to reevaluate whether intratumoral hemorrhage observed on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) as gross intratumoral hemorrhage and on susceptibility-weighted imaging as intratumoral susceptibility signal can differentiate primary central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. A retrospective cohort of brain tumors from August 2008 to March 2013 was searched, and 58 patients (19 with primary central nervous system lymphoma, 39 with glioblastoma multiforme) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage was examined on T2WI, and an intratumoral susceptibility signal was graded using a 3-point scale on susceptibility-weighted imaging. Results were compared between primary central nervous system lymphoma and glioblastoma multiforme, and values of P central nervous system lymphoma and 23 patients (59%) with glioblastoma multiforme. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage could not differentiate between the two disorders (P = 0.20). However, intratumoral susceptibility signal grade 1 or 2 was diagnostic of primary central nervous system lymphoma with 78.9% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity (P central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. However, specificity in this study was relatively low, and primary central nervous system lymphoma cannot be excluded based solely on the presence of an intratumoral susceptibility signal.

  6. Clinical application of MRI to fetal central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guangbing; Chen Liguang; Ma Yuxiang; Liu Wen; Lin Xiangtao; Shi Hao; Yang Zhenzhen; Qu Jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of MRI on fetal central nervous system. Methods: Twenty-four women with complicated pregnancies, aged from 22 to 32 years (average 27 years) and with gestation from 23-39 weeks (average 30 weeks) were studied with a 1.5T superconductive MR unit within 24 hours after ultrasound studies. T 2 -weighted MR imaging was performed using HASTE and T 1 -weighted MR imaging was using FLASH. Comparison of the diagnosis of MRI and ultrasound were done with autopsy or postnatal follow-up MRI. Results: Of the 24 cases, 24 fetus were found. The fetal brain, gyrus, sulcus, corpus callosum, thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord were shown more clearly on MR T 2 -weighted images. T 1 -weighted images were not as good as T 2 -weighted images. Twenty-seven lesions were visualized by ultrasound and thirty-one by MRI in these twenty-four fetuses. By MRI study, two cases were conformed their ultrasound diagnosis, ten cases were completed their ultrasound diagnosis, and twelve cases were made the same diagnosis as ultrasound. Conclusion: MR has advantages in displaying fetal central nervous system anatomy over ultrasound, the quality of MR images is not affected by maternal somatotype, volume of amniotic fluid, fetal skull and the pelvic skeleton of pregnant women. Based on ultrasound, MR imaging is a valuable complement to sonography in difficult cases, it can conforming, completing, even more correcting the diagnosis made by ultrasound. (authors)

  7. Progress in study on central nervous system injuries caused by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xiang-xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic and repetitive intermittent hypoxia and dysfunction of sleep architecture mainly contribute to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. More and more evidences demonstrate it is a systemic disease, which is common encountered in clinic and strongly related to the systemic lesion of central nervous system. The central nervous system complications comprise cognitive impairment, brain atrophy and the growing risk of stroke and so on. Early treatment for OSAS has a positive significance on complications of central nervous system, and even the damage can be completely reversed.

  8. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system - A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannalini, S.

    1997-01-01

    There is little information on superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (CNS) in the literature, mainly due to the rarity of the disease, the difficulties in diagnosis (autopsy pre magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) and the long latency of the symptoms. With the advent of MRI, for the first time we are able to make a positive in vivo diagnosis. But this comes at a time of less disease incidence, and little clinical awareness. MRI is able to make the diagnosis because of the strong paramagnetic effect of haemosiderin, the blood by-product that is deposited on the brain surface in superficial siderosis of the CNS. The ability of the brain to biosynthesize ferritin in response to prolonged contact with haemosiderin is thought to be the most important factor in the pathogenesis of superficial siderosis. (author)

  9. Saturable active efflux by p-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein at the blood-brain barrier leads to nonlinear distribution of elacridar to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Ramola; Agarwal, Sagar; Mittapalli, Rajendar K; Elmquist, William F

    2013-04-01

    The study objective was to investigate factors that affect the central nervous system (CNS) distribution of elacridar. Elacridar inhibits transport mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) and has been used to study the influence of transporters on brain distribution of chemotherapeutics. Adequate distribution of elacridar across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and into the brain parenchyma is necessary to target tumor cells in the brain that overexpress transporters and reside behind an intact BBB. We examined the role of P-gp and Bcrp on brain penetration of elacridar using Friend leukemia virus strain B wild-type, Mdr1a/b(-/-), Bcrp1(-/-), and Mdr1a/b(-/-)Bcrp1(-/-) mice. Initially, the mice were administered 2.5 mg/kg of elacridar intravenously, and the plasma and brain concentrations were determined. The brain-to-plasma partition coefficient of elacridar in the wild-type mice was 0.82, as compared with 3.5 in Mdr1a/b(-/-) mice, 6.6 in Bcrp1(-/-) mice, and 15 in Mdr1a/b(-/-)Bcrp1(-/-) mice, indicating that both P-gp and Bcrp limit the brain distribution of elacridar. The four genotypes were then administered increasing doses of elacridar, and the CNS distribution of elacridar was determined. The observed and model predicted maximum brain-to-plasma ratios (Emax) at the highest dose were not significantly different in all genotypes. However, the ED50 was lower for Mdr1a/b(-/-) mice compared with Bcrp1(-/-) mice. These findings correlate with the relative expression of P-gp and Bcrp at the BBB in these mice and demonstrate the quantitative enhancement in elacridar CNS distribution as a function of its dose. Overall, this study provides useful concepts for future applications of elacridar as an adjuvant therapy to improve targeting of chemotherapeutic agents to tumor cells in the brain parenchyma.

  10. MRI changes in the central nervous system in a child with lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieron, M.A.; Khoromi, S.; Campos, A.

    1995-01-01

    We report on a 10-year-old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented in status epilepticus as the only manifestation of central nervous system involvement. MRI of the brain showed diffuse gray and white matter lesions which almost completely resolved after treatment with methylprednisolone. MRI findings in this child are similar to those in adults with diffuse clinical manifestations. The study is essential in the initial evaluation of patients suspected of central nervous system lupus. (orig.)

  11. MRI changes in the central nervous system in a child with lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieron, M A [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of South Florida, Coll. of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Khoromi, S [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of South Florida, Coll. of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Campos, A [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of South Florida, Coll. of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1995-05-01

    We report on a 10-year-old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented in status epilepticus as the only manifestation of central nervous system involvement. MRI of the brain showed diffuse gray and white matter lesions which almost completely resolved after treatment with methylprednisolone. MRI findings in this child are similar to those in adults with diffuse clinical manifestations. The study is essential in the initial evaluation of patients suspected of central nervous system lupus. (orig.)

  12. The Central Nervous System and Bone Metabolism: An Evolving Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitri, Paul; Rosen, Cliff

    2017-05-01

    Our understanding of the control of skeletal metabolism has undergone a dynamic shift in the last two decades, primarily driven by our understanding of energy metabolism. Evidence demonstrating that leptin not only influences bone cells directly, but that it also plays a pivotal role in controlling bone mass centrally, opened up an investigative process that has changed the way in which skeletal metabolism is now perceived. Other central regulators of bone metabolism have since been identified including neuropeptide Y (NPY), serotonin, endocannabinoids, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), adiponectin, melatonin and neuromedin U, controlling osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, proliferation and function. The sympathetic nervous system was originally identified as the predominant efferent pathway mediating central signalling to control skeleton metabolism, in part regulated through circadian genes. More recent evidence points to a role of the parasympathetic nervous system in the control of skeletal metabolism either through muscarinic influence of sympathetic nerves in the brain or directly via nicotinic receptors on osteoclasts, thus providing evidence for broader autonomic skeletal regulation. Sensory innervation of bone has also received focus again widening our understanding of the complex neuronal regulation of bone mass. Whilst scientific advance in this field of bone metabolism has been rapid, progress is still required to understand how these model systems work in relation to the multiple confounders influencing skeletal metabolism, and the relative balance in these neuronal systems required for skeletal growth and development in childhood and maintaining skeletal integrity in adulthood.

  13. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhailana Fontes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  14. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Rhailana; Ribeiro, Jéssica; Gupta, Daya S; Machado, Dionis; Lopes-Júnior, Fernando; Magalhães, Francisco; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Rocha, Kaline; Marinho, Victor; Lima, Gildário; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Orsini, Marco; Pessoa, Bruno; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Teixeira, Silmar

    2016-04-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson's disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  15. Central nervous system reactions to cervical myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergaard, A.; Dons, K.; Eskesen, V.; Kruse-Larsen, C.; Blatt Lyon, B.; Arlien Soeborg, P.; Jensen, N.O.; Praestholm, J.

    1991-01-01

    In a double blind prospective study of side effects to cervical myelography 38 patients were evaluated with neurologic examination, electroencephalography (EEG), brainstem evoked response (BER), somatosensory evoked responses (SSER), and continuous reaction times prior to and at 6 h and 24 h after myelography with either metrizamide or iohexol. A difference in the incidence of side effects (for example headache, dizziness, nausea, and neck pain) to the two different contrast media indicated that the inconveniences related to myelography were not only due to the spinal puncture. A contrast medium effect on the central nervous system varying from one agent to another was present. A high frequency of EEG deteriorations among patients with adverse clinical reactions and on only discrete affection upon BER indicated the reaction to be located to the cerebral cortex. Weakened tendon reflexes and reduced strength in the upper extremities were probably caused by blockade in the motor roots as SSER were normal indicating no affection of the sensory pathways. This hypothesis is in agreement with the fact the patients were in the prone position in the first phase of the investigation causing the highest concentration of contrast medium around the motor roots and the anterior part of the spinal cord. Difference in metabolic effect may explain differences in side effects of metrizamide and iohexol. (orig.)

  16. Central nervous system reactions to cervical myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestergaard, A; Dons, K; Eskesen, V; Kruse-Larsen, C; Blatt Lyon, B; Arlien Soeborg, P; Jensen, N O; Praestholm, J [Hvidovre Hospital (Denmark). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology, Neurosurgery, Neurology, and Clinical Neurophysiology

    1991-09-01

    In a double blind prospective study of side effects to cervical myelography 38 patients were evaluated with neurologic examination, electroencephalography (EEG), brainstem evoked response (BER), somatosensory evoked responses (SSER), and continuous reaction times prior to and at 6 h and 24 h after myelography with either metrizamide or iohexol. A difference in the incidence of side effects (for example headache, dizziness, nausea, and neck pain) to the two different contrast media indicated that the inconveniences related to myelography were not only due to the spinal puncture. A contrast medium effect on the central nervous system varying from one agent to another was present. A high frequency of EEG deteriorations among patients with adverse clinical reactions and on only discrete affection upon BER indicated the reaction to be located to the cerebral cortex. Weakened tendon reflexes and reduced strength in the upper extremities were probably caused by blockade in the motor roots as SSER were normal indicating no affection of the sensory pathways. This hypothesis is in agreement with the fact the patients were in the prone position in the first phase of the investigation causing the highest concentration of contrast medium around the motor roots and the anterior part of the spinal cord. Difference in metabolic effect may explain differences in side effects of metrizamide and iohexol. (orig.).

  17. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. There is no standard staging system for central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. The extent or spread ... different types of treatment for patients with central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Different types of treatment ...

  18. Central and peripheral nervous systems: master controllers in cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming; Liu, Dan; Yang, Zhengyan; Guo, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Central and sympathetic nervous systems govern functional activities of many organs. Solid tumors like organs are also innervated by sympathetic nerve fibers. Neurotransmitters released from sympathetic nerve fibers can modulate biological behaviors of tumor cells. Multiple physiologic processes of tumor development may be dominated by central and sympathetic nervous systems as well. Recent studies suggest that dysfunction of central and sympathetic nervous systems and disorder of the hormone network induced by psychological stress may influence malignant progression of cancer by inhibiting the functions of immune system, regulating metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells, and inducing interactions between tumor and stromal cells. Over-release of inflammatory cytokines by tumors may aggravate emotional disorder, triggering the vicious cycles in tumor microenvironment and host macroenvironment. It is reasonable to hypothesize that cancer progression may be controlled by central and sympathetic nervous systems. In this review, we will focus on the recent information about the impacts of central and sympathetic nervous systems on tumor invasion and metastasis.

  19. Current Management of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Bovi, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous cell lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon neoplasm of the brain, leptomeninges, and rarely the spinal cord. Initially thought to be characteristically associated with congenital, iatrogenic, or acquired immunosuppression, PCNSL is now recognized with increasing frequency in immunocompetent individuals. The role of surgery is limited to establishing diagnosis, as PCNSL is often multifocal with a propensity to involve the subarachnoid space. A whole-brain radiation volume has empirically been used to adequately address the multifocal tumor frequently encountered at the time of PCNSL diagnosis. Despite high rates of response after whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), rapid recurrence is common and long-term survival is the exception. Chemotherapy alone or in combination with WBRT has more recently become the treatment of choice. Most effective regimens contain high-dose methotrexate and or other agents that are capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier. High response rates and improved survival with the use of chemotherapy has led to treatment strategies that defer or eliminate WBRT in hopes of lessening the risk of neurotoxicity attributed to WBRT. Unfortunately, elimination of WBRT is also associated with a higher rate of relapse. Combined chemotherapy and WBRT regimens are now being explored that use lower total doses of radiation and altered fractionation schedules with the aim of maintaining high rates of tumor control while minimizing neurotoxicity. Pretreatment, multifactor prognostic indices have recently been described that may allow selection of treatment regimens that strike an appropriate balance of risk and benefit for the individual PCNSL patient.

  20. Clinical Proton MR Spectroscopy in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Jeffry R.; Barker, Peter B.; Bartha, Robert; Bizzi, Alberto; Boesch, Chris; Bolan, Patrick J.; Brindle, Kevin M.; Cudalbu, Cristina; Dinçer, Alp; Dydak, Ulrike; Emir, Uzay E.; Frahm, Jens; González, Ramón Gilberto; Gruber, Stephan; Gruetter, Rolf; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Heerschap, Arend; Henning, Anke; Hetherington, Hoby P.; Howe, Franklyn A.; Hüppi, Petra S.; Hurd, Ralph E.; Kantarci, Kejal; Klomp, Dennis W. J.; Kreis, Roland; Kruiskamp, Marijn J.; Leach, Martin O.; Lin, Alexander P.; Luijten, Peter R.; Marjańska, Małgorzata; Maudsley, Andrew A.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Mountford, Carolyn E.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Pamir, M. Necmettin; Pan, Jullie W.; Peet, Andrew C.; Poptani, Harish; Posse, Stefan; Pouwels, Petra J. W.; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Ross, Brian D.; Scheenen, Tom W. J.; Schuster, Christian; Smith, Ian C. P.; Soher, Brian J.; Tkáč, Ivan; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Kauppinen, Risto A.

    2014-01-01

    A large body of published work shows that proton (hydrogen 1 [1H]) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy has evolved from a research tool into a clinical neuroimaging modality. Herein, the authors present a summary of brain disorders in which MR spectroscopy has an impact on patient management, together with a critical consideration of common data acquisition and processing procedures. The article documents the impact of 1H MR spectroscopy in the clinical evaluation of disorders of the central nervous system. The clinical usefulness of 1H MR spectroscopy has been established for brain neoplasms, neonatal and pediatric disorders (hypoxia-ischemia, inherited metabolic diseases, and traumatic brain injury), demyelinating disorders, and infectious brain lesions. The growing list of disorders for which 1H MR spectroscopy may contribute to patient management extends to neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, and stroke. To facilitate expanded clinical acceptance and standardization of MR spectroscopy methodology, guidelines are provided for data acquisition and analysis, quality assessment, and interpretation. Finally, the authors offer recommendations to expedite the use of robust MR spectroscopy methodology in the clinical setting, including incorporation of technical advances on clinical units. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:24568703

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics in four dogs with central nervous system neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzefall, Birgit; Driver, Colin J; Benigni, Livia; Davies, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Neosporosis is a polysystemic disease that can affect dogs of any age and can cause inflammation of the central nervous system. Antemortem diagnosis can be challenging, as clinical and conventional laboratory test findings are often nonspecific. A previous report described cerebellar lesions in brain MRI studies of seven dogs and proposed that these may be characteristic for central nervous system Neosporosis. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe MRI characteristics in another group of dogs with confirmed central nervous system neosporosis and compare them with the previous report. The hospital's database was searched for dogs with confirmed central nervous system neosporosis and four observers recorded findings from each dog's MRI studies. A total of four dogs met inclusion criteria. Neurologic examination was indicative of a forebrain and cerebellar lesion in dog 2 and multifocal central nervous system disease in dogs 1, 3, and 4. Magnetic resonance imaging showed mild bilateral and symmetrical cerebellar atrophy in three of four dogs (dogs 2, 3, 4), intramedullary spinal cord changes in two dogs (dogs 3, 4) and a mesencephalic and metencephalic lesion in one dog (dog 2). Multifocal brain lesions were recognized in two dogs (dogs 1, 4) and were present in the thalamus, lentiform nucleus, centrum semiovale, internal capsule, brainstem and cortical gray matter of the frontal, parietal or temporal lobe. Findings indicated that central nervous system neosporosis may be characterized by multifocal MRI lesions as well as cerebellar involvement in dogs. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. Visualization of radiation effects on the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, M.; Dinkel, J.; Zamecnik, C.

    2012-01-01

    Therapy-related side effects, which are detectable with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at high sensitivity, are one of the most frequent causes of morbidity in cancer patients. They can be observed in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases as well as in systemic therapy, including whole brain irradiation and chemotherapy and are more often seen due to the better overall survival. This review describes the most frequent acute and chronic therapy-related changes in the CNS and the imaging findings. Acute changes are often reversible while chronic changes can be observed up to several years after treatment. The differentiation of treatment-related from tumor-related changes might be very difficult, although modern imaging modalities such as MR spectroscopy or MR perfusion measurements supply helpful differential diagnostic information. (orig.) [de

  3. Central Nervous System (CNS Disease Triggering Takotsubo Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo syndrome (TTS is usually triggered by psychological or physical stress. One of the many physical sources of stress are central nervous system (CNS disorders. CNS disorders most frequently triggering TTS include subarachnoid bleeding, epilepsy, ischemic stroke, migraine, and intracerebral bleeding. More rare CNS-triggers of TTS include posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, encephalitis, or traumatic brain or spinal cord injury. TTS triggered by any of the CNS disorders needs to be recognized since adequate treatment of TTS may improve the general outcome from the CNS disorder as well. Neurologists need to be aware of TTS as a complication of specific CNS disorders but TTS may be triggered also by CNS disorders so far not recognised as causes of TTS.

  4. Optimized optical clearing method for imaging central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    The development of various optical clearing methods provides a great potential for imaging entire central nervous system by combining with multiple-labelling and microscopic imaging techniques. These methods had made certain clearing contributions with respective weaknesses, including tissue deformation, fluorescence quenching, execution complexity and antibody penetration limitation that makes immunostaining of tissue blocks difficult. The passive clarity technique (PACT) bypasses those problems and clears the samples with simple implementation, excellent transparency with fine fluorescence retention, but the passive tissue clearing method needs too long time. In this study, we not only accelerate the clearing speed of brain blocks but also preserve GFP fluorescence well by screening an optimal clearing temperature. The selection of proper temperature will make PACT more applicable, which evidently broaden the application range of this method.

  5. MR imaging of the pediatric central nervous system utilization review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, P.D.; Prince, J.R.; Galloway, D.C.; Ross-Duggan, J.; Lester, P.D.; Yamanashi, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    MR has been done in over 500 pediatric and adolescent patients (ages 5 days to 20 years) with central nervous system (CNS) disease (brain, n = 331; spine, n = 218), including high-field and special coil application in 362 cases. T1-weighted, multiplanar MR imaging provides superior anatomic delineation of organogenetic CNS malformations, while multiparameter (T1, T2, p) MR is usually necessary for more complete characterization of histogenetic malformations, as well as acquired conditions. MR imaging is a desirable method for the initial and definitive evaluation of many cranial and spinal conditions of childhood (more-invasive procedures were obviated in 164 patients). CT or other modalities may be added when MR imaging does not satisfy the clinical query

  6. Regenerative Therapies for Central Nervous System Diseases: a Biomaterials Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Roger Y; Fuehrmann, Tobias; Mitrousis, Nikolaos; Shoichet, Molly S

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a limited capacity to spontaneously regenerate following traumatic injury or disease, requiring innovative strategies to promote tissue and functional repair. Tissue regeneration strategies, such as cell and/or drug delivery, have demonstrated promising results in experimental animal models, but have been difficult to translate clinically. The efficacy of cell therapy, which involves stem cell transplantation into the CNS to replace damaged tissue, has been limited due to low cell survival and integration upon transplantation, while delivery of therapeutic molecules to the CNS using conventional methods, such as oral and intravenous administration, have been limited by diffusion across the blood–brain/spinal cord-barrier. The use of biomaterials to promote graft survival and integration as well as localized and sustained delivery of biologics to CNS injury sites is actively being pursued. This review will highlight recent advances using biomaterials as cell- and drug-delivery vehicles for CNS repair. PMID:24002187

  7. Radioautographic localization of neuropeptide receptors in central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostene, W.; Besson, J.; Broer, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The first step of any physiological effect of a neuropeptide (NP) is its recognition by specific receptor sites. The very organization of the central nervous system (CNS) does not permit a precise localization of these binding sites by conventional binding assays. The aim of the present paper is to describe in detail a recently developed in vitro methodology for the localization, visualization and quantitation of specific binding sites for various NP such as TRH, neurotensin and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the rat CNS. The combination of this autoradiographic technique with radioimmunological measurements of NP, reveals that the endogenous distribution of THR, for example, in various brain regions, is not correlated with the presence of its binding sites. In vitro autoradiography may also be used to study the neurotransmitter/neuromodulatory role of NP in the CNS [fr

  8. Modulation of Tumor Tolerance in Primary Central Nervous System Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system tumors take advantage of the unique immunology of the CNS and develop exquisitely complex stromal networks that promote growth despite the presence of antigen-presenting cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. It is precisely this immunological paradox that is essential to the survival of the tumor. We review the evidence for functional CNS immune privilege and the impact it has on tumor tolerance. In this paper, we place an emphasis on the role of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in maintaining stromal and vascular quiescence, and we underscore the importance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity as a myeloid-driven tumor tolerance mechanism. Much remains to be discovered regarding the tolerogenic mechanisms by which CNS tumors avoid immune clearance. Thus, it is an open question whether tumor tolerance in the brain is fundamentally different from that of peripheral sites of tumorigenesis or whether it simply stands as a particularly strong example of such tolerance.

  9. CT diagnosis of congenital anomalies of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Koreaki

    1980-01-01

    In the diagnosis of central nervous system congenital anomalies, understanding of embryology of the central nervous system and pathophysiology of each anomaly are essential. It is important for clinical approach to central nervous system congenital anomalies to evaluate the size of the head and tention of the anterior fontanelle. Accurate diagnosis of congenital anomalies depends on a correlation of CT findings to clinical pictures. Clinical diagnosis of congenital anomalies should include prediction of treatability and prognosis, in addition to recognition of a disease. (author)

  10. Primary central nervous system lymphoma in an human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient mimicking bilateral eye sign in brain seen in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusany; Thirugnanam, Rajasekar; Shibu, Deepu; Kalarikal, Radhakrishnan Edathurthy; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2014-04-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) has proven useful in the diagnosis, staging, and detection of metastasis and posttreatment monitoring of several malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It also has the ability to make the important distinction between malignancy and infection in the evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) lesions, leading to the initiation of the appropriate treatment and precluding the need for invasive biopsy. We report an interesting case of HIV positive 35-year-old woman presented with headache, disorientation, and decreased level of consciousness. She underwent whole body PET/CT which showed multiple lesions in the cerebrum which mimics bilateral eye in brain. A diagnosis of a primary CNS lymphoma was made and patient was started on chemotherapy.

  11. Primary central nervous system lymphoma in an human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient mimicking bilateral eye sign in brain seen in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusany; Thirugnanam, Rajasekar; Shibu, Deepu; Kalarikal, Radhakrishnan Edathurthy; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2014-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) has proven useful in the diagnosis, staging, and detection of metastasis and posttreatment monitoring of several malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It also has the ability to make the important distinction between malignancy and infection in the evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) lesions, leading to the initiation of the appropriate treatment and precluding the need for invasive biopsy. We report an interesting case of HIV positive 35-year-old woman presented with headache, disorientation, and decreased level of consciousness. She underwent whole body PET/CT which showed multiple lesions in the cerebrum which mimics bilateral eye in brain. A diagnosis of a primary CNS lymphoma was made and patient was started on chemotherapy

  12. The role of microbiome in central nervous system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Kasper, Lloyd H.

    2014-01-01

    Mammals live in a co-evolutionary association with the plethora of microorganisms that reside at a variety of tissue microenvironments. The microbiome represents the collective genomes of these co-existing microorganisms, which is shaped by host factors such as genetics and nutrients but in turn is able to influence host biology in health and disease. Niche-specific microbiome, prominently the gut microbiome, has the capacity to effect both local and distal sites within the host. The gut microbiome has played a crucial role in the bidirectional gut-brain axis that integrates the gut and central nervous system (CNS) activities, and thus the concept of microbiome-gut-brain axis is emerging. Studies are revealing how diverse forms of neuro-immune and neuro-psychiatric disorders are correlated with or modulated by variations of microbiome, microbiota-derived products and exogenous antibiotics and probiotics. The microbiome poises the peripheral immune homeostasis and predisposes host susceptibility to CNS autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Neural, endocrine and metabolic mechanisms are also critical mediators of the microbiome-CNS signaling, which are more involved in neuro-psychiatric disorders such as autism, depression, anxiety, stress. Research on the role of microbiome in CNS disorders deepens our academic knowledge about host-microbiome commensalism in central regulation and in practicality, holds conceivable promise for developing novel prognostic and therapeutic avenues for CNS disorders. PMID:24370461

  13. MRT of the central nervous system. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; MRT des Zentralnervensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsting, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Jansen, Olav (ed.) [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2014-11-01

    The book on MRT of the central nervous system includes the following chapters: anatomy, vascular diseases, brain tumors, craniocerebral injuries, infectious diseases, multiple sclerosis and related diseases, metabolic diseases, degenerative diseases, malformations and developmental disorders, hydrocephalus and intracranial hypertension, spinal marrow, degenerative caused spinal and foraminal stenosis, traumata, tumors and tumor-like neoplasm, vascular diseases, inflammations, infections and related diseases, diseases of the peripheral nervous system.

  14. Calcium signal communication in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braet, Katleen; Cabooter, Liesbet; Paemeleire, Koen; Leybaert, Luc

    2004-02-01

    The communication of calcium signals between cells is known to be operative between neurons where these signals integrate intimately with electrical and chemical signal communication at synapses. Recently, it has become clear that glial cells also exchange calcium signals between each other in cultures and in brain slices. This communication pathway has received utmost attention since it is known that astrocytic calcium signals can be induced by neuronal stimulation and can be communicated back to the neurons to modulate synaptic transmission. In addition to this, cells that are generally not considered as brain cells become progressively incorporated in the picture, as astrocytic calcium signals are reported to be communicated to endothelial cells of the vessel wall and can affect smooth muscle cell tone to influence the vessel diameter and thus blood flow. We review the available evidence for calcium signal communication in the central nervous system, taking into account a basic functional unit -the brain cell tripartite- consisting of neurons, glial cells and vascular cells and with emphasis on glial-vascular calcium signaling aspects.

  15. What Are the Parts of the Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Print What are the parts of the nervous system? The nervous system consists of two main parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system: The central nervous system is made up of the brain and ...

  16. The Emerging Roles for Telomerase in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ying Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase, a specialized ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex, maintains telomere length at the 3′ end of chromosomes, and functions importantly in stem cells, cancer and aging. Telomerase exists in neural stem cells (NSCs and neural progenitor cells (NPCs, at a high level in the developing and adult brains of humans and rodents. Increasing studies have demonstrated that telomerase in NSCs/NPCs plays important roles in cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, neuronal survival and neuritogenesis. In addition, recent works have shown that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT can protect newborn neurons from apoptosis and excitotoxicity. However, to date, the link between telomerase and diseases in the central nervous system (CNS is not well reviewed. Here, we analyze the evidence and summarize the important roles of telomerase in the CNS. Understanding the roles of telomerase in the nervous system is not only important to gain further insight into the process of the neural cell life cycle but would also provide novel therapeutic applications in CNS diseases such as neurodegenerative condition, mood disorders, aging and other ailments.

  17. Progress of radionuclide diagnostic methods in central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badmaev, K.N.; Zen'kovich, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    A summarry on modern radionuclide diagnosis achivements of central nervous system diseases is presented. Most optimal tumorotropic preparations and compounds in the view of decreasing irradiation does and optimazing image are given

  18. Central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    of the January 2012 to June 2013 publications on central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite covers amphetamines (including metamfetamine, paramethoxyamfetamine and paramethoxymetamfetamine), fenfluramine and benfluorex, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, modafinil and armodafinil...

  19. Central nervous system infections in heart transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Patel, Robin; Daly, Richard C.; McGregor, Christopher G. A.; Wijdicks, Eelco F. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study central nervous system infections after heart transplantations. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Cardiac Transplant Program at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Patients Three hundred fifteen consecutive patients who underwent heart transplantation from January 1988

  20. Chromatographic study of nucleosides and nucleotides of central nervous system. Identification and first results on changes after total gamma irradiation of brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, C.; Marquer, C.; Pasquier, C.

    Changes of brain energetic state and of different levels after irradiation are studied. The results will be compared with the variations of brain electric activity due to irradiation. Using an ion exchange chromatographic method for separation and quantitative analysis of nucleotides, evaluation of adenylic nucleotides in brain rat have been chosen [fr

  1. Role of metallothionein-III following central nervous system damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, Javier; Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, Mercedes

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the physiological relevance of metallothionein-III (MT-III) in the central nervous system following damage caused by a focal cryolesion onto the cortex by studying Mt3-null mice. In normal mice, dramatic astrogliosis and microgliosis and T-cell infiltration were observed in the area...... the inflammatory response elicited in the central nervous system by a cryoinjury, nor does it serve an important antioxidant role, but it may influence neuronal regeneration during the recovery process....

  2. Radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolyszewski, J.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the principles of radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system, according to the experience of the Institute of Oncology in Krakow. The text was designed primarily for the radiotherapists involved in the treatment of tumours of the central nervous system, and may be used as an auxiliary textbook for those preparing for the examination in radiotherapy. (author)

  3. Histologic examination of the rat central nervous system after intrathecal administration of human beta-endorphin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hée, P.; Klinken, Leif; Ballegaard, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity......Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity...

  4. Central Nervous System Vasculitis: Still More Questions than Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Marco A; Espígol-Frigolé, Georgina; Prieto-González, Sergio; Tavera-Bahillo, Itziar; García-Martínez, Ana; Butjosa, Montserrat; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Cid, Maria C

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) may be involved by a variety of inflammatory diseases of blood vessels. These include primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), a rare disorder specifically targeting the CNS vasculature, and the systemic vasculitides which may affect the CNS among other organs and systems. Both situations are severe and convey a guarded prognosis. PACNS usually presents with headache and cognitive impairment. Focal symptoms are infrequent at disease onset but are common in more advanced stages. The diagnosis of PACNS is difficult because, although magnetic resonance imaging is almost invariably abnormal, findings are non specific. Angiography has limited sensitivity and specificity. Brain and leptomeningeal biopsy may provide a definitive diagnosis when disclosing blood vessel inflammation and are also useful to exclude other conditions presenting with similar findings. However, since lesions are segmental, a normal biopsy does not completely exclude PACNS. Secondary CNS involvement by systemic vasculitis occurs in less than one fifth of patients but may be devastating. A prompt recognition and aggressive treatment is crucial to avoid permanent damage and dysfunction. Glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide are recommended for patients with PACNS and for patients with secondary CNS involvement by small-medium-sized systemic vasculitis. CNS involvement in large-vessel vasculitis is usually managed with high-dose glucocorticoids (giant-cell arteritis) or glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents (Takayasu’s disease). However, in large vessel vasculitis, where CNS symptoms are usually due to involvement of extracranial arteries (Takayasu’s disease) or proximal portions of intracranial arteries (giant-cell arteritis), revascularization procedures may also have an important role. PMID:22379458

  5. STP Position Paper: Recommended Practices for Sampling and Processing the Nervous System (Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerve, and Eye) during Nonclinical General Toxicity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology charged a Nervous System Sampling Working Group with devising recommended practices to routinely screen the central and peripheral nervous systems in Good Laboratory Practice-type nonclinical general toxicity studies. Brains should be trimmed ...

  6. 69例新生儿中枢神经系统感染的颅脑超声结果分析%Analysis of brain ultrasound result of 69 cases with neonatal central nervous system infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜成

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察新生儿中枢神经系统感染颅脑超声声像图改变的特点。方法选取69例中枢神经系统感染新生儿为研究对象,采用便携式索诺声M-turbo超声诊断仪经前囟门型颅脑超声检查,观察脓性脑膜炎、病毒性脑膜炎和结核性脑膜炎声像图改变特点及差异。结果化脓性脑膜炎及结核性脑膜炎脑膜回声异常阳性率为92.7%和100.0%,高于病毒性脑膜炎的20.0%,脑室扩张阳性率均为100.0%,高于病毒性脑膜炎的55.0%,积液阳性率为63.4%和75.0%,高于病毒性脑膜炎的5.0%,硬膜下积液阳性率为26.8%和12.5%,低于病毒性脑膜炎的95.0%,差异均具有统计学意义(χ2=39.031、25.358、21.058、29.087,P均<0.01)。结论颅脑超声检查是新生儿中枢神经系统感染有效的诊断手段,对化脓性脑膜炎、结核性脑膜炎和病毒性脑膜炎影像学检查声像图改变较为清晰,诊断准确、方法简便、无创伤,是新生儿中枢神经系统感染辅助诊断及动态观察的有效手段。%Objective To investigate the imaging characteristics of the brain ultrasound examination for cases with neonatal central nervous system infection.Methods Total of 69 cases with neonatal infection of the central nervous system were selected, the portable sonosite M-turbo ultrasonic diagnostic instrument was applied through anteriorfontanelle craniocerebral ultrasound. Changes of the characteristics and the differences of the imaging features of purulent meningitis, viral meningitis and tuberculous meningitis were analyzed, respectively.Results The positive rates of abnormal meningeal echo in purulent meningitis and tuberculous meningitis were 92.7% and 100%, which were higher than that of 20% in viral meningitis; ventricular dilatation positive rate was 100%, which was higher than that of 55% in viral meningitis; the positive rates were 63.4% and 75%, which was higher than that of 5% in viral meningitis

  7. Current opinions on radiotherapy of pediatric central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chojnacka, M.; Skowronska-Gardas, A.

    2006-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms are the most frequent solid tumors in childhood accounting for 20% of all pediatric malignancies. Despite developments in neurosurgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, a significant proportion of these patients suffer progressive disease. A good treatment management strategy should consider not only survival but also the quality of life of the child. Irradiation is ann essential part of the management of the majority of CNS tumors. During then last decade, there significant advances in the technology of planning and delivery of radiation treatment. These new radiotherapy techniques such as conformal, intensity modulated photon beam and stereotactic methods allow a high homogenous dose to the tumor region with minimal doses to normal tissue. This is particularly important in children with localized low-grade tumors, whose prognosis of long-term survival is often excellent and should be accompanied by smallest risk of treatment toxicity. For small tumors fractionated radiotherapy stereotactic radiotherapy using multiple fixed non-coplanar beams is an appropriate treatment. Modification of craniospinal technique, lowering of the total craniospinal dose with adjuvant chemotherapy, new radiotherapy modalities to treat the posterior fossa may be employed to possibly decrease the late rectifies of radiation therapy. For malignant glioma and brain stem tumors we need new approaches, as chemo sensitization, angiogenesis inhibitors and gene therapies. These new methods in therapy of pediatric brain tumors and our experience in treatment of children with medulloblastoma, low-grade astrocytoma, craniopharyngioma and brain stem tumors are presented. We summarize therapeutic aspects of most childhood brain tumors. (author)

  8. Herpes Simplex Virus Infections of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    This article summarizes knowledge of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Disease pathogenesis, detection of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis and prognosis, and approaches to therapy warrant consideration. HSV infection of the CNS is one of few treatable viral diseases. Clinical trials indicate that outcome following neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections of the CNS is significantly improved when 6 months of suppressive oral acyclovir therapy follows IV antiviral therapy. In contrast, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections of the brain do not benefit from extended oral antiviral therapy. This implies a difference in disease pathogenesis between HSV-2 and HSV-1 infections of the brain. PCR detection of viral DNA in the CSF is the gold standard for diagnosis. Use of PCR is now being adopted as a basis for determining the duration of therapy in the newborn. HSV infections are among the most common encountered by humans; seropositivity occurs in 50% to 90% of adult populations. Herpes simplex encephalitis, however, is an uncommon result of this infection. Since no new antiviral drugs have been introduced in nearly 3 decades, much effort has focused on learning how to better use acyclovir and how to use existing databases to establish earlier diagnosis.

  9. Preferential lentiviral targeting of astrocytes in the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fassler

    Full Text Available The ability to visualize and genetically manipulate specific cell populations of the central nervous system (CNS is fundamental to a better understanding of brain functions at the cellular and molecular levels. Tools to selectively target cells of the CNS include molecular genetics, imaging, and use of transgenic animals. However, these approaches are technically challenging, time consuming, and difficult to control. Viral-mediated targeting of cells in the CNS can be highly beneficial for studying and treating neurodegenerative diseases. Yet, despite specific marking of numerous cell types in the CNS, in vivo selective targeting of astrocytes has not been optimized. In this study, preferential targeting of astrocytes in the CNS was demonstrated using engineered lentiviruses that were pseudotyped with a modified Sindbis envelope and displayed anti-GLAST IgG on their surfaces as an attachment moiety. Viral tropism for astrocytes was initially verified in vitro in primary mixed glia cultures. When injected into the brains of mice, lentiviruses that displayed GLAST IgG on their surface, exhibited preferential astrocyte targeting, compared to pseudotyped lentiviruses that did not incorporate any IgG or that expressed a control isotype IgG. Overall, this approach is highly flexible and can be exploited to selectively target astrocytes or other cell types of the CNS. As such, it can open a window to visualize and genetically manipulate astrocytes or other cells of the CNS as means of research and treatment.

  10. A case of disseminated central nervous system sparganosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiphithak, Raywat; Doungprasert, Gahn

    2016-01-01

    Sparganosis is a very rare parasitic infection in various organs caused by the larvae of tapeworms called spargana. The larva usually lodges in the central nervous system (CNS) and the orbit. However, lumbar spinal canal involvement, as noted in the present case, is extremely rare. We report a rare case of disseminated CNS sparganosis involving the brain and spinal canal and review the literature. A 54-year-old man presented with progressive low back pain and neurological deficit at the lumbosacral level for 2 months. Imaging indicated arachnoiditis and an abnormal lesion at the L4-5 vertebral level. The patient underwent laminectomy of the L4-5 with lesionectomy and lysis of adhesions between the nerve roots. Microscopic examination indicated sparganum infection. Further brain imaging revealed evidence of chronic inflammation in the left parieto-occipital area without evidence of live parasites. In addition, an ophthalmologist reported a nonactive lesion in the right conjunctiva. The patient recovered well after surgery, although he had residual back pain and bladder dysfunction probably due to severe adhesion of the lumbosacral nerve roots. CNS sparganosis can cause various neurological symptoms similar to those of other CNS infections. A preoperative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is helpful for diagnosis, especially in endemic areas. Surgical removal of the worm remains the treatment of choice.

  11. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Nakadai, Taeko; Khono, Yukio; Nagaoka, Shunji

    2004-01-01

    Effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to central nervous system were studied using mouse neonatal brain cells in culture exposed to heavy ions and X ray at fifth days of the culture. The subsequent biological effects were evaluated by an induction of apoptosis and the survivability of neurons focusing on the dependencies of the animal strains with different genetic types, and linear energy transfer (LET) of the different nucleons. Of the three mouse strains tested, SCID, B6, B6C3F1 and C3H, used for brain cell culture, SCID was the most sensitive. Radiation sensitivity of these cells ware SCID>B6>B6C3F1>C3H to both X-ray and carbon ion (290 MeV/n) when compared by 10% apoptotic induction. The LET dependency was compared with using SCID cells exposing to different ions, (X, C, Si, Ar, and Fe). Although no detectable LET dependency was observed at higher dose than 1 Gy, an enhancement was observed in the high LET region and at lower dose than 0.5 Gy. The survivability profiles of the neurons were different in the mouse strains and ions. Memory and learning function of adult mice were studied using water maze test after localized carbon- or iron-ion irradiation to hippocampus area. Memory function were rapidly decrease after irradiation both ions. C-ion group were recovered 20 weeks after irradiation, but Iron group were different. (author)

  12. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Liu Cuihua; Nagaoka, Shunji

    2003-01-01

    Effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to central nervous system were studied using mouse neonatal brain cells in culture exposed to heavy ions and X ray at fifth days of the culture. The subsequent biological effects were evaluated by an induction of apoptosis and the survivability of neurons focusing on the dependencies of the animal strains with different genetic types, and linear energy transfer (LET) of the different nucleons. Of the three mouse strains tested, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), B6 and C3H, used for brain cell culture, SCID was the most sensitive and C3H the least sensitive to both X-ray and carbon ion (290 MeV/n) when compared by 10% apoptotic induction. The LET dependency was compared with using SCID cells exposing to different ions, (X, C, Si, Ar, and Fe). Although no detectable LET dependency was observed at higher dose than 1 Gy, an enhancement was observed in the high LET region and at lower dose than 0.5 Gy. The survivability profiles of the neurons were different in the mouse strains and ions. Memory and learning function of adult mice were studied using water maze test after localized carbon- or iron-ion irradiation to hippocampus area. (author)

  13. MRI findings of central nervous system granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Man; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Ik Soo; Cho, Kwan Soo

    1997-01-01

    To characterize MRI findings of central nervous system (CNS) granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma) and to analyse the points which differentiate it from other CNS tumors. We evaluated MRI in six patients with CNS granulocytic sarcoma proven by surgery or bone marrow biopsy (intracranical, one case and spine five cases). A 0.5T superconductive MR machine was used for diagnosis and, axial, coronal and sagittal T1- and T2-weighted spin echo images and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained. We retrospectively analized the location, signal intensity, margin, contrast enhancement and homogeneity, and bony change around the tumor. MRI findings of CNS granulocytic sarcomas were as follows : one tumor was seen to be an extra-axial mass in the posterior fossa of the brain, four were epidural, and one was an epidural and presacral masses in the spine;tumor magins were lobulated and three were smooth. On T1-weighted images, all tumors were of isoignal intensity;on T2-weighted images, four were of isosignal intersity and two were of high signal intensity. Contrast enhancement was inhomogeneous in five of six cases. Bony change around the tumor was seen in two cases. On T1-weighted images, CNS granulocytic sarcomas (chloromas) were of isosignal intensity, relative to brain parenchyma or spinal cord;on T2-weighted images, they were of iso or high signal intensity, with relative contrast enhancement. These points could be useful in differentiating them from other CNS tumors

  14. Prenatal irradiation: radioinduced apoptosis in developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S.; Perez, M.R.; Barboza, M.

    1998-01-01

    Severe mental retardation (SMR) is the most significant effect of prenatal irradiation. The high radiosensitivity of developing brain is related with the chronology of morpho genetic phenomena regarding neuroblast proliferation, neuronal differentiation and migration, synaptogenesis and dendritic arborization. Programmed cell death (apoptosis) normally occurs during development in central nervous system (CNS). Apoptosis is a direct result of the expression of specific genes with a final common pathway leading to a characteristic DNA fragmentation pattern. A wide variety of situations and toxic agents have been reported to result in apoptotic death in developing CNS. The aim of this work was the characterization and quantification of apoptosis using an in vitro model of prenatal irradiation. Primary cell cultures from rat brain cortex of 17 days g.a. were irradiated with a gamma source, with doses between 0.2 Gy to 2 Gy. Apoptosis was evaluated 4 hours and 20 hours after irradiation by hematoxylin/eosin, fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry and DNA electrophoresis. It was also evaluated the neuro protective effect of L-NAME, SOD and glutathion. A dose-dependent increase in apoptotic cell fraction was observed. A protector effect related with the presence of glutathion was observed. (author) [es

  15. Central nervous insulin resistance: a promising target in the treatment of metabolic and cognitive disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallschmid, M; Schultes, B

    2009-11-01

    Research on functions and signalling pathways of insulin has traditionally focused on peripheral tissues such as muscle, fat and liver, while the brain was commonly believed to be insensitive to the effects of this hormone secreted by pancreatic beta cells. However, since the discovery some 30 years ago that insulin receptors are ubiquitously found in the central nervous system, an ever-growing research effort has conclusively shown that circulating insulin accesses the brain, which itself does not synthesise insulin, and exerts pivotal functions in central nervous networks. As an adiposity signal reflecting the amount of body fat, insulin provides direct negative feedback to hypothalamic nuclei that control whole-body energy and glucose homeostasis. Moreover, insulin affects distinct cognitive processes, e.g. by triggering the formation of psychological memory contents. Accordingly, metabolic and cognitive disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease are associated with resistance of central nervous structures to the effects of insulin, which may derive from genetic polymorphisms as well as from long-term exposure to excess amounts of circulating insulin due to peripheral insulin resistance. Thus, overcoming central nervous insulin resistance, e.g. by pharmacological interventions, appears to be an attractive strategy in the treatment and prevention of these disorders. Enhancement of central nervous insulin signalling by administration of intranasal insulin, insulin analogues and insulin sensitisers in basic research approaches has yielded encouraging results that bode well for the successful translation of these effects into future clinical practice.

  16. Pediatric Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors of the Central Nervous System Differentially Express Granzyme Inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Jeroen F; van Hecke, Wim; Spliet, Wim G M; Villacorta Hidalgo, José; Fisch, Paul; Broekhuizen, Roel; Bovenschen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are malignant primary brain tumors that occur in young infants. Using current standard therapy, up to 80% of the children still dies from recurrent disease. Cellular immunotherapy might be key to improve overall

  17. Clinical trial aims to study immunotherapy for central nervous system tumors | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new clinical trial aims to determine whether nivolumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, can improve control of cancer for patients with several types of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS is composed of the brain and spinal cord and the cause of most CNS tumors in adults is unknown. Learn more...

  18. Vascular, glial, and lymphatic immune gateways of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Britta; Carare, Roxana O.; Bechmann, Ingo; Fluegel, Alexander; Laman, Jon D.; Weller, Roy O.

    Immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has been ascribed to the presence of a blood-brain barrier and the lack of lymphatic vessels within the CNS parenchyma. However, immune reactions occur within the CNS and it is clear that the CNS has a unique relationship with the immune system.

  19. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors form from germ cells (a type of cell that forms as a fetus develops and later becomes sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries). Learn about the signs, tests to diagnose, and treatment of pediatric germ cell tumors in the brain in this expert-reviewed summary.

  20. Downregulation of membrane type-matrix metalloproteinases in the inflamed or injured central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Babcock, Alicia A; Millward, Jason M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are thought to mediate cellular infiltration in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation by cleaving extracellular matrix proteins associated with the blood-brain barrier. The family of MMPs includes 23 proteinases, including six membrane type-MMPs (M...

  1. HIV-1 tropism for the central nervous system: Brain-derived envelope glycoproteins with lower CD4 dependence and reduced sensitivity to a fusion inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Garcia, Julio; Cao, Wei; Varela-Rohena, Angel; Plassmeyer, Matthew L.; Gonzalez-Scarano, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    We previously described envelope glycoproteins of an HIV-1 isolate adapted in vitro for growth in microglia that acquired a highly fusogenic phenotype and lower CD4 dependence, as well as resistance to inhibition by anti-CD4 antibodies. Here, we investigated whether similar phenotypic changes are present in vivo. Envelope clones from the brain and spleen of an HIV-1-infected individual with neurological disease were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated clustering of sequences according to the tissue of origin, as expected. Functional clones were then used in cell-to-cell fusion assays to test for CD4 and co-receptor utilization and for sensitivity to various antibodies and inhibitors. Both brain- and spleen-derived envelope clones mediated fusion in cells expressing both CD4 and CCR5 and brain envelopes also used CCR3 as co-receptor. We found that the brain envelopes had a lower CD4 dependence, since they efficiently mediated fusion in the presence of low levels of CD4 on the target cell membrane, and they were significantly more resistant to blocking by anti-CD4 antibodies than the spleen-derived envelopes. In contrast, we observed no difference in sensitivity to the CCR5 antagonist TAK-779. However, brain-derived envelopes were significantly more resistant than those from spleen to the fusion inhibitor T-1249 and concurrently showed slightly greater fusogenicity. Our results suggest an increased affinity for CD4 of brain-derived envelopes that may have originated from in vivo adaptation to replication in microglial cells. Interestingly, we note the presence of envelopes more resistant to a fusion inhibitor in the brain of an untreated, HIV-1-infected individual

  2. Central Nervous System Involvement by Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, A.; Gozzetti, A.; Cerase, A.

    2015-01-01

    %), radiculopathy (27%), headache (25%), confusion (21%), peripheral neuropathy (9%), dizziness (7%) and seizures (6%). MRI of the brain and/or spine were performed in 156 patients (91%), and showed evidence of disease in 145 (93%). After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median OS for the entire group was 7...

  3. Early Malnutrition and Central Nervous System Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimshaw, Nevin S.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the consequences of severe malnutrition in young experimental animals. Development of the brain is permanently impaired. Studies of the effects of malnutrition on children are included. (This paper was presented at the Eighth Annual Lecture of the Merrill-Palmer Historical Library in Child Development and Family Life, October 25, 1968.)…

  4. Central nervous system control of triglyceride metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerling, Johanna Janetta (Janine)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the role of the brain in the regulation of peripheral triglyceride metabolism, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. Based on various pharmacological studies we described the role of two hormones, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1, in the production and clearance of

  5. The biological significance of brain barrier mechanisms: help or hindrance in drug delivery to the central nervous system? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman R. Saunders

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Barrier mechanisms in the brain are important for its normal functioning and development. Stability of the brain’s internal environment, particularly with respect to its ionic composition, is a prerequisite for the fundamental basis of its function, namely transmission of nerve impulses. In addition, the appropriate and controlled supply of a wide range of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, monocarboxylates, and vitamins is also essential for normal development and function. These are all cellular functions across the interfaces that separate the brain from the rest of the internal environment of the body. An essential morphological component of all but one of the barriers is the presence of specialized intercellular tight junctions between the cells comprising the interface: endothelial cells in the blood-brain barrier itself, cells of the arachnoid membrane, choroid plexus epithelial cells, and tanycytes (specialized glial cells in the circumventricular organs. In the ependyma lining the cerebral ventricles in the adult brain, the cells are joined by gap junctions, which are not restrictive for intercellular movement of molecules. But in the developing brain, the forerunners of these cells form the neuroepithelium, which restricts exchange of all but the smallest molecules between cerebrospinal fluid and brain interstitial fluid because of the presence of strap junctions between the cells. The intercellular junctions in all these interfaces are the physical basis for their barrier properties. In the blood-brain barrier proper, this is combined with a paucity of vesicular transport that is a characteristic of other vascular beds. Without such a diffusional restrain, the cellular transport mechanisms in the barrier interfaces would be ineffective. Superimposed on these physical structures are physiological mechanisms as the cells of the interfaces contain various metabolic transporters and efflux pumps, often ATP-binding cassette (ABC

  6. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Smirnov, Igor; Keyes, Timothy J; Eccles, Jacob D; Rouhani, Sherin J; Peske, J David; Derecki, Noel C; Castle, David; Mandell, James W; Lee, Kevin S; Harris, Tajie H; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-07-16

    One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.

  7. Effect of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vivi Flou Hjorth; Bøgh, I. B.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    normoglycaemia. Brain glucose concentrations, being approximately 15-20% of the blood glucose concentration in humans, are rigorously maintained during hypoglycaemia through adaptions such as increased cerebral glucose transport, decreased cerebral glucose utilisation and, possibly, by using central nervous...... system glycogen as a glucose reserve. However, during sustained hypoglycaemia, the brain cannot maintain a sufficient glucose influx and, as the cerebral hypoglycaemia becomes severe, electroencephalogram changes, oxidative stress and regional neuronal death ensues. With particular focus on evidence from...

  8. Nanomaterials for delivery of nucleic acid to the central nervous system (CNS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Danyang; Wu, Lin-Ping

    2017-01-01

    -related disease, such as neurodegeneration and disorders, suitable, safe and effective drug delivery nanocarriers have to been developed to overcome the blood brain barrier (BBB), which is the most inflexible barrier in human body. Here, we highlight the structure and function of barriers in the central nervous...... system (CNS) and summary several types of nanomaterials which can be potentially used in the brain delivery nucleic acid....

  9. Mechanisms of magnetic stimulation of central nervous system neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Pashut

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a stimulation method in which a magnetic coil generates a magnetic field in an area of interest in the brain. This magnetic field induces an electric field that modulates neuronal activity. The spatial distribution of the induced electric field is determined by the geometry and location of the coil relative to the brain. Although TMS has been used for several decades, the biophysical basis underlying the stimulation of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS is still unknown. To address this problem we developed a numerical scheme enabling us to combine realistic magnetic stimulation (MS with compartmental modeling of neurons with arbitrary morphology. The induced electric field for each location in space was combined with standard compartmental modeling software to calculate the membrane current generated by the electromagnetic field for each segment of the neuron. In agreement with previous studies, the simulations suggested that peripheral axons were excited by the spatial gradients of the induced electric field. In both peripheral and central neurons, MS amplitude required for action potential generation was inversely proportional to the square of the diameter of the stimulated compartment. Due to the importance of the fiber's diameter, magnetic stimulation of CNS neurons depolarized the soma followed by initiation of an action potential in the initial segment of the axon. Passive dendrites affect this process primarily as current sinks, not sources. The simulations predict that neurons with low current threshold are more susceptible to magnetic stimulation. Moreover, they suggest that MS does not directly trigger dendritic regenerative mechanisms. These insights into the mechanism of MS may be relevant for the design of multi-intensity TMS protocols, may facilitate the construction of magnetic stimulators, and may aid the interpretation of results of TMS of the CNS.

  10. Mechanisms of magnetic stimulation of central nervous system neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashut, Tamar; Wolfus, Shuki; Friedman, Alex; Lavidor, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar; Yeshurun, Yosef; Korngreen, Alon

    2011-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a stimulation method in which a magnetic coil generates a magnetic field in an area of interest in the brain. This magnetic field induces an electric field that modulates neuronal activity. The spatial distribution of the induced electric field is determined by the geometry and location of the coil relative to the brain. Although TMS has been used for several decades, the biophysical basis underlying the stimulation of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) is still unknown. To address this problem we developed a numerical scheme enabling us to combine realistic magnetic stimulation (MS) with compartmental modeling of neurons with arbitrary morphology. The induced electric field for each location in space was combined with standard compartmental modeling software to calculate the membrane current generated by the electromagnetic field for each segment of the neuron. In agreement with previous studies, the simulations suggested that peripheral axons were excited by the spatial gradients of the induced electric field. In both peripheral and central neurons, MS amplitude required for action potential generation was inversely proportional to the square of the diameter of the stimulated compartment. Due to the importance of the fiber's diameter, magnetic stimulation of CNS neurons depolarized the soma followed by initiation of an action potential in the initial segment of the axon. Passive dendrites affect this process primarily as current sinks, not sources. The simulations predict that neurons with low current threshold are more susceptible to magnetic stimulation. Moreover, they suggest that MS does not directly trigger dendritic regenerative mechanisms. These insights into the mechanism of MS may be relevant for the design of multi-intensity TMS protocols, may facilitate the construction of magnetic stimulators, and may aid the interpretation of results of TMS of the CNS.

  11. Evolution of bilaterian central nervous systems: a single origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether the ancestral bilaterian had a central nervous system (CNS) or a diffuse ectodermal nervous system has been hotly debated. Considerable evidence supports the theory that a CNS evolved just once. However, an alternative view proposes that the chordate CNS evolved from the ectodermal nerve net of a hemichordate-like ancestral deuterostome, implying independent evolution of the CNS in chordates and protostomes. To specify morphological divisions along the anterior/posterior axis, this ancestor used gene networks homologous to those patterning three organizing centers in the vertebrate brain: the anterior neural ridge, the zona limitans intrathalamica and the isthmic organizer, and subsequent evolution of the vertebrate brain involved elaboration of these ancestral signaling centers; however, all or part of these signaling centers were lost from the CNS of invertebrate chordates. The present review analyzes the evidence for and against these theories. The bulk of the evidence indicates that a CNS evolved just once – in the ancestral bilaterian. Importantly, in both protostomes and deuterostomes, the CNS represents a portion of a generally neurogenic ectoderm that is internalized and receives and integrates inputs from sensory cells in the remainder of the ectoderm. The expression patterns of genes involved in medio/lateral (dorso/ventral) patterning of the CNS are similar in protostomes and chordates; however, these genes are not similarly expressed in the ectoderm outside the CNS. Thus, their expression is a better criterion for CNS homologs than the expression of anterior/posterior patterning genes, many of which (for example, Hox genes) are similarly expressed both in the CNS and in the remainder of the ectoderm in many bilaterians. The evidence leaves hemichordates in an ambiguous position – either CNS centralization was lost to some extent at the base of the hemichordates, or even earlier, at the base of the hemichordates

  12. Central nervous system pathology in pediatric AIDS: an autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, D W; Belman, A L; Park, Y D; Wiley, C; Horoupian, D S; Llena, J; Kure, K; Lyman, W D; Morecki, R; Mitsudo, S

    1989-01-01

    The neuropathologic findings of brains and spinal cords removed at autopsy from 26 infants and children with AIDS is described; in two cases, only the spinal cords were available. The most common finding in the brains was dystrophic calcification of blood vessels of all calibers in the basal ganglia and deep cerebral white matter (21 og 24 cases). The next most frequent finding was subacute encephalitis (SE) (15 of 24 cases) with microglial nodules and multinulceated giant cells. Immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization studies showed HIV antigen or genetic sequences only in the brains of cases with SE. Multinucleated giants cells (MGC) were the most frequent cells with reaction products. MGC were labeled with ricinus lectin (RCA), but not with leukocyte common antigen (LCA) or glial fibrillary acidic protein. Many cells in microglial nodules were labeled with RCA, but not LCA; cells in the perivascular compartment were labeled with LCA, but not RCA. Corticospinal tract degeneration was noted in 15 of 20 spinal cords. In six cases tract degeneration was consistent with delayed myelination, and the remaining cases had axonal injury consistent with Wallerian degeneration. Opportunistic infections were rare (three cases). Central nervous system lymphoma occurred in three children and was the most common mass lesion. In two cases lymphoma occurred in the setting of a systemic polyclonal immunoproliferation possibly related to Epstein-Barr virus infection. Cerebrovascular accidents were noted in seven cases. Two cases had hemorrhage associated with immune thrombocytopenia; one hemorrhage was catastrophic. Two children had large vessel arteriopathy with multiple encephalomalacias. Two children had a necrotizing encephalopathy with encephalomalacia and vascular changes suggestive of a mitochondrial cytopathy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Gross anatomy of central nervous system in firefly, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudawiyah, Nur; Wahida, O. Nurul; Norela, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes for the first time the organization and fine structure of the central nervous system (CNS) in the fireflies, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). The morphology of the CNS was examined by using Carl Zeiss AxioScope A1 photomicroscope with iSolution Lite software. Some specific structural features such as the localization of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum in the brain region were analyzed. Other than that, the nerve cord and its peripheral structure were also analyzed. This study suggests that, there is a very obvious difference between male and female central nervous system which illustrates that they may differ in function in controlling physiological and behavioral activities.

  14. Secondary superficial siderosis of the central nervous system in a patient presenting with sensorineural hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmerling, M.; De Praeter, G.; Mollet, P.; Mortele, K.; Kunnen, M.; Mastenbroek, G.

    1998-01-01

    We present a 50-year-old man who was investigated for sensorineural hearing loss. On MRI of the brain superficial siderosis of the central nervous system was seen, while MRI of the spine revealed an ependymoma of the cauda equina. This case illustrates the importance of performing T2-weighted imaging of the brain and posterior fossa when sensorineural hearing loss is present. Spine imaging is mandatory when superficial siderosis of the brain is diagnosed without identification of a bleeding source in the brain. (orig.)

  15. DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capper, David; Jones, David T.W.; Sill, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging - with substantial inter-observer variabil......Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging - with substantial inter......-observer variability in the histopathological diagnosis of many tumour types. Here we present a comprehensive approach for the DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours across all entities and age groups, and demonstrate its application in a routine diagnostic setting. We show...

  16. Meningeal mast cells affect early T cell central nervous system infiltration and blood-brain barrier integrity through TNF: a role for neutrophil recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Blayne A; Christy, Alison L; Walker, Margaret E; Brown, Melissa A

    2010-06-15

    Mast cells contribute to the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a rodent model of the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. Yet their site and mode of action is unknown. In both diseases, myelin-specific T cells are initially activated in peripheral lymphoid organs. However, for disease to occur, these cells must enter the immunologically privileged CNS through a breach in the relatively impermeable blood-brain barrier. In this study, we demonstrate that a dense population of resident mast cells in the meninges, structures surrounding the brain and spinal cord, regulate basal CNS barrier function, facilitating initial T cell CNS entry. Through the expression of TNF, mast cells recruit an early wave of neutrophils to the CNS. We propose that neutrophils in turn promote the blood-brain barrier breach and together with T cells lead to further inflammatory cell influx and myelin damage. These findings provide specific targets for intervention in multiple sclerosis as well as other immune-mediated CNS diseases.

  17. 21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components... Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid... central nervous system to an internal delivery site or an external receptacle for the purpose of relieving...

  18. Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis in bone marrow transplantation recipients: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guermazi, Ali; Gluckman, Eliane; Tabti, Bachir; Miaux, Yves

    2003-01-01

    Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is being seen with an increased frequency, particularly due to the increased number of immunosuppressed patients. The major cause of invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is bone marrow transplantation. In most cases, aspergillosis develops in the paranasal sinuses and in the lungs, and secondarily spreads to the brain. Imaging of cerebral aspergillosis may present different patterns depending on the lesion's age and the immunologic status of the patient. Lesions of the spinal cord are far less common but has been encountered in our series. In this article we review the clinical and radiologic features of aspergillosis affecting the central nervous system in patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation. Different CT and MR patterns are presented, including pertinent clinical and pathologic material. Significant morbidity and mortality can be associated with this fungal infection, and it is therefore incumbent upon the radiologist to identify intracranial aspergillosis as early as possible so that appropriate therapy can be administered. (orig.)

  19. The Central Nervous System Sites Mediating the Orexigenic Actions of Ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B.L.; Wang, Q.; Zigman, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin is important for both homeostatic and hedonic eating behaviors, and its orexigenic actions occur mainly via binding to the only known ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). GHSRs are located in several distinct regions of the central nervous system. This review discusses those central nervous system sites that have been found to play critical roles in the orexigenic actions of ghrelin, including hypothalamic nuclei, the hippocampus, the amygdala, the caudal brain stem, and midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Hopefully, this review can be used as a stepping stone for the reader wanting to gain a clearer understanding of the central nervous system sites of direct ghrelin action on feeding behavior, and as inspiration for future studies to provide an even-more-detailed map of the neurocircuitry controlling eating and body weight. PMID:24111557

  20. Development of a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model of the Rat Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K. Singh Badhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS drug disposition is dictated by a drug’s physicochemical properties and its ability to permeate physiological barriers. The blood–brain barrier (BBB, blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and centrally located drug transporter proteins influence drug disposition within the central nervous system. Attainment of adequate brain-to-plasma and cerebrospinal fluid-to-plasma partitioning is important in determining the efficacy of centrally acting therapeutics. We have developed a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of the rat CNS which incorporates brain interstitial fluid (ISF, choroidal epithelial and total cerebrospinal fluid (CSF compartments and accurately predicts CNS pharmacokinetics. The model yielded reasonable predictions of unbound brain-to-plasma partition ratio (Kpuu,brain and CSF:plasma ratio (CSF:Plasmau using a series of in vitro permeability and unbound fraction parameters. When using in vitro permeability data obtained from L-mdr1a cells to estimate rat in vivo permeability, the model successfully predicted, to within 4-fold, Kpuu,brain and CSF:Plasmau for 81.5% of compounds simulated. The model presented allows for simultaneous simulation and analysis of both brain biophase and CSF to accurately predict CNS pharmacokinetics from preclinical drug parameters routinely available during discovery and development pathways.

  1. Localization of Reversion-Induced LIM Protein (RIL) in the Rat Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Yuko; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Morishima, Tetsuro; Sasano, Hiroshi; Asai, Kiyofumi; Sobue, Kazuya; Takata, Kuniaki

    2009-01-01

    Reversion-induced LIM protein (RIL) is a member of the ALP (actinin-associated LIM protein) subfamily of the PDZ/LIM protein family. RIL serves as an adaptor protein and seems to regulate cytoskeletons. Immunoblotting suggested that RIL is concentrated in the astrocytes in the central nervous system. We then examined the expression and localization of RIL in the rat central nervous system and compared it with that of water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4). RIL was concentrated in the cells of ependyma lining the ventricles in the brain and the central canal in the spinal cord. In most parts of the central nervous system, RIL was expressed in the astrocytes that expressed AQP4. Double-labeling studies showed that RIL was concentrated in the cytoplasm of astrocytes where glial fibrillary acidic protein was enriched as well as in the AQP4-enriched regions such as the endfeet or glia limitans. RIL was also present in some neurons such as Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and some neurons in the brain stem. Differential expression of RIL suggests that it may be involved in the regulation of the central nervous system

  2. Central nervous system radiation injury in small animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogel, A.J. van der

    1991-01-01

    Experimental studies on radiation injury in the central nervous system have been carried out in many species ranging from mouse to monkey. This review is restricted to studies in rodents irradiated with low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. In this paper, the various rodent models of brain and spinal cord injury are described with particular emphasis on the pathology of different types of lesions and theories of their pathogenesis. Many of the initial studies were limited to relatively high single doses, but in later work more clinically relevant fractionated irradiation schemes were employed. This has led to the recognition of various types of early and late delayed injury that are analogous to the syndromes observed in humans. Two main pathways have been suggested for the pathogenesis, one involving predominantly the progressive loss of glial cells and the other involving vascular injury. The relative importance of both mechanisms will be discussed with respect to treatment conditions and to dose level in particular. An hypothesis is presented concerning the possible role of different cell types in the development of specific syndromes

  3. The Central Nervous in system Rhabdoid tumor primitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manana, G.; Bernachin, J.; Waskoff, S.; Panuncio, A.

    2004-01-01

    Primitive Rhabdoid tumors of the Central Nervous system are entities of very low frequency and since 1942 is the first event observed in a total of 16,000 cases studied in the Laboratory of Neuropathology, Clinical Hospital. Until 2003 were described 118 case in the literature. The case is about the 3 years old child with no previous medical history consulted for 3 months with headaches, repeated vomiting, irritability and non specific abnormal gait. On examination is found a physical waking depression and great hydrocephalus in V I bilateral pair so is submitted to a emergency surgery. RMI CT and MRI performed reveals large frontal tumor that reaches the oval center with cystic and calcifications areas. Three days after is operates for the intraventricular tumor without post operative complications. Receive chemotherapy and the patient died 2 years later. The neuro pathological and ultrastructural study reveals a Rhabdoid malignancy brain tumor of grade IV as well as were analyzed histopathological and ultrastructural aspects of this entity

  4. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial; Kantarjian, Hagop; Allen, Pamela; Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow; O'Brien, Susan; Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D.; Thomas, Deborah A.; Gidley, Paul W.; Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie; Dabaja, Bouthaina S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement

  5. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kantarjian, Hagop [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow [Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); O' Brien, Susan [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thomas, Deborah A. [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gidley, Paul W. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina S., E-mail: bdabaja@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement.

  6. Drug/radiation interactions and central nervous system injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeAngelis, L.M.; Shapiro, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) injury caused by combined treatment with cranial radiation therapy (CRT) and chemotherapy is a complicated and difficult problem. Interactions between the two modalities at the cellular level, the effect of treatment sequencing, and chemotherapy and RT dosages are all poorly understood. While this is generally true and applicable to toxicities expressed in multiple organs and tissue types, it is particularly true for the brain. There are many clinical descriptions and situations that strongly implicate an enhanced neurotoxic potential for combined treatment compared to either therapy alone; there is a paucity of definitive experimental evidence, however, and few animal models that can be used to elucidate the nature and pathophysiology of this clinical association. This paper addresses the neurotoxic potential of a specific chemotherapeutic drug when combined with CRT; outlines whose drugs known to cause CNS injury when combined with CRT. Although many of the clinical situations are complicated because multiple cytotoxic agents have been used, usually only one is thought to contribute to the CNS injury. The authors discuss each drug separately

  7. Hydatid disease of the Central Nervous System: imaging characteristics and general features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbassioun, K.; Amirjamshidi, A.; Sabouri Deylamie, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Hydatid disease primarily affects the liver and typically demonstrates characteristic imaging findings. Secondary involvement due to hematogenous dissemination may be seen in almost any locations, e.g., lung, kidney, spleen, bone and central nervous system. Objectives: To review the different aspects of hydatidosis of the central nervous system briefly and discuss the pathognomonic features and rare varieties of radiological findings useful in preoperative diagnosis of the disease in the human central nervous system. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, the records of almost 100 cases of central nervous system hydatidosis were analyzed . The available images were reviewed by independent observers, either a radiologist or a neurosurgeon, and reported separately. Results: In skull x-ray films, nonspecific changes denoted increased intracranial pressure, skull asymmetry and curvilinear calcification in rare instances. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the round or oval, well-defined cystic mass with an attenuation or signal intensity similar to that of cerebrospinal fluid, with no associated perifocal edema, and no contrast enhancement as the pathognomonic findings of brain hydatidosis. Similar findings were detected in hydatid cysts involving the orbit, spinal column and spinal cord with some variations. Such findings as mild perifocal edema, non homogenous contrast enhancement, non-uniform shapes, calcification and multiplicity or septations have been the atypical radiological findings. Conclusion: In endemic areas, familiarity with typical and atypical radiological manifestations of hydatid disease of the central nervous system, will be helpful in making prompt and correct preoperative diagnosis leading to a better surgical outcome

  8. Connexin: a potential novel target for protecting the central nervous system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-yan Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Connexin subunits are proteins that form gap junction channels, and play an important role in communication between adjacent cells. This review article discusses the function of connexins/hemichannels/gap junctions under physiological conditions, and summarizes the findings regarding the role of connexins/hemichannels/gap junctions in the physiological and pathological mechanisms underlying central nervous system diseases such as brain ischemia, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, epilepsy, brain and spinal cord tumor, migraine, neuroautoimmune disease, Alzheimer′s disease, Parkinson′s disease, X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease, spastic paraplegia and maxillofacial dysplasia. Connexins are considered to be a potential novel target for protecting the central nervous system.

  9. Soluble CD40 ligand contributes to blood-brain barrier breakdown and central nervous system inflammation in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hiroki; Mori, Masahiro; Uchida, Tomohiko; Uzawa, Akiyuki; Ohtani, Ryohei; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2017-04-15

    Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is reported to disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum sCD40L levels were measured in 29 multiple sclerosis (MS), 29 neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and 27 disease control (DC) patients. In MS, serum sCD40L levels were higher than in DCs and positively correlated with the CSF/serum albumin ratio (Qalb). In NMOSD, CSF sCD40L levels were significantly increased compared to DCs, and were correlated to Qalb, CSF cell counts, protein concentrations, and interleukin-6 levels. sCD40L could be involved in BBB disruption in MS, whereas it may contribute to CNS inflammation in NMOSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Neural Mobilization Treatment Decreases Glial Cells and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in the Central Nervous System in Rats with Neuropathic Pain Induced by CCI in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Carolina Giardini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Glial cells are implicated in the development of chronic pain and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF released from activated microglia contributes to the nociceptive transmission. Neural mobilization (NM technique is a method clinically effective in reducing pain sensitivity. Here we examined the involvement of glial cells and BDNF expression in the thalamus and midbrain after NM treatment in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI. CCI was induced and rats were subsequently submitted to 10 sessions of NM, every other day, beginning 14 days after CCI. Thalamus and midbrain were analyzed for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, microglial cell OX-42, and BDNF using Immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays. Results. Thalamus and midbrain of CCI group showed increases in GFAP, OX-42, and BDNF expression compared with control group and, in contrast, showed decreases in GFAP, OX-42, and BDNF after NM when compared with CCI group. The decreased immunoreactivity for GFAP, OX-42, and BDNF in ventral posterolateral nucleus in thalamus and the periaqueductal gray in midbrain was shown by immunohistochemistry. Conclusions. These findings may improve the knowledge about the involvement of astrocytes, microglia, and BDNF in the chronic pain and show that NM treatment, which alleviates neuropathic pain, affects glial cells and BDNF expression.

  11. Conventional external beam radiotherapy for central nervous system malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halperin, E.C.; Burger, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    Fractionated external beam photon radiotherapy is an important component of the clinical management of malignant disease of the central nervous system. The practicing neurologist or neurosurgeon frequently relies on the consultative and treatment skills of a radiotherapist. This article provides a review for the nonradiotherapist of the place of conventional external beam radiotherapy in neuro-oncology. 23 references

  12. Thiophene Scaffold as Prospective Central Nervous System Agent: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep, Aakash; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Aggarwal, Swati; Kaushik, Dhirender; Sharma, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    Heterocyclic compounds are extensively dispersed in nature and are vital for life. Various investigational approaches towards Structural Activity Relationship that focus upon the exploration of optimized candidates have become vastly important. Literature studies tell that for a series of compounds that are imperative in industrial and medicinal chemistry, thiophene acts as parent. Among various classes of heterocyclic compounds that have potential central nervous system activity, thiophene is the most important one. In the largely escalating chemical world of heterocyclic compounds showing potential pharmacological character, thiophene nucleus has been recognized as the budding entity. Seventeen Papers were included in this review article to define the central nervous system potential of thiophene. This review article enlightens the rationalized use and scope of thiophene scaffold as novel central nervous system activity such as anticonvulsant, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5/p25) inhibitors, CNS depressant, capability to block norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine reuptake by their respective transporters etc. The Finding of this review confirm the importance of thiophene scaffold as potential central nervous system agents. From this outcome, ideas for future molecular modifications leading to the novel derivatives with better constructive pharmacological potential may be derived.

  13. Central Auditory Nervous System Dysfunction in Echolalic Autistic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherby, Amy Miller; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The results showed that all the Ss had normal hearing on the monaural speech tests; however, there was indication of central auditory nervous system dysfunction in the language dominant hemisphere, inferred from the dichotic tests, for those Ss displaying echolalia. (Author)

  14. Neuronal chemokines : Versatile messengers in central nervous system cell interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, A. H.; van Weering, H. R. J.; de Jong, E. K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Biber, K. P. H.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas chemokines are well known for their ability to induce cell migration, only recently it became evident that chemokines also control a variety of other cell functions and are versatile messengers in the interaction between a diversity of cell types. In the central nervous system (CNS),

  15. Radiotherapy of the central nervous system in acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is a site of occult and overt involvement with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. Prophylactic treatment of the cranial and spinal meninges can significantly reduce the incidence of CNS relapse. This review addresses the issues associated with the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of the CNS in ALL.20 references

  16. Sino-orbital aspergillosis with central nervous system complication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A central nervous system (CNS) complication (cerebral abscess) was diagnosed following seizures in the patient. The patient died a few days later. Conclusion: The diagnosis of aspergillosis of the orbit was only made from fungal culture after the patient's death. It requires a high index of suspicion to make a diagnosis of ...

  17. Some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Spondias mombin (SP) was evaluated for some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effect in albino wistar rats and mice. The extract was administered to pre-weighed mice (20-35 g), divided into five groups of five mice each at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for the ...

  18. Primary cerebral angitis of the central nervous | Das | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various medications like intravenous immunoglobulin, antibiotics, acyclovir, methyl prednisolone and management for raised intracranial pressure were instituted. She rapidly deteroriated and died on tenth hospital day. Only at autopsy was the diagnosis of primary angitis of central nervous system established. East African ...

  19. Some Central Nervous System Activities of Nerium Oleander Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the activity of 50 % hydroalcohol flower extract of Nerium oleander Linn. on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The effect of the 50 % hydroalcohol extract of N. oleander flowers at dosage levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. on the locomotor activity of mice ...

  20. Computed tomography of the central nervous system in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipold, A.; Tipold, E.

    1991-01-01

    With computed tomography in 44 small animals some well defined anatomical structures and pathological processes of the central nervous system are described. Computed tomography is not only necessary for the diagnosis of tumors; malformations, inflammatory, degenerative and vascular diseases and traumas are also visible

  1. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaap, M.S. van der; Valk, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this article a review is given of the use of magnetic resonance imaging for the central nervous system. An example of the screening of the population for multiple scelerosis is given. A good preliminary examination and the supply of relevant information to the person which performs the imaging is necessary. (R.B.). 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  3. Imaging in the infectious diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, F.; Gandon, Y.; Heautot, J.F.; Montagne, C.; Michelet, C.; Carsin, M.

    1989-01-01

    The basic signs of the major bacterial, viral, parasitic or mycotic infections of the central nervous system with CT and MRI are described. The problems arising from the presence of the HIV virus are emphasized and the attitude required according to the findings of imaging, is defined [fr

  4. Aberrant nerve fibres within the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffie, D

    1992-01-01

    Three cases of aberrant nerve fibres in the spinal cord and medulla oblongata are described. The literature on these fibres is discussed and their possible role in regeneration. Different views on the possibility of regeneration or functional recovery of the central nervous system are mentioned in the light of recent publications, which are more optimistic than before.

  5. Lipomas of the central nervous system in the newborns – a report of eight cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradowska, Kinga; Czech-Kowalska, Justyna; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta; Komornicka, Justyna; Dobrzańska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Central nervous system lipomas are rare tumours. In most of the cases they are located in corpus callosum of the brain. The ultrasonographic image of lipomas tends to be quite characteristic. Final diagnosis is however done on a basis of brain resonance. The purpose of this work is to present proceeding in case of central nervous system lipomas with particular attention to diagnostic imaging. This work is based on own research. There are eight patients with central nervous system lipomas described in this work. The ultrasonographic imaging performed upon patients’ birth revealed features of agenesis of corpus callosum with presence of hyperechoic structure in the area of median line within corpus callosum. This image correlated with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance examination results. Our research confirms that patients with central nervous system lipomas represent rare diagnostic and therapeutic cases. Due to characteristic results of ultrasonographic imaging of the brain, recognition of agenesis of corpus callosum would not cause difficulties. However the presence of hyperechoic structure without vascular flow which may suggest lipomas of corpus callosum would require final verification of the diagnosis and wider assessment of brain with NMR examination. We did not recognize any relation between corpus callosum pathology and neuroinfection of cytomegalovirus etiology. In all of the eight research cases there were malformations diagnostics conducted. There were genetic irregularities in case of two of the neonates only. Until today, all of the patients remain under neurological care. Their psychomotor development is regularly controlled. Taking into consideration that numerous malformations occur altogether with brain lipomas, it is recommended to conduct appropriate diagnostics, to inform parents on an essence of diagnosis and on necessity of observing child’s psychomotor development. Obviously, it is crucial to secure a patient with paediatric and neurological

  6. Neural Stem Cells: Implications for the Conventional Radiotherapy of Central Nervous System Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barani, Igor J.; Benedict, Stanley H.; Lin, Peck-Sun

    2007-01-01

    Advances in basic neuroscience related to neural stem cells and their malignant counterparts are challenging traditional models of central nervous system tumorigenesis and intrinsic brain repair. Neurogenesis persists into adulthood predominantly in two neurogenic centers: subventricular zone and subgranular zone. Subventricular zone is situated adjacent to lateral ventricles and subgranular zone is confined to the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Neural stem cells not only self-renew and differentiate along multiple lineages in these regions, but also contribute to intrinsic brain plasticity and repair. Ionizing radiation can depopulate these exquisitely sensitive regions directly or impair in situ neurogenesis by indirect, dose-dependent and inflammation-mediated mechanisms, even at doses <2 Gy. This review discusses the fundamental neural stem cell concepts within the framework of cumulative clinical experience with the treatment of central nervous system malignancies using conventional radiotherapy

  7. Early and late endocrine effects in pediatric central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ivy R; Cheung, Clement C

    2014-01-01

    Endocrinopathies are frequently linked to central nervous system disease, both as early effects prior to the disease diagnosis and/or late effects after the disease has been treated. In particular, tumors and infiltrative diseases of the brain and pituitary, such as craniopharyngioma, optic pathway and hypothalamic gliomas, intracranial germ cell tumor, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis, can present with abnormal endocrine manifestations that precede the development of neurological symptoms. Early endocrine effects include diabetes insipidus, growth failure, obesity, and precocious or delayed puberty. With improving prognosis and treatment of childhood brain tumors, many survivors experience late endocrine effects related to medical and surgical interventions. Chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary axes governing growth, thyroid, gonadal, and adrenal function. In addition, obesity and metabolic alterations are frequent late manifestations. Diagnosing and treating both early and late endocrine manifestations can dramatically improve the growth, well-being, and quality of life of patients with childhood central nervous system diseases.

  8. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira Canellas, A. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit (I.D.I.), Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Rovira Gols, A. [Parc Tauli University Institute - UAB, UDIAT, Diagnostic Centre, Sabadell (Spain); Rio Izquierdo, J.; Tintore Subirana, M.; Montalban Gairin, X. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Neurology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  9. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovira Canellas, A.; Rovira Gols, A.; Rio Izquierdo, J.; Tintore Subirana, M.; Montalban Gairin, X.

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  10. Citation classics in central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Eun; Park, Kang M; Kim, Yerim; Yoon, Dae Y; Bae, Jong S

    2017-06-01

    To identify and analyze the characteristics of the most influential articles about central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disease. The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science database and the 2014 Journal Citation Reports Science Edition were used to retrieve the top 100 cited articles on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease. The citation numbers, journals, years of publication, authorships, article types, subjects and main issues were analyzed. For neuromyelitis optica (NMO), articles that were cited more than 100 times were regarded as a citation classic and described separately. The top 100 cited articles were published between 1972 and 2011 in 13 journals. The highest number of articles ( n  = 24) was published in Brain, followed by The New England Journal of Medicine ( n  = 21). The average number of citations was 664 (range 330-3,897), and 64% of the articles were from the United States and the United Kingdom. The majority of the top 100 cited articles were related to multiple sclerosis ( n  = 87), and only a few articles reported on other topics such as NMO ( n  = 9), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis ( n  = 2) and optic neuritis ( n  = 2). Among the top 100 cited articles, 77% were original articles. Forty-one citation classics were found for NMO. Our study provides a historical perspective on the research progress on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease and may serve as a guide for important advances and trends in the field for associated researchers.

  11. Interaction of Plant Extracts with Central Nervous System Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lundstrom

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant extracts have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various maladies including neurological diseases. Several central nervous system receptors have been demonstrated to interact with plant extracts and components affecting the pharmacology and thereby potentially playing a role in human disease and treatment. For instance, extracts from Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort targeted several CNS receptors. Similarly, extracts from Piper nigrum, Stephania cambodica, and Styphnolobium japonicum exerted inhibition of agonist-induced activity of the human neurokinin-1 receptor. Methods: Different methods have been established for receptor binding and functional assays based on radioactive and fluorescence-labeled ligands in cell lines and primary cell cultures. Behavioral studies of the effect of plant extracts have been conducted in rodents. Plant extracts have further been subjected to mood and cognition studies in humans. Results: Mechanisms of action at molecular and cellular levels have been elucidated for medicinal plants in support of standardization of herbal products and identification of active extract compounds. In several studies, plant extracts demonstrated affinity to a number of CNS receptors in parallel indicating the complexity of this interaction. In vivo studies showed modifications of CNS receptor affinity and behavioral responses in animal models after treatment with medicinal herbs. Certain plant extracts demonstrated neuroprotection and enhanced cognitive performance, respectively, when evaluated in humans. Noteworthy, the penetration of plant extracts and their protective effect on the blood-brain-barrier are discussed. Conclusion: The affinity of plant extracts and their isolated compounds for CNS receptors indicates an important role for medicinal plants in the treatment of neurological disorders. Moreover, studies in animal and human models have confirmed a scientific basis for the

  12. Acute Central Nervous System Complications in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytan, Birol; Evim, Melike Sezgin; Güler, Salih; Güneş, Adalet Meral; Okan, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    The outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia has improved because of intensive chemotherapy and supportive care. The frequency of adverse events has also increased, but the data related to acute central nervous system complications during acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment are sparse. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these complications and to determine their long term outcome. We retrospectively analyzed the hospital reports of 323 children with de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia from a 13-year period for acute neurological complications. The central nervous system complications of leukemic involvement, peripheral neuropathy, and post-treatment late-onset encephalopathy, and neurocognitive defects were excluded. Twenty-three of 323 children (7.1%) suffered from central nervous system complications during acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. The majority of these complications (n = 13/23; 56.5%) developed during the induction period. The complications included posterior reversible encephalopathy (n = 6), fungal abscess (n = 5), cerebrovascular lesions (n = 5), syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (n = 4), and methotrexate encephalopathy (n = 3). Three of these 23 children (13%) died of central nervous system complications, one from an intracranial fungal abscess and the others from intracranial thrombosis. Seven of the survivors (n = 7/20; 35%) became epileptic and three of them had also developed mental and motor retardation. Acute central neurological complications are varied and require an urgent approach for proper diagnosis and treatment. Collaboration among the hematologist, radiologist, neurologist, microbiologist, and neurosurgeon is essential to prevent fatal outcome and serious morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioengineered Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    necessary to unlock the full therapeutic value of stem cell -based regenerative therapies. The present proposal takes advantage of a long- standing, cross...the Journal of Controlled Release (J Control Release. 2015 Jun 28;208:76-84). 15. SUBJECT TERMS prevalence, trauma, hydrogel, stem cell therapy...cavitations that are not spontaneously repaired. Early after injury, blood enters the central nervous system (CNS) and directly kills brain cells but also

  14. Central nervous system involvement in a case of segmental nevus depigmentosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Majumdar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system involvement in segmental nevus depigmentosus (SND is rare. A 7-month-old boy having convulsion and segmental hypopigmented patch in the right inguinal region. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain showed bilateral periventricular white matter hypoplasia with prominent subarachnoid spaces and mild dilation of ventricles with mild left cerebral hemispheric atrophy. Association of SND with seizure and white matter lesion has been rarely reported.

  15. Neurotropic Enterovirus Infections in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-I Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses are a group of positive-sense single stranded viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. Most enteroviruses infect humans from the gastrointestinal tract and cause mild symptoms. However, several enteroviruses can invade the central nervous system (CNS and result in various neurological symptoms that are correlated to mortality associated with enteroviral infections. In recent years, large outbreaks of enteroviruses occurred worldwide. Therefore, these neurotropic enteroviruses have been deemed as re-emerging pathogens. Although these viruses are becoming large threats to public health, our understanding of these viruses, especially for non-polio enteroviruses, is limited. In this article, we review recent advances in the trafficking of these pathogens from the peripheral to the central nervous system, compare their cell tropism, and discuss the effects of viral infections in their host neuronal cells.

  16. MRI findings in central nervous system of neurofibromatosis-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Maoen; Huang Suiqiao; Shen Jun; Hong Guobin; Wu Zhuo; Lin Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of MR imaging in central nervous system involvement of neurofibromatosis II. Methods: 7 patients with surgically and pathologically proved neurofibromatosis II were included. Their MR imaging findings and clinical features were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The main findings of 7 cases of neurofibraomaosis II on MR imaging included bilateral acoustic neurilemoma, multiple neurofibroma, meningioma and schwannoma. Among the 7 patients, Tl-weighted imaging after contrast enhancement displayed additional lesions which had been ignored on un-enhanced scan. Conclusion: MR imaging has advantages in the detection of central nervous sys- tem involvement of neurofibromatosis II with regard to its ability to show the lesions well, meanwhile displaying the size, morphology and signal features clearly. (authors)

  17. Neurotropic Enterovirus Infections in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsing-I; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2015-11-24

    Enteroviruses are a group of positive-sense single stranded viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. Most enteroviruses infect humans from the gastrointestinal tract and cause mild symptoms. However, several enteroviruses can invade the central nervous system (CNS) and result in various neurological symptoms that are correlated to mortality associated with enteroviral infections. In recent years, large outbreaks of enteroviruses occurred worldwide. Therefore, these neurotropic enteroviruses have been deemed as re-emerging pathogens. Although these viruses are becoming large threats to public health, our understanding of these viruses, especially for non-polio enteroviruses, is limited. In this article, we review recent advances in the trafficking of these pathogens from the peripheral to the central nervous system, compare their cell tropism, and discuss the effects of viral infections in their host neuronal cells.

  18. The role of surgery in primary central nervous system lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Villalonga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL are infrequent. The traditional treatment of choice is chemotherapy. Complete resections have generally not been recommended, because of the risk of permanent central nervous system deficits with no proven improvement in survival. The aim of the current study was to compare survival among patients with PCNSL who underwent biopsy versus surgical resection. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 50 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PCNSL treated at our center from January 1994 to July 2015. Results Patients in the resection group exhibited significantly longer median survival time, relative to the biopsy group, surviving a median 31 months versus 14.5 months; p = 0.016. Conclusions In our series, patients who had surgical resection of their tumor survived a median 16.5 months longer than patients who underwent biopsy alone.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of central nervous system haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, M.; Hennessy, O.

    1993-01-01

    The variable magnetic resonance imaging appearances of central nervous system haemorrhage, both intra- and extra-axial, are described. These will vary with the type of image contrast (T1 or T2 weighting), the nature of the imaging sequence (spin-echo or gradient-echo) and the time from onset of haemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful technique for imaging haemorrhage in the central nervous system as it yields temporal information about haematoma development, and it is the only non-invasive means of imaging intraspinal haemorrhage. However, in the imaging of haematomas within 24 h of onset and in subarachnoid haemorrhage computed tomography is the investigation of choice. 13 refs., 6 figs

  20. Value of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecka, I.; Sicinska, J.; Szymanska, E.; Rudnicka, L.; Furmanek, M.; Walecki, J.; Olszewska, M.; Rudnicka, L.; Walecki, J.

    2006-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune connective tissue disease characterized by vascular abnormalities and fibrotic changes in skin and internal organs. The aim of the study was to investigate involvement of the central nervous system in systemic sclerosis and the value of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of central nervous system involvement in systemic sclerosis. 26 patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms in the course of systemic sclerosis were investigated for central nervous system abnormalities by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Among these 26 symptomatic patients lesions in brain MRI and CT examinations were present in 54% and in 50% patients respectively. Most common findings (in 46% of all patients), were symptoms of cortical and subcortical atrophy, seen in both, MRI and CT. Single and multiple focal lesions, predominantly in the white matter, were detected by MRI significantly more frequently as compared to CT (62% and 15% patients respectively). These data indicate that brain involvement is common in patients with severe systemic sclerosis. MRI shows significantly higher than CT sensitivity in detection focal brain lesions in these patients. (author)

  1. Retinal Electrophysiology Is a Viable Preclinical Biomarker for Drug Penetrance into the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Charng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine whether retinal electrophysiology is a useful surrogate marker of drug penetrance into the central nervous system (CNS. Materials and Methods. Brain and retinal electrophysiology were assessed with full-field visually evoked potentials and electroretinograms in conscious and anaesthetised rats following systemic or local administrations of centrally penetrant (muscimol or nonpenetrant (isoguvacine compounds. Results. Local injections into the eye/brain bypassed the blood neural barriers and produced changes in retinal/brain responses for both drugs. In conscious animals, systemic administration of muscimol resulted in retinal and brain biopotential changes, whereas systemic delivery of isoguvacine did not. General anaesthesia confounded these outcomes. Conclusions. Retinal electrophysiology, when recorded in conscious animals, shows promise as a viable biomarker of drug penetration into the CNS. In contrast, when conducted under anaesthetised conditions confounds can be induced in both cortical and retinal electrophysiological recordings.

  2. Echography of congenital malformations of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toirac Romani, Carlos Andres; Salmon Cruzata, Acelia; Musle Acosta, Mirelvis; Rosales Fargie, Yamile; Dosouto Infante, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    A descriptive and prospective study was conducted in 173 pregnant women attended at the Provincial Department of Clinical Genetics of Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2000 to December, 2004, to identify congenital malformations of the central nervous system detected by means of echography. The most frequent malformation was the hydrocephaly, followed by the fusion defects of the spine, associated with the hydrocephaly and the absence of cranial cavity. There was a prevalence of altered alpha fetoprotein and of elevated amniotic fluid

  3. Leptin and the central nervous system control of glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Gregory J; Schwartz, Michael W

    2011-04-01

    The regulation of body fat stores and blood glucose levels is critical for survival. This review highlights growing evidence that leptin action in the central nervous system plays a key role in both processes. Investigation into underlying mechanisms has begun to clarify the physiological role of leptin in the control of glucose metabolism and raises interesting new possibilities for the treatment of diabetes and related disorders.

  4. Managing Atypical and Typical herpetic central nervous system infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cag, Yasemin; Erdem, Hakan; Leib, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    There have been many studies pertaining to the management of herpetic meningoencephalitis (HME), but the majority of them have focussed on virologically unconfirmed cases or included only small sample sizes. We have conducted a multicentre study aimed at providing management strategies for HME. O...... the subtle nature of HME, CSF HSV PCR, EEG and MRI data should be collected for all patients with a central nervous system infection....

  5. Radon exposure and tumors of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Dacosta-Urbieta, Ana; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Kelsey, Karl T

    2017-03-15

    To review the published evidence of links between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors through a systematic review of the scientific literature. We performed a thorough bibliographic search in Medline (PubMed) and EMBASE. We combined MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) terms and free text. We developed a purpose-designed scale to assess the quality of the included manuscripts. We have included 18 studies, 8 performed on miners, 3 on the general population and 7 on children, and the results have been structured using this classification. The results are inconclusive. An association between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors has been observed in some studies on miners, but not in others. The results observed in the general adult population and in children are also mixed, with some research evincing a statistically significant association and others showing no effect. We cannot conclude that there is a relationship between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors. The available studies are extremely heterogeneous in terms of design and populations studied. Further research is needed in this topic, particularly in the general population residing in areas with high levels of radon. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Pazopanib efficacy in recurrent central nervous system hemangiopericytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apra, Caroline; Alentorn, Agusti; Mokhtari, Karima; Kalamarides, Michel; Sanson, Marc

    2018-04-26

    There is currently no treatment for solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas (SFT/H) of the central nervous system recurring after multiple surgeries and radiotherapies. The NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion is the hallmark of these tumors, and upregulates Early Growth Factor, activating several growth pathways. We treated two patients presenting pluri-recurrent meningeal SFT/H with Pazopanib, a broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We analyzed the exome and RNA sequencing data of one of them and, in addition to another meningeal SFT/H, compared it to the transcriptomic profiling of 5 systemic SFT/H. A dramatic clinical and radiological response was observed in both cases, respectively 84 and 43% decrease after 3 months. As a comparison, Pazopanib has only a stabilizing effect in systemic SFT/H. Indeed, central nervous system SFT/H show overexpression of different tyrosine kinases targeted by Pazopanib. Two consecutive patients with untreatable central nervous system SFT/H showed a spectacular partial response to Pazopanib, an unprecedented result in SFT/H. This result could be explained by differences in expression profiles and calls for a confirmation in a larger cohort of patients.

  7. Brain-computer interface after nervous system injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alexis; Adeli, Hojjat; Buford, John A

    2014-12-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) has proven to be a useful tool for providing alternative communication and mobility to patients suffering from nervous system injury. BCI has been and will continue to be implemented into rehabilitation practices for more interactive and speedy neurological recovery. The most exciting BCI technology is evolving to provide therapeutic benefits by inducing cortical reorganization via neuronal plasticity. This article presents a state-of-the-art review of BCI technology used after nervous system injuries, specifically: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, and disorders of consciousness. Also presented is transcending, innovative research involving new treatment of neurological disorders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Longitudinal analysis of hearing loss in a case of hemosiderosis of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekamp, H H; Huygen, P L M; Merx, J L; Kremer, H P H; Cremers, Cor W R J; Longridge, Neil S

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cochleovestibular aspects of superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. BACKGROUND: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease in which cochleovestibular impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy are the most frequent signs.

  9. Longitudinal analysis of hearing loss in a case of hemosiderosis of the central nervous system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekamp, H.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Merx, J.L.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Longridge, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cochleovestibular aspects of superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. BACKGROUND: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease in which cochleovestibular impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy are the most frequent signs.

  10. Central nervous system manifestations in pediatric patients with influenza A H1N1 infection during the 2009 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilking, Ashley N; Elliott, Elizabeth; Garcia, Melissa N; Murray, Kristy O; Munoz, Flor M

    2014-09-01

    A novel H1N1 influenza A virus (A(H1N1)pdm09) particularly affected individuals central nervous system complications associated with pandemic influenza in the pediatric population. Retrospective review of patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection and central nervous system manifestations at Texas Children's Hospital between April 2009 and June 2010. Among 365 patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, 32 (8.8%) had central nervous system manifestations at a median age of 4 years. Eight (25.0%) were previously healthy, and 12 (37.5%) had neurological pre-existing conditions. Of the 32 cases of influenza with neurological complications, seizure (n = 17; 53.1%) was the most common central nervous system manifestation, followed by encephalitis (n = 4; 12.5%), meningitis (n = 4; 12.5%), encephalopathy (n = 3; 9.4%), meningismus (n = 3; 9.4%), focal hemorrhagic brain lesions (n = 2; 6.3%), brain infarction (n = 1; 3.1%), and sensorineural hearing loss (n = 1; 3.1%). Two patients demonstrated two or more types of central nervous system complications. One patient had abnormal cerebrospinal fluid with pleocytosis. Almost two thirds of the children with central nervous system manifestations required intensive care unit admission and nearly half required mechanical ventilation. There were no deaths. Patients with pre-existing neurological conditions were at greater risk for central nervous system manifestations during pandemic influenza infection. Patients with central nervous system manifestations were more likely to experience severe illness, characterized by intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation, although overall outcomes were good. Influenza prevention in patients with underlying medical conditions, particularly those with neurological conditions, is important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System in Small Animals: Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Timothy; Taylor, Amanda R; Thomovsky, Stephanie A

    2018-01-01

    Small animal mycoses vary geographically. Different clinical presentations are seen in animals with infection of the central nervous system (CNS), including multifocal meningoencephalomyelitis, intracranial lesions that accompany sinonasal lesions, rapidly progressive ventriculitis, or solitary granuloma of the brain or spinal cord. Systemic, nasal, or extraneural clinical signs are common but, especially in granuloma cases, do not always occur. Surgery may have a diagnostic and therapeutic role in CNS granuloma. There have been recent advancements in serology. Fluconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole cross the blood-brain barrier, but voriconazole is neurotoxic to cats. Liposomal and lipid-encapsulated formulations of amphotericin B are preferred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Immune and Inflammatory Responses in the Central Nervous System: Modulation by Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; hidalgo, juan; aschner, michael

    2008-01-01

    Beyond their long-recognized support functions, astrocytes are active partners of neurons in processing information, synaptic integration, and production of trophic factors, just to name a few. Both microglia and astrocytes produce and secrete a number of cytokines, modulating and integrating...... the communication between hematogenous cells and resident cells of the central nervous system (CNS). This review will address (1) the functions of astrocytes in the normal brain and (2) their role in surveying noxious stimuli within the brain, with particular emphasis on astrocytic responses to damage or disease...

  13. Positron emission tomography - a new technique for studies of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Lars; Dahlbom, Magnus; Widen, Lennart

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become an important tool to study the central nervous system. Examples of such studies are cerebral blood flow and metabolism and determination of receptor characteristics of the brain. In the following the basic principles and the physics behind PET are given. Different aspects are discussed such as detector design, image reconstruction and data analyses. Since quantification is essential in PET, data have to be corrected for absorption, scatter and random coincidences. These corrections and their influence on image data are discussed. A review of state-of-the-art PET research of the brain is given. (author)

  14. Effect of Artificial Gravity: Central Nervous System Neurochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; D'Amelio, Fernando; Eng, Lawrence F.

    1997-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to assess chemical and morphological modifications occurring in muscle receptors and the central nervous system of animals subjected to altered gravity (2 x Earth gravity produced by centrifugation and simulated micro gravity produced by hindlimb suspension). The underlying hypothesis for the studies was that afferent (sensory) information sent to the central nervous system by muscle receptors would be changed in conditions of altered gravity and that these changes, in turn, would instigate a process of adaptation involving altered chemical activity of neurons and glial cells of the projection areas of the cerebral cortex that are related to inputs from those muscle receptors (e.g., cells in the limb projection areas). The central objective of this research was to expand understanding of how chronic exposure to altered gravity, through effects on the vestibular system, influences neuromuscular systems that control posture and gait. The project used an approach in which molecular changes in the neuromuscular system were related to the development of effective motor control by characterizing neurochemical changes in sensory and motor systems and relating those changes to motor behavior as animals adapted to altered gravity. Thus, the objective was to identify changes in central and peripheral neuromuscular mechanisms that are associated with the re-establishment of motor control which is disrupted by chronic exposure to altered gravity.

  15. 75 FR 75681 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ...] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...) and/or abnormal vascularity (abnormal blood supply and circulation) of the central nervous system. The...

  16. Lactate overrides central nervous but not beta-cell glucose sensing in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Sebastian M; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Hallschmid, Manfred; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Peters, Achim; Born, Jan; Schultes, Bernd

    2008-12-01

    Lactate has been shown to serve as an alternative energy substrate in the central nervous system and to interact with hypothalamic glucose sensors. On the background of marked similarities between central nervous and beta-cell glucose sensing, we examined whether lactate also interacts with pancreatic glucose-sensing mechanisms in vivo. The effects of intravenously infused lactate vs placebo (saline) on central nervous and pancreatic glucose sensing were assessed during euglycemic and hypoglycemic clamp experiments in 10 healthy men. The release of neuroendocrine counterregulatory hormones during hypoglycemia was considered to reflect central nervous glucose sensing, whereas endogenous insulin secretion as assessed by serum C-peptide levels served as an indicator of pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensing. Lactate infusion blunted the counterregulatory hormonal responses to hypoglycemia, in particular, the release of epinephrine (P = .007) and growth hormone (P = .004), so that higher glucose infusion rates (P = .012) were required to maintain the target blood glucose levels. In contrast, the decrease in C-peptide concentrations during the hypoglycemic clamp remained completely unaffected by lactate (P = .60). During euglycemic clamp conditions, lactate infusion did not affect the concentrations of C-peptide and of counterregulatory hormones, with the exception of norepinephrine levels that were lower during lactate than saline infusion (P = .049) independently of the glycemic condition. Data indicate that glucose sensing of beta-cells is specific to glucose, whereas glucose sensing at the central nervous level can be overridden by lactate, reflecting the brain's ability to rely on lactate as an alternative major energy source.

  17. Congenital and acquired mitochondrial disorders of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Nikitina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical presentations of disorders of the nervous system manifest in young and middle-aged patients with congenital and acquired mitochondrial dysfunctions and cognitive disorders manifest in patients with mitochondrial diseases more often. Nowadays the effective methods of initial diagnosing of these conditions are neurological and neuropsychological examination of patients, using of biochemical markers of mitochondrial diseases: the indices of lactate, total homocysteine in plasma and liquor. Neuro-visual study (Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, MR spectroscopy, tractography, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, mitochondrial DNA typing is actually used for the differential diagnosing of mitochondrial diseases with other disorders that are accompanied by demyelinating disorders.

  18. Endocrine factors influencing radiation injury to central nervous tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristizabal, S.A.; Boone, M.L.; Laguna, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Corticosteroids have been shown experimentally to lower the tolerance of various normal tissues (lung, kidney, intestine) to irradiation. Pre-existing hypertension also modified the effect of irradiation on the rat spinal cord and brain. Hypercorticism and hypertension co-exist in patients with Cushing's disease. Although these patients are often approached therapeutically by irradiation, no reports concerning differences in the radiation sensitivity of nervous tissue between normal subjects (non-functioning pituitary adenomas) and those with hormonal imbalance and/or hypertension appear to be available. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed 14 patients with radiation damage to brain or to optic pathways following moderate doses for pituitary adenomas. Seven of the 14 patients (50%) had Cushing's disease. This apparent higher incidence of radiation injury is significant if we consider that less than 5% of all patients receiving irradiation for pituitary adenomas have Cushing's disease

  19. Psychosis in primary angiitis of the central nervous system involving bilateral thalami: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangha; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2015-01-01

    To report a case of primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), a rare inflammatory disease restricted to the central nervous system (CNS), with unusual clinical presentation mimicking schizophrenia. Case report. A 45-year-old male presented with alteration of consciousness and confusion. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a mass-like enhancing lesion involving bilateral thalami, and biopsy revealed findings compatible with PACNS. The patient was treated with corticosteroids. Psychotic symptoms crystallized over the initial 2 months after the diagnosis and persisted for over a year. Severity of his symptoms improved with gradual normalization of the radiologic findings and antipsychotic medication. Our case highlights the importance of considering PACNS as a differential diagnosis of a tumor-like mass lesion in the CNS and the significance of thalamic involvement in the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms including delusions and hallucinations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. White-matter abnormalities in unirradiated patients cured of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, L.; Hochberg, F.H.; Shaeffer, P.

    2000-01-01

    On MRI, primary brain tumors are commonly seen as contrast-enhancing masses surrounded by areas of abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. Following successful treatment tumors may no longer show contrast enhancement. The residual abnormalities are assumed to be represent ''edema'' and infiltrating tumor cells. We report nine patients with primary lymphoma of the central nervous system who had complete responses to intravenous methotrexate, but did not receive intrathecal chemotherapy or cranial irradiation. After complete resolution of contrast-enhancing lesions, persistent abnormalities on T2-weighted images in the region of prior tumor were initially assumed to reflect residual viable tumor. As they remained unchanged for years, however, this may not hold true in the cases in which primary central nervous system lymphoma responds to chemotherapy alone. (orig.)

  1. The Regulation of GluN2A by Endogenous and Exogenous Regulators in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongjun; Zhan, Liying; Cheng, Xiaokun; Zhang, Linan; Hu, Jie; Gao, Zibin

    2017-04-01

    The NMDA receptor is the most widely studied ionotropic glutamate receptor, and it is central to many physiological and pathophysiological processes in the central nervous system. GluN2A is one of the two main types of GluN2 NMDA receptor subunits in the forebrain. The proper activity of GluN2A is important to brain function, as the abnormal regulation of GluN2A may induce some neuropsychiatric disorders. This review will examine the regulation of GluN2A by endogenous and exogenous regulators in the central nervous system.

  2. Effect of PF-00547659 on Central Nervous System Immune Surveillance and Circulating beta 7+T Cells in Crohn's Disease: Report of the TOSCA Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Haens, Geert; Vermeire, Séverine; Vogelsang, Harald; Allez, Matthieu; Desreumaux, Pierre; van Gossum, Andre; Sandborn, William J.; Baumgart, Daniel C.; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Comer, Gail M.; Ahmad, Alaa; Cataldi, Fabio; Cheng, John; Clare, Robert; Gorelick, Kenneth J.; Kaminski, Annamarie; Pradhan, Vivek; Rivers, Sunday; Sikpi, Matthew O.; Zhang, Yanhua; Hassan-Zahraee, Mina; Reinisch, Walter; Stuve, Olaf

    2018-01-01

    Background and Aims: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy [PML], a brain infection associated with anti-integrin drugs that inhibit lymphocyte translocation from bloodstream to tissue, can be fatal. Decreased central nervous system [CNS] immune surveillance leading to this infection has been

  3. [A case of primary central nervous system anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma manifested as a unilateral pachymeningits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Etsuco; Shibayama, Hidehiro; Mitobe, Fumi; Katada, Fumiaki; Sato, Susumu; Fukutake, Toshio

    2017-11-25

    There have been 23 reports of primary central nervous system anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma in the literature. Here we report the 24th case of a 40-year-old man who presented with occipital headache for one month. His contrast-enhanced brain MRI showed enhancement around the right temporal lobe, which suggested a diagnosis of hypertrophic pachymeningitis. He improved with steroid therapy. After discharge, however, he was readmitted with generalized convulsive seizures. Finally, he was diagnosed as primary central nervous system ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma by brain biopsy. Primary central nervous system lymphoma invading dura matter can rarely manifests as a unilateral pachymeningitis. Therefore, in case of pachymeningitis, we should pay attention to the possibility of infiltration of lymophoma with meticulous clinical follow-up.

  4. Hypopituitarism as unusual sequelae to central nervous system tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mageshkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological tuberculosis can very rarely involve the hypophysis cerebri. We report a case of an eighteen year old female who presented with five months duration of generalised apathy, secondary amenorrhea and weight gain. She was on irregular treatment for tuberculosis of the central nervous system for the last five months. Neuroimaging revealed sellar and suprasellar tuberculomas and communicating hydrocephalus requiring emergency decompression. Endocrinological investigation showed hypopituitarism manifesting as pituitary hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and hyperprolactinemia. Restarting anti-tuberculosis treatment, hormone replacement therapy, and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery led to remarkable improvement in the general condition of the patient.

  5. Tolerance of the central nervous system to photon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigg, D.R.; Murray, R.M.L.; Koschel, K.

    1982-01-01

    Dose-response isoeffect equations have been determined for hypothalamic pituitary insufficiency following cranial irradiation. Of particular importance is the occurrence of complications at doses substantially less than those commonly used for the treatment of central nervous system tumors. Such complications may be severe and potentially life threatening. These complications occur when a small midline 'target' volume containing the pituitary gland, infundibulum and adjacent inferior hypothalamic structures is irradiated. Direct pituitary irradiation is unlikely to be a factor, at least in some cases. The possible role of incidental hypothalamic irradiation in the control of acromegaly and pituitary dependent Cushing's syndrome is discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Prophylactic radiotherapy for central nervous system in acute leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, S.L.; Ferrigno, R.

    1994-01-01

    Prophylaxis of the central nervous system in leukemias is a complex problem and there is no optimal solution that is universal for all patients. Radiation therapy, because of its CNS toxicity and potential carcinogenicity, is reserved for those in the highest risk groups. The cranial radiation dose is 18 Gy, while the spinal cord is treated with intrathecal methotrexate or multidrug therapy. The authors describe the basic aspects of radiation therapy treatment planning, as the main areas that should be included in treatment field, in order to guarantee favourable results. (author)

  7. Masquerade Syndrome of Multicentre Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Guerriero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Italy we say that the most unlucky things can happen to physicians when they get sick, despite the attention of colleagues. To confirm this rumor, we report the sad story of a surgeon with bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma unresponsive to traditional therapies. Methods/Design. Case report. Results. After one year of steroidal and immunosuppressive therapy, a vitrectomy, and a trabeculectomy for unresponsive bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma, MRI showed a multicentre primary central nervous system lymphoma, which was the underlying cause of the masquerade syndrome. Conclusions. All ophthalmologists and clinicians must be aware of masquerade syndromes, in order to avoid delays in diagnosis.

  8. Central nervous system systemic lupus erythematosus in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, A.G.; Boyer, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    Ischemic neurologic events and neuropsychiatric disorders occur in approximately 70% of patients with systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The CT and MR findings in adults with central nervous system (CNS) SLE have been described, but to the authors' knowledge no pediatric series has been reported. The MR and CT findings in four children with CNS SLE are compared with those reported in adults. Large infarcts are less frequent in children than in adults with CNS SLE, while multiple small infarctions and white matter lesions are more common. These findings in children who have no obvious source of emboli, intracardiac shunt, or history of trauma should raise the suspicion of SLE

  9. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system: overview of neuroradiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaerts, A.; Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W.M. van; De Roeck, J.; De Schepper, A.M.; Altena, R. van; Laridon, A.; Coeman, V.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In addition to an extensive review of computed tomography and magnetic resonance features, the pathogenesis and the relevant clinical setting are discussed. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is generally considered as the modality of choice in the detection and assessment of CNS tuberculosis. (orig.)

  10. Localization of rem2 in the central nervous system of the adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Anna G; Scholles, Katie R; Hollis, David M

    2016-12-01

    Rem2 is member of the RGK (Rem, Rad, and Gem/Kir) subfamily of the Ras superfamily of GTP binding proteins known to influence Ca 2+ entry into the cell. In addition, Rem2, which is found at high levels in the vertebrate brain, is also implicated in cell proliferation and synapse formation. Though the specific, regional localization of Rem2 in the adult mammalian central nervous system has been well-described, such information is lacking in other vertebrates. Rem2 is involved in neuronal processes where the capacities between adults of different vertebrate classes vary. Thus, we sought to localize the rem2 gene in the central nervous system of an adult anamniotic vertebrate, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In situ hybridization using a digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled RNA probe was used to identify the regional distribution of rem2 expression throughout the trout central nervous system, while real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) further supported these findings. Based on in situ hybridization, the regional distribution of rem2 occurred within each major subdivision of the brain and included large populations of rem2 expressing cells in the dorsal telencephalon of the cerebrum, the internal cellular layer of the olfactory bulb, and the optic tectum of the midbrain. In contrast, no rem2 expressing cells were resolved within the cerebellum. These results were corroborated by rtPCR, where differential rem2 expression occurred between the major subdivisions assayed with the highest levels being found in the cerebrum, while it was nearly absent in the cerebellum. These data indicate that rem2 gene expression is broadly distributed and likely influences diverse functions in the adult fish central nervous system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunosenescence of microglia and macrophages: impact on the ageing central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawji, Khalil S; Mishra, Manoj K; Michaels, Nathan J; Rivest, Serge; Stys, Peter K; Yong, V Wee

    2016-03-01

    Ageing of the central nervous system results in a loss of both grey and white matter, leading to cognitive decline. Additional injury to both the grey and white matter is documented in many neurological disorders with ageing, including Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, stroke, and multiple sclerosis. Accompanying neuronal and glial damage is an inflammatory response consisting of activated macrophages and microglia, innate immune cells demonstrated to be both beneficial and detrimental in neurological repair. This article will propose the following: (i) infiltrating macrophages age differently from central nervous system-intrinsic microglia; (ii) several mechanisms underlie the differential ageing process of these two distinct cell types; and (iii) therapeutic strategies that selectively target these diverse mechanisms may rejuvenate macrophages and microglia for repair in the ageing central nervous system. Most responses of macrophages are diminished with senescence, but activated microglia increase their expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines while diminishing chemotactic and phagocytic activities. The senescence of macrophages and microglia has a negative impact on several neurological diseases, and the mechanisms underlying their age-dependent phenotypic changes vary from extrinsic microenvironmental changes to intrinsic changes in genomic integrity. We discuss the negative effects of age on neurological diseases, examine the response of senescent macrophages and microglia in these conditions, and propose a theoretical framework of therapeutic strategies that target the different mechanisms contributing to the ageing phenotype in these two distinct cell types. Rejuvenation of ageing macrophage/microglia may preserve neurological integrity and promote regeneration in the ageing central nervous system. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  12. HHV-6 symptoms in central nervous system. Encephalitis and encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinari, Satoshi; Hamano, Shinichiro

    2007-01-01

    Described is the present knowledge of central nervous symptoms, mainly encephalitis and encephalopathy, caused by the primary infection of human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) in the pediatric field. Discovery of HHV-6 is in 1986, the virus, normally latent, has a high nervous affinity, and most infants are infected until the age of 3 years. Encephalitis and encephalopathy caused by the primary infection can be derived from direct viral invasion in nervous system or secondary like that through angitis. Most of early clinical symptoms are febrile convulsion. Imaging of the head by MRI particularly with diffusion weighted imaging and by cerebral blood flow SPECT with 123 I-infetamine (IMP) is important for classification of encephalitis and encephalopathy by HHV-6: Four types of them are defined according to the area of lesion observed in abnormal images, the basal nuclei-diencephalon-brainstem, frontal lobe-dominant one, cerebral hemisphere and diffusive one. Further reviewed are the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis together with other HHV-6 related problems like infection in neonate, temporal lobe epilepsy and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. Current topics are related with activation of latent HHV-6. Despite numerous findings, many remain to be elucidated in acute encephalitis and encephalopathy which are most important in pediatrics. (R.T.)

  13. Involvement of central nervous system in the schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina de Abreu Ferrari

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS by schistosomes may or may not determine clinical manifestations. When symptomatic, neuroschistosomiasis (NS is one of the most severe presentations of schistosomal infection. Considering the symptomatic form, cerebral involvement is almost always due to Schistosoma japonicum and the spinal cord disease, caused by S. mansoni or S. haematobium. Available evidence suggests that NS depends basically on the presence of parasite eggs in the nervous tissue and on the host immune response. The patients with cerebral NS usually have the clinical manifestations of increased intracranial pressure associated with focal neurological signs; and those with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR present rapidly progressing symptoms of myelitis involving the lower cord, usually in association with the involvement of the cauda esquina roots. The diagnosis of cerebral NS is established by biopsy of the nervous tissue and SMR is usually diagnosed according to a clinical criterion. Antischistosomal drugs, corticosteroids and surgery are the resourses available for treating NS. The outcome is variable and is better in cerebral disease.

  14. DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capper, David; Jones, David T W; Sill, Martin; Hovestadt, Volker; Schrimpf, Daniel; Sturm, Dominik; Koelsche, Christian; Sahm, Felix; Chavez, Lukas; Reuss, David E; Kratz, Annekathrin; Wefers, Annika K; Huang, Kristin; Pajtler, Kristian W; Schweizer, Leonille; Stichel, Damian; Olar, Adriana; Engel, Nils W; Lindenberg, Kerstin; Harter, Patrick N; Braczynski, Anne K; Plate, Karl H; Dohmen, Hildegard; Garvalov, Boyan K; Coras, Roland; Hölsken, Annett; Hewer, Ekkehard; Bewerunge-Hudler, Melanie; Schick, Matthias; Fischer, Roger; Beschorner, Rudi; Schittenhelm, Jens; Staszewski, Ori; Wani, Khalida; Varlet, Pascale; Pages, Melanie; Temming, Petra; Lohmann, Dietmar; Selt, Florian; Witt, Hendrik; Milde, Till; Witt, Olaf; Aronica, Eleonora; Giangaspero, Felice; Rushing, Elisabeth; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Geisenberger, Christoph; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Becker, Albert; Preusser, Matthias; Haberler, Christine; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Cryan, Jane; Farrell, Michael; Deckert, Martina; Hench, Jürgen; Frank, Stephan; Serrano, Jonathan; Kannan, Kasthuri; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Brück, Wolfgang; Hofer, Silvia; Brehmer, Stefanie; Seiz-Rosenhagen, Marcel; Hänggi, Daniel; Hans, Volkmar; Rozsnoki, Stephanie; Hansford, Jordan R; Kohlhof, Patricia; Kristensen, Bjarne W; Lechner, Matt; Lopes, Beatriz; Mawrin, Christian; Ketter, Ralf; Kulozik, Andreas; Khatib, Ziad; Heppner, Frank; Koch, Arend; Jouvet, Anne; Keohane, Catherine; Mühleisen, Helmut; Mueller, Wolf; Pohl, Ute; Prinz, Marco; Benner, Axel; Zapatka, Marc; Gottardo, Nicholas G; Driever, Pablo Hernáiz; Kramm, Christof M; Müller, Hermann L; Rutkowski, Stefan; von Hoff, Katja; Frühwald, Michael C; Gnekow, Astrid; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Tippelt, Stephan; Calaminus, Gabriele; Monoranu, Camelia-Maria; Perry, Arie; Jones, Chris; Jacques, Thomas S; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Gessi, Marco; Pietsch, Torsten; Schramm, Johannes; Schackert, Gabriele; Westphal, Manfred; Reifenberger, Guido; Wesseling, Pieter; Weller, Michael; Collins, Vincent Peter; Blümcke, Ingmar; Bendszus, Martin; Debus, Jürgen; Huang, Annie; Jabado, Nada; Northcott, Paul A; Paulus, Werner; Gajjar, Amar; Robinson, Giles W; Taylor, Michael D; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Ryzhova, Marina; Platten, Michael; Unterberg, Andreas; Wick, Wolfgang; Karajannis, Matthias A; Mittelbronn, Michel; Acker, Till; Hartmann, Christian; Aldape, Kenneth; Schüller, Ulrich; Buslei, Rolf; Lichter, Peter; Kool, Marcel; Herold-Mende, Christel; Ellison, David W; Hasselblatt, Martin; Snuderl, Matija; Brandner, Sebastian; Korshunov, Andrey; von Deimling, Andreas; Pfister, Stefan M

    2018-03-22

    Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging-with substantial inter-observer variability in the histopathological diagnosis of many tumour types. Here we present a comprehensive approach for the DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours across all entities and age groups, and demonstrate its application in a routine diagnostic setting. We show that the availability of this method may have a substantial impact on diagnostic precision compared to standard methods, resulting in a change of diagnosis in up to 12% of prospective cases. For broader accessibility, we have designed a free online classifier tool, the use of which does not require any additional onsite data processing. Our results provide a blueprint for the generation of machine-learning-based tumour classifiers across other cancer entities, with the potential to fundamentally transform tumour pathology.

  15. [Central Nervous Involvement in Patients with Fukuyama Congenital Muscular Dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Keiko

    2016-02-01

    Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), the second most common muscular dystrophy in the Japanese population, is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the fukutin (FKTN) gene. The main features of FCMD are a combination of infantile-onset hypotonia, generalized muscle weakness, eye abnormalities and central nervous system involvement with mental retardation and seizures associated with cortical migration defects. The FKTN gene product is thought to be necessary for maintaining migrating neurons in an immature state during migration, and for supporting migration via α-dystroglycan in the central nervous system. Typical magnetic resonance imaging findings in FCMD patients are cobblestone lissencephaly and cerebellar cystic lesions. White matter abnormalities with hyperintensity on T(2)-weighted images are seen especially in younger patients and those with severe phenotypes. Most FCMD patients are mentally retarded and the level is moderate to severe, with IQs ranging from 30 to 50. In our recent study, 62% of patients developed seizures. Among them, 71% had only febrile seizures, 6% had afebrile seizures from the onset, and 22% developed afebrile seizures following febrile seizures. Most patients had seizures that were controllable with just 1 type of antiepileptic drug, but 18% had intractable seizures that must be treated with 3 medications.

  16. Expression of Hepatoma-derived growth factor family members in the adult central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouzied Mekky M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF belongs to a polypeptide family containing five additional members called HDGF related proteins 1–4 (HRP-1 to -4 and Lens epithelial derived growth factor. Whereas some family members such as HDGF and HRP-2 are expressed in a wide range of tissues, the expression of others is very restricted. HRP-1 and -4 are only expressed in testis, HRP-3 only in the nervous system. Here we investigated the expression of HDGF, HRP-2 and HRP-3 in the central nervous system of adult mice on the cellular level by immunohistochemistry. In addition we performed Western blot analysis of various brain regions as well as neuronal and glial cell cultures. Results HDGF was rather evenly expressed throughout all brain regions tested with the lowest expression in the substantia nigra. HRP-2 was strongly expressed in the thalamus, prefrontal and parietal cortex, neurohypophysis, and the cerebellum, HRP-3 in the bulbus olfactorius, piriform cortex and amygdala complex. HDGF and HRP-2 were found to be expressed by neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In contrast, strong expression of HRP-3 in the adult nervous system is restricted to neurons, except for very weak expression in oligodendrocytes in the brain stem. Although the majority of neurons are HRP-3 positive, some like cerebellar granule cells are negative. Conclusion The coexpression of HDGF and HRP-2 in glia and neurons as well as the coexpression of all three proteins in many neurons suggests different functions of members of the HDGF protein family in cells of the central nervous system that might include proliferation as well as cell survival. In addition the restricted expression of HRP-3 point to a special function of this family member for neuronal cells.

  17. Novel systemic treatment options for advanced solid tumors with or without central nervous system metastases or malignant glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milojkovic Kerklaan, B.

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy is a very frequently used therapy in patients with advanced tumors with or without central nervous system (CNS) metastases or primary brain tumors. Despite the significant progress in drug development, the survival of patients is limited with an unmet need for more effective

  18. Study of neuropeptide distribution in the central nervous system by the combined use of radioimmunoassay with the neuroatomic punch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenca, M.M.; Negro Vilar, A.

    1991-01-01

    In order to demonstrate an experimental method to study neuropeptide distribution in the central nervous system, the content of beta-endorphin present in several brain regions was determined by the combined use of radioimmunoassay with the neuroanatomic punch technique described by Palkovits. (author)

  19. [Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus - diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyrka, Magdalena

    Nervous system involvement in lupus belongs to its severe complications and significantly impacts its prognosis. Neuropsychiatric lupus includes 19 disease manifestations concerning both central and peripheral nervous system. This paper presents clinical aspects of central nervous system involvement in lupus. It reviews its epidemiology, risk factors and principles of diagnosis and therapy.

  20. Experimental study on central nervous toxicity of 'misonidazole' a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Iku

    1981-01-01

    'Misonidazole', a radiosensitizer for hypoxic cells is expected to be applied to the treatment of malignant tumors, but its side effect becomes a subject of study, because its effective dose is close to its lethal dose. The auther performed experiments with mice on the central nervous toxicity, which is the most lethal of the side effects of Misonidazole, with the following results; 1. The abrupt death seen after the administration of a large dose of Misonidazole was attributable to the central nervous toxicity. LD 50 for d.d. strain mouse was 1.55 mg per body weight g. 2. The used mice always developed convulsion before death. But the administration of anticonvulsant failed to free them from death. 3. Autopsy findings were such abnormal ones as the degeneration and exfoliation of nerve cells and diapedetic focus. After sacrifice, however, no findings indicative of disturbance of central nerve could be detected. 4. Misonidazole, even in a small divided dose, left intracerebral retention, though slightly, indicating that its accumulation in the brain would be increased with increase in the dose. 5. The disturbance of central nerve was not exacerbated by the whole brain irradiation with Misonidazole. (author)

  1. Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system; Effectos radioinducidos sobre el sistema nervioso central en desarrollo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisone, P; Dubner, D; Michelin, S C; Perez, M.R. Del [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Gerencia de Apoyo Cientifico, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-11-01

    The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed. 8 refs.

  2. Tachykinin-1 in the central nervous system regulates adiposity in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Chitrang; Shan, Xiaoye; Tung, Yi-Chun Loraine; Kabra, Dhiraj; Holland, Jenna; Amburgy, Sarah; Heppner, Kristy; Kirchner, Henriette; Yeo, Giles S H; Perez-Tilve, Diego

    2015-05-01

    Ghrelin is a circulating hormone that targets the central nervous system to regulate feeding and adiposity. The best-characterized neural system that mediates the effects of ghrelin on energy balance involves the activation of neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide neurons, expressed exclusively in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. However, ghrelin receptors are expressed in other neuronal populations involved in the control of energy balance. We combined laser capture microdissection of several nuclei of the central nervous system expressing the ghrelin receptor (GH secretagoge receptor) with microarray gene expression analysis to identify additional neuronal systems involved in the control of central nervous system-ghrelin action. We identified tachykinin-1 (Tac1) as a gene negatively regulated by ghrelin in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, we identified neuropeptide k as the TAC1-derived peptide with more prominent activity, inducing negative energy balance when delivered directly into the brain. Conversely, loss of Tac1 expression enhances the effectiveness of ghrelin promoting fat mass gain both in male and in female mice and increases the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in ovariectomized mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate a role TAC1 in the control energy balance by regulating the levels of adiposity in response to ghrelin administration and to changes in the status of the gonadal function.

  3. A Case Of Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis Who Presented With Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sırma Geyik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNV is limited with central nervous system and rare vasculitis that mostly seen in middle-aged men. PCNV vasculitis is usually presented that headache, dementia, stroke and multifocal common neurological symptoms. PCNV especially involves small medium-sized leptomeningeal and cortical arteries. 43 years old male patient who have been progressive forgetfulness and headache for 3 years. He applied with recurrent that before starting right focal and than sprawling whole body which generalized tonic-clonic seizures to us. During management that he was transfered to the intensive care unit due to status epilepticus (SE. Later than we found right hemiparesis, motor aphasia and right babinski positivity in neurologic examination. Diffusion restriction was revealed in left MCA territory in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging(MRI. EEG showed two types abnormality that a slow background ritm and epileptiform activity. Biochemistry of blood, complete blood count, blood sedimentation rate, CRP and markers of vasculitis were found in the normal range. Cerebral anjiography revealed that irregularities in the distal vascular areas and fusiform aneurysm at the top of basilar artery. He was consulted with rheumatology and diagnosed central nervous system vasculitis with the existing findings. Biopsy couldn't be taken from the brain to verify the diagnosis. Finally, we applied treatment that pulse steroid and cyclophosphamide to patient. This case has been presented due to emphasize that PCNV rarely may play a role in the etiology of recurrent stroke and status epilepticus.

  4. Thyroid hormones and the central nervous system of mammals (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Liegro, Italia

    2008-01-01

    The thyroid hormones (THs) L-thyroxine (T4) and L-triiodothyronine (T3) have a profound influence on the development and maturation of the mammalian brain, both before and after birth. Any impairment in the supply of THs to the developing nervous system leads to severe and irreversible changes in both the overall architecture and functions of the brain and causes, in humans, neurological and motor deficits known as cretinism. Pronounced neurological symptoms are also commonly observed in adult patients suffering from both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, and it has recently emerged that certain symptoms might result from the reduced brain uptake, rather than the insufficient production, of THs. Most of the effects of THs are mediated by two classes of nuclear receptors (α and β isoforms), which belong to the c-erbA superfamily of transcriptional regulators and are expressed in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated manner. Interestingly, the nuclear TH receptors (nTRs) act as both ligand-independent gene repressors and ligand-dependent gene activators. On the other hand, negatively-regulated genes, which can be stimulated in the absence of THs and repressed by THs, have also been observed. Due to this complex pattern of regulation, the effects of receptor dysfunction do not exactly overlap the effects of hormone deficiency or excess. Moreover, non-genomic mechanisms of TH action have been described in many tissues, including the brain, some of which seem to be mediated by integrins and to be calcium-dependent. Intracellular receptors, distinct from nTRs, are present in the mitochondria, where a matrix-associated, T3-dependent transcriptional regulator of approximately 43 kDa has been described. Finally, complex patterns of pituitary and/or peripheral resistance to thyroid hormones (RTH), characterized by elevated plasma levels of THs and non-suppressible thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), have been identified. This review summarizes the major advances

  5. Defining the endpoints: how to measure the efficacy of drugs that are active against central nervous system metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Fabi, Alessandra; Vidiri, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases (BMs) are the most common cause of malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors in adults. In the recent past, patients with BMs were excluded from clinical trials, but now, with the advent of new biological and immunological drugs, their inclusion is more common. In the last era response and progression criteria used across clinical trials have defined the importance to consider not only measurement changes of brain lesions but also the modification of parameters related to...

  6. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of tumours of the central nervous systems: a clinical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graif, M.; Steiner, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical application of the intravascular paramagnetic contrast agent gadolinium-DTPA for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging of tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) has been assessed over the past 3 years. Various patterns of contrast enhancement were observed, and situations in MRI where the administration of contrast medium may be useful have been defined. These include lesions which are isointense with normal brain matter, the separation of tumour from surrounding oedema, evaluation of the degree of blood-brain barrier breakdown, delineation of tumours obscured by overlying calcification on computed tomography (CT) and in the investigation of lesions in anatomical areas where CT has known limitations (brain, stem, cervical spine). Changes in relaxation times in normal and abnormal tissues following contrast medium, toxicity and dosage of gadolinium-DTPA, and MRI pulse sequence techniques are reviewed. (author)

  7. Current Proteomic Methods to Investigate the Dynamics of Histone Turnover in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, L A; Dill, B D; Molina, H; Birtwistle, M R; Maze, I

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the dynamic behavior of nucleosomes in the central nervous system is vital to our understanding of brain-specific chromatin-templated processes and their roles in transcriptional plasticity. Histone turnover-the complete loss of old, and replacement by new, nucleosomal histones-is one such phenomenon that has recently been shown to be critical for cell-type-specific transcription in brain, synaptic plasticity, and cognition. Such revelations that histones, long believed to static proteins in postmitotic cells, are highly dynamic in neurons were only possible owing to significant advances in analytical chemistry-based techniques, which now provide a platform for investigations of histone dynamics in both healthy and diseased tissues. Here, we discuss both past and present proteomic methods (eg, mass spectrometry, human "bomb pulse labeling") for investigating histone turnover in brain with the hope that such information may stimulate future investigations of both adaptive and aberrant forms of "neuroepigenetic" plasticity. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Iatrogenic aspergillus infection of the central nervous system in a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokuhetty Menaka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A healthy postnatal woman succumbed to fulminant iatrogenic Aspergillus infection of the central nervous system, following accidental inoculation into the subarachnoid space at spinal anesthesia, during an outbreak of Aspergillus meningitis in Sri Lanka. Autopsy revealed extensive Aspergillus meningitis and culture confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus. The thalamic parenchyma in the brain was invaded by fungal hyphae producing necrotizing angitis with thrombosis, thalamic infarcts and fungal abscesses. The directional growth of fungal hyphae from the extra-luminal side of blood vessels towards the lumen favored extension from the brain parenchyma over hematogenous spread. The spinal parenchyma was resistant to fungal invasion in spite of the heavy growth within the spinal meninges and initial inoculation at spinal level. Modulation of the immune response in pregnancy with depression of selective aspects of cell-mediated immunity probably contributed to rapid spread within the subarachnoid space, to involve the brain parenchyma leading to clinical deterioration and death.

  9. NEUROGENETIC ASPECTS OF PERINATAL HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC AFFECTIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Karkashadze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenetics is a thriving young science greatly contributing to the generally accepted concept of the brain development in health and disease. Thereby; scientists are not only able to highlight new key points in traditional ideas about the origin of diseases; but also to completely rethink their view on the problem of pathology development. In particular; new data on neurogenetics of perinatal affections of the central nervous system (CNS has appeared. Genetic factors in varying degrees affect perinatal hypoxic-ischemic CNS affections. Prematurity determination stays the most studied among them. Nevertheless; there is increasing evidence of significant epigenetic regulations of neuro-expression caused by hypoxia; malnutrition of a pregnant woman; stress; smoking; alcohol; drugs that either directly pathologically affect the developing brain; or form a brain phenotype sensitive to a perinatal CNS affection. New data obliges to change the approaches to prevention of perinatal CNS affections.

  10. Fanconi anemia: correlating central nervous system malformations and genetic complementation groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Tesch, Benjamin A; Gawande, Rakhee S; Zhang, Lei; MacMillan, Margaret L; Nascene, David R

    2017-06-01

    Congenital central nervous system abnormalities in children with Fanconi anemia are poorly characterized, especially with regard to specific genetic complementation groups. To characterize the impact of genetic complementation groups on central nervous system anatomy. Through chart review we identified 36 patients with Fanconi anemia with available brain MRIs at the University of Minnesota (average age, 11.3 years; range, 1-43 years; M:F=19:17), which we reviewed and compared to 19 age- and sex-matched controls (average age, 7.9 years; range, 2-18 years; M:F=9:10). Genotypic information was available for 27 patients (15 FA-A, 2 FA-C, 3 FA-G, and 7 FA-D1 [biallelic mutations in BRCA2 gene]). Of the 36 patients, 61% had at least one congenital central nervous system or skull base abnormality. These included hypoplastic clivus (n=12), hypoplastic adenohypophysis (n=11), platybasia (n=8), pontocerebellar hypoplasia (n=7), isolated pontine hypoplasia (n=4), isolated vermis hypoplasia (n=3), and ectopic neurohypophysis (n=6). Average pituitary volume was significantly less in patients with Fanconi anemia (PFanconi anemia patients (P=0.006), but the basal angle of those with FA-D1 was not significantly different from controls (P=0.239). Clivus length was less in the Fanconi anemia group (P=0.002), but significance was only observed in the FA-D1 subgroup (PFanconi anemia have higher incidences of ectopic neurohypophysis, adenohypophysis hypoplasia, platybasia and other midline central nervous system skull base posterior fossa abnormalities than age- and sex-matched controls. Patients with posterior fossa abnormalities, including pontocerebellar hypoplasia, are more likely to have biallelic BRCA2 mutations.

  11. Fanconi anemia: correlating central nervous system malformations and genetic complementation groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson-Tesch, Benjamin A.; Gawande, Rakhee S.; Nascene, David R.; Zhang, Lei; MacMillan, Margaret L.

    2017-01-01

    Congenital central nervous system abnormalities in children with Fanconi anemia are poorly characterized, especially with regard to specific genetic complementation groups. To characterize the impact of genetic complementation groups on central nervous system anatomy. Through chart review we identified 36 patients with Fanconi anemia with available brain MRIs at the University of Minnesota (average age, 11.3 years; range, 1-43 years; M:F=19:17), which we reviewed and compared to 19 age- and sex-matched controls (average age, 7.9 years; range, 2-18 years; M:F=9:10). Genotypic information was available for 27 patients (15 FA-A, 2 FA-C, 3 FA-G, and 7 FA-D1 [biallelic mutations in BRCA2 gene]). Of the 36 patients, 61% had at least one congenital central nervous system or skull base abnormality. These included hypoplastic clivus (n=12), hypoplastic adenohypophysis (n=11), platybasia (n=8), pontocerebellar hypoplasia (n=7), isolated pontine hypoplasia (n=4), isolated vermis hypoplasia (n=3), and ectopic neurohypophysis (n=6). Average pituitary volume was significantly less in patients with Fanconi anemia (P<0.0001) than in controls. Basal angle was significantly greater in Fanconi anemia patients (P=0.006), but the basal angle of those with FA-D1 was not significantly different from controls (P=0.239). Clivus length was less in the Fanconi anemia group (P=0.002), but significance was only observed in the FA-D1 subgroup (P<0.0001). Of the seven patients meeting criteria for pontocerebellar hypoplasia, six belonged to the FA-D1 group. Patients with Fanconi anemia have higher incidences of ectopic neurohypophysis, adenohypophysis hypoplasia, platybasia and other midline central nervous system skull base posterior fossa abnormalities than age- and sex-matched controls. Patients with posterior fossa abnormalities, including pontocerebellar hypoplasia, are more likely to have biallelic BRCA2 mutations. (orig.)

  12. Fanconi anemia: correlating central nervous system malformations and genetic complementation groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson-Tesch, Benjamin A. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Gawande, Rakhee S.; Nascene, David R. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zhang, Lei [University of Minnesota, Biostatistical Design and Analysis Centre, Minneapolis, MN (United States); MacMillan, Margaret L. [University of Minnesota, Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Pediatrics, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Congenital central nervous system abnormalities in children with Fanconi anemia are poorly characterized, especially with regard to specific genetic complementation groups. To characterize the impact of genetic complementation groups on central nervous system anatomy. Through chart review we identified 36 patients with Fanconi anemia with available brain MRIs at the University of Minnesota (average age, 11.3 years; range, 1-43 years; M:F=19:17), which we reviewed and compared to 19 age- and sex-matched controls (average age, 7.9 years; range, 2-18 years; M:F=9:10). Genotypic information was available for 27 patients (15 FA-A, 2 FA-C, 3 FA-G, and 7 FA-D1 [biallelic mutations in BRCA2 gene]). Of the 36 patients, 61% had at least one congenital central nervous system or skull base abnormality. These included hypoplastic clivus (n=12), hypoplastic adenohypophysis (n=11), platybasia (n=8), pontocerebellar hypoplasia (n=7), isolated pontine hypoplasia (n=4), isolated vermis hypoplasia (n=3), and ectopic neurohypophysis (n=6). Average pituitary volume was significantly less in patients with Fanconi anemia (P<0.0001) than in controls. Basal angle was significantly greater in Fanconi anemia patients (P=0.006), but the basal angle of those with FA-D1 was not significantly different from controls (P=0.239). Clivus length was less in the Fanconi anemia group (P=0.002), but significance was only observed in the FA-D1 subgroup (P<0.0001). Of the seven patients meeting criteria for pontocerebellar hypoplasia, six belonged to the FA-D1 group. Patients with Fanconi anemia have higher incidences of ectopic neurohypophysis, adenohypophysis hypoplasia, platybasia and other midline central nervous system skull base posterior fossa abnormalities than age- and sex-matched controls. Patients with posterior fossa abnormalities, including pontocerebellar hypoplasia, are more likely to have biallelic BRCA2 mutations. (orig.)

  13. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI in central nervous system Behcet's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, E. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Carlier, R. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Idir, A.B.C. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Masnou, P.O. (Dept. of Neurology, Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Moulonguet, A. (Dept. of Neurology, Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Adams, D. (Dept. of Neurology, Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Doyon, D. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France))

    1993-02-01

    Two cases of central nervous system Behcet's disease, studied by gadolinium-enhanced MRI, are presented. In one patient, whose clinical picture was dominated by a brain stem syndrome, the gadolinium enhancement resolved with clinical improvement, although the hyperintense areas in the mesencephalon on T2-weighted images persisted. In the second, who had a pseudobulbar palsy and a mild right hemiparesis, there were many abnormal areas, but an enhancing focus in the posterior limb of the left internal capsule was probably the lesion responsible for the hemiparesis. (orig.)

  14. Meningeous sarcoma: a rare tumor among the central nervous system neoplasia in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondinelli, Patricia Imperatriz Porto; Salvajoli, Joao Victor; Sredni, Simone Treiger; Araujo, Maria Betania Mahler

    2003-01-01

    We describe a case of meningeous malignancy in childhood, diagnosed by the Pediatric Department of the Cancer Hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and do revise the world literature as well. The meningeous sarcoma (M S) is an extremely aggressive tumor, which appears in the central nervous system, at any age, but mainly in children. They represent a tiny percentage of brain tumors in children and sporadic cases are related in the world literature. Consequently, there are not enough clinical experiences about this distinct entity to allow the conclusion about which is the best therapeutic approach. (author)

  15. Advanced in study of cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation effects on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Tu Yu; Wang Lili

    2008-01-01

    Along with radiation treatment extensively applied, radiation injury also is valued gradually. The effect of radiation to the cellular and molecular of central nervous system (CNS) is a complicated and moderately advanced process and the mechanism is remains incompletely clear yet. Inquiring into the possible mechanism of the CNS including the injury and the restoration of neuron, neuroglia cells, endotheliocyte cell and blood-brain barrier and the molecular level of change induced by radiation, so as to provide beneficial thought for preventing and curing radiation injury clinically. Some neuroprotective strategies are also addressed in the review. (authors)

  16. Diverse roles of extracellular calcium-sensing receptor in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya

    2010-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), upon activation by Ca(2+) or other physiologically relevant polycationic molecules, performs diverse functions in the brain. The CaSR is widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and is characterized by a robust increase in its...... to astrocytic or neuronal lineages. In adult CNS, CaSR has broad relevance in maintaining local ionic homeostasis. CaSR shares an evolutionary relationship with the metabotropic glutamate receptor and forms heteromeric complexes with the type B-aminobutyric acid receptor subunits that affects its cell surface...

  17. GABA-ergic neurons in the leach central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    GABA is a candidate for an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the leech central nervous system because of the well-documented inhibitory action of GABA in other invertebrates. To demonstrate that GABA meets the criteria used to identify a substance as a neurotransmitter, the author examined GABA metabolism and synaptic interactions of inhibitory motor neurons in two leech species, Hirudo medicinalis and Haementeria ghilianii. Segmental ganglia of the leech ventral nerve cord and identified inhibitors have the capacity to synthesize GABA when incubated in the presence of the precursor glutamate. Application of GABA to cell bodies of excitatory motor neurons or muscle fibers innervated by the inhibitors hyperpolarizes the membrane potential of the target cell and activates a chloride ion conductance channel, similar to the inhibitory membrane response following intracellular stimulation of the inhibitor. Bicuculline methiodide (5 x 10 -5 M), GABA receptor antagonist, blocks reversibly the response to applied GABA and the inhibitory synaptic inputs onto the postsynaptic neurons or muscle fibers without interfering with their excitatory inputs. Furthermore, the inhibitors are included among approximately 25 neurons per segmental ganglion that take up GABA by a high affinity uptake system, as revealed by 3 H-GABA-autoradiography. The development of the capacities to synthesize and to take up GABA were examined in leech embryos. The embryos are able to synthesize GABA at early stages of the development of the nervous system, before any neurons have extended neutrites

  18. Biological restoration of central nervous system architecture and function: part 3-stem cell- and cell-based applications and realities in the biological management of central nervous system disorders: traumatic, vascular, and epilepsy disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, Azadeh; Liu, Charles Y; Langmoen, Iver A; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2009-11-01

    STEM CELL THERAPY has emerged as a promising novel therapeutic endeavor for traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, and epilepsy in experimental studies. A few preliminary clinical trials have further supported its safety and early efficacy after transplantation into humans. Although not yet clinically available for central nervous system disorders, stem cell technology is expected to evolve into one of the most powerful tools in the biological management of complex central nervous system disorders, many of which currently have limited treatment modalities. The identification of stem cells, discovery of neurogenesis, and application of stem cells to treat central nervous system disorders represent a dramatic evolution and expansion of the neurosurgeon's capabilities into the neurorestoration and neuroregeneration realms. In Part 3 of a 5-part series on stem cells, we discuss the theory, experimental evidence, and clinical data pertaining to the use of stem cells for the treatment of traumatic, vascular, and epileptic disorders.

  19. Central nervous system side effects associated with zolpidem treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, L C; Tsambiras, B M; Catalano, G; Catalano, M C; Cooper, D S

    2000-01-01

    Zolpidem is one of the newer medications developed for the treatment of insomnia. It is an imidazopyridine agent that is an alternative to the typical sedative-hypnotic agents. Zolpidem use is gaining favor because of its efficacy and its side effect profile, which is milder and less problematic than that of the benzodiazepines and barbiturates used to treat insomnia. Still, side effects are not uncommon with zolpidem use. We report a series of cases in which the patients developed delirium, nightmares and hallucinations during treatment with zolpidem. We will review its pharmacology, discuss previous reports of central nervous system side effects, examine the impact of drug interactions with concurrent use of antidepressants, examine gender differences in susceptibility to side effects, and explore the significance of protein binding in producing side effects.

  20. Tendencies the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, Jose; Jimenez Medina, Jose

    2004-01-01

    It is known that the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) tumors is based on the use of surgery and radiotherapy (RT) and that chemotherapy (QMT) is used even more, as well as the other drugs. A bibliographic review was made to update the knowledge on the current trends and perspectives of RT applied to CNS tumors. The following were found among them: a) combinations of RT and CMT; b) radiosensitizers incorporated to the radiant treatment; c) angiogenesis inhibitors associated with RT; d) the scale-up or increase of the RT doses thanks to the development of new technologies, such as 3 D conformal radiotherapy, intensity- modulated radiotherapy, surgery and others. Another field of research is that of the changes in the rhythm or fractioning of the RT: hyperfractionated, accelerated, combinations of both, etc., which will allow mainly to increase the dosage scale-up

  1. Central nervous system hypoxia in children due to near drowning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, S.J.; Gerald, B.; Magill, H.L.; Tonkin, I.L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen children who experienced acute, profound central nervous system hypoxia secondary to near drowning, aspiration, or respiratory arrest underwent CT examination. During the first week after the episode, the most frequent finding was a loss of gray-white matter differentiation. Other findings included effacement of sulci and cisterns, focal areas of edema in the cerebral cortex or basal ganglia, and hemorrhagic infarctions of the basal ganglia. Subsequent CT scans obtained from two weeks to five months after the hypoxic episode showed progression of cerebral loss from cortical infarction with gyral hemorrhage and enhancement to global parenchymal atrophy. The prognosis is poor in these patients: seven children experienced severe neurologic deficits and seven died

  2. Implication of coumarins towards central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Budzyńska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Coumarins are widely distributed, plant-derived, 2H-1-benzopyran-2-one derivatives which have attracted intense interest in recent years as a result of their diverse and potent pharmacological properties. Particularly, their effects on the central nervous system (CNS) have been established. The present review discusses the most important pharmacological effects of natural and synthetic coumarins on the CNS, including their interactions with benzodiazepine receptors, their dopaminergic and serotonergic affinity, and their ability to inhibit cholinesterases and monoamine oxidases. The structure-activity relationships pertaining to these effects are also discussed. This review posits that natural or synthetic coumarins have the potential for development in the therapy of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, schizophrenia, anxiety, epilepsy, and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Central nervous system lymphoma: magnetic resonance imaging features at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Schwingel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed at studying presentations of the central nervous system (CNS lymphoma using structural images obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODS: The MRI features at presentation of 15 patients diagnosed with CNS lymphoma in a university hospital, between January 1999 and March 2011, were analyzed by frequency and cross tabulation. RESULTS: All patients had supratentorial lesions; and four had infra- and supratentorial lesions. The signal intensity on T1 and T2 weighted images was predominantly hypo- or isointense. In the T2 weighted images, single lesions were associated with a hypointense signal component. Six patients presented necrosis, all of them showed perilesional abnormal white matter, nine had meningeal involvement, and five had subependymal spread. Subependymal spread and meningeal involvement tended to occur in younger patients. CONCLUSION: Presentations of lymphoma are very pleomorphic, but some of them should point to this diagnostic possibility.

  4. Pericyte function in the physiological central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Rieko; Yamashita, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leads to disruption of the vascular network, causing vascular dysfunction. Vascular dysfunction is the major event in the pathogenesis of CNS diseases and is closely associated with the severity of neuronal dysfunction. The suppression of vascular dysfunction has been considered a promising avenue to limit damage to the CNS, leading to efforts to clarify the cellular and molecular basis of vascular homeostasis maintenance. A reduction of trophic support and oxygen delivery due to circulatory insufficiency has long been regarded as a major cause of vascular damage. Moreover, recent studies provide a new perspective on the importance of the structural stability of blood vessels in CNS diseases. This updated article discusses emerging information on the key role of vascular integrity in CNS diseases, specially focusing on pericyte function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in central nervous system tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, Richa; Saksena, Sona; Gupta, Rakesh K

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in any form is a devastating disease, which in its most severe form involves the central nervous system (CNS), with a high mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of CNS TB is necessary for appropriate treatment to reduce this morbidity and mortality. Routine diagnostic techniques involve culture and immunological tests of the tissue and biofluids, which are time-consuming and may delay definitive management. Noninvasive imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used in the diagnosis of neurotuberculosis, with MRI offering greater inherent sensitivity and specificity than CT scan. In addition to conventional MRI imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, diffusion imaging, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques are also being evaluated for better tissue characterization in CNS TB. The current article reviews the role of various MRI techniques in the diagnosis and management of CNS TB

  6. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie, E-mail: Fanie.Barnabe-Heider@ki.se

    2014-02-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals.

  7. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Nakadai, Taeko; Khono, Yukio

    2006-01-01

    Effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to central nervous system were studied using human embryonal carcinoma (Ntera2=NT2) and Human neuroblastoma cell (NB1). They exposed to heavy ions and X ray 80% confluent cells in culture bottles. The cells were different type about growth and differentiation in the neuron. The apoptosis profile was measured by AnnexinV-EGFP, PI stained and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Memory and learning function of adult mice were studied using water maze test after carbon- or iron-ion irradiation. Memory functions were rapidly decreased after irradiation both ions. Iron -ion group were recovered 20 weeks after irradiation C-ion group were recovered 25 weeks after irradiation. Tier memory were still keep at over 100 weeks after irradiation. (author)

  8. Mosaic serine proteases in the mammalian central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Shinichi; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Yamaguchi, Tatsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Nozomi

    2008-01-01

    We review the structure and function of three kinds of mosaic serine proteases expressed in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Mosaic serine proteases have several domains in the proenzyme fragment, which modulate proteolytic function, and a protease domain at the C-terminus. Spinesin/TMPRSS5 is a transmembrane serine protease whose presynaptic distribution on motor neurons in the spinal cord suggests that it is significant for neuronal plasticity. Cell type-specific alternative splicing gives this protease diverse functions by modulating its intracellular localization. Motopsin/PRSS12 is a mosaic protease, and loss of its function causes mental retardation. Recent reports indicate the significance of this protease for cognitive function. We mention the fibrinolytic protease, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), which has physiological and pathological functions in the CNS.

  9. Are astrocytes executive cells within the central nervous system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto E. Sica

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Experimental evidence suggests that astrocytes play a crucial role in the physiology of the central nervous system (CNS by modulating synaptic activity and plasticity. Based on what is currently known we postulate that astrocytes are fundamental, along with neurons, for the information processing that takes place within the CNS. On the other hand, experimental findings and human observations signal that some of the primary degenerative diseases of the CNS, like frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s dementia, Huntington’s dementia, primary cerebellar ataxias and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, all of which affect the human species exclusively, may be due to astroglial dysfunction. This hypothesis is supported by observations that demonstrated that the killing of neurons by non-neural cells plays a major role in the pathogenesis of those diseases, at both their onset and their progression. Furthermore, recent findings suggest that astrocytes might be involved in the pathogenesis of some psychiatric disorders as well.

  10. Cnidarian Neurotoxic Peptides Affecting Central Nervous System Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Hernández-Guzmán, Ulises; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Natural products from animal venoms have been used widely in the discovery of novel molecules with particular biological activities that enable their use as potential drug candidates. The phylum Cnidaria (jellyfish, sea anemones, corals zoanthids, hydrozoans, etc.) is the most ancient venomous phylum on earth. Its venoms are composed of a complex mixture of peptidic compounds with neurotoxic and cytolitic properties that have shown activity on mammalian systems despite the fact that they are naturally targeted against fish and invertebrate preys, mainly crustaceans. For this reason, cnidarian venoms are an interesting and vast source of molecules with a remarkable activity on central nervous system, targeting mainly voltage-gated ion channels, ASIC channels, and TRPV1 receptors. In this brief review, we list the amino acid sequences of most cnidarian neurotoxic peptides reported to date. Additionally, we propose the inclusion of a new type of voltage-gated sea anemone sodium channel toxins based on the most recent reports.

  11. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie

    2014-01-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals

  12. Misdiagnosis of acute peripheral vestibulopathy in central nervous ischemic infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Eva Maria; Tomazic, Peter Valentin; Ropposch, Thorsten; Nemetz, Ulrike; Lackner, Andreas; Walch, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Vertigo is a very common symptom at otorhinolaryngology (ENT), neurological, and emergency units, but often, it is difficult to distinguish between vertigo of peripheral and central origin. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a hospital database, including all patients admitted to the ENT University Hospital Graz after neurological examination, with a diagnosis of peripheral vestibular vertigo and subsequent diagnosis of central nervous infarction as the actual cause for the vertigo. Twelve patients were included in this study. All patients with acute spinning vertigo after a thorough neurological examination and with uneventful computed tomographic scans were referred to our ENT department. Nine of them presented with horizontal nystagmus. Only 1 woman experienced additional hearing loss. The mean diagnostic delay to the definite diagnosis of a central infarction through magnetic resonance imaging was 4 days (SD, 2.3 d). A careful otologic and neurological examination, including the head impulse test and caloric testing, is mandatory. Because ischemic events cannot be diagnosed in computed tomographic scans at an early stage, we strongly recommend to perform cranial magnetic resonance imaging within 48 hours from admission if vertigo has not improved under conservative treatment.

  13. Central Nervous System Mechanisms Linking the Consumption of Palatable High-Fat Diets to the Defense of Greater Adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Karen K.; Woods, Stephen C.; Seeley, Randy J.

    2012-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) plays key role in the homeostatic regulation of body weight. Satiation and adiposity signals, providing acute and chronic information about available fuel, are produced in the periphery and act in the brain to influence energy intake and expenditure, resulting in the maintenance of stable adiposity. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) does not result from a failure of these central homeostatic circuits. Rather, the threshold for defended adiposity is increased in envir...

  14. Using Ferumoxytol-Enhanced MRI to Measure Inflammation in Patients With Brain Tumors or Other Conditions of the CNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Brain Injury; Central Nervous System Degenerative Disorder; Central Nervous System Infectious Disorder; Central Nervous System Vascular Malformation; Hemorrhagic Cerebrovascular Accident; Ischemic Cerebrovascular Accident; Primary Brain Neoplasm; Brain Cancer; Brain Tumors

  15. Central nervous system leukemia and lymphoma: computed tomographic manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, J.J.; Libshitz, H.I.; Wallace, S.; Hayman, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities in the brain were identified in 31 of 405 patients with leukemia or lymphoma. Abnormalities included neoplastic masses (15), hemorrhage (nine), abscess (two), other brain tumors (four), and methotrexate leukoencephalopathy (one). CT was normal in 374 patients including 148 with meningeal disease diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid cytologic examination. Prior to treatment, malignant masses were isodense or of greater density with varying amounts of edema. Increase in size or number of the masses indicated worsening. Response to radiation and chemotherapy was manifested by development of a central low density region with an enhancing rim. CT findings correlated with clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings. The differential diagnosis of the various abnormalities is considered

  16. Poliovirus trafficking toward central nervous system via human poliovirus receptor-dependent and -independent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seii eOHKA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In humans, paralytic poliomyelitis results from the invasion of the central nervous system by circulating poliovirus (PV via the blood-brain barrier (BBB. After the virus enters the central nervous system (CNS, it replicates in neurons, especially in motor neurons (MNs, inducing the cell death that causes paralytic poliomyelitis. Along with this route of dissemination, neural pathway has been reported in humans, monkeys, and PV-sensitive human PV receptor (hPVR/CD155-transgenic (Tg mice. We demonstrated that a fast retrograde axonal transport process is required for PV dissemination through the sciatic nerve of hPVR-Tg mice and that intramuscularly inoculated PV causes paralysis in a hPVR-dependent manner. We also showed that hPVR-independent axonal transport of PV exists in hPVR-Tg and non-Tg mice, indicating that several different pathways for PV axonal transport exist in these mice. Circulating PV after intravenous inoculation in mice cross the BBB at a high rate in a hPVR-independent manner. Recently, we identified transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1 of mouse brain capillary endothelial cells as a binding protein to PV, implicating that TfR1 is a possible receptor for PV to permeate the BBB.

  17. Targeting choroid plexus epithelia and ventricular ependyma for drug delivery to the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stopa Edward G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because the choroid plexus (CP is uniquely suited to control the composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, there may be therapeutic benefits to increasing the levels of biologically active proteins in CSF to modulate central nervous system (CNS functions. To this end, we sought to identify peptides capable of ligand-mediated targeting to CP epithelial cells reasoning that they could be exploited to deliver drugs, biotherapeutics and genes to the CNS. Methods A peptide library displayed on M13 bacteriophage was screened for ligands capable of internalizing into CP epithelial cells by incubating phage with CP explants for 2 hours at 37C and recovering particles with targeting capacity. Results Three peptides, identified after four rounds of screening, were analyzed for specific and dose dependant binding and internalization. Binding was deemed specific because internalization was prevented by co-incubation with cognate synthetic peptides. Furthermore, after i.c.v. injection into rat brains, each peptide was found to target phage to epithelial cells in CP and to ependyma lining the ventricles. Conclusion These data demonstrate that ligand-mediated targeting can be used as a strategy for drug delivery to the central nervous system and opens the possibility of using the choroid plexus as a portal of entry into the brain.

  18. Bilateral primary adrenal lymphoma with central nervous system involvement: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacif, Marcelo Souto; Heizer, Marcia; Nahime, Carolina Benvegnu; Santos, Alair Augusto Sarmet Moreira Damas dos

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the main findings of primary adrenal lymphoma on abdominal and brain computed tomography (CT) scans and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and report a rare case of a 72-year-old male patient with deterioration in mental status progressing from recent memory loss to disorientation and ultimately dementia in a period of two months. The patient was investigated using imaging methods including brain (without intravenous administration of iodinated contrast media), chest and abdomen (pre and post intravenous administration of iodinated contrast media) CT scans and brain MRI (pre and post intravenous administration of gadolinium). Brain CT scan showed slightly hyperdense nodules adjacent to the lateral ventricles. No gross abnormalities were seen on the chest CT scan. CT of the abdomen showed solid nodules on both adrenals. Brain MRI showed diffuse nodular enhancement of the ependyma of the fourth ventricle, third ventricle, frontal and temporal horns, atria and body of the lateral ventricles. Definitive diagnosis was made by immunohistochemical study of the biopsed adrenal. After a comprehensive review of the literature the authors concluded that CT and MRI are essential methods for the detection and accurate evaluation of primary adrenal lymphomas, particularly when there is involvement of the central nervous system. MRI is more sensitive in the detection of extracerebral lesions in the epidural and subdural spaces, especially after intravenous administration of gadolinium. (author)

  19. The possible role of maintenance treatment for primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairey, Osnat; Siegal, Tali

    2018-03-11

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare and aggressive brain tumor. The prognosis is poor, with high rates of relapse and disease progression after treatment. In addition, PCNSL affects a largely older population, so that a significant proportion of patients are ineligible for intensive therapies and high-dose chemotherapy. The elderly patients are also susceptible to the accelerated and detrimental cognitive side effects of whole-brain irradiation which is an alternative consolidation to high-dose chemotherapy. Maintenance therapy has been shown to be a promising strategy to prolong remission time in other hematopoietic malignancies. Herein, we discuss the place of maintenance treatment in PCNSL in view of perspective obtained from hematological malignancies and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. NEUROSPECIFIC ENOLASE IN DIAGNOSTICS FOR PERINATAL DAMAGE TO THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM IN PREMATURE INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Novopol'tseva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurospecific enolase is an endoenzyme of the central nervous system (CNS present in neurons of the brain and peripheral neuraltissue. This is currently the only known general marker of all differentiated neurons. The article illustrates the results of determining this enzyme in premature infants with fetal infections and assessment of their importance as a marker of damage to CNS in this group of children. A high level of neurospecific enolase in children with infectious and inflammatory diseases is not only the marker of damage to blood-brain barrier, but also reflects the nature of damage (hypoxia, intoxication, inflammation. This parameter in premature infants with various pathologies may serve as a degree of perinatal damage severity, and along with other parameters, determine the performed therapy tactics. Key words: neurospecific enolase, marker of CNS damage, perinatal damage, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:66-70

  1. The Glymphatic System in Central Nervous System Health and Disease: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plog, Benjamin A; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-24

    The central nervous system (CNS) is unique in being the only organ system lacking lymphatic vessels to assist in the removal of interstitial metabolic waste products. Recent work has led to the discovery of the glymphatic system, a glial-dependent perivascular network that subserves a pseudolymphatic function in the brain. Within the glymphatic pathway, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enters the brain via periarterial spaces, passes into the interstitium via perivascular astrocytic aquaporin-4, and then drives the perivenous drainage of interstitial fluid (ISF) and its solute. Here, we review the role of the glymphatic pathway in CNS physiology, the factors known to regulate glymphatic flow, and the pathologic processes in which a breakdown of glymphatic CSF-ISF exchange has been implicated in disease initiation and progression. Important areas of future research, including manipulation of glymphatic activity aiming to improve waste clearance and therapeutic agent delivery, are also discussed.

  2. Paracoccidioidomycosis of the central nervous system: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodacki, M.A. [Section of Neuroradiology, Service of Radiology, Sta Isabel Hospital, Sta Catarina (Brazil); Toni, G. de [University Hospital, Medical School of Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Borba, L.A. [Division of Neurosurgery, Sta Isabel Hospital, Blumenau, Sta Catarina (Brazil); Oliveira, G.G. [Division of Pathology, Sta Isabel Hospital, Blumenau, Sta Catarina (Brazil)

    1995-11-01

    A retrospective analisis of six cases of central nervous system paracoccidioidomycosis, all but one proven by biopsy and surgery, was carried out to study the CT and clinical data and pathological correlation. Most of the patients were from the country. Headache, vomiting, seizures and hemiparesis were the most frequent symptoms. Papilloedema was present in four patients with raised intracranial pressure. Five patients had chronic lung disease and two with advanced systemic disease, skin and mucous membrane lesions were also observed. The neurological disturbance was sometimes the presenting features and the diagnosis was discovered incidentally after surgery. Both solitary and multiple parenchymal lesions were observed and the cerebral hemispheres were more commonly involved in four patients. Local meningeal involvement was observed in one with a single cortical granuloma. We enphasise the usefulness of CT, showing a rounded or lobulated mass with an isodense or radiolucent centre after contrast enhancement, surrounded by an irregular wall of varying thickness. There was always moderate oedema, extending peripherally. Other infections or neoplastic diseases may present similar findings. Preoperative diagnosis should rest on integration of clinical data, chest films, laboratory and neuroimaging studies. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. [Dementia in Patients with Central Nervous System Mycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akihiko; Ishihara, Masaki; Konno, Michiko

    2016-04-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) mycosis is a potentially life-threatening but treatable neurological emergency. CNS mycoses progress slowly and are sometimes difficult to distinguish from dementia. Though most patients with CNS mycosis have an underlying disease, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and/or use of immunosuppressants, cryptococcosis can occur in non-immunosuppressed persons. One of the major difficulties in accurate diagnosis is to detect the pathogen in patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures. Thus, the clinical diagnosis is often made by combining circumstantial evidence, including mononuclear cell-dominant pleocytosis with low glucose and protein elevation in the CSF, as well as positive results from an antigen-based assay and a (1-3)-beta-D-glucan assay using plasma and/or CSF. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostics, which are not performed as routine examinations and are mostly performed as part of academic research in Japan, are sensitive tools for the early diagnosis of CNS mycosis. Mognetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to assess the complications of fungal meningitis, such as abscess, infarction, and hydrocephalus. Clinicians should realize the advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic tools. Early and accurate diagnosis, including identification of the particular fungal species, enables optimal antifungal treatment that produces good outcomes in patients with CNS mycosis.

  4. Central nervous system infection following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanajiri, Ryo; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Kosuke; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watakabe, Kyoko; Murata, Yutaka; Hagino, Takeshi; Seno, Yasushi; Najima, Yuho; Igarashi, Aiko; Doki, Noriko; Kakihana, Kazuhiko; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Ohashi, Kazuteru

    2017-03-01

    Here, we described the clinical characteristics and outcomes of central nervous system (CNS) infections occurring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in a single institution over the previous 6 years. Charts of 353 consecutive allogeneic transplant recipients were retrospectively reviewed for CNS infection. A total of 17 cases of CNS infection were identified at a median of 38 days (range, 10-1028 days) after allo-HSCT. Causative pathogens were human herpesvirus-6 (n=6), enterococcus (n=2), staphylococcus (n=2), streptococcus (n=2), varicella zoster virus (n=1), cytomegalovirus (n=1), John Cunningham virus (n=1), adenovirus (n=1), and Toxoplasma gondii (n=1). The cumulative incidence of CNS infection was 4.1% at 1 year and 5.5% at 5 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that high-risk disease status was a risk factor for developing CNS infection (p=.02), and that overall survival at 3 years after allo-HSCT was 33% in patients with CNS infection and 53% in those without CNS infection (p=.04). Copyright © 2016 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microparticles: A New Perspective in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Schindler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs are a heterogeneous population of small cell-derived vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 1 μm. They contain a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, biolipids, and nucleic acids, which can be transferred between cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Consequently, MPs represent a novel form of intercellular communication, which could play a role in both physiological and pathological processes. Growing evidence indicates that circulating MPs contribute to the development of cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Most cell types of the central nervous system (CNS have also been shown to release MPs, which could be important for neurodevelopment, CNS maintenance, and pathologies. In disease, levels of certain MPs appear elevated; therefore, they may serve as biomarkers allowing for the development of new diagnostic tools for detecting the early stages of CNS pathologies. Quantification and characterization of MPs could also provide useful information for making decisions on treatment options and for monitoring success of therapies, particularly for such difficult-to-treat diseases as cerebral malaria, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Overall, studies on MPs in the CNS represent a novel area of research, which promises to expand the knowledge on the mechanisms governing some of the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the CNS.

  6. Nanotechnologies for the study of the central nervous system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ajetunmobi, A

    2014-12-01

    The impact of central nervous system (CNS) disorders on the human population is significant, contributing almost €800 billion in annual European healthcare costs. These disorders not only have a disabling social impact but also a crippling economic drain on resources. Developing novel therapeutic strategies for these disorders requires a better understanding of events that underlie mechanisms of neural circuit physiology. Studying the relationship between genetic expression, synapse development and circuit physiology in CNS function is a challenging task, involving simultaneous analysis of multiple parameters and the convergence of several disciplines and technological approaches. However, current gold-standard techniques used to study the CNS have limitations that pose unique challenges to furthering our understanding of functional CNS development. The recent advancement in nanotechnologies for biomedical applications has seen the emergence of nanoscience as a key enabling technology for delivering a translational bridge between basic and clinical research. In particular, the development of neuroimaging and electrophysiology tools to identify the aetiology and progression of CNS disorders have led to new insights in our understanding of CNS physiology and the development of novel diagnostic modalities for therapeutic intervention. This review focuses on the latest applications of these nanotechnologies for investigating CNS function and the improved diagnosis of CNS disorders.

  7. Frequency of central nervous system tumors in delta region, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled R Zalata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim of Work: Central nervous system (CNS tumors represent a major public health problem, and their epidemiological data in Egypt have been rather incomplete except for some regional reports. There are no available frequency-based data on CNS tumors in our locality. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of CNS tumors in east delta region, Egypt. Materials and Methods: The data were collected during the 8-year period from January 1999 to December 2007 from Pathology Department, Mansoura University, and other referred pathology labs. Examination of HandE stained sections from retrieved paraffin blocks were done in all cases for histopathologic categorization of C.N.S. tumors. Immunohistochemical studies were applied to confirm final histopathologic diagnosis in problematic cases. Results: Intracranial tumors represented 86.7% of cases in comparison to only 13.3% for spinal tumors. Gliomas were the CNS tumors of the highest frequency (35.2%, followed by meningioma (25.6%, pituitary adenoma (11.6% and nerve sheath tumors (6.6%. 10.25% of tumors were of children <15 years. Conclusion: This study provides the largest series of the relative frequency of CNS tumors in Delta region in Egypt till now and may help to give insight into the epidemiology of CNS tumors in our locality.

  8. A Review on Central Nervous System Effects of Gastrodin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoma Gastrodiae (also known as Tian ma, the dried rhizome of Gastrodia elata Blume, is a famous Chinese herb that has been traditionally used for the treatment of headache, dizziness, spasm, epilepsy, stoke, amnesia and other disorders for centuries. Gastrodin, a phenolic glycoside, is the main bioactive constituent of Rhizoma Gastrodiae. Since identified in 1978, gastrodin has been extensively investigated on its pharmacological properties. In this article, we reviewed the central nervous system (CNS effects of gastrodin in preclinical models of CNS disorders including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, affective disorders, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, cognitive impairment as well as the underlying mechanisms involved and, where possible, clinical data that support the pharmacological activities. The sources and pharmacokinetics of gastrodin were also reviewed here. As a result, gastrodin possesses a broad range of beneficial effects on the above-mentioned CNS diseases, and the mechanisms of actions include modulating neurotransmitters, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, suppressing microglial activation, regulating mitochondrial cascades, up-regulating neurotrophins, etc. However, more detailed clinical trials are still in need for positioning it in the treatment of neurological disorders.

  9. Fetal central nervous system anomalies: fast MRI vs ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenzhong; Xia Liming; Yang Minjie; Feng Dingyi; Hu Junwu; Zou Mingli; Wang Chengyuan; Chen Xinlin; Yang Xiaohong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of fast MRI to detect fetal central nervous system (CNS) anomalies and to compare its performance with that of prenatal ultrasonography (US). Methods Forty-eight pregnant women were detected by conventional prenatal US and MRI. Twenty-two fetuses with CNS anomalies were conformed by autopsy and follow-up. The MR and US appearances of fetal CNS structure were compared to each other and to that of autopsy. Results: A total of 26 CNS anomalies were identified by autopsy (n=17) and follow-up (n=9) including anencephaly (n=6), rachischisis (n=2), encephalocele (n=3), congenital hydrocephalus (n=7), alobar holoprosencephaly (n=1), porencephalia (n=3), arachnoid cyst (n=2) and choroids plexus cyst (n=2). US diagnosed 24 CNS anomalies, the correct diagnostic rate was 92.3%, the false-positive rate was 3.8%, the missed-diagnostic rate was 3.8%. MRI diagnosed 23 CNS anomalies, the correct-diagnostic rate was 88.5%, the false-positive rate was 3.8% ,the missed-diagnostic rate was 7.7%. There was no difference between US and MRI (P>0.05), but MRI have larger FOV, higher tissues resolution, and can demonstrate gray-white matter in detail. Conclusions: MR imaging has a similar sensitivity to that of US in the detection of fetal CNS anomalies. (authors)

  10. Fractal Structure and Entropy Production within the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. E. Seely

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to explore the relationship between two traditionally unrelated concepts, fractal structure and entropy production, evaluating both within the central nervous system (CNS. Fractals are temporal or spatial structures with self-similarity across scales of measurement; whereas entropy production represents the necessary exportation of entropy to our environment that comes with metabolism and life. Fractals may be measured by their fractal dimension; and human entropy production may be estimated by oxygen and glucose metabolism. In this paper, we observe fractal structures ubiquitously present in the CNS, and explore a hypothetical and unexplored link between fractal structure and entropy production, as measured by oxygen and glucose metabolism. Rapid increase in both fractal structures and metabolism occur with childhood and adolescent growth, followed by slow decrease during aging. Concomitant increases and decreases in fractal structure and metabolism occur with cancer vs. Alzheimer’s and multiple sclerosis, respectively. In addition to fractals being related to entropy production, we hypothesize that the emergence of fractal structures spontaneously occurs because a fractal is more efficient at dissipating energy gradients, thus maximizing entropy production. Experimental evaluation and further understanding of limitations and necessary conditions are indicated to address broad scientific and clinical implications of this work.

  11. Microparticles: A New Perspective in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Stephanie M.; Little, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are a heterogeneous population of small cell-derived vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 1 μm. They contain a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, biolipids, and nucleic acids, which can be transferred between cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Consequently, MPs represent a novel form of intercellular communication, which could play a role in both physiological and pathological processes. Growing evidence indicates that circulating MPs contribute to the development of cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Most cell types of the central nervous system (CNS) have also been shown to release MPs, which could be important for neurodevelopment, CNS maintenance, and pathologies. In disease, levels of certain MPs appear elevated; therefore, they may serve as biomarkers allowing for the development of new diagnostic tools for detecting the early stages of CNS pathologies. Quantification and characterization of MPs could also provide useful information for making decisions on treatment options and for monitoring success of therapies, particularly for such difficult-to-treat diseases as cerebral malaria, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Overall, studies on MPs in the CNS represent a novel area of research, which promises to expand the knowledge on the mechanisms governing some of the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the CNS. PMID:24860829

  12. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Central Nervous System Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Mitsdoerffer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS, which results in permanent neuronal damage and substantial disability in patients. Autoreactive T cells are important drivers of the disease, however, the efficacy of B cell depleting therapies uncovered an essential role for B cells in disease pathogenesis. They can contribute to inflammatory processes via presentation of autoantigen, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and production of pathogenic antibodies. Recently, B cell aggregates reminiscent of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs were discovered in the meninges of MS patients, leading to the hypothesis that differentiation and maturation of autopathogenic B and T cells may partly occur inside the CNS. Since these structures were associated with a more severe disease course, it is extremely important to gain insight into the mechanism of induction, their precise function and clinical significance. Mechanistic studies in patiens are limited. However, a few studies in the MS animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE recapitulate TLO formation in the CNS and provide new insight into CNS TLO features, formation and function. This review summarizes what we know so far about CNS TLOs in MS and what we have learned about them from EAE models. It also highlights the areas that are in need of further experimental work, as we are just beginning to understand and evaluate the phenomenon of CNS TLOs.

  13. Bioengineered Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0586 TITLE: Bioengineered Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring PRINCIPAL...Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0586 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH- 14-1-0586 5c...barriers that prevent the optimal delivery of biologics and cells to the injured nervous system . A significant problem is the formation of scar tissue

  14. Cholesterol: Its Regulation and Role in Central Nervous System Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Orth; Stefano Bellosta

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol is a major constituent of the human brain, and the brain is the most cholesterol-rich organ. Numerous lipoprotein receptors and apolipoproteins are expressed in the brain. Cholesterol is tightly regulated between the major brain cells and is essential for normal brain development. The metabolism of brain cholesterol differs markedly from that of other tissues. Brain cholesterol is primarily derived by de novo synthesis and the blood brain barrier prevents the uptake of lipoprotein...

  15. NMR imaging and spectroscopy of the mammalian central nervous system after heavy ion radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, T.

    1984-09-01

    NMR imaging, NMR spectroscopic, and histopathologic techniques were used to study the proton relaxation time and related biochemical changes in the central nervous system after helium beam in vivo irradiation of the rodent brain. The spectroscopic observations reported in this dissertation were made possible by development of methods for measuring the NMR parameters of the rodent brain in vivo and in vitro. The methods include (1) depth selective spectroscopy using an optimization of rf pulse energy based on a priori knowledge of N-acetyl aspartate and lipid spectra of the normal brain, (2) phase-encoded proton spectroscopy of the living rodent using a surface coil, and (3) dual aqueous and organic tissue extraction technique for spectroscopy. Radiation induced increases were observed in lipid and p-choline peaks of the proton spectrum, in vivo. Proton NMR spectroscopy measurements on brain extracts (aqueous and organic solvents) were made to observe chemical changes that could not be seen in vivo. Radiation-induced changes were observed in lactate, GABA, glutamate, and p-choline peak areas of the aqueous fraction spectra. In the organic fraction, decreases were observed in peak area ratios of the terminal-methyl peaks, the N-methyl groups of choline, and at a peak at 2.84 ppM (phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl serine resonances) relative to TMS. With histology and Evans blue injections, blood-brain barrier alternations were seen as early as 4 days after irradiation. 83 references, 53 figures

  16. NMR imaging and spectroscopy of the mammalian central nervous system after heavy ion radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, T.

    1984-09-01

    NMR imaging, NMR spectroscopic, and histopathologic techniques were used to study the proton relaxation time and related biochemical changes in the central nervous system after helium beam in vivo irradiation of the rodent brain. The spectroscopic observations reported in this dissertation were made possible by development of methods for measuring the NMR parameters of the rodent brain in vivo and in vitro. The methods include (1) depth selective spectroscopy using an optimization of rf pulse energy based on a priori knowledge of N-acetyl aspartate and lipid spectra of the normal brain, (2) phase-encoded proton spectroscopy of the living rodent using a surface coil, and (3) dual aqueous and organic tissue extraction technique for spectroscopy. Radiation induced increases were observed in lipid and p-choline peaks of the proton spectrum, in vivo. Proton NMR spectroscopy measurements on brain extracts (aqueous and organic solvents) were made to observe chemical changes that could not be seen in vivo. Radiation-induced changes were observed in lactate, GABA, glutamate, and p-choline peak areas of the aqueous fraction spectra. In the organic fraction, decreases were observed in peak area ratios of the terminal-methyl peaks, the N-methyl groups of choline, and at a peak at 2.84 ppM (phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl serine resonances) relative to TMS. With histology and Evans blue injections, blood-brain barrier alternations were seen as early as 4 days after irradiation. 83 references, 53 figures.

  17. Just a Gut Feeling: Central Nervous Effects of Peripheral Gastrointestinal Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Christian L; Doyle, Robert Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Despite greater health education, obesity remains one of the greatest health challenges currently facing the world. The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents and the rising rates of prediabetes and diabetes are of particular concern. A deep understanding of regulatory pathways and development of new anti-obesity drugs with increased efficacy and safety are of utmost necessity. The 2 major biological players in the regulation of food intake are the gut and the brain as peptides released from the gut in response to meals convey information about the energy needs to brain centers of energy homeostasis. There is evidence that gut hormones not only pass the blood-brain barrier and bind to receptors located in different brain areas relevant for body weight regulation, but some are also expressed in the brain as part of hedonic and homeostatic pathways. Regarding obesity interventions, the only truly effective treatment for obesity is bariatric surgery, the long-term benefits of which may actually involve increased activity of gut hormones including peptide YY3-36 and glucagon-like peptide 1. This review discusses critical gut-hormones involved in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis and their effects on peripheral tissues versus central nervous system actions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Primary central nervous system B-cell lymphoma in a young dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Hyun; Ciesielski, Thomas; Kim, Jung H.; Yhee, Ji-Young; Im, Keum-Soon; Nam, Hae-Mi; Kim, Il-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a primary central nervous system B-cell lymphoma in a 3-year-old intact female Maltese dog. Canine primary central nervous system lymphomas constitute about 4% of all intracranial primary neoplasms, but comprehensive histopathologic classifications have rarely been carried out. This is the first report of this disease in a young adult dog. PMID:23115372

  19. 75 FR 12768 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  20. 76 FR 44595 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee...

  1. 78 FR 20328 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  2. 78 FR 63478 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  3. 75 FR 36428 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  4. 77 FR 20037 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  5. MicroRNA expression in the adult mouse central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Mads; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Møller, Morten

    2008-01-01

    distinct areas of the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS). Microarray profiling in combination with real-time RT-PCR and LNA (locked nucleic acid)-based in situ hybridization uncovered 44 miRNAs displaying more than threefold enrichment in the spinal cord, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons......RNA-related gene regulatory networks in the mammalian central nervous system. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  6. 76 FR 3912 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  7. 75 FR 17417 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  8. 78 FR 63481 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  9. Central nervous system complications in non-Hodgkin-lymphomas and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liffers, R.

    1981-01-01

    261 case historys of malignant non-Hodgkin-lymphomas were analysed in the years from 1969 until 1978 in the 'Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Kiel'/West-Germany. 18 Patients got a central nervous complication of Non Hodgkin-Lymphoma earlier or later, a percentage of about 7. There were 7 cases of lymphoblastic lymphoma (LB), a percentage of 10 for this entity. In the group of immunoblastic lymphoma (IB) 6 cases of central nervous infiltration were detected, that is a ratio of 7.7 percent. 4 case histories M. Brill-Symmers (CC/CB) were complicated by central nervous dissemination, a percentage of 5.3. Patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma have the highest risk of central nervous complication. The beginning of central nervous dissemination in the single case histories is very different between the histological groups. Patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma suffered from central nervous complication in an early phase of history, in cases of M. Brill-Symmers central nervous infiltration can occur also in a late phase. The results may determine the discussion about stratifying of radiotherapy. Early radiotherapy including central nervous system may be discussed and investigated in special histological entities of malignant non-Hodgkin-lymphoma. (orig.) [de

  10. Toxocariasis of the central nervous system: with report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira-Silva Sandra F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical involvement of the nervous system in visceral larva migrans due to Toxocara is rare, although in experimental animals the larvae frequently migrate to the brain. A review of the literature from the early 50's to date found 29 cases of brain involvement in toxocariasis. In 20 cases, various clinical and laboratory manifestations of eosinophilic meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis or radiculopathy were reported. We report two children with neurological manifestations, in which there was cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis with marked eosinophilia and a positive serology for Toxocara both in serum and CSF. Serology for Schistosoma mansoni, Cysticercus cellulosae, Toxoplasma and cytomegalovirus were negative in CSF, that was sterile in both cases. Improvement of signs and symptoms after specific treatment (albendazole or thiabendazole was observed in the two cases. A summary of data described in the 25 cases previously reported is presented and we conclude that in cases of encephalitis and myelitis with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and eosinophilia, parasitic infection of the central nervous system should be suspected and serology should be performed to establish the correct diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Materials directed to implants for repairing Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canillas, M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Nervous System (CNS can be damaged by a wide range of injuries and disorders which entail permanent disability in some cases. Moreover, CNS repairing process presents some complications. The natural repair mechanism, which consists on the glial scar formation, is triggered by the inflammatory process. Molecules delivered during these processes, inflammation and glial scar formation as well as oxygen and glucose deficiencies due to the injury, create an inhibitory environment for axon regeneration and remyelination which is known as “secondary injury”. Biomaterials are taking up an even more important role in repairing CNS. Physicochemical properties of some ceramic materials have inspired different applications to repair CNS as substrates, electrodes or molecule vehicles. Based on their biocompatibility, capability to neutralize reactive species involved in the inflammatory processes and their versatile processing to obtain scaffolds with different shapes and sizes, ceramics are a succulent offer in nervous tissue engineering. Furthermore, their possibilities have been increased with polymeric-ceramics composites development, which have given rise to new interesting horizon.Existen diferentes tipos de lesiones o desordenes del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC que pueden provocar graves secuelas e incluso en algunos casos una discapacidad permanente. Además, el proceso de reparación del SNC tiene algunas complicaciones. El mecanismo natural de reacción a una lesión, el cual consiste en la formación de una cicatriz glial, es desencadenado por un proceso inflamatorio. Las moléculas liberadas durante estos procesos, la inflamación y formación de la cicatriz glial, así como la deficiencia en oxígeno y glucosa debidos a la lesión, crean un ambiente que inhibe la regeneración axonal creando la llamada “lesión secundaria”. Los biomateriales están adquiriendo un papel cada vez más importante en la reparación de SNC. Las

  12. Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Spectrum of Parenchymal, Meningeal, and Vascular Lesions at Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulouis, Grégoire; de Boysson, Hubert; Zuber, Mathieu; Guillevin, Loïc; Meary, Eric; Costalat, Vincent; Pagnoux, Christian; Naggara, Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system remains challenging. To report an overview and pictorial review of brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system and to determine the distribution of parenchymal, meningeal, and vascular lesions in a large multicentric cohort. Adult patients from the French COVAC cohort (Cohort of Patients With Primary Vasculitis of the Central Nervous System), with biopsy or angiographically proven primary angiitis of the central nervous system and brain magnetic resonance imaging available at the time of diagnosis were included. A systematic imaging review was performed blinded to clinical data. Sixty patients met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 45 years (±12.9). Patients initially presented focal deficit(s) (83%), headaches (53%), cognitive disorder (40%), and seizures (38.3%). The most common magnetic resonance imaging finding observed in 42% of patients was multiterritorial, bilateral, distal acute stroke lesions after small to medium artery distribution, with a predominant carotid circulation distribution. Hemorrhagic infarctions and parenchymal hemorrhages were also frequently found in the cohort (55%). Acute convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage was found in 26% of patients and 42% demonstrated pre-eminent leptomeningeal enhancement, which is found to be significantly more prevalent in biopsy-proven patients (60% versus 28%; P =0.04). Seven patients had tumor-like presentations. Seventy-seven percent of magnetic resonance angiographic studies were abnormal, revealing proximal/distal stenoses in 57% and 61% of patients, respectively. Adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a heterogenous disease, with multiterritorial, distal, and bilateral acute stroke being the most common pattern of parenchymal lesions found on magnetic resonance imaging. Our findings suggest a higher than previously thought prevalence of hemorrhagic transformation and other hemorrhagic

  13. Central nervous system involvement in childhood HIV: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muro, D.; Sanguesa, C.; Perez, A.; Otero, C.

    1997-01-01

    To determine the neuroradiological findings disclosed by CT on children infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to analyze the different radiological changes observed in the presence and absence of HIV encephalopathy. Fifty-one children with vertically transmitted HIV infection were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of neurological changes (groups I and II, respectively). All the patients underwent cranial CT at different phases during the course of the disease. The presence of cerebral atrophy, calcifications of the basal ganglia, lesions involving white matter, opportunistic infections, vascular lesions and tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) was assessed. Neurological signs were observed in 17 patients (group I) and were absent in 34 (group II). Seventy percent of the patients in group I presented abnormal cranial CT findings, the most common of which were cerebral atrophy (58.8%) and calcifications of the basal ganglia (47%). One patient presented focal white matte lesions, another had hemorrhagic infarction and subdural hematoma and a third presented aneurysmal dilation of the intracerebral arteries. The rate of mortality in children with encephalopathy was 82.3%. Of the 34 patients in group II, Three (8.8%) presented an increase in the size of the ventricular system and of the subarachnoid space. Neuroradiological changes are frequently observed in children with HIV encephalopathy. Diffuse cerebral atrophy and calcification of the basal ganglia and periventricular white matter are the most common findings. Although cerebral atrophy can precede the development of encephalopathy, its presence generally coincides with neurological deterioration. The onset of neurological signs in HIV-infected patients indicates a very poor prognosis for the outcome of the disease. (Author) 32 refs

  14. Central nervous system tumors: Radiologic pathologic correlation and diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to formulate location-wise radiologic diagnostic algorithms and assess their concordance with the final histopathological diagnosis so as to evaluate their utility in a rural setting where only basic facilities are available. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis to assess the concordance of radiology (primarily MRI with final histopathology report was done. Based on the most common incidence of tumor location and basic radiology findings, diagnostic algorithms were prepared. Results: For supratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location concordance was seen in all high-grade astrocytomas, low- and high-grade oligodendrogliomas, metastatic tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, high-grade ependymomas, neuronal and mixed neuro-glial tumors and tumors of hematopoietic system. Lowest concordance was seen in low-grade astrocytomas. In the supratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, agreement was observed in choroid plexus tumors, ependymomas, low-grade astrocytomas and meningiomas; in the supratentorial extraaxial location, except for the lack of concordance in the only case of metastatic tumor, concordance was observed in meningeal tumors, tumors of the sellar region, tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves; the infratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location showed agreement in low- as well as high-grade astrocytomas, metastatic tumors, high-grade ependymoma, embryonal tumors and hematopoietic tumors; in the infratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, except for the lack of concordance in one case of low-grade astrocytoma and two cases of medulloblastomas, agreement was observed in low- and high-grade ependymoma; infratentorial extraaxial tumors showed complete agreement in all tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves, meningiomas, and hematopoietic tumors. Conclusion: A location-based approach to central nervous system (CNS tumors is helpful in establishing an appropriate differential diagnosis.

  15. Extrarenal rhabdoid tumours outside the central nervous system in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces-Inigo, Enrique F. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete, Radiology Department, Hermanos Falco, Albacete (Spain); Leung, Rebecca; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Malignant rhabdoid tumours (RT) are increasingly recognized in young children, probably as a consequence of advances in accurate histological diagnosis rather than a true increase in frequency. Although typically presenting as renal tumours in infancy, extrarenal tumours outside the central nervous system (CNS) in children less than 12 months of age are now well recognized, but previous literature on their imaging features is very limited. To demonstrate the imaging features of extrarenal RTs outside the CNS. A retrospective database review was made from 1989 to 2007 of patients diagnosed with extrarenal RT in infancy, i.e. below 12 months of age. There were nine patients (six boys and three girls). The age at presentation varied from 1 to 11 months (average 6 months). Tumours were located in the thorax/mediastinum (n=3), liver (n=3), neck (n=1), shoulder (n=1) and axilla (n=1). The imaging modalities used included US (n=8), CT (n=7) and MRI (n=6). Bone scan was positive in one patient, while metastases at the time of diagnosis occurred in four patients. On MRI the tumours tended to show nonspecific hypointensity on T1-W images and heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-W images, with heterogeneous enhancement. This is the largest radiological series of extrarenal RTs outside the CNS in infancy. In our series no imaging features were found specific to the diagnosis. A tendency towards large size and mediastinal/paravertebral location were noted. A hypodense solid component on CT and a heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-W MR images suggest that this tumour should be considered in the routine differential diagnosis of soft-tissue tumours in infancy, in addition to rhabdomyosarcoma. (orig.)

  16. Hox gene regulation in the central nervous system of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwar eGummalla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hox genes specify the structures that form along the anteroposterior (AP axis of bilateria. Within the genome, they often form clusters where, remarkably enough, their position within the clusters reflects the relative positions of the structures they specify along the AP axis. This correspondence between genomic organization and gene expression pattern has been conserved through evolution and provides a unique opportunity to study how chromosomal context affects gene regulation. In Drosophila, a general rule, often called posterior dominance, states that Hox genes specifying more posterior structures repress the expression of more anterior Hox genes. This rule explains the apparent spatial complementarity of Hox gene expression patterns in Drosophila. Here we review a noticeable exception to this rule where the more-posteriorly expressed Abd-B hox gene fails to repress the more-anterior abd-A gene in cells of the central nervous system (CNS. While Abd-B is required to repress ectopic expression of abd-A in the posterior epidermis, abd-A repression in the posterior CNS is accomplished by a different mechanism that involves a large 92kb long non-coding RNA (lncRNA encoded by the intergenic region separating abd-A and Abd-B (the iab8ncRNA. Dissection of this lncRNA revealed that abd-A is repressed by the lncRNA using two redundant mechanisms. The 1st mechanism is mediated by a microRNA (mir-iab-8 encoded by intronic sequence within the large iab8-ncRNA. Meanwhile, the second mechanism seems to involve transcriptional interference by the long iab-8 ncRNA on the abd-A promoter. Recent work demonstrating CNS-specific regulation of genes by ncRNAs in Drosophila, seem to highlight a potential role for the iab-8-ncRNA in the evolution of the Drosophila hox complexes

  17. Staphylococcus aureus Central Nervous System Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Jesus G; Cain, Alexandra N; Mason, Edward O; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Hultén, Kristina G

    2017-10-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are uncommon in pediatric patients. We review the epidemiology, clinical features and treatment in 68 patients with a S. aureus CNS infection evaluated at Texas Children's Hospital. Cases of CNS infection in children with positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures or spinal epidural abscess (SEA) for S. aureus at Texas Children's Hospital from 2001 to 2013 were reviewed. Seventy cases of S. aureus CNS infection occurred in 68 patients. Forty-nine cases (70%) were secondary to a CNS device, 5 (7.1%) were postoperative meningitis, 9 (12.8%) were hematogenous meningitis and 7 (10%) were SEAs. Forty-seven (67.2%) were caused by methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 23 (32.8%) by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Community-acquired infections were more often caused by MRSA that was clone USA300/pvl. Most patients were treated with nafcillin (MSSA) or vancomycin (MRSA) with or without rifampin. Among patients with MRSA infection, 50% had a serum vancomycin trough obtained with the median level being 10.6 μg/mL (range: 5.4-15.7 μg/mL). Only 1 death was associated with S. aureus infection. The epidemiology of invasive of S. aureus infections continues to evolve with MSSA accounting for most of the infections in this series. The majority of cases were associated with neurosurgical procedures; however, hematogenous S. aureus meningitis and SEA occurred as community-acquired infections in patients without predisposing factors. Patients with MRSA CNS infections had a favorable response to vancomycin, but the beneficial effect of combination therapy or targeting vancomycin trough concentrations of 15-20 μg/mL remains unclear.

  18. Craniotomy and Survival for Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Ali I; Mehta, Amol; Cloney, Michael; Kinslow, Connor J; Wang, Tony J C; Bhagat, Govind; Canoll, Peter D; Zanazzi, George J; Sisti, Michael B; Sheth, Sameer A; Connolly, E Sander; McKhann, Guy M; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Iwamoto, Fabio M; Sonabend, Adam M

    2018-04-04

    Cytoreductive surgery is considered controversial for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). To investigate survival following craniotomy or biopsy for PCNSL. The National Cancer Database-Participant User File (NCDB, n = 8936), Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER, n = 4636), and an institutional series (IS, n = 132) were used. We retrospectively investigated the relationship between craniotomy, prognostic factors, and survival for PCNSL using case-control design.  In NCDB, craniotomy was associated with increased median survival over biopsy (19.5 vs 11.0 mo), independent of subsequent radiation and chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] 0.80, P < .001). We found a similar trend with survival for craniotomy vs biopsy in the IS (HR 0.68, P = .15). In SEER, gross total resection was associated with increased median survival over biopsy (29 vs 10 mo, HR 0.68, P < .001). The survival benefit associated with craniotomy was greater within recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class 1 group in NCDB (95.1 vs 29.1 mo, HR 0.66, P < .001), but was smaller for RPA 2-3 (14.9 vs 10.0 mo, HR 0.86, P < .001). A surgical risk category (RC) considering lesion location and number, age, and frailty was developed. Craniotomy was associated with increased survival vs biopsy for patients with low RC (133.4 vs 41.0 mo, HR 0.33, P = .01), but not high RC in the IS. Craniotomy is associated with increased survival over biopsy for PCNSL in 3 retrospective datasets. Prospective studies are necessary to adequately evaluate this relationship. Such studies should evaluate patients most likely to benefit from cytoreductive surgery, ie, those with favorable RPA and RC.

  19. Central nervous system activity of Illicium verum fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouksey, Divya; Upmanyu, Neeraj; Pawar, R S

    2013-11-01

    To research the acute toxicity of Illicium verum (I. verum) fruit extracts and its action on central nervous system. The TLC and HPTLC techniques were used as fingerprints to determine the chemical components present in I. verum. Male albino rats and mice were utilized for study. The powdered material was successively extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using a Soxhlet extractor. Acute toxicity studies were performed as per OECD guidelines. The CNS activity was evaluated on parameters of general behavior, sleeping pattern, locomotor activity, anxiety and myocoordination activity. The animals were trained for seven days prior to experiments and the divided into five groups with six animals in each. The drug was administered by intraperitoneal route according to body weight. The dosing was done as prescribed in each protocol. Toxicity studies reported 2 000 mg/kg as toxicological dose and 1/10 of the same dose was taken as therapeutic dose Intraperitoneal injection of all extracts at dose of 200 mg prolonged phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, produced alteration in general behavior pattern, reduced locomotor activity and produced anxiolytic effects but the extracts do not significantly alter muscles coordination activity. The three extracts of I. verum at the dose of 200 mg, methanol extract was found to produce more prominent effects, then hexane and ethylacetate extracts. The observation suggested that the extracts of I. verum possess potent CNS depressant action and anxiolytic effect without interfering with motor coordination. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrastructural changes of central nervous system irradiated with ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-12-01

    Morphological changes of the central nervous tissues (cerebral and cerebellar cortices) of mice which were irradiated by a massive dose (5,000-80,000 rad) of Linac x-ray were observed with the lapse of time by electron microscopy, and changes in their ultrastructure were investigated. Capillaries and the processes of astrocytes surrounding them, when irradiated with 5,000-40,000 rad, showed swelling of endothelial cells, nuclear atrophy, destruction of basement membrane, and swelling and edematous changes of astrocytic processes. Morphological changes of the nerve cells, granule cells of cerebellum, and astrocytes increased depending on the dose of irradiation, and their injuries appeared in the early stage, showing pyknosis, chromatokinesis, and turbid swelling, transparent swelling of mitochondria, and disappearance of Nissl's bodies as cytoplasmic changes. Destruction of cell membrane was observed in the cerebellar granule cells and astrocytes; particularly in the cerebellar granule cells, pyknosis and prominent degeneration of cytoplasm appeared very early, compared with other cells. Although no definite change nor severance was observed in the marrow sheath of medullated nerve fibers within the dose range of this study, an image of degeneration was observed in the mitochondria in the axon; splitting of marrow sheath and deformity of axon membrane were more prominent in the 40,000 rad-irradiated group than in the other groups. Synaptic vesicles tended to increase and scatter when irradiated with 5,000 rad and 10,000 rad. However, by the irradiation with 40,000 rad, the synaptic vesicles tended to enlarge and decrease on the contrary, disappearing with the lapse of time.

  1. Enhancement of the white matter following prophylactic therapy of the central nervous system for leukemia: radiation effects and methotrexate leukoencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalen, P.R.; Ostrow, P.T.; Glass, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The authors report a case of fatal necrotizing leukoencephalopathy following prophylactic therapy of the central nervous system for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The clinical, CT, and neuropathological findings are described. The CT scan demonstrated symmetrical white-matter enhancement. Histological analysis was consistent with the effects of irradiation and methotrexate. The differential diagnosis of the clinical and CT findings is discussed. Brain biopsy is the diagnostic procedure of choice

  2. Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system-the spectrum of imaging findings and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozell, Joseph M; Mtui, Edward; Pan, Yu-Ning; Li, Shan

    2017-12-01

    The infectious and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) including the brain and spine can present with a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, locations, and appearance. The purpose of this exhibit is to review the different patterns of their presentations, to illustrate their imaging characteristics and techniques, and to discuss their clinical features and pathology so that the correct diagnosis can be made and prompt intervention can be initiated on a timely fashion.

  3. Potential of stem cell based therapy and tissue engineering in the regeneration of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Yihua; Tsang, Kent K S; Zhang Han

    2006-01-01

    The insufficiency of self-repair and regeneration of the central nervous system (CNS) leads to difficulty of rehabilitation of the injured brain. In the past few decades, the significant progress in cell therapy and tissue engineering has contributed to the functional recovery of the CNS to a great extent. The present review focuses on the potential role of stem cell based therapy and tissue engineering in the regeneration of the CNS. (topical review)

  4. Insulin in Central Nervous System: More than Just a Peripheral Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin signaling in central nervous system (CNS has emerged as a novel field of research since decreased brain insulin levels and/or signaling were associated to impaired learning, memory, and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, besides its well-known role in longevity, insulin may constitute a promising therapy against diabetes- and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. More interestingly, insulin has been also faced as the potential missing link between diabetes and aging in CNS, with Alzheimer's disease (AD considered as the “brain-type diabetes.” In fact, brain insulin has been shown to regulate both peripheral and central glucose metabolism, neurotransmission, learning, and memory and to be neuroprotective. And a future challenge will be to unravel the complex interactions between aging and diabetes, which, we believe, will allow the development of efficient preventive and therapeutic strategies to overcome age-related diseases and to prolong human “healthy” longevity. Herewith, we aim to integrate the metabolic, neuromodulatory, and neuroprotective roles of insulin in two age-related pathologies: diabetes and AD, both in terms of intracellular signaling and potential therapeutic approach.

  5. Intraventricular Delivery of siRNA Nanoparticles to the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishab Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease currently lacking effective treatment. Efficient delivery of siRNA via nanoparticles may emerge as a viable therapeutic approach to treat AD and other central nervous system disorders. We report here the use of a linear polyethyleneimine (LPEI-g-polyethylene glycol (PEG copolymer-based micellar nanoparticle system to deliver siRNA targeting BACE1 and APP, two therapeutic targets of AD. Using LPEI-siRNA nanoparticles against either BACE1 or APP in cultured mouse neuroblastoma (N2a cells, we observe selective knockdown, respectively, of BACE1 or APP. The encapsulation of siRNA by LPEI-g-PEG carriers, with different grafting degrees of PEG, leads to the formation of micellar nanoparticles with distinct morphologies, including worm-like, rod-like, or spherical nanoparticles. By infusing these shaped nanoparticles into mouse lateral ventricles, we show that rod-shaped nanoparticles achieved the most efficient knockdown of BACE1 in the brain. Furthermore, such knockdown is evident in spinal cords of these treated mice. Taken together, our findings indicate that the shape of siRNA-encapsulated nanoparticles is an important determinant for their delivery and gene knockdown efficiency in the central nervous system.

  6. Central Nervous System Effects of Intrauterine Zika Virus Infection: A Pictorial Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Bianca Guedes; Werner, Heron; Lopes, Flávia P P L; Hygino da Cruz, L Celso; Fazecas, Tatiana M; Daltro, Pedro A N; Nogueira, Renata A

    2017-10-01

    Relatively few agents have been associated with congenital infections involving the brain. One such agent is the Zika virus, which has caused several outbreaks worldwide and has spread in the Americas since 2015. The Zika virus is an arbovirus transmitted by infected female mosquito vectors, such as the Aedes aegypti mosquito. This virus has been commonly associated with congenital infections of the central nervous system and has greatly increased the rates of microcephaly. Ultrasonography (US) remains the method of choice for fetal evaluation of congenital Zika virus infection. For improved assessment of the extent of the lesions, US should be complemented by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Postnatal computed tomography and MR imaging can also unveil additional findings of central nervous system involvement, such as microcephaly with malformation of cortical development, ventriculomegaly, and multifocal calcifications in the cortical-subcortical junction, along with associated cortical atrophy. The calcifications may be punctate, dystrophic, linear, or coarse and may follow a predominantly bandlike distribution. A small anterior fontanelle with prematurely closed sutures is also observed with Zika virus infection. In this review, the prenatal and postnatal neurologic imaging findings of congenital Zika virus infection are covered. Radiologists must be aware of this challenging entity and have knowledge of the various patterns that may be depicted with each imaging modality and the main differential diagnosis of the disease. As in other neurologic infections, serial imaging is able to help demonstrate the progression of the findings. © RSNA, 2017.

  7. Quantitative autoradiographic distribution of L-[3H]glutamate-binding sites in rat central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenamyre, J.T.; Young, A.B.; Penney, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to determine the distribution of L-[3H]glutamate-binding sites in the rat central nervous system. Autoradiography was carried out in the presence of Cl- and Ca2+ ions. Scatchard plots and Hill coefficients of glutamate binding suggested that glutamate was interacting with a single population of sites having a K-D of about 300 nM and a capacity of 14.5 pmol/mg of protein. In displacement studies, ibotenate also appeared to bind to a single class of non-interacting sites with a KI of 28 microM. However, quisqualate displacement of [3H]glutamate binding revealed two well-resolved sites with KIS of 12 nM and 114 microM in striatum. These sites were unevenly distributed, representing different proportions of specific glutamate binding in different brain regions. The distribution of glutamate-binding sites correlated very well with the projection areas of putative glutamatergic pathways. This technique provides an extremely sensitive assay which can be used to gather detailed pharmacological and anatomical information about L-[3H]glutamate binding in the central nervous system

  8. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system: an ante-mortem diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS is reported with its clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features. A 20-year-old girl presented with headache, projectile vomiting, unsteadiness of gait and urgency of micturition. She had left seventh nerve upper motor neuron type paresis, increased tone in all four limbs, exaggerated deep tendon reflexes, cerebellar signs, and papilloedema. Cerebrospinal fluid showed lymphocytosis with elevated protein and normal glucose level. Cerebral computerised tomographic scan and MRI showed bilateral diffuse asymmetric supra- and infra-tentorial lesions (predominantly in the supratentorial and left cerebrum. On MRI, the lesions were hyperintense on T2, and proton density-weighted images and hypointense on T1-weighted images. Based on the clinical findings of raised intracranial tension and MRI features, initial diagnoses of gliomatosis cerebrii, tuberculous meningitis, primary central nervous system lymphoma and chronic viral encephalitis were considered. PACNS was not included in the initial differentials and, an open brain biopsy was advised which established the definitive diagnosis.

  9. Linfoma primário do sistema nervoso central Primary central nervous system lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bellesso

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O linfoma primário do sistema nervoso central (LPSNC é um linfoma extralinfonodal que, ao diagnóstico, encontra-se restrito ao parênquima cerebral, às meninges e/ou cordão espinhal e/ou olhos. Sua incidência triplicou nas últimas três décadas para 0,4 casos por 100.000 habitantes, representando 4% dos tumores do sistema nervoso central (SNC. Embora pacientes infectados pelo HIV tenham 3.600 vezes maior risco para o desenvolvimento do LPSNC, a incidência não aumentou apenas neste grupo de pessoas. Dados sugerem reduções da incidência de LPSNC em pacientes infectados após a introdução de drogas anti-retrovirais. Cerca de 90% dos casos de LPSNC são classificados como linfoma difuso de grandes células B, 10% têm envolvimento ocular e 10% são HIV positivos. A apresentação clínica depende da localização tumoral, prevalecendo os sintomas neurológicos em detrimento aos sistêmicos. Os exames de tomografia computadorizada (TC e ressonância nuclear magnética (RNM são essenciais para o diagnóstico, porém o exame confirmatório deve ser o anatomopatológico. O estadiamento deve ser feito com exames de imagem e biópsia de medula óssea (BMO bilateral. Os principais fatores de mau prognóstico são: performance status do paciente acima de 1, idade superior a 60 anos, DHL elevada, hiperproteinorraquia e acometimento de área cerebral não hemisférica. Alguns fatores de prognóstico biológicos também podem influenciar na sobrevida, a exemplo da expressão de Bcl-6, que confere melhor prognóstico. O tratamento de escolha é a combinação de quimioterapia contendo altas doses de metotrexate e radioterapia (RDT. Devido às altas taxas de neurotoxicidade associada à RDT, seu uso tem ficado mais restrito aos pacientes idosos, e os recidivados ou refratários.Primary Central Nervous System lymphoma (PCNSL is an extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord or eyes. The incidence of PCNSL increased

  10. Radiation therapy treatment planning for tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    It is essential to attempt to minimize the effect of radiation on the normal brain and spinal cord in treatment planning. The central nervous system was thought to be resistant to radiation; however, as data have accumulated concerning the late effects of radiation the nervous system has been shown to be more sensitive. Recently the late effects of radiation on the spinal cord have been evaluated and it has been shown the sensitivity of this portion of the nervous system to high doses of radiation and has pointed out the importance of fractionation. It is estimated that the spinal cord increases its sensitivity by 1.6 by increasing the dose per fraction from 2. to 3 Gy. Likewise, the sensitivity of the optic nerve to radiation has been reported particularly when the size of the fraction is greater than 2 Gy. In treatment planning, therefore, the size of the dose given per fraction is important in the initial part of the planning procedure. In order to keep the dose per fraction to a minimum (2 Gy or less), multiple fields may be used to minimize the dose gradient in the high dose area. When treating with multiple fields it is wise to treat each field every day. In planning treatment not only must one consider the normal brain and spinal cord but one must also consider the radiosensitivity of other surrounding organs. The eye, particularly the lens, should be avoided if possible in order to prevent the formation of a radiation cataract. The salivary gland is sensitive to radiation and the ear has recently been reported to have some sensitivity to high doses of radiation. When planning treatment for the spinal cord one must consider the sensitivity of the cord itself and as well as the effect of radiation on the bone marrow in the vertebral bodies adjacent to the spinal cord. The heat, the lungs, and organs in the abdomen must also be considered in planning treatment on the torso

  11. Principles of immunology and its nuances in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Gavin P; Okada, Hideho

    2015-11-01

    Cancer immunotherapy represents the biggest change in the cancer treatment landscape in the last several years. Indeed, the clinical successes in several cancer types have generated widespread enthusiasm that immune-based treatments may influence the management of patients with malignant brain tumors as well. A number of promising clinical trials in this area are currently ongoing in neuro-oncology, and a wave of additional efforts are sure to follow. However, the basic immunology underlying immunotherapy-and the nuances unique to the immunobiology in the central nervous system-is often not in the daily lexicon of the practicing neuro-oncologist and neurosurgeon. To this end, here we provide a timely and working overview of key principles of fundamental immunology as a pragmatic context for understanding where therapeutic efforts may act in the cellular dynamics of the immune response. Moreover, we review the issues of lymphatic drainage, antigen presentation, and the blood-brain barrier as considerations that are germane to thinking about immunity to tumors arising in the brain. Together, these topics will provide a foundation for the exciting efforts in immune-based treatments that will hopefully provide real benefit to brain tumor patients. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Central Nervous System Fibrosis Is Associated with Fibrocyte-Like Infiltrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Amy; Kielian, Tammy

    2011-01-01

    Fibrotic wall formation is essential for limiting pathogen dissemination during brain abscess development. However, little is known about the regulation of fibrotic processes in the central nervous system (CNS). Most CNS injury responses are associated with hypertrophy of resident astrocytes, a process termed reactive gliosis. Studies of fibrosis outside the CNS have identified two bone marrow–derived cell types, fibrocytes and alternatively activated M2 macrophages, as key mediators of fibrosis. The current study used bone marrow chimeras generated from green fluorescent protein transgenic mice to evaluate the appearance of these cell types and whether bone marrow–derived cells were capable of acquiring fibrotic characteristics during brain abscess development. Immunofluorescence staining revealed partial overlap between green fluorescent protein, α-smooth muscle actin, and procollagen, suggesting that a population of cells forming the brain abscess capsule originate from a bone marrow precursor. In addition, the influx of fibrocyte-like cells into brain abscesses immediately preceded the onset of fibrotic encapsulation. Fibrotic wall formation was also associated with increased numbers of alternatively activated M2 microglia and macrophages. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that bone marrow–derived infiltrates are capable of expressing fibrotic molecules during CNS inflammation. PMID:22015460

  13. Quantitative autoradiography of TRH receptors and radioimmunoassay of TRH in the cat central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogin, R.M.; Kreider, M.S.; Caine, S.B.; Pack, A.I.; Winokur, A.

    1986-01-01

    In the cat, microinjection of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) into certain areas of the central nervous system (CNS) changes ventilation and cardiovascular variables. To initiate a more systematic investigation of these effects, they undertook a study to determine the location of TRH and its receptors in the cat CNS. Using techniques previously described from the laboratory, quantitative autoradiograms for TRH receptors of the cat brain were produced; additional specimens were dissected, and radioimmunoassay for TRH was performed. Heterogeneous distribution of receptors was observed in the cat brain. In the forebrain, large quantities of TRH receptors were found in amygdala, hippocampus, claustrum, pyriform nucleus, and tuberculum olfactorium. In the brainstem, high concentrations were localized to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the hypoglossal nucleus, and the periaqueductal grey. The cerebellum contained few receptors. The largest quantities of the TRH tripeptide were noted in the hypothalamus and septum, with substantial amounts also obtained from the olfactory bulb, corpus striatum, and thalamus. The results demonstrate that the distribution of TRH and TRH receptors in the cat brain is very similar to that previously described in the rat and human brain. They provide a basis for exploring the physiological and pharmacological effects of TRH in cats

  14. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system presenting with subacute and fatal course of disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Börnke Christian

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary angiitis of the central nervous system is an idiopathic disorder characterized by vasculitis within the dural confines. The clinical presentation shows a wide variation and the course and the duration of disease are heterogeneous. This rare but treatable disease provides a diagnostic challenge owing to the lack of pathognomonic tests and the necessity of a histological confirmation. Case presentation A 28-year-old patient presenting with headache and fluctuating signs of encephalopathy was treated on the assumption of viral meningoencephalitis. The course of the disease led to his death 10 days after hospital admission. Postmortem examination revealed primary angiitis of the central nervous system. Conclusion Primary angiitis of the central nervous system should always be taken into consideration when suspected infectious inflammation of the central nervous system does not respond to treatment adequately. In order to confirm the diagnosis with the consequence of a modified therapy angiography and combined leptomeningeal and brain biopsy should be considered immediately.

  15. Lipoprotein receptor LRP1 regulates leptin signaling and energy homeostasis in the adult central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Juan; Zerbinatti, Celina; Zhan, Yan; Kolber, Benedict J; Herz, Joachim; Muglia, Louis J; Bu, Guojun

    2011-01-11

    Obesity is a growing epidemic characterized by excess fat storage in adipocytes. Although lipoprotein receptors play important roles in lipid uptake, their role in controlling food intake and obesity is not known. Here we show that the lipoprotein receptor LRP1 regulates leptin signaling and energy homeostasis. Conditional deletion of the Lrp1 gene in the brain resulted in an obese phenotype characterized by increased food intake, decreased energy consumption, and decreased leptin signaling. LRP1 directly binds to leptin and the leptin receptor complex and is required for leptin receptor phosphorylation and Stat3 activation. We further showed that deletion of the Lrp1 gene specifically in the hypothalamus by Cre lentivirus injection is sufficient to trigger accelerated weight gain. Together, our results demonstrate that the lipoprotein receptor LRP1, which is critical in lipid metabolism, also regulates food intake and energy homeostasis in the adult central nervous system.

  16. Lipoprotein receptor LRP1 regulates leptin signaling and energy homeostasis in the adult central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a growing epidemic characterized by excess fat storage in adipocytes. Although lipoprotein receptors play important roles in lipid uptake, their role in controlling food intake and obesity is not known. Here we show that the lipoprotein receptor LRP1 regulates leptin signaling and energy homeostasis. Conditional deletion of the Lrp1 gene in the brain resulted in an obese phenotype characterized by increased food intake, decreased energy consumption, and decreased leptin signaling. LRP1 directly binds to leptin and the leptin receptor complex and is required for leptin receptor phosphorylation and Stat3 activation. We further showed that deletion of the Lrp1 gene specifically in the hypothalamus by Cre lentivirus injection is sufficient to trigger accelerated weight gain. Together, our results demonstrate that the lipoprotein receptor LRP1, which is critical in lipid metabolism, also regulates food intake and energy homeostasis in the adult central nervous system.

  17. Harnessing the capacity of cell-penetrating peptides for drug delivery to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ting; Gao, Xiaoling; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The existence of blood-brain barrier (BBB) represents the most formidable challenge for drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS). Modern breakthrough in biology offers multiple choices for overcoming this barrier but yields modest outcomes for clinical application due to various problems such as safety concerns, insufficient delivery efficiency and poor penetration. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) possessing powerful transmembrane capacity have been shown to be effective transport vectors for bioactive molecules and an attractive alternative to traditional active targeting approaches. However, the non-specificity of CPPs has hindered them from targeting a desired site of action. Promisingly, design of novel CPP-mediated nanoparticulate delivery systems with specific targeting property may extricate CPPs from the dilemma. In this review, both the traditional and novel applications of CPPs-based strategies for CNS drug delivery will be discussed.

  18. Emergency Department Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Central Nervous System Stimulants among Adults Aged 18 to 34 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Department Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Central Nervous System Stimulants among Adults Aged 18 to 34 Increased between 2005 and 2011 Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants include prescription drugs, like those used ...

  19. Characteristics of breast cancer patients with central nervous system metastases: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harputluoglu, Hakan; Dizdar, Omer; Aksoy, Sercan; Kilickap, Saadettin; Dede, Didem S; Ozisik, Yavuz; Guler, Nilufer; Barista, Ibrahim; Gullu, Ibrahim; Hayran, Mutlu; Selek, Ugur; Cengiz, Mustafa; Zorlu, Faruk; Tekuzman, Gulten; Altundag, Kadri

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of breast cancer patients with central nervous system (CNS) metastases and factors associated with survival after development of CNS metastasis. One-hundred-forty-four patients with brain metastases were retrospectively analyzed. Median age at the time of brain metastasis diagnosis was 48.9. Median time between initial diagnosis and development of brain metastasis was 36 months. Fourteen cases had leptomeningeal involvement. Twenty-two patients (15.3%) had single metastasis. Ten percent of the patients had surgery, 94% had radiotherapy and 63% had chemotherapy. Median survival after development of brain metastasis was 7.4 months. Survival of patients with single metastasis was significantly longer than those with multiple metastases (33.5 vs. 6.5 months, p = 0.0006). Survival of patients who received chemotherapy was significantly longer than those who received radiotherapy alone (9.9 vs. 2 months, p < 0.0001). In multivariate Cox regression analyses, presence of single metastasis and application of chemotherapy were the only significant factors associated with better survival (p = 0.047 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Age at initial diagnosis or at the time of brain metastasis, time from initial diagnosis to development of brain metastasis, menopausal status, tumor stage, grade, hormone receptor or HER2 status individually were not associated with survival. In this study, survival after the diagnosis of CNS metastases appeared to be affected by patient characteristics rather than biologic characteristics of the tumor. This is probably secondary to the lack of effective treatment options in these patients and overall poor prognosis.

  20. Comparative morphology of serotonergic-like immunoreactive elements in the central nervous system of kinorhynchs (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, María; Pardos, Fernando; Boyle, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    Cycloneuralian taxa exhibit similar organ system architectures, providing informative characters of metazoan evolution, yet very few modern comparative descriptions of cellular and molecular homologies within and among those taxa are available. We immunolabeled and characterized elements of the serotonergic nervous system in the kinorhynchs Echinoderes spinifurca, Antygomonas paulae, and Zelinkaderes brightae using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Fluorescent markers targeting DNA were combined with observations of auto-fluorescent structures to guide interpretations of the internal and external anatomy in each species. Results show a common pattern of the central nervous system with a circumenteric brain divided into ring-shaped anterior and posterior neuronal somata and a central neuropil connected to a multi-stringed, longitudinal ventral nerve cord. Structural similarities and differences in the nervous systems of these species were observed and described, stressing the incomplete ring nature of the anterior region of the kinorhynch brain, the functional relationship between the brain and the movable introvert, and the number and arrangement of nerve strings and somata of the ventral nerve cord. The ventral cord ends in two ventrolateral cell bodies in E. spinifurca, and forms a terminal loop associated with a midterminal spine in A. paulae and Z. brightae. The possible functional and phylogenetic significance of these features and arrangements are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Specific central nervous system recruitment of HLA-G(+) regulatory T cells in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hwa; Zozulya, Alla L; Weidenfeller, Christian; Metz, Imke; Buck, Dorothea; Toyka, Klaus V; Brück, Wolfgang; Wiendl, Heinz

    2009-08-01

    We have recently described a novel population of natural regulatory T cells (T(reg)) that are characterized by the expression of HLA-G and may be found at sites of tissue inflammation (HLA-G(pos) T(reg)). Here we studied the role of these cells in multiple sclerosis (MS), a prototypic autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Sixty-four patients with different types of MS, 9 patients with other neurological diseases, and 20 healthy donors were included in this study. Inflamed brain lesions from 5 additional untreated MS patients were examined. HLA-G(pos) T(reg) were analyzed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by flow cytometry and in inflammatory demyelinating lesions of MS brain specimens by immunohistochemistry. Functional capacity was accessed and transmigration was determined using an in vitro model of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB). HLA-G(pos) T(reg) were found enriched in the inflamed CSF of MS patients and in inflammatory demyelinating lesions of MS brain specimens. HLA-G(pos) T(reg) showed a strong propensity to transmigrate across BBB, which was vigorously driven by inflammatory chemokines, and associated with a gain of suppressive capacity upon transmigration. CSF-derived HLA-G(pos) T(reg) of MS patients represented a population of activated central memory activated T cells with an upregulated expression of inflammatory chemokine receptors and exhibiting full suppressive capacity. Unlike natural FoxP3-expressing T(reg), HLA-G(pos) T(reg) derived from peripheral blood were functionally unimpaired in MS. In MS, HLA-G(pos) T(reg) may serve to control potentially destructive immune responses directly at the sites of CNS inflammation and to counterbalance inflammation once specifically recruited to the CNS.

  2. Implantable and transdermal polymeric drug delivery technologies for the treatment of central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Thiresen; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; Bijukumar, Divya; du Toit, Lisa C; Modi, Girish; Naidoo, Dinesh; Pillay, Viness

    2017-06-01

    The complexity of the brain and the membranous blood-brain barrier (BBB) has proved to be a significant limitation to the systemic delivery of pharmaceuticals to the brain rendering them sub-therapeutic and ineffective in the treatment of neurological diseases. Apart from this, lack of innovation in product development to counteract the problem is also a major contributing factor to a poor therapeutic outcome. Various innovative strategies show potential in treating some of the neurological disorders; however, drug delivery remains the most popular. To attain therapeutic drug levels in the central nervous system, large, intolerable systemic doses are generally administered. The major factors responsible for the success maintenance therapy of neurological diseases included controlled and sustained release of neurotherapeutics, reduced frequency of administration, higher bioavailability, and patient compliances. Conventional oral or injectable formulations cannot satisfy all the requirements in many circumstances. This article reviews the therapeutic implantable polymeric and transdermal devices employed in an attempt to effectively achieve therapeutic quantities of drug across the BBB over a prolonged period, to improve patient disease prognosis.

  3. Neuronopathic lysosomal storage disorders: Approaches to treat the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Maurizio; Bellettato, Cinzia Maria; Lampe, Christina; Begley, David J

    2015-03-01

    Pharmacological research has always focused on developing new therapeutic strategies capable of modifying a disease's natural history and improving patients' quality of life. Despite recent advances within the fields of medicine and biology, some diseases still represent a major challenge for successful therapy. Neuronopathic lysosomal storage disorders, in particular, have high rates of morbidity and mortality and a devastating socio-economic effect. Many of the available therapies, such as enzyme replacement therapy, can reverse the natural history of the disease in peripheral organs but, unfortunately, are still unable to reach the central nervous system effectively because they cannot cross the blood-brain barrier that surrounds and protects the brain. Moreover, many lysosomal storage disorders are characterized by a number of blood-brain barrier dysfunctions, which may further contribute to disease neuropathology and accelerate neuronal cell death. These issues, and their context in the development of new therapeutic strategies, will be discussed in detail in this chapter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuroradiologic Characteristics of Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System According to the Affected Vessel Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Christian; Kaufmann-Bühler, Ann-Katrin; Gansukh, Tserenchunt; Gansukh, Amarjargal; Schuster, Simon; Bachmann, Henrike; Thomalla, Götz; Magnus, Tim; Matschke, Jakob; Fiehler, Jens; Siemonsen, Susanne

    2017-09-05

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an important impact in diagnosing primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS). However, neuroradiologic findings may vary immensely, making an easy and definite diagnosis challenging. In this retrospective, single center study, we analyzed neuroradiologic findings of patients with PACNS diagnosed at our hospital between 2009 and 2014. Furthermore, we classified patients according to the affected vessel size and compared imaging characteristics between the subgroups. Thirty-three patients were included (mean age 43 [±15.3] years, 17 females) in this study. Patients with positive angiographic findings were classified as either medium or large vessel PACNS and presented more ischemic lesions (p effect. Twenty-five patients underwent brain biopsy. Patients with medium or large vessel PACNS were less likely to have positive biopsy results. It is essential to differentiate between small and medium/large vessel PACNS since results in MRI, digital subtraction angiography and brain biopsy may differ immensely. Since image quality of MR scanners improves gradually and brain biopsy may often be nonspecific or negative, our results emphasize the importance of MRI/MRA in the diagnosis process of PACNS.

  5. Identification of high- and low-affinity NGF receptors during development of the chicken central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escandon, E.; Chao, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    In order to study regulation of the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor during embryogenesis in chick brain, we have used affinity crosslinking of tissues with 125 I-NGF. NGF interacts with high- and low-affinity receptors; high-affinity receptors are required for the majority of NGF's actions. Most measurements of receptor levels do not distinguish between high- and low-affinity forms of the receptor. We have used the lipophilic crosslinking agent HSAB to identify the high-affinity, functional receptor during development of the chicken central nervous system. A peak of expression during Embryonic Days 5-10 was detected in all regions of the chicken central nervous system, but, shortly after birth, only the cerebellar region displays significant levels of NGF receptor protein. The time course of expression confirms the dramatic regulation of the NGF receptor gene during defined embryonic periods. The detection of high-affinity NGF receptors in brain and neural retina provides strong evidence that NGF is involved in essential ontogenetic events in the development of the chicken central nervous system

  6. Radiologic studies in two outbreaks of isolated vasculitis in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, H.J.; Perez, M.; Tilton, A.H.; Garcia, C.; McGarry, P.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral vasculitis is only occasionally diagnosed with angiography. Two outbreaks of isolated central nervous system vasculitis permitted a comparison of the accuracy of diagnostic radiologic studies. Two new radiologic features and methods of diagnosis are discussed

  7. Cerebral angiography as a guide for therapy in isolated central nervous system vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, R.L.; Martino, C.R.; Weinert, D.M.; Hueftle, M.; Kammer, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present a case of isolated central nervous system vasculitis documented by cerebral arteriography in which remission, using a treatment regimen of prednisone and cyclophosphamide, was guided by serial arteriography during a 15-month period

  8. Contraindications to Athletic Participation. Cardiac, Respiratory, and Central Nervous System Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses contraindications to athletic participation, examining the cardiac, respiratory, and central nervous system conditions that warrant activity disqualification. Provides guidelines about when it is safe for individuals to participate, and discusses the physician's responsibility. (SM)

  9. Candida infection of the central nervous system following neurosurgery: a 12-year review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2011-06-01

    Candida infection of the central nervous system (CNS) following neurosurgery is relatively unusual but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present our experience with this infection in adults and discuss clinical characteristics, treatment options, and outcome.

  10. Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood central nervous system embryonal tumors and pineal tumors are treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue and targeted therapy. Learn more in this expert-reviewed summary.

  11. Bioactivity of marine organisms: Part 7- Effect of seaweed extract on central nervous system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Naik, C.G.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Jain, S.; Goel, A.K.; Srimal, R.C.

    Alcohol extracts of marine algae (Rhodophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Chlorophyceae) was screened for their effect on central nervous system. Of 69 species investigated 8 appeared biologically active, 6 being CNS stimulant, sites and dates of collection...

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Paolo; Uhm, Joon H; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Nabhan, Chadi; Parikh, Sameer A; Hanson, Curtis A; Chaffee, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-04-01

    Abroad array of conditions can lead to neurological symptoms in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and distinguishing between clinically significant involvement of the central nervous system by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and symptoms due to other etiologies can be challenging. Between January 1999 and November 2014, 172 (4%) of the 4174 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia followed at our center had a magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system and/or a lumbar puncture to evaluate neurological symptoms. After comprehensive evaluation, the etiology of neurological symptoms was: central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 18 patients (10% evaluated by imaging and/or lumbar puncture, 0.4% overall cohort); central nervous system Richter Syndrome in 15 (9% evaluated, 0.3% overall); infection in 40 (23% evaluated, 1% overall); autoimmune/inflammatory conditions in 28 (16% evaluated, 0.7% overall); other cancer in 8 (5% evaluated, 0.2% overall); and another etiology in 63 (37% evaluated, 1.5% overall). Although the sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid analysis to detect central nervous system disease was 89%, the specificity was only 42% due to the frequent presence of leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid in other conditions. No parameter on cerebrospinal fluid analysis (e.g. total nucleated cells, total lymphocyte count, chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell percentage) were able to offer a reliable discrimination between patients whose neurological symptoms were due to clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and another etiology. Median overall survival among patients with clinically significant central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Richter syndrome was 12 and 11 months, respectively. In conclusion, clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a rare condition, and neurological symptoms in patients with chronic lymphocytic

  13. A pediatric renal lymphoma case presenting with central nervous system findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Ahmet; Küpeli, Serhan; Doğru, Omer

    2013-06-01

    In pediatric patients renal lymphoma frequently presents in the form of multiple, bilateral mass lesions, infrequently as a single or retroperitoneal mass, and rarely as diffuse infiltrative lesions. In patients with apparent central nervous system involvement close attention to other physical and laboratory findings are essential for preventing a delay in the final diagnosis. Herein we present a pediatric patient with renal lymphoma that presented with central nervous system findings that caused a delay in diagnosis. None declared.

  14. Positivity of magnetic resonance imaging the GIROIMAG-01: Diagnostic tools in injuries of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda Guerra, Manuel Ernesto; Corujo Torres, Pedro A.; Gonzalez Ferro, Idalia; Daudinot Gomez, Barbara; Montoya Pedron, Arquimedes

    2001-01-01

    A study was made to compare the positivity of magnetic resonance imaging with that of other imaging and neuropsychological diagnostic tools in injuries of the central nervous system in order to determine the sensitivity, specificity, strength and the test error with the GIROIMAG-01 Cuban tomograph in the diagnostic of these injuries. An intentional sample of 398 patients was selected. Only those patients who had undergone computed axial tomography, electroencephalogram or evoked multimodal potentials or both, whose results were registered in the study requests, could be selected. The most representative injuries among the diagnoses made were the degenerative diseases, the brain and cerebellar tumors, the cerebrovascular accidents, the demyelinizating diseases and hydrocephalous. It was demonstrated that this tomograph has an elevated sensitivity and specificity for the detection of injuries of the central nervous system

  15. Inhalation of Hydrocarbon Jet Fuel Suppress Central Auditory Nervous System Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, O'neil W; Wong, Brian A; McInturf, Shawn M; Reboulet, James E; Ortiz, Pedro A; Mattie, David R

    2015-01-01

    More than 800 million L/d of hydrocarbon fuels is used to power cars, boats, and jet airplanes. The weekly consumption of these fuels necessarily puts the public at risk for repeated inhalation exposure. Recent studies showed that exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel produces lethality in presynaptic sensory cells, leading to hearing loss, especially in the presence of noise. However, the effects of hydrocarbon jet fuel on the central auditory nervous system (CANS) have not received much attention. It is important to investigate the effects of hydrocarbons on the CANS in order to complete current knowledge regarding the ototoxic profile of such exposures. The objective of the current study was to determine whether inhalation exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel might affect the functions of the CANS. Male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into four groups (control, noise, fuel, and fuel + noise). The structural and functional integrity of presynaptic sensory cells was determined in each group. Neurotransmission in both peripheral and central auditory pathways was simultaneously evaluated in order to identify and differentiate between peripheral and central dysfunctions. There were no detectable effects on pre- and postsynaptic peripheral functions. However, the responsiveness of the brain was significantly depressed and neural transmission time was markedly delayed. The development of CANS dysfunctions in the general public and the military due to cumulative exposure to hydrocarbon fuels may represent a significant but currently unrecognized public health issue.

  16. Concordance of Time-of-Flight MRA and Digital Subtraction Angiography in Adult Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boysson, H; Boulouis, G; Parienti, J-J; Touzé, E; Zuber, M; Arquizan, C; Dequatre, N; Detante, O; Bienvenu, B; Aouba, A; Guillevin, L; Pagnoux, C; Naggara, O

    2017-10-01

    3D-TOF-MRA and DSA are 2 available tools to demonstrate neurovascular involvement in primary central nervous system vasculitis. We aimed to compare the diagnostic concordance of vessel imaging using 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA in patients with primary central nervous system vasculitis. We retrospectively identified all patients included in the French primary central nervous system vasculitis cohort of 85 patients who underwent, at baseline, both intracranial 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA in an interval of no more than 2 weeks and before treatment initiation. Two neuroradiologists independently reviewed all 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA imaging. Brain vasculature was divided into 25 arterial segments. Concordance between 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA for the identification of arterial stenosis was assessed by the Cohen κ Index. Thirty-one patients met the inclusion criteria, including 20 imaged with a 1.5T MR unit and 11 with a 3T MR unit. Among the 25 patients (81%) with abnormal DSA findings, 24 demonstrated abnormal 3D-TOF-MRA findings, whereas all 6 remaining patients with normal DSA findings had normal 3D-TOF-MRA findings. In the per-segment analysis, concordance between 1.5T 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.75-0.93), and between 3T 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA, it was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.78-0.91). 3D-TOF-MRA shows a high concordance with DSA in diagnostic performance when analyzing brain vasculature in patients with primary central nervous system vasculitis. In patients with negative 3T 3D-TOF-MRA findings, the added diagnostic value of DSA is limited. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  17. Aging changes in the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/004023.htm Aging changes in the nervous system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The brain and nervous system are your body's central control center. They control ...

  18. NSF Workshop Report: Discovering General Principles of Nervous System Organization by Comparing Brain Maps across Species

    OpenAIRE

    Striedter, Georg F.; Belgard, T. Grant; Chen, Chun-Chun; Davis, Fred P.; Finlay, Barbara L.; Güntürkün, Onur; Hale, Melina E.; Harris, Julie A.; Hecht, Erin E.; Hof, Patrick R.; Hofmann, Hans A.; Holland, Linda Z.; Iwaniuk, Andrew N.; Jarvis, Erich D.; Karten, Harvey J.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to understand nervous system structure and function have received new impetus from the federal Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. Comparative analyses can contribute to this effort by leading to the discovery of general principles of neural circuit design, information processing, and gene-structure-function relationships that are not apparent from studies on single species. We here propose to extend the comparative approach to nervous sys...

  19. The role of amino acids on the development of radiation-induced damage of central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamatodani, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Kouichi; Nohara, Kyoko; Moriyasu, Saeko; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    Radiation impairs some functions of the central nervous system, which is one of the radiation-resistant tissues in the body. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of the effects of high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy-ions on the release of glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, in the hypothalamus of rats measured by in vivo brain microdialysis. Total body and head, but not abdominal, heavy-ion (carbon) irradiation induced a significant increase in glutamate levels to approximately 150% of the basal level at 1.5 h of the irradiation, and the release gradually increased during the observation period. Furthermore, heavy-ion-induced glutamate release was suppressed by pretreatment with the dexamethasone. These results suggested that the central pathways (i.e. the neuronal damage of the brain or inflammatory cytokines which were produced in the brain) are involved in the development of high-LET radiation-induced glutamate release. (author)

  20. The application of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy for the study of diseased central nervous system tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Sally; Heraud, Philip; Tobin, Mark J; McNaughton, Donald; Bernard, Claude C A

    2012-02-15

    In the last two decades the field of infrared spectroscopy has seen enormous advances in both instrumentation and the development of bioinformatic methods for spectral analysis, allowing the examination of a large variety of healthy and diseased samples, including biological fluids, isolated cells, whole tissues, and tissue sections. The non-destructive nature of the technique, together with the ability to directly probe biochemical changes without the addition of stains or contrast agents, enables a range of complementary analyses. This review focuses on the application of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to analyse central nervous system tissues, with the aim of understanding the biochemical and structural changes associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, multiple sclerosis, as well as brain tumours. Modern biospectroscopic methods that combine FTIR microspectroscopy with bioinformatic analysis constitute a powerful new methodology that can discriminate pathology from normal healthy tissue in a rapid, unbiased fashion, with high sensitivity and specificity. Notably, the ability to detect protein secondary structural changes associated with Alzheimer's plaques, neurons in Parkinson's disease, and in some spectra from meningioma, as well as in the animal models of Alzheimer's disease, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, and multiple sclerosis, illustrates the power of this technology. The capacity to offer insight into the biochemical and structural changes underpinning aetio-pathogenesis of diseases in tissues provides both a platform to investigate early pathologies occurring in a variety of experimentally induced and naturally occurring central nervous system diseases, and the potential to evaluate new therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. RASSF1A promoter is highly methylated in primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, María-del-Mar; Castresana, Javier S

    2007-08-01

    Although cancer is rare in children, primary brain tumors constitute the most frequent location of solid tumors in childhood. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the central nervous system can be divided into infratentorial PNET or medulloblastoma (MB), and supratentorial (sPNET) tumors. Although MB and sPNET are histologically similar, clinical evolution differs, sPNET being more aggressive than MB. Some studies have suggested that MB and sPNET present different molecular genetic aberrations. The RASSF1A (Ras Association Domain Family Protein 1) gene, located at 3p21.3, is highly methylated in multiple primary tumor samples, including neuroblastoma. In order to define whether there are genetic differences in the methylation frequency of RASSF1A between MB and sPNET, we analyzed 32 PNET paraffin-embedded samples (23 MB and 9 sPNET) by methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). We also analyzed RASSF1A expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in five PNET cell lines. All PNET cell lines showed lack of RASSF1A expression that was correlated with RASSF1A promoter hypermethylation. RASSF1A methylation was detected in 19 of 21 MB cases (91%) and in five of six sPNET samples (83%). Although the methylation frequency found in MB was slightly higher than in sPNET, no statistical differences were found for the RASSF1A hypermethylation frequency (P > 0.05) presented at MB versus sPNET. Therefore, the inactivation of the RASSF1A gene seems to be an important step in the tumorigenesis of PNET of the central nervous sytem. More studies should be performed in order to determine genetic differences between MB and sPNET.

  2. Diffusion tensor analysis with nuclear magnetic resonance in human central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Naoki

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance has been used to measure the diffusivity of water molecules. In central nervous system, anisotropic diffusion, which is characterized by apparent diffusion tensor D app ξ , is thought to be related to neuronal fiber tract orientation. For precise observation of anisotropic diffusion, it is needed to determine the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of D app ξ . Once D app ξ is estimated from a series of diffusion weighted images, a tissue's orthotropic principal axes and diffusivity of each direction are determined from eigenvalues and eigenvectors of D app ξ . There are several methods to represent anisotropic diffusion with D app ξ . Examples are diffusion ellipsoids constructed in each voxel depicting both these principal axes and the mean diffusion length in these directions, trace invariant values and its mapping image, largest eigenvalue, and ratio of largest eigenvalue to the other eigenvalue. In this study, the author investigated practical procedure to analyze diffusion tensor D app ξ using both of spin-echo end echo-planer diffusion weighted imagings with 3-tesla magnetic resonance machine in human brain. The ellipsoid representation provided particularly useful information about microanatomy including neuronal fiber tract orientation and molecular mobility reflective of microstructure. Furthermore, in the lesion of Wallerian degeneration, the loss of anisotropy of local apparent diffusion was observed. It is suggested that the function of axons can be observed via degree of anisotropy of apparent diffusion. Consequently, diffusion tensor analysis is expected to be a powerful, noninvasive method capable of quantitative and functional evaluation of the central nervous system. (author)

  3. Diffusion MR imaging with PSIF and SPLICE. Experiences in phantom studies and the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikoshi, Masato; Ueda, Takashi; Kaji, Yasushi

    2001-01-01

    Studies have shown that diffusion MR imaging is a reliable method for the diagnosis of central nervous system diseases, especially acute cerebral infarction. Although echo planar imaging (EPI) is a promising tool for that purpose, it is vulnerable to susceptibility artifacts that are responsible for image distortion or signal loss. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the usefulness of diffusion MR imaging with PSIF (reversed fast imaging SSFP) and split acquisition of fast-spin-echo signals for diffusion imaging (SPLICE) in the central nervous system (CNS). First, PSIF and SPLICE were applied to the phantoms. Each phantom, including acetone, acetic acid, and water, was analyzed for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) based on SPLICE and for diffusion-related coefficient (DRC) based on PSIF. The ADCs based on SPLICE were 4.36±0.89 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec, 1.25±0.04 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec, and 2.35±0.04 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec, and the DRCs based on PSIF were 0.353±0.25, 0.178±0.07, and 0.273±0.018 for acetone, acetic acid, and water, respectively. These calculated ADCs based on SPLICE were well correlated with known diffusion coefficients, showing a correlation coefficient of 0.995. Second, PSIF and SPLICE were applied to the CNS. The advantage of PSIF and SPLICE was that susceptibility artifacts were reduced in the images of spinal cord and brain stem. PSIF was especially useful for diffusion MR imaging in the spinal cord. The disadvantage of SPLICE was the decreased SN ratio. We conclude that PSIF or SPLICE may be helpful when EPI diffusion MR imaging is insufficient. (author)

  4. Career readiness, developmental work personality and age of onset in young adult central nervous system survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauser, David; Wagner, Stacia; Wong, Alex W K; O'Sullivan, Deidre

    2013-04-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to undertake foundational research in the area of career readiness, work personality and age of onset with young adult central nervous system (CNS) survivors. Participants for this study consisted of 43 individuals whose age range from 18 to 30 (M = 21.64, SD = 3.46), an average age of brain tumor onset of 9.50 years (SD = 4.73) and average years off of treatment of 7.25 years (SD = 5.80). Packets were distributed to survivors who were participating in a psychosocial cancer treatment program. Participants completed multiple career instruments and a demographic form. Differences between groups and among the variables were examined and size effect sizes were analyzed. Young adult CNS survivors had significantly lower levels of work personality and career readiness when compared to young adult non-cancer survivors with CNS cancer with those between the ages of 6 and 12 reported significantly lower levels when compared to individuals diagnosed before age 6 and after the age of 13. Young adult CNS survivors at an increased risk for having lower levels of work personality and career readiness then a norm group comparison. Age of onset (between 6 and 12) may be at significant risk factor for developing poor or dysfunctional work and career behaviors. • Young adults with central nervous system (CNS) cancer are at particular risk for experiencing difficulties related to career and employment. • Work personality and career readiness are two constructs that have been found to be related to one's ability to meet the demands of work. • Young adult CNS cancer survivors have lower levels of work personality and career readiness. • Individuals diagnosed between the ages of 6 and 12 may be at particular risk and may need specific vocational rehabilitation interventions. • The results of this study point to the need for comprehensive career and vocational services for young adult CNS cancer survivors.

  5. The Central Institute forBrain Research in Amsterdam and its directors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, Paul; Hofman, Michel A

    2014-01-01

    The Central Institute for Brain Research was founded in Amsterdam in 1908 as part of an international effort to study the nervous system with multiple institutions and various disciplines. The development of research in the past hundred years at the Brain Institute has hardly been documented. We

  6. Infiltration Pattern of Blood Monocytes into the Central Nervous System during Experimental Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Menasria

    Full Text Available The kinetics and distribution of infiltrating blood monocytes into the central nervous system and their involvement in the cerebral immune response together with resident macrophages, namely microglia, were evaluated in experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 encephalitis (HSE. To distinguish microglia from blood monocyte-derived macrophages, chimeras were generated by conditioning C57BL/6 recipient mice with chemotherapy regimen followed by transplantation of bone morrow-derived cells that expressed the green fluorescent protein. Mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of HSV-1 (1.2 x 10(6 plaque forming units. Brains were harvested prior to and on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-infection for flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. The amounts of neutrophils (P < 0.05 and "Ly6C hi" inflammatory monocytes (P < 0.001 significantly increased in the CNS compared to non-infected controls on day 6 post-infection, which corresponded to more severe clinical signs of HSE. Levels decreased on day 8 for both leukocytes subpopulations (P < 0.05 for inflammatory monocytes compared to non-infected controls to reach baseline levels on day 10 following infection. The percentage of "Ly6C low" patrolling monocytes significantly increased (P < 0.01 at a later time point (day 8, which correlated with the resolution phase of HSE. Histological analysis demonstrated that blood leukocytes colonized mostly the olfactory bulb and the brainstem, which corresponded to regions where HSV-1 particles were detected. Furthermore, infiltrating cells from the monocytic lineage could differentiate into activated local tissue macrophages that express the microglia marker, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1. The lack of albumin detection in the brain parenchyma of infected mice showed that the infiltration of blood leukocytes was not necessarily related to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier but could be the result of a functional recruitment. Thus

  7. Expression pattern of the thrombopoietin receptor (Mpl) in the murine central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anna; Wuerfel, Jens; Zhang, Juan; Hoffmann, Olaf; Ballmaier, Matthias; Dame, Christof

    2010-07-28

    Thrombopoietin (Thpo) and its receptor (Mpl), which regulate megakaryopoiesis, are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), where Thpo is thought to exert pro-apoptotic effects on newly generated neurons. Mpl expression has been analysed in brain tissue on transcript level and in cultured primary rat neurons and astrocytes on protein level. Herein, we analysed Mpl expression in the developing and adult murine CNS by immunohistochemistry and investigated the brain of mice with homozygous Mpl deficiency (Mpl-/-) by MRI. Mpl was not detectable at developmental stages E12 to E15 in any resident cells of the CNS. From E18 onwards, robust Mpl expression was found in various brain areas, including cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, thalamus, hypothalamus, medulla, pons, and the grey matter of spinal cord. However, major developmental changes became obvious: In the subventricular zone of the cerebral cortex Mpl expression occurred only during late gestation, while in the hippocampus Mpl expression was detectable for first time at stage P4. In the white matter of the cerebellum Mpl expression was restricted to the perinatal period. In the adult cerebellum, Mpl expression switched to Purkinje cell. The majority of other Mpl-positive cells were NeuN-positive neurons. None of the cells could be double-labelled with astrocyte marker GFAP. Mpl-/- mice showed no gross abnormalities of the brain. Our data locate Mpl expression to neurons at different subdivisions of the spinal cord, rhombencephalon, midbrain and prosencephalon. Besides neuronal cells Mpl protein is also expressed in Purkinje cells of the adult cerebellum.

  8. Impact of the Innate Immune Response in the Actions of Ethanol on the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, Jorge; Alfonso-Loeches, Silvia; Guerri, Consuelo

    2016-11-01

    The innate immune response in the central nervous system (CNS) participates in both synaptic plasticity and neural damage. Emerging evidence from human and animal studies supports the role of the neuroimmune system response in many actions of ethanol (EtOH) on the CNS. Research studies have shown that alcohol stimulates brain immune cells, microglia, and astrocytes, by activating innate immune receptors Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (inflammasome NLRs) triggering signaling pathways, which culminate in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that lead to neuroinflammation. This review focuses on evidence that indicates the participation of TLRs and the inflammasome NLRs signaling response in many effects of EtOH on the CNS, such as neuroinflammation associated with brain damage, cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and adolescent brain development alterations. It also reviews findings that indicate the role of TLR4-dependent signaling immune molecules in alcohol consumption, reward, and addiction. The research data suggest that overactivation of TLR4 or NLRs increases pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators to cause neural damage in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, while modest TLR4 activation, along with the generation of certain cytokines and chemokines in specific brain areas (e.g., amygdala, ventral tegmental area), modulate neurotransmission, alcohol drinking, and alcohol rewards. Elimination of TLR4 and NLRP3 abolishes many neuroimmune effects of EtOH. Despite much progress being made in this area, there are some research gaps and unanswered questions that this review discusses. Finally, potential therapies that target neuroimmune pathways to treat neuropathological and behavioral consequences of alcohol abuse are also evaluated. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Norman, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers on technological advancement and diagnostic uses g magnetic resonance imaging. A comparative evaluation with computerized tomography is presented. Topics covered are imaging principles g magnetic resonance;instrumentation of magnetic resonance (MR);pathophysiology;quality and limitations g images;NMR imaging of brain and spinal cord;MR spectroscopy and its applications;neuroanatomy;Congenital malformations of brain and MR imaging;planning g MR imaging of spine and head and neck imaging

  10. [Effect of nociceptin on histamine and serotonin release in the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, Melinda; Hantos, Mónika; Laufer, Rudolf; Tekes, Korniléa

    2006-01-01

    Role in pain sensation of both nociceptin (NC), the bioactive heptadecapeptide sequence of preproorphaninFQ and of histamine has been widely evidenced in the central nervous system (CNS). In the current series of experiments effect of intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered NC (5.5 nmol/rat) on histamine and serotonin levels in blood plasma, CSF and brain areas (hypothalamus and hippocampus) was studies and compared to the effect of the mast cell degranulator Compound 48/80(100microg/kg, i.c.v.) and the neuroactive peptide Substance P (50nmol/rat, i.c.v.). It was found that all the three compounds increased the histamine level in the CNS, however their activity concerning the mast cell-, and neuronal histamine release is different. NC could release histamine from both the mast cells and the neurons and it decreased CNS serotonin levels. Substance P was found the most potent in increasing CNS histamine levels. Compound 48/80 treatment resulted in elevated histamine levels both in the CNS and blood plasma. It is concluded that the histamine releasing effects of i.c.v. administered NC and SP are limited to the CNS, but in the effect of Compound 48/80 its blood-brain barrier impairing activity is also involved. Data also demonstrate that NC has significant effect on both the histaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the CNS.

  11. AAV9-mediated central nervous system–targeted gene delivery via cisterna magna route in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lukashchuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current barriers to the use of adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9 in clinical trials for treating neurological disorders are its high expression in many off-target tissues such as liver and heart, and lack of cell specificity within the central nervous system (CNS when using ubiquitous promoters such as human cytomegalovirus (CMV or chicken-β-actin hybrid (CAG. To enhance targeting the transgene expression in CNS cells, self-complementary (sc AAV9 vectors, scAAV9-GFP vectors carrying neuronal Hb9 and synapsin 1, and nonspecific CMV and CAG promoters were constructed. We demonstrate that synapsin 1 and Hb9 promoters exclusively targeted neurons in vitro, although their strengths were up to 10-fold lower than that of CMV. In vivo analyses of mouse tissue after scAAV9-GFP vector delivery via the cisterna magna revealed a significant advantage of synapsin 1 promoter over both Hb9 variants in targeting neurons throughout the brain, since Hb9 promoters were driving gene expression mainly within the motor-related areas of the brain stem. In summary, this study demonstrates that cisterna magna administration is a safe alternative to intracranial or intracerebroventricular vector delivery route using scAAV9, and introduces a novel utility of the Hb9 promoter for the targeted gene expression for both in vivo and in vitro applications.

  12. A case of central nervous system infection due to Cladophialophora bantiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarcioglu, A Serda; Guarro, Josep; de Hoog, G Sybren; Apaydin, Hulya; Kiraz, Nuri; Balkan, Ilker Inanç; Ozaras, Resat

    Cladophialophora bantiana is a melanised mold with a pronounced tropism for the central nervous system, almost exclusively causing human brain abscesses. We describe a case of cerebral infection by this fungus in an otherwise healthy 28-year-old coal-miner. Environmental occurrence, route of entry, and incubation period of this fungus are unknown, but our case is informative in that the first symptoms occurred about eight weeks after known traumatic inoculation. Lesions were compatible with tuberculous granulomas, and the patient initially received antitubercular treatment. Melanised fungal cells were seen in a brain biopsy and abscess materials. Therapy was switched from empirical antitubercular treatment to amphotericin B (0.5mg/kg/d), but was changed to voriconazole 200mg/d, i.v. on the basis of antifungal susceptibility test results. The patient responded clinically, and gradually improved. The isolate was identified by sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer domain of rDNA. Given the non-specific clinical manifestations of C. bantiana cerebral abscesses, clinicians and laboratory workers should suspect infections caused by C. bantiana, particularly in immunocompromised patients with a trauma history. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Pathogenesis of developmental anomalies of the central nervous system induced by congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hideya; Kosugi, Isao; Meguro, Shiori; Iwashita, Toshihide

    2017-02-01

    In humans, the herpes virus family member cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most prevalent mediator of intrauterine infection-induced congenital defect. Central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction is a distinguishing symptom of CMV infection, and characterized by ventriculoencephalitis and microglial nodular encephalitis. Reports on the initial distribution of CMV particles and its receptors on the blood brain barrier (BBB) are rare. Nevertheless, several factors are suggested to affect CMV etiology. Viral particle size is the primary factor in determining the pattern of CNS infections, followed by the expression of integrin β1 in endothelial cells, pericytes, meninges, choroid plexus, and neural stem progenitor cells (NSPCs), which are the primary targets of CMV infection. After initial infection, CMV disrupts BBB structural integrity to facilitate the spread of viral particles into parenchyma. Then, the initial meningitis and vasculitis eventually reaches NSPC-dense areas such as ventricular zone and subventricular zone, where viral infection inhibits NSPC proliferation and differentiation and results in neuronal cell loss. These cellular events clinically manifest as brain malformations such as a microcephaly. The purpose of this review is to clearly delineate the pathophysiological basis of congenital CNS anomalies caused by CMV. © 2017 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. CARD9-Dependent Neutrophil Recruitment Protects against Fungal Invasion of the Central Nervous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Drummond

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida is the most common human fungal pathogen and causes systemic infections that require neutrophils for effective host defense. Humans deficient in the C-type lectin pathway adaptor protein CARD9 develop spontaneous fungal disease that targets the central nervous system (CNS. However, how CARD9 promotes protective antifungal immunity in the CNS remains unclear. Here, we show that a patient with CARD9 deficiency had impaired neutrophil accumulation and induction of neutrophil-recruiting CXC chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid despite uncontrolled CNS Candida infection. We phenocopied the human susceptibility in Card9-/- mice, which develop uncontrolled brain candidiasis with diminished neutrophil accumulation. The induction of neutrophil-recruiting CXC chemokines is significantly impaired in infected Card9-/- brains, from both myeloid and resident glial cellular sources, whereas cell-intrinsic neutrophil chemotaxis is Card9-independent. Taken together, our data highlight the critical role of CARD9-dependent neutrophil trafficking into the CNS and provide novel insight into the CNS fungal susceptibility of CARD9-deficient humans.

  15. [Cannabis: Effects in the Central Nervous System. Therapeutic, societal and legal consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Olmos, Víctor Manuel; Parra-Bernal, Marisela C

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of marijuana extracted from Cannabis sativa and indica plants involves an important cultural impact in Mexico. Their psychological stimulatory effect is widely recognized; their biochemical and molecular components interact with CB1 and CB2 (endocannabinoid system) receptors in various central nervous system structures (CNS) and immune cells. The psychoactive element Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can be reproduced synthetically. Systematic reviews show evidence of therapeutic effectiveness of therapeutic marijuana only for certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis (spasticity, spasms and pain), despite attempts for its widespread use, including refractory childhood epilepsy. Evidence indicates significant adverse effects of smoked marijuana on the structure, functioning and brain connectivity. Cannabis exposure during pregnancy affects fetal brain development, potentially leading to later behavioral problems in children. Neuropsychological tests and advanced imaging techniques show involvement in the learning process in adolescents with substance use. Also, marijuana increases the cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis. Social and ethical consequences to legally free marijuana for recreational use may be deleterious transcendentally. The medicinal or psychoactive cannabinol no addictive effect requires controlled proven efficacy and safety before regulatory approval studies.

  16. Application of dental nanomaterials: potential toxicity to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoli; Chen, Aijie; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Jianfeng; Shao, Longquan; Wei, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are defined as materials with one or more external dimensions with a size of 1-100 nm. Such materials possess typical nanostructure-dependent properties (eg, chemical, biological, optical, mechanical, and magnetic), which may differ greatly from the properties of their bulk counterparts. In recent years, nanomaterials have been widely used in the production of dental materials, particularly in light polymerization composite resins and bonding systems, coating materials for dental implants, bioceramics, endodontic sealers, and mouthwashes. However, the dental applications of nanomaterials yield not only a significant improvement in clinical treatments but also growing concerns regarding their biosecurity. The brain is well protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which separates the blood from the cerebral parenchyma. However, in recent years, many studies have found that nanoparticles (NPs), including nanocarriers, can transport through the BBB and locate in the central nervous system (CNS). Because the CNS may be a potential target organ of the nanomaterials, it is essential to determine the neurotoxic effects of NPs. In this review, possible dental nanomaterials and their pathways into the CNS are discussed, as well as related neurotoxicity effects underlying the in vitro and in vivo studies. Finally, we analyze the limitations of the current testing methods on the toxicological effects of nanomaterials. This review contributes to a better understanding of the nano-related risks to the CNS as well as the further development of safety assessment systems.

  17. Nanofibrous scaffolds supporting optimal central nervous system regeneration: an evidence-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamudzandu M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Munyaradzi Kamudzandu, Paul Roach, Rosemary A Fricker, Ying Yang Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, School of Medicine, Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent, UK Abstract: Restoration of function following damage to the central nervous system (CNS is severely restricted by several factors. These include the hindrance of axonal regeneration imposed by glial scars resulting from inflammatory response to damage, and limited axonal outgrowth toward target tissue. Strategies for promoting CNS functional regeneration include the use of nanotechnology. Due to their structural similarity, synthetic nanofibers could play an important role in regeneration of CNS neural tissue toward restoration of function following injury. Two-dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds have been used to provide contact guidance for developing brain and spinal cord neurites, particularly from neurons cultured in vitro. Three-dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds have been used, both in vitro and in vivo, for creating cell adhesion permissive milieu, in addition to contact guidance or structural bridges for axons, to control reconnection in brain and spinal cord injury models. It is postulated that nanofibrous scaffolds made from biodegradable and biocompatible materials can become powerful structural bridges for both guiding the outgrowth of neurites and rebuilding glial circuitry over the “lesion gaps” resulting from injury in the CNS. Keywords: scaffold, nanofibrous scaffold, CNS, regeneration, alignment

  18. Primary T cell central nervous system lymphoblastic lymphoma in a child: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Marcus D; Ravindra, Vijay M; Alashari, Mouied; Raetz, Elizabeth; Poppe, Matthew M; Bollo, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) of T cell origin is rare in pediatric patients. We report a case of T cell PCNSL in a 12-year-old boy and review the literature to highlight the importance of brain biopsy to definitively establish the diagnosis when PCNSL is suspected. A 12-year-old boy presented with worsening left-sided weakness, nausea, vomiting, headache, blurred vision, and diplopia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed right parietal gyral thickening with faint meningeal contrast enhancement. No clear diagnosis was identified after serum testing, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and cerebral angiography. To establish the diagnosis definitively, a right craniotomy and open, frameless stereotactic biopsy were performed, which yielded the diagnosis of lymphoblastic T cell lymphoma. PCNSL of T cell origin in children remains poorly studied, with only 18 detailed cases reported over the last three decades, including this case. Establishing a definitive diagnosis of PCNSL is challenging, and a brain biopsy is often required to obtain enough tissue for pathological analysis. Increasing awareness and identification of children diagnosed with T cell PCNSL is needed to better understand the molecular biology of this disease and develop more standardized treatment regimens.

  19. Redox Signaling Mediated by Thioredoxin and Glutathione Systems in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoyuan; Zou, Lili; Zhang, Xu; Branco, Vasco; Wang, Jun; Carvalho, Cristina; Holmgren, Arne; Lu, Jun

    2017-11-01

    The thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione (GSH) systems play important roles in maintaining the redox balance in the brain, a tissue that is prone to oxidative stress due to its high-energy demand. These two disulfide reductase systems are active in various areas of the brain and are considered to be critical antioxidant systems in the central nervous system (CNS). Various neuronal disorders have been characterized to have imbalanced redox homeostasis. Recent Advances: In addition to their detrimental effects, recent studies have highlighted that reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) act as critical signaling molecules by modifying thiols in proteins. The Trx and GSH systems, which reversibly regulate thiol modifications, regulate redox signaling involved in various biological events in the CNS. In this review, we focus on the following: (i) how ROS/RNS are produced and mediate signaling in CNS; (ii) how Trx and GSH systems regulate redox signaling by catalyzing reversible thiol modifications; (iii) how dysfunction of the Trx and GSH systems causes alterations of cellular redox signaling in human neuronal diseases; and (iv) the effects of certain small molecules that target thiol-based signaling pathways in the CNS. Further study on the roles of thiol-dependent redox systems in the CNS will improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of many human neuronal disorders and also help to develop novel protective and therapeutic strategies against neuronal diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 989-1010.

  20. Evaluating Cancer of the Central Nervous System Through Next-Generation Sequencing of Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentsova, Elena I.; Shah, Ronak H.; Tang, Jiabin; Boire, Adrienne; You, Daoqi; Briggs, Samuel; Omuro, Antonio; Lin, Xuling; Fleisher, Martin; Grommes, Christian; Panageas, Katherine S.; Meng, Fanli; Selcuklu, S. Duygu; Ogilvie, Shahiba; Distefano, Natalie; Shagabayeva, Larisa; Rosenblum, Marc; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Viale, Agnes; Berger, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cancer spread to the central nervous system (CNS) often is diagnosed late and is unresponsive to therapy. Mechanisms of tumor dissemination and evolution within the CNS are largely unknown because of limited access to tumor tissue. Materials and Methods We sequenced 341 cancer-associated genes in cell-free DNA from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained through routine lumbar puncture in 53 patients with suspected or known CNS involvement by cancer. Results We detected high-confidence somatic alterations in 63% (20 of 32) of patients with CNS metastases of solid tumors, 50% (six of 12) of patients with primary brain tumors, and 0% (zero of nine) of patients without CNS involvement by cancer. Several patients with tumor progression in the CNS during therapy with inhibitors of oncogenic kinases harbored mutations in the kinase target or kinase bypass pathways. In patients with glioma, the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults, examination of cell-free DNA uncovered patterns of tumor evolution, including temozolomide-associated mutations. Conclusion The study shows that CSF harbors clinically relevant genomic alterations in patients with CNS cancers and should be considered for liquid biopsies to monitor tumor evolution in the CNS. PMID:27161972

  1. Monocyte Trafficking, Engraftment, and Delivery of Nanoparticles and an Exogenous Gene into the Acutely Inflamed Brain Tissue - Evaluations on Monocyte-Based Delivery System for the Central Nervous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-I Tong

    Full Text Available The ability of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM to travel towards chemotactic gradient, traverse tissue barriers, and accumulate precisely at diseased sites makes them attractive candidates as drug carriers and therapeutic gene delivery vehicles targeting the brain, where treatments are often hampered by the blockade of the blood brain barrier (BBB. This study was designed to fully establish an optimized cell-based delivery system using monocytes and MDM, by evaluating their homing efficiency, engraftment potential, as well as carriage and delivery ability to transport nano-scaled particles and exogenous genes into the brain, following the non-invasive intravenous (IV cell adoptive transfer in an acute neuroinflammation mouse model induced by intracranial injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides. We demonstrated that freshly isolated monocytes had superior inflamed-brain homing ability over MDM cultured in the presence of macrophage colony stimulating factor. In addition, brain trafficking of IV infused monocytes was positively correlated with the number of adoptive transferred cells, and could be further enhanced by transient disruption of the BBB with IV administration of Mannitol, Bradykinin or Serotonin right before cell infusion. A small portion of transmigrated cells was detected to differentiate into IBA-1 positive cells with microglia morphology in the brain. Finally, with the use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles SHP30, the ability of nanoscale agent-carriage monocytes to enter the inflamed brain region was validated. In addition, lentiviral vector DHIV-101 was used to introduce green fluorescent protein (GFP gene into monocytes, and the exogenous GFP gene was detected in the brain at 48 hours following IV infusion of the transduced monocytes. All together, our study has set up the optimized conditions for the more-in-depth tests and development of monocyte-mediated delivery, and our data supported

  2. Effects of the fluoride on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Jiménez, L; Soria Fregozo, C; Miranda Beltrán, M L; Gutiérrez Coronado, O; Pérez Vega, M I

    2011-06-01

    Fluoride (F) is a toxic and reactive element, and exposure to it passes almost unnoticed, with the consumption of tea, fish, meat, fruits, etcetera and articles of common use such as: toothpaste additives; dental gels, non-stick pans and razor blades as Teflon. It has also been used with the intention of reducing the dental cares. Fluoride can accumulate in the body, and it has been shown that continuous exposure to it causes damaging effects on body tissues, particularly the nervous system directly without any previous physical malformations. Several clinical and experimental studies have reported that the F induces changes in cerebral morphology and biochemistry that affect the neurological development of individuals as well as cognitive processes, such as learning and memory. F can be toxic by ingesting one part per million (ppm), and the effects they are not immediate, as they can take 20 years or more to become evident. The prolonged ingestion of F may cause significant damage to health and particularly to the nervous system. Therefore, it is important to be aware of this serious problem and avoid the use of toothpaste and items that contain F, particularly in children as they are more susceptible to the toxic effects of F. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple myeloma and central nervous system involvement: experience of a Brazilian center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Miranda Silva Dias

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The estimated involvement of the central nervous system in patients with multiple myeloma is rare at about 1%. The infiltration can be identified at the time multiple myeloma is diagnosed or during its progression. However, it is more common in refractory disease or during relapse. Methods: This retrospective cohort study reviewed data from medical records of patients followed up at the Gammopathy Outpatient Clinic of Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo from January 2008 to December 2016. Results: Twenty patients were included, with a median follow-up of 33.5 months after central nervous system infiltration. The prevalence was 7%. The median age at diagnosis of multiple myeloma was 56.1 years, with 70% of participants being female. Sixteen patients had central nervous system infiltration at diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Seventeen patients had exclusive osteodural lesions and three had infiltrations of the leptomeninge, of which one had exclusive involvement and two had associated osteodural lesions. The median overall survival was 40.3 months after central nervous system involvement. The median overall survival in the group with central nervous system infiltration at relapse was 7.4 months. The patients with leptomeningeal involvement had a median overall survival of 5.8 months. Conclusion: Central nervous system infiltration is a rare condition, but it should be considered as a possibility in patients with multiple myeloma and neurological symptoms. The best treatment regimen for this condition remains unknown and, in most cases, the prognosis is unfavorable. Keywords: Central nervous system, Multiple myeloma, Radiotherapy, Chemotherapy, Prognosis

  4. Myelin injury in the central nervous system and Alzheimer's diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha-Sha; Zhang, Zhao; Zhu, Tian-Bi; Chu, Shi-Feng; He, Wen-Bin; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2018-05-03

    Myelin is a membrane wrapped around the axon of the nerve cell, which is composed of the mature oligodendrocytes. The role of myelin is to insulate and prevent the nerve electrical impulses from the axon of the neurons to the axons of the other neurons, which is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Minor changes in myelin thickness could lead to substantial changes in conduction speed and may thus alter neural circuit function. Demyelination is the myelin damage, which characterized by the loss of nerve sheath and the relative fatigue of the neuronal sheath and axon. Studies have shown that myelin injury may be closely related to neurodegenerative diseases and may be an early diagnostic criteria and therapeutic target. Thus this review summarizes the recent result of pathologic effect and signal pathways of myelin injury in neurodegenerative diseases, especially the Alzheimer's disease to provide new and effective therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Lipomas of the central nervous system in childhood. Apropos of 3 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delucchi Bottato, M.; Scavone Mauro, C.; Delfino Albornoz, A.

    2004-01-01

    Lipomas of the central nervous system occur as a phenomenon consequences developmental malformations of the central nervous system (CNS) and are not considered neoplasms . It is often associated with other congenital malformations. Representing 0.5 percent of intracranial tumors. Imaging studies are central CT or MRI for diagnosis. They are generally associated with other malformations of the CNS. The surgical treatment is always discussed by the high morbidity associated with it. We present three cases of children with lipomas of different topography. (author) [es

  6. The effect of central nervous system involvement and irradiation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskinen, Mervi; Oskarsson, Trausti; Levinsen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central nervous system irradiation (CNS-RT) has played a central role in the cure of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but due to the risk of long-term toxicity, it is now considered a less-favorable method of CNS-directed therapy. PROCEDURES: Retrospectively, we estimated the effect...

  7. "Heart-cut" bidimensional achiral-chiral liquid chromatography applied to the evaluation of stereoselective metabolism, in vivo biological activity and brain response to chiral drug candidates targeting the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Umberto M; Citti, Cinzia; Larini, Martina; Ciccarella, Giuseppe; Stasiak, Natalia; Troisi, Luigino; Braghiroli, Daniela; Parenti, Carlo; Zoli, Michele; Cannazza, Giuseppe

    2016-04-22

    A "heart-cut" two-dimensional achiral-chiral liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry method (LC-LC-MS/MS) was developed and coupled to in vivo cerebral microdialysis to evaluate the brain response to the chiral compound (±)-7-chloro-5-(3-furanyl)-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide ((±)-1), a potent positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of AMPA receptor. The method was successfully employed to evaluate also its stereoselective metabolism and in vitro biological activity. In particular, the LC achiral method developed, employs a pentafluorinated silica based column (Discovery HS-F5) to separate dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin, (±)-1 and its two hepatic metabolites. In the "heart-cut" two-dimension achiral-chiral configuration, (±)-1 and (±)-1-d4 eluted from the achiral column (1st dimension), were transferred to a polysaccharide-based chiral column (2nd dimension, Chiralcel OD-RH) by using an automatic six-port valve. Single enantiomers of (±)-1 were separated and detected using electrospray positive ionization mode and quantified in selected reaction monitoring mode. The method was validated and showed good performance in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. The new method employed showed several possible applications in the evaluation of: (a) brain response to neuroactive compounds by measuring variations in the brain extracellular levels of selected neurotransmitters and other biomarkers; (b) blood brain barrier penetration of drug candidates by measuring the free concentration of the drug in selected brain areas; (c) the presence of drug metabolites in the brain extracellular fluid that could prove very useful during drug discovery; (d) a possible stereoselective metabolization or blood brain barrier stereoselective crossing of chiral drugs. Finally, compared to the methods reported in the literature, this technique avoids the necessity of euthanizing an animal at each time point to measure drug

  8. Central nervous system leukemia in a patient with concurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma and acute myeloid leukaemia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Qing; Mai, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Si-Ben; Lou, Yin-Jun; Yan, Sen-Xiang; Jin, Jie; Xu, Wei-Lai

    2017-12-01

    Concurrent case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not been reported. Here, we report a case of NPC, who was concurrently suffered from AML one mother after the NPC diagnosis. The patient was a 45-year-old male who presented with a mass on his right side neck. The patient was diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus negative type-2 non-keratinizing carcinoma with clivus involvement and unilateral metastasis to the cervical lymph node. He was treated with one cycle of cisplatin and 69.76 Gy of concurrent external-beam radiation. Three months after completion of chemo-radiotherapy, the patient was diagnosed as acute myeloid leukemia, which achieved complete remission after one course induction chemotherapy. Two months later, however, the patient was diagnosed as central nervous system leukemia. He ultimately died of relapsed leukemia. The overall survival of the patient was 10 months. The co-occurrence of NPC and AML is rare and prognosis is poor. Radiotherapy in NPC can disrupt the blood-brain barrier, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of central nervous system leukemia. Early alert and prevention of central nervous system leukemia following radiotherapy in NPC patient is recommended. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunocytochemical distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the central nervous system of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron-Curry, P; Aste, N; Viglietti-Panzica, C; Panzica, G C

    1991-01-01

    In the present study we detailed the distribution of GFAP-immunopositive structures within the central nervous system of the Japanese quail. Different fixation and embedding procedures were applied. The best results were obtained on frozen cryostatic sections from freshly dissected brains subsequently fixed by a short immersion in cold acetone. Immunopositive structures were observed both with immunofluorescence, and with immunoperoxidase methods. Immunoreactive cell bodies and processes were observed within the whole central nervous system, and different cell types can be identified on the basis of their topographical location and morphology. A first class of astrocytes is composed of intensely stained unipolar cells lining the inner surface of the pia mater and the large blood vessels. A second type is represented by multipolar astrocytes of variable size, provided with an irregular cell body. The last type is represented by similar elements, showing an immunonegative cell body, that can be identified only by the presence of converging processes. These three types of cells, and several isolated processes, show a differential distribution within the quail central nervous system, both in the grey and in the white matter. Present results suggest that GFAP may represent a good marker for at least part of the astroglial population in quail.

  10. Injury to the central nervous system after high LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laramore, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    To date, clinical experiments with high LET irradiation have used fast neutrons, π-mesons, and heavy ions. The data for all of these modalities will be reviewed here, but by far the greatest body of information is for fast neutrons. Boron neutron capture therapy work for brain tumors, and interesting area in its own right, will not be discussed. In the paper, the author considered separately the brain and the spinal cord in terms of radiation effects. Most of the information on the brain comes from the treatment of high-grade gliomas and so the effects of the tumor and its surrounding edema must be folded in. There is, however, some information relating to the treatment of tumors lying adjacent to the brain. The spinal cord data come primarily from the treatment of head and neck tumors and intrathoracic tumors. Because the majority of these tumors were quite advanced, they often caused the patient's early death, and many patients may not have survived long enough to show the effects of radiation damage even if doses were given that exceeded cord tolerance

  11. Ghrelin: Expression and Functions in the Central Nervous System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanova, Irina; Yamada, H.; Takahashi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric peptide hormone and neurotransmitter, ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1). The hypothalamus was identified as the main source of ghrelin in the CNS, therefore the effects of the peptide have been mainly related to this part of the brain; numerous studies

  12. Biochemical studies on histones of the central nervous system. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, M.; Matthies, H.

    1979-01-01

    There are no qualitative differences in the electrophoretic patterns of histones from neurones and glia. A 25% increased acetylation rate is found in neutronal histones as compared to glial histones after incubation of chopped brain in a [ 14 C]-acetate containing medium. This result probably reflects different condensation states of the chromatins of both cell types, as demonstrated by electron microscopy. (author)

  13. Viral immune surveillance: Toward a TH17/TH9 gate to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Viral cellular immune surveillance is a dynamic and fluid system that is driven by finely regulated cellular processes including cytokines and other factors locally in the microenvironment and systemically throughout the body. It is questionable as to what extent the central nervous system (CNS) is an immune-privileged organ protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recent evidence suggests converging pathways through which viral infection, and its associated immune surveillance processes, may alter the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, and lead to inflammation, swelling of the brain parenchyma and associated neurological syndromes. Here, we expand upon the recent "gateway theory", by which viral infection and other immune activation states may disrupt the specialized tight junctions of the BBB endothelium making it permeable to immune cells and factors. The model we outline here builds upon the proposition that this process may actually be initiated by cytokines of the IL-17 family, and recognizing the intimate balance between TH17 and TH9 cytokine profiles systemically. We argue that immune surveillance events, in response to viruses such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), cause a TH17/TH9 induced gateway through blood brain barrier, and thus lead to characteristic neuroimmune pathology. It is possible and even probable that the novel TH17/TH9 induced gateway, which we describe here, opens as a consequence of any state of immune activation and sustained chronic inflammation, whether associated with viral infection or any other cause of peripheral or central neuroinflammation. This view could lead to new, timely and critical patient-centered therapies for patients with neuroimmune pathologies across a variety of etiologies. BBB - blood brain barrier, BDV - Borna disease virus, CARD - caspase activation and recruitment domains, CD - clusters of differentiation, CNS - central nervous system, DAMP - damage-associated molecular patterns, DENV - Dengue

  14. The role of ZAP70 kinase in acute lymphoblastic leukemia infiltration into the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadeq, Ameera; Fedders, Henning; Vokuhl, Christian; Belau, Nele M; Zimmermann, Martin; Wirbelauer, Tim; Spielberg, Steffi; Vossen-Gajcy, Michaela; Cario, Gunnar; Schrappe, Martin; Schewe, Denis M

    2017-02-01

    Central nervous system infiltration and relapse are poorly understood in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We examined the role of zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 in preclinical models of central nervous system leukemia and performed correlative studies in patients. Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells was modulated using short hairpin ribonucleic acid-mediated knockdown or ectopic expression. We show that zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 regulates CCR7/CXCR4 via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases. High expression of zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells resulted in a higher proportion of central nervous system leukemia in xenografts as compared to zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 low expressing counterparts. High zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 also enhanced the migration potential towards CCL19/CXCL12 gradients in vitro CCR7 blockade almost abrogated homing of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells to the central nervous system in xenografts. In 130 B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 117 T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 and CCR7/CXCR4 expression levels were significantly correlated. Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression correlated with central nervous system disease in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and CCR7/CXCR4 correlated with central nervous system involvement in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. In multivariate analysis, zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression levels in the upper third and fourth quartiles were associated with central nervous system involvement in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (odds ratio=7.48, 95% confidence interval, 2.06-27.17; odds ratio=6.86, 95% confidence interval, 1.86-25.26, respectively). CCR7 expression in the upper fourth quartile correlated with central

  15. Phenotype of Antigen Unexperienced TH Cells in the Inflamed Central Nervous System in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Sophia; Paterka, Magdalena; Birkenstock, Jerome; Zipp, Frauke; Siffrin, Volker; Witsch, Esther

    2017-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, disseminated inflammation of the central nervous system which is thought to be driven by autoimmune T cells. Genetic association studies in multiple sclerosis and a large number of studies in the animal model of the disease support a role for effector/memory T helper cells. However, the mechanisms underlying relapses, remission and chronic progression in multiple sclerosis or the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, are not clear. In particular, there is only scarce information on the role of central nervous system-invading naive T helper cells in these processes. By applying two-photon laser scanning microscopy we could show in vivo that antigen unexperienced T helper cells migrated into the deep parenchyma of the inflamed central nervous system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, independent of their antigen specificity. Using flow cytometric analyses of central nervous system-derived lymphocytes we found that only antigen-specific, formerly naive T helper cells became activated during inflammation of the central nervous system encountering their corresponding antigen.

  16. Review of dextromethorphan administration in 18 patients with subacute methotrexate central nervous system toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Maryam; Birnbaum, Daniel; Golden, Carla

    2014-06-01

    The pathogenesis of methotrexate central nervous system toxicity is multifactorial, but it is likely related to central nervous system folate homeostasis. The use of folinate rescue has been described to decrease toxicity in patients who had received intrathecal methotrexate. It has also been described in previous studies that there is an elevated level of homocysteine in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients who had received intrathecal methotrexate. Homocysteine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist. The use of dextromethorphan, noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor receptor antagonist, has been used in the treatment of sudden onset of neurological dysfunction associated with methotrexate toxicity. It remains unclear whether the dextromethorphan impacted the speed of recovery, and its use remains controversial. This study reviews the use of dextromethorphan in the setting of subacute methotrexate central nervous system toxicity. Charts of 18 patients who had sudden onset of neurological impairments after receiving methotrexate and were treated with dextromethorphan were reviewed. The use of dextromethorphan in most of our patients resulted in symptomatic improvement. In this patient population, earlier administration of dextromethorphan resulted in faster improvement of impairments and led to prevention of recurrence of seizure activity induced by methotrexate central nervous system toxicity. Our study provides support for the use of dextromethorphan in patients with subacute methotrexate central nervous system toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. RAS in the central nervous system: Potential role in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Natalia Pessoa; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; Prestes, Thiago Ruiz Rodrigues; Feracin, Victor; Machado, Caroline Amaral; Ferreira, Rodrigo Novaes; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio; de Miranda, Aline Silva

    2018-02-25

    The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) is a key regulator of cardiovascular and renal homeostasis, but also plays important roles in mediating physiological functions in the central nervous system (CNS). The effects of the RAS were classically described as mediated by angiotensin (Ang) II via angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptors. However, another arm of the RAS formed by the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), Ang-(1-7) and the Mas receptor has been a matter of investigation due to its important physiological roles, usually counterbalancing the classical effects exerted by Ang II. We aim to provide an overview of effects elicited by the RAS, especially Ang-(1-7), in the brain. We also aim to discuss the therapeutic potential for neuropsychiatric disorders of the modulation of RAS. We carried out an extensive literature search in PubMed central. Within the brain, Ang-(1-7) contributes to the regulation of blood pressure by acting at regions that control cardiovascular functions. In contrast with Ang II, Ang-(1-7) improves baroreflex sensitivity and plays an inhibitory role in hypothalamic noradrenergic neurotransmission. Ang-(1-7) not only exerts effects related to blood pressure regulation, but also acts as a neuroprotective component of the RAS, for instance, by reducing cerebral infarct size, inflammation, oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis. Pre-clinical evidence supports a relevant role for ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis in several neuropsychiatric conditions, including stress-related and mood disorders, cerebrovascular ischemic and haemorrhagic lesions and neurodegenerative diseases. However, very few data are available regarding the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis in human CNS. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Central nervous system imaging in childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis – a reference center analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Luciana; Schöning, Stefan; Hattingen, Elke; Sörensen, Jan; Jurcoane, Alina; Lehrnbecher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was (1) to describe central nervous system (CNS) manifestations in children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) based on images sent to a reference center and meeting minimum requirements and (2) to assess the inter-rater agreement of CNS-MRI results, which represents the overall reproducibility of this investigation. We retrospectively reviewed brain MRI examinations in children with LCH, for which MRI minimum requirements were met. Abnormalities were rated by two experienced neuroradiologists, and the inter-rater agreement was assessed. Out of a total of 94 imaging studies, only 31 MRIs met the minimum criteria, which included T2w, FLAIR, T1w images before/after contrast in at least two different section planes, and thin post contrast sagittal slices T1w through the sella. The most common changes were osseous abnormalities, followed by solid enlargement of the pineal gland, thickened enhancing stalk and signal changes of the dentate nucleus. Whereas inter-rater agreement in assessing most of the CNS lesions was relatively high (κ > 0.61), the application of minimum criteria often did not allow to evaluate the posterior pituitary. The diversity of radiological protocols from different institutions leads to difficulties in the diagnosis of CNS abnormalities in children with LCH. Although the inter-rater agreement between neuroradiologists was high, not all the LCH manifestations could be completely ruled out when using the minimum criteria. Brain MRIs should therefore follow LCH guideline protocols and include T1 pre-gadolinium sagittal images, and be centrally reviewed in order to improve the comparison of clinical trials

  19. Infectious Progression of Canine Distemper Virus from Circulating Cerebrospinal Fluid into the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Akiko; Sato, Hiroki; Ikeda, Fusako; Yoneda, Misako; Kai, Chieko

    2016-10-15

    In the current study, we generated recombinant chimeric canine distemper viruses (CDVs) by replacing the hemagglutinin (H) and/or phosphoprotein (P) gene in an avirulent strain expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) with those of a mouse-adapted neurovirulent strain. An in vitro experimental infection indicated that the chimeric CDVs possessing the H gene derived from the mouse-adapted CDV acquired infectivity for neural cells. These cells lack the CDV receptors that have been identified to date (SLAM and nectin-4), indicating that the H protein defines infectivity in various cell lines. The recombinant viruses were administered intracerebrally to 1-week-old mice. Fatal neurological signs of disease were observed only with a recombinant CDV that possessed both the H and P genes of the mouse-adapted strain, similar to the parental mouse-adapted strain, suggesting that both genes are important to drive virulence of CDV in mice. Using this recombinant CDV, we traced the intracerebral propagation of CDV by detecting EGFP. Widespread infection was observed in the cerebral hemispheres and brainstems of the infected mice. In addition, EGFP fluorescence in the brain slices demonstrated a sequential infectious progression in the central nervous system: CDV primarily infected the neuroependymal cells lining the ventricular wall and the neurons of the hippocampus and cortex adjacent to the ventricle, and it then progressed to an extensive infection of the brain surface, followed by the parenchyma and cortex. In the hippocampal formation, CDV spread in a unidirectional retrograde pattern along neuronal processes in the hippocampal formation from the CA1 region to the CA3 region and the dentate gyrus. Our mouse model demonstrated that the main target cells of CDV are neurons in the acute phase and that the virus spreads via neuronal transmission pathways in the hippocampal formation. CDV is the etiological agent of distemper in dogs and other carnivores, and in

  20. Primary central nervous system lymphoma: age and performance status are more important than treatment modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corry, June; Smith, Jennifer G.; Wirth, Andrew; Quong, George; Liew, Kuen Hoe

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To assess prognostic factors and treatment modalities of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) in terms of response rates, patterns of failure and overall survival. Methods and Materials: Sixty-two patients presenting with PCNSL between 1982 and 1994 at Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute with no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection were included in the study. Their median age was 60 years; World Health Organisation (WHO) performance status was ≥2 in 85%. All patients were planned to receive whole brain irradiation; 7 also received spinal irradiation. The median planned dose to the target volume was 50.4 Gy. Twenty patients were planned to receive chemotherapy as well. Patients were followed up to June 20, 1995, giving a median follow-up for 14 surviving patients of 5.4 years, range 0.3 to 10.2 years. Results: The clinical response rate to treatment was 77% [95% confidence interval (CI) 65 to 87%]. The estimated median overall survival was 20.6 months (CI 12.4 to 33.4 months). On univariate analysis male gender, age <60 years, WHO performance status ≤1, treatment to the target volume ≥45 Gy, and treatment with additional chemotherapy, were associated with a significantly better overall survival (p < 0.05). On multivariate analysis only age and performance status remained significant prognostic variables. Relapse involved the central nervous system or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in all patients with known sites of relapse except three who had ocular relapse only. There was a low incidence of relapse in the initial brain site (23% of known cases) and a high incidence (50%) of CSF/spinal cord relapse. Of 48 deaths, 15 were related to initial or subsequent treatment. Conclusions: Patient outcome is strongly influenced by age and performance status. Studies suggesting better survival for patients treated with chemoradiation may reflect patient selection rather than treatment variables. Optimal management remains to be

  1. Property of lysosomal storage disease associated with midbrain pathology in the central nervous system of Lamp-2-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Akiko; Kikuchi, Hisae; Fujita, Hiromi; Yamada, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Yuuki; Kabuta, Tomohiro; Nishino, Ichizo; Wada, Keiji; Uchiyama, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) is the gene responsible for Danon disease, which is characterized by cardiomyopathy, autophagic vacuolar myopathy, and variable mental retardation. To elucidate the function of LAMP-2 in the central nervous system, we investigated the neuropathological changes in Lamp-2-deficient mice. Immunohistochemical observations revealed that Lamp-1 and cathepsin D-positive lysosomal structures increased in the large neurons of the mouse brain. Ubiquitin-immunoreactive aggregates and concanavalin A-positive materials were detected in these neurons. By means of ultrastructural studies, we found various-shaped accumulations, including lipofuscin, glycolipid-like materials, and membranous structures, in the neurons and glial cells of Lamp-2-deficient brains. In deficient mice, glycogen granules accumulated in hepatocyte lysosomes but were not observed in neurons. These pathological features indicate lysosomal storage disease; however, the findings are unlikely a consequence of deficiency of a single lysosomal enzyme. Although previous study results have shown a large amount of autophagic vacuoles in parenchymal cells of the visceral organs, these findings were rarely detected in the brain tissue except for some axons in the substantia nigra, in which abundant activated microglial cells with increased lipid peroxidation were observed. Thus, LAMP-2 in the central nervous system has a possible role in the degradation of the various macromolecules in lysosomes and an additional function concerning protection from oxidative stress, especially in the substantia nigra. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of genes from the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans related to transmigration into the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Kuang Tseng

    Full Text Available A mouse brain transmigration assessment (MBTA was created to investigate the central nervous system (CNS pathogenesis of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis.Two cryptococcal mutants were identified from a pool of 109 pre-selected mutants that were signature-tagged with the nourseothricin acetyltransferase (NAT resistance cassette. These two mutants displayed abnormal transmigration into the central nervous system. One mutant displaying decreased transmigration contains a null mutation in the putative FNX1 gene, whereas the other mutant possessing a null mutation in the putative RUB1 gene exhibited increased transmigration into the brain. Two macrophage adhesion-defective mutants in the pool, 12F1 and 3C9, showed reduced phagocytosis by macrophages, but displayed no defects in CNS entry suggesting that transit within macrophages (the "Trojan horse" model of CNS entry is not the primary mechanism for C. neoformans migration into the CNS in this MBTA.This research design provides a new strategy for genetic impact studies on how Cryptococcus passes through the blood-brain barrier (BBB, and the specific isolated mutants in this assay support a transcellular mechanism of CNS entry.

  3. Central nervous system: a conductor orchestrating metabolic regulations harmed by both hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J

    2010-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the brain has a key role in the control of energy metabolism, body fat content and glucose metabolism. Neuronal systems, which regulate energy intake, energy expenditure, and endogenous glucose production, sense and respond to input from hormonal and nutrient-related signals that convey information regarding both body energy stores and current energy availability. In response to this input, adaptive changes occur that promote energy homeostasis and the maintenance of blood glucose levels in the normal range. Defects in this control system are implicated in the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The central nervous system may be considered the conductor of an orchestra involving many peripheral organs involved in these homeostatic processes. However, the brain is mainly a glucose-dependent organ, which can be damaged by both hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia unawareness is a major problem in clinical practice and is associated with an increased risk of coma. Stroke is another acute complication associated with diabetes mellitus, especially in elderly people, and the control of glucose level in this emergency situation remains challenging. The prognosis of stroke is worse in diabetic patients and both its prevention and management in at-risk patients should be improved. Finally, chronic diabetic encephalopathies, which may lead to cognitive dysfunction and even dementia, are also recognized. They may result from recurrent hypoglycaemia and/or from chronic hyperglycaemia leading to cerebral vascular damage. Functional imaging is of interest for exploring diabetes-associated cerebral abnormalities. Thus, the intimate relationship between the brain and diabetes is increasingly acknowledged in both research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic gastrointestinal inflammation induces anxiety-like behavior and alters central nervous system biochemistry in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercik, Premysl; Verdu, Elena F; Foster, Jane A; Macri, Joseph; Potter, Murray; Huang, Xiaxing; Malinowski, Paul; Jackson, Wendy; Blennerhassett, Patricia; Neufeld, Karen A; Lu, Jun; Khan, Waliul I; Corthesy-Theulaz, Irene; Cherbut, Christine; Bergonzelli, Gabriela E; Collins, Stephen M

    2010-12-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies have associated gastrointestinal inflammation and infection with altered behavior. We investigated whether chronic gut inflammation alters behavior and brain biochemistry and examined underlying mechanisms. AKR mice were infected with the noninvasive parasite Trichuris muris and given etanercept, budesonide, or specific probiotics. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy was performed in a subgroup of mice before infection. Gastrointestinal inflammation was assessed by histology and quantification of myeloperoxidase activity. Serum proteins were measured by proteomic analysis, circulating cytokines were measured by fluorescence activated cell sorting array, and serum tryptophan and kynurenine were measured by liquid chromatography. Behavior was assessed using light/dark preference and step-down tests. In situ hybridization was used to assess brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the brain. T muris caused mild to moderate colonic inflammation and anxiety-like behavior that was associated with decreased hippocampal BDNF messenger RNA (mRNA). Circulating tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, as well as the kynurenine and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, were increased. Proteomic analysis showed altered levels of several proteins related to inflammation and neural function. Administration of etanercept, and to a lesser degree of budesonide, normalized behavior, reduced cytokine and kynurenine levels, but did not influence BDNF expression. The probiotic Bifidobacterium longum normalized behavior and BDNF mRNA but did not affect cytokine or kynurenine levels. Anxiety-like behavior was present in infected mice after vagotomy. Chronic gastrointestinal inflammation induces anxiety-like behavior and alters central nervous system biochemistry, which can be normalized by inflammation-dependent and -independent mechanisms, neither of which requires the integrity of the vagus nerve. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc

  5. The chemokine receptor CCR5 in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorce, Silvia; Myburgh, Renier; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2011-02-01

    The expression and the role of the chemokine receptor CCR5 have been mainly studied in the context of HIV infection. However, this protein is also expressed in the brain, where it can be crucial in determining the outcome in response to different insults. CCR5 expression can be deleterious or protective in controlling the progression of certain infections in the CNS, but it is also emerging that it could play a role in non-infectious diseases. In particular, it appears that, in addition to modulating immune responses, CCR5 can influence neuronal survival. Here, we summarize the present knowledge about the expression of CCR5 in the brain and highlight recent findings suggesting its possible involvement in neuroprotective mechanisms. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Biochemical studies on histones of the central nervous system. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, M.; Matthies, H.

    1979-01-01

    Rat brain histones were acetylated in vivo by intraventricular injection of [ 14 C]-acetate. More than 90% of the label is the result of a true acetylation. Enzymatic proteolysis of the labelled histone fraction and subsequent chromatographic investigation of the digestion products showed about 60% of the recovered radioactive material to be epsilon-acetyl lysine, whereas 22% of the radioactivity was found in an unidentified spot. (author)

  7. Fatty acids in energy metabolism of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, Alexander; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vavilin, Valentin; Lyakhovich, Vyacheslav

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we analyze the current hypotheses regarding energy metabolism in the neurons and astroglia. Recently, it was shown that up to 20% of the total brain's energy is provided by mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids. However, the existing hypotheses consider glucose, or its derivative lactate, as the only main energy substrate for the brain. Astroglia metabolically supports the neurons by providing lactate as a substrate for neuronal mitochondria. In addition, a significant amount of neuromediators, glutamate and GABA, is transported into neurons and also serves as substrates for mitochondria. Thus, neuronal mitochondria may simultaneously oxidize several substrates. Astrocytes have to replenish the pool of neuromediators by synthesis de novo, which requires large amounts of energy. In this review, we made an attempt to reconcile β-oxidation of fatty acids by astrocytic mitochondria with the existing hypothesis on regulation of aerobic glycolysis. We suggest that, under condition of neuronal excitation, both metabolic pathways may exist simultaneously. We provide experimental evidence that isolated neuronal mitochondria may oxidize palmitoyl carnitine in the presence of other mitochondrial substrates. We also suggest that variations in the brain mitochondrial metabolic phenotype may be associated with different mtDNA haplogroups.

  8. The Human Nervous System: A Framework for Teaching and the Teaching Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    The teaching brain is a new concept that mirrors the complex, dynamic, and context-dependent nature of the learning brain. In this article, I use the structure of the human nervous system and its sensing, processing, and responding components as a framework for a re-conceptualized teaching system. This teaching system is capable of responses on an…

  9. In vivo observation of gold nanoparticles in the central nervous system of Blaberus discoidalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Jorge M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanoparticles (NPs are widely studied for biomedical applications. Understanding interactions between NPs and biomolecules or cells has yet to be achieved. Here we present a novel in vivo method to study interactions between NPs and the nervous system of the discoid or false dead-head roach, Blaberus discoidalis. The aims of this study were to present a new and effective method to observe NPs in vivo that opens the door to new methods of study to observe the interactions between NPs and biological systems and to present an inexpensive and easy-to-handle biological system. Results Negatively charged gold nanoparticles (nAuNPs of 50 nm in diameter were injected into the central nervous system (CNS of the insect. By using such a cost effective method, we were able to characterize nAuNPs and to analyze their interactions with a biological system. It showed that the charged particles affected the insect's locomotion. The nAuNPs affected the insect's behavior but had no major impacts on the life expectancy of the cockroach after two months of observation. This was apparently due to the encapsulation of nAuNPs inside the insect's brain. Based on cockroach's daily activity, we believed that the encapsulation occurred in the first 17 days. Conclusions The method proposed here is an inexpensive and reliable way of observing the response of biological systems to nanoparticles in-vivo. It opens new windows to further understand how nanoparticles affect neural communication by monitoring insect activity and locomotion.

  10. Risk of central nervous system defects in offspring of women with and without mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Aimina; Fraser, William D; Low, Nancy; Arbour, Laura; Healy-Profitós, Jessica; Auger, Nathalie

    2018-02-22

    We sought to determine the relationship between maternal mental illness and the risk of having an infant with a central nervous system defect. We analyzed a cohort of 654,882 women aged less than 20 years between 1989 and 2013 who later delivered a live born infant in any hospital in Quebec, Canada. The primary exposure was mental illness during pregnancy or hospitalization for mental illness before pregnancy. The outcomes were neural and non-neural tube defects of the central nervous system in any offspring. We computed risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between mental disorders and risk of central nervous system defects in log-binomial regression models adjusted for age at delivery, total parity, comorbidity, socioeconomic deprivation, place of residence, and time period. Maternal mental illness was associated with an increased risk of nervous system defects in offspring (RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.64-1.89). Hospitalization for any mental disorder was more strongly associated with non-neural tube (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.71-1.99) than neural tube defects (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.59). Women at greater risk of nervous system defects in offspring tended to be diagnosed with multiple mental disorders, have more than one hospitalization for mental disease, or be 17 or older at first hospitalization. A history of mental illness is associated with central nervous system defects in offspring. Women hospitalized for mental illness may merit counseling at first symptoms to prevent central nervous system defects at pregnancy.

  11. Nerve Regeneration in the Peripheral Nervous System versus the Central Nervous System and the Relevance to Speech and Hearing after Nerve Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Gordon, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Schwann cells normally form myelin sheaths around axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and support nerve regeneration after nerve injury. In contrast, nerve regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is not supported by the myelinating cells known as oligodendrocytes. We have found that: 1) low frequency electrical stimulation can be…

  12. [Primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system: A diagnostic challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillo-Olvera, Javier; Uribe-Olalde, Juan Salvador; Alcántara-Gómez, Leopoldo Alberto; Rejón-Pérez, Jorge Dax; Palomera-Gómez, Héctor Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The rare incidence of primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system and its ability to mimic other melanocytic tumors on images makes it a diagnostic challenge for the neurosurgeon. A 51-year-old patient, with a tumor located in the right forniceal callosum area. Total surgical excision was performed. Histopathological result was consistent with the diagnosis of primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system, after ruling out extra cranial and extra spinal melanocytic lesions. The primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system is extremely rare. There are features in magnetic resonance imaging that increase the diagnostic suspicion; nevertheless there are other tumors with more prevalence that share some of these features through image. Since there is not an established therapeutic standard its prognosis is discouraging. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Central nervous system tissue heterotopia of the nose: case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altissimi, G; Ascani, S; Falcetti, S; Cazzato, C; Bravi, I

    2009-01-01

    Summary The Authors present a case of heterotopic central nervous system tissue observed in an 81-year-old male in the form of an ethmoidal polyp. A review of the literature indicates that this is a rare condition characterised by a connective tissue lesion with astrocytic and oligodendrocytic glial cells, which may be located outside the nasal pyramid in some cases and inside the nasal cavity in others. The most important diagnostic aspect involves differentiating these from meningoencephalocele, which maintains an anatomical connection with central nervous system tissue. Contrast-enhanced imaging is essential for diagnosis, as in cases of heterotopic central nervous system tissue, it will demonstrate that there are no connections with intra-cranial tissue. Endoscopic excision is the treatment of choice. PMID:20161881

  14. Brain cortical structural differences between non-central nervous system cancer patients treated with and without chemotherapy compared to non-cancer controls: a cross-sectional pilot MRI study using clinically indicated scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroishi, Mark S.; Gupta, Vikash; Bigjahan, Bavrina; Cen, Steven Y.; Rashid, Faisal; Hwang, Darryl H.; Lerner, Alexander; Boyko, Orest B.; Liu, Chia-Shang Jason; Law, Meng; Thompson, Paul M.; Jahanshad, Neda

    2017-11-01

    Background: Increases in cancer survival have made understanding the basis of cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) more important. CRCI neuroimaging studies have traditionally used dedicated research brain MRIs in breast cancer survivors with small sample sizes; little is known about other non-CNS cancers. However, there is a wealth of unused data from clinically-indicated MRIs that could be used to study CRCI. Objective: Evaluate brain cortical structural differences in those with non-CNS cancers using clinically-indicated MRIs. Design: Cross-sectional Patients: Adult non-CNS cancer and non-cancer control (C) patients who underwent clinically-indicated MRIs. Methods: Brain cortical surface area and thickness were measured using 3D T1-weighted images. An age-adjusted linear regression model was used and the Benjamini and Hochberg false discovery rate (FDR) corrected for multiple comparisons. Group comparisons were: cancer cases with chemotherapy (Ch+), cancer cases without chemotherapy (Ch-) and subgroup of lung cancer cases with and without chemotherapy vs C. Results: Sixty-four subjects were analyzed: 22 Ch+, 23 Ch- and 19 C patients. Subgroup analysis of 16 LCa was also performed. Statistically significant decreases in either cortical surface area or thickness were found in multiple ROIs primarily within the frontal and temporal lobes for all comparisons. Limitations: Several limitations were apparent including a small sample size that precluded adjustment for other covariates. Conclusions: Our preliminary results suggest that various types of non-CNS cancers, both with and without chemotherapy, may result in brain structural abnormalities. Also, there is a wealth of untapped clinical MRIs that could be used for future CRCI studies.

  15. Multiple myeloma and central nervous system involvement: experience of a Brazilian center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ana Luiza Miranda Silva; Higashi, Fabiana; Peres, Ana Lúcia M; Cury, Pricilla; Crusoé, Edvan de Queiroz; Hungria, Vânia Tietsche de Moraes

    The estimated involvement of the central nervous system in patients with multiple myeloma is rare at about 1%. The infiltration can be identified at the time multiple myeloma is diagnosed or during its progression. However, it is more common in refractory disease or during relapse. This retrospective cohort study reviewed data from medical records of patients followed up at the Gammopathy Outpatient Clinic of Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo from January 2008 to December 2016. Twenty patients were included, with a median follow-up of 33.5 months after central nervous system infiltration. The prevalence was 7%. The median age at diagnosis of multiple myeloma was 56.1 years, with 70% of participants being female. Sixteen patients had central nervous system infiltration at diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Seventeen patients had exclusive osteodural lesions and three had infiltrations of the leptomeninge, of which one had exclusive involvement and two had associated osteodural lesions. The median overall survival was 40.3 months after central nervous system involvement. The median overall survival in the group with central nervous system infiltration at relapse was 7.4 months. The patients with leptomeningeal involvement had a median overall survival of 5.8 months. Central nervous system infiltration is a rare condition, but it should be considered as a possibility in patients with multiple myeloma and neurological symptoms. The best treatment regimen for this condition remains unknown and, in most cases, the prognosis is unfavorable. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  16. MRA in inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the diagnostic potential of time of flight (TOF) MRA and contrast enhanced (CE) MRA in inflammatory disorders of the meninges and the brain. Cerebrovascular complications are frequently observed during infectious meningoencepalitis. 3D TOF-MRA and CE-MRA are complementary for the detection of basal intracranial artery stenosis and septic cerebral vein and sinus thrombosis due to secondary vasculitis. MRA reveals stenosis and occlusion as indirect signs of vasculitis, whereas MRI shows the inflammation of the brain and meninges and occasionally the vessel wall, together with the ischemic or hemorrhagic complication. In case of septic emboli MRA can detect peripheral occlusions and 'mycotic' aneurysms. For the diagnosis of noninfectious vasculitides of the intracranial vessels, high resolution 3D TOF-MRA is superior to CE-MRA for the detection of multiloculated segmental stenoses. However, there are presently no prospective studies on the sensitivity and specificity of MRA for these indications. Therefore, only positive MRA results can directly influence clinical management. In case of normal MRA, confirmation by catheder angiography may still be required. (orig.) [de

  17. Plasticity within the Central Nervous System: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hozumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural blockades are considered an alternative to pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain although these blockades elicit limited effects. We encountered a patient with postbrachial plexus avulsion injury pain, which was refractory to conventional treatments but disappeared temporarily with the administration of the local anesthetic lidocaine around the left mandibular molar tooth during dental treatments. This analgesic effect on neuropathic pain by oral local anesthesia was reproducible. Under conditions of neuropathic pain, cerebral somatotopic reorganization in the sensorimotor cortices of the brain has been observed. Either expansion or shrinkage of the somatotopic representation of a deafferentated body part correlates with the degree of neuropathic pain. In our case, administration of an oral local anesthetic shrank the somatotopic representation of the mouth, which is next to the upper limb representation and thereby expanded the upper limb representation in a normal manner. Consequently, oral local anesthesia improved the pain in the upper limb. This case suggests that pain alleviation through neural plasticity within the brain is related to neural blockade.

  18. Late effects of cancer therapy on the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, J.; Moore, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    The number of studies documenting the long-term morbidity of CNS treatment has increased dramatically in recent years. Cranial irradiation, in particular, has been associated with cognitive deficits and neuroanatomic pathology. Children who are treated at an early age and individuals who receive higher doses (2,400 cGy or greater) appear to be at greatest risk for these sequelae. Much more research on the pathogenesis of delayed injury following CNS treatment is needed. Although several compelling mechanisms have been proposed, little empirical evidence is available. This knowledge is essential to the identification of agents that may protect normal brain tissue from injury. Even less is known about the effects of age at time of treatment, type of treatment (radiation v chemotherapy), or dose of radiation in relation to delayed injury. Of utmost importance are studies that will establish the predictive relationship between brain injury and cognitive deficits. This would allow clinicians to predict patients who are at risk for cognitive impairment in order to institute appropriate preventive or remedial interventions.65 references

  19. Central nervous system mechanisms linking the consumption of palatable high-fat diets to the defense of greater adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Karen K; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2012-02-08

    The central nervous system (CNS) plays key role in the homeostatic regulation of body weight. Satiation and adiposity signals, providing acute and chronic information about available fuel, are produced in the periphery and act in the brain to influence energy intake and expenditure, resulting in the maintenance of stable adiposity. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) does not result from a failure of these central homeostatic circuits. Rather, the threshold for defended adiposity is increased in environments providing ubiquitous access to palatable, high-fat foods, making it difficult to achieve and maintain weight loss. Consequently, mechanisms by which nutritional environments interact with central homeostatic circuits to influence the threshold for defended adiposity represent critical targets for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Central nervous system medications and falls risk in men aged 60-75 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masud, Tahir; Frost, Morten; Ryg, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS) increase falls risk. Most data on CNS drugs and falls are in women/mixed-sex populations. This study assessed the relationship between CNS drugs and falls in men aged 60-75 years.......Introduction: drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS) increase falls risk. Most data on CNS drugs and falls are in women/mixed-sex populations. This study assessed the relationship between CNS drugs and falls in men aged 60-75 years....

  1. High-fat diet feeding differentially affects the development of inflammation in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Masquelier, Julien; Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D.; Al Houayek, Mireille; Muccioli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and its associated disorders are becoming a major health issue in many countries. The resulting low-grade inflammation not only affects the periphery but also the central nervous system. We set out to study, in a time-dependent manner, the effects of a high-fat diet on different regions of the central nervous system with regard to the inflammatory tone. Methods We used a diet-induced obesity model and compared at several time-points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 16?weeks) a group of ...

  2. The Gut Microbiome as Therapeutic Target in Central Nervous System Diseases: Implications for Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winek, Katarzyna; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Meisel, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Research on commensal microbiota and its contribution to health and disease is a new and very dynamically developing field of biology and medicine. Recent experimental and clinical investigations underscore the importance of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis and course of stroke. Importantly, microbiota may influence the outcome of cerebral ischemia by modulating central nervous system antigen-specific immune responses. In this review we summarize studies linking gut microbiota with physiological function and disorders of the central nervous system. Based on these insights we speculate about targeting the gut microbiome in order to treat stroke.

  3. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) - an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, N; Owens, T; Frøkiaer, J

    2010-01-01

    Asgari N, Owens T, Frøkiaer J, Stenager E, Lillevang ST, Kyvik KO. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) - an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS).
Acta Neurol Scand: DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2010.01416.x.
© 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. In the past 10 years, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has...... or by intrathecal administration to naive mice. NMO may be characterized as a channelopathy of the central nervous system with autoimmune characteristics....

  4. Meningeous sarcoma: a rare tumor among the central nervous system neoplasia in childhood; Sarcoma meningeo: rara entidade dentre as neoplasias de sistema nervoso central na infancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondinelli, Patricia Imperatriz Porto; Salvajoli, Joao Victor; Sredni, Simone Treiger; Araujo, Maria Betania Mahler [Hospital do Cancer de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Pediatria

    2003-07-01

    We describe a case of meningeous malignancy in childhood, diagnosed by the Pediatric Department of the Cancer Hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and do revise the world literature as well. The meningeous sarcoma (M S) is an extremely aggressive tumor, which appears in the central nervous system, at any age, but mainly in children. They represent a tiny percentage of brain tumors in children and sporadic cases are related in the world literature. Consequently, there are not enough clinical experiences about this distinct entity to allow the conclusion about which is the best therapeutic approach. (author)

  5. Disseminated tuberculosis of the central nervous system responsive to rifabutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, M; Crippa, S; Di Palma, F; Gerini, A M; Soresi, E; Scoccia, S

    1990-04-01

    Multiple cerebral tuberculomas are now very rare. We report the case of a young man with an 8-month history of headache, febricula and abscess of the left tibiotarsal joint, which was found to contain mycobacterium tuberculosis. Chest X-rays revealed miliariform dissemination to both lungs while CT and MR brain scans revealed numerous small nodules, especially in the posterior cranial fossa. Despite anti-tuberculosis therapy the patient developed a right pyramidal hemisyndrome and intracranial hypertension. The inclusion of rifabutin in the treatment schedule was followed by rapid improvement and a year later the patient was in good health and free from cerebral and pulmonary lesions. The interest of the case lies in the multiplicity of sites of the TB process in a non immunodepressed patient, the dissemination to the CNS without meningeal involvement, the resistance to standard antimycobacterials and the swift response to rifabutin.

  6. Central nervous system. Strategy for the management of medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with medulloblastoma are treated by the sequential use of surgery and radiotherapy. The posterior cranial fossa is exposed by craniotomy and, provided that the risk of serious neurologic disability is not unduly increased, an attempt is made to remove as much of the tumour as possible. Such a procedure provides material for histological confirmation of the diagnosis, a means of reducing intracranial pressure by decompression and the removal of tumour which may be hypoxic and relatively radio-insensitive due to an inadequate blood supply. In about 10-14 days, when the craniotomy wound is soundly healed, irradiation of the cranio-spinal axis is commenced. The brain and entire spinal theca is treated in continuity. Using two opposed lateral fields the entire cranial contents and cervical spine are irradiated to give a midline dose of 30.0 Gy. Shielding is used to exclude the orbital contents, upper respiratory passages, the buccal cavity and laryngopharynx from the beam. A smaller direct posterior field is applied to the posterior fossa and brain stem to increase the midpoint dose to a minimum of 40.0 Gy (80%). The spinal theca from the lower cervical region above to the second sacral segment below is treatd by a direct posterior field to give a dose of 30.0 Gy at a depth of 4 cm (60% isodose in the cranio-spinal plan). The total dose is planned to be given over four weeks in 20 treatments. One cranio-cervical field and the spinal field are treated each day and the small field to the posterior cranial fossa twice weekly

  7. Antiviral type I and type III interferon responses in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgeloos, Frédéric; Kreit, Marguerite; Hermant, Pascale; Lardinois, Cécile; Michiels, Thomas

    2013-03-15

    The central nervous system (CNS) harbors highly differentiated cells, such as neurons that are essential to coordinate the functions of complex organisms. This organ is partly protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) from toxic substances and pathogens carried in the bloodstream. Yet, neurotropic viruses can reach the CNS either by crossing the BBB after viremia, or by exploiting motile infected cells as Trojan horses, or by using axonal transport. Type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that are critical to control early steps of viral infections. Deficiencies in the IFN pathway have been associated with fatal viral encephalitis both in humans and mice. Therefore, the IFN system provides an essential protection of the CNS against viral infections. Yet, basal activity of the IFN system appears to be low within the CNS, likely owing to the toxicity of IFN to this organ. Moreover, after viral infection, neurons and oligodendrocytes were reported to be relatively poor IFN producers and appear to keep some susceptibility to neurotropic viruses, even in the presence of IFN. This review addresses some trends and recent developments concerning the role of type I and type III IFNs in: i) preventing neuroinvasion and infection of CNS cells; ii) the identity of IFN-producing cells in the CNS; iii) the antiviral activity of ISGs; and iv) the activity of viral proteins of neurotropic viruses that target the IFN pathway.

  8. Primary central nervous system lymphoma in immunocompetent patients: spectrum of findings and differential characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Roselló, E; Quiles Granado, A M; Laguillo Sala, G; Pedraza Gutiérrez, S

    2018-02-23

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas are uncommon and their management differs significantly from that of other malignant tumors involving the CNS. This article explains how the imaging findings often suggest the diagnosis early. The typical findings in immunocompetent patients consist of a supratentorial intraaxial mass that enhances homogeneously. Other findings to evaluate include multifocality and incomplete ring enhancement. The differential diagnosis of primary CNS lymphomas should consider mainly other malignant tumors of the CNS such as glioblastomas or metastases. Primary CNS lymphomas tend to have less edema and less mass effect; they also tend to spare the adjacent cortex. Necrosis, hemorrhage, and calcification are uncommon in primary CNS lymphomas. Although the findings in morphologic sequences are characteristic, they are not completely specific and atypical types are sometimes encountered. Advanced imaging techniques such as diffusion or especially perfusion provide qualitative and quantitative data that play an important role in differentiating primary CNS lymphomas from other brain tumors. Copyright © 2018 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of extracellular proteolysis in synaptic plasticity of the central nervous system 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Konopka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM of the central nervous system has a specific structure and protein composition that are different from those in other organs. Today we know that the ECM not only provides physical scaffolding for the neurons and glia, but also actively modifies their functions. Over the last two decades, a growing body of research evidence has been collected, suggesting an important role of ECM proteolysis in synaptic plasticity of the brain. So far the majority of data concern two large families of proteases: the serine proteases and the matrix metalloproteinases. The members of these families are localized at the synapses, and are secreted into the extracellular space in an activity-dependent manner. The proteases remodel the local environment as well as influencing synapse structure and function. The structural modifications induced by proteases include shape and size changes, as well as synapse elimination, and synaptogenesis. The functional changes include modifications of receptor function in the postsynaptic part of the synapse, as well as the potentiation or depression of neurotransmitter secretion by the presynaptic site. The present review summarizes the current view on the role of extracellular proteolysis in the physiological synaptic plasticity underlying the phenomena of learning and memory, as well as in the pathological plasticity occurring during epileptogenesis or development of drug addiction. 

  10. Treatment of initial parenchymal central nervous system involvement in systemic aggressive B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijland, Marcel; Jansen, Anne; Doorduijn, Jeanette K; Enting, Roelien H; Bromberg, Jacoline E C; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C

    2017-09-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in systemic B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) at diagnosis (sysCNS) is rare. We investigated the outcome of 21 patients with sysCNS, most commonly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, treated with high dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) and R-CHOP. The median number of cycles of HD-MTX and R-CHOP was 4 (range 1-8) and 6 (range 0-8), respectively. Consolidative whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) was given to 33% (7/21) patients. With a median follow-up of 44 months the 3-year progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 45% (95%CI 34-56%) and 49% (95%CI 38-60%), respectively. Over 90% of patients had an unfavorable international prognostic index score, reflected by treatment-related mortality of 19% (4/21) and relapse-related mortality of 28% (6/21). The outcome of these patients was, however, unexpectedly good when compared to secondary CNS relapses. Prospective studies are needed to define the optimal treatment for patients with sysCNS, but its rarity might be challenging.

  11. Late effects of ionising radiation on the central nervous system of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    This thesis investigated the role of neuroglial cells in the pathogenesis of delayed radionecrosis of the rat central nervous system (CNS) for up to one year after irradiation. The observed radiation induced changes in the cell kinetics of the subependymal plate of the brain were considered to be important in the development of white matter necrosis. White matter necrosis was apparent in the dorsal, ventral and lateral columns of the cervical cord but in the lumbar cord necrosis was only observed in the nerve bundles of the nerve roots. The glial cell population of the cervical cord was not static and a loss of oligodendrocytes appeared to be important in the development of white matter necrosis. Schwann cells also appeared to be involved in the development of nerve root necrosis of the lumbar cord. It is concluded that a gradual loss of radiation damaged, slowly turning-over supporting cells is the mechanism resulting in the development of late radiation necrosis in the mammalian CNS. The applications of these findings are considered. (UK)

  12. Central nervous system remyelination in culture — A tool for multiple sclerosis research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Jarjour, Andrew A.; Boyd, Amanda; Williams, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which only affects humans. This makes it difficult to study at a molecular level, and to develop and test potential therapies that may change the course of the disease. The development of therapies to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis is a key research aim, to both aid restoration of electrical impulse conduction in nerves and provide neuroprotection, reducing disability in patients. Testing a remyelination therapy in the many and various in vivo models of multiple sclerosis is expensive in terms of time, animals and money. We report the development and characterisation of an ex vivo slice culture system using mouse brain and spinal cord, allowing investigation of myelination, demyelination and remyelination, which can be used as an initial reliable screen to select the most promising remyelination strategies. We have automated the quantification of myelin to provide a high content and moderately-high-throughput screen for testing therapies for remyelination both by endogenous and exogenous means and as an invaluable way of studying the biology of remyelination. PMID:21515259

  13. Central nervous system remyelination in culture--a tool for multiple sclerosis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Jarjour, Andrew A; Boyd, Amanda; Williams, Anna

    2011-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which only affects humans. This makes it difficult to study at a molecular level, and to develop and test potential therapies that may change the course of the disease. The development of therapies to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis is a key research aim, to both aid restoration of electrical impulse conduction in nerves and provide neuroprotection, reducing disability in patients. Testing a remyelination therapy in the many and various in vivo models of multiple sclerosis is expensive in terms of time, animals and money. We report the development and characterisation of an ex vivo slice culture system using mouse brain and spinal cord, allowing investigation of myelination, demyelination and remyelination, which can be used as an initial reliable screen to select the most promising remyelination strategies. We have automated the quantification of myelin to provide a high content and moderately-high-throughput screen for testing therapies for remyelination both by endogenous and exogenous means and as an invaluable way of studying the biology of remyelination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prospective evaluation of delayed central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, Frederik; Steinvorth, Sarah; Lohr, Frank; Fruehauf, Stefan; Wildermuth, Susanne; Kampen, Michael van; Wannenmacher, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Prospective evaluation of chronic radiation effects on the healthy adult brain using neuropsychological testing of intelligence, attention, and memory. Methods and Materials: 58 patients (43 ± 10 yr) undergoing hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) (TBI, 14.4 Gy, 12 x 1.2 Gy in 4 days) before bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation were prospectively included. Twenty-one recurrence-free long-term survivors were re-examined 6-36 months (median 27 months) after completion of TBI. Neuropsychological testing included assessment of general intelligence, attention, and memory using normative, standardized psychometric tests. Mood status was controlled, as well. Test results are given as IQ scores (population mean 100) or percentiles for attention and memory (population mean 50). Results: The 21 patients showed normal baseline test results of IQ (101 ± 13) and attention (53 ± 28), with memory test scores below average (35 ± 21). Test results of IQ (98 ± 17), attention (58 ± 27), and memory (43 ± 28) showed no signs of clinically measurable radiation damage to higher CNS (central nervous system) functions during the follow-up. The mood status was improved. Conclusion: The investigation of CNS toxicity after hyperfractionated TBI showed no deterioration of test results in adult recurrence-free patients with tumor-free CNS. The median follow-up of 27 months will be extended.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging: early detection of central nervous system involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotot, P.M.; Sansonetti, P.J.; Levillain, R.; Cabanis, E.A.; Lavayssiere, R.; Sandoz-Tronca, C.

    1988-01-01

    Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement, whether primary by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV - itself, or secondary (toxoplasmosis or lymphoma) is remarkably frequent in AIDS, in 40 to 70% of cases, depending upon the author. In order to study the natural history of this illness, a cohort of 25 asymptomatic seropositive patients have been established. Every 6 months these patients undergo biological and clinical examinations, as well as Magnetic Resonance brain scans. After two examinations at a 6 month's interval, the first results are reported. Out of these 25 cases, 9 present anomalies: One patient with diffuse cerebral atrophy and 8 others with high signal intensity areas on T2 weighted sequences, like those of the Multiple Sclerosis. No relationship could be demonstrated between the existence of these lesions and various criteria such as age, sex, risk factors and T4 cells count. The nature of these lesions is not lear. They certainly indicate early involvement of the CNS after primary infection by the HIV virus. They may either represent scars of the primary infection or early alterations announcing developing encephalopathy [fr

  16. PARANEOPLASTIC DAMAGE TO THE CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM IN BREAST CANCER: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Koroleva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurological syndrome involves the concurrent development of cancer and neurologicaldiseases. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer associated with paraneoplastic damage to the central and peripheral nervous system. Autoimmune genesis of the disease is characterized by the presence of highly specific onconeural antibodies, which selectively affect neurons in the brain cord, spinal cord and spinal ganglia, and cause the onset of neurological symptoms within 2 years before cancer is detected. Six well-characterized onconeural antibodies detected in the blood serum of breast cancer patients can be used for the laboratory diagnosis of paraneoplastic neurological syndrome. Of them, anti-Hu, anti-CV2 and anti-amphiphysin antibodies cause polyneuropathy most often. Anti-Yo antibody is usually associated with cerebellar degeneration. Multiple neuronal autoantibodies can be simultaneously detected in a patient. Removal of the tumor may lead to stabilization and even partial regression of the neurological symptoms in 70 % of patients. Therefore, the surgical treatment of cancer should consider not only the tumor extension, but also the severity and progression of neurological deficit. We present a case of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration and paraneoplastic polyneuropathy in a 50-year-old woman with the neurological symptoms appeared 5 months before breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma was detected. The current approaches to the diagnosis of paraneoplastic neurological syndrome, as well as feasibility of radical removal of the tumor due to progression of neurological deficit were discussed.

  17. Retrospective study of 48 cases of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Alessandro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL is an infrequent form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma restricted to the CNS. More than 90% are type B and mainly affect patients aged 50-70 years. Immunodeficiency is the most important risk factor. The aim of our study was to evaluate the immune status, clinical presentation and findings in complementary studies of PCNSL patients. A retrospective analysis of 48 cases treated in our center between January 1992 and May 2015 was performed. Median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range 25-84; with male predominance (2.1:1. Forty one cases (85% were immunocompetent patients. Brain MRI findings showed parenchymal involvement in 45 cases (94%, 43% with frontal lobe and 35% basal ganglia, 4% had meningeal involvement and 2% had ophthalmic involvement at diagnosis. Fifty-five percent had restricted signal on diffusion weighted imaging and contrast enhancement was found in 89%. Pyramidal syndrome was the main initial clinical manifestation (56%. There were abnormal findings in 62% of CSF samples, but in only 11.1% positive cytology results were detected. The most frequent type was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (83%, being B-cell type the most common form between them (96%. In our series PCNSL was more frequent in immunocompetent elderly male subjects. At initial evaluation, clinical manifestations and MRI findings were variable. The initial suspicion of this entity would allow an early diagnosis, avoiding empirical treatments that may confuse or delay diagnosis

  18. Depletion of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the rat central nervous system by cysteamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, S.M.; Landry, D.; Millard, W.J.; Badger, T.M.; Arnold, M.A.; Martin, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Selective neurotoxins have been of value in providing a means for specifically interfering with the actions of endogenous neurotransmitter candidates. Others have shown cysteamine (CSH) to deplete the gastrointestinal tract and hypothalamus of rats of immunoreactive somatostatin, suggesting a toxic action of that compound directed against somatostatin-containing cells. The present study further defines the actions of cysteamine on somatostatin in the central nervous system. (CNS). Cysteamine hydrochloride administered subcutaneously results in a depletion of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) in the retina, brain, and cervical spinal cord of rats. The effect is demonstrable at doses of 30 mg/kg of body weight and above, occurs within 2 to 4 hr of a single injection of the drug, and is largely reversible within 1 week. The mean depletion of SLI observed within the CNS varies from 38% in cerebral cortex to 65% in cervical spinal cord 24 hr following administration of CSH, 300 mg/kg of body weight, s.c. By gel permeation chromatography, all molecular weight forms of SLI are affected, with the largest reductions in those forms that co-chromatograph with synthetic somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28. These results indicate that CSH has a generalized, rapid, and largely reversible effect in depleting SLI from the rat CNS

  19. Neutron activation analysis of the central nervous system tissues in neurological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan); Sasajima, Kazuhisa

    1994-07-01

    As the diseases due to excessive metals in living bodies and the metals of their causes, Minamata disease due to Hg, itai-itai disease due to Cd, dialysis brain disease due to Al, hemochromatosis due to Fe, Wilson disease due to Cu and so on have been known. Also as the neural diseases, in which the possibility that metals take part in them is presumed, there are amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, Parkinsonism dementia and so on. In order to know the causes of the diseases due to excessive metals in living bodies and neurological diseases, the authors have measured Cu, Ca, Al, Mn, Zn and Fe in central nervous system tissues by activation analysis nondestructive method. The cases investigated were 4 cases of hepatocerebral diseases, 6 cases of ALS, 4 cases of Parkinson disease, 4 cases of Parkinsonism dementia, 4 cases of multiple sclerosis and 5 cases without CNS disease for the control. The method of measurement is described. The results for respective diseases are reported. Cu and Fe are in the relation of mirror images, and Cu formed Cu-superoxide dismutase (SOD) similarly to Zn and Mn as SOD carrier metals, and protects living bodies and CNS from oxidative stress. (K.I.).

  20. Characteristics of experimental Candida albicans infection of the central nervous system in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, H S; Sáez-Llorens, X; Grimprel, E; Argyle, J C; Olsen, K D; McCracken, G H

    1991-08-01

    Different concentrations (10(7), 10(5), 10(3) cfu/ml) of Candida albicans were injected intracisternally in rabbits. The highest inoculum was fatal within 14 h in all animals. In recipients of 10(5) and 10(3) cfu/ml inocula, the mean +/- SD peak cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) concentrations were 1.6 +/- 2.42 and 0.3 +/- 0.59 ng/ml, respectively, at 6 h; the mean +/- SD CSF leukocyte and protein concentrations were 6291 +/- 6515 and 453 +/- 674 cells/mm3 (at 24 h) and 118 +/- 90 and 109 +/- 122 mg/dl (at 12 and 24 h), respectively. At 6-10 days after inoculation, a second peak of TNF alpha activity was accompanied by increased CSF inflammation. Mortality in the 10(5) and 10(3) cfu/ml inoculum groups was 56% and 22%, respectively. Fatal infection was associated with higher second CSF peak TNF alpha and leukocyte concentrations and a larger proportion of culture-positive CSF samples. Histopathology revealed hyphal invasion, vasculitis, abscesses, and acute and chronic inflammatory infiltration of meninges and brain parenchyma. This model can be useful for evaluation of the pathogenesis and therapy of central nervous system fungal infections.