WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain banking processing

  1. Information technology for brain banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Peer

    2018-01-01

    Implementing and maintaining the information technology (IT) infrastructure of a brain bank can be a daunting task for any brain bank coordinator, particularly when access to both funds and IT professionals is limited. Many questions arise when attempting to determine which IT products are most suitable for a brain bank. The requirements of each brain bank must be assessed carefully to ensure that the chosen IT infrastructure will be able to meet those requirements successfully and will be able to expand and adapt as the size of the brain bank increases. This chapter provides some valuable insights to be considered when implementing the IT infrastructure for a brain bank and discusses the pros and cons of various approaches and products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Design of a European code of conduct for brain banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klioueva, Natasja M; Rademaker, Marleen C; Huitinga, Inge

    2018-01-01

    The BrainNet Europe consortium, which is a consortium of 19 European brain banks, took the initiative to draft a series of documents to provide an ethical framework for brain banks to follow. The framework includes an ethical code of conduct, a model for brain bank regulations, and a toolkit containing several documents. The sources for the information included came from the laws, regulations, and guidelines (declarations, conventions, recommendations, guidelines, and directives) that had been issued by international key organizations, such as the Council of Europe, European Commission, World Medical Association, and World Health Organization. The code of conduct addresses fundamental topics such as the rights of the persons donating their tissue, the obligations of the brain bank with regard to respect and observance of such rights, informed consent, confidentiality, protection of personal data, collections of human biologic material and their management, and transparency and accountability within the organization of a brain bank. The code of conduct was ratified by all European brain banks in 2009. This chapter describes the process of establishing the code of conduct within the BrainNet Europe consortium and elaborates on three key aspects of the code of conduct, namely informed consent, genetics, and financial aspects in brain banking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Brain banking for immunocytochemistry and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymin, C.; Jordan, D.; Saint-Pierre, G.; Kopp, N.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of a human brain bank is to establish groups of matched brains (normal control versus pathological groups) for studying human diseases of the nervous system. This bank is obtained by means of autopsy performed with a very short post-mortem delay and from clinically and neuropathologically well-documented patients. According to research protocols, two types of brain tissue storage are performed: fixed tissue or frozen tissue. Brain dissection procedures are performed according to precise anatomical boundaries of each brain region. This paper will center on the questions raised by brain banking in relation to histological and immunocytochemical studies and to biochemistry and autoradiography of binding sites. The lack of neuroanatomical data of the human brain leads us to compare anatomical results obtained in animals to that of the human. Moreover, it is clear that human brains present numerous interindividual differences (Kopp et al., 1977; Jack et al., 1989). Therefore, investigations of the human brain should be made on a large series of brains indicating the necessity of a well-documented brain bank of tissue from normal controls and patients. (authors)

  4. BrainNet Europe's Code of Conduct for brain banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klioueva, Natasja M; Rademaker, Marleen C; Dexter, David T; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Seilhean, Danielle; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Schmitz, Peer; Bell, Jeanne E; Ironside, James W; Arzberger, Thomas; Huitinga, Inge

    2015-07-01

    Research utilizing human tissue and its removal at post-mortem has given rise to many controversies in the media and posed many dilemmas in the fields of law and ethics. The law often lacks clear instructions and unambiguous guidelines. The absence of a harmonized international legislation with regard to post-mortem medical procedures and donation of tissue and organs contributes to the complexity of the issue. Therefore, within the BrainNet Europe (BNE) consortium, a consortium of 19 European brain banks, we drafted an ethical Code of Conduct for brain banking that covers basic legal rules and bioethical principles involved in brain banking. Sources include laws, regulations and guidelines (Declarations, Conventions, Recommendations, Guidelines and Directives) issued by international key organizations, such as the Council of Europe, European Commission, World Medical Association and World Health Organization. The Code of Conduct addresses fundamental topics as the rights of the persons donating their tissue, the obligations of the brain bank with regard to respect and observance of such rights, informed consent, confidentiality, protection of personal data, collections of human biological material and their management, and transparency and accountability within the organization of a brain bank. The Code of Conduct for brain banking is being adopted by the BNE network prior to being enshrined in official legislation for brain banking in Europe and beyond.

  5. Banking brain tissue for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klioueva, Natasja; Bovenberg, Jasper; Huitinga, I.

    2017-01-01

    Well-characterized human brain tissue is crucial for scientific breakthroughs in research of the human brain and brain diseases. However, the collection, characterization, management, and accessibility of brain human tissue are rather complex. Well-characterized human brain tissue is often provided

  6. Design of a European code of conduct for brain banking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klioueva, N.M.; Rademaker, M.; Huitinga, I.; Huitinga, I.; Webster, M.J.

    2018-01-01

    The BrainNet Europe consortium, which is a consortium of 19 European brain banks, took the initiative to draft a series of documents to provide an ethical framework for brain banks to follow. The framework includes an ethical code of conduct, a model for brain bank regulations, and a toolkit

  7. VA's National PTSD Brain Bank: a National Resource for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Matthew J; Huber, Bertrand R; Brady, Christopher B; Ursano, Robert J; Benedek, David M; Kowall, Neil W; McKee, Ann C

    2017-08-25

    The National PTSD Brain Bank (NPBB) is a brain tissue biorepository established to support research on the causes, progression, and treatment of PTSD. It is a six-part consortium led by VA's National Center for PTSD with participating sites at VA medical centers in Boston, MA; Durham, NC; Miami, FL; West Haven, CT; and White River Junction, VT along with the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences. It is also well integrated with VA's Boston-based brain banks that focus on Alzheimer's disease, ALS, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and other neurological disorders. This article describes the organization and operations of NPBB with specific attention to: tissue acquisition, tissue processing, diagnostic assessment, maintenance of a confidential data biorepository, adherence to ethical standards, governance, accomplishments to date, and future challenges. Established in 2014, NPBB has already acquired and distributed brain tissue to support research on how PTSD affects brain structure and function.

  8. Brain banking: opportunities, challenges and meaning for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Brain banks collect post-mortem human brains to foster research into human CNS function and disease. They have been indispensable for uncovering the secrets of many diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. At a time when there are so many open questions in neuroscience and the incidence of brain diseases continues to increase in parallel with the aging of the population, brain banking remains at the heart of brain research. However, the major source of brain banks, the clinical autopsy, is rapidly falling into limbo. New strategies, including donor programmes, medico-legal autopsies and banking in networks, as well as fresh considerations of the ethics and public relations, are required.

  9. The Netherlands Brain Bank for Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Marleen C; de Lange, Geertje M; Palmen, Saskia J M C

    2018-01-01

    The Netherlands Brain Bank (NBB) performs rapid autopsies of donors who gave written informed consent during life for the use of their brain tissue and medical files for research. The NBB initiated the Netherlands Brain Bank for Psychiatry (NBB-Psy), a prospective donor program for psychiatric diseases. NBB-Psy wants to expand the tissue collections in order to provide a strong incentive to increase research in psychiatry. The ultimate goal of NBB-Psy is to reduce the burden of psychiatric disorders for patients, their families, and for society as a whole. NBB-Psy consists of an antemortem and postmortem donor program. This chapter focuses on the design of NBB-Psy and the antemortem donor program, where patients and relatives are actively informed on the possibility to become a brain donor. Since the initiation of NBB-Psy, the number of registered donors with a psychiatric diagnosis has increased from 149 in 2010 to 1018 in May 2016. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain donation procedures in the Sudden Death Brain Bank in Edinburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Colin; Millar, Tracey

    2018-01-01

    Brain banks typically receive donations through premortem consent procedures, often through disease-specific patient cohorts, such as dementia. While some control cases can be obtained through this route, access to age-matched control tissues, and some chronic neurologic conditions, particularly psychiatric disorders, can be challenging. The Edinburgh Sudden Death Brain Bank was established to try and increase access to control cases across all ages, and also access to psychiatric disorders through suicides. This chapter outlines the processes for establishing donations through medicolegal postmortems, which, although often with a prolonged postmortem interval, can provide high-quality well-characterized postmortem brain tissue to the neuroscience research community. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Brand building process of banking services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes related to competitive surroundings, legislation, and use of technology in banking business created new challenges for the managers in banking sector and emphasized the importance of brand building in the field of financial services. The need for financial institutions to manage its users in a way that provides them satisfaction, two-way communication and trust developing into loyalty was created. Regarding the research methodology, it is important to emphasize that the main discussion related to the purpose of research is to determine, improve, and better comprehend the main problems appearing in the process of brand building of banking services on the Belgrade market from the users standpoint. In order to realize the established purpose of the research, answers to the following research questions shall be provided: 1 Which problems in communication with the users are important for bank brand building?, 2 In what way do users see the image and personality of a bank? 3 In which way does brand of the origin of a bank influence the choice of users for the banking services? And 4 In which way the strategy of communication in the process of brand building of banking services can be improved? The quantitative approach to the research has been used. This study is based on the research procedure of surveys and data collection through a questionnaire, as an instrument in the research which was given to the adult citizens on the territory of the city of Belgrade. Statistic treatment of the data was conducted by using the SPSS software. The results are presented by using the combined techniques: in written form, in tables and graphs. So, the basic conclusions would be such as: after the marketing research on how banks carry on the processes of brand building was conducted, certain conclusions could be drawn from it: It is very important for a client to be involved in the process of brand building. By taking into consideration the criteria based on

  12. WORLD BANK: Status of Grievance Process Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    In June 1998, in response, to concerns about the fairness of its employee grievance process and as part of a broader effort to reform its human resource policies, the World Bank appointed an internal...

  13. Applications of Parallel Processing in Mobile Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of mobile banking will be represented by such applications that support mobile, Internet banking and EFT (Electronic Funds Transfer transactions in a single user interface. In such a way, the mobile banking will be able to cover all the types of applications demanded at the market level. The parallel processing of credit card bank transactions could be performed with the help of a grid network. Excluding some limitations, the grid processing offers huge opportunities to exploit the parallelism. For this reason, a lot of applications of waiting queues in grid processing were developed in the last years. Grid networks represent a distinctive and very modern field of the parallel and distributed processing.

  14. A Brain Worth Keeping? - Waste Value and Time in Contemporary Brain Banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erslev, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    If a temporal rather than spatial concept of waste is adopted, novel categories emerge which are useful for identifying and understanding logics of temporality at play in determining what is kept in contemporary brain banks, and reveal that brain banks are constituted by more than stored material...... to maintaining the collection's continued relevance and usefulness as a scientific institution....

  15. A brain worth keeping? Waste, value and time in contemporary brain banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erslev, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    If a temporal rather than spatial concept of waste is adopted, novel categories emerge which are useful for identifying and understanding logics of temporality at play in determining what is kept in contemporary brain banks, and reveal that brain banks are constituted by more than stored materials. First, I apply the categories analytically on a recent UK brain banking discussion among professionals. This analysis highlights the importance of data in brain banks, as well as the centrality of ideas about pasts and futures in the discussions. Secondly, I investigate the case of a seven decades old, Danish brain bank which had been reduced to its physically stored material for 24 years, before being reinstituted in 2006. This case demonstrates the importance of material and conceptual infrastructures that co-constitute a collection, as they make up an experimental system that is crucial to maintaining the collection's continued relevance and usefulness as a scientific institution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Banking (on) the brain: from consent to authorisation and the transformative potential of solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Shawn H E; Mcmahon, Aisling

    2014-01-01

    Modern technologies and biomedicine ambitions have given rise to new models of medical research, including population biobanking. One example of biobanking is brain banking, which refers to the collection and storage of brain and spinal cord samples for research into neurological diseases. Obviously, brain banking involves taking brains and tissue from deceased people, a fact which complicates the role of recruiters and makes consent a poor tool for stakeholders. After contextualising brain banking and considering the public health issues at stake, this article explores the legal definitions and demands of, and actual processes around, consent in England/Wales/Northern Ireland and authorisation in Scotland, articulating and evaluating their conceptual and practical differences. It then argues for an expanded but improved operation of 'authorisation' in the brain banking (and broader biobanking) setting, adopting 'solidarity' as our foundation and the improvement of the 'public good' our objective. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The New York Brain Bank of Columbia University: practical highlights of 35 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Etty Paola Cortes; Keller, Christian Ernst; Vonsattel, Jean Paul

    2018-01-01

    The New York Brain Bank processes brains and organs of clinically well-characterized patients with age-related neurodegenerative diseases, and for comparison, from individuals without neurologic or psychiatric impairments. The donors, either patients or individuals, were evaluated at healthcare facilities of the Columbia University of New York. Each source brain yields four categories of samples: fresh frozen blocks and crushed parenchyma, and formalin-fixed wet blocks and histology sections. A source brain is thoroughly evaluated to determine qualitatively and quantitatively any changes it might harbor using conventional neuropathologic techniques. The clinical and pathologic diagnoses are integrated to determine the distributive diagnosis assigned to the samples obtained from a source brain. The gradual standardization of the protocol was developed in 1981 in response to the evolving requirements of basic investigations on neurodegeneration. The methods assimilate long-standing experience from multiple centers. The resulting and current protocol includes a constant central core applied to all brains with conditional flexibility around it. The New York Brain Bank is an integral part of the department of pathology, where the expertise, teaching duties, and hardware are shared. Since details of the protocols are available online, this chapter focuses on practical issues in professionalizing brain banking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Privatization processes in banking: Motives and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Života

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper consists of three methodologically and causally connected thematic parts: the first part deals with crucial motives and models of the privatization processes in the USA and EU with a particular analytical focus on the Herfindahl-Hirschman doctrine of the collective domination index, as well as on the essence of merger-acquisition and take-over models. The second thematic part of the paper, as a logical continuation of the first one represents a brief comparative analysis of the motives and models implemented in bank privatization in the south-eastern European countries with particular focus on identifying interests of foreign investors, an optimal volume and price of the investment, and assessment of finalized privatizations in those countries. The final part of the paper theoretically and practically stems from the first and the second part, in that way making an interdependent and a compatible thematic whole with them, presents qualitative and quantitative aspects of analyzing finalized privatization and/or sale-purchase of Serbian banks with particular focus on IPO and IPOPLUS as the prevailing models of future sale-purchase in privatizing Serbian banks.

  19. Banking Brain Tumor Specimens Using a University Core Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregy, Amade; Papadimitriou, Kyriakos; Faber, David A; Shah, Ashish H; Gomez, Carmen R; Komotar, Ricardo J; Egea, Sophie C

    2015-08-01

    Within the past three decades, the significance of banking human cancer tissue for the advancement of cancer research has grown exponentially. The purpose of this article is to detail our experience in collecting brain tumor specimens in collaboration with the University of Miami/Sylvester Tissue Bank Core Facility (UM-TBCF), to ensure the availability of high-quality samples of central nervous system tumor tissue for research. Successful tissue collection begins with obtaining informed consent from patients following institutional IRB and federal HIPAA guidelines, and it needs a well-trained professional staff and continued maintenance of high ethical standards and record keeping. Since starting in 2011, we have successfully banked 225 brain tumor specimens for research. Thus far, the most common tumor histology identified among those specimens has been glioblastoma (22.1%), followed by meningioma (18.1%). The majority of patients were White, non-Hispanics accounting for 45.1% of the patient population; Hispanic/Latinos accounted for 23%, and Black/African Americans accounted for 14%, which represent the particular population of the State of Florida according to the 2010 census data. The most common tumors found in each subgroup were as follows: Black/African American, glioblastoma and meningioma; Hispanic, metastasis and glioblastoma; White, glioblastoma and meningioma. The UM-TBCF is a valuable repository, offering high-quality tumor samples from a unique patient population.

  20. Aligning Work Processes and the Adviser Portal Bank System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens Bæk; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    2006-01-01

    The Adviser Portal (AP) is a new IT system for 15 Danish banks. The main goal of AP is to increase the efficiency and quality of bank advisers’ work. Re- quirements engineering for AP includes describing new work processes that must be supported by AP using a combination of: (1) prose and informal...... drawings; (2) The Adviser Portal (AP) is a new IT system for 15 Danish banks. The main goal of AP is to increase the efficiency and quality of bank advisers' work. Requirements engineering for AP includes describing new work processes that musty be supported by AP using a combination of: (1) prose......, important work process....

  1. Collecting, storing, and mining research data in a brain bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Maree J; Kim, Sanghyeon

    2018-01-01

    The Stanley Medical Research Institute Brain Collection distributes samples from specified cohorts that contain demographically matched groups of subjects with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression, as well as unaffected controls. The groups are matched by age, sex, race, postmortem interval, pH, side of brain, and mRNA quality. The samples are distributed coded so that all data must be returned in order to obtain the demographic information. The database contains more than 5000 individual data sets, as well as data from high-throughput microarray, sequencing, and proteomic studies. While most data were generated from the frontal cortex and hippocampus, the cerebellum has the most data sets that differ significantly between diagnostic groups and controls. The database contains interactive features and statistical tools that enable online data mining and real-time data analysis. The decrease in density of parvalbumin-positive neurons in schizophrenia, one of the most replicated findings in the field, is used to illustrate features of the brain bank. We describe how this finding can be replicated and validated in this database. We also show how the density of parvalbumin-positive neurons is correlated with markers of immune activation in the neuropathology data sets, how it is correlated with immune-related genes in a microarray data set, and how it is associated with a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the immune complement system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. ANALISIS TINGKAT KEPUASAN NASABAH BANK, PENERAPANMETODEANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujang Arlian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the banking industry continues to progress over time. History has recorded that the banking industry advances occur after the deregulation package. Impact after the deregulation package that is increasing the number of private banks in Indonesia.Both private banks and state banks/enterprises vying to attract customers. Regional Development Bank (BPD, which has changed its name to the name of the province in Indonesia is also trying to implement a variety of strategies to encourage people to do deposits. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of satisfaction of bank customers who are in Lebong. The analytical method used is Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Using four (4 criteria such as facilities, products, services, and security as a comparison between the two banks. The results showed that the criteria for the facility is a major factor in determining the level of customer satisfaction.Then followed the safety criteria for second place while the third and fourth position are the criteria of products and services.  Perkembangan industri perbankan terus mengalami kemajuan dari waktu ke waktu. Sejarah telah mencatat bahwa kemajuan industri perbankan terjadi setelah masa paket deregulasi. Dampak setelah masa paket deregulasi yaitu bertambah banyaknya bank swasta di Indonesia. Baik bank swasta maupun bank BUMN/BUMD berlomba-lomba untuk menarik nasabah. Bank Pembangunan Daerah (BPD yang telah berubah nama menjadi nama provinsi di Indonesia juga berupaya dengan menerapkan berbagai strategi untuk mengajak masyarakat melakukan simpanan. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui tingkat kepuasan nasabah perbankan yang terdapat di Kabupaten Lebong. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Menggunakan 4 (empat kriteria seperti fasilitas, produk, pelayanan, dan keamanan sebagai pembanding diantara kedua bank tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kriteria fasilitas merupakan faktor

  3. A new viewpoint: running a nonprofit brain bank as a business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Sonja H M; Huitinga, Inge

    2018-01-01

    It has become clear over the past decades that studying postmortem human brain tissue is one of the most effective ways to increase our knowledge of the pathogenesis and etiology of neuropathologic and psychiatric diseases. Many breakthroughs in neuroscience have depended on the availability of human brain tissue. However, the process of brain banking presents many different challenges, including the high cost that is associated with collecting the samples and with providing the diagnostics, storage, and distribution. Funding is generally from research and facility grants and donations but all are irregular, uncertain, and only cover the costs for a determined period of time. For professional brain banks with extensive prospective donor programs and that are open-access it can be very beneficial to draft a business plan to achieve long-term sustainability. Such a business plan should identify the interests of the stakeholders and address the implementation of cost efficiency and cost recovery systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of Uncertainty in Dynamic Processes Development of Banks Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei V. Korovyakovskii

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers the approach to measure of uncertainty estimation in dynamic processes of banks functioning, using statistic data of different banking operations indicators. To calculate measure of uncertainty in dynamic processes of banks functioning the phase images of relevant sets of statistic data are considered. Besides, it is shown that the form of phase image of the studied sets of statistic data can act as a basis of measure of uncertainty estimation in dynamic processes of banks functioning. The set of analytical characteristics are offered to formalize the form of phase image definition of the studied sets of statistic data. It is shown that the offered analytical characteristics consider inequality of changes in values of the studied sets of statistic data, which is one of the ways of uncertainty display in dynamic processes development. The invariant estimates of measure of uncertainty in dynamic processes of banks functioning, considering significant changes in absolute values of the same indicators for different banks were obtained. The examples of calculation of measure of uncertainty in dynamic processes of concrete banks functioning were cited.

  5. RESEARCH OF PROCESS OF FINANCIAL MONITORING ORGANIZING IN BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Kovalenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to study methods and tools for financial monitoring by banks. It is proved that one of the main global financial problems in recent years is increasing number of cases of banks participating in the money laundering. It causes banks huge losses, undermines the credibility of honest depositors, in addition, circulation of funds like these hurts the national economy. The article is to develop recommendations to improve the effectiveness of financial monitoring in banks. It is proved that the current model of the national financial monitoring system includes the following elements: the purpose of macroeconomic and microeconomic levels; principles; function; facilities; subjects; types of financial monitoring; methods of implementation and regulatory prevue regulation. It is proved that the major problems related to the financial monitoring of banks are the following: lack of legislatively established quality requirements of customer information; persons engaged in legalization of illegal incomes are highly qualified, which greatly facilitates them through the bank of suspicious transactions; the process of settlement bank failure in the conduct of questionable transactions. Keywords: financial monitoring, suspicious transactions, bank, money laundering, financing of terrorism.

  6. Optimization of business processes in banks through flexible workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolache, V.

    2017-08-01

    This article describes an integrated business model of a commercial bank. There are examples of components that go into its composition: wooden models and business processes, strategic goals, organizational structure, system architecture, operational and marketing risk models, etc. The practice has shown that the development and implementation of the integrated business model of the bank significantly increase operating efficiency and its management, ensures organizational and technology stable development. Considering the evolution of business processes in the banking sector, should be analysed their common characteristics. From the author’s point of view, a business process is a set of various activities of a commercial bank in which “Input” is one or more financial and material resources, as a result of this activity and “output” is created by banking product, which is some value to consumer. Using workflow technology, management business process efficiency issue is a matter of managing the integration of resources and sequence of actions aimed at achieving this goal. In turn, it implies management of jobs or functions’ interaction, synchronizing of the assignments periods, reducing delays in the transmission of the results etc. Workflow technology is very important for managers at all levels, as they can use it to easily strengthen the control over what is happening in a particular unit, and in the bank as a whole. The manager is able to plan, to implement rules, to interact within the framework of the company’s procedures and tasks entrusted to the system of the distribution function and execution control, alert on the implementation and issuance of the statistical data on the effectiveness of operating procedures. Development and active use of the integrated bank business model is one of the key success factors that contribute to long-term and stable development of the bank, increase employee efficiency and business processes, implement the

  7. ADMINISTRATION OF THE INFORMATION AND THE PROCESS OF BANK NEGOTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Lindemann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the quality of the administration of information, identifying deficiencies in the information systems, used in the negotiation process for concession of bank credit, to small and mid-sized companies, under the business managers' perspective. The results make the deficiencies evident and confirm the need for change in the systems of administration of information, in order to allow for both an improvement in the negotiation process of bank credit as well as a larger economical efficiency of the available resources.

  8. Psychiatric brain banking: three perspectives on current trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep-Soboslay, Amy; Benes, Francine M; Haroutunian, Vahram; Ellis, Justin K; Kleinman, Joel E; Hyde, Thomas M

    2011-01-15

    Postmortem human brain tissue is critical for advancing neurobiological studies of psychiatric illness, particularly for identifying brain-specific transcripts and isoforms. State-of-the-art methods and recommendations for maintaining psychiatric brain banks are discussed in three disparate collections, the National Institute of Mental Health Brain Tissue Collection, the Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center, and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine Alzheimer's Disease and Schizophrenia Brain Bank. While the National Institute of Mental Health Brain Tissue Collection obtains donations from medical examiners and focuses on clinical diagnosis, toxicology, and building life span control cohorts, the Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center is designed as a repository to collect large-volume, high-quality brain tissue from community-based donors across a nationwide network, placing emphasis on the accessibility of tissue and related data to research groups worldwide. The Mount Sinai School of Medicine Alzheimer's Disease and Schizophrenia Brain Bank has shown that prospective recruitment is a successful approach to tissue donation, placing particular emphasis on clinical diagnosis through antemortem contact with donors, as well as stereological tissue sampling methods for neuroanatomical studies and frozen tissue sampling approaches that enable multiple assessments (e.g., RNA, DNA, protein, enzyme activity, binding) of the same tissue block. Promising scientific approaches for elucidating the molecular and cellular pathways in brain that may contribute to schizophrenia are briefly discussed. Despite different perspectives from three established brain collections, there is consensus that varied networking strategies, rigorous tissue and clinical characterization, sample and data accessibility, and overall adaptability are integral to the success of psychiatric brain banking. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Process evaluation of the human reliability data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.P.; Comer, K.

    1984-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Sandia National Laboratories have been developing a plan for a human reliability data bank since August 1981. This research is in response to the data needs of the nuclear power industry's probabilistic risk assessment community. The three phases of the program are to: (A) develop the data bank concept, (B) develop an implementation plan and conduct a process evaluation, and (C) assist a sponsor in implementing the data bank. The program is now in Phase B. This paper describes the methods used and the results of the process evaluation. Decisions to be made in the future regarding full-scale implementation will be based in part on the outcome of this study

  10. Minimizing Banking Risk in a Lévy Process Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gideon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary functions of a bank are to obtain funds through deposits from external sources and to use the said funds to issue loans. Moreover, risk management practices related to the withdrawal of these bank deposits have always been of considerable interest. In this spirit, we construct Lévy process-driven models of banking reserves in order to address the problem of hedging deposit withdrawals from such institutions by means of reserves. Here reserves are related to outstanding debt and acts as a proxy for the assets held by the bank. The aforementioned modeling enables us to formulate a stochastic optimal control problem related to the minimization of reserve, depository, and intrinsic risk that are associated with the reserve process, the net cash flows from depository activity, and cumulative costs of the bank's provisioning strategy, respectively. A discussion of the main risk management issues arising from the optimization problem mentioned earlier forms an integral part of our paper. This includes the presentation of a numerical example involving a simulation of the provisions made for deposit withdrawals via treasuries and reserves.

  11. Management control of credit risk in the bank lending process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, S.B.

    2004-01-01

    Management control of credit risk in the bank lending processA casestudy to explore improvements from a managerial perspectiveAt the start of this project -back in 1998- new technologies and ideas were emerging among a new generation of financial engineering professionals who have been applying

  12. Plasma Processes: Operation of a capacitor bank for plasma metal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Previously metal forming has been done using electromagnet in pulsed power mode, better known as magneform [1]. Here we will be presenting a different technique for metal forming. We are using water as a medium for this process. By discharging the stored electrical energy of the capacitor bank in water, we are getting ...

  13. Process Innovation with Blockchain in Banking - A case study of how Blockchain can change the KYC process in banks.

    OpenAIRE

    Thavanathan, Jenitha

    2017-01-01

    Innovation is the key to prosperity in competitive markets, as almost every significant business venture can trace its roots to an original spark of innovation, and on occasion, ground breaking innovation would foster a new way of thinking. Enter Blockchain, an emerging factor contributing to the industry's forced transition into a digital-first age. This thesis aims to uncover how process innovation with Blockchain technology can reinvent KYC processes in the banking industry today. This is ...

  14. Psychiatric Brain Banking: Three Perspectives on Current Trends and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep-Soboslay, Amy; Benes, Francine M.; Haroutunian, Vahram; Ellis, Justin K.; Kleinman, Joel E.; Hyde, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The study of postmortem human brain tissue is central to the advancement of the neurobiological studies of psychiatric illness, particularly for the study of brain-specific isoforms and molecules. Methods The state-of-the-art methods and recommendations for maintaining a successful brain bank for psychiatric disorders are discussed, using the convergence of viewpoints from three brain collections, the National Institute of Mental Health Brain Collection (NIMH), the Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center (HBTRC), and the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine Brain Bank (MSSM-BB), with diverse research interests and divergent approaches to tissue acquisition. Results While the NIMH obtains donations from medical examiners for its collection, and places particular emphasis on clinical diagnosis, toxicology, and building lifespan control cohorts, the HBTRC is uniquely designed as a repository whose sole purpose is to collect large-volume, high quality brain tissue from community-based donors based on relationships across an expansive nationwide network, and places emphasis on the accessibility of its bank in disseminating tissue and related data to research groups worldwide. The MSSM-BB collection has shown that, with dedication, prospective recruitment is a successful approach to tissue donation, and places particular emphasis on rigorous clinical diagnosis through antemortem contact with donors. The MSSM-BB places great importance on stereological tissue sampling methods for neuroanatomical studies, and frozen tissue sampling approaches that enable multiple assessments (RNA, DNA, protein, enzyme activity, binding, etc.) of the same tissue block. Promising scientific approaches for elucidating the molecular and cellular pathways in brain that may contribute to schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder, such as cell culture techniques and microarray-based gene expression and genotyping studies are briefly discussed. Conclusions Despite unique perspectives from three

  15. Brain tissue banking for stem cells for our future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmero, Emily; Palmero, Sheryl; Murrell, Wayne

    2016-12-19

    In our lab we study neurogenesis and the development of brain tumors. We work towards treatment strategies for glioblastoma and towards using autologous neural stem cells for tissue regeneration strategies for brain damage and neurodegenerative disorders. It has been our policy to try to establish living cell cultures from all human biopsy material that we obtain. We hypothesized that small pieces of brain tissue could be cryopreserved and that live neural stem cells could be recovered at a later time. DMSO has been shown to possess a remarkable ability to diffuse through cell membranes and pass into cell interiors. Its chemical properties prevent the formation of damaging ice crystals thus allowing cell storage at or below -180 C. We report here a protocol for successful freezing of small pieces of tissue derived from human brain and human brain tumours. Virtually all specimens could be successfully revived. Assays of phenotype and behaviour show that the cell cultures derived were equivalent to those cultures previously derived from fresh tissue.

  16. Global vs. regional approaches to the internationalisation process of Nigerian banks: some preliminary evidences

    OpenAIRE

    Acholonu, Kelechi K.; Boojihawon, Dev; Hanuman-Oogarah, Vanisha

    2010-01-01

    Research investigating internationalisation process of service firms from developing countries is limited. This paper draws on extant work on internationalisation of the firm, services’ internationalisation and proposes conceptual framework that investigates the internationalisation process of three leading Nigerian banks namely; Zenith Bank Nigeria (ZBN)Plc, First Bank of Nigeria (FBN) Plc and Intercontinental Bank Plc. This work attempts to evaluate the internationalisation process of these...

  17. banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-01-01

    The thaw period was a kind of bank from which our country set sail towards unexplored horizons. The series on the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers is continued by the article by Felix Novikov (144-151, who writes about the history of the design of this wonderful building, today’s monument of architecture of Soviet modernism.

  18. Magnitude and processes of bank erosion at a small stream in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veihe, Anita; Jensen, Niels H.; Schiøtz, Iris Gunia

    2011-01-01

    River banks are important sources of sediment and phosphorus to fluvial systems, and the erosion processes operating on the banks are complex and change over time. This study explores the magnitude of bank erosion on a cohesive streambank within a small channelized stream and studies the various...... (17Ð6–30Ð1 mm year-1) and total P content on the banks were relatively high, which makes the bank an important source of sediment and phosphorus to the stream, and it was estimated that 0Ð27 kg Ptot year-1 ha-1 may potentially be supplied to the stream from the banks. Yearly pin erosion rates...... exceeding 5 cm year1 were mainly found at the lower parts of the bank and were associated with fluvial erosion. Negative erosion pin readings were widespread with a net advance of the bank during the monitoring period mainly attributed to subaerial processes and bank failure. It was found that dry periods...

  19. Test bank to accompany Computers data and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deitel, Harvey M

    1980-01-01

    Test Bank to Accompany Computers and Data Processing provides a variety of questions from which instructors can easily custom tailor exams appropriate for their particular courses. This book contains over 4000 short-answer questions that span the full range of topics for introductory computing course.This book is organized into five parts encompassing 19 chapters. This text provides a very large number of questions so that instructors can produce different exam testing essentially the same topics in succeeding semesters. Three types of questions are included in this book, including multiple ch

  20. SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF THE PROCESS OF BANKING CONCENTRATION AND CONSOLIDATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COPIL CRINA ANGELA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I proposed to anaylze the main aspect that characterized the process of bank concentration and consolidation in the European union, knowing their evolutions and particularities on the European and world bank sector and the effects that they have on the banks and the economy altogether. I presented the evolution of the number of banks, evolution that reflects the degree of consolidation of the bank system. Based on the financial crisis begun in 2008 the number of credit institutions decreased continuously as a consequence of the processes of bank mergers and acquisitions generated by the uncertainties of the economic perspectives. Also I analyzed the evolution of the degree of bank concentration in the European countries, process that underlines the degree of domination of the banking market accomplished by some great banks. We consider essential the knowing of this process because the increase of the bank concentration leads to the creating of some bank entities with very large dimensions, that in the periods of crisis can generate macro economic imbalances by involving the state in their subventioning. The research is based mainly on compiled statistic data offered by the European Central Bank (BCE, data that are published annualy and that were processed to be able to offer an overview on the most important modifications that took place in the European union and in its representative countries.

  1. Launching GUPPI: the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPlain, Ron; Ransom, Scott; Demorest, Paul; Brandt, Patrick; Ford, John; Shelton, Amy L.

    2008-08-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is launching the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI), a prototype flexible digital signal processor designed for pulsar observations with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). GUPPI uses field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware and design tools developed by the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California, Berkeley. The NRAO has been concurrently developing GUPPI software and hardware using minimal software resources. The software handles instrument monitor and control, data acquisition, and hardware interfacing. GUPPI is currently an expert-only spectrometer, but supports future integration with the full GBT production system. The NRAO was able to take advantage of the unique flexibility of the CASPER FPGA hardware platform, develop hardware and software in parallel, and build a suite of software tools for monitoring, controlling, and acquiring data with a new instrument over a short timeline of just a few months. The NRAO interacts regularly with CASPER and its users, and GUPPI stands as an example of what reconfigurable computing and open-source development can do for radio astronomy. GUPPI is modular for portability, and the NRAO provides the results of development as an open-source resource.

  2. Corporate Choice of Banks: Decision Factors, Decision Maker, and Decision Process – First Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, S.; Tumer Alkan, G.; Vermeer, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how firms choose their banks. We focus on the role played by the decision factors, the decision maker and the decision process in determining firm-bank relationships. We have access to a unique survey that was run by a major bank in the Czech Republic. We find that

  3. The processes of mergers and acquisitions in the Russian banking business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gritsenko S. E.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available the article is dedicated to the changes in the banking sector due to sales and aggregation of the small and medium-sized banks. This paper describes the processes of consolidation and aggregation of the banking sector in Russia, it analyses the dynamics of the M&A deals and identifies the main trends in this market segment for 2017–2018. Based on the overview of the Russian M&A market (M&A means mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector for the past years a conclusion is drawn about the aims and rationale of the modern processes of mergers and acquisitions in the Russian banking business.

  4. Analysis of changing bank services in globalization process of financial business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Mumi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of economic development of every country is closely connected with the functioning of effective infrastructure of financial market, in the carter of which is a bank system. The success of market relations, the provision of intensive economic growth, the increasing country’s competitiveness at the world market and the growth of population well-being are determined by the fact of how much effectively banks are able to act at different segments of bank services. The innovations in the bank field are closely connected with the innovations in the global and world financial sector. The issues about the influence of globalization on bank activities, the development of market of bank services, empirical researches are of great interest nowadays. Special attention is paid to the Ukrainian market of bank services. The analysis of the current state of the bank sector of the Ukrainian economy gives an opportunity to disclose some problems in the bank sphere as: political and financial instability in the country, the low quality of bank assets, the decrease of liquidity of bank assets, the low credit to the bank system among population, unstable legal framework in the state, the high level of vulnerability of the bank system to the country’s currency policy conducted by NBU.

  5. Prioritizing the client trust factors in electronic banking using analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein vazifedust

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper prioritizes the trust factors among electronic banking clients of an Iranian bank named Parsian Bank. The study first analyzes and reviews the literature and interviews with experts of electronic banking and academicians and determines client trust as the most important factor for development of electronic banking. The study also determines different factors associated with trust, which includes individual factors, banking factors and infrastructural factors. The sample populations consist of 25 experts who are academicians, managers and bank officers, clients of electronic banking. The necessary data was collected through conducting interviews and questionnaires and they are analyzed using analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The research findings indicate that the attitudinal factors, telecommunication infrastructure and cultural factors were the most influential factors accordingly and the customer orientation and ease of access were the least influential factors.

  6. A Hermeneutic Process of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, I.

    A hermeneutic process is introduced as a peculiar mechanism of an information processing of the brain. Concerning a pattern recognition, the difference between the functions of the brain and of the present artificial intelligence is discussed. The concept of metaconscious is introduced to explain the hermeneutic process. In this relation, it is suggested that the existence of a hidden dynamics is of importance for man's cognition.

  7. Information processing in miniature brains

    OpenAIRE

    Chittka, L.; Skorupski, P.

    2011-01-01

    Since a comprehensive understanding of brain function and evolution in vertebrates is often hobbled by the sheer size of the nervous system, as well as ethical concerns, major research efforts have been made to understand the neural circuitry underpinning behaviour and cognition in invertebrates, and its costs and benefits under natural conditions. This special feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B contains an idiosyncratic range of current research perspectives on neural underpinning...

  8. hPDB – Haskell library for processing atomic biomolecular structures in protein data bank format

    OpenAIRE

    Gajda, Michał Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein DataBank file format is used for the majority of biomolecular data available today. Haskell is a lazy functional language that enjoys a high-level class-based type system, a growing collection of useful libraries and a reputation for efficiency. Findings I present a fast library for processing biomolecular data in the Protein Data Bank format. I present benchmarks indicating that this library is faster than other frequently used Protein Data Bank parsing programs. The propo...

  9. The importance of establishing an international network of tissue banks and regional tissue processing centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2014-03-01

    During the past four decades, many tissue banks have been established across the world with the aim of supplying sterilized tissues for clinical use and research purposes. Between 1972 and 2005, the International Atomic Energy Agency supported the establishment of more than sixty of these tissue banks in Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific, Africa and Eastern Europe; promoted the use of the ionizing radiation technique for the sterilization of the processed tissues; and encouraged cooperation between the established tissue banks during the implementation of its program on radiation and tissue banking at national, regional and international levels. Taking into account that several of the established tissue banks have gained a rich experience in the procurement, processing, sterilization, storage, and medical use of sterilized tissues, it is time now to strengthen further international and regional cooperation among interested tissue banks located in different countries. The purpose of this cooperation is to share the experience gained by these banks in the procurement, processing, sterilization, storage, and used of different types of tissues in certain medical treatments and research activities. This could be done through the establishment of a network of tissue banks and a limited number of regional tissue processing centers in different regions of the world.

  10. Investment Appraisal Process in the Banking & Finance Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu; J.R. Turner (Rodney)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe have studied how the banking and finance industry performs investment appraisal, measures subsequent follow-up and designates project success or failure. Furthermore, the authors looked into the extent of use of the new generation value management models. The result shows that firms

  11. Striga hermonthica seed bank dynamics: process quantification and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, van T.A.

    2007-01-01

    Key words: Weed control, integrated management, parasitic weed, population, sorghum, millet. This thesis presents a study on the quantification of seed bank dynamics of the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica. The main objectives were to quantify transition rates between different stages of the

  12. To audit or not to audit : How is auditing being used in banks' credit rating processes?

    OpenAIRE

    Ademi, Aida; Stigborn, Ammeli

    2010-01-01

    Credit rating systems are complex processes and involve mainly two parties; a company and a bank. The complexity of a relationship between a company and a bank lies in the fact that a company usually has access to more information about the company than the bank. Hence, an auditor acts as a third party who validates the information involved in credit rating processes. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore how auditing is being used in credit rating processes and to identify the role ...

  13. Standard Operating Procedures, ethical and legal regulations in BTB (Brain/Tissue/Bio) banking: what is still missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Rivka

    2008-06-01

    The use of human biological specimens in scientific research is the focus of current international public and professional concern and a major issue in bioethics in general. Brain/Tissue/Bio banks (BTB-banks) are a rapid developing sector; each of these banks acts locally as a steering unit for the establishment of the local Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and the legal regulations and ethical guidelines to be followed in the procurement and dissemination of research specimens. An appropriat Code of Conduct is crucial to a successful operation of the banks and the research application they handle. What are we still missing ? (1) Adequate funding for research BTB-banks. (2) Standard evaluation protocls for audit of BTB-bank performance. (3) Internationally accepted SOP's which will facilitate exchange and sharing of specimens and data with the scientific community. (4) Internationally accepted Code of Conduct. In the present paper we review the most pressing organizational, methodological, medico-legal and ethical issues involved in BTB-banking; funding, auditing, procurement, management/handling, dissemination and sharing of specimens, confidentiality and data protection, genetic testing, "financial gain" and safety measures. Taking into consideration the huge variety of the specimens stored in different repositories and the enormous differences in medico-legal systems and ethics regulations in different countries it is strongly recommend that the health-care systems and institutions who host BTB-Banks will put more efforts in getting adequate funding for the infrastructure and daily activities. The BTB-banks should define evaluation protocols, SOPs and their Code of Conduct. This in turn will enable the banks to share the collected specimens and data with the largest possible number of researchers and aim at a maximal scientific spin-off and advance in public health research.

  14. Standard Operating Procedures, ethical and legal regulations in BTB (Brain/Tissue/Bio) banking: what is still missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Rivka

    2008-09-01

    The use of human biological specimens in scientific research is the focus of current international public and professional concern and a major issue in bioethics in general. Brain/Tissue/Bio banks (BTB-banks) are a rapid developing sector; each of these banks acts locally as a steering unit for the establishment of the local Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and the legal regulations and ethical guidelines to be followed in the procurement and dissemination of research specimens. An appropriat Code of Conduct is crucial to a successful operation of the banks and the research application they handle. What are we still missing ? (1) Adequate funding for research BTB-banks. (2) Standard evaluation protocls for audit of BTB-bank performance. (3) Internationally accepted SOP's which will facilitate exchange and sharing of specimens and data with the scientific community. (4) Internationally accepted Code of Conduct. In the present paper we review the most pressing organizational, methodological, medico-legal and ethical issues involved in BTB-banking; funding, auditing, procurement, management/handling, dissemination and sharing of specimens, confidentiality and data protection, genetic testing, "financial gain" and safety measures. Taking into consideration the huge variety of the specimens stored in different repositories and the enormous differences in medico-legal systems and ethics regulations in different countries it is strongly recommend that the health-care systems and institutions who host BTB-Banks will put more efforts in getting adequate funding for the infrastructure and daily activities. The BTB-banks should define evaluation protocols, SOPs and their Code of Conduct. This in turn will enable the banks to share the collected specimens and data with the largest possible number of researchers and aim at a maximal scientific spin-off and advance in public health research.

  15. Brain's tumor image processing using shearlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Luis; Espinosa, Nikolai; Cadena, Franklin; Korneeva, Anna; Kruglyakov, Alexey; Legalov, Alexander; Romanenko, Alexey; Zotin, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Brain tumor detection is well known research area for medical and computer scientists. In last decades there has been much research done on tumor detection, segmentation, and classification. Medical imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis of brain tumors and nowadays uses methods non-invasive, high-resolution techniques, especially magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans. Edge detection is a fundamental tool in image processing, particularly in the areas of feature detection and feature extraction, which aim at identifying points in a digital image at which the image has discontinuities. Shearlets is the most successful frameworks for the efficient representation of multidimensional data, capturing edges and other anisotropic features which frequently dominate multidimensional phenomena. The paper proposes an improved brain tumor detection method by automatically detecting tumor location in MR images, its features are extracted by new shearlet transform.

  16. The importance of brain banks for molecular neuropathological research: The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedova, Irina; Harding, Antony; Sheedy, Donna; Garrick, Therese; Sundqvist, Nina; Hunt, Clare; Gillies, Juliette; Harper, Clive G

    2009-01-01

    New developments in molecular neuropathology have evoked increased demands for postmortem human brain tissue. The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre (TRC) at The University of Sydney has grown from a small tissue collection into one of the leading international brain banking facilities, which operates with best practice and quality control protocols. The focus of this tissue collection is on schizophrenia and allied disorders, alcohol use disorders and controls. This review highlights changes in TRC operational procedures dictated by modern neuroscience, and provides examples of applications of modern molecular techniques to study the neuropathogenesis of many different brain disorders.

  17. The Importance of Brain Banks for Molecular Neuropathological Research: The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Harding

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available New developments in molecular neuropathology have evoked increased demands for postmortem human brain tissue. The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre (TRC at The University of Sydney has grown from a small tissue collection into one of the leading international brain banking facilities, which operates with best practice and quality control protocols. The focus of this tissue collection is on schizophrenia and allied disorders, alcohol use disorders and controls. This review highlights changes in TRC operational procedures dictated by modern neuroscience, and provides examples of applications of modern molecular techniques to study the neuropathogenesis of many different brain disorders.

  18. HPDB-Haskell library for processing atomic biomolecular structures in Protein Data Bank format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Michał Jan

    2013-11-23

    Protein DataBank file format is used for the majority of biomolecular data available today. Haskell is a lazy functional language that enjoys a high-level class-based type system, a growing collection of useful libraries and a reputation for efficiency. I present a fast library for processing biomolecular data in the Protein Data Bank format. I present benchmarks indicating that this library is faster than other frequently used Protein Data Bank parsing programs. The proposed library also features a convenient iterator mechanism, and a simple API modeled after BioPython. I set a new standard for convenience and efficiency of Protein Data Bank processing in a Haskell library, and release it to open source.

  19. Modelling river bank erosion processes and mass failure mechanisms using 2-D depth averaged numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die Moran, Andres; El kadi Abderrezzak, Kamal; Tassi, Pablo; Herouvet, Jean-Michel

    2014-05-01

    Bank erosion is a key process that may cause a large number of economic and environmental problems (e.g. land loss, damage to structures and aquatic habitat). Stream bank erosion (toe erosion and mass failure) represents an important form of channel morphology changes and a significant source of sediment. With the advances made in computational techniques, two-dimensional (2-D) numerical models have become valuable tools for investigating flow and sediment transport in open channels at large temporal and spatial scales. However, the implementation of mass failure process in 2D numerical models is still a challenging task. In this paper, a simple, innovative algorithm is implemented in the Telemac-Mascaret modeling platform to handle bank failure: failure occurs whether the actual slope of one given bed element is higher than the internal friction angle. The unstable bed elements are rotated around an appropriate axis, ensuring mass conservation. Mass failure of a bank due to slope instability is applied at the end of each sediment transport evolution iteration, once the bed evolution due to bed load (and/or suspended load) has been computed, but before the global sediment mass balance is verified. This bank failure algorithm is successfully tested using two laboratory experimental cases. Then, bank failure in a 1:40 scale physical model of the Rhine River composed of non-uniform material is simulated. The main features of the bank erosion and failure are correctly reproduced in the numerical simulations, namely the mass wasting at the bank toe, followed by failure at the bank head, and subsequent transport of the mobilised material in an aggradation front. Volumes of eroded material obtained are of the same order of magnitude as the volumes measured during the laboratory tests.

  20. Bank-toe processes in incised channels: the role of apparent cohesion in the entrainment of failed bank materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Anna L.; Simon, Andrew; Downs, Peter W.; Thorne, Colin R.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous processes may instigate bank retreat and the consequent collection of failed cohesive materials at the bank toe. Cohesion between the failed material and the substrate can provide additional strength to resist direct fluvial entrainment. Failed, cohesive material can act as a form of natural bank-toe protection by consuming and diverting flow energy that may otherwise be used to further scour the basal zone of incising channels.Investigations in Goodwin Creek, Mississippi, have revealed the existence of apparent cohesion between failed, cohesive blocks and their underlying surface. The method used to assess this cohesion involved a pulley system mounted on a tripod and supporting a load cell. Mean and maximum apparent-cohesion values of 1·08 kPa and 2·65 kPa, respectively, were measured in this way, identifying a source that bonds blocks to the underlying surface. Cohesion values and types vary spatially and temporally. Tensiometric tests beneath blocks suggest that cohesion resulting from matric suction alone may be as much as 3·5 kPa in summer and 1·8 kPa in winter.Apparent cohesion is believed to have been sufficient to help prevent removal of the largest blocks by a peak flow of 66·4m3/s on 23 September 1997. Maximum excess shear stress required to entrain a D75 block can be augmented by as much as 97% by the presence of apparent cohesion at the block-substrate interface when compared with a condition with zero apparent cohesion at the block underside. Given these findings, it is no longer sufficient to estimate block entrainment in the basal area from block size or bed roughness alone, as in a Shields-type approach.

  1. Oxytocin: parallel processing in the social brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölen, Gül

    2015-06-01

    Early studies attempting to disentangle the network complexity of the brain exploited the accessibility of sensory receptive fields to reveal circuits made up of synapses connected both in series and in parallel. More recently, extension of this organisational principle beyond the sensory systems has been made possible by the advent of modern molecular, viral and optogenetic approaches. Here, evidence supporting parallel processing of social behaviours mediated by oxytocin is reviewed. Understanding oxytocinergic signalling from this perspective has significant implications for the design of oxytocin-based therapeutic interventions aimed at disorders such as autism, where disrupted social function is a core clinical feature. Moreover, identification of opportunities for novel technology development will require a better appreciation of the complexity of the circuit-level organisation of the social brain. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  2. Designing a Virtual Item Bank Based on the Techniques of Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Wei; Ho, Rong-Guey

    2011-01-01

    One of the major weaknesses of the item exposure rates of figural items in Intelligence Quotient (IQ) tests lies in its inaccuracies. In this study, a new approach is proposed and a useful test tool known as the Virtual Item Bank (VIB) is introduced. The VIB combine Automatic Item Generation theory and image processing theory with the concepts of…

  3. Banking Consolidation Process and Impact to Financial Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Novickytė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalization promotes financial market participants to seek opportunities for efficient management of available resources and maximize benefits. In recent years, took place in the con­solidation process is mainly due to both macroeconomic and microeconomic factors. Most often leads to consolidation pro­cesses in order to gain economies of scale, market power and X-efficiency. Market consolidation and financial sector stability studies have shown that concentrated financial intermediaries market have a negative impact on the region/country/sector financial stability. In the future countries and regions (EU must find ways and means to smoothly manage the inevitable process of globalization under the supervision of future merger transac­tions in order to guarantee the efficiency and sustainability of the financial sector. Article in Lithuanian

  4. Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Measuring Stream Bank Erosion within Legacy Sediments: Data Processing and Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek, M. J.; Mitasova, H.; Wegmann, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    Land clearing for agricultural purposes following European settlement of America resulted in upland erosion rates 50-400 times above long-term geologic rates in much of the North Carolina Piedmont region. A considerable amount of the eroded sediment was subsequently aggraded on floodplains and impounded in the slackwater ponds behind milldams. This trapped "legacy" sediment is commonly mistaken for natural floodplain deposition and has remained largely unrecognized as a potential source of accelerated sediment erosion contributing to modern water quality impairment. In this study, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is utilized to monitor stream bank evolution along a reach that has breached a former millpond. Due to the unique surface geometry and orientation of the stream bank, vegetation occlusion, and true 3D structure of the point cloud, a systematic data processing approach is implemented to compute the change in sediment volume between repeat TLS surveys. The processing approach consists of the following four steps: 1) segmentation of the stream bank point cloud; 2) transformation of the point cloud such that the xy plane is parallel to the trend of the bank; 3) filter vegetation by selecting local lowest point within a grid cell; 4) smooth high frequency noise 5) generate bare earth digital elevation model (DEM). From the DEMs, change in volume was quantified for a 13 m x 3.5 m section of the stream bank providing an estimate on erosion rates and slumping between surveys. The major mechanisms for the observed changes are freeze-thaw events and fluvial entrainment. To evaluate the surface evolution between the distinct sedimentary layers (legacy vs non-legacy) that comprise the stream bank, elevation change is modeled as a continuous trivariate function z = f(x,y,t) where x,y is horizontal location, t is time, and z is a first-surface referenced elevation. Hence, z=0 for all x,y at t=0, time of first survey. The filtered, transformed, and first

  5. Information Security Monitoring Process Research in Russian Federation Banking System Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sergeevich Zaytsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author considers documents and scientific articles that should be used to configure monitoring and information security incident management process in an organization of banking system of Russia. Also key principles of monitoring configuration were marked up and a technique of monitoring configuration was proposed. Principles of monitoring system configuration were defined and a set of documents used to legitimate monitoring and information incident management process was considered.

  6. Rate of family refusal of organ donation in dead-brain donors: the Iranian tissue bank experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi-Mazdeh, M; Khodadadi, A; Tirgar, N; Riazi, N

    2013-01-01

    The growing gap between organ supply and demand remains a worldwide serious problem. Losing dead-brain donor organs can be attributed to several reasons including un-recognition of potential donor by ICU staff, death before official declaration of brain death and high refusal rate of deceased donors' families. To study the trend of dead-brain patients' relatives refusal of organ donation from 2007 to 2011. This study was a retrospective review of all patients who had been introduced as brain death to the organ procurement unit (OPU) of Iranian Tissue Bank between April 2007 and April 2012 according to preliminary neurological exam performed in the hospital of origin. The refusal rate of dead-brain patients' families and its reasons was evaluated. A total of 874 ICU admitted patients with severe brain injury (Glasgow coma score donation according to the approved medical protocols (n=205) and not fulfilling the brain death criteria (n=66). The families of the remaining cases (n=462) had been interviewed 343 (74.2%) of whom permitted donation. The mean±SD age of donors was 29.8±13.2 years; the male/female ratio was almost 2. The most common reason of brain death was traffic collision (n=120; 56.3%) and cerebrovascular accidents (n=40; 18.8%). The refusal rate from 2007 to 2011 has decreased respectively, from 30.4% to 20% in Tehran, and from 57.1% to 51.6% in other cities. The overall refusal rate was 25.8%. Our study confirmed that more level of expertise of the coordinator team and continuous public education, would result in higher rate of consent to organ donation.

  7. Benefits to blood banks of a sales and operations planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keal, Donald A; Hebert, Phil

    2010-12-01

    A formal sales and operations planning (S&OP) process is a decision making and communication process that balances supply and demand while integrating all business operational components with customer-focused business plans that links high level strategic plans to day-to-day operations. Furthermore, S&OP can assist in managing change across the organization as it provides the opportunity to be proactive in the face of problems and opportunities while establishing a plan for everyone to follow. Some of the key outcomes from a robust S&OP process in blood banking would include: higher customer satisfaction (donors and health care providers), balanced inventory across product lines and customers, more stable production rates and higher productivity, more cooperation across the entire operation, and timely updates to the business plan resulting in better forecasting and fewer surprises that negatively impact the bottom line. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. Dynamic of Mud Banks In French Guiana : An Experimental Investigation of Sediment Settling Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratiot, N.; Lefebvre, J. P.

    The coast of French Guiana is characterized by the periodic northwestward migration of mud banks originated from the Amazone mouth. From previous studies, the char- acteristical size of banks has been estimated by remote sensing processing as well as their mean rate of alongshore transport. However, the physical mecanisms leading to their displacements are not yet fully quantified. The present work aimed at investigating different processes known to be involved in coastal and estuarine dynamics and expected to occur during the migration of mud banks. The relative magnitudes of flocculation, hindered settling and consolidation have been determined. The material tested has been sampled during a field survey of the french National Pro- gram of Coastal Environment (PNEC-Chantier Guyane). Settling column experiments have been performed under quiescent condition for various mean sediment concen- trations in the range of 2-110g/l. The time dependent vertical profiles of suspended sediment concentration were monitored by mean of a 32 pre-calibrated optical sen- sors device. The corresponding settling velocity was deduced from the conservation of mass equation. This study yields usefull information for a better understanding of settling processes related to the fluid mud layer observed on the forepart of the bank. Time scales of hindering and consolidation processes are larger than these of mixing mecanisms such as tides or propagating waves. Therefore, it prevents any consolidation to occur. At the opposite, the individual floc settling velocity is too small to counterbalance the turbulent mixing induced by breaking waves. The experiments also pointed out that additional flocculation by differential settling should enhance sedimentation during slack water conditions.

  9. The Effectiveness Analysis of Waiting Processes in the Different Branches of a Bank by Queue Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah ÖZÇİL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the appreciable increase in the number of bank branches every year, nowadays queues for services don’t decrease and even become parts of our daily lives. By minimizing waiting processes the least, increasing customer satisfaction should be one of branch managers’ main goals. A quick and also customer oriented service with high quality is the most important factor for customer loyalty. In this study, Queueing theory, one of Operation Research techniques, is handled and in application, the data are obtained related to waiting in queue of customer in six different branches of two banks operating in Denizli and then they are analyzed by Queueing theory and also calculated the average effectiveness of the system. The study’s data are obtained by six branches of two banks called as A1, A2, A3, B1, B2 and B3. At the end of study it is presented to the company some advices that can bring benefits to the staff and customers. In this study, Queueing theory, one of Operation Research techniques, is handled and in application, the data are obtained related to waiting in queue of customer in three different branches of a bank operating in Denizli and then they are analyzed by Queueing theory and also calculated the average effectiveness of the system. The study’s data are obtained by three branches of the bank called A1, A2 and A3. At last it is presented to the company some advices that can bring more benefits to the staff and clients.

  10. Challenges of the Banking Integration Process in the Case of the New EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Chirlean

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The creation of the single European market represents a 50 years long process which aimsat developing the most advanced economy in the world. In order to achieve this, political actions mustbe accompanied by economical and juridical changes in order to stimulate and foster the creation ofthe single European market. A key component of this process is represented by the integration of thefinancial sector. While several component of it have registered major transformations andachievements in the integration process, one of the least integrated parts is represented by theEuropean banking sector. Most of the European economies are funded directly through the bankingsector, thus the integration of this sector represents a major benchmarks in the European integrationprocess. This problem becomes more complex in the context of the European Union enlargement to27 member states. Thus, the aim of this paper is to underline the progresses achieved by the bankingsectors of the European Union new member states from Central and Eastern Europe in theirintegration process. In order to achieve this we will use an empirical analysis based on the Law of OnePrice, which will underline the progress made by the banking sectors of the panel countries: Poland,Czech Republic, Slovenia, Slovakia, Romania and Bulgaria. The results of the research will providean overview of the main achievements registered by these countries, while also underling hownational particularities of these sectors affect their integration.

  11. Uterus retrieval process from brain dead donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Tristan; Piver, Pascal; Pichon, Nicolas; Bibes, Romain; Guillaudeau, Angelique; Piccardo, Alessandro; Pesteil, Francis; Tricard, Jeremy; Gardet, Emmanuel; Laskar, Marc; Lalloué, Fabrice; Marquet, Pierre; Aubard, Yves

    2014-08-01

    To describe the feasibility of human uterus retrieval after donation after brain death. Single-center, prospective study. University hospital. Female brain dead donors. The families of female brain dead donors were informed about consent to uterus donation. A specific organ retrieval procedure was performed. At the end of the procedure the uterus was removed together with the hypogastric vessels, parametria, and vaginal fornix. The tolerance of the uterus to cold ischemia was evaluated with histology and TUNEL reaction up to 24 hours. Rate of uterus donation refusal. Between August 1, 2012 and July 31, 2013, seven uteri were retrieved from 14 female multiorgan donors. No refusal to uterus donation occurred. Our surgical protocol did not interfere with vital organ retrieval and was readily accepted by the other transplantation teams. The hypogastric vessels could be preserved in all cases but for one vein loss in the first retrieval. Histology studies did not find major morphologic changes after 24 hours of cold ischemia. Apoptosis was rare. Uterus retrieval could be part of a reproducible multiorgan procurement procedure. Uterus donation seems readily accepted. This preliminary study is a necessary step before any transplantation project. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Robust estimation of autoregressive processes using a mixture-based filter-bank

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídl, V.; Anthony, Q.; Kárný, Miroslav; Guy, Tatiana Valentine

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2005), s. 315-323 ISSN 0167-6911 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS1075351; GA ČR GA102/03/0049; GA ČR GP102/03/P010; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Bayesian estimation * probabilistic mixtures * recursive estimation Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.239, year: 2005 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/karny-robust estimation of autoregressive processes using a mixture-based filter- bank .pdf

  13. Clinico-Pathological Correlations of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome : Results of a Large Brain Bank Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krudop, Welmoed A; Bosman, Sjanne; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Sikkes, Sietske A M; Verwey, Nicolaas A; Stek, Max L; Scheltens, Philip; Rozemuller, Annemieke J M; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: A clinical frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) is generally attributed to functional or structural disturbances within frontal-subcortical circuits. We studied the distribution of pathological brain changes in FLS. Additionally, the prevalence of FLS among various disorders was studied. METHODS: We

  14. Credit Risk Management. A study on risk integration in the bank lending process.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleddens, Linda Elsa Wilhelmina

    2011-01-01

    Credit risk management has been a topic much written about in the last decade. Substantial credit risk losses can undermine the stability of the bank. Both banks and national bank supervisors have realized the need to invest in credit risk management. Partly driven by regulations such as the Basel

  15. Unveiling the mystery of visual information processing in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-08-15

    It is generally accepted that human vision is an extremely powerful information processing system that facilitates our interaction with the surrounding world. However, despite extended and extensive research efforts, which encompass many exploration fields, the underlying fundamentals and operational principles of visual information processing in human brain remain unknown. We still are unable to figure out where and how along the path from eyes to the cortex the sensory input perceived by the retina is converted into a meaningful object representation, which can be consciously manipulated by the brain. Studying the vast literature considering the various aspects of brain information processing, I was surprised to learn that the respected scholarly discussion is totally indifferent to the basic keynote question: "What is information?" in general or "What is visual information?" in particular. In the old days, it was assumed that any scientific research approach has first to define its basic departure points. Why was it overlooked in brain information processing research remains a conundrum. In this paper, I am trying to find a remedy for this bizarre situation. I propose an uncommon definition of "information", which can be derived from Kolmogorov's Complexity Theory and Chaitin's notion of Algorithmic Information. Embracing this new definition leads to an inevitable revision of traditional dogmas that shape the state of the art of brain information processing research. I hope this revision would better serve the challenging goal of human visual information processing modeling.

  16. Direct Electrical Stimulation in the Human Brain Disrupts Melody Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcea, Frank E; Chernoff, Benjamin L; Diamond, Bram; Lewis, Wesley; Sims, Maxwell H; Tomlinson, Samuel B; Teghipco, Alexander; Belkhir, Raouf; Gannon, Sarah B; Erickson, Steve; Smith, Susan O; Stone, Jonathan; Liu, Lynn; Tollefson, Trenton; Langfitt, John; Marvin, Elizabeth; Pilcher, Webster H; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2017-09-11

    Prior research using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [1-4] and behavioral studies of patients with acquired or congenital amusia [5-8] suggest that the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the human brain is specialized for aspects of music processing (for review, see [9-12]). Intracranial electrical brain stimulation in awake neurosurgery patients is a powerful means to determine the computations supported by specific brain regions and networks [13-21] because it provides reversible causal evidence with high spatial resolution (for review, see [22, 23]). Prior intracranial stimulation or cortical cooling studies have investigated musical abilities related to reading music scores [13, 14] and singing familiar songs [24, 25]. However, individuals with amusia (congenitally, or from a brain injury) have difficulty humming melodies but can be spared for singing familiar songs with familiar lyrics [26]. Here we report a detailed study of a musician with a low-grade tumor in the right temporal lobe. Functional MRI was used pre-operatively to localize music processing to the right STG, and the patient subsequently underwent awake intraoperative mapping using direct electrical stimulation during a melody repetition task. Stimulation of the right STG induced "music arrest" and errors in pitch but did not affect language processing. These findings provide causal evidence for the functional segregation of music and language processing in the human brain and confirm a specific role of the right STG in melody processing. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Filter bank canonical correlation analysis for implementing a high-speed SSVEP-based brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaogang; Wang, Yijun; Gao, Shangkai; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Gao, Xiaorong

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Recently, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) has been widely used in steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) due to its high efficiency, robustness, and simple implementation. However, a method with which to make use of harmonic SSVEP components to enhance the CCA-based frequency detection has not been well established. Approach. This study proposed a filter bank canonical correlation analysis (FBCCA) method to incorporate fundamental and harmonic frequency components to improve the detection of SSVEPs. A 40-target BCI speller based on frequency coding (frequency range: 8-15.8 Hz, frequency interval: 0.2 Hz) was used for performance evaluation. To optimize the filter bank design, three methods (M1: sub-bands with equally spaced bandwidths; M2: sub-bands corresponding to individual harmonic frequency bands; M3: sub-bands covering multiple harmonic frequency bands) were proposed for comparison. Classification accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR) of the three FBCCA methods and the standard CCA method were estimated using an offline dataset from 12 subjects. Furthermore, an online BCI speller adopting the optimal FBCCA method was tested with a group of 10 subjects. Main results. The FBCCA methods significantly outperformed the standard CCA method. The method M3 achieved the highest classification performance. At a spelling rate of ˜33.3 characters/min, the online BCI speller obtained an average ITR of 151.18 ± 20.34 bits min-1. Significance. By incorporating the fundamental and harmonic SSVEP components in target identification, the proposed FBCCA method significantly improves the performance of the SSVEP-based BCI, and thereby facilitates its practical applications such as high-speed spelling.

  18. Fingermark visualisation on uncirculated £5 (Bank of England) polymer notes: Initial process comparison studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downham, Rory P; Brewer, Eleigh R; King, Roberto S P; Luscombe, Aoife M; Sears, Vaughn G

    2017-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a range of fingermark visualisation processes on brand new, uncirculated, £5 polymer banknotes (and their test note predecessors), as produced by the Bank of England (BoE). In the main study of this paper, a total of 14 individual processes were investigated on BoE £5 polymer banknotes, which included both 'Category A' processes (as recommended in the Home Office Fingermark Visualisation Manual) as well as recently developed processes, including fpNatural ® 2 powder (cuprorivaite) from Foster+Freeman and a vacuum metal deposition sequence that evaporates silver followed by zinc. Results from this preliminary investigation indicate that fpNatural ® 2, multimetal deposition, Wet Powder ™ Black, iron oxide powder suspension and black magnetic powder are the most effective processes on these uncirculated £5 BoE polymer banknotes, when viewed under "primary viewing" conditions (white light or fluorescence). Additional fingermarks were visualised on the polymer banknotes following the subsequent use of reflected infrared imaging and lifting techniques, and with the benefit of these techniques taken into consideration, the aforementioned processes remained amongst the most effective overall. This work provides initial insight into fingermark visualisation strategies for BoE £5 polymer banknotes, and the need for further studies in order to generate mature operational guidance is emphasised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hebrew brain vs. English brain: Language modulates the way it is processed

    OpenAIRE

    Bick, Atira S.; Goelman, Gadi; Frost, Ram

    2010-01-01

    Is language processing universal? How do the specific properties of each language influence the way it is processed? In this study we compare the neural correlates of morphological processing in Hebrew – a Semitic language with a rich and systematic morphology, to those revealed in English – an Indo-European language with a linear morphology. Using fMRI we show that while in the bilingual brain both languages involve a common neural circuitry in processing morphological structure, this activa...

  20. Processing of Body Odor Signals by the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pause, Bettina M

    2012-03-01

    Brain development in mammals has been proposed to be promoted by successful adaptations to the social complexity as well as to the social and non-social chemical environment. Therefore, the communication via chemosensory signals might have been and might still be a phylogenetically ancient communication channel transmitting evolutionary significant information. In humans, the neuronal underpinnings of the processing of social chemosignals have been investigated in relation to kin recognition, mate choice, the reproductive state and emotional contagion. These studies reveal that human chemosignals are probably not processed within olfactory brain areas but through neuronal relays responsible for the processing of social information. It is concluded that the processing of human social chemosignals resembles the processing of social signals originating from other modalities, except that human social chemosignals are usually communicated without the allocation of attentional resources, that is below the threshold of consciousness. Deviances in the processing of human social chemosignals might be related to the development and maintenance of mental disorders.

  1. Critical challenges affecting Islamic banking growth in India using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mosab I. Tabash

    2017-01-01

    The banking sector plays a vital role in growth-supporting factor for economic growth in the world’s fastest-growing economies like India. Recently, Islamic banking has become an increasingly popular method for alleviating poverty, financial inclusion and economic development around the world. Its importance is highly needed in developing and emerging countries such as India. The main purpose of the paper is to identify and prioritize the critical impeding factors for Islamic banking growth i...

  2. A Dirichlet process mixture model for brain MRI tissue classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, Adelino R

    2007-04-01

    Accurate classification of magnetic resonance images according to tissue type or region of interest has become a critical requirement in diagnosis, treatment planning, and cognitive neuroscience. Several authors have shown that finite mixture models give excellent results in the automated segmentation of MR images of the human normal brain. However, performance and robustness of finite mixture models deteriorate when the models have to deal with a variety of anatomical structures. In this paper, we propose a nonparametric Bayesian model for tissue classification of MR images of the brain. The model, known as Dirichlet process mixture model, uses Dirichlet process priors to overcome the limitations of current parametric finite mixture models. To validate the accuracy and robustness of our method we present the results of experiments carried out on simulated MR brain scans, as well as on real MR image data. The results are compared with similar results from other well-known MRI segmentation methods.

  3. Investment Cost Model in Business Process Intelligence in Banking And Electricity Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Moro Sundjaja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher demand from the top management in measuring business process performance causes the incremental implementation of BPM and BI in the enterprise. The problem faced by top managements is how to integrate their data from all system used to support the business and process the data become information that able to support the decision-making processes. Our literature review elaborates several implementations of BPI on companies in Australia and Germany, challenges faced by organizations in developing BPI solution in their organizations and some cost model to calculate the investment of BPI solutions. This paper shows the success in BPI application of banks and assurance companies in German and electricity work in Australia aims to give a vision about the importance of BPI application. Many challenges in BPI application of companies in German and Australia, BPI solution, and data warehouse design development have been discussed to add insight in future BPI development. And the last is an explanation about how to analyze cost associated with BPI solution investment.

  4. Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... powerful vehicle for research. Banks can provide information and services online which customers can pay for and receive. Banking processes are made more efficient and cost effective by integrating other aspects of banking operations such as management and financial control. Ovia. [6] posits that on-line ...

  5. Neurolinguistic processing when the brain matures without language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Rachel I; Davenport, Tristan; Roth, Austin; Halgren, Eric

    2018-02-01

    The extent to which development of the brain language system is modulated by the temporal onset of linguistic experience relative to post-natal brain maturation is unknown. This crucial question cannot be investigated with the hearing population because spoken language is ubiquitous in the environment of newborns. Deafness blocks infants' language experience in a spoken form, and in a signed form when it is absent from the environment. Using anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography, aMEG, we neuroimaged lexico-semantic processing in a deaf adult whose linguistic experience began in young adulthood. Despite using language for 30 years after initially learning it, this individual exhibited limited neural response in the perisylvian language areas to signed words during the 300-400 ms temporal window, suggesting that the brain language system requires linguistic experience during brain growth to achieve functionality. The present case study primarily exhibited neural activations in response to signed words in dorsolateral superior parietal and occipital areas bilaterally, replicating the neural patterns exhibited by two previously case studies who matured without language until early adolescence (Ferjan Ramirez N, Leonard MK, Torres C, Hatrak M, Halgren E, Mayberry RI. 2014). The dorsal pathway appears to assume the task of processing words when the brain matures without experiencing the form-meaning network of a language. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Kisspeptin modulates sexual and emotional brain processing in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comninos, Alexander N; Wall, Matthew B; Demetriou, Lysia; Shah, Amar J; Clarke, Sophie A; Narayanaswamy, Shakunthala; Nesbitt, Alexander; Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Prague, Julia K; Abbara, Ali; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Salem, Victoria; Nijher, Gurjinder M; Jayasena, Channa N; Tanner, Mark; Bassett, Paul; Mehta, Amrish; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Hönigsperger, Christoph; Silva, Meire Ribeiro; Brandtzaeg, Ole Kristian; Lundanes, Elsa; Wilson, Steven Ray; Brown, Rachel C; Thomas, Sarah A; Bloom, Stephen R; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2017-02-01

    Sex, emotion, and reproduction are fundamental and tightly entwined aspects of human behavior. At a population level in humans, both the desire for sexual stimulation and the desire to bond with a partner are important precursors to reproduction. However, the relationships between these processes are incompletely understood. The limbic brain system has key roles in sexual and emotional behaviors, and is a likely candidate system for the integration of behavior with the hormonal reproductive axis. We investigated the effects of kisspeptin, a recently identified key reproductive hormone, on limbic brain activity and behavior. Using a combination of functional neuroimaging and hormonal and psychometric analyses, we compared the effects of kisspeptin versus vehicle administration in 29 healthy heterosexual young men. We demonstrated that kisspeptin administration enhanced limbic brain activity specifically in response to sexual and couple-bonding stimuli. Furthermore, kisspeptin's enhancement of limbic brain structures correlated with psychometric measures of reward, drive, mood, and sexual aversion, providing functional significance. In addition, kisspeptin administration attenuated negative mood. Collectively, our data provide evidence of an undescribed role for kisspeptin in integrating sexual and emotional brain processing with reproduction in humans. These results have important implications for our understanding of reproductive biology and are highly relevant to the current pharmacological development of kisspeptin as a potential therapeutic agent for patients with common disorders of reproductive function. National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Wellcome Trust (Ref 080268), and the Medical Research Council (MRC).

  7. Overnight Therapy? The Role of Sleep in Emotional Brain Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Matthew P.; van Der Helm, Els

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience continues to build meaningful connections between affective behavior and human brain function. Within the biological sciences, a similar renaissance has taken place, focusing on the role of sleep in various neurocognitive processes and, most recently, on the interaction between sleep and emotional regulation. This review…

  8. Stochastic and deterministic processes regulate spatio-temporal variation in seed bank diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro A. Royo; Todd E. Ristau

    2013-01-01

    Seed banks often serve as reservoirs of taxonomic and genetic diversity that buffer plant populations and influence post-disturbance vegetation trajectories; yet evaluating their importance requires understanding how their composition varies within and across spatial and temporal scales (α- and β-diversity). Shifts in seed bank diversity are strongly...

  9. Negative mood affects brain processing of visceral sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, Steven J; Yágüez, Lidia; Aziz, Qasim; Mitterschiffthaler, Martina T; Brammer, Mick; Williams, Steven C R; Gregory, Lloyd J

    2009-07-01

    A link between negative emotional state and abnormal visceral sensation has been frequently reported. However, the influence of negative emotion on brain processing of painful visceral sensations has not been investigated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and negative emotional stimuli to investigate the effects of negative emotion on brain processing of esophageal sensation. Twelve healthy male volunteers (age range, 21-32 years) participated in the study. Negative emotion was induced using emotionally valent music. fMRI images were acquired during 2 experimental runs; throughout these, volunteers received randomized nonpainful and painful distentions to the esophagus during neutral and negative emotion. Subjective perception of each stimulus was acquired, as were mood ratings. Sadness ratings increased significantly following negative mood induction (P .05). Following painful stimulation, brain activity increased in the right hemisphere during negative emotion and was localized to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC; BA24/32), anterior insula, and inferior frontal gyrus. Following nonpainful stimulation during negative emotion, brain activity increased in the right anterior insula and ACC (BA24 and 32). This study provides new information about the influence of negative affect on central processing of visceral pain. Evidence of right hemispheric dominance during negative emotion indicates this hemisphere is predominately associated with sympathetic activity (arousal, negative affect) and that the right insula and right ACC are integral to subjective awareness of emotion through interoception.

  10. Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin eBjornsdotter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm and hairy (forearm skin in healthy children (5-13 years, adolescents (14-17 years and adults (25-35 years. Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI, secondary somatosensory cortex (SII, insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism.

  11. Essays on banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosk, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation studies how banks collect and process information. The first chapter studies how the organizational structure of banks affects the processing of information. The second chapter studies how banks use private information collected over the lending relationship in credit negotiations.

  12. Neuromagnetic correlates of audiovisual word processing in the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinga, Samantha; Wu, Di; Huang, Shuyang; Wu, Caiyun; Wang, Xiaoshan; Shi, Jingping; Hu, Yue; Liang, Chun; Zhang, Fawen; Lu, Meng; Leiken, Kimberly; Xiang, Jing

    2018-03-23

    The brain undergoes enormous changes during childhood. Little is known about how the brain develops to serve word processing. The objective of the present study was to investigate the maturational changes of word processing in children and adolescents using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Responses to a word processing task were investigated in sixty healthy participants. Each participant was presented with simultaneous visual and auditory word pairs in "match" and "mismatch" conditions. The patterns of neuromagnetic activation from MEG recordings were analyzed at both sensor and source levels. Topography and source imaging revealed that word processing transitioned from bilateral connections to unilateral connections as age increased from 6 to 17 years old. Correlation analyses of language networks revealed that the path length of word processing networks negatively correlated with age (r = -0.833, p word processing networks were positively correlated with age. In addition, males had more visual connections, whereas females had more auditory connections. The correlations between gender and path length, gender and connection strength, and gender and clustering coefficient demonstrated a developmental trend without reaching statistical significance. The results indicate that the developmental trajectory of word processing is gender specific. Since the neuromagnetic signatures of these gender-specific paths to adult word processing were determined using non-invasive, objective, and quantitative methods, the results may play a key role in understanding language impairments in pediatric patients in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Review of primary production and related processes on the Agulhas-Bank

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Probyn, TA

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton biomass and productivity in different sectors of the Agulhas Bank are discussed in a broad hydrographic content centred predominantly on thermocline characteristics. The delineation of the different sectors is largely subjective...

  14. Process-Based Model for Computation of Erosion and Deposition on Shrub-Protected Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, J. W.; Smith, J.

    2001-12-01

    Determination of erosion and deposition rates on riverbanks requires a detailed knowledge of the near-bank boundary shear stress field. Riverbanks typically are irregular in planiform geometry owing to the presence of vegetation on them, and the effects of vegetation-caused bank irregularity in reducing flow in the neighborhood of the toes of banks must be taken into account in calculating the appropriate boundary shear stress fields. Form drag on roots, stems, and branches of shrubs and trees that protrude into the flow must be carefully evaluated. Methods for calculating the boundary shear stress and sediment transport fields on and near vegetated banks have been developed over the past several years. More recently, the direct effects of roots, stems, and branches in reducing the shear stresses on banks have been investigated in conjunction with research on arroyo channels having nearly trapezoidal cross sections and banks covered with sandbar willow and tamarisk. A model for computing flow and sediment transport in such channels is presented and then used to demonstrate the relative importance of the various environmental factors and their interactions. The primary environmental factors include (1) the cross-sectional geometry of the flow, which controls the structure of the cross-sectional distribution of the streamwise-averaged boundary shear stress, (2) the micro topography of the bed and banks, which determines the local ratio of streamwise-averaged boundary shear stress to skin friction and, thus, the cross-sectional structure of the sediment transport field in the channel, and (3) the bed-sediment size distribution, which controls the importance of density stratification in the flow and, thereby, the vertical structure of the velocity field. The model demonstrates that woody vegetation on sloping banks affects the flow in several ways. First, it forces the high velocity core toward the center of the channel, increasing the streamwise-averaged boundary

  15. A Red Oak Data Bank for Computer Simulations of Secondary Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles J. Gatchell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1993-01-01

    An extensive data bank for red oak lumber that is compatible with most secondary manufacturing computer simulator tools is now available. Currently, the data bank contains 10,718 board feet in 1,578 boards. The National Hardwood Lumber Associations (NHLA) Special Kiln Dried Rule was used to grade the boards. The percentage of a boardâs surface measure contained in...

  16. An Analytical Network Process on Financial Access of the Small and Medium Enterprise in Sharia Banking in Tasikmalaya City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Suryanto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprise (SME is one of the significant roles in national economic development. It is seemly followed by the rise of employment absorbent and equity in income distribution. The capital constraint and the impedance of banking financial access have become the main problem to the Small and Medium entrepreneurs. The objectives of this research are to identify the main factors as problems of Small and Medium Enterprises in having access to the financial institutions, and also to find out the solutions of the research problems. This research uses qualitative approach i.e. Analytic Network Process (ANP. Through applying this method, it is expected to help the researchers in making measurement and synthesis of some factors regarding on the topic analyzed as well as finding the solution for problems faced by the SMEs. The resources of the data is derived from questionnaires and in-depth interview with experts, practitioners, SMEs and regulators which then analyzed by the structure and hierarchy into homogen clusters of the SMEs problems and solutions, measuring into ratio scale and building synthesis. As the result, it becomes clear what factors impeding the financial access of the SMEs to banks. The results of this research show that the difficulties of SMEs in accessing financial support in Islamic financial institutions are internal problems of Islamic banking i.e. lack of financial assistance given to the SMEs, the functions of Islamic banking as business partners for SMEs is not optimal. Whereas the external problems in the SMEs are the disability in meeting the financial requirements asked by Islamic banking that are collateral and business history. The internal solutions are Islamic banking must give business mentoring to SMEs that have received financial supports to minimalize the bad credits level. The external solution is the government must also socialize Islamic financial mechanism to SMEs as part of education efforts.

  17. Assessment of vessel diameters for MR brain angiography processed images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, Luminita; Obreja, Cristian-Dragos; Moldovanu, Simona

    2015-12-01

    The motivation was to develop an assessment method to measure (in)visible differences between the original and the processed images in MR brain angiography as a method of evaluation of the status of the vessel segments (i.e. the existence of the occlusion or intracerebral vessels damaged as aneurysms). Generally, the image quality is limited, so we improve the performance of the evaluation through digital image processing. The goal is to determine the best processing method that allows an accurate assessment of patients with cerebrovascular diseases. A total of 10 MR brain angiography images were processed by the following techniques: histogram equalization, Wiener filter, linear contrast adjustment, contrastlimited adaptive histogram equalization, bias correction and Marr-Hildreth filter. Each original image and their processed images were analyzed into the stacking procedure so that the same vessel and its corresponding diameter have been measured. Original and processed images were evaluated by measuring the vessel diameter (in pixels) on an established direction and for the precise anatomic location. The vessel diameter is calculated using the plugin ImageJ. Mean diameter measurements differ significantly across the same segment and for different processing techniques. The best results are provided by the Wiener filter and linear contrast adjustment methods and the worst by Marr-Hildreth filter.

  18. A brain network processing the age of faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György A Homola

    Full Text Available Age is one of the most salient aspects in faces and of fundamental cognitive and social relevance. Although face processing has been studied extensively, brain regions responsive to age have yet to be localized. Using evocative face morphs and fMRI, we segregate two areas extending beyond the previously established face-sensitive core network, centered on the inferior temporal sulci and angular gyri bilaterally, both of which process changes of facial age. By means of probabilistic tractography, we compare their patterns of functional activation and structural connectivity. The ventral portion of Wernicke's understudied perpendicular association fasciculus is shown to interconnect the two areas, and activation within these clusters is related to the probability of fiber connectivity between them. In addition, post-hoc age-rating competence is found to be associated with high response magnitudes in the left angular gyrus. Our results provide the first evidence that facial age has a distinct representation pattern in the posterior human brain. We propose that particular face-sensitive nodes interact with additional object-unselective quantification modules to obtain individual estimates of facial age. This brain network processing the age of faces differs from the cortical areas that have previously been linked to less developmental but instantly changeable face aspects. Our probabilistic method of associating activations with connectivity patterns reveals an exemplary link that can be used to further study, assess and quantify structure-function relationships.

  19. Emotional Prosody Processing in Epilepsy: Some Insights on Brain Reorganization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Alba-Ferrara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistant epilepsy is one of the most complex, multifactorial and polygenic neurological syndrome. Besides its dynamicity and variability, it still provides us with a model to study brain-behavior relationship, giving cues on the anatomy and functional representation of brain function. Given that onset zone of focal epileptic seizures often affects different anatomical areas, cortical but limited to one hemisphere, this condition also let us study the functional differences of the left and right cerebral hemispheres. One lateralized function in the human brain is emotional prosody, and it can be a useful ictal sign offering hints on the location of the epileptogenic zone. Besides its importance for effective communication, prosody is not considered an eloquent domain, making resective surgery on its neural correlates feasible. We performed an Electronic databases search (Medline and PsychINFO from inception to July 2017 for studies about prosody in epilepsy. The search terms included “epilepsy,” “seizure,” “emotional prosody,” and “vocal affect.” This review focus on emotional prosody processing in epilepsy as it can give hints regarding plastic functional changes following seizures (preoperatively, resection (post operatively, and also as an ictal sign enabling the assessment of dynamic brain networks. Moreover, it is argued that such reorganization can help to preserve the expression and reception of emotional prosody as a central skill to develop appropriate social interactions.

  20. 3-D brain image registration using optimal morphological processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loncaric, S.; Dhawan, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3-D) registration of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Positron Emission Tomographic (PET) images of the brain is important for analysis of the human brain and its diseases. A procedure for optimization of (3-D) morphological structuring elements, based on a genetic algorithm, is presented in the paper. The registration of the MR and PET images is done by means of a registration procedure in two major phases. In the first phase, the Iterative Principal Axis Transform (IPAR) is used for initial registration. In the second phase, the optimal shape description method based on the Morphological Signature Transform (MST) is used for final registration. The morphological processing is used to improve the accuracy of the basic IPAR method. The brain ventricle is used as a landmark for MST registration. A near-optimal structuring element obtained by means of a genetic algorithm is used in MST to describe the shape of the ventricle. The method has been tested on the set of brain images demonstrating the feasibility of approach. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs

  1. Electroencephalogram signals processing for topographic brain mapping and epilepsies classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Mohammad Reza; Suratgar, Amir Abolfazl; Ashtiani, Alireza Rezaei

    2010-09-01

    In this study, topographic brain mapping and wavelet transform-neural network method are used for the classification of grand mal (clonic stage) and petit mal (absence) epilepsies into healthy, ictal and interictal (EEGs). Preprocessing is included to remove artifacts occurred by blinking, wandering baseline (electrodes movement) and eyeball movement using the Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT). De-noising EEG signals from the AC power supply frequency with a suitable notch filter is another job of preprocessing. In experimental data, the preprocessing enhanced speed and accuracy of the processing stage (wavelet transform and neural network). The EEGs signals are categorized to normal and petit mal and clonic epilepsy by an expert neurologist. The categorization is confirmed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis and brain mapping. The dataset includes waves such as sharp, spike and spike-slow wave. Through the Counties Wavelet Transform (CWT) of EEG records, transient features are accurately captured and separated and used as classifier input. We introduce a two-stage classifier based on the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) neural network location in both time and frequency contexts. The brain mapping used for finding the epilepsy locates in the brain. The simulation results are very promising and the accuracy of the proposed classifier in experimental clinical data is ∼80%. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Global Banking: Transformation, Innovation & Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the main transformation processes in banking sector: globalization, concentration of capital, formation of a new model of banking and new banking culture. It is shown that the driving forces of these processes are competition and innovation. The interpretation of the bank of the future as a sum of four concepts is offered: “Bank = technology”, “Bank = client”, “Bank = product”, “Bank = life”. It is hypothesized that a person in the digital economy can be described as Homo financial (a person with financial literacy and financial thinking.

  3. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  4. A Study of EDI, Processes, Operations and How Employees are Motivated at a Kenyan Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Fazal, Waheed Sultanali Muradali

    2009-01-01

    According to Brabston, L. and Porter, (2004) Information system (IS) and business strategy are essential facets in any organization particularly a bank, we are interested in this sector because it is a major component in Kenya‟s growing economy and so far hardly any research has been done on the efficiency of a Kenyan banks. This dissertation concentrates on a small service enterprise and how IS/IT as well as work motivation strategy can influence the business strategy; we also study how the ...

  5. Brain, music, and non-Poisson renewal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Simone; Ignaccolo, Massimiliano; Rider, Mark S.; Ross, Mary J.; Winsor, Phil; Grigolini, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we show that both music composition and brain function, as revealed by the electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis, are renewal non-Poisson processes living in the nonergodic dominion. To reach this important conclusion we process the data with the minimum spanning tree method, so as to detect significant events, thereby building a sequence of times, which is the time series to analyze. Then we show that in both cases, EEG and music composition, these significant events are the signature of a non-Poisson renewal process. This conclusion is reached using a technique of statistical analysis recently developed by our group, the aging experiment (AE). First, we find that in both cases the distances between two consecutive events are described by nonexponential histograms, thereby proving the non-Poisson nature of these processes. The corresponding survival probabilities Ψ(t) are well fitted by stretched exponentials [ Ψ(t)∝exp (-(γt)α) , with 0.5music composition yield μmusic on the human brain.

  6. Functional brain imaging study on brain processes involved in visual awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Futakawa, Hiroyuki; Tokita, Shohko; Jung, Jiuk

    2003-01-01

    Recently, there has been great interest in visual awareness because it is thought that it may provide valuable information in understanding aspects of consciousness. An important but still controversial issue is what region in the brain is involved in visual awareness. When viewing ambiguous figures, observers can be aware of only one of multiple competing percepts at any given moment, but experience spontaneous alternations among the percepts over time. This phenomenon is known as multistable perceptions and thought to be essential in understanding the brain processes involved in visual awareness. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the brain activities associated with multistable perceptions. Two separate experiments were performed based on two different multistable phenomena known as binocular rivalry and perceptions of ambiguous figures. Significant differential activations in the parietal and prefrontal areas were commonly observed under multistable conditions compared to monostable control conditions in the two separate experiments. These findings suggest that neural processes in the parietal and prefrontal areas may be involved in perceptual alternations in situations involving multistable phenomena. (author)

  7. Brain metabolic DNA in memory processing and genome turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuditta, Antonio; Grassi-Zucconi, Gigliola; Sadile, Adolfo G

    2017-01-01

    Sophisticated methods are currently used to investigate the properties of brain DNA and clarify its role under physiological conditions and in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Attention is now called on a DNA fraction present in the adult rat brain that is characterized by an elevated turnover and is not involved in cell division or DNA repair. The fraction, known as brain metabolic DNA (BMD), is modulated by strain, stress, circadian oscillations, exposure to enriched or impoverished environment, and notably by several training protocols and post-trial sleep. BMD is frequently localized in glial cells but is also present in neurons, often in the perinucleolar region. Its distribution in repetitive and non-repetitive DNA fractions shows that BMD differs from native DNA and that in learning rats its profile differs from that of control rats. More detailed knowledge of the molecular, cellular, and time-dependent BMD features will be necessary to define its role in memory acquisition and processing and in the pathogenesis of neurologic disorders.

  8. Brain size and visual environment predict species differences in paper wasp sensory processing brain regions (hymenoptera: vespidae, polistinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Sean; Clifford, Marie R; DeLeon, Sara; Papa, Christopher; Zahedi, Nazaneen; Bulova, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    The mosaic brain evolution hypothesis predicts that the relative volumes of functionally distinct brain regions will vary independently and correlate with species' ecology. Paper wasp species (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae) differ in light exposure: they construct open versus enclosed nests and one genus (Apoica) is nocturnal. We asked whether light environments were related to species differences in the size of antennal and optic processing brain tissues. Paper wasp brains have anatomically distinct peripheral and central regions that process antennal and optic sensory inputs. We measured the volumes of 4 sensory processing brain regions in paper wasp species from 13 Neotropical genera including open and enclosed nesters, and diurnal and nocturnal species. Species differed in sensory region volumes, but there was no evidence for trade-offs among sensory modalities. All sensory region volumes correlated with brain size. However, peripheral optic processing investment increased with brain size at a higher rate than peripheral antennal processing investment. Our data suggest that mosaic and concerted (size-constrained) brain evolution are not exclusive alternatives. When brain regions increase with brain size at different rates, these distinct allometries can allow for differential investment among sensory modalities. As predicted by mosaic evolution, species ecology was associated with some aspects of brain region investment. Nest architecture variation was not associated with brain investment differences, but the nocturnal genus Apoica had the largest antennal:optic volume ratio in its peripheral sensory lobes. Investment in central processing tissues was not related to nocturnality, a pattern also noted in mammals. The plasticity of neural connections in central regions may accommodate evolutionary shifts in input from the periphery with relatively minor changes in volume. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Functional specializations for music processing in the human newborn brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perani, Daniela; Saccuman, Maria Cristina; Scifo, Paola; Spada, Danilo; Andreolli, Guido; Rovelli, Rosanna; Baldoli, Cristina; Koelsch, Stefan

    2010-03-09

    In adults, specific neural systems with right-hemispheric weighting are necessary to process pitch, melody, and harmony as well as structure and meaning emerging from musical sequences. It is not known to what extent the specialization of these systems results from long-term exposure to music or from neurobiological constraints. One way to address this question is to examine how these systems function at birth, when auditory experience is minimal. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 1- to 3-day-old newborns while they heard excerpts of Western tonal music and altered versions of the same excerpts. Altered versions either included changes of the tonal key or were permanently dissonant. Music evoked predominantly right-hemispheric activations in primary and higher order auditory cortex. During presentation of the altered excerpts, hemodynamic responses were significantly reduced in the right auditory cortex, and activations emerged in the left inferior frontal cortex and limbic structures. These results demonstrate that the infant brain shows a hemispheric specialization in processing music as early as the first postnatal hours. Results also indicate that the neural architecture underlying music processing in newborns is sensitive to changes in tonal key as well as to differences in consonance and dissonance.

  10. Grid Computing Application for Brain Magnetic Resonance Image Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivia, F; Crépeault, B; Duchesne, S

    2012-01-01

    This work emphasizes the use of grid computing and web technology for automatic post-processing of brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) in the context of neuropsychiatric (Alzheimer's disease) research. Post-acquisition image processing is achieved through the interconnection of several individual processes into pipelines. Each process has input and output data ports, options and execution parameters, and performs single tasks such as: a) extracting individual image attributes (e.g. dimensions, orientation, center of mass), b) performing image transformations (e.g. scaling, rotation, skewing, intensity standardization, linear and non-linear registration), c) performing image statistical analyses, and d) producing the necessary quality control images and/or files for user review. The pipelines are built to perform specific sequences of tasks on the alphanumeric data and MRIs contained in our database. The web application is coded in PHP and allows the creation of scripts to create, store and execute pipelines and their instances either on our local cluster or on high-performance computing platforms. To run an instance on an external cluster, the web application opens a communication tunnel through which it copies the necessary files, submits the execution commands and collects the results. We present result on system tests for the processing of a set of 821 brain MRIs from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study via a nonlinear registration pipeline composed of 10 processes. Our results show successful execution on both local and external clusters, and a 4-fold increase in performance if using the external cluster. However, the latter's performance does not scale linearly as queue waiting times and execution overhead increase with the number of tasks to be executed.

  11. Red Brain, Blue Brain: Evaluative Processes Differ in Democrats and Republicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Darren; Fonzo, Greg; Simmons, Alan N.; Dawes, Christopher T.; Flagan, Taru; Fowler, James H.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Liberals and conservatives exhibit different cognitive styles and converging lines of evidence suggest that biology influences differences in their political attitudes and beliefs. In particular, a recent study of young adults suggests that liberals and conservatives have significantly different brain structure, with liberals showing increased gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex, and conservatives showing increased gray matter volume in the in the amygdala. Here, we explore differences in brain function in liberals and conservatives by matching publicly-available voter records to 82 subjects who performed a risk-taking task during functional imaging. Although the risk-taking behavior of Democrats (liberals) and Republicans (conservatives) did not differ, their brain activity did. Democrats showed significantly greater activity in the left insula, while Republicans showed significantly greater activity in the right amygdala. In fact, a two parameter model of partisanship based on amygdala and insula activations yields a better fitting model of partisanship than a well-established model based on parental socialization of party identification long thought to be one of the core findings of political science. These results suggest that liberals and conservatives engage different cognitive processes when they think about risk, and they support recent evidence that conservatives show greater sensitivity to threatening stimuli. PMID:23418419

  12. Red brain, blue brain: evaluative processes differ in Democrats and Republicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Schreiber

    Full Text Available Liberals and conservatives exhibit different cognitive styles and converging lines of evidence suggest that biology influences differences in their political attitudes and beliefs. In particular, a recent study of young adults suggests that liberals and conservatives have significantly different brain structure, with liberals showing increased gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex, and conservatives showing increased gray matter volume in the in the amygdala. Here, we explore differences in brain function in liberals and conservatives by matching publicly-available voter records to 82 subjects who performed a risk-taking task during functional imaging. Although the risk-taking behavior of Democrats (liberals and Republicans (conservatives did not differ, their brain activity did. Democrats showed significantly greater activity in the left insula, while Republicans showed significantly greater activity in the right amygdala. In fact, a two parameter model of partisanship based on amygdala and insula activations yields a better fitting model of partisanship than a well-established model based on parental socialization of party identification long thought to be one of the core findings of political science. These results suggest that liberals and conservatives engage different cognitive processes when they think about risk, and they support recent evidence that conservatives show greater sensitivity to threatening stimuli.

  13. Red brain, blue brain: evaluative processes differ in Democrats and Republicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Darren; Fonzo, Greg; Simmons, Alan N; Dawes, Christopher T; Flagan, Taru; Fowler, James H; Paulus, Martin P

    2013-01-01

    Liberals and conservatives exhibit different cognitive styles and converging lines of evidence suggest that biology influences differences in their political attitudes and beliefs. In particular, a recent study of young adults suggests that liberals and conservatives have significantly different brain structure, with liberals showing increased gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex, and conservatives showing increased gray matter volume in the in the amygdala. Here, we explore differences in brain function in liberals and conservatives by matching publicly-available voter records to 82 subjects who performed a risk-taking task during functional imaging. Although the risk-taking behavior of Democrats (liberals) and Republicans (conservatives) did not differ, their brain activity did. Democrats showed significantly greater activity in the left insula, while Republicans showed significantly greater activity in the right amygdala. In fact, a two parameter model of partisanship based on amygdala and insula activations yields a better fitting model of partisanship than a well-established model based on parental socialization of party identification long thought to be one of the core findings of political science. These results suggest that liberals and conservatives engage different cognitive processes when they think about risk, and they support recent evidence that conservatives show greater sensitivity to threatening stimuli.

  14. Sea-level related resedimentation processes on the northern slope of Little Bahama Bank (Middle Pleistocene to Holocene)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lantzsch, H.; Roth, S.; Reijmer, J.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Middle Pleistocene to Holocene sediment variations observed in a 26 metre long core taken during a cruise of the RV Marion Dufresne are presented. Core MD992202 was retrieved from the northern slope of Little Bahama Bank and provides an excellent example for sedimentation processes in a mid......-slope depositional environment. The sediment composition indicates sea-level related deposition processes for the past 375000 years (marine isotope stages 1 to 11). The sediments consist of: (i) periplatform ooze (fine-grained particles of shallow-water and pelagic origin) with moderate variations in carbonate...

  15. Postnatal brain development: Structural imaging of dynamic neurodevelopmental processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Terry L.; Baaré, William F. C.; Stiles, Joan; Madsen, Kathrine Skak

    2013-01-01

    After birth, there is striking biological and functional development of the brain’s fiber tracts as well as remodeling of cortical and subcortical structures. Behavioral development in children involves a complex and dynamic set of genetically guided processes by which neural structures interact constantly with the environment. This is a protracted process, beginning in the third week of gestation and continuing into early adulthood. Reviewed here are studies using structural imaging techniques, with a special focus on diffusion weighted imaging, describing age-related brain maturational changes in children and adolescents, as well as studies that link these changes to behavioral differences. Finally, we discuss evidence for effects on the brain of several factors that may play a role in mediating these brain–behavior associations in children, including genetic variation, behavioral interventions, and hormonal variation associated with puberty. At present longitudinal studies are few, and we do not yet know how variability in individual trajectories of biological development in specific neural systems map onto similar variability in behavioral trajectories. PMID:21489384

  16. Cortical network architecture for context processing in primate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Zenas C; Nagasaka, Yasuo; Fujii, Naotaka

    2015-09-29

    Context is information linked to a situation that can guide behavior. In the brain, context is encoded by sensory processing and can later be retrieved from memory. How context is communicated within the cortical network in sensory and mnemonic forms is unknown due to the lack of methods for high-resolution, brain-wide neuronal recording and analysis. Here, we report the comprehensive architecture of a cortical network for context processing. Using hemisphere-wide, high-density electrocorticography, we measured large-scale neuronal activity from monkeys observing videos of agents interacting in situations with different contexts. We extracted five context-related network structures including a bottom-up network during encoding and, seconds later, cue-dependent retrieval of the same network with the opposite top-down connectivity. These findings show that context is represented in the cortical network as distributed communication structures with dynamic information flows. This study provides a general methodology for recording and analyzing cortical network neuronal communication during cognition.

  17. INFLUENCE INTERHEMISPHERIC FUNCTIONAL ASYMMETRY BRAIN ON HUMAN PERCEPTUAL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Gtnnadyevna Surovyatkina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the work was to determine linkage between the dominant hemisphere of the brain and the occurrence of perceptual processes of the personality of students of the University of the Ministry of internal Affairs of Russia. Researching of relationship between characteristics of the nature of perceptual processes and lateralization of brain functions supplements the information about professional suitability and reliability of employees of enforcement structure within the individually-typological approach. The experimental psychological research of determination of motor and sensory asymmetries in the measurement system "hand-foot-ear-eye" (was performed by Homskay E.D., the leading channel of the auditory perception for the people with the left-hemispheric dominance, and kinesthetic channel for the people with right-hemispheric dominance were revealed. Features of functioning of system "FMPA-perception" in groups with different type of hemispheric dominance is recommended to consider in academic and professional activities of the cadets, and at the stage of professional selection.

  18. Deep water overflow in the Faroe Bank Channel; modelling, processes, and impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rullyanto, Arief

    2015-01-01

    , creating new water masses with distinct temperature, salinity and density characteristics. The change of water mass characteristics not only affects the local environment, but also far distant regions. The Faroe Bank Channel, which is located in the southern part of Faroe Islands, is one of the most...... important overflow regions in the world. It connects two huge ocean basins, the North Atlantic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, and the water mass produced there is an important ingredient of North Atlantic Deep Water, a water mass that found very nearly everywhere in the deep basins of the world’s oceans...... under different circumstances. The focus is on the Faroe Bank Channel, a relatively small region, which has a significant impact on the global ocean circulation and marine organisms that live in its environment....

  19. Business Process Flow Diagrams in Tissue Bank Informatics System Design, and Identification and Communication of Best Practices: The Pharmaceutical Industry Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sandra A; Velasco, Elizabeth; Ilasi, Nicholas T

    2010-12-01

    Pfizer, Inc.'s Tissue Bank, in conjunction with Pfizer's BioBank (biofluid repository), endeavored to create an overarching internal software package to cover all general functions of both research facilities, including sample receipt, reconciliation, processing, storage, and ordering. Business process flow diagrams were developed by the Tissue Bank and Informatics teams as a way of characterizing best practices both within the Bank and in its interactions with key internal and external stakeholders. Besides serving as a first step for the software development, such formalized process maps greatly assisted the identification and communication of best practices and the optimization of current procedures. The diagrams shared here could assist other biospecimen research repositories (both pharmaceutical and other settings) for comparative purposes or as a guide to successful informatics design. Therefore, it is recommended that biorepositories consider establishing formalized business process flow diagrams for their laboratories, to address these objectives of communication and strategy.

  20. Islamic banking

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Viktoriya

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is focused on introduction of Islamic banking system. Morover part of the work is devoted to a detailed description of the history of Islamic banking, on explanation of the principles on which the banking system is based. Also are analyzed in detail the basic Islamic banking products. And at the end are presented the advantages and disadvantages of the Islamic banking system.

  1. The role of recent tectonics and hydrological processes in the evolution of recurring landslides on the Danube's high bank in Dunaföldvár, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentes, Gyula

    2017-08-01

    There are high loess banks prone to landslide along the River Danube in Hungary. One of these is the high loess bank in Dunaföldvár, where several landslides occurred in the last decades. Quantitative relationships between the movements of the high loess bank and the variation of the water level of the River Danube, the ground water table, precipitation and temperature are investigated by two borehole tiltmeters and a vertical borehole extensometer. The twelve-year long observation from 2002 to 2014 made it possible to distinguish between the high bank movements due to slow recent tectonic and geomorphologic processes and the short-period (from hours to months) movements caused by hydrometeorological effects. The results revealed that besides geomorphologic processes recent tectonics can play an important role in the recurrence of landslides in the area. In the investigated period the total tilt of the high bank was 162 μrad in the SSE direction according to the geomorphologic and recent tectonic processes in the surroundings of Dunaföldvár. Investigations of the relationships between the high bank movements and the water level of the River Danube, ground water table changes and the precipitation revealed that the tilt magnitudes caused by the ground water table variations are two orders of magnitude greater than the tilts caused by the water level regime of the river and the direct effect of the precipitation on the high bank tilts can be disregarded.

  2. Dissociable brain mechanisms for processing social exclusion and rule violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pitskel, Naomi B; Deen, Ben; Crowley, Michael J; McPartland, James C; Mayes, Linda C; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2011-02-01

    Social exclusion inherently involves an element of expectancy violation, in that we expect other people to follow the unwritten rule to include us in social interactions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we employed a unique modification of an interactive virtual ball-tossing game called "Cyberball" (Williams et al., 2000) and a novel paradigm called "Cybershape," in which rules are broken in the absence of social exclusion, to dissociate brain regions that process social exclusion from rule violations more generally. Our Cyberball game employed an alternating block design and removed evoked responses to events when the participant was throwing the ball in inclusion to make this condition comparable to exclusion, where participants did not throw. With these modifications, we replicated prior findings of ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), insula, and posterior cingulate cortex activity evoked by social exclusion relative to inclusion. We also identified exclusion-evoked activity in the hippocampi, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and left middle temporal gyrus. Comparing social exclusion and rule violation revealed a functional dissociation in the active neural systems as well as differential functional connectivity with vACC. Some overlap was observed in regions differentially modulated by social exclusion and rule violation, including the vACC and lateral parietal cortex. These overlapping brain regions showed different activation during social exclusion compared to rule violation, each relative to fair play. Comparing activation patterns to social exclusion and rule violation allowed for the dissociation of brain regions involved in the experience of exclusion versus expectancy violation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Brain bases of morphological processing in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M; Ip, Ka I; Shih Ju Hsu, Lucy; Tardif, Twila; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2015-08-01

    How does the developing brain support the transition from spoken language to print? Two spoken language abilities form the initial base of child literacy across languages: knowledge of language sounds (phonology) and knowledge of the smallest units that carry meaning (morphology). While phonology has received much attention from the field, the brain mechanisms that support morphological competence for learning to read remain largely unknown. In the present study, young English-speaking children completed an auditory morphological awareness task behaviorally (n = 69, ages 6-12) and in fMRI (n = 16). The data revealed two findings: First, children with better morphological abilities showed greater activation in left temporoparietal regions previously thought to be important for supporting phonological reading skills, suggesting that this region supports multiple language abilities for successful reading acquisition. Second, children showed activation in left frontal regions previously found active in young Chinese readers, suggesting morphological processes for reading acquisition might be similar across languages. These findings offer new insights for developing a comprehensive model of how spoken language abilities support children's reading acquisition across languages. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Biophoton signal transmission and processing in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rendong; Dai, Jiapei

    2014-10-05

    The transmission and processing of neural information in the nervous system plays a key role in neural functions. It is well accepted that neural communication is mediated by bioelectricity and chemical molecules via the processes called bioelectrical and chemical transmission, respectively. Indeed, the traditional theories seem to give valuable explanations for the basic functions of the nervous system, but difficult to construct general accepted concepts or principles to provide reasonable explanations of higher brain functions and mental activities, such as perception, learning and memory, emotion and consciousness. Therefore, many unanswered questions and debates over the neural encoding and mechanisms of neuronal networks remain. Cell to cell communication by biophotons, also called ultra-weak photon emissions, has been demonstrated in several plants, bacteria and certain animal cells. Recently, both experimental evidence and theoretical speculation have suggested that biophotons may play a potential role in neural signal transmission and processing, contributing to the understanding of the high functions of nervous system. In this paper, we review the relevant experimental findings and discuss the possible underlying mechanisms of biophoton signal transmission and processing in the nervous system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Banking contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Sochorová, Silvie

    2012-01-01

    Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...

  6. Therapeutic temperature modulation in severe or moderate traumatic brain injury: a propensity score analysis of data from the Nationwide Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kei; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Maekawa, Kunihiko; Mikami, Takeshi; Akiyama, Yukinori; Iihoshi, Satoshi; Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Uemura, Shuji; Tanno, Katsutoshi; Narimatsu, Eichi; Asai, Yasufumi

    2016-02-01

    In patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), a randomized controlled trial revealed that outcomes did not significantly improve after therapeutic hypothermia (TH) or normothermia (TN). However, avoiding pyrexia, which is often associated with intracranial disorders, might improve clinical outcomes. The objective of this study was to compare neurological outcomes among patients with moderate and severe TBI after therapeutic temperature modulation (TTM) in the absence of other interventions. Data from 1091 patients were obtained from the Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank Project 2009, a cohort observational study. Patients with cardiac arrest, those with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3 and dilated fixed pupils, and those whose cause of death was injury to another area of the body were excluded, leaving 687 patients aged 16 years or older in this study. The patients were divided into 2 groups: the TTM group underwent TN (213 patients) or TH (82 patients), and the control group (392 patients) did not receive TTM. The primary end point for this study was the rate of poor outcome at hospital discharge, and the secondary end point was in-hospital death. Out of the 208 total items in the database, 29 variables that could potentially affect outcome were matched using the propensity score (PS) method in order to reduce selection bias and balance the baseline characteristics. From each group, 141 patients were extracted using the PS-matching process. Among the patients in the TTM group, 29 had undergone TH and 112 had undergone TN. In a log-rank test using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, no significant differences in patient outcome or death were observed between the 2 groups (poor outcome, p = 0.83; death, p = 0.18). A Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis established the HR for poor outcome and mortality at 1.03 (95% CI 0.78-1.36, p = 0.83) and 1.34 (95% CI 0.87-2.07, p = 0.18), respectively. There was no clear improvement in neurological outcomes after TTM in

  7. Evaluation of Merger and Acquisition Processes in the Brazilian Banking Sector by means of an Event Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Reed Bergmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Analyze the reactions of the stock market to M&A announcements, i.e. find out if there was value creation and consequently maximization of shareholder wealth or whether there was value destruction and consequently a decrease in the wealth of the shareholders of the acquiring companies in the short term. Design/methodology/approach – Event study – Quantitative Method Findings – It can neither be affirmed that the acquisitions had a significant impact on value creation for purchasers and banks, nor can it be denied. Given the lack of preponderance of either positive or negative returns, the transactions may have been perceived in different manners. Practical implications – The results may be explained by the fact that the synergies that resulted from the M&A processes in the banking sector only helped consolidating major market players and consequently reduced competitiveness in that sector. The negative abnormal returns of M&A processes are due to the monopolistic market competition structure (Tabak, Fazio & Cajueiro, 2012. Contributions – Event Study with robust errors

  8. Organ retrieval and banking in brain dead trauma patients: Our experience at level-1 trauma centre and current views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Chhavi; Kaur, Manpreet; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Gupta, Babita; Balakrishnan, Ira; Vij, Aarti

    2013-01-01

    Background: Organ retrieval from brain dead patients is getting an increased attention as the waiting list for organ recipients far exceeds the organ donor pool. In our country, despite a large population the number of brain dead donors undergoing organ donation is very less (2% in our study). Aims: The present study was undertaken to address issues related to organ donation and share our experience for the same. Methods: A retrospective case record analysis of over 5 years from September 2007 to August 2012 was performed and the patients fulfilling brain death criterion as per Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissue (Amendment) Act were included. Patient demographics (age, sex), mode of injury, time from injury to the diagnosis of brain death, time from diagnosis of brain death to organ retrieval and complications were analysed. Statistics Analysis: Student's t test was used for parametric data and Chi square was used for categorical data. Results: Out of 205 patients who were identified as brain dead, only 10 patients became potential organ donors. Conclusion: Aggressive donor management, increasing public awareness about the concept of organ donation, good communication between clinician and the family members and a well-trained team of transplant coordinators can help in improving the number of organ donations. PMID:23983281

  9. Organ retrieval and banking in brain dead trauma patients: Our experience at level-1 trauma centre and current views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhavi Sawhney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organ retrieval from brain dead patients is getting an increased attention as the waiting list for organ recipients far exceeds the organ donor pool. In our country, despite a large population the number of brain dead donors undergoing organ donation is very less (2% in our study. Aims: The present study was undertaken to address issues related to organ donation and share our experience for the same. Methods: A retrospective case record analysis of over 5 years from September 2007 to August 2012 was performed and the patients fulfilling brain death criterion as per Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissue (Amendment Act were included. Patient demographics (age, sex, mode of injury, time from injury to the diagnosis of brain death, time from diagnosis of brain death to organ retrieval and complications were analysed. Statistics Analysis: Student′s t test was used for parametric data and Chi square was used for categorical data. Results: Out of 205 patients who were identified as brain dead, only 10 patients became potential organ donors. Conclusion: Aggressive donor management, increasing public awareness about the concept of organ donation, good communication between clinician and the family members and a well-trained team of transplant coordinators can help in improving the number of organ donations.

  10. Brain potentials associated with the outcome processing in framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Feng, Yandong; Xu, Qing; Bian, Jun; Tang, Huixian

    2012-10-24

    Framing effect is a cognitive bias referring to the phenomenon that people respond differently to different but objectively equivalent descriptions of the same problem. By measuring event-related potentials, the present study aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the framing effect, especially how the negative and positive frames influence the outcome processing in our brain. Participants were presented directly with outcomes framed either positively in terms of lives saved or negatively in terms of lives lost in large and small group conditions, and were asked to rate the favorableness of each of them. The behavioral results showed that the framing effect occurred in both group size conditions, with more favorable evaluations associated with positive framing. Compared with outcomes in positive framing condition, a significant feedback-related negativity (FRN) effect was elicited by outcomes in negative framing condition, even though the outcomes in different conditions were objectively equivalent. The results are explained in terms of the associative model of attribute framing effect which states that attribute framing effect occurs as a result of a valence-based associative processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Methodological and Practical Principles in the Process of Bank Financial Resources Formation in Public Law Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Кеменяш, Роксолана; Kemeniash, Roksolana

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of cost-constitutional alternative dispute resolution in public relations disciplines will enable full development of constitutional economics as a practical science. Thus, the foundation acts as a constitutional right, and more effective organization of legal and democratic state contribute financial resources of the bank, which specify the economic and legal norms in alternative dispute resolution = Встановлення альтернативного вирішення спорів економічно-конституційного харак...

  12. Role of the brain in the regulation process of urination

    OpenAIRE

    V. B. Berdichevskiy; A. A. Sufianov; V. G. Yelishev; D. A. Barashin

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of positron emission tomography of the brain with glucose isotope 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in healthy men and women during the period of accumulation and emptying of the bladder revealed no gender-specific brain activity. The men and women during the accumulation and storage of urine occurs at a standard activity of the brain with the dominance of the left hemisphere. Zone hyperactivity of the brain during this period is the region of the back of the cingulate gyrus.During urinatio...

  13. Brain correlates of mathematical competence in processing mathematical representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland H. Grabner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to extract numerical information from different representation formats (e.g., equations, tables, or diagrams is a key component of mathematical competence but little is known about its neural correlate. Previous studies comparing mathematically less and more competent adults have focused on mental arithmetic and reported differences in left angular gyrus activity which were interpreted to reflect differential reliance on arithmetic fact retrieval during problem solving. The aim of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study was to investigate the brain correlates of mathematical competence in a task requiring the processing of typical mathematical representations. Twenty-eight adults of lower and higher mathematical competence worked on a representation matching task in which they had to evaluate whether the numerical information of a symbolic equation matches that of a bar chart. Two task conditions without and one condition with arithmetic demands were administered. Both competence groups performed equally well in the non-arithmetic conditions and only differed in accuracy in the condition requiring calculation. Activation contrasts between the groups revealed consistently stronger left angular gyrus activation in the more competent individuals across all three task conditions. The finding of competence-related activation differences independently of arithmetic demands suggests that more and less competent individuals differ in a cognitive process other than arithmetic fact retrieval. Specifically, it is argued that the stronger left angular gyrus activity in the more competent adults may reflect their higher proficiency in processing mathematical symbols. Moreover, the study demonstrates competence-related parietal activation differences that were not accompanied by differential experimental performance.

  14. Danske Bank - Imagekrise

    OpenAIRE

    Agerlin, Anne; Holmqvist, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This report examines and analyses the difference between Danske Bank's perception of themselves and the world's perception of the bank. The difference is illustrated, because tendency shows that boundaries have an effect on Danske Bank's image. We search through collected articles in a social constructivist perspective to handle both Danske Bank’s perception and the world’s perception. The empirical foundation has made it possible to process and interpret the stated problems. The adaptation i...

  15. Image processing techniques for quantification and assessment of brain MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijf, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely used technique to acquire digital images of the human brain. A variety of acquisition protocols is available to generate images in vivo and noninvasively, giving great opportunities to study the anatomy and physiology of the human brain. In my thesis,

  16. Discourse macrolevel processing after severe pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sandra Bond; Sparks, Garen; Levin, Harvey S; Dennis, Maureen; Roncadin, Caroline; Zhang, Lifang; Song, James

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if discourse macrolevel processing abilities differed between children with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) at least 2 years postinjury and typically developing children. Twenty-three children had sustained a severe TBI either before the age of 8 (n = 10) or after the age of 8 (n = 13). The remaining 32 children composed a control group of typically developing peers. The groups' summaries and interpretive lesson statements were analyzed according to reduction and transformation of narrative text information. Compared to the control group, the TBI group condensed the original text information to a similar extent. However, the TBI group produced significantly less transformed information during their summaries, especially those children who sustained early injuries. The TBI and control groups did not significantly differ in their production of interpretive lesson statements. In terms of related skills, discourse macrolevel summarization ability was significantly related to problem solving but not to lexical or sentence level language skills or memory. Children who sustain a severe TBI early in childhood are at an increased risk for persisting deficits in higher level discourse abilities, results that have implications for academic success and therapeutic practices.

  17. Mobile banking: New trend in the contemporary banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanader Dušica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1990s and early 2000s, banking has undergone and is still undergoing some considerable changes, adjusting itself to the new circumstances and challenges in its environment. Modern information technologies have granted an opportunity to banks to expand their operations and adjust their offer of products and services, placing them through the new communication channels. The increasing reliance on mobile devices, especially the so-called smart phones, has facilitated the development of a new form of banking, known as mobile banking. Mobile banking is a specific channel of electronic banking, enabling clients to communicate with the bank via mobile devices. The bank's products and services are, thus, available to the clients at any time and at any place, and the banking sector is expected to perfectly understand the needs of today's clients, before implementing mobile banking. The research in this paper focuses on mobile banking, as a segment of electronic banking, which has developed under the influence of modern information technologies. The paper elaborates on the main characteristics of mobile banking, its advantages, but also its drawbacks that the banks and their clients are facing in the process of its utilization (or its implementation in practice. Moreover, the paper presents the trends of using mobile banking in the world and in Serbia, along with the tendencies for developing new services.

  18. Modulation of human time processing by subthalamic deep brain stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Wojtecki

    Full Text Available Timing in the range of seconds referred to as interval timing is crucial for cognitive operations and conscious time processing. According to recent models of interval timing basal ganglia (BG oscillatory loops are involved in time interval recognition. Parkinsońs disease (PD is a typical disease of the basal ganglia that shows distortions in interval timing. Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN is a powerful treatment of PD which modulates motor and cognitive functions depending on stimulation frequency by affecting subcortical-cortical oscillatory loops. Thus, for the understanding of BG-involvement in interval timing it is of interest whether STN-DBS can modulate timing in a frequency dependent manner by interference with oscillatory time recognition processes. We examined production and reproduction of 5 and 15 second intervals and millisecond timing in a double blind, randomised, within-subject repeated-measures design of 12 PD-patients applying no, 10-Hz- and ≥ 130-Hz-STN-DBS compared to healthy controls. We found under(re-production of the 15-second interval and a significant enhancement of this under(re-production by 10-Hz-stimulation compared to no stimulation, ≥ 130-Hz-STN-DBS and controls. Milliseconds timing was not affected. We provide first evidence for a frequency-specific modulatory effect of STN-DBS on interval timing. Our results corroborate the involvement of BG in general and of the STN in particular in the cognitive representation of time intervals in the range of multiple seconds.

  19. Bank, Banking System, Macroprudential Supervision, Stability of Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Vasilyeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of financial development during last decade causes transformation of banking sector functioning. In particular, among the most significant changes over this period should be noted the next ones: convergence of financial market segments and appearance of cross-sector financial products, an increase of prevailing of financial sector in comparison with real economy and level of their interdependent, an intensification of crisis processes in financial and especially banking sector and a significant increase of the scale of the crisis consequences etc. thus, in such vulnerable conditions it is become very urgent to identify the relevant factors that can influence on the stability of banking sector, because its maintenance seems to be one of the most important preconditions of the stability of the national economy as a whole. Purpose of the article is to analyze key performance indicators of the Ukrainian banking system, clarify its main problems, identify relevant factors of the stability of the Ukrainian banking system and the character of their influence on the dependent variable. Realization of the mentioned above tasks was ensured by regression analysis (OLS regression. Analysis of key indicators that characterize current situation in the Ukrainian banking system found out the existence of numerous endogenous and exogenous problems, which, in turn, cause worsening most of analyzed indicators during 2013-2015. Unfavorable situation in Ukrainian banking system determined the necessity of identification of relevant factors of banking system stability to avoid transmission of financial shocks. According to the results of regression analysis on the stability of banking sector positively influence such factors as increase of interest margin to gross income ratio, reserves to assets ratio, number of branches, ratio of non-performing loans to total loans. Meanwhile, negative impact on stability of banking system has an increase of liquid

  20. Brain signatures of artificial language processing: Evidence challenging the critical period hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Friederici, Angela D.; Steinhauer, Karsten; Pfeifer, Erdmut

    2002-01-01

    Adult second language learning seems to be more difficult and less efficient than first language acquisition during childhood. By using event-related brain potentials, we show that adults who learned a miniature artificial language display a similar real-time pattern of brain activation when processing this language as native speakers do when processing natural languages. Participants trained in the artificial language showed two event-related brain potential compo...

  1. Banks, regions and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Alessandrini

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards the banking sectors in all the industrialised countries have been experiencing intense restructuring, aggregation and consolidation, radically changing their ownership structures and geography. Whatever the reasons behind such restructuring processes, the globalisation of the credit markets, the consolidation of banking structures, the removal of barriers to the free location of banks and their penetration of peripheral markets pose two main questions. Will integration of the banking systems lead to a narrowing or a widening of the development gap between regions? What relations will there be between financial centres and the periphery, and how will financial labour be divided between national (international banks and local (regional banks? The aim of this paper is to address such questions in the light of recent developments in the theoretical and empirical literature on financial integration.

  2. Identifying and Prioritizing Effective Factors on Classifying A Private Bank Customers by Delphi Technique and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khayatmoghadam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking industry development and presence of different financial institutions cause to increase competition in customer and their capitals attraction so that there are about 28 banks and many credit and financial institutions from which 6 banks are public and 22 banks are private. Among them, public banks have a more appropriate situation than private banks with regard to governmental relations and support and due to geographical expansion and longer history. But due to lack of above conditions; private banks try to attract customers with regarding science areas to remedy this situation. Therefore, in this study we are decided to review banking customers from a different viewpoint. For this reason, we initially obtained ideal indications from banking viewpoint in two-story of uses and resources customers using experts and Delphi technique application which based on this, indicators such as account workflow, account average, lack of returned cheque, etc and in uses section, the amount of facility received, the amount of received warranties, etc, were determined. Then, using a Hierarchical Analysis (AHP method and experts opinions through software Expert Choice11, priority of these criteria were determined and weight of each index was determined. It should be noted that statistical population of bank experts associated with this study were queue and staff. Also obtained results can be used as input for customer grouping in line with CRM techniques implementation.

  3. Brain Volume Estimation Enhancement by Morphological Image Processing Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali, R; Keshtkar, A; Zamani, A; Gharehaghaji, N

    2017-12-01

    Volume estimation of brain is important for many neurological applications. It is necessary in measuring brain growth and changes in brain in normal/abnormal patients. Thus, accurate brain volume measurement is very important. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the method of choice for volume quantification due to excellent levels of image resolution and between-tissue contrast. Stereology method is a good method for estimating volume but it requires to segment enough MRI slices and have a good resolution. In this study, it is desired to enhance stereology method for volume estimation of brain using less MRI slices with less resolution. In this study, a program for calculating volume using stereology method has been introduced. After morphologic method, dilation was applied and the stereology method enhanced. For the evaluation of this method, we used T1-wighted MR images from digital phantom in BrainWeb which had ground truth. The volume of 20 normal brain extracted from BrainWeb, was calculated. The volumes of white matter, gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid with given dimension were estimated correctly. Volume calculation from Stereology method in different cases was made. In three cases, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was measured. Case I with T=5, d=5, Case II with T=10, D=10 and Case III with T=20, d=20 (T=slice thickness, d=resolution as stereology parameters). By comparing these results of two methods, it is obvious that RMSE values for our proposed method are smaller than Stereology method. Using morphological operation, dilation allows to enhance the estimation volume method, Stereology. In the case with less MRI slices and less test points, this method works much better compared to Stereology method.

  4. Brain Volume Estimation Enhancement by Morphological Image Processing Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinali R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volume estimation of brain is important for many neurological applications. It is necessary in measuring brain growth and changes in brain in normal/ abnormal patients. Thus, accurate brain volume measurement is very important. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the method of choice for volume quantification due to excellent levels of image resolution and between-tissue contrast. Stereology method is a good method for estimating volume but it requires to segment enough MRI slices and have a good resolution. In this study, it is desired to enhance stereology method for volume estimation of brain using less MRI slices with less resolution. Methods: In this study, a program for calculating volume using stereology method has been introduced. After morphologic method, dilation was applied and the stereology method enhanced. For the evaluation of this method, we used T1-wighted MR images from digital phantom in BrainWeb which had ground truth. Results: The volume of 20 normal brain extracted from BrainWeb, was calculated. The volumes of white matter, gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid with given dimension were estimated correctly. Volume calculation from Stereology method in different cases was made. In three cases, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE was measured. Case I with T=5, d=5, Case II with T=10, D=10 and Case III with T=20, d=20 (T=slice thickness, d=resolution as stereology parameters. By comparing these results of two methods, it is obvious that RMSE values for our proposed method are smaller than Stereology method. Conclusion: Using morphological operation, dilation allows to enhance the estimation volume method, Stereology. In the case with less MRI slices and less test points, this method works much better compared to Stereology method.

  5. Role of the brain in the regulation process of urination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Berdichevskiy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of positron emission tomography of the brain with glucose isotope 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in healthy men and women during the period of accumulation and emptying of the bladder revealed no gender-specific brain activity. The men and women during the accumulation and storage of urine occurs at a standard activity of the brain with the dominance of the left hemisphere. Zone hyperactivity of the brain during this period is the region of the back of the cingulate gyrus.During urination in both men and women have the increased activity of the cortex of the brain. Preserved the dominance of the left hemisphere. Hyperactivity zone of the brain during this period is the region of the anterior cingulate gyrus.Thus, the cortical control of the act of accumulation and bladder emptying in healthy people in our studies did not reveal gender differences. However, security features neurohumoral response of spinal centers and peripheral neuroregulation function of the lower urinary tract, may have a man and a woman significant differences.

  6. Do some neurological conditions induce brain plasticity processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Lilianne

    2008-09-01

    Paillard [Paillard J. Réflexions sur l'usage du concept de plasticité en Neurobiologie. J Psychol Norm Pathol 1976;1:33-47] defined adaptive plasticity as the capacity of the system to change its own structure and expand its behavioural repertoire. We review the literature on brain damage patients, in whom, adaptive plasticity was observed via neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging examinations. Attentional and memory system alterations and some resulting changes considered as compensatory mechanisms are commented. We have selected a single case presenting with developmental amnesia [Vargha-Khadem F, Gadian DG, Watkins KE, Connelly A, Van Paesschen W, Mishkin M. Differential effects of early hippocampal pathology on episodic and semantic memory. Science 1997;277(5324):376-80; Maguire EA, Vargha-Khadem F, Mishkin M. The effects of bilateral hippocampal damage on fMRI regional activations and interactions during memory retrieval. Brain 2001;124(Pt 6):1156-70] and several groups of multiple sclerosis patients studied recently [e.g. Mainero C, Pantano P, Caramia F, Pozzilli C. Brain reorganization during attention and memory tasks in multiple sclerosis: insights from functional MRI studies. J Neurol Sci 2006;245(1/2):93-8; Morgen K, Sammer G, Courtney SM, Wolters T, Melchior H, Blecker CR, et al. Distinct mechanisms of altered brain activation in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neuroimage 2007;37(3):937-46; Nebel K, Wiese H, Seyfarth J, Gizewski ER, Stude P, Diener HC, et al. Activity of attention related structures in multiple sclerosis patients. Brain Res 2007;1151:150-60]. Convergence evidence via the two approaches - neuropsychological and functional fMRI - was shown as functional and structural brain plasticity was demonstrated in the selected works. Some common characteristics of brain plasticity emerge from this review independently of the neurological conditions we reviewed.

  7. Studying frequency processing of the brain to enhance long-term memory and develop a human brain protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Wernher; Du, Shengzhi; Balt, Karlien

    2015-01-01

    The temporal lobe in conjunction with the hippocampus is responsible for memory processing. The gamma wave is involved with this process. To develop a human brain protocol, a better understanding of the relationship between gamma and long-term memory is vital. A more comprehensive understanding of the human brain and specific analogue waves it uses will support the development of a human brain protocol. Fifty-eight participants aged between 6 and 60 years participated in long-term memory experiments. It is envisaged that the brain could be stimulated through binaural beats (sound frequency) at 40 Hz (gamma) to enhance long-term memory capacity. EEG recordings have been transformed to sound and then to an information standard, namely ASCII. Statistical analysis showed a proportional relationship between long-term memory and gamma activity. Results from EEG recordings indicate a pattern. The pattern was obtained through the de-codification of an EEG recording to sound and then to ASCII. Stimulation of gamma should enhance long term memory capacity. More research is required to unlock the human brains' protocol key. This key will enable the processing of information directly to and from human memory via gamma, the hippocampus and the temporal lobe.

  8. Differential impact of thalamic versus subthalamic deep brain stimulation on lexical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugel, Lea K; Ehlen, Felicitas; Tiedt, Hannes O; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2014-10-01

    Roles of subcortical structures in language processing are vague, but, interestingly, basal ganglia and thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation can go along with reduced lexical capacities. To deepen the understanding of this impact, we assessed word processing as a function of thalamic versus subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. Ten essential tremor patients treated with thalamic and 14 Parkinson׳s disease patients with subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation performed an acoustic Lexical Decision Task ON and OFF stimulation. Combined analysis of task performance and event-related potentials allowed the determination of processing speed, priming effects, and N400 as neurophysiological correlate of lexical stimulus processing. 12 age-matched healthy participants acted as control subjects. Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation prolonged word decisions and reduced N400 potentials. No comparable ON-OFF effects were present in patients with subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. In the latter group of patients with Parkinson' disease, N400 amplitudes were, however, abnormally low, whether under active or inactive Deep Brain Stimulation. In conclusion, performance speed and N400 appear to be influenced by state functions, modulated by thalamic, but not subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation, compatible with concepts of thalamo-cortical engagement in word processing. Clinically, these findings specify cognitive sequels of Deep Brain Stimulation in a target-specific way. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Liquidity, Banking, and Bank Failures.

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Stephen D

    1988-01-01

    A multiperiod model with risk-neutral agents is constructed in which a liquidity problem arises in an equilibrium with decentralized tradin g in capital, which banking institutions are able to alleviate. Depos it contracts provide for early withdrawal, banks hold debt, and agent s who borrow from banks hold compensating balances. Institutional col lapse, or a state of the world when bank failures are experienced, is associated with a high demand for liquidity, low output, and a lower than ave...

  10. Brain Regions Involved in Arousal and Reward Processing are Associated with Apathy in Alzheimer's Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Edward D; Lee, Seonjoo; Cheran, Gayathri; Grafman, Jordan; Devanand, Davangere P

    2017-01-01

    Apathy is a common and problematic symptom of several neurodegenerative illnesses, but its neuroanatomical bases are not understood. To determine the regions associated with apathy in subjects with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) using a method that accounts for the significant co-linearity of regional atrophy and neuropsychiatric symptoms. We identified 57 subjects with mild AD (CDR = 1) and neuropsychiatric symptoms in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. We performed a multivariate multiple regression with LASSO regularization on all symptom subscales of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and the whole-brain ROI volumes calculated from their baseline MRIs with FreeSurfer. We compared our results to those from a previous study using the same method in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS). Of neuropsychiatric symptoms, apathy showed the most robust neuroanatomical associations in the AD subjects. Atrophy of the following regions were independently associated with apathy: the ventromedial prefrontal cortex; ventrolateral prefrontal cortex; posterior cingulate cortex and adjacent lateral cortex; and the bank of the superior temporal sulcus. These results replicate previous studies using FTD and CBS patients, mostly agree with the previous literature on apathy in AD, and correspond to the Medial and Orbital Prefrontal Cortex networks identified in non-human primates. The current study, previous studies from our laboratory, and the previous literature suggest that impairment of the same brain networks involved in arousal, threat response, and reward processing are associated with apathy in AD and FTD.

  11. Mechanism of case processing in the brain: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yokoyama

    Full Text Available In sentence comprehension research, the case system, which is one of the subsystems of the language processing system, has been assumed to play a crucial role in signifying relationships in sentences between noun phrases (NPs and other elements, such as verbs, prepositions, nouns, and tense. However, so far, less attention has been paid to the question of how cases are processed in our brain. To this end, the current study used fMRI and scanned the brain activity of 15 native English speakers during an English-case processing task. The results showed that, while the processing of all cases activates the left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior part of the middle temporal gyrus, genitive case processing activates these two regions more than nominative and accusative case processing. Since the effect of the difference in behavioral performance among these three cases is excluded from brain activation data, the observed different brain activations would be due to the different processing patterns among the cases, indicating that cases are processed differently in our brains. The different brain activations between genitive case processing and nominative/accusative case processing may be due to the difference in structural complexity between them.

  12. Bank regulation and banking stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    This note discusses some issues in bank closure policy from a financial stability standpoint and how these issues have evolved since we first raised the question of how a reputation-driven divergence of interests between bank regulators and taxpayers may distort bank closure policy in our 1993 paper

  13. Is shadow banking really banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.

  14. Introductory study of brain function data processing; No kino joho shori no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted of the brain function aiming at developing an interface with the same function as humans have. In the study, the most up-to-date information/knowledge and future problems were examined on brain measurement, brain modeling, making a model an element, and the brain function data processing system. As to the brain measurement, the paper took up the multielectrode simultaneous measuring method and the optical multipoint measuring method as an invasive measuring method, and the functional magnetic resonance imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy, magneto-encephalography, and electro-encephalography as a non-invasive measuring method. Relating to the brain modeling, studies were made on senses of sight and smell, the movement control and the learning. As to making a model an element, how to make the modeled function a chip on silicone for example becomes the problem. Reported were two reports on making the sense of sight an element and one report on making the parallel dispersed processing mechanism of brain an element. About the brain function data processing system, three reports were made on the present situation, matters in question, and the future development of the system in the case of catching data processing as a system taking a step ahead from making the model an element. 250 refs., 74 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Leading research on brain functional information processing; No kino joho shori no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This research aims at searching the concept of an information processing device with a fully different architecture from a previous ones based on the study on human brain function, sense and perception, and developing the basic fabrication technology for such system, and realizing the human-like information processing mechanism of memorization, learning, association, perception, intuition and value judgement. As an approach deriving biological and technological models from experimental brain studies, the model was derived from the brain functional information processing based on brain development/differentiation mechanism, the control mechanism/material of brain activities, and the knowledge obtained from brain measurement and study. In addition, for understanding a brain oscillation phenomenon by computational neuroscience, the cerebral cortex neural network model composed of realistic neuron models was proposed. Evaluation of the previous large-scale neural network chip system showed its ability of learning and fast processing, however, the next-generation brain computer requires further R and D of some novel architecture, device and system. 184 refs., 41 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. The Relationship between Phonological and Auditory Processing and Brain Organization in Beginning Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Kenneth R.; Landi, Nicole; Preston, Jonathan L.; Mencl, W. Einar; Austin, Alison C.; Sibley, Daragh; Fulbright, Robert K.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Molfese, Peter; Frost, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We employed brain-behavior analyses to explore the relationship between performance on tasks measuring phonological awareness, pseudoword decoding, and rapid auditory processing (all predictors of reading (dis)ability) and brain organization for print and speech in beginning readers. For print-related activation, we observed a shared set of…

  17. Evaluation of banks’ commercial credit applications using the analytic hierarchy process and Grey relational analysis: A comparison between public and private banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Kaygısız Ertuğ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an evaluation model that considers the quantitative and qualitative criteria for the appropriate selection of firms demanding commercial credit for both public and private banks. In this paper, the authors propose an integrated model that combines the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA into a single evaluation model. The model is illustrated with a case study on bank experts to demonstrate the effectiveness of this integrated method for four firms that applied for a commercial loan. In this study, AHP is applied to determine the weight of the criteria, and GRA is performed to determine the most appropriate firm. The results of this study indicate that, whereas firm morality and news criteria are the main criteria with the highest priority, sale and marketing constructions are the main criteria with the lowest priorities for both public and private banks. In addition, according to the results of GRA, the most appropriate firm for a public bank is Firm 1, and the most appropriate firm for a private bank is Firm 2.

  18. Banking on technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, Carole J

    2007-04-01

    New technology is being used by banks to help providers improve their revenue cycle through: Digital lockbox service. Remote deposit. Web-based payment. Automated payment processing at the point of service.

  19. 12 CFR 7.4002 - National bank charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... judgment and safe and sound banking principles. A national bank establishes non-interest charges and fees in accordance with safe and sound banking principles if the bank employs a decision-making process... of the competitive position of the bank in accordance with the bank's business plan and marketing...

  20. Organization of eye bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation

  1. A derangement of the brain wound healing process may cause some cases of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Rheinstein, Peter H

    2016-08-01

    A derangement of brain wound healing may cause some cases of Alzheimer's disease. Wound healing, a highly complex process, has four stages: hemostasis, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. Hemostasis and the initial phases of inflammation in brain tissue are typical of all vascularized tissue, such as skin. However, distinct differences arise in brain tissue during the later stages of inflammation, repair, and remodeling, and closely parallel the changes of Alzheimer's disease. Our hypothesis -- Alzheimer's disease is brain wound healing gone awry at least in some cases -- could be tested by measuring progression with biomarkers for the four stages of wound healing in humans or appropriate animal models. Autopsy studies might be done. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy might also result from the brain wound healing process.

  2. Knowledge of critical care nurses about the process of brain death diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Claudine Fontes de la Longuiniere

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to understand the knowledge of critical care nurses about the process of brain death diagnosis. Methods: qualitative study conducted with nurses who work in the Intensive Care Unit. Data were collected through interviews and analyzed based on the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. Results: as regards the concept of brain death, there was predominance of lack of brain activity. Regarding the procedures to confirm the diagnosis of brain death, the speeches brought up two stages composed of clinical tests and follow-up protocol. As for the nurses’ role in this process, the statements highlight the importance of informing the Intra-Hospital Committee of Organ and Tissue Donation and assisting the donor. Conclusion: participant nurses presented knowledge on the diagnosis of brain death and the role of nurses as part of the multidisciplinary team, revealing the importance of the performance of these professionals for achieving the organ donation and the need for constant improvement.

  3. A Unified Brain Architecture for Perception and Cognition With Applications to Information Processing Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carpenter, Gail

    2004-01-01

    .... It does this by mathematically characterizing and quantitatively simulating key brain mechanisms underlying higher-order human information processing as carried out within the laminar structure of the cerebral cortex...

  4. Understanding Modern Banking Ledgers through Blockchain Technologies: Future of Transaction Processing and Smart Contracts on the Internet of Money

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Gareth William; Panayi, Efstathios

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we provide an overview of the concept of blockchain technology and its potential to disrupt the world of banking through facilitating global money remittance, smart contracts, automated banking ledgers and digital assets. In this regard, we first provide a brief overview of the core aspects of this technology, as well as the second-generation contract-based developments. From there we discuss key issues that must be considered in developing such ledger based technologies in a ...

  5. How to use the ENEA data bank for the classification and reliability processing of fast reactor component event data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righini, R.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the input and inquiry procedures for the Data Bank set-up by ENEA for reliability studies on fast reactors. With reference to the structure and to the codes to be applied in the data entry and in the inquiry, see Report (2) in references. The data contained into the Bank are absolutely confidential. The input and inquiry procedures describes in this report may be applied only by the user who have previously specified the suitable password

  6. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-01-01

    In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspect...

  7. Morphometry of Concepcion Bank: Evidence of Geological and Biological Processes on a Large Volcanic Seamount of the Canary Islands Seamount Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jesus; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic; Hermida, Nuria; Amblas, David; Arrese, Beatriz; Martín-Sosa, Pablo; Acosta, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Concepcion Bank is the largest seamount in the Canary Islands Seamount Province (CISP), an oceanic area off NW Africa including 16 main seamounts, the Canaries archipelago and the Selvagens subarchipelago. The Bank is located 90 km northeast of Lanzarote Island and has been identified as a candidate Marine Protected Area (MPA) to be included in the Natura 2000 network. A compilation of complementary datasets consisting of multibeam bathymetry, TOPAS seismic reflection profiles, side scan sonar sonographs, Remotely Operated Vehicle video records and seafloor samples allowed describing in detail and ground truthing the submarine landforms and bioconstructions exhibited by the bank. The Concepcion Bank presently rises up to 2,433 m above the adjacent seafloor and exhibits two main domains: an extensive summit plateau and steep flanks. The sub-round summit plateau is 50km by 45 km and ranges from 158 to 1,485 m depth. The steep flanks that bound it descend to depths ranging between 1,700 and 2,500 m and define a seamount base that is 66km by 53 km. This morphology is the result of constructive and erosive processes involving different time scales, volumes of material and rates of change. The volcanic emplacement phase probably lasted 25-30 million years and was likely responsible for most of the 2,730 km3 of material that presently form the seamount. Subsequently, marine abrasion and, possibly, subaerial erosion modulated by global sea level oscillations, levelled the formerly emerging seamount summit plateau, in particular its shallower (processes in the past and recent to subrecent oceanographic conditions and associated active processes determined the current physiography, morphology and sedimentary patterns of Concepcion Bank, including the development and decline of CWC mounds The setting of the seamount in the regional crustal structure is also discussed.

  8. Brain training game improves executive functions and processing speed in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Nouchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions, but these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age on cognitive functions in the elderly. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-two elderly volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris. This study was completed by 14 of the 16 members in the Brain Age group and 14 of the 16 members in the Tetris group. To maximize the benefit of the interventions, all participants were non-gamers who reported playing less than one hour of video games per week over the past 2 years. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Each group played for a total of about 20 days. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into four categories (global cognitive status, executive functions, attention, and processing speed. Results showed that the effects of the brain training game were transferred to executive functions and to processing speed. However, the brain training game showed no transfer effect on any global cognitive status nor attention. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that playing Brain Age for 4 weeks could lead to improve cognitive functions (executive functions and processing speed in the elderly. This result indicated that there is a possibility which the elderly could improve executive functions and processing speed in short term training. The results need replication in large samples. Long-term effects and relevance for every-day functioning remain uncertain as yet. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000002825.

  9. [Brain activity during different stages of the relaxation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    gorev, A S; Kovaleva, A V; Panova, E N; Gorbacheva, A K

    2012-01-01

    A group of adults participated in experiment in which they were asked to reach relaxed state by using relaxation techniques (active relaxation) and to maintain this state without any technique (passive relaxation). Some changes of EEG-characteristics during relaxation were analyzed. This experiment includes four situations (different functional states): baselinel, active relaxation, passive relaxation, baseline2. EEG was recorded from 10 cortical leads: O1, O2, TPO (left and right), P3, P4, C3, C4, F3 and F4. A comparative EEG analysis was done for 10 frequency bands from 5 to 40 Hz. In each experimental situation we revealed general trends for EEG parameters and also some specific changes in EEG, which characterized brain organization during passive and active relaxed states.

  10. Brain signatures of artificial language processing: evidence challenging the critical period hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederici, Angela D; Steinhauer, Karsten; Pfeifer, Erdmut

    2002-01-08

    Adult second language learning seems to be more difficult and less efficient than first language acquisition during childhood. By using event-related brain potentials, we show that adults who learned a miniature artificial language display a similar real-time pattern of brain activation when processing this language as native speakers do when processing natural languages. Participants trained in the artificial language showed two event-related brain potential components taken to reflect early automatic and late controlled syntactic processes, whereas untrained participants did not. This result challenges the common view that late second language learners process language in a principally different way from native speakers. Our findings demonstrate that a small system of grammatical rules can be syntactically instantiated by the adult speaker in a way that strongly resembles native-speaker sentence processing.

  11. Hebrew Brain vs. English Brain: Language Modulates the Way It Is Processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Atira S.; Goelman, Gadi; Frost, Ram

    2011-01-01

    Is language processing universal? How do the specific properties of each language influence the way it is processed? In this study, we compare the neural correlates of morphological processing in Hebrew--a Semitic language with a rich and systematic morphology, to those revealed in English--an Indo-European language with a linear morphology. Using…

  12. The bimusical brain is not two monomusical brains in one: evidence from musical affective processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C M; Chan, Alice H D; Roy, Anil; Margulis, Elizabeth H

    2011-12-01

    Complex auditory exposures in ambient environments include systems of not only linguistic but also musical sounds. Because musical exposure is often passive, consisting of listening rather than performing, examining listeners without formal musical training allows for the investigation of the effects of passive exposure on our nervous system without active use. Additionally, studying listeners who have exposure to more than one musical system allows for an evaluation of how the brain acquires multiple symbolic and communicative systems. In the present fMRI study, listeners who had been exposed to Western-only (monomusicals) and both Indian and Western musical systems (bimusicals) since childhood and did not have significant formal musical training made tension judgments on Western and Indian music. Significant group by music interactions in temporal and limbic regions were found, with effects predominantly driven by between-music differences in temporal regions in the monomusicals and by between-music differences in limbic regions in the bimusicals. Effective connectivity analysis of this network via structural equation modeling (SEM) showed significant path differences across groups and music conditions, most notably a higher degree of connectivity and larger differentiation between the music conditions within the bimusicals. SEM was also used to examine the relationships among the degree of music exposure, affective responses, and activation in various brain regions. Results revealed a more complex behavioral-neural relationship in the bimusicals, suggesting that affective responses in this group are shaped by multiple behavioral and neural factors. These three lines of evidence suggest a clear differentiation of the effects of the exposure of one versus multiple musical systems.

  13. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspects globally as well as in the Romanian banking system. Even if there already are several studies on web banking, this topic still remains a resourceful area for academic research in the next decade.

  14. BANK GUARANTEES

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile NEME

    2012-01-01

    The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of fin...

  15. Reliability data banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, A.G.; Bendell, A.

    1991-01-01

    Following an introductory chapter on Reliability, what is it, why it is needed, how it is achieved and measured, the principles of reliability data bases and analysis methodologies are the subject of the next two chapters. Achievements due to the development of data banks are mentioned for different industries in the next chapter, FACTS, a comprehensive information system for industrial safety and reliability data collection in process plants are covered next. CREDO, the Central Reliability Data Organization is described in the next chapter and is indexed separately, as is the chapter on DANTE, the fabrication reliability Data analysis system. Reliability data banks at Electricite de France and IAEA's experience in compiling a generic component reliability data base are also separately indexed. The European reliability data system, ERDS, and the development of a large data bank come next. The last three chapters look at 'Reliability data banks, - friend foe or a waste of time'? and future developments. (UK)

  16. Morphometry of Concepcion Bank: Evidence of Geological and Biological Processes on a Large Volcanic Seamount of the Canary Islands Seamount Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Rivera

    Full Text Available Concepcion Bank is the largest seamount in the Canary Islands Seamount Province (CISP, an oceanic area off NW Africa including 16 main seamounts, the Canaries archipelago and the Selvagens subarchipelago. The Bank is located 90 km northeast of Lanzarote Island and has been identified as a candidate Marine Protected Area (MPA to be included in the Natura 2000 network. A compilation of complementary datasets consisting of multibeam bathymetry, TOPAS seismic reflection profiles, side scan sonar sonographs, Remotely Operated Vehicle video records and seafloor samples allowed describing in detail and ground truthing the submarine landforms and bioconstructions exhibited by the bank. The Concepcion Bank presently rises up to 2,433 m above the adjacent seafloor and exhibits two main domains: an extensive summit plateau and steep flanks. The sub-round summit plateau is 50km by 45 km and ranges from 158 to 1,485 m depth. The steep flanks that bound it descend to depths ranging between 1,700 and 2,500 m and define a seamount base that is 66km by 53 km. This morphology is the result of constructive and erosive processes involving different time scales, volumes of material and rates of change. The volcanic emplacement phase probably lasted 25-30 million years and was likely responsible for most of the 2,730 km3 of material that presently form the seamount. Subsequently, marine abrasion and, possibly, subaerial erosion modulated by global sea level oscillations, levelled the formerly emerging seamount summit plateau, in particular its shallower (<400 m, flatter (<0.5° eastern half. Subsidence associated to the crustal cooling that followed the emplacement phase further contributed the current depth range of the seamount. The deeper and steeper (2.3° western half of Concepcion Bank may result from tectonic tilting normal to a NNE-SSW fracture line. This fracture may still be expressed on the seafloor surface at some scarps detected on the seamount's summit

  17. The Process towards the Centralisation of the European Financial Supervisory Architecture: The Case of the Banking Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Montanaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the EU supervisory architecture has demonstrated that it took the risk of a euro break-up to barely overcome the Member States and their supervisors’ political resistances to centralisation. In the two-tier Europe that is emerging after the euro crisis, the integrity of the single market seems today crucially interlinked with the success of the banking union and its attractiveness for non-euro countries. The banking union’s design, without a credible common fiscal backstop, remains however a partial solution to the financial stability issues arising from the fragmentation of the EU financial market in the event of banking crises. Against this background, this work performs an analysis on non-euro countries’ own assessments of the pros and cons of joining the banking union. The analysis aims at showing that until fiscal responsibility for financial stability remains at the national level, regulatory centralisation cannot sever the traditional divide between home and host supervisors. JEL: F35; F65; G01; G28

  18. The brain as a distributed intelligent processing system: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Armando Freitas; Rocha, Fábio Theoto; Massad, Eduardo

    2011-03-15

    Various neuroimaging studies, both structural and functional, have provided support for the proposal that a distributed brain network is likely to be the neural basis of intelligence. The theory of Distributed Intelligent Processing Systems (DIPS), first developed in the field of Artificial Intelligence, was proposed to adequately model distributed neural intelligent processing. In addition, the neural efficiency hypothesis suggests that individuals with higher intelligence display more focused cortical activation during cognitive performance, resulting in lower total brain activation when compared with individuals who have lower intelligence. This may be understood as a property of the DIPS. In our study, a new EEG brain mapping technique, based on the neural efficiency hypothesis and the notion of the brain as a Distributed Intelligence Processing System, was used to investigate the correlations between IQ evaluated with WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) and WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children), and the brain activity associated with visual and verbal processing, in order to test the validity of a distributed neural basis for intelligence. The present results support these claims and the neural efficiency hypothesis.

  19. The brain as a distributed intelligent processing system: an EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Freitas da Rocha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various neuroimaging studies, both structural and functional, have provided support for the proposal that a distributed brain network is likely to be the neural basis of intelligence. The theory of Distributed Intelligent Processing Systems (DIPS, first developed in the field of Artificial Intelligence, was proposed to adequately model distributed neural intelligent processing. In addition, the neural efficiency hypothesis suggests that individuals with higher intelligence display more focused cortical activation during cognitive performance, resulting in lower total brain activation when compared with individuals who have lower intelligence. This may be understood as a property of the DIPS. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In our study, a new EEG brain mapping technique, based on the neural efficiency hypothesis and the notion of the brain as a Distributed Intelligence Processing System, was used to investigate the correlations between IQ evaluated with WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, and the brain activity associated with visual and verbal processing, in order to test the validity of a distributed neural basis for intelligence. CONCLUSION: The present results support these claims and the neural efficiency hypothesis.

  20. How brain oscillations form memories--a processing based perspective on oscillatory subsequent memory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslmayr, Simon; Staudigl, Tobias

    2014-01-15

    Brain oscillations are increasingly recognized by memory researchers as a useful tool to unravel the neural mechanisms underlying the formation of a memory trace. However, the increasing numbers of published studies paint a rather complex picture of the relation between brain oscillations and memory formation. Concerning oscillatory amplitude, for instance, increases as well as decreases in various frequency bands (theta, alpha, beta and gamma) were associated with memory formation. These results cast doubt on frameworks putting forward the idea of an oscillatory signature that is uniquely related to memory formation. In an attempt to clarify this issue we here provide an alternative perspective, derived from classic cognitive frameworks/principles of memory. On the basis of Craik's levels of processing framework and Tulving's encoding specificity principle we hypothesize that brain oscillations during encoding might primarily reflect the perceptual and cognitive processes engaged by the encoding task. These processes may then lead to later successful retrieval depending on their overlap with the processes engaged by the memory test. As a consequence, brain oscillatory correlates of memory formation could vary dramatically depending on how the memory is encoded, and on how it is being tested later. Focusing on oscillatory amplitude changes and on theta-to-gamma cross-frequency coupling, we here review recent evidence showing how brain oscillatory subsequent memory effects can be modulated, and sometimes even be reversed, by varying encoding tasks, and the contextual overlap between encoding and retrieval. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Brain as a Distributed Intelligent Processing System: An EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Armando Freitas; Rocha, Fábio Theoto; Massad, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Background Various neuroimaging studies, both structural and functional, have provided support for the proposal that a distributed brain network is likely to be the neural basis of intelligence. The theory of Distributed Intelligent Processing Systems (DIPS), first developed in the field of Artificial Intelligence, was proposed to adequately model distributed neural intelligent processing. In addition, the neural efficiency hypothesis suggests that individuals with higher intelligence display more focused cortical activation during cognitive performance, resulting in lower total brain activation when compared with individuals who have lower intelligence. This may be understood as a property of the DIPS. Methodology and Principal Findings In our study, a new EEG brain mapping technique, based on the neural efficiency hypothesis and the notion of the brain as a Distributed Intelligence Processing System, was used to investigate the correlations between IQ evaluated with WAIS (Whechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) and WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children), and the brain activity associated with visual and verbal processing, in order to test the validity of a distributed neural basis for intelligence. Conclusion The present results support these claims and the neural efficiency hypothesis. PMID:21423657

  2. Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-HMPAO) further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e., pleasure) evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus, and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation. PMID:25147536

  3. Signal and image processing techniques for functional near-infrared imaging of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toronov, Vladislav Y.; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Webb, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared spectro-imaging (NIRSI) is a quickly developing method for the in-vivo imaging of biological tissues. In particular, it is now extensively employed for imaging the human brain. In this non-invasive technique, the information about the brain is obtained from the analysis of spatial light bundles formed by the photons traveling from light sources to detectors placed on the surface of the head. Most significant problems in the functional brain NIRSI are the separation of the brain information from the physiological noise in non-cerebral tissues, and the localization of functional signals. In this paper we describe signal and image processing techniques we developed in order to measure two types of functional cerebral signals: the hemodynamic responses, and neuronal responses. PMID:21738383

  4. Physiological basis and image processing in functional magnetic resonance imaging: Neuronal and motor activity in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is recently developing as imaging modality used for mapping hemodynamics of neuronal and motor event related tissue blood oxygen level dependence (BOLD in terms of brain activation. Image processing is performed by segmentation and registration methods. Segmentation algorithms provide brain surface-based analysis, automated anatomical labeling of cortical fields in magnetic resonance data sets based on oxygen metabolic state. Registration algorithms provide geometric features using two or more imaging modalities to assure clinically useful neuronal and motor information of brain activation. This review article summarizes the physiological basis of fMRI signal, its origin, contrast enhancement, physical factors, anatomical labeling by segmentation, registration approaches with examples of visual and motor activity in brain. Latest developments are reviewed for clinical applications of fMRI along with other different neurophysiological and imaging modalities.

  5. Global Banking System Regulatory Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Oleh Mozhovyi; Olena Pavliuk

    2017-01-01

    The international and domestic experience shows that the main factors of financial destabilization during the financial crises are in the banking sector. The article reveals that the vulnerability of the financial system is connected with functions, deposit and credit transactions, risks distribution and ensuring liquidity; banks act as a major factor in stabilisation measures in the current context of globalization processes, since the economic stability of banking activities ...

  6. Credit risk management in banks

    OpenAIRE

    Pětníková, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this diploma thesis is managing credit risk in banks, as the most significant risk faced by banks. The aim of this work is to define the basic techniques, tools and methods that are used by banks to manage credit risk. The first part of this work focuses on defining these procedures and describes the entire process of credit risk management, from the definition of credit risk, describing credit strategy and policy, organizational structure, defining the most used credit risk mi...

  7. Banking in southern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Žarko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nations discussed here (Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece have in common - with the exception of Italy, that is - that they used to be on the margins of European economic and social developments. Only Italy succeeded in industrialising itself already prior to World War I. This fundamental trait also determined the developmental path of modern-era banking. Hereby, two important points in the course of development of banking in the Southern European countries need to be emphasised. To begin with, if the lands of the North-Western Europe were large capital exporters, then the South European nations were the importers of this capital. The role of foreign capital, i.e., foreign banks, was great and irreplaceable in the development of banking. The second element in common was a large role of state in the economy in general. Under the circumstances of underdeveloped entrepreneurial environment, the state, through its economic activities, would become the driving force of overall economic and social development. This was also or especially the case with banking. Role played by the state only began to diminish towards the end of the 1980s, in the course of the processes of deregulation and liberalisation both at the international level as well as within the then European Economic Community or subsequent European Union. Already during the preparatory processes prior to the admission into the European Economic Community, Spain, Greece and Portugal, and, however, Italy as well, but due to European Directives it had to abide by, began comprehensive processes of restructuring their national banking systems. Since the second half of the 1980s, banking systems were subjected to liberalisation, deregulation and privatisation.

  8. Demographic variation in how the social brain processes news messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene Ingeborg van Driel, M A; Grabe, Maria Elizabeth; Ozen Bas, M A; Kleemans, Mariska

    A high capacity for visual perception distinguishes Homo sapiens from other primates. This human ability to detect social cues and retain visual records of social networks has been tested mostly with static facial images in laboratory settings. However, media consumption has become closely entangled with the way social life is navigated. Therefore, the study reported here tested demographic differences (gender and education) in visual information processing of social and nonsocial objects featured in audiovisual news content. Women recognized (accuracy) and recalled (salience) social images better than men. On the other hand, men were more skilled at recognizing, but not recalling, nonsocial images. Participants with lower educational levels recognized and recalled fewer images than individuals with higher educational levels. Interactions between demographic variables and time suggest that memory records for social images are more stable than those for nonsocial images. Memory may have survival-relevant importance, serving navigational functions that vary across environmental demands, resulting in differences across demographic groups.

  9. Aberrant brain activation of error processing among adults with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Yun Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD have a deficit in their cognitive control. The aim of this study was to reveal the brain correlates of the deficits in response inhibition or error processing in adult ADHD. A total of 29 adults with ADHD and 25 control individuals were recruited. They completed an event-related-design Go/No-go task under functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Both the ADHD group and the control group exhibited activation of the frontostriatal network when processing response inhibition. They also exhibited activation of the frontoinsula cortex and anterior cingulate in error processing. Adults with ADHD have a lower brain activation of error processing over the right inferior frontal lobe adjacent to the insula than control individuals. The altered frontoinsula cortex activation may represent the mechanism of error processing deficit among adults with ADHD.

  10. Neuronal process structure and growth proteins are targets of heavy PTM regulation during brain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Alistair V G; Schwämmle, Veit; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Brain development is a process requiring precise control of many different cell types. One method to achieve this is through specific and temporally regulated modification of proteins in order to alter structure and function. Post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins is known...... on protein-level events, this study also provides significant insight into detailed roles for individual modified proteins in the developing brain, helping to advance the understanding of the complex protein-driven processes that underlie development. Finally, the use of a novel bioinformatic analytical tool...... provides one of the most comprehensive sets of individual PTM site regulation data for mammalian brain tissue. This will provide a valuable resource for those wishing to perform comparisons or meta-analyses of large scale PTMomic data, as are becoming increasingly common. Furthermore, being focussed...

  11. Brain mechanisms in religion and spirituality: An integrative predictive processing framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel; Aleman, André

    2017-02-01

    We present the theory of predictive processing as a unifying framework to account for the neurocognitive basis of religion and spirituality. Our model is substantiated by discussing four different brain mechanisms that play a key role in religion and spirituality: temporal brain areas are associated with religious visions and ecstatic experiences; multisensory brain areas and the default mode network are involved in self-transcendent experiences; the Theory of Mind-network is associated with prayer experiences and over attribution of intentionality; top-down mechanisms instantiated in the anterior cingulate cortex and the medial prefrontal cortex could be involved in acquiring and maintaining intuitive supernatural beliefs. We compare the predictive processing model with two-systems accounts of religion and spirituality, by highlighting the central role of prediction error monitoring. We conclude by presenting novel predictions for future research and by discussing the philosophical and theological implications of neuroscientific research on religion and spirituality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The brain as a dream state generator: an activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J A; McCarley, R W

    1977-12-01

    Recent research in the neurobiology of dreaming sleep provides new evidence for possible structural and functional substrates of formal aspects of the dream process. The data suggest that dreaming sleep is physiologically determined and shaped by a brain stem neuronal mechanism that can be modeled physiologically and mathematically. Formal features of the generator processes with strong implications for dream theory include periodicity and automaticity of forebrain activation, suggesting a preprogrammed neural basis for dream mentation in sleep; intense and sporadic activation of brain stem sensorimotor circuits including reticular, oculomotor, and vestibular neurons, possibly determining spatiotemporal aspects of dream imagery; and shifts in transmitter ratios, possibly accounting for dream amnesia. The authors suggest that the automatically activated forebrain synthesizes the dream by comparing information generated in specific brain stem circuits with information stored in memory.

  13. Global Banking System Regulatory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Mozhovyi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The international and domestic experience shows that the main factors of financial destabilization during the financial crises are in the banking sector. The article reveals that the vulnerability of the financial system is connected with functions, deposit and credit transactions, risks distribution and ensuring liquidity; banks act as a major factor in stabilisation measures in the current context of globalization processes, since the economic stability of banking activities relates directly to all the entities and only stable banking system can withstand the crisis phenomena. Therefore, as a result of the analysis, it is proved that not only reduction of risks of banks is needed, but also introduction of the effective supervision system over implementation of the requirements and standards to prevent these risks. According to modern international approaches, banks use the so-called prudential supervision, which is based on the risk management assessment policy on the part of the Bank’s management, and regulatory bodies contribute to implementation of such policy. The authors have concluded that not only modern specificity of banks, but also the impact of supervision systems and regulation of modern trends in development of the banking should be analysed. Application of the general regulatory principles and banking risks methodology is required. The task of supervision is distribution of reliable risk management practices in the banking system, taking into account national peculiarities of development.

  14. Banking industry liberalisation in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis A. Adjei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic liberalisation is characterised by the entry of foreign companies and the emergence of new domestic institutions to compete with the existing institutions of lending, and there is a view that the process leads to greater efficiency, especially because foreign banks bring new expertise. Extracting information from accounts lodged with Ghana Central Bank, this paper ranks the cost efficiency of banks, Theil decomposition of the cost efficiency scores allows for a comparison of performance between banks under different types of ownership. There is pronounced differences in efficiency scores within and between groups by type of ownership, but foreign ownership, per se, is not the determining factor.

  15. Process and barriers to organ donation and causes of brain death in northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Abdollah; Khaleghi, Ebrahim; Vakilzadeh, Ali Khorsand; Afzalaghaee, Monavar

    2017-02-01

    Organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for some diseases. However, the need for cadaveric organ donation has either plateaued or is on a decreasing trend in some countries, especially in developed ones. In this study, we aimed to identify the barriers to organ donation in brain dead patients, who were referred to the organ procurement organizations (OPO) in northeast Iran. In this cross-sectional study during 2006 to 2013, data were collected from medical records of brain dead patients. Demographic information, cause of brain death, the process of obtaining informed consent, and the reasons for declining organ donation were obtained from the OPO records. The data were analyzed using chi-square test by SPSS 13 software. Of 1034 brain dead patients, 751 cases (72.6%) were eligible for organ donation, and, ultimately, 344 cases underwent organ donation. The rate of organ donation increased during the course of the study; medical and legal reasons as well as family refusal to authorize donation were the main barriers to the process. Based on the pattern of mortality, the need for living donors in developing countries, such as Iran and other countries in the Mediterranean region, can be reduced by improving the quality of healthcare, efficient identification of brain death, and obtaining consent with appropriate strategies.

  16. Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... The findings of this study have motivated new recommendations for bank customers, bank management and shareholders with regard to electronic banking adoption for banking operations. Keywords: Electronic banking, returns on assets (ROA), returns on Equity (ROE), difference between means and ...

  17. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit Banks...

  18. Early specialization for voice and emotion processing in the infant brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasi, A.; Mercure, E.; Lloyd-Fox, S.; Thomson, A.; Brammer, M.; Sauter, D.; Deeley, Q.; Barker, G.J.; Renvall, V.; Deoni, S.; Gasston, D.; Williams, S.C.R.; Johnson, M.H.; Simmons, A.; Murphy, D.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Human voices play a fundamental role in social communication, and areas of the adult "social brain" show specialization for processing voices and their emotional content (superior temporal sulcus, inferior prefrontal cortex, premotor cortical regions, amygdala, and insula) [ [1], [2], [3], [4], [5],

  19. Self-Disorder and Brain Processing of Proprioception in Schizophrenia Spectrum Patients: A Re-Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M.; Raballo, Andrea; Mørup, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Background : Anomalies of self-awareness (self-disorders, SDs) are theorized to be basic to schizophrenia psychopathology. We have previously observed dysfunction of brain processing of proprioception in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SZS). We hypothesized that SDs could be associated with abn...

  20. Different Brains Process Numbers Differently: Structural Bases of Individual Differences in Spatial and Nonspatial Number Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, F.; Lindemann, O.; Toni, I.; Bekkering, H.

    2014-01-01

    A dominant hypothesis on how the brain processes numerical size proposes a spatial representation of numbers as positions on a "mental number line." An alternative hypothesis considers numbers as elements of a generalized representation of sensorimotor-related magnitude, which is not obligatorily

  1. Application of the Lean Office philosophy and mapping of the value stream in the process of designing the banking units of a financial company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Antônio Calsavara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to conduct a critical analysis of the effects of Lean Office on the design process of the banking units of a financial company and how the implementation of this philosophy may contribute to productivity, thus reducing implementation time. A literature review of the Toyota Production System was conducted, as well as studies on its methods, with advancement to lean thinking and consistent application of Lean philosophies in services and Office. A bibliographic and documentary survey of the Lean processes and procedures for opening bank branches was taken. A Current State Map was developed, modeling the current operating procedures. Soon after the identification and analysis of waste, proposals were presented for reducing deadlines and eliminating and grouping stages, with consequent development of the Future State Map, implementation and monitoring of stages, and the measurement of estimated time gains in operation, demonstrating an estimated 45% reduction, in days, from start to end of the process, concluding that the implementation of the Lean Office philosophy contributed to the process.

  2. Brain functional network connectivity based on a visual task: visual information processing-related brain regions are significantly activated in the task state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-li Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not clear whether the method used in functional brain-network related research can be applied to explore the feature binding mechanism of visual perception. In this study, we investigated feature binding of color and shape in visual perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 38 healthy volunteers at rest and while performing a visual perception task to construct brain networks active during resting and task states. Results showed that brain regions involved in visual information processing were obviously activated during the task. The components were partitioned using a greedy algorithm, indicating the visual network existed during the resting state. Z-values in the vision-related brain regions were calculated, confirming the dynamic balance of the brain network. Connectivity between brain regions was determined, and the result showed that occipital and lingual gyri were stable brain regions in the visual system network, the parietal lobe played a very important role in the binding process of color features and shape features, and the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were crucial for processing color and shape information. Experimental findings indicate that understanding visual feature binding and cognitive processes will help establish computational models of vision, improve image recognition technology, and provide a new theoretical mechanism for feature binding in visual perception.

  3. The functional highly sensitive brain: a review of the brain circuits underlying sensory processing sensitivity and seemingly related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Bianca; Aron, Elaine; Pospos, Sarah; Jessen, Dana

    2018-04-19

    During the past decade, research on the biological basis of sensory processing sensitivity (SPS)-a genetically based trait associated with greater sensitivity and responsivity to environmental and social stimuli-has burgeoned. As researchers try to characterize this trait, it is still unclear how SPS is distinct from seemingly related clinical disorders that have overlapping symptoms, such as sensitivity to the environment and hyper-responsiveness to incoming stimuli. Thus, in this review, we compare the neural regions implicated in SPS with those found in fMRI studies of-Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Schizophrenia (SZ) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) to elucidate the neural markers and cardinal features of SPS versus these seemingly related clinical disorders. We propose that SPS is a stable trait that is characterized by greater empathy, awareness, responsivity and depth of processing to salient stimuli. We conclude that SPS is distinct from ASD, SZ and PTSD in that in response to social and emotional stimuli, SPS differentially engages brain regions involved in reward processing, memory, physiological homeostasis, self-other processing, empathy and awareness. We suggest that this serves species survival via deep integration and memory for environmental and social information that may subserve well-being and cooperation.This article is part of the theme issue 'Diverse perspectives on diversity: multi-disciplinary approaches to taxonomies of individual differences'. © 2018 The Authors.

  4. Bank development; bank development efficiency; bank management; bank.

    OpenAIRE

    Самородов, Б. В.

    2014-01-01

    In the paper the theoretical research of determination of the essence of “management of bank financial development” is realized. The analysis is performed on the basis of substantial considering and comparing the philosophy and economical definitions of the components of its definition.

  5. Decoding Musical Training from Dynamic Processing of Musical Features in the Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saari, Pasi; Burunat, Iballa; Brattico, Elvira

    2018-01-01

    Pattern recognition on neural activations from naturalistic music listening has been successful at predicting neural responses of listeners from musical features, and vice versa. Inter-subject differences in the decoding accuracies have arisen partly from musical training that has widely recognized...... structural and functional effects on the brain. We propose and evaluate a decoding approach aimed at predicting the musicianship class of an individual listener from dynamic neural processing of musical features. Whole brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data was acquired from musicians...... influenced by listeners' musical training. The study demonstrates the feasibility to decode musicianship from how individual brains listen to music, attaining accuracy comparable to current results from automated clinical diagnosis of neurological and psychological disorders....

  6. Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eClouard

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-HMPAO further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow (CBF changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e. pleasure evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation.

  7. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  8. [Lean thinking and brain-dead patient assistance in the organ donation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Aline Lima; dos Santos, José Luís Guedes; Erdmann, Rolf Hermann; da Silva, Elza Lima; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2013-02-01

    Organ donation is a complex process that challenges health system professionals and managers. This study aimed to introduce a theoretical model to organize brain-dead patient assistance and the organ donation process guided by the main lean thinking ideas, which enable production improvement through planning cycles and the development of a proper environment for successful implementation. Lean thinking may make the process of organ donation more effective and efficient and may contribute to improvements in information systematization and professional qualifications for excellence of assistance. The model is configured as a reference that is available for validation and implementation by health and nursing professionals and managers in the management of potential organ donors after brain death assistance and subsequent transplantation demands.

  9. Intention processing in communication: a common brain network for language and gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrici, Ivan; Adenzato, Mauro; Cappa, Stefano; Bara, Bruno G; Tettamanti, Marco

    2011-09-01

    Human communicative competence is based on the ability to process a specific class of mental states, namely, communicative intention. The present fMRI study aims to analyze whether intention processing in communication is affected by the expressive means through which a communicative intention is conveyed, that is, the linguistic or extralinguistic gestural means. Combined factorial and conjunction analyses were used to test two sets of predictions: first, that a common brain network is recruited for the comprehension of communicative intentions independently of the modality through which they are conveyed; second, that additional brain areas are specifically recruited depending on the communicative modality used, reflecting distinct sensorimotor gateways. Our results clearly showed that a common neural network is engaged in communicative intention processing independently of the modality used. This network includes the precuneus, the left and right posterior STS and TPJ, and the medial pFC. Additional brain areas outside those involved in intention processing are specifically engaged by the particular communicative modality, that is, a peri-sylvian language network for the linguistic modality and a sensorimotor network for the extralinguistic modality. Thus, common representation of communicative intention may be accessed by modality-specific gateways, which are distinct for linguistic versus extralinguistic expressive means. Taken together, our results indicate that the information acquired by different communicative modalities is equivalent from a mental processing standpoint, in particular, at the point at which the actor's communicative intention has to be reconstructed.

  10. Thalamic Multisensory integration: Creating a neural network map of involved brain areas in music perception, processing and execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaschke, A.C.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Music activates a wide array of neural areas involved in different functions besides the perception, processing and execution of music itself. Understanding musical processes in the brain has had multiple implications in the neuro- and health sciences. Engaging the brain with a multisensory stimulus

  11. Phenomenon of Swiss banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Swiss banking is a 'generic name' for a system based on private banking and banking secrecy. In the introductory chapter we highlight the difference between Swiss banking and banking in the Switzerland's system. In the second chapter we present a more detailed description of the institution of banking secrecy, while in the third chapter we present the exceptions to it. The fourth chapter elaborates on the present and the future of Swiss banking. It is argued whether in the present circumstances banking secrecy has become disruptive to the further development of both Swiss banking and banking in Switzerland and whether Swiss banking will come to an end in the future.

  12. Prioritization of the Factors Affecting Bank Efficiency Using Combined Data Envelopment Analysis and Analytical Hierarchy Process Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Fallah Jelodar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bank branches have a vital role in the economy of all countries. They collect assets from various sources and put them in the hand of those sectors that need liquidity. Due to the limited financial and human resources and capitals and also because of the unlimited and new customers’ needs and strong competition between banks and financial and credit institutions, the purpose of this study is to provide an answer to the question of which of the factors affecting performance, creating value, and increasing shareholder dividends are superior to others and consequently managers should pay more attention to them. Therefore, in this study, the factors affecting performance (efficiency in the areas of management, personnel, finance, and customers were segmented and obtained results were ranked using both methods of Data Envelopment Analysis and hierarchical analysis. In both of these methods, the leadership style in the area of management; the recruitment and resource allocation in the area of financing; the employees’ satisfaction, dignity, and self-actualization in the area of employees; and meeting the new needs of customers got more weights.

  13. Brain regions for sound processing and song release in a small grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balvantray Bhavsar, Mit; Stumpner, Andreas; Heinrich, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    We investigated brain regions - mostly neuropils - that process auditory information relevant for the initiation of response songs of female grasshoppers Chorthippus biguttulus during bidirectional intraspecific acoustic communication. Male-female acoustic duets in the species Ch. biguttulus require the perception of sounds, their recognition as a species- and gender-specific signal and the initiation of commands that activate thoracic pattern generating circuits to drive the sound-producing stridulatory movements of the hind legs. To study sensory-to-motor processing during acoustic communication we used multielectrodes that allowed simultaneous recordings of acoustically stimulated electrical activity from several ascending auditory interneurons or local brain neurons and subsequent electrical stimulation of the recording site. Auditory activity was detected in the lateral protocerebrum (where most of the described ascending auditory interneurons terminate), in the superior medial protocerebrum and in the central complex, that has previously been implicated in the control of sound production. Neural responses to behaviorally attractive sound stimuli showed no or only poor correlation with behavioral responses. Current injections into the lateral protocerebrum, the central complex and the deuto-/tritocerebrum (close to the cerebro-cervical fascicles), but not into the superior medial protocerebrum, elicited species-typical stridulation with high success rate. Latencies and numbers of phrases produced by electrical stimulation were different between these brain regions. Our results indicate three brain regions (likely neuropils) where auditory activity can be detected with two of these regions being potentially involved in song initiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intelligent Technique for Signal Processing to Identify the Brain Disorder for Epilepsy Captures Using Fuzzy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurumurthy Sasikumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The new direction of understand the signal that is created from the brain organization is one of the main chores in the brain signal processing. Amid all the neurological disorders the human brain epilepsy is measured as one of the extreme prevalent and then programmed artificial intelligence detection technique is an essential due to the crooked and unpredictable nature of happening of epileptic seizures. We proposed an Improved Fuzzy firefly algorithm, which would enhance the classification of the brain signal efficiently with minimum iteration. An important bunching technique created on fuzzy logic is the Fuzzy C means. Together in the feature domain with the spatial domain the features gained after multichannel EEG signals remained combined by means of fuzzy algorithms. And for better precision segmentation process the firefly algorithm is applied to optimize the Fuzzy C-means membership function. Simultaneously for the efficient clustering method the convergence criteria are set. On the whole the proposed technique yields more accurate results and that gives an edge over other techniques. This proposed algorithm result compared with other algorithms like fuzzy c means algorithm and PSO algorithm.

  15. QbD approach to investigate product and process variabilities for brain targeting liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Nahid; Cutie, Anthony J; Habib, Muhammad J; Zidan, Ahmed S

    2014-10-13

    Abstract Efficacy of central nervous system-acting medications is limited by its localization and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB); therefore, the crux is in designing delivery systems targeted to cross the BBB. Toward this objective, this study proposed pegylated and glycosylated citalopram hydrobromide (Cit-HBr) liposomes as a delivery approach for brain targeting. The multicomponent liposomes were evaluated for drug encapsulation, vesicular size, size distribution, conductivity and drug release characteristics. Moreover, the interaction among the employed components was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetric and X-ray diffraction analysis. Through a systematic screening design of formulation and process variables in the optimization phase, an improvement of Cit-HBr loading, fine vesicular size with narrow size distribution, greater stability and sustained release features were achieved. The compatibility studies unveiled a significant interaction between Cit-HBr and dicetyl phosphate to control drug encapsulation and release properties. The optimization process showed a minimal range of design space to achieve the preset desirability; more precisely dicetyl phosphate, polyethylene glycol, N-acetyl glucosamine and freeze-thaw cycles of 3%, 5%, 4% and 2 cycles, respectively, were used. Using brain endothelial cell models, the optimized formulations showed an acceptable cell viability with preserved monolayer integrity and an enhanced flux and permeability. Thus, this study has proposed an optimized pegylated and glycosylated vector that is a promising step for brain targeting.

  16. Brain training game boosts executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Nouchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age and a popular puzzle game (Tetris. Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the healthy young adults. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields

  17. Brain training game boosts executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Kambara, Toshimune; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking) randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age) and a popular puzzle game (Tetris). Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability). Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed) in the healthy young adults. Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000005618.

  18. Brain function differences in language processing in children and adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Diane L; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Mason, Robert A; Keller, Timothy A; Minshew, Nancy J; Just, Marcel Adam

    2013-08-01

    Comparison of brain function between children and adults with autism provides an understanding of the effects of the disorder and associated maturational differences on language processing. Functional imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) was used to examine brain activation and cortical synchronization during the processing of literal and ironic texts in 15 children with autism, 14 children with typical development, 13 adults with autism, and 12 adult controls. Both the children and adults with autism had lower functional connectivity (synchronization of brain activity among activated areas) than their age and ability comparison group in the left hemisphere language network during irony processing, and neither autism group had an increase in functional connectivity in response to increased task demands. Activation differences for the literal and irony conditions occurred in key language-processing regions (left middle temporal, left pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, left medial frontal, and right middle temporal). The children and adults with autism differed from each other in the use of some brain regions during the irony task, with the adults with autism having activation levels similar to those of the control groups. Overall, the children and adults with autism differed from the adult and child controls in (a) the degree of network coordination, (b) the distribution of the workload among member nodes, and (3) the dynamic recruitment of regions in response to text content. Moreover, the differences between the two autism age groups may be indicative of positive changes in the neural function related to language processing associated with maturation and/or educational experience. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Expertise in folk music alters the brain processing of Western harmony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, M; Tupala, T; Brattico, E

    2012-04-01

    In various paradigms of modern neurosciences of music, experts of Western classical music have displayed superior brain architecture when compared with individuals without explicit training in music. In this paper, we show that chord violations embedded in musical cadences were neurally processed in a facilitated manner also by musicians trained in Finnish folk music. This result, obtained by using early right anterior negativity (ERAN) as an index of harmony processing, suggests that tonal processing is advanced in folk musicians by their long-term exposure to both Western and non-Western music. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Using stochastic language models (SLM) to map lexical, syntactic, and phonological information processing in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopopolo, Alessandro; Frank, Stefan L; van den Bosch, Antal; Willems, Roel M

    2017-01-01

    Language comprehension involves the simultaneous processing of information at the phonological, syntactic, and lexical level. We track these three distinct streams of information in the brain by using stochastic measures derived from computational language models to detect neural correlates of phoneme, part-of-speech, and word processing in an fMRI experiment. Probabilistic language models have proven to be useful tools for studying how language is processed as a sequence of symbols unfolding in time. Conditional probabilities between sequences of words are at the basis of probabilistic measures such as surprisal and perplexity which have been successfully used as predictors of several behavioural and neural correlates of sentence processing. Here we computed perplexity from sequences of words and their parts of speech, and their phonemic transcriptions. Brain activity time-locked to each word is regressed on the three model-derived measures. We observe that the brain keeps track of the statistical structure of lexical, syntactic and phonological information in distinct areas.

  1. A resource for assessing information processing in the developing brain using EEG and eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Nicolas; Ho, Erica J; Alexander, Lindsay M; Xu, Helen Y; Jozanovic, Renee K; Henin, Simon; Petroni, Agustin; Cohen, Samantha; Marcelle, Enitan T; Parra, Lucas C; Milham, Michael P; Kelly, Simon P

    2017-04-11

    We present a dataset combining electrophysiology and eye tracking intended as a resource for the investigation of information processing in the developing brain. The dataset includes high-density task-based and task-free EEG, eye tracking, and cognitive and behavioral data collected from 126 individuals (ages: 6-44). The task battery spans both the simple/complex and passive/active dimensions to cover a range of approaches prevalent in modern cognitive neuroscience. The active task paradigms facilitate principled deconstruction of core components of task performance in the developing brain, whereas the passive paradigms permit the examination of intrinsic functional network activity during varying amounts of external stimulation. Alongside these neurophysiological data, we include an abbreviated cognitive test battery and questionnaire-based measures of psychiatric functioning. We hope that this dataset will lead to the development of novel assays of neural processes fundamental to information processing, which can be used to index healthy brain development as well as detect pathologic processes.

  2. Creative thinking as orchestrated by semantic processing versus cognitive control brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eAbraham

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is primarily investigated within the neuroscientific perspective as a unitary construct. While such an approach is beneficial when trying to infer the general picture regarding creativity and brain function, it is insufficient if the objective is to uncover the information processing brain mechanisms by which creativity occurs. As creative thinking emerges through the dynamic interplay between several cognitive processes, assessing the neural correlates of these operations would enable the development and characterization of an information processing framework from which to better understand this complex ability. This article focuses on two aspects of creative cognition that are central to generating original ideas. Conceptual expansion refers to the ability to widen one’s conceptual structures to include unusual or novel associations, while overcoming knowledge constraints refers to our ability to override the constraining influence imposed by salient or pertinent knowledge when trying to be creative. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence is presented to illustrate how semantic processing and cognitive control networks in the brain differentially modulate these critical facets of creative cognition.

  3. Brain processing of visual sexual stimuli in healthy men: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouras, Harold; Stoléru, Serge; Bittoun, Jacques; Glutron, Dominique; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Paradis, Anne-Lise; Burnod, Yves

    2003-10-01

    The brain plays a central role in sexual motivation. To identify cerebral areas whose activation was correlated with sexual desire, eight healthy male volunteers were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Visual stimuli were sexually stimulating photographs (S condition) and emotionally neutral photographs (N condition). Subjective responses pertaining to sexual desire were recorded after each condition. To image the entire brain, separate runs focused on the upper and the lower parts of the brain. Statistical Parametric Mapping was used for data analysis. Subjective ratings confirmed that sexual pictures effectively induced sexual arousal. In the S condition compared to the N condition, a group analysis conducted on the upper part of the brain demonstrated an increased signal in the parietal lobes (superior parietal lobules, left intraparietal sulcus, left inferior parietal lobule, and right postcentral gyrus), the right parietooccipital sulcus, the left superior occipital gyrus, and the precentral gyri. In addition, a decreased signal was recorded in the right posterior cingulate gyrus and the left precuneus. In individual analyses conducted on the lower part of the brain, an increased signal was found in the right and/or left middle occipital gyrus in seven subjects, and in the right and/or left fusiform gyrus in six subjects. In conclusion, fMRI allows to identify brain responses to visual sexual stimuli. Among activated regions in the S condition, parietal areas are known to be involved in attentional processes directed toward motivationally relevant stimuli, while frontal premotor areas have been implicated in motor preparation and motor imagery. Further work is needed to identify those specific features of the neural responses that distinguish sexual desire from other emotional and motivational states.

  4. An Event-related Brain Potential Study of English Morphosyntactic Processing in Japanese Learners of English

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuta, Natsuko

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the neural mechanisms underlying English morphosyntactic processing in Case, subject-verb agreement, and past tense inflection in Japanese learners of English (JLEs) using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in terms of the effects of the age of second language (L2) acquisition (the age of learning English), L2 proficiency level (the English proficiency level), and native/first language (L1) transfer. Researchers have debated for a number of years the question...

  5. Tau Processing by Mural Cells in Traumatic Brain Injury and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Henkel JS, Appel SH and Zlokovic BV. Blood- spinal cord barrier breakdown and pericyte reductions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Acta Neuropathol 125...TBI (r-mTBI) and determine the contribution of these cells to the tau pathology associated with head trauma . Consistent with other neurodegenerative...in mural cell expression and functional tau processing in the context of brain trauma . Furthermore, mural cell expression is reduced in Alzheimer’s

  6. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  7. Reward sensitivity is associated with brain activity during erotic stimulus processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Costumero

    Full Text Available The behavioral approach system (BAS from Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory is a neurobehavioral system involved in the processing of rewarding stimuli that has been related to dopaminergic brain areas. Gray's theory hypothesizes that the functioning of reward brain areas is modulated by BAS-related traits. To test this hypothesis, we performed an fMRI study where participants viewed erotic and neutral pictures, and cues that predicted their appearance. Forty-five heterosexual men completed the Sensitivity to Reward scale (from the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire to measure BAS-related traits. Results showed that Sensitivity to Reward scores correlated positively with brain activity during reactivity to erotic pictures in the left orbitofrontal cortex, left insula, and right ventral striatum. These results demonstrated a relationship between the BAS and reward sensitivity during the processing of erotic stimuli, filling the gap of previous reports that identified the dopaminergic system as a neural substrate for the BAS during the processing of other rewarding stimuli such as money and food.

  8. Identity transition following traumatic brain injury: a dynamic process of contraction, expansion and tentative balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchberger, Heidi; Kendall, Elizabeth; Neal, Ronita

    2008-11-01

    The study aimed to understand turning points and processes that define the experience of identity change for individuals with brain injury. The current study applied an interpretive qualitative research design using a phenomenological approach. Qualitative 'life-story' interviewing was undertaken to explore the natural course of identity following TBI and a critical incident technique was applied to systematically examine key milestones. A purposive sample of six individuals with brain injury who represented a successive range of post-injury time frames (1-2 years, 2-5 years, 5-10 years, 10-15 years, 15-20 years and 25+ years) participated in the interviews. Qualitative analysis indicated that identity transition was characterized by a dynamic and convoluted process of contraction, expansion and tentative balance. The influence of subjective processes on the development of identity highlights the inadequacy of fragmented approaches when exploring the individual experience. Findings from this study have important implications for the delivery of person-focused rehabilitation and remind one to consider with caution the usual indicators of adjustment that are often applied to brain injury rehabilitation.

  9. Development of Si Double-Sided Microelectrode for Platform of Brain Signal Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Risato; Kanno, Soichiro; Sanghoon, Lee; Jicheol, Bea; Fukushima, Takafumi; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Katayama, Norihiro; Mushiake, Hajime; Tanaka, Tetsu; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa

    2009-04-01

    We have proposed a new implantable neural recording system, which we call the brain signal processing system (BSPS). In this system, LSI chips such as amplifiers, analog-to-digital converters, and multiplexers are integrated on the Si microelectrode array. To analyze the brain functions or to develop medical treatments for brain disorders, a high-density recording of action potentials is strongly required. To realize high-density recording of action potentials, we propose a novel Si double-sided microelectrode that has recording sites on both front and back sides. The back-side recording sites are connected to a recording apparatus by wire bonding through Si via holes. We fabricated the carefully designed Si double-sided microelectrode and evaluated the electrical characteristics of the Si microelectrode. The front- and back-side recording sites had impedance values of 2.5 and 2.7 MΩ at 1 kHz, respectively, which indicated that both recording sites have equivalent characteristics. An in vitro experiment of neuronal action potential recording using the fabricated Si double-sided microelectrode was performed. The CA1 areas of 400-µm-thick hippocampal slices obtained from the brains of guinea pigs were employed, and we successfully recorded neuronal action potentials from the recording sites of both sides.

  10. A Derangement of the Brain Wound Healing Process May Cause Some Cases of Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, Steven; Rheinstein, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    A derangement of brain wound healing may cause some cases of Alzheimer’s disease. Wound healing, a highly complex process, has four stages: hemostasis, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. Hemostasis and the initial phases of inflammation in brain tissue are typical of all vascularized tissue, such as skin. However, distinct differences arise in brain tissue during the later stages of inflammation, repair, and remodeling, and closely parallel the changes of Alzheimer’s disease. Our hypothesi...

  11. Phenomenon of Swiss banking

    OpenAIRE

    Milenković Ivan; Milenković Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Swiss banking is a 'generic name' for a system based on private banking and banking secrecy. In the introductory chapter we highlight the difference between Swiss banking and banking in the Switzerland's system. In the second chapter we present a more detailed description of the institution of banking secrecy, while in the third chapter we present the exceptions to it. The fourth chapter elaborates on the present and the future of Swiss banking. It is argued whether in the present circumstanc...

  12. Effects of visual working memory on brain information processing of irrelevant auditory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jiagui; Rizak, Joshua D; Zhao, Lun; Li, Minghong; Ma, Yuanye

    2014-01-01

    Selective attention has traditionally been viewed as a sensory processing modulator that promotes cognitive processing efficiency by favoring relevant stimuli while inhibiting irrelevant stimuli. However, the cross-modal processing of irrelevant information during working memory (WM) has been rarely investigated. In this study, the modulation of irrelevant auditory information by the brain during a visual WM task was investigated. The N100 auditory evoked potential (N100-AEP) following an auditory click was used to evaluate the selective attention to auditory stimulus during WM processing and at rest. N100-AEP amplitudes were found to be significantly affected in the left-prefrontal, mid-prefrontal, right-prefrontal, left-frontal, and mid-frontal regions while performing a high WM load task. In contrast, no significant differences were found between N100-AEP amplitudes in WM states and rest states under a low WM load task in all recorded brain regions. Furthermore, no differences were found between the time latencies of N100-AEP troughs in WM states and rest states while performing either the high or low WM load task. These findings suggested that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may integrate information from different sensory channels to protect perceptual integrity during cognitive processing.

  13. Effects of visual working memory on brain information processing of irrelevant auditory stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiagui Qu

    Full Text Available Selective attention has traditionally been viewed as a sensory processing modulator that promotes cognitive processing efficiency by favoring relevant stimuli while inhibiting irrelevant stimuli. However, the cross-modal processing of irrelevant information during working memory (WM has been rarely investigated. In this study, the modulation of irrelevant auditory information by the brain during a visual WM task was investigated. The N100 auditory evoked potential (N100-AEP following an auditory click was used to evaluate the selective attention to auditory stimulus during WM processing and at rest. N100-AEP amplitudes were found to be significantly affected in the left-prefrontal, mid-prefrontal, right-prefrontal, left-frontal, and mid-frontal regions while performing a high WM load task. In contrast, no significant differences were found between N100-AEP amplitudes in WM states and rest states under a low WM load task in all recorded brain regions. Furthermore, no differences were found between the time latencies of N100-AEP troughs in WM states and rest states while performing either the high or low WM load task. These findings suggested that the prefrontal cortex (PFC may integrate information from different sensory channels to protect perceptual integrity during cognitive processing.

  14. Is there a degenerative process going on in the brain of people with schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn Rund

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a biological and behavioural disorder which manifests itself in neurocognitive dysfunctions. The question of whether these key characteristics of the disorder are due to schizophrenia being a degenerative disorder has been discussed for more than 100 years. Neuropsychological data indicate that neurocognitive functions are relatively stable over time after illness onset. Several studies show that there is a decline in neurocognitive functioning prior to and in connection with onset of illness. There is no convincing evidence, however, that there is a progressive neurodegenerative process after onset of illness. Morphological data, on the other hand, indicate a degenerative process. Several novel longitudinal studies indicate a rapid reduction of vital brain tissues after onset of illness. In this paper some ideas about compensatory reactions and Cognitive Reserve Theory is outlined as possible explanations of the recent MR studies that show structural changes in the brain after the onset of schizophrenia, at the same time as cognitive functioning does not become more impaired. Determining whether schizophrenia is a neurodegenerative illness with progressive structural changes in the brain after debut of the illness, or a neurodevelopmental disorder starting in early life, is of significant importance for understanding the pathophysiology of the illness and its treatments.

  15. Basic emotion processing and the adolescent brain: Task demands, analytic approaches, and trajectories of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa B. Del Piero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early neuroimaging studies suggested that adolescents show initial development in brain regions linked with emotional reactivity, but slower development in brain structures linked with emotion regulation. However, the increased sophistication of adolescent brain research has made this picture more complex. This review examines functional neuroimaging studies that test for differences in basic emotion processing (reactivity and regulation between adolescents and either children or adults. We delineated different emotional processing demands across the experimental paradigms in the reviewed studies to synthesize the diverse results. The methods for assessing change (i.e., analytical approach and cohort characteristics (e.g., age range were also explored as potential factors influencing study results. Few unifying dimensions were found to successfully distill the results of the reviewed studies. However, this review highlights the potential impact of subtle methodological and analytic differences between studies, need for standardized and theory-driven experimental paradigms, and necessity of analytic approaches that are can adequately test the trajectories of developmental change that have recently been proposed. Recommendations for future research highlight connectivity analyses and non-linear developmental trajectories, which appear to be promising approaches for measuring change across adolescence. Recommendations are made for evaluating gender and biological markers of development beyond chronological age.

  16. Common and distinct brain regions processing multisensory bodily signals for peripersonal space and body ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivaz, Petr; Blanke, Olaf; Serino, Andrea

    2017-02-15

    We take the feeling that our body belongs to us for granted. However, recent research has shown that it is possible to alter the subjective sensation of body ownership (BO) by manipulating multisensory bodily inputs. Several frontal and parietal regions are known to specifically process multisensory cues presented close to the body, i.e., within the peripersonal space (PPS). It has been proposed that these PPS fronto-parietal regions also underlie BO. However, most previous studies investigated the brain mechanisms of either BO or of PPS processing separately and by using a variety of paradigms. Here, we conducted an extensive meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to investigate PPS and BO processing in humans in order to: a) assess quantitatively where each one of these functions was individually processed in the brain; b) identify whether and where these processes shared common or engaged distinct brain mechanisms; c) characterize these areas in terms of whole-brain co-activation networks and functions, respectively. We identified (i) a bilateral PPS network including superior parietal, temporo-parietal and ventral premotor regions and (ii) a BO network including posterior parietal cortex (right intraparietal sulcus, IPS; and left IPS and superior parietal lobule, SPL), right ventral premotor cortex, and the left anterior insula. Co-activation maps related to both PPS and BO encompassed largely overlapping fronto-parietal networks, but whereas the PPS network was more frequently associated with sensorimotor tasks, the BO network was rather associated with attention and awareness tasks. Finally, the conjunction analysis showed that (iii) PPS and BO tasks anatomically overlapped only in two clusters located in the left parietal cortex (dorsally at the intersection between the SPL, the IPS and area 2 and ventrally between areas 2 and IPS). Distinct activations were located for PPS at the temporo-parietal junction and for BO in the anterior insula. These

  17. Qualitative and quantitative cell recovery in umbilical cord blood processed by two automated devices in routine cord blood banking: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solves, Pilar; Planelles, Dolores; Mirabet, Vicente; Blanquer, Amando; Carbonell-Uberos, Francisco

    2013-07-01

    Volume reduction is a widely used procedure in umbilical cord blood banking. It concentrates progenitor cells by reducing plasma and red blood cells, thereby optimising the use of storage space. Sepax and AXP are automated systems specifically developed for umbilical cord blood processing. These systems basically consist of a bag processing set into which cord blood is transferred and a device that automatically separates the different components during centrifugation. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare cell recovery of umbilical cord blood units processed with Sepax and AXP at Valencia Cord Blood Bank. Cell counts were performed before and after volume reduction with AXP and Sepax. When analysing all the data (n =1,000 for AXP and n= 670 for Sepax), the percentages of total nucleated cell recovery and red blood cell depletion were 76.76 ± 7.51% and 88.28 ± 5.62%, respectively, for AXP and 78.81 ± 7.25% and 88.32 ± 7.94%, respectively, for Sepax (P recovery and viability in umbilical cord blood units were similar with both devices. Mononuclear cell recovery was significantly higher when the Sepax system was used. Both the Sepax and AXP automated systems achieve acceptable total nucleated cell recovery and good CD34(+) cell recovery after volume reduction of umbilical cord blood units and maintain cell viability. It should be noted that total nucleated cell recovery is significantly better with the Sepax system. Both systems deplete red blood cells efficiently, especially AXP which works without hydroxyethyl starch.

  18. Bayesian Optimization for Neuroimaging Pre-processing in Brain Age Classification and Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jenessa; Lorenz, Romy; Leech, Rob; Cole, James H

    2018-01-01

    Neuroimaging-based age prediction using machine learning is proposed as a biomarker of brain aging, relating to cognitive performance, health outcomes and progression of neurodegenerative disease. However, even leading age-prediction algorithms contain measurement error, motivating efforts to improve experimental pipelines. T1-weighted MRI is commonly used for age prediction, and the pre-processing of these scans involves normalization to a common template and resampling to a common voxel size, followed by spatial smoothing. Resampling parameters are often selected arbitrarily. Here, we sought to improve brain-age prediction accuracy by optimizing resampling parameters using Bayesian optimization. Using data on N = 2003 healthy individuals (aged 16-90 years) we trained support vector machines to (i) distinguish between young (50 years) brains (classification) and (ii) predict chronological age (regression). We also evaluated generalisability of the age-regression model to an independent dataset (CamCAN, N = 648, aged 18-88 years). Bayesian optimization was used to identify optimal voxel size and smoothing kernel size for each task. This procedure adaptively samples the parameter space to evaluate accuracy across a range of possible parameters, using independent sub-samples to iteratively assess different parameter combinations to arrive at optimal values. When distinguishing between young and old brains a classification accuracy of 88.1% was achieved, (optimal voxel size = 11.5 mm 3 , smoothing kernel = 2.3 mm). For predicting chronological age, a mean absolute error (MAE) of 5.08 years was achieved, (optimal voxel size = 3.73 mm 3 , smoothing kernel = 3.68 mm). This was compared to performance using default values of 1.5 mm 3 and 4mm respectively, resulting in MAE = 5.48 years, though this 7.3% improvement was not statistically significant. When assessing generalisability, best performance was achieved when applying the entire Bayesian optimization framework to

  19. Bayesian Optimization for Neuroimaging Pre-processing in Brain Age Classification and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenessa Lancaster

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging-based age prediction using machine learning is proposed as a biomarker of brain aging, relating to cognitive performance, health outcomes and progression of neurodegenerative disease. However, even leading age-prediction algorithms contain measurement error, motivating efforts to improve experimental pipelines. T1-weighted MRI is commonly used for age prediction, and the pre-processing of these scans involves normalization to a common template and resampling to a common voxel size, followed by spatial smoothing. Resampling parameters are often selected arbitrarily. Here, we sought to improve brain-age prediction accuracy by optimizing resampling parameters using Bayesian optimization. Using data on N = 2003 healthy individuals (aged 16–90 years we trained support vector machines to (i distinguish between young (<22 years and old (>50 years brains (classification and (ii predict chronological age (regression. We also evaluated generalisability of the age-regression model to an independent dataset (CamCAN, N = 648, aged 18–88 years. Bayesian optimization was used to identify optimal voxel size and smoothing kernel size for each task. This procedure adaptively samples the parameter space to evaluate accuracy across a range of possible parameters, using independent sub-samples to iteratively assess different parameter combinations to arrive at optimal values. When distinguishing between young and old brains a classification accuracy of 88.1% was achieved, (optimal voxel size = 11.5 mm3, smoothing kernel = 2.3 mm. For predicting chronological age, a mean absolute error (MAE of 5.08 years was achieved, (optimal voxel size = 3.73 mm3, smoothing kernel = 3.68 mm. This was compared to performance using default values of 1.5 mm3 and 4mm respectively, resulting in MAE = 5.48 years, though this 7.3% improvement was not statistically significant. When assessing generalisability, best performance was achieved when applying the entire Bayesian

  20. A Comprehensive Wiring Diagram of the Protocerebral Bridge for Visual Information Processing in the Drosophila Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yung Lin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available How the brain perceives sensory information and generates meaningful behavior depends critically on its underlying circuitry. The protocerebral bridge (PB is a major part of the insect central complex (CX, a premotor center that may be analogous to the human basal ganglia. Here, by deconstructing hundreds of PB single neurons and reconstructing them into a common three-dimensional framework, we have constructed a comprehensive map of PB circuits with labeled polarity and predicted directions of information flow. Our analysis reveals a highly ordered information processing system that involves directed information flow among CX subunits through 194 distinct PB neuron types. Circuitry properties such as mirroring, convergence, divergence, tiling, reverberation, and parallel signal propagation were observed; their functional and evolutional significance is discussed. This layout of PB neuronal circuitry may provide guidelines for further investigations on transformation of sensory (e.g., visual input into locomotor commands in fly brains.

  1. Classification of normal and pathological aging processes based on brain MRI morphology measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gonzalez, J. L.; Yanez-Suarez, O.; Medina-Bañuelos, V.

    2014-03-01

    Reported studies describing normal and abnormal aging based on anatomical MRI analysis do not consider morphological brain changes, but only volumetric measures to distinguish among these processes. This work presents a classification scheme, based both on size and shape features extracted from brain volumes, to determine different aging stages: healthy control (HC) adults, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three support vector machines were optimized and validated for the pair-wise separation of these three classes, using selected features from a set of 3D discrete compactness measures and normalized volumes of several global and local anatomical structures. Our analysis show classification rates of up to 98.3% between HC and AD; of 85% between HC and MCI and of 93.3% for MCI and AD separation. These results outperform those reported in the literature and demonstrate the viability of the proposed morphological indexes to classify different aging stages.

  2. Amplified Brain Processing of Dentoalveolar Pressure Stimulus in Persistent Dentoalveolar Pain Disorder Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moana-Filho, Estephan J.; Bereiter, David A.; Nixdorf, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    activations were still present for PDAP patients compared to controls, although to a lesser extent. Conclusion The present results suggest that dentoalveolar pressure is processed differently in the brain of PDAP patients, and the increased activation in several brain areas is consistent with amplified pain processing. PMID:26485382

  3. Multiple asynchronous stimulus- and task-dependent hierarchies (STDH) within the visual brain's parallel processing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki, Semir

    2016-10-01

    Results from a variety of sources, some many years old, lead ineluctably to a re-appraisal of the twin strategies of hierarchical and parallel processing used by the brain to construct an image of the visual world. Contrary to common supposition, there are at least three 'feed-forward' anatomical hierarchies that reach the primary visual cortex (V1) and the specialized visual areas outside it, in parallel. These anatomical hierarchies do not conform to the temporal order with which visual signals reach the specialized visual areas through V1. Furthermore, neither the anatomical hierarchies nor the temporal order of activation through V1 predict the perceptual hierarchies. The latter shows that we see (and become aware of) different visual attributes at different times, with colour leading form (orientation) and directional visual motion, even though signals from fast-moving, high-contrast stimuli are among the earliest to reach the visual cortex (of area V5). Parallel processing, on the other hand, is much more ubiquitous than commonly supposed but is subject to a barely noticed but fundamental aspect of brain operations, namely that different parallel systems operate asynchronously with respect to each other and reach perceptual endpoints at different times. This re-assessment leads to the conclusion that the visual brain is constituted of multiple, parallel and asynchronously operating task- and stimulus-dependent hierarchies (STDH); which of these parallel anatomical hierarchies have temporal and perceptual precedence at any given moment is stimulus and task related, and dependent on the visual brain's ability to undertake multiple operations asynchronously. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Transformation of the Polish Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Stefański

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the post-war period the banking system in Poland underwent two important system transitions: after 1946 and after 1989. The third transformation began after May 1, 2004, but it did not have a systemic character. The Polish banking sector started to operate on the Single European Market. The first part of the paper is devoted to the problems of the banks transformations after 1989 with a special focus on the quantitative development of banks in 19892008, and on subsequent privatisation and consolidation processes. The former intensified in 19891999, and the latter in 19992002. The consolidation process was very noticeable in the sector of cooperative banks after 1994. The second part of the paper includes an economic and financial analysis of the banks. A lot of attention was paid to the liquidity of the banking sector. It was assessed as good, which was confirmed by a short-term rating of Moodys and by the Financial Stability Report 2009, published by the National Bank of Poland in June 2009. The comparison of the net profit of the banking sector in 19972008 shows its dependence on the economic situation and policy. The number of banks with capital adequacy ratio well above the minimum required by the banking supervision is rising. The financial power ratings are not favorable for the domestic banks. The third part of the paper focuses on the development directions of the Polish banking sector. It may be concluded on the basis of the analysis that privatisation and consolidation processes will be continued. They will concentrate on the capital of foreign banks already operating in Poland. As compared with individual foreign banks, the potential of the Polish banking sector is week. The fourth part of the paper focuses on the presentation Polish banking sector in the context of European Union banking sector. The paper finishes with conclusions. Generally, Polish banks have to implement a strategy to enable them to compete on the Single

  5. Banking system trust, bank trust, and bank loyalty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esterik-Plasmeijer, P.; van Raaij, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test a model of banking system trust as an antecedent of bank trust and bank loyalty. Six determinants of trust and loyalty are included: competence, stability, integrity, customer orientation, transparency, and value congruence. The study provides insights

  6. Elevated-temperature-induced acceleration of PACT clearing process of mouse brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Zhu, Jingtan; Xu, Jianyi; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Tissue optical clearing technique shows a great potential for neural imaging with high resolution, especially for connectomics in brain. The passive clarity technique (PACT) is a relative simple clearing method based on incubation, which has a great advantage on tissue transparency, fluorescence preservation and immunostaining compatibility for imaging tissue blocks. However, this method suffers from long processing time. Previous studies indicated that increasing temperature can speed up the clearing. In this work, we aim to systematacially and quantitatively study this influence based on PACT with graded increase of temperatures. We investigated the process of optical clearing of brain tissue block at different temperatures, and found that elevated temperature could accelerate the clearing process and also had influence on the fluorescence intensity. By balancing the advantages with drawbacks, we conclude that 42–47 °C is an alternative temperature range for PACT, which can not only produce faster clearing process, but also retain the original advantages of PACT by preserving endogenous fluorescence well, achieving fine morphology maintenance and immunostaining compatibility. PMID:28139694

  7. Functional and dysfunctional brain circuits underlying emotional processing of music in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caria, Andrea; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona

    2011-12-01

    Despite intersubject variability, dramatic impairments of socio-communicative skills are core features of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). A deficit in the ability to express and understand emotions has often been hypothesized to be an important correlate of such impairments. Little is known about individuals with ASD's ability to sense emotions conveyed by nonsocial stimuli such as music. Music has been found to be capable of evoking and conveying strong and consistent positive and negative emotions in healthy subjects. The ability to process perceptual and emotional aspects of music seems to be maintained in ASD. Individuals with ASD and neurotypical (NT) controls underwent a single functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session while processing happy and sad music excerpts. Overall, fMRI results indicated that while listening to both happy and sad music, individuals with ASD activated cortical and subcortical brain regions known to be involved in emotion processing and reward. A comparison of ASD participants with NT individuals demonstrated decreased brain activity in the premotor area and in the left anterior insula, especially in response to happy music excerpts. Our findings shed new light on the neurobiological correlates of preserved and altered emotional processing in ASD.

  8. Brain activity patterns induced by interrupting the cognitive processes with online advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejer, Izabela; Jankowski, Jarosław

    2017-11-01

    As a result of the increasing role of online advertising and strong competition among advertisers, intrusive techniques are commonly used to attract web users' attention. Moreover, since marketing content is usually delivered to the target audience when they are performing typical online tasks, like searching for information or reading online content, its delivery interrupts the web user's current cognitive process. The question posed by many researchers in the field of online advertising is: how should we measure the influence of interruption of cognitive processes on human behavior and emotional state? Much research has been conducted in this field; however, most of this research has focused on monitoring activity in the simulated environment, or processing declarative responses given by users in prepared questionnaires. In this paper, a more direct real-time approach is taken, and the effect of the interruption on a web user is analyzed directly by studying the activity of his brain. This paper presents the results of an experiment that was conducted to find the brain activity patterns associated with interruptions of the cognitive process by showing internet advertisements during a text-reading task. Three specific aspects were addressed in the experiment: individual patterns, the consistency of these patterns across trials, and the intra-subject correlation of the individual patterns. Two main effects were observed for most subjects: a drop in activity in the frontal and prefrontal cortical areas across all frequency bands, and significant changes in the frontal/prefrontal asymmetry index.

  9. Massively parallel signal processing using the graphics processing unit for real-time brain-computer interface feature extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adam Wilson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The clock speeds of modern computer processors have nearly plateaued in the past five years. Consequently, neural prosthetic systems that rely on processing large quantities of data in a short period of time face a bottleneck, in that it may not be possible to process all of the data recorded from an electrode array with high channel counts and bandwidth, such as electrocorticographic grids or other implantable systems. Therefore, in this study a method of using the processing capabilities of a graphics card (GPU was developed for real-time neural signal processing of a brain-computer interface (BCI. The NVIDIA CUDA system was used to offload processing to the GPU, which is capable of running many operations in parallel, potentially greatly increasing the speed of existing algorithms. The BCI system records many channels of data, which are processed and translated into a control signal, such as the movement of a computer cursor. This signal processing chain involves computing a matrix-matrix multiplication (i.e., a spatial filter, followed by calculating the power spectral density on every channel using an auto-regressive method, and finally classifying appropriate features for control. In this study, the first two computationally-intensive steps were implemented on the GPU, and the speed was compared to both the current implementation and a CPU-based implementation that uses multi-threading. Significant performance gains were obtained with GPU processing: the current implementation processed 1000 channels in 933 ms, while the new GPU method took only 27 ms, an improvement of nearly 35 times.

  10. The Internet and the Banks' Strategic Distribution Channel Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    1998-01-01

    Discusses two strategic distribution channel decisions facing banks, one regarding whether to target the Internet banking segment of customers versus the branch banking segment, and the other regarding the geographical area banks aim to serve. Future distribution channels, the change process, and local, national, and international strategies are…

  11. 12 CFR 7.1000 - National bank ownership of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... liability company). (b) Fixed assets. A national bank may own fixed assets necessary for the transaction of its business, such as fixtures, furniture, and data processing equipment. (c) Investment in bank... AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1000 National bank ownership of property. (a) Investment in real estate...

  12. Contemporary models of access to bank customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić-Rajevac Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are witnesses of fast changes in banking environment in this country. Key to all the changes is the new concept of how to approach the bank's clients, whose objective is to increase sales of products and services making the sales one of the basic banking functions. Namely, the goal is the sale of high-quality banking product, keeping the current clients, attracting new clients and at the same time being competitive. In the new approach to clients, banks apply the concept of customer relationship management - CRM which supports effective selling processes by means of cross-selling.

  13. A Derangement of the Brain Wound Healing Process May Cause Some Cases of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Rheinstein, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    A derangement of brain wound healing may cause some cases of Alzheimer’s disease. Wound healing, a highly complex process, has four stages: hemostasis, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. Hemostasis and the initial phases of inflammation in brain tissue are typical of all vascularized tissue, such as skin. However, distinct differences arise in brain tissue during the later stages of inflammation, repair, and remodeling, and closely parallel the changes of Alzheimer’s disease. Our hypothesis – Alzheimer’s disease is brain wound healing gone awry at least in some cases – could be tested by measuring progression with biomarkers for the four stages of wound healing in humans or appropriate animal models. Autopsy studies might be done. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy might also result from the brain wound healing process. PMID:27585229

  14. Brain activation during direct and indirect processing of positive and negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Thomas; Sauer, Andreas; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

    2011-09-12

    The effects of task conditions on brain activation to emotional stimuli are poorly understood. In this event-related fMRI study, brain activation to negative and positive words (matched for arousal) and neutral words was investigated under two task conditions. Subjects either had to attend to the emotional meaning (direct task) or to non-emotional features of the words (indirect task). Regardless of task, positive vs. negative words led to increased activation in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, while negative vs. positive words induced increased activation of the insula. Compared to neutral words, all emotional words were associated with increased activation of the amygdala. Finally, the direct condition, as compared to the indirect condition, led to enhanced activation to emotional vs. neutral words in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. These results suggest valence and arousal dependent brain activation patterns that are partially modulated by participants' processing mode of the emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Methods for processing and analysis functional and anatomical brain images: computerized tomography, emission tomography and nuclear resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazoyer, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    The various methods for brain image processing and analysis are presented and compared. The following topics are developed: the physical basis of brain image comparison (nature and formation of signals intrinsic performance of the methods image characteristics); mathematical methods for image processing and analysis (filtering, functional parameter extraction, morphological analysis, robotics and artificial intelligence); methods for anatomical localization (neuro-anatomy atlas, proportional stereotaxic atlas, numerized atlas); methodology of cerebral image superposition (normalization, retiming); image networks [fr

  16. Brain reflections: A circuit-based framework for understanding information processing and cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Gabriele

    2018-03-01

    Here, I propose a view of the architecture of the human information processing system, and of how it can be adapted to changing task demands (which is the hallmark of cognitive control). This view is informed by an interpretation of brain activity as reflecting the excitability level of neural representations, encoding not only stimuli and temporal contexts, but also action plans and task goals. The proposed cognitive architecture includes three types of circuits: open circuits, involved in feed-forward processing such as that connecting stimuli with responses and characterized by brief, transient brain activity; and two types of closed circuits, positive feedback circuits (characterized by sustained, high-frequency oscillatory activity), which help select and maintain representations, and negative feedback circuits (characterized by brief, low-frequency oscillatory bursts), which are instead associated with changes in representations. Feed-forward activity is primarily responsible for the spread of activation along the information processing system. Oscillatory activity, instead, controls this spread. Sustained oscillatory activity due to both local cortical circuits (gamma) and longer corticothalamic circuits (alpha and beta) allows for the selection of individuated representations. Through the interaction of these circuits, it also allows for the preservation of representations across different temporal spans (sensory and working memory) and their spread across the brain. In contrast, brief bursts of oscillatory activity, generated by novel and/or conflicting information, lead to the interruption of sustained oscillatory activity and promote the generation of new representations. I discuss how this framework can account for a number of psychological and behavioral phenomena. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Filling the void: a role for exercise-induced BDNF and brain amyloid precursor protein processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Rebecca E K

    2017-11-01

    Inactivity, obesity, and insulin resistance are significant risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several studies have demonstrated that diet-induced obesity, inactivity, and insulin resistance exacerbate the neuropathological hallmarks of AD. The aggregation of β-amyloid peptides is one of these hallmarks. β-Site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, leading to β-amyloid peptide formation. Understanding how BACE1 content and activity are regulated is essential for establishing therapies aimed at reducing and/or slowing the progression of AD. Exercise training has been proven to reduce the risk of AD as well as decrease β-amyloid production and BACE1 content and/or activity. However, these long-term interventions also result in improvements in adiposity, circulating metabolites, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity making it difficult to determine the direct effects of exercise on brain APP processing. This review highlights this large void in our knowledge and discusses our current understanding of the direct of effect of exercise on β-amyloid production. We have concentrated on the central role that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play in mediating the direct effects of exercise on reducing brain BACE1 content and activity as well as β-amyloid production. Future studies should aim to generate a greater understanding of how obesity and exercise can directly alter APP processing and AD-related pathologies. This knowledge could provide evidence-based hypotheses for designing therapies to reduce the risk of AD and dementia. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Genetic mapping of brain plasticity across development in Williams syndrome: ERP markers of face and language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, D L; Dai, L; Fishman, I; Yam, A; Appelbaum, L G; St George, M; Galaburda, A; Bellugi, U; Korenberg, J R

    2013-01-01

    In Williams Syndrome (WS), a known genetic deletion results in atypical brain function with strengths in face and language processing. We examined how genetic influences on brain activity change with development. In three studies, event-related potentials (ERPs) from large samples of children, adolescents, and adults with the full genetic deletion for WS were compared to typically developing controls, and two adults with partial deletions for WS. Studies 1 and 2 identified ERP markers of brain plasticity in WS across development. Study 3 suggested that, in adults with partial deletions for WS, specific genes may be differentially implicated in face and language processing.

  19. Diffusion MRI processing for multi-compartment characterization of brain pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedouin, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a specific type of MRI acquisition based on the direction of diffusion of the brain water molecules. It allows, through several acquisitions, to model the brain microstructure, as white matter, which is significantly smaller than the voxel-resolution. To acquire a large number of images in a clinical setting, very-fast acquisition techniques are required as single-shot imaging. However these acquisitions suffer locally large distortions. We propose a block-matching registration method based on the acquisition of images with opposite phase-encoding directions (PED). This technique specially designed for Echo-Planar Images (EPI) robustly correct images and provides a deformation field. This field is applicable to an entire DWI series from only one reversed EPI allowing distortion correction with a minimal acquisition time cost. This registration algorithm has been validated both on phantom and on in vivo data and is available in our source medical image processing toolbox Anima. From these diffusion images, we are able to construct multi-compartments models (MCM) which can represent complex brain microstructure. Doing registration, averaging and atlas creation on these MCM images is required to perform studies and statistic analyses. We propose a general method to interpolate MCM as a simplification problem based on spectral clustering. This technique, which is adaptable for any MCM, has been validated on both synthetic and real data. Then, from a registered dataset, we performed a patient to population analysis at a voxel-level computing statistics on MCM parameters. Specifically designed tractography can also be used to make analysis, following tracks, based on individual anisotropic compartments. All these tools are designed and used on real data and contribute to the search of bio-markers for brain diseases such as multiple sclerosis. (author)

  20. Towards Tunable Consensus Clustering for Studying Functional Brain Connectivity During Affective Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Abu-Jamous, Basel; Brattico, Elvira; Nandi, Asoke K

    2017-03-01

    In the past decades, neuroimaging of humans has gained a position of status within neuroscience, and data-driven approaches and functional connectivity analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data are increasingly favored to depict the complex architecture of human brains. However, the reliability of these findings is jeopardized by too many analysis methods and sometimes too few samples used, which leads to discord among researchers. We propose a tunable consensus clustering paradigm that aims at overcoming the clustering methods selection problem as well as reliability issues in neuroimaging by means of first applying several analysis methods (three in this study) on multiple datasets and then integrating the clustering results. To validate the method, we applied it to a complex fMRI experiment involving affective processing of hundreds of music clips. We found that brain structures related to visual, reward, and auditory processing have intrinsic spatial patterns of coherent neuroactivity during affective processing. The comparisons between the results obtained from our method and those from each individual clustering algorithm demonstrate that our paradigm has notable advantages over traditional single clustering algorithms in being able to evidence robust connectivity patterns even with complex neuroimaging data involving a variety of stimuli and affective evaluations of them. The consensus clustering method is implemented in the R package "UNCLES" available on http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/UNCLES/index.html .

  1. Critical issues in state-of-the-art brain-computer interface signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusienski, Dean J; Grosse-Wentrup, Moritz; Galán, Ferran; Coyle, Damien; Miller, Kai J; Forney, Elliott; Anderson, Charles W

    2011-04-01

    This paper reviews several critical issues facing signal processing for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) and suggests several recent approaches that should be further examined. The topics were selected based on discussions held during the 4th International BCI Meeting at a workshop organized to review and evaluate the current state of, and issues relevant to, feature extraction and translation of field potentials for BCIs. The topics presented in this paper include the relationship between electroencephalography and electrocorticography, novel features for performance prediction, time-embedded signal representations, phase information, signal non-stationarity, and unsupervised adaptation.

  2. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  3. The Consolidation on Banking Supervision in the Context of a Pan European Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Barbu

    2007-03-01

    In the process of the integration of the banking sector, the Basel II Accord represents an opportunity in reaching a convergence of national regulations and practices in matters of risk management, considering that these actions are in line with the preoccupations of realizing a Pan European banking system. Thus, the creation of Pan European banking system involves actions in more directions: legal, institutional, operational meant to ensure the consolidation of banking supervision.

  4. Brain Migration Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokur, Annie

    2006-01-01

    The "brain drain/brain gain" debate has been going on for the past 40 years, with irresolvable theoretical disputes and unenforceable policy recommendations that economists commonly ascribe to the lack of reliable empirical data. The recent report of the World Bank, "International migration, remittances and the brain drain", documents the…

  5. Banking governance: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mihăiţă Duţă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Banks are companies like any other. However, banks are distinguished by certain intrinsic characteristics of companies that have a different impact on the motivation of stakeholders. Among these features, we mention:partnership and shareholders governance agreements; banks are heavily regulated companies; banking assets is the main source of haze banking and information asymmetry; between the bank and depositors there is a problem of moral hazard.

  6. ROMANIAN BANKS LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATRANCEA MARIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.

  7. Internet Banking integration within the banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Marian MATEI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Banking developed due to increasing demand of online banking transactions. The biggest advantages of Internet Banking consist of complex banking solutions, 24 hours availability, quick and secure access to the back-end application through Internet. These advantages are due to the use of SOA (service-oriented architecture. SOA appeared as a necessity of companies to integrate big and independent portions of applications, in order to obtain an homogeneous functionality of the system. For the Internet Banking applications, SOA proved to be the optimal architectural solution, for a smoth integration between banking services from the front-end to the back-end.This paper intend to offer an insite analyse of the Internet Banking applications architecture integrated with other banking systems. A SOA oriented analyse will establish the scope of the integration architecture.

  8. Analisis Kinerja Keuangan Bank Sebelum Dan Sesudah Diakuisisi Oleh Investor Asing: Studi Empiris Pada Bank Central Asia Dan Bank Niaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Sun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Banking industry is one of the most influence factors in the economy growth of one country. However, during 1997-1998 Indonesia banking industry went through hard times because of economic crisis. After that years, many banks were liquidated and restructured. The interesting part is through the restructuring process, several bank acquired by foreign investor and became the foreign-domestic bank. In 2010, some of those banks were in the 10 biggest banks in Indonesia based on asset. Hence, the writer interesting to compare the bank’s financial performance before and after being acquired using two banks as samples of empirical study. Data is based on financial statements published by the companies and Central Bank of Indonesia in 1995-1996, and 2003-2004. Two sample of banks have been selected based on several criteria, they are BCA and Bank Niaga. To analyse their financial performance, several analysis tools will be using, specifically CAMELS (CAR, NPL, NIM, BOPO, LDR minus mangement and sensitivity. The result of the study observed that after being acquired, financial performance of BCA and Niaga Bank is getting better in CAR, NIM, BOPO, but NPL and LDR is less favorable for BCA and so NPL is less favorable for Niaga Bank. Moreover, in terms of profitability analysis, both banks shows better performance. While, the result of credit analysis indicates that the credit risk for both banks is in the stable range at CCC.

  9. E-BANKING- MODERN BANKING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRANDA PETRONELLA VLAD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available E-banking is the first of those banking services that really economize time, because it allows to the user to accomplish from behind the computer many operations in the bank account, represents the computational solution that allows to the holder to have

  10. Emotional processing and brain activity in youth at high risk for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cservenka, Anita; Fair, Damien A; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2014-07-01

    Even in the absence of heavy alcohol use, youth with familial alcoholism (family history positive [FHP]) exhibit atypical brain functioning and behavior. Although emotional and cognitive systems are affected in alcohol use disorders (AUDs), little attention has focused on whether brain and behavior phenotypes related to the interplay between affective and executive functioning may be a premorbid risk factor for the development of AUDs in FHP youth. Twenty-four FHP and 22 family history negative (FHN) 12- to 16-year-old adolescents completed study procedures. After exclusion of participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms and those who did not meet performance criteria during an Emotional Go-NoGo task, 19 FHP and 17 FHN youth were included in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses. Resting state functional connectivity MRI, using amygdalar seed regions, was analyzed in 16 FHP and 18 FHN youth, after exclusion of participants with excessive head movement. fMRI showed that brain activity in FHP youth, compared with FHN peers, was reduced during emotional processing in the superior temporal cortex, as well as during cognitive control within emotional contexts in frontal and striatal regions. Group differences in resting state amygdalar connectivity were seen bilaterally between FHP and FHN youth. In FHP youth, reduced resting state synchrony between the left amygdala and left superior frontal gyrus was related to poorer response inhibition, as measured during the fMRI task. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine emotion-cognition interactions and resting state functional connectivity in FHP youth. Findings from this research provide insight into neural and behavioral phenotypes associated with emotional processing in familial alcoholism, which may relate to increased risk of developing AUDs. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. Measurement of human advanced brain function in calculation processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashida, Masahiro; Yamauchi, Syuichi; Wu, Jing-Long

    2001-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the activated areas of the human brain related with calculation processing as an advanced function of the human brain. Furthermore, we investigated differences in activation between visual and auditory calculation processing. The eight subjects (all healthy men) were examined on a clinical MR unit (1.5 tesla) with a gradient echo-type EPI sequence. SPM99 software was used for data processing. Arithmetic problems were used for the visual stimulus (visual image) as well as for the auditory stimulus (audible voice). The stimuli were presented to the subjects as follows: no stimulation, presentation of random figures, and presentation of arithmetic problems. Activated areas of the human brain related with calculation processing were the inferior parietal lobule, middle frontal gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus. Comparing the arithmetic problems with the presentation of random figures, we found that the activated areas of the human brain were not differently affected by visual and auditory systems. The areas activated in the visual and auditory experiments were observed at nearly the same place in the brain. It is possible to study advanced functions of the human brain such as calculation processing in a general clinical hospital when adequate tasks and methods of presentation are used. (author)

  12. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Virtual blood bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fai Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  14. Virtual blood bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kit Fai

    2011-01-01

    Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time. PMID:21383930

  15. Disentangling brain activity related to the processing of emotional visual information and emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniecki, Michał; Wołoszyn, Kinga; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Pilarczyk, Joanna

    2018-05-01

    Processing of emotional visual information engages cognitive functions and induces arousal. We aimed to examine the modulatory role of emotional valence on brain activations linked to the processing of visual information and those linked to arousal. Participants were scanned and their pupil size was measured while viewing negative and neutral images. The visual noise was added to the images in various proportions to parametrically manipulate the amount of visual information. Pupil size was used as an index of physiological arousal. We show that arousal induced by the negative images, as compared to the neutral ones, is primarily related to greater amygdala activity while increasing visibility of negative content to enhanced activity in the lateral occipital complex (LOC). We argue that more intense visual processing of negative scenes can occur irrespective of the level of arousal. It may suggest that higher areas of the visual stream are fine-tuned to process emotionally relevant objects. Both arousal and processing of emotional visual information modulated activity within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Overlapping activations within the vmPFC may reflect the integration of these aspects of emotional processing. Additionally, we show that emotionally-evoked pupil dilations are related to activations in the amygdala, vmPFC, and LOC.

  16. Predictors of Memory and Processing Speed Dysfunctions after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Winardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aims of this study were to evaluate the predictive value of admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS scores, duration of unconsciousness, neurosurgical intervention, and countercoup lesion on the impairment of memory and processing speed functions six months after a traumatic brain injury (TBI based on a structural equation modeling. Methods. Thirty TBI patients recruited from Neurosurgical Department at the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital were administered the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III processing speed index to evaluate the memory and processing speed functions. Results. The study showed that GCS scores accounted for 40% of the variance in memory/processing speed. No significant predictive effects were found for the other three variables. GCS classification at the time of TBI seems to correspond moderately to the severity of memory/processing speed dysfunctions. Conclusions. The present study demonstrated that admission GCS score is a robust predictor of memory/processing speed dysfunctions after TBI. The results should be replicated with a large sample of patients with TBI, or be extended by examining other potential clinical predictors.

  17. Subliminal Emotional Words Impact Syntactic Processing: Evidence from Performance and Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jiménez-Ortega

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that syntactic processing can be affected by emotional information and that subliminal emotional information can also affect cognitive processes. In this study, we explore whether unconscious emotional information may also impact syntactic processing. In an Event-Related brain Potential (ERP study, positive, neutral and negative subliminal adjectives were inserted within neutral sentences, just before the presentation of the supraliminal adjective. They could either be correct (50% or contain a morphosyntactic violation (number or gender disagreements. Larger error rates were observed for incorrect sentences than for correct ones, in contrast to most studies using supraliminal information. Strikingly, emotional adjectives affected the conscious syntactic processing of sentences containing morphosyntactic anomalies. The neutral condition elicited left anterior negativity (LAN followed by a P600 component. However, a lack of anterior negativity and an early P600 onset for the negative condition were found, probably as a result of the negative subliminal correct adjective capturing early syntactic resources. Positive masked adjectives in turn prompted an N400 component in response to morphosyntactic violations, probably reflecting the induction of a heuristic processing mode involving access to lexico-semantic information to solve agreement anomalies. Our results add to recent evidence on the impact of emotional information on syntactic processing, while showing that this can occur even when the reader is unaware of the emotional stimuli.

  18. The Impact of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene on Trauma and Spatial Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Miller

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of genes and the environment on the development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD continues to motivate neuropsychological research, with one consistent focus being the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene, given its impact on the integrity of the hippocampal memory system. Research into human navigation also considers the BDNF gene in relation to hippocampal dependent spatial processing. This speculative paper brings together trauma and spatial processing for the first time and presents exploratory research into their interactions with BDNF. We propose that quantifying the impact of BDNF on trauma and spatial processing is critical and may well explain individual differences in clinical trauma treatment outcomes and in navigation performance. Research has already shown that the BDNF gene influences PTSD severity and prevalence as well as navigation behaviour. However, more data are required to demonstrate the precise hippocampal dependent processing mechanisms behind these influences in different populations and environmental conditions. This paper provides insight from recent studies and calls for further research into the relationship between allocentric processing, trauma processing and BDNF. We argue that research into these neural mechanisms could transform PTSD clinical practice and professional support for individuals in trauma-exposing occupations such as emergency response, law enforcement and the military.

  19. Do Cooperative Banks Really Serve Agricultural Sector in Poland?

    OpenAIRE

    Zawojska, Aldona; Siudek, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the potential of cooperative banks for serving agricultural sector in Poland and to identify the areas with the most development potential. We discuss the transformation process in the cooperative banking system under market economy, and in particular investigate importance of cooperative banks for farms' financing on the basis of our survey of banks. Moreover, the role of cooperative banks in transmission of Government policy supporting farm sector in Poland...

  20. Selected Banks Economic Efficiency Indicators

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    Adam Szafarczyk

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of economic efficiency indicators in theory. It is necessary to choice some of them for concrete purposes. ROA, ROE and C/I play important role due to last experience of polish banks.Cost to Income Ratio plays very important role affecting not only efficiency monitoring process in the banks but also becoming a very important target in strategy or finance plan. There are several methodological approaches to construct this index in detail. Results are differing due to implementing methodology. This article describes trends C/I concerning both polish and foreign banks. It is difficult to compare banks in emerging country and real giants in finance mature economies.

  1. Efficient physical embedding of topologically complex information processing networks in brains and computer circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S Bassett

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nervous systems are information processing networks that evolved by natural selection, whereas very large scale integrated (VLSI computer circuits have evolved by commercially driven technology development. Here we follow historic intuition that all physical information processing systems will share key organizational properties, such as modularity, that generally confer adaptivity of function. It has long been observed that modular VLSI circuits demonstrate an isometric scaling relationship between the number of processing elements and the number of connections, known as Rent's rule, which is related to the dimensionality of the circuit's interconnect topology and its logical capacity. We show that human brain structural networks, and the nervous system of the nematode C. elegans, also obey Rent's rule, and exhibit some degree of hierarchical modularity. We further show that the estimated Rent exponent of human brain networks, derived from MRI data, can explain the allometric scaling relations between gray and white matter volumes across a wide range of mammalian species, again suggesting that these principles of nervous system design are highly conserved. For each of these fractal modular networks, the dimensionality of the interconnect topology was greater than the 2 or 3 Euclidean dimensions of the space in which it was embedded. This relatively high complexity entailed extra cost in physical wiring: although all networks were economically or cost-efficiently wired they did not strictly minimize wiring costs. Artificial and biological information processing systems both may evolve to optimize a trade-off between physical cost and topological complexity, resulting in the emergence of homologous principles of economical, fractal and modular design across many different kinds of nervous and computational networks.

  2. Acoustic noise alters selective attention processes as indicated by direct current (DC) brain potential changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

    2014-09-26

    Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes). This study investigated brain direct current (DC) potential shifts-which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation-of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest-besides some limitations-that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested "attention shift". Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  3. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC Brain Potential Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Trimmel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes. This study investigated brain direct current (DC potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  4. [Eye banks and available transplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slettedal, Jon Klokk; Drolsum, Liv; Ramstad, Hanne; Nicolaissen, Bjørn

    2008-04-17

    Eye banks have procured, processed and stored donor corneas for decades. In parallel, new techniques have emerged employing allogeneic transplantation of various cells and tissues from the eye banks. This progress is a consequence of increased knowledge of stem cells, cell kinetics and immunological aspects and improved techniques for cell culturing, tissue storage and microsurgery. Review article on available transplants for treating eye diseases, based on experience with eye banking, clinical ophthalmological practice, own research and literature retrieved from PubMed, Medline and www.google.com. Treatment techniques for eye diseases, which require biological material for grafting, need efficient eye banks for continuous supply of donor material of high quality. New Norwegian legislation, based on implementation of EU Directive 2004/23/EC, demands authorization of all eye banks. The EU Directive sets high and rigorous standards for quality and safety for donation, procurement, testing, processing, storage and distribution of tissues and cells. Well-run eye banks are of great importance for modern treatment of patients suffering from eye diseases and for progress and research in ophthalmology.

  5. [Application of Brain-Boy Universal Professional in preliminary assessment of auditory processing disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Joanna; Łobaczuk-Sitnik, Anna; Kosztyła-Hojna, Bożena

    2017-09-29

    Increasing numbers of hearing pathology is auditory processing disorders. Auditory Processing Disorders (APD) are defined as difficulty in using auditory information to communicate and learn in the presence of normal peripheral hearing. It may be recognized as a problem with understanding of speech in noise and perception disorder of distorted speech. APD may accompany to articulation disorders, language problems and difficulties in reading and writing. The diagnosis of auditory processing disorders causes many difficulties primarily due to the lack of common testing procedures, precise criteria for qualification to the group of norm and pathology. The Brain-Boy Universal Professional (BUP) is one of diagnostics tools. It enables to assess the higher auditory functions. The aim of the study was preliminary assessment of hearing difficulties that may suggest the occurrence of auditory processing disorders in children. The questionnaire of hearing difficulties and BUP was used. Study includes 20 participants 2nd grade students of elementary school. The examination of the basic central functions was carried out with BUP. The parents and teacher complete the questionnaire to evaluate the hearing problems. Studies carried out indicate that the 40% schoolchild have hearing difficulties. The high percentage of deficits in auditory functions was confirmed with research results of medical device and the questionnaire for teacher. On the basis of the studies conducted may establish that the Warnke Method can serve as preliminary assessment of hearing difficulties that may suggest the occurrence of auditory processing disorders in children.

  6. The interplay of contourite and mass-wasting recent sedimentary processes at the Guadalquivir Bank Margin uplift, Gulf of Cadiz: morphological high-resolution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marga; Alonso, Belén; Tomas Vazquez, Juan; Ercilla, Gemma; Palomino, Desirée; Estrada, Ferran; Fernandez Puga, Ma Carmen; Lopez Gonzalez, Nieves; Roque, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz records the interplay of a variety of sedimentary processes related to the flow of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) exiting the Mediterranean Sea, with downslope sedimentary processes and the topography of the region. This work presents detailed morphological features of the Guadalquivir Ridge area, based on high resolution bathymetry and very-high resolution seismic profiles (TOPAS) acquired during the MONTERA cruise. The Guadalquivir Ridge is a SW-NE-oriented relief located on the middle slope of the Gulf of Cadiz (8º-7º10' W). It reaches minimum depths at two highs, one at the Guadalquivir Bank, at the western extreme of the ridge (275 m), and a second one close to the eastern extreme (350 m). The ridge is cut by a gap where the Diego Cao contourite moat is incised forming a narrow, 4-5 km wide, SE-NW oriented channel. It delimits two contourite sheeted drifts (SD) at the northern side of the ridge: the Faro SD at the east (~ 600 m water depth) and the Bartolomeo Dias SD, at the west (~750 m water depth). The SD are relatively flat and become shallower progressively in a SE direction towards the Guadalquivir Ridge. At the SE side of the Guadalquivir Ridge depth increases dramatically where the Huelva and Cadiz contourite channels occur. They are originated by the direct erosion of the Lower Core of the MOW, running at depths of around 1200 m. The Diego Cao channel is related to the Upper Core, which runs at depths of around 800 m (Ambar and Serra, 2007). High resolution data reveal the existence of a variety of features. Semi-circular scarps, up to 10s km long, occur at the SE side of the Guadalquivir Ridge and at the SW side of the Bartolomeo Dias SD, at the rim of the Diego Cao contourite channel. Scarps occur at depths of 550 to 750 m and form steep steps of tens to hundreds of meters and in some cases occur overlapped one on each other at different depths. The second type of feature is a series of circular to ellipse

  7. Effect of cytokine treatment on the neurogenesis process in the brain of soman-poisoned mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collombet, Jean-Marc; Four, Elise; Burckhart, Marie-France; Masqueliez, Catherine; Bernabe, Denis; Baubichon, Dominique; Herodin, Francis; Lallement, Guy

    2005-01-01

    We previously described that enhanced proliferation of neural progenitors occurred in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus and in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the mouse brain following soman poisoning. Then, a discrete number of these cells seemed to migrate and engraft into the main damaged brain regions (hippocampus; septum and amygdala) and subsequently differentiate into neurons. In the present study, the effect of a cytokine treatment on the neurogenesis process was evaluated. For this purpose, subcutaneous injection of a cocktail of 40 μg/kg epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was administered daily to soman-poisoned mice (110 μg/kg soman and 5.0 mg/kg methyl nitrate atropine), from post-soman days 1 to 8. To label replicating neural progenitors, 200 mg/kg bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected twice a day between post-soman days 6 and 8. Mice were sacrificed on post-soman day 9 or 34. On post-soman day 9, the cytokine treatment had no effect on the proliferation of neural progenitors in the SVZ and SGZ, as assessed by BrdU immunochemistry. However, this treatment seemed to promote the migration of neural precursor cells from the proliferative areas towards damaged brain regions. Indeed, in the CA1 hippocampal layer of soman-poisoned mice, on post-soman day 34, the cytokine treatment increased the number of healthy pyramidal neurons stained by hemalun-eosin dye. The cytokine treatment also augmented the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the CA1 hippocampal layer and amygdala. Interestingly, the administration of cytokines resulted in the differentiation of BrdU-positive cells into new neurons in the CA1 hippocampal layer, whereas astrocytic differentiation was preferentially observed in the amygdala

  8. BANKING BUSINESS MODELS IN UKRAINIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Onyshchenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to work out and characterize bank business models that are formed in Ukraine. Methodology. Our research we will spend among banks that are functioning on the Ukrainian financial market and are not on the stage of liquidation, so the sample under study in our work is comprised of 131 banks which are different in their ownership structure and size. The core of the methodology is a statistical clustering algorithm that allows identifying the groups of banks (clusters with similar business models as banks with similar business model strategies have made similar choices regarding the composition of their assets and liabilities. The cluster analyses were taken on the base of seven chosen indicators: bank loans, bank liabilities, enterprise loans, enterprise liabilities, household loans, household liabilities and trading assets. Results. The traditional business model of bank is worked out. The bank business models that are functioning in Ukraine are identified on the base of cluster analyses using balance sheet characteristics of 131 Ukrainian banks. We find that in Ukraine were formed three types of bank business models: “Focused retail”, “Diversified retail” and “Corporative retail”. The description of each model is given. Practical implications. More detailed research of distinguished models allows not only to find out the main advantages and disadvantages of each bank model, but also the main problems that follow the development of Ukrainian banking sector. Identifying of bank models and their studying simplifies searching and elaboration of regulatory instruments as there is a two-way causation between regulation and bank business models. This implies a symbiotic relationship between regulation and bank business models: business models respond to regulation which in turn responds to the evolution of new business models. Value/originality. Such survey is conducted at the first time among Ukrainian banks. The

  9. Small finance banks: Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent innovation in the Indian banking structure has been the formation of a new banking institution—small finance banks (SFBs. These banks are expected to penetrate into financial inclusion by providing basic banking and credit services with a differentiated banking model to the larger population. In this context the new SFBs have multiple challenges in coming out with a new, differentiated business model. The challenges include building low cost liability portfolio, technology management, and balancing the regulatory compliances. This paper also presents the top of mind views of three senior executives of new small finance banks.

  10. Very small embryonic-like stem cells with maximum regenerative potential get discarded during cord blood banking and bone marrow processing for autologous stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartiya, Deepa; Shaikh, Ambreen; Nagvenkar, Punam; Kasiviswanathan, Sandhya; Pethe, Prasad; Pawani, Harsha; Mohanty, Sujata; Rao, S G Ananda; Zaveri, Kusum; Hinduja, Indira

    2012-01-01

    Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) are possibly lost during cord blood banking and bone marrow (BM) processing for autologus stem cell therapy mainly because of their small size. The present study was conducted on human umbilical cord blood (UCB, n=6) and discarded red blood cells (RBC) fraction obtained after separation of mononuclear cells from human BM (n=6), to test this hypothesis. The results show that VSELs, which are pluripotent stem cells with maximum regenerative potential, settle along with the RBCs during Ficoll-Hypaque density separation. These cells are very small in size (3-5 μm), have high nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, and express nuclear Oct-4, cell surface protein SSEA-4, and other pluripotent markers such as Nanog, Sox-2, Rex-1, and Tert as indicated by immunolocalization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) studies. Interestingly, a distinct population of slightly larger, round hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with cytoplasmic Oct-4 were detected in the "buffy" coat, which usually gets banked or used during autologus stem cell therapy. Immunohistochemical studies on the umbilical cord tissue (UCT) sections (n=3) showed the presence of nuclear Oct-4-positive VSELs and many fibroblast-like mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with cytoplasmic Oct-4. These VSELs with nuclear Oct-4, detected in UCB, UCT, and discarded RBC fraction obtained after BM processing, may persist throughout life, maintain tissue homeostasis, and undergo asymmetric cell division to self-renew as well as produce larger progenitor stem cells, viz. HSCs or MSCs, which follow differentiation trajectories depending on the somatic niche. Hence, it can be concluded that the true stem cells in adult body tissues are the VSELs, whereas the HSCs and MSCs are actually progenitor stem cells that arise by asymmetric cell division of VSELs. The results of the present study may help explain low efficacy reported during adult autologous stem cell trials, wherein unknowingly

  11. DARI SAMPAH MENJADI UPAH: INOVASI PENGOLAHAN SAMPAH DI TINGKAT AKAR RUMPUT KASUS PROGAM BANK SAMPAH ‘SENDU’ DI KELURAHAN PASAR MINGGU JAKARTA SELATAN (Earning from Waste: Grass Root Innovation in Waste Processing; The Case of Sendu 'Waste Bank' Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryo Winarso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Inovasi pada awalnya dikenal dari bidang industri manufaktor, diukur dari anggaran yang dialokasikan untuk penelitan dan pengembangan dibandingkan dengan keutungan perusahaan. Saat ini inovasi dapat dilihat dalam arena pengembangan kota. Di Jakarta usaha pada akar rumput berhasil mengubah pandangan mengenai sampah dari sesuatu yang tidak berguna menjadi sesuatu yang bisa menghasilkan uang bagi masyarakat miskin telah dilakukan oleh program bank sampah. Dengan menggunakan indikator inovasi perkotaan yang dikembangkan dari studi literature. Makalah ini membuktikan bahwa kasus Bank Sampah Sendu tidak saja berhasil membersihkan lingkungan dari sampah, tetapi lebih dari itu program inovatif ini behasil pula menaikkan pendapatan masyarakat miskin perkotaan. ABSTRACT The term innovation was initially derived from the industry and technology point of view, particularly for Manufacture industry, measured by looking at the budget allocated for research and development (R&D and compares it with the profit gained by the company. Now the term innovation is also used in urban planning and development. In Jakarta, a grass root effort that shift the paradigm of urban waste from something useless into something that create earning for the urban poor and solving the waste problems in urban slums in developing countries. Using urban innovation indicators developed from literature study, this paper proofs that “Bank Sampah” Sendu in Kalurahan Pasar Minggu is an example of urban innovation that can be deseminated to other locations. This “Bank” not only has been able to solve waste problem in slum areas but also able to create addition earning to urban poors.

  12. Efficient block processing of long duration biotelemetric brain data for health care monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soumya, I. [Department of E.I.E, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam (India); Zia Ur Rahman, M., E-mail: mdzr-5@ieee.org [Department of E.C.E, K.L. University, Vaddeswaram, Green Fields, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh (India); Rama Koti Reddy, D. V. [Department of Instrumentation Engineering, College of Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam (India); Lay-Ekuakille, A. [Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Lecce (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    In real time clinical environment, the brain signals which doctor need to analyze are usually very long. Such a scenario can be made simple by partitioning the input signal into several blocks and applying signal conditioning. This paper presents various block based adaptive filter structures for obtaining high resolution electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, which estimate the deterministic components of the EEG signal by removing noise. To process these long duration signals, we propose Time domain Block Least Mean Square (TDBLMS) algorithm for brain signal enhancement. In order to improve filtering capability, we introduce normalization in the weight update recursion of TDBLMS, which results TD-B-normalized-least mean square (LMS). To increase accuracy and resolution in the proposed noise cancelers, we implement the time domain cancelers in frequency domain which results frequency domain TDBLMS and FD-B-Normalized-LMS. Finally, we have applied these algorithms on real EEG signals obtained from human using Emotive Epoc EEG recorder and compared their performance with the conventional LMS algorithm. The results show that the performance of the block based algorithms is superior to the LMS counter-parts in terms of signal to noise ratio, convergence rate, excess mean square error, misadjustment, and coherence.

  13. GenBank

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Rapp, Barbara A.; Wheeler, David L.

    2002-01-01

    The GenBank sequence database incorporates publicly available DNA sequences of more than 105 000 different organisms, primarily through direct submission of sequence data from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the BankIt (web) or Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Data exchange with the EMBL Data Library and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps ensure comprehensive worldwide coverage. GenBank...

  14. Bottom-up and top-down processes in body representation: a study of brain-damaged and amputee patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Liana; Di Vita, Antonella; Piccardi, Laura; Traballesi, Marco; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2014-09-01

    Body representation is a complex process involving different sources of top-down and bottom-up information. Processing the position and the relations among different body parts is necessary to build up a specific body representation, that is, the visuospatial body map (or topological map of the body). Here we aimed to investigate how the loss of peripheral or central information affects this representation by testing amputee and brain-damaged patients. Thirty-two unilateral brain-damaged patients (i.e., left-brain-damaged patients and right-brain-damaged patients who were or were not affected by personal neglect), 18 lower limb amputees and 15 healthy controls took part in the study. The topological body map was assessed by means of the "Frontal body-evocation subtest" (Daurat-Hmeljiak, Stambak, & Berges, 1978), in which participants have to put tiles (each representing a body part) on a small wooden board on which a head is depicted. Group statistical analysis showed that in amputee patients the loss of peripheral information about the right lower limb affects the ability to represent relations among different body parts as much as the loss of top-down information in brain-damaged patients with personal neglect. Single case analysis of brain-damaged patients without personal neglect showed that the topological map of the body was deficient in 1 right-brain-damaged and 2 left-brain-damaged patients. Studying amputee and brain-damaged patients together allowed us to highlight the importance of visuospatial information about one's own limbs and the role of both hemispheres (not only the left one) in creating an efficient topological body representation. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. How sound symbolism is processed in the brain: a study on Japanese mimetic words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Kanero

    Full Text Available Sound symbolism is the systematic and non-arbitrary link between word and meaning. Although a number of behavioral studies demonstrate that both children and adults are universally sensitive to sound symbolism in mimetic words, the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not yet been extensively investigated. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how Japanese mimetic words are processed in the brain. In Experiment 1, we compared processing for motion mimetic words with that for non-sound symbolic motion verbs and adverbs. Mimetic words uniquely activated the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS. In Experiment 2, we further examined the generalizability of the findings from Experiment 1 by testing another domain: shape mimetics. Our results show that the right posterior STS was active when subjects processed both motion and shape mimetic words, thus suggesting that this area may be the primary structure for processing sound symbolism. Increased activity in the right posterior STS may also reflect how sound symbolic words function as both linguistic and non-linguistic iconic symbols.

  16. Simulation of the Emergency Department Care Process for Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdari, Ali; Boyle, Linda Ng; Kannan, Nithya; Wang, Jin; Rivara, Frederick P; Vavilala, Monica S

    The treatment of patients in the emergency department (ED) with severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is challenging, and treatment process strategies that facilitate good outcomes are not well documented. The overall objective of this study was to identify factors that can affect the care process associated with pediatric TBI. This objective was achieved using a discrete-event simulation model of patients with TBI as they progress through the ED treatment process of a Level I trauma center. This model was used to identify areas where the ED length of stay can be reduced. The number of patients arriving at any given time was also varied in the simulation model to observe the impact to bed allocation policies and changes in staff and equipment. The findings showed that implementing changes in the ED (i.e., availability of two computerized tomography scanners, formation of resuscitation teams that included eight staff personnel, and modifying the bed allocation policy) could result in a 17% reduction in the mean ED length of stay. The study outcomes would be of interest to those (e.g., health administrators, health managers, and physicians) who can make decisions related to the treatment process in an ED.

  17. Brain Signals of Face Processing as Revealed by Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Ela I; Iglesias, Jaime; Saavedra, Cristina; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the functional significance of different event-related potentials (ERPs) as electrophysiological indices of face perception and face recognition, according to cognitive and neurofunctional models of face processing. Initially, the processing of faces seems to be supported by early extrastriate occipital cortices and revealed by modulations of the occipital P1. This early response is thought to reflect the detection of certain primary structural aspects indicating the presence grosso modo of a face within the visual field. The posterior-temporal N170 is more sensitive to the detection of faces as complex-structured stimuli and, therefore, to the presence of its distinctive organizational characteristics prior to within-category identification. In turn, the relatively late and probably more rostrally generated N250r and N400-like responses might respectively indicate processes of access and retrieval of face-related information, which is stored in long-term memory (LTM). New methods of analysis of electrophysiological and neuroanatomical data, namely, dynamic causal modeling, single-trial and time-frequency analyses, are highly recommended to advance in the knowledge of those brain mechanisms concerning face processing.

  18. Native-like brain processing of syntax can be attained by university foreign language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Harriet Wood; Steinhauer, Karsten; Sanz, Cristina; Ullman, Michael T

    2013-11-01

    Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we examined the neurocognition of late-learned second language (L2) Spanish in two groups of typical university foreign-language learners (as compared to native (L1) speakers): one group with only one year of college classroom experience, and low-intermediate proficiency (L2 Low), and another group with over three years of college classroom experience as well as 1-2 semesters of immersion experience abroad, and advanced proficiency (L2 Advanced). Semantic violations elicited N400s in all three groups, whereas syntactic word-order violations elicited LAN/P600 responses in the L1 and L2 Advanced groups, but not the L2 Low group. Indeed, the LAN and P600 responses were statistically indistinguishable between the L1 and L2 Advanced groups. The results support and extend previous findings. Consistent with previous research, the results suggest that L2 semantic processing always depends on L1-like neurocognitive mechanisms, whereas L2 syntactic processing initially differs from L1, but can shift to native-like processes with sufficient proficiency or exposure, and perhaps with immersion experience in particular. The findings further demonstrate that substantial native-like brain processing of syntax can be achieved even by typical university foreign-language learners. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantum cognition: The possibility of processing with nuclear spins in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew P. A.

    2015-11-01

    The possibility that quantum processing with nuclear spins might be operative in the brain is explored. Phosphorus is identified as the unique biological element with a nuclear spin that can serve as a qubit for such putative quantum processing-a neural qubit-while the phosphate ion is the only possible qubit-transporter. We identify the "Posner molecule", Ca9(PO4)6, as the unique molecule that can protect the neural qubits on very long times and thereby serve as a (working) quantum-memory. A central requirement for quantum-processing is quantum entanglement. It is argued that the enzyme catalyzed chemical reaction which breaks a pyrophosphate ion into two phosphate ions can quantum entangle pairs of qubits. Posner molecules, formed by binding such phosphate pairs with extracellular calcium ions, will inherit the nuclear spin entanglement. A mechanism for transporting Posner molecules into presynaptic neurons during vesicle endocytosis is proposed. Quantum measurements can occur when a pair of Posner molecules chemically bind and subsequently melt, releasing a shower of intra-cellular calcium ions that can trigger further neurotransmitter release and enhance the probability of post-synaptic neuron firing. Multiple entangled Posner molecules, triggering non-local quantum correlations of neuron firing rates, would provide the key mechanism for neural quantum processing. Implications, both in vitro and in vivo, are briefly mentioned.

  20. PyDBS: an automated image processing workflow for deep brain stimulation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Albis, Tiziano; Haegelen, Claire; Essert, Caroline; Fernández-Vidal, Sara; Lalys, Florent; Jannin, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical procedure for treating motor-related neurological disorders. DBS clinical efficacy hinges on precise surgical planning and accurate electrode placement, which in turn call upon several image processing and visualization tasks, such as image registration, image segmentation, image fusion, and 3D visualization. These tasks are often performed by a heterogeneous set of software tools, which adopt differing formats and geometrical conventions and require patient-specific parameterization or interactive tuning. To overcome these issues, we introduce in this article PyDBS, a fully integrated and automated image processing workflow for DBS surgery. PyDBS consists of three image processing pipelines and three visualization modules assisting clinicians through the entire DBS surgical workflow, from the preoperative planning of electrode trajectories to the postoperative assessment of electrode placement. The system's robustness, speed, and accuracy were assessed by means of a retrospective validation, based on 92 clinical cases. The complete PyDBS workflow achieved satisfactory results in 92 % of tested cases, with a median processing time of 28 min per patient. The results obtained are compatible with the adoption of PyDBS in clinical practice.

  1. Robust Brain-Machine Interface Design Using Optimal Feedback Control Modeling and Adaptive Point Process Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanechi, Maryam M; Orsborn, Amy L; Carmena, Jose M

    2016-04-01

    Much progress has been made in brain-machine interfaces (BMI) using decoders such as Kalman filters and finding their parameters with closed-loop decoder adaptation (CLDA). However, current decoders do not model the spikes directly, and hence may limit the processing time-scale of BMI control and adaptation. Moreover, while specialized CLDA techniques for intention estimation and assisted training exist, a unified and systematic CLDA framework that generalizes across different setups is lacking. Here we develop a novel closed-loop BMI training architecture that allows for processing, control, and adaptation using spike events, enables robust control and extends to various tasks. Moreover, we develop a unified control-theoretic CLDA framework within which intention estimation, assisted training, and adaptation are performed. The architecture incorporates an infinite-horizon optimal feedback-control (OFC) model of the brain's behavior in closed-loop BMI control, and a point process model of spikes. The OFC model infers the user's motor intention during CLDA-a process termed intention estimation. OFC is also used to design an autonomous and dynamic assisted training technique. The point process model allows for neural processing, control and decoder adaptation with every spike event and at a faster time-scale than current decoders; it also enables dynamic spike-event-based parameter adaptation unlike current CLDA methods that use batch-based adaptation on much slower adaptation time-scales. We conducted closed-loop experiments in a non-human primate over tens of days to dissociate the effects of these novel CLDA components. The OFC intention estimation improved BMI performance compared with current intention estimation techniques. OFC assisted training allowed the subject to consistently achieve proficient control. Spike-event-based adaptation resulted in faster and more consistent performance convergence compared with batch-based methods, and was robust to parameter

  2. Differential Activation of the Amygdala and the "Social Brain" during Fearful Face-Processing in Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Chris; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; O'Riordan, Michelle; Bullmore, Edward T.

    2007-01-01

    Impaired social cognition is a core feature of autism. There is much evidence showing people with autism use a different cognitive style than controls for face-processing. We tested if people with autism would show differential activation of social brain areas during a face-processing task. Thirteen adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger…

  3. Talking Work in a Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Magnus; Lundholm, Susanne E.

    2013-01-01

    properties are revealed through a detailed analysis of one single work episode, drawn from an ethnographic study of leadership in a bank. Using conversation analysis, the study shows that leadership, understood as an interpersonal influence process, enables and facilitates organizing processes. As expected...

  4. Marketing Aspect of Banking Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieizviestna Olena V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the need for application of marketing tools in order to improve competitiveness and competitive advantages of banks. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing the scientific works of many scientists, the relationship between the competitiveness of the commercial bank and its share in the banking market has been discovered. In the process of studying the integration of the strategy of maximizing customer satisfaction in the practice of strategic competition in the banking market there was presented the author’s position regarding the need to take into account the structure of the customer loyalty, as it is it that helps to properly distribute the bank’s marketing efforts. It has been proved that the technology of bank marketing should not only include the systems of identifying customer needs, creation of new financial products, but also contribute to the formation of the multi-factor strategic model of competitive strategy of the bank competitive development. It has been proposed to use the SWOT-analysis in order to effectively manage the bank’s competitiveness.

  5. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by the...

  6. Quality indicators for eye bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Acharya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify quality indicators of the eye bank and validate their effectivity. Methods: Adverse reaction rate, discard rate, protocol deviation rate, and compliance rate were defined as Quality Indicators of the eye bank. These were identified based on definition of quality that captures two dimensions – “result quality” and “process quality.” The indicators were measured and tracked as part of quality assurance (QA program of the eye bank. Regular audits were performed to validate alignment of standard operating procedures (SOP with regulatory and surgeon acceptance standards and alignment of activities performed in the eye bank with the SOP. Prospective study of the indicators was performed by comparing their observed values over the period 2011–2016. Results: Adverse reaction rate decreased more than 8-fold (from 0.61% to 0.07%, discard rate decreased and stabilized at 30%, protocol deviation rate decreased from 1.05% to 0.08%, and compliance rate reported by annual quality audits improved from 59% to 96% at the same time. In effect, adverse reaction rate, discard rate, and protocol deviation rate were leading indicators, and compliance rate was the trailing indicator. Conclusion: These indicators fulfill an important gap in available literature on QA in eye banking. There are two ways in which these findings can be meaningful. First, eye banks which are new to quality measurement can adopt these indicators. Second, eye banks which are already deeply engaged in quality improvement can test these indicators in their eye bank, thereby incorporating them widely and improving them over time.

  7. Quality indicators for eye bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Manisha; Biswas, Saurabh; Das, Animesh; Mathur, Umang; Dave, Abhishek; Singh, Ashok; Dubey, Suneeta

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to identify quality indicators of the eye bank and validate their effectivity. Adverse reaction rate, discard rate, protocol deviation rate, and compliance rate were defined as Quality Indicators of the eye bank. These were identified based on definition of quality that captures two dimensions - "result quality" and "process quality." The indicators were measured and tracked as part of quality assurance (QA) program of the eye bank. Regular audits were performed to validate alignment of standard operating procedures (SOP) with regulatory and surgeon acceptance standards and alignment of activities performed in the eye bank with the SOP. Prospective study of the indicators was performed by comparing their observed values over the period 2011-2016. Adverse reaction rate decreased more than 8-fold (from 0.61% to 0.07%), discard rate decreased and stabilized at 30%, protocol deviation rate decreased from 1.05% to 0.08%, and compliance rate reported by annual quality audits improved from 59% to 96% at the same time. In effect, adverse reaction rate, discard rate, and protocol deviation rate were leading indicators, and compliance rate was the trailing indicator. These indicators fulfill an important gap in available literature on QA in eye banking. There are two ways in which these findings can be meaningful. First, eye banks which are new to quality measurement can adopt these indicators. Second, eye banks which are already deeply engaged in quality improvement can test these indicators in their eye bank, thereby incorporating them widely and improving them over time.

  8. The Consolidation on Banking Supervision in the Context of a Pan European Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Barbu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of national banking systems in the European banking system and the absence of consolidated supervision creates the premises for a series of interrogations whose essence is the same: Is it possible to discuss about a Pan European Banking System? The starting point in answering this question was the efforts to create a single banking market, which took place in 1973-1999, and the impact of integration on the European Banking Industry. Among the most representative aspects, it must be emphasized the necessity of consolidating banking supervision at an European level, considering that the International Banking Community studies the problematic of banking regulations at a global level. The two dimensions of the prudential and European bank supervision device – the geographic and the institutional – demand the creation of a structural reform in order to ensure the functioning of a Pan European system of banking supervision and regulations. The considerations on the Consolidation of European Banking Supervision draws into discussion the Financial Supervision Authority which has generalized as an applicable model in numerous European countries and has been mentioned as an alternative of Pan European banking supervision. In the process of the integration of the banking sector, the Basel II Accord represents an opportunity in reaching a convergence of national regulations and practices in matters of risk management, considering that these actions are in line with the preoccupations of realizing a Pan European banking system. Thus, the creation of Pan European banking system involves actions in more directions: legal, institutional, operational meant to ensure the consolidation of banking supervision.

  9. FPGA implementation of hardware processing modules as coprocessors in brain-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Hao, Yaoyao; Zhu, Xiaoping; Zhao, Ting; Wang, Yiwen; Chen, Yaowu; Chen, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2011-01-01

    Real-time computation, portability and flexibility are crucial for practical brain-machine interface (BMI) applications. In this work, we proposed Hardware Processing Modules (HPMs) as a method for accelerating BMI computation. Two HPMs have been developed. One is the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of spike sorting based on probabilistic neural network (PNN), and the other is the FPGA implementation of neural ensemble decoding based on Kalman filter (KF). These two modules were configured under the same framework and tested with real data from motor cortex recording in rats performing a lever-pressing task for water rewards. Due to the parallelism feature of FPGA, the computation time was reduced by several dozen times, while the results are almost the same as those from Matlab implementations. Such HPMs provide a high performance coprocessor for neural signal computation.

  10. Antibody Profile of Colostrum and the Effect of Processing in Human Milk Banks: Implications in Immunoregulatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Camejo, Claudio; Puyol, Arturo; Fazio, Laura; Rodríguez, Analía; Villamil, Emilia; Andina, Eliana; Cordobez, Vanira; Díaz, Hernán; Lemos, Mary; Siré, Gabriela; Carroscia, Lilián; Castro, Mara; Panizzolo, Luis; Hernández, Ana

    2018-02-01

    When feeding preterm infants, donor milk is preferred if the mother's own milk is unavailable. Pasteurization may have detrimental effects on bioactivity, but more information is needed about its effects on the immunological compounds. Research aim: This work has two main aims: evaluate the antibody profile of colostrum and study the quantitative variations in the antibodies' level and specific reactivity after undergoing Holder pasteurization. The authors focused on immunoregulatory components of colostrum (antidietary antibodies and TGF-β2) in the neonatal gut. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 67 donated colostrum samples at different days after delivery, both raw and pasteurized. Antibody profiles were analyzed at different times during breastfeeding, and total and specific antibodies (IgM, IgA, and IgG subclasses) were compared with tetanus toxoid and ovalbumin using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The processing effect on total and specific antibodies, as well as TGF-β2, was evaluated by paired analyses. No variations in immunological compounds were observed throughout the colostrum stage. The TGF-β2, antibodies' concentrations, and antibodies' specific reactivity after pasteurization did not vary significantly as days of lactation varied. Changes in antibody levels were dependent on isotype and IgG subclass, and IgG4 showed remarkable resistance to heating. Moreover, the effect of the pasteurization on specific reactivity was antigen dependent. The supply of relevant immunological components is stable throughout the colostrum stage. The effects of pasteurization on antibodies depend on isotype, subclass, and specificity. This information is relevant to improving the immunological quality of colostrum, especially for preterm newborns.

  11. Oscillatory brain dynamics associated with the automatic processing of emotion in words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the automaticity of processing the emotional aspects of words, and characterizes the oscillatory brain dynamics that accompany this automatic processing. Participants read emotionally negative, neutral and positive nouns while performing a color detection task in which only perceptual-level analysis was required. Event-related potentials and time frequency representations were computed from the concurrently measured EEG. Negative words elicited a larger P2 and a larger late positivity than positive and neutral words, indicating deeper semantic/evaluative processing of negative words. In addition, sustained alpha power suppressions were found for the emotional compared to neutral words, in the time range from 500 to 1000ms post-stimulus. These results suggest that sustained attention was allocated to the emotional words, whereas the attention allocated to the neutral words was released after an initial analysis. This seems to hold even when the emotional content of the words is task-irrelevant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Perbandingan NPL, LDR, CAR, ROA, dan BOPO Antara Bank BNI Dan Bank BUMN Lain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wahyuningsih

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the differences in financial performance of Bank BNI and other BUMN Banks by the measuring the ratio of Non Performing Loan (NPL, Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR, Adecuacy Capital Ratio (CAR, Return on Assets (ROA and BOPO. The study was conducted by using descriptive analysis method. The results of this study explained that the performance NPL, LDR, and Bank BNI's CAR on average during the past eight semesters was still better than BUMN Banks on average, while the performance of ROA and BOPO remained below the average Revenues and Operating Expenses of Operational Income of  Bank BUMN. The results also showed that all BUMN banks still showed good and healthy performance and in accordance with the provisions set by Bank Indonesia. This study also presented the strategy undertaken by Bank BNI to improve its financial performance, that is, the business synergy of all units unit, growth in good-quality assets, optimization of the customer engagement, strengthening the network and develop alliances, optimization of existing resources and simplification of processes, and enhancing customer experiences through improving processes and business models to  digital banking. Keywords: Non-Performing Loans, Loan to Deposit Ratio, Capital Adequacy Ratio, Return on Assets, Revenues and Operating Expenses of Operational Income, Bank BNI, Bank BUMN.

  13. Chronic radiation exposure: possibility of studying mutation process in generations based on the established DNA bank of exposed individuals and their offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinova, Galina G.; Adamova, Galina V.; Dudchenko, Natalya N.; Azizova, Tamara V.; Kurbatov, Andrey V.

    2002-01-01

    Data were summarized on the DNA Bank establishment for workers of the Mayak nuclear facility in Southern Ural, who were exposed to different doses of chronic radiation from γ -rays during the first years of the enterprise operations (1948-1958) and their families. Some workers were exposed to combined radiation (external + internal radiation from incorporated 239 Pu). The DNA Bank was established to store the unique genetic material from these individuals and their offspring for future risk estimation of the late consequences of radiation exposure using modern molecular-genetic technologies. Today, DNA Bank contains genetic material from 1,500 individuals and 218 families. The computer database was generated for the DNA Bank. It included individual medical-demographic, occupational descriptions and doses, quantitative and qualitative DNA data. Literature data on radiation-induced genome instability (variability of hypervariable areas) were also analyzed. Prospects of the DNA Bank establishment are also presented. The work is carried out on extension of the DNA Bank of exposed individuals and their offspring

  14. Attention to language: novel MEG paradigm for registering involuntary language processing in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyrov, Yury; Smith, Marie L; Horner, Aidan J; Henson, Richard; Nathan, Pradeep J; Bullmore, Edward T; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2012-09-01

    Previous research indicates that, under explicit instructions to listen to spoken stimuli or in speech-oriented behavioural tasks, the brain's responses to senseless pseudowords are larger than those to meaningful words; the reverse is true in non-attended conditions. These differential responses could be used as a tool to trace linguistic processes in the brain and their interaction with attention. However, as previous studies relied on explicit instructions to attend or ignore the stimuli, a technique for automatic attention modulation (i.e., not dependent on explicit instruction) would be more advantageous, especially when cooperation with instructions may not be guaranteed (e.g., neurological patients, children etc). Here we present a novel paradigm in which the stimulus context automatically draws attention to speech. In a non-attend passive auditory oddball sequence, rare words and pseudowords were presented among frequent non-speech tones of variable frequency and length. The low percentage of spoken stimuli guarantees an involuntary attention switch to them. The speech stimuli, in turn, could be disambiguated as words or pseudowords only in their end, at the last phoneme, after the attention switch would have already occurred. Our results confirmed that this paradigm can indeed be used to induce automatic shifts of attention to spoken input. At ~250ms after the stimulus onset, a P3a-like neuromagnetic deflection was registered to spoken (but not tone) stimuli indicating an involuntary attention shift. Later, after the word-pseudoword divergence point, we found a larger oddball response to pseudowords than words, best explained by neural processes of lexical search facilitated through increased attention. Furthermore, we demonstrate a breakdown of this orderly pattern of neurocognitive processes as a result of sleep deprivation. The new paradigm may thus be an efficient way to assess language comprehension processes and their dynamic interaction with those

  15. Bank Restructuring, Competition, and Lending Supply: Evidence from the Spanish Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Giannoccolo, Pierpaolo; Mansilla-Fernández, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the effects of the bank restructuring process performed in Spain between 2010 and 2016. First, we create a unique dataset by combining information from Bankscope and the Table of Public Financial Assistance released by the Bank of Spain. Second, we investigate whether these reforms affected (i) the stability, (ii) the degree of competition, and (iii) lending and liquidity supply of the Spanish banking industry. The main results suggest that the restructuring process redu...

  16. Adaptive functioning following pediatric traumatic brain injury: Relationship to executive function and processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Emily L; Hoskinson, Kristen R; Keim, Madelaine C; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, H Gerry; Bigler, Erin D; Rubin, Kenneth H; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2016-10-01

    Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) may affect children's ability to perform everyday tasks (i.e., adaptive functioning). Guided by the American Association for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) model, we explored the association between TBI and adaptive functioning at increasing levels of specificity (global, AAIDD domains, and subscales). We also examined the contributions of executive function and processing speed as mediators of TBI's effects on adaptive functioning. Children (ages 8-13) with severe TBI (STBI; n = 19), mild-moderate TBI (MTBI; n = 50), or orthopedic injury (OI; n = 60) completed measures of executive function (TEA-Ch) and processing speed (WISC-IV) an average of 2.7 years postinjury (SD = 1.2; range: 1-5.3). Parents rated children's adaptive functioning (ABAS-II, BASC-2, CASP). STBI had lower global adaptive functioning (η2 = .04-.08) than the MTBI and OI groups, which typically did not differ. Deficits in the STBI group were particularly evident in the social domain, with specific deficits in social participation, leisure, and social adjustment (η2 = .06-.09). Jointly, executive function and processing speed were mediators of STBI's effects on global adaptive functioning and in conceptual and social domains. In the STBI group, executive function mediated social functioning, and processing speed mediated social participation. Children with STBI experience deficits in adaptive functioning, particularly in social adjustment, with less pronounced deficits in conceptual and practical skills. Executive function and processing speed may mediate the effects of STBI on adaptive functioning. Targeting adaptive functioning and associated cognitive deficits for intervention may enhance quality of life for pediatric TBI survivors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Medical Image Processing for Fully Integrated Subject Specific Whole Brain Mesh Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yang Hsu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, anatomically consistent segmentation of vascular trees acquired with magnetic resonance imaging requires the use of multiple image processing steps, which, in turn, depend on manual intervention. In effect, segmentation of vascular trees from medical images is time consuming and error prone due to the tortuous geometry and weak signal in small blood vessels. To overcome errors and accelerate the image processing time, we introduce an automatic image processing pipeline for constructing subject specific computational meshes for entire cerebral vasculature, including segmentation of ancillary structures; the grey and white matter, cerebrospinal fluid space, skull, and scalp. To demonstrate the validity of the new pipeline, we segmented the entire intracranial compartment with special attention of the angioarchitecture from magnetic resonance imaging acquired for two healthy volunteers. The raw images were processed through our pipeline for automatic segmentation and mesh generation. Due to partial volume effect and finite resolution, the computational meshes intersect with each other at respective interfaces. To eliminate anatomically inconsistent overlap, we utilized morphological operations to separate the structures with a physiologically sound gap spaces. The resulting meshes exhibit anatomically correct spatial extent and relative positions without intersections. For validation, we computed critical biometrics of the angioarchitecture, the cortical surfaces, ventricular system, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF spaces and compared against literature values. Volumina and surface areas of the computational mesh were found to be in physiological ranges. In conclusion, we present an automatic image processing pipeline to automate the segmentation of the main intracranial compartments including a subject-specific vascular trees. These computational meshes can be used in 3D immersive visualization for diagnosis, surgery planning with haptics

  18. A simple rapid process for semi-automated brain extraction from magnetic resonance images of the whole mouse head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delora, Adam; Gonzales, Aaron; Medina, Christopher S; Mitchell, Adam; Mohed, Abdul Faheem; Jacobs, Russell E; Bearer, Elaine L

    2016-01-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-developed technique in neuroscience. Limitations in applying MRI to rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders include the large number of animals required to achieve statistical significance, and the paucity of automation tools for the critical early step in processing, brain extraction, which prepares brain images for alignment and voxel-wise statistics. This novel timesaving automation of template-based brain extraction ("skull-stripping") is capable of quickly and reliably extracting the brain from large numbers of whole head images in a single step. The method is simple to install and requires minimal user interaction. This method is equally applicable to different types of MR images. Results were evaluated with Dice and Jacquard similarity indices and compared in 3D surface projections with other stripping approaches. Statistical comparisons demonstrate that individual variation of brain volumes are preserved. A downloadable software package not otherwise available for extraction of brains from whole head images is included here. This software tool increases speed, can be used with an atlas or a template from within the dataset, and produces masks that need little further refinement. Our new automation can be applied to any MR dataset, since the starting point is a template mask generated specifically for that dataset. The method reliably and rapidly extracts brain images from whole head images, rendering them useable for subsequent analytical processing. This software tool will accelerate the exploitation of mouse models for the investigation of human brain disorders by MRI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE CENTRAL BANK SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard POSPISIL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis that began in 2008 gradually developed into a global economic crisis and continues to this day. There is a lot of causes standing behind the creation, depth and process of the crisis, which is the deepest since the thirties of last centrury. One of the reasons can be found in the risky behavior of commercial banks, especially in the excessive lending of credits and mortgages. Its share on the financial crisis have central banks and their failure as the financial supervisory authority. But there is a lot of another causes of failures in the commercial banking system. And some of the causes lies outside the banking system and monetary policy. Its share of the blame has also become from state and its expenditure on the social policy.This article analyzes the role of the commercial banking system and the central banks on the financial crisis including prevention options and measures.

  20. Financial Crisis and the Central Bank System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHARD POSPISIL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis that began in 2008 gradually developed into a global economic crisis and continues to this day. There is a lot of causes standing behind the creation, depth and process of the crisis, which is the deepest since the thirties of last centrury. One of the reasons can be found in the risky behavior of commercial banks, especially in the excessive lending of credits and mortgages. Its share on the financial crisis have central banks and their failure as the financial supervisory authority. But there is a lot of another causes of failures in the commercial banking system. And some of the causes lies outside the banking system and monetary policy. Its share of the blame has also become from state and its expenditure on the social policy.This article analyzes the role of the commercial banking system and the central banks on the financial crisis including prevention options and measures.

  1. Role of hormonal factor in development of primary and secondary tumorous process in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kit

    2016-01-01

    .The present study was aimed at comparing the level of certain some hormones in tissue of glioblastomes, metastases of breast cancer into the brain and meningiomas, as well as the respective peritumoral zones.Materials and methods. Examined were samples of tissue obtained from a total of 56 patients admitted for operative treatment to our Department. Of these, 24 glioblastomas, 19 breast cancer metastases to the brain, 13 meningiomes without peritumoral edema. The histological control was carried out in all cases. The patients’ age varied form 35 to 72 years. During operative interventions we carried out removed neoplasms of the brain followed by biochemical study of the samples of tumor tissue and immediately adjoining to the tumorous foci tissue (perifocal zone. In 10 % of cytozolic fractions of tissue prepared on the potassium-phosphate buffer of pH 7.4 containing 0.15 of Tween-20 and 1 % of bovine serum albumin by means of immunoenzymatic assay (IEA using standard test systems we determined the level of steroid hormones – cortisole, testosterone, progesterone, estradiole, estriole, prolactine (IEA, HEMA, Russia estrone (IEA, DBC, Canada as well as sex-steroid-binding globulin (IEA, Alcor-Bio, Russia and hormones of adrenohypophysis – adrenocorticotropine (ACTH and somatotropic hormone (STH.Results. The obtained findings showed that the most hormonally saturated were metastases of breast cancer. In them along with elevated levels of cortisole, prolactine ACTH and STH concentrations whose concentrations increased virtually in any proliferative process we determined growth of saturation of tissues with estrone and free testosterone on the background of decrease level of active metabolite of estrogens – estriole. Besides, disorders of the steroid metabolism also touched the perifocal zone. Presence of glioblastoma turned out characteristic of identity of tumorous tissue and the perifocal zone by the level of cortizole, which is not found observed if tumors of other

  2. Os Bancos Centrais e sua ambivalência público-privada [Central Banks and their public-private nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentil Corazza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the historic origin of Central Banks, from three basic processes: the evolution and convergence of the free banking system to a hierarchical and centralized system in the Central Bank; the transformation of Clearing Houses in Central Banks, and finally, the processes by which governmental banks were assuming Central Bank’s functions and transforming themselves in Central Banks. The assumes the hypothesis by which the Central Banks were not created arbitrarily by Government, but from the evolution of private banking system suffering periodic crises, which needed public intervention. Finally, the paper concludes that this historic origin grounds the ambivalent public-private nature in Central Banks.

  3. Costs to hospitals of acquiring and processing blood in the US: a survey of hospital-based blood banks and transfusion services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Richard W; Pizzi, Laura; Leas, Brian; Ballas, Samir K; Quigley, Alyson; Goldfarb, Neil I

    2011-01-01

    little is known about the economics of acquiring and processing the more than 14 million units of red blood cells used annually in the US. to determine the average price paid by hospitals to suppliers for a unit of red blood cells and to identify cost variations by region and facility type and size. A secondary objective was to examine costs for additional blood components as well as costs for blood-related processes performed by hospitals. Qualitative input was sought to identify potential cost drivers. a cross-sectional survey was performed of a randomized sample of hospital-based blood bank and transfusion service directors. The survey instrument assessed costs of specific blood components and services as incurred by hospitals. Analysis of variance was performed to test for significant variation in costs for red blood cells by geographic region and division, facility type and bed capacity. a total of 213 surveys were completed. The mean (SD) acquisition cost for one unit of red blood cells purchased from a supplier (n = 204) was $US210.74 ± 37.9 and the mean charge to the patient (n = 167) was $US343.63 ± 135. There was significant statistical variation in acquisition cost by US census region (p cost for mandated screening performed onsite (n = 56) was $US50.00 ± 120 and the median storage and retrieval cost (n = 46) was $US68.00 ± 81 per unit. A total of 28% of respondents reported that costs for acquisition, screening and transfusion had 'increased dramatically' over the past 5 years and 23% reported that blood shortages were a significant problem. the cost of blood continues to increase and price varies by geography. However, the rate of increase in acquisition costs for red blood cells appears to be slowing. This information should be used by organizations and policy makers to improve financing and utilization management for blood components and services.

  4. Bank Syariah Sebagai Alternatif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adang Sudjana

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The principle of not allowing interest practices (riba has saved the Syariah Bank and their customers from the effects of monetary crisis. In view of Islamic Principles, interest is forbidden. Therefore, all transactions of syariah banking are based on sale-purchase pattern. Besides, all good banking aspects as applied in conventional banking such as, 5 Cs (capital, collateral, capacity, character, and condition are also applied properly in the line of ukhrawi aspects in managing fund of syariah banking.  The practice of “mark-up” in project funded by syariah bank seems to be very difficult.

  5. Perception and Processing of Faces in the Human Brain Is Tuned to Typical Feature Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Benjamin; Schwarzkopf, D Samuel; Alvarez, Ivan; Lawson, Rebecca P; Henriksson, Linda; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Rees, Geraint

    2016-09-07

    Faces are salient social stimuli whose features attract a stereotypical pattern of fixations. The implications of this gaze behavior for perception and brain activity are largely unknown. Here, we characterize and quantify a retinotopic bias implied by typical gaze behavior toward faces, which leads to eyes and mouth appearing most often in the upper and lower visual field, respectively. We found that the adult human visual system is tuned to these contingencies. In two recognition experiments, recognition performance for isolated face parts was better when they were presented at typical, rather than reversed, visual field locations. The recognition cost of reversed locations was equal to ∼60% of that for whole face inversion in the same sample. Similarly, an fMRI experiment showed that patterns of activity evoked by eye and mouth stimuli in the right inferior occipital gyrus could be separated with significantly higher accuracy when these features were presented at typical, rather than reversed, visual field locations. Our findings demonstrate that human face perception is determined not only by the local position of features within a face context, but by whether features appear at the typical retinotopic location given normal gaze behavior. Such location sensitivity may reflect fine-tuning of category-specific visual processing to retinal input statistics. Our findings further suggest that retinotopic heterogeneity might play a role for face inversion effects and for the understanding of conditions affecting gaze behavior toward faces, such as autism spectrum disorders and congenital prosopagnosia. Faces attract our attention and trigger stereotypical patterns of visual fixations, concentrating on inner features, like eyes and mouth. Here we show that the visual system represents face features better when they are shown at retinal positions where they typically fall during natural vision. When facial features were shown at typical (rather than reversed) visual

  6. Operational Risk, Bank Size and the Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Gathiga Muriithi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Operational risk threatens banks financial viability and long-term sustainability. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of operational risk on financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The qualitative research design and ordered logistic model were employed. The data was analysed with the aid of STATA software. The conclusion of the study was that there exists an inverse relationship between operational risk and financial performance. The study also finds that bank size moderates the effect internal and external fraud on financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya by shrinking it. Bank size moderates the effect execution, delivery and process management on financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya by enhancing it. The guidelines and procedures provided by the Central bank of Kenya on operational risk management should be fully adhered into.

  7. The influence of Mozart's music on brain activity in the process of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija; Gerlic, Ivan

    2006-12-01

    The study investigated the influence Mozart's music has on brain activity in the process of learning. A second objective was to test priming explanation of the Mozart effect. In Experiment 1 individuals were first trained in how to solve spatial rotation tasks, and then solved similar tasks. Fifty-six students were divided into 4 groups: a control one--CG who prior to and after training relaxed, and three experimental groups: MM--who prior to and after training listened to music; MS--who prior to training listened to music and subsequently relaxed; and SM--who prior to training relaxed and afterward listened to music. The music used was the first movement of Mozart's sonata (K. 448). In Experiment 2, thirty-six respondents were divided into three groups: CG, MM (same procedure as in Experiment 1), and BM--who prior to and after training listened to Brahms' Hungarian dance No. 5. In both experiments the EEG data collected during problem solving were analyzed using the methods of event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) and approximated entropy (ApEn). In the first experiment the respondents of the MM, MS, and SM groups showed a better task-performance than did the respondents of the CG group. Individuals of the MM group displayed less complex EEG patterns and more alpha band synchronization than did respondents of the other three groups. In Experiment 2 individuals who listened to Mozart showed a better task performance than did the respondents of the CG and BM groups. They displayed less complex EEG patterns and more lower-1 alpha and gamma band synchronization than did the respondents of the BM group. Mozart's music, by activating task-relevant brain areas, enhances the learning of spatio-temporal rotation tasks. The results support priming explanation of the Mozart effect.

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you ... of DNA. Sometimes this copying process is imperfect, leading to a gene mutation that causes the gene ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in ... occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, such as ...

  10. COMPETITION IN ROMANIAN BANKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capraru Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent turmoil in the global financial system has impacted severely on the banking sector with many banks suffering large losses and necessitating the need to raise additional capital privately or through their respective national governments. In our study we investigate the impact of structural reforms performed throughout the European Union (EU accession process on competition and contestability of banking systems in Romania. The literature of the measurement of competition can be divided into two major approaches: structural and non-structural. The structural approach to the assessment of competition embraces the Structure-Conduct-Performance Hypothesis (SCP and the Efficient Structure Hypothesis (ESH. The structural approach, as the name suggests, assesses bank competition by examining measures of market structure such as concentration ratios (the share of assets held by the top 3 or 5 institutions or indices (e.g., the Herfindhal-Hirschman index and supposes that higher concentration in the banking market causes less competitive bank conduct and leads to higher bank profitability. The SCP model is originally developed by Bain (1956. The second approach, ESH, developed by Demsetz (1973 and Peltzmann (1977 suggests that the superior performance of the market leaders determines the market structure, implying that higher efficiency produces both higher concentration and greater profitability. The non-structural indicators of competition are mainly based on the measures of monopoly power developed by Lerner (1934. The Lerner Index suggests the mark-up of price over marginal cost. An alternative non-structural indicator of the degree of market competition is the Panzar and Rosse (1987 H-statistic. The H-statistic measures the extent to which changes in banking costs are reflected in changes in banking revenues. In order to examine the level of competition and market power of banks in Romania for period 2003 - 2009, we estimate the non

  11. Distinct brain activity in processing negative pictures of animals and objects - the role of human contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhijun; Zhao, Yanbing; Tan, Tengteng; Chen, Gang; Ning, Xueling; Zhan, Lexia; Yang, Jiongjiong

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the amygdala is important in processing not only animate entities but also social information. It remains to be determined to what extent the factors of category and social context interact to modulate the activities of the amygdala and cortical regions. In this study, pictures depicting animals and inanimate objects in negative and neutral levels were presented. The contexts of the pictures differed in whether they included human/human parts. The factors of valence, arousal, familiarity and complexity of pictures were controlled across categories. The results showed that the amygdala activity was modulated by category and contextual information. Under the nonhuman context condition, the amygdala responded more to animals than objects for both negative and neutral pictures. In contrast, under the human context condition, the amygdala showed stronger activity for negative objects than animals. In addition to cortical regions related to object action, functional and effective connectivity analyses showed that the anterior prefrontal cortex interacted more with the amygdala for negative objects (vs. animals) in the human context condition, by a top-down modulation of the anterior prefrontal cortex to the amygdala. These results highlighted the effects of category and human contexts on modulating brain activity in emotional processing. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors influencing Internet banking adoption in South African rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinamano C. Ramavhona

    2016-12-01

    exposed to fraud. As a result, this perception erodes retail bank customers’ confidence to adopt Internet banking. The majority of retail bank customers in South African rural areas will be willing to adopt Internet banking if their lifestyle, values and specific need are met. Retail bank customers in South African rural areas will adopt Internet banking if the Internet banking processes are simplified and user-friendly.

  13. Processing of sub- and supra-second intervals in the primate brain results from the calibration of neuronal oscillators via sensory, motor, and feedback processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Daya S.

    2014-01-01

    The processing of time intervals in the sub- to supra-second range by the brain is critical for the interaction of primates with their surroundings in activities, such as foraging and hunting. For an accurate processing of time intervals by the brain, representation of physical time within neuronal circuits is necessary. I propose that time dimension of the physical surrounding is represented in the brain by different types of neuronal oscillators, generating spikes or spike bursts at regular intervals. The proposed oscillators include the pacemaker neurons, tonic inputs, and synchronized excitation and inhibition of inter-connected neurons. Oscillators, which are built inside various circuits of brain, help to form modular clocks, processing time intervals or other temporal characteristics specific to functions of a circuit. Relative or absolute duration is represented within neuronal oscillators by “neural temporal unit,” defined as the interval between regularly occurring spikes or spike bursts. Oscillator output is processed to produce changes in activities of neurons, named frequency modulator neuron, wired within a separate module, represented by the rate of change in frequency, and frequency of activities, proposed to encode time intervals. Inbuilt oscillators are calibrated by (a) feedback processes, (b) input of time intervals resulting from rhythmic external sensory stimulation, and (c) synchronous effects of feedback processes and evoked sensory activity. A single active clock is proposed per circuit, which is calibrated by one or more mechanisms. Multiple calibration mechanisms, inbuilt oscillators, and the presence of modular connections prevent a complete loss of interval timing functions of the brain. PMID:25136321

  14. Processing of sub- and supra-second intervals in the primate brain results from the calibration of neuronal oscillators via sensory, motor and feedback processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daya Shankar Gupta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The processing of time intervals in the sub- to supra-second range by the brain is critical for the interaction of primates with their surroundings in activities, such as foraging and hunting. For an accurate processing of time intervals by the brain, representation of the physical time within neuronal circuits is necessary. I propose that time-dimension of the physical surrounding is represented in the brain by different types of neuronal oscillators, generating spikes or spike bursts at regular intervals. The proposed oscillators include the pacemaker neurons, tonic inputs and synchronized excitation and inhibition of inter-connected neurons. Oscillators, which are built inside various circuits of brain, help to form modular clocks, processing time intervals or other temporal characteristics specific to functions of a circuit. Relative or absolute duration is represented within neuronal oscillators by ‘neural temporal unit’, defined as the interval between regularly occurring spikes or spike bursts. Oscillator output is processed to produce changes in activities of neurons, named frequency modulator neuron, wired within a separate module, represented by the rate of change in frequency, and frequency of activities, proposed to encode time intervals. Inbuilt oscillators are calibrated by (a feedback processes (b input of time intervals resulting from rhythmic external sensory stimulation and (c synchronous effects of feedback processes and evoked sensory activity. A single active clock is proposed per circuit, which is calibrated by one or more mechanisms. Multiple calibration mechanisms, inbuilt oscillators and the presence of modular connections prevent a complete loss of interval timing functions of the brain.

  15. Regional Banks in the Russian Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vitalyevich Leonov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the lack of a uniform definition of «a regional bank», problems of their activities are widely discussed in the context of increasing regulation of the banking sector and creation of conditions for accelerated development of certain regions. The author analyses the Russian-language scientific literature in order to define «a regional bank» and systematize its key differences from other commercial banks. The researcher shows that the allocation of regional banks in a separate group should be related to specific features of the environment and not by endogenous factors associated with the selection of activities and balance sheet structure. The low level of financial market development and concentration of specific undiversified risks are the principal qualifiers differentiating between regional banks and other credit institutions in Russia. As classification criteria the author uses following: spatial representation (the bank does not have structural subdivisions in Moscow and the ownership structure (among the bank’s owners there are no national and international financial groups that have a direct impact on the operations of the bank

  16. Bank erosion processes in waterways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duro, G.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.; Kleinhans, M; Crosato, A.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; de Ruijsscher, T.V.; Geertsema, T.J.; Makaske, B.; Wallinga, J.; Candel, J.H.J.; Poelman, J.

    2017-01-01

    Waterways serve for several functions besides  transporting goods and people. The ecological  importance of navigable rivers has taken much  attention during recent decades bringing efforts  to improve these natural corridors for fauna and  flora (Boeters et al.,

  17. GenBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — GenBank is the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences. GenBank is designed to provide and encourage access...

  18. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  19. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... nationalism does not trump economic rationality. An orthodox CB renders the central banking function redundant in terms of interest rate and exchange rate determination. FDI in banking could perform the same role for the supervisory function of central banks. We use the case of Estonia to illustrate...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  20. REFORM, ORGANISATION AND CONSOLIDATION OF THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION Gr. IONESCU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Banking system, making the economic environment and the resources it provides, the subsystem consists of macro economic and social. He is in continuous interaction with the economic environment, which takes "input" in various forms - human, financial, information they process into "outputs" - products and banking services, financial derivatives used in banking, financial and banking information, etc. In other words, and the banking system is now an open system. What is specific to open systems, and hence the banking system is that it regulates activity by reverse connection (feed back, so they are capable of self.

  1. &A, COMPETITION AND PERFORMANCE IN THE SLOVENIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Nicoleta Popovici

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of mergers and acquisitions is the main method used by financial institution to grow and to obtain better performance. The main effect of the implication of banks in mergers and acquisitions (M&A translates into a higher degree of market share of the banks and also that the small banks will soon become global banks. This article underlines the relationship between bank performance and degree of concentration of the Slovenian banking sector during 2006-2012 using a simple linear regression model.

  2. Altered brain mechanisms of emotion processing in pre-manifest Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Marianne J U; Warren, Jason D; Henley, Susie M D; Draganski, Bogdan; Frackowiak, Richard S; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2012-04-01

    Huntington's disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disease that causes motor, cognitive and psychiatric impairment, including an early decline in ability to recognize emotional states in others. The pathophysiology underlying the earliest manifestations of the disease is not fully understood; the objective of our study was to clarify this. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate changes in brain mechanisms of emotion recognition in pre-manifest carriers of the abnormal Huntington's disease gene (subjects with pre-manifest Huntington's disease): 16 subjects with pre-manifest Huntington's disease and 14 control subjects underwent 1.5 tesla magnetic resonance scanning while viewing pictures of facial expressions from the Ekman and Friesen series. Disgust, anger and happiness were chosen as emotions of interest. Disgust is the emotion in which recognition deficits have most commonly been detected in Huntington's disease; anger is the emotion in which impaired recognition was detected in the largest behavioural study of emotion recognition in pre-manifest Huntington's disease to date; and happiness is a positive emotion to contrast with disgust and anger. Ekman facial expressions were also used to quantify emotion recognition accuracy outside the scanner and structural magnetic resonance imaging with voxel-based morphometry was used to assess the relationship between emotion recognition accuracy and regional grey matter volume. Emotion processing in pre-manifest Huntington's disease was associated with reduced neural activity for all three emotions in partially separable functional networks. Furthermore, the Huntington's disease-associated modulation of disgust and happiness processing was negatively correlated with genetic markers of pre-manifest disease progression in distributed, largely extrastriatal networks. The modulated disgust network included insulae, cingulate cortices, pre- and postcentral gyri, precunei, cunei, bilateral putamena

  3. Neonatal brain injury and neuroanatomy of memory processing following very preterm birth in adulthood: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia K Kalpakidou

    Full Text Available Altered functional neuroanatomy of high-order cognitive processing has been described in very preterm individuals (born before 33 weeks of gestation; VPT compared to controls in childhood and adolescence. However, VPT birth may be accompanied by different types of adverse neonatal events and associated brain injury, the severity of which may have differential effects on brain development and subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study to investigate how differing degrees of neonatal brain injury, detected by neonatal ultrasounds, affect the functional neuroanatomy of memory processing in VPT young adults. We used a verbal paired associates learning task, consisting of four encoding, four cued-recall and four baseline condition blocks. To further investigate whether differences in neural activation between the groups were modulated by structural brain changes, structural MRI data were also collected. We studied 12 VPT young adults with a history of periventricular haemorrhage with associated ventricular dilatation, 17 VPT individuals with a history of uncomplicated periventricular haemorrhage, 12 individuals with normal ultrasonographic findings, and 17 controls. Results of a linear trend analysis demonstrated that during completion of the paired associates learning task right frontal and right parietal brain activation decreased as the severity of neonatal brain injury increased. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in on-line task performance and participants' intelligence quotient (IQ at assessment. This pattern of differential activation across the groups was observed particularly in the right middle frontal gyrus during encoding and in the right posterior cingulate gyrus during recall. Structural MRI data analysis revealed that grey matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum, left middle temporal gyrus, right globus pallidus and

  4. Neonatal brain injury and neuroanatomy of memory processing following very preterm birth in adulthood: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpakidou, Anastasia K; Allin, Matthew P; Walshe, Muriel; Giampietro, Vincent; Nam, Kie-woo; McGuire, Philip; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M; Nosarti, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    Altered functional neuroanatomy of high-order cognitive processing has been described in very preterm individuals (born before 33 weeks of gestation; VPT) compared to controls in childhood and adolescence. However, VPT birth may be accompanied by different types of adverse neonatal events and associated brain injury, the severity of which may have differential effects on brain development and subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to investigate how differing degrees of neonatal brain injury, detected by neonatal ultrasounds, affect the functional neuroanatomy of memory processing in VPT young adults. We used a verbal paired associates learning task, consisting of four encoding, four cued-recall and four baseline condition blocks. To further investigate whether differences in neural activation between the groups were modulated by structural brain changes, structural MRI data were also collected. We studied 12 VPT young adults with a history of periventricular haemorrhage with associated ventricular dilatation, 17 VPT individuals with a history of uncomplicated periventricular haemorrhage, 12 individuals with normal ultrasonographic findings, and 17 controls. Results of a linear trend analysis demonstrated that during completion of the paired associates learning task right frontal and right parietal brain activation decreased as the severity of neonatal brain injury increased. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in on-line task performance and participants' intelligence quotient (IQ) at assessment. This pattern of differential activation across the groups was observed particularly in the right middle frontal gyrus during encoding and in the right posterior cingulate gyrus during recall. Structural MRI data analysis revealed that grey matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum, left middle temporal gyrus, right globus pallidus and right medial

  5. Brain activity and connectivity during poetry composition: Toward a multidimensional model of the creative process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyuan; Erkkinen, Michael G; Healey, Meghan L; Xu, Yisheng; Swett, Katherine E; Chow, Ho Ming; Braun, Allen R

    2015-09-01

    Creativity, a multifaceted construct, can be studied in various ways, for example, investigating phases of the creative process, quality of the creative product, or the impact of expertise. Previous neuroimaging studies have assessed these individually. Believing that each of these interacting features must be examined simultaneously to develop a comprehensive understanding of creative behavior, we examined poetry composition, assessing process, product, and expertise in a single experiment. Distinct activation patterns were associated with generation and revision, two major phases of the creative process. Medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) was active during both phases, yet responses in dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal executive systems (DLPFC/IPS) were phase-dependent, indicating that while motivation remains unchanged, cognitive control is attenuated during generation and re-engaged during revision. Experts showed significantly stronger deactivation of DLPFC/IPS during generation, suggesting that they may more effectively suspend cognitive control. Importantly however, similar overall patterns were observed in both groups, indicating the same cognitive resources are available to experts and novices alike. Quality of poetry, assessed by an independent panel, was associated with divergent connectivity patterns in experts and novices, centered upon MPFC (for technical facility) and DLPFC/IPS (for innovation), suggesting a mechanism by which experts produce higher quality poetry. Crucially, each of these three key features can be understood in the context of a single neurocognitive model characterized by dynamic interactions between medial prefrontal areas regulating motivation, dorsolateral prefrontal, and parietal areas regulating cognitive control and the association of these regions with language, sensorimotor, limbic, and subcortical areas distributed throughout the brain. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. International Islamic Banking

    OpenAIRE

    saleem, shahid

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory and to some extent descriptive analysis is to highlight the Islamic banking & finance theory, and to explain the practical disparity all over the Muslim Umma along with commonalities of Islamic banking in them. Islamic banking has been now become a value proposition which transcends cultures and will do speedily in next decades despite of cutting throat competition expected in global banking scenario. The size of Islamic Financial Industry has now reached size ...

  7. GenBank

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L.

    2006-01-01

    GenBank (R) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 240 000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan...

  8. Audit of a bank

    OpenAIRE

    Ambros, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    The goal of my thesis "Audit of a bank" is to identify and describe the area of external and internal audit in banking and to focus on specifics of bank audit in comparison to external audit of commercial enterprise. The first part is focused on audit of financial statements. In the second part are described the specifics of banking segment. Third part describes internal audit and cooperation between external and internal audit. In the last part there are described methods applied during the ...

  9. Framing a Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2012-01-01

    Danish bank, Danske Bank, during the 2008 financial crisis and hence in shaping its image projected to the public. Through the study of a number of semantic frames adopted by the Danish print press and those adopted by the Bank, this article will argue for the constructions of the press putting...... considerable strain on the Bank and its image, leading it to reconsider its previous strategy of denial of responsibility...

  10. Modern bank's credit risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šabović Šerif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Credit risk is the most important risk banks have to face with. It occurs due to an obligation created because of debtors' capital and interest rate nonpayment. Debtors obligations non-fulfilment may lead to great losses and insolvency in bank's business. Credit risk is the crucial reason of bank's insolvency. Over 80% of bank's balance sheet is exposed to credit risk.

  11. Validation of new 3D post processing algorithm for improved maximum intensity projections of MR angiography acquisitions in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosmans, H.; Verbeeck, R.; Vandermeulen, D.; Suetens, P.; Wilms, G.; Maaly, M.; Marchal, G.; Baert, A.L. [Louvain Univ. (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study was to validate a new post processing algorithm for improved maximum intensity projections (mip) of intracranial MR angiography acquisitions. The core of the post processing procedure is a new brain segmentation algorithm. Two seed areas, background and brain, are automatically detected. A 3D region grower then grows both regions towards each other and this preferentially towards white regions. In this way, the skin gets included into the final `background region` whereas cortical blood vessels and all brain tissues are included in the `brain region`. The latter region is then used for mip. The algorithm runs less than 30 minutes on a full dataset on a Unix workstation. Images from different acquisition strategies including multiple overlapping thin slab acquisition, magnetization transfer (MT) MRA, Gd-DTPA enhanced MRA, normal and high resolution acquisitions and acquisitions from mid field and high field systems were filtered. A series of contrast enhanced MRA acquisitions obtained with identical parameters was filtered to study the robustness of the filter parameters. In all cases, only a minimal manual interaction was necessary to segment the brain. The quality of the mip was significantly improved, especially in post Gd-DTPA acquisitions or using MT, due to the absence of high intensity signals of skin, sinuses and eyes that otherwise superimpose on the angiograms. It is concluded that the filter is a robust technique to improve the quality of MR angiograms.

  12. Transgenic Rat Model of Huntington's Disease: A Histopathological Study and Correlations with Neurodegenerative Process in the Brain of HD Patients.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazurová, Y.; Anděrová, Miroslava; Němečková, I.; Bezrouk, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, Aug 03 (2014), s. 291531 ISSN 2314-6133 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) Prvouk P37 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Huntington's Disease * neurodegenerative process in the brain Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.579, year: 2014

  13. Adaptive optics microscopy enhances image quality in deep layers of CLARITY processed brains of YFP-H mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinig, Marc R.; Novack, Samuel W.; Tao, Xiaodong; Ermini, Florian; Bentolila, Laurent A.; Roberts, Dustin G.; MacKenzie-Graham, Allan; Godshalk, S. E.; Raven, M. A.; Kubby, Joel

    2016-03-01

    Optical sectioning of biological tissues has become the method of choice for three-dimensional histological analyses. This is particularly important in the brain were neurons can extend processes over large distances and often whole brain tracing of neuronal processes is desirable. To allow deeper optical penetration, which in fixed tissue is limited by scattering and refractive index mismatching, tissue-clearing procedures such as CLARITY have been developed. CLARITY processed brains have a nearly uniform refractive index and three-dimensional reconstructions at cellular resolution have been published. However, when imaging in deep layers at submicron resolution some limitations caused by residual refractive index mismatching become apparent, as the resulting wavefront aberrations distort the microscopic image. The wavefront can be corrected with adaptive optics. Here, we investigate the wavefront aberrations at different depths in CLARITY processed mouse brains and demonstrate the potential of adaptive optics to enable higher resolution and a better signal-to-noise ratio. Our adaptive optics system achieves high-speed measurement and correction of the wavefront with an open-loop control using a wave front sensor and a deformable mirror. Using adaptive optics enhanced microscopy, we demonstrate improved image quality wavefront, point spread function, and signal to noise in the cortex of YFP-H mice.

  14. Pattern classification of brain activation during emotional processing in subclinical depression : psychosis proneness as potential confounding factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modinos, Gemma; Mechelli, Andrea; Pettersson-Yeo, William; Allen, Paul; McGuire, Philip; Aleman, Andre

    2013-01-01

    We used Support Vector Machine (SVM) to perform multivariate pattern classification based on brain activation during emotional processing in healthy participants with subclinical depressive symptoms. Six-hundred undergraduate students completed the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). Two groups

  15. Shaping internal working models : parental love withdrawal, oxytocin, and asymmetric frontal brain activity affect socio-emotional information processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffmeijer, Renske

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to gain insight into the associations between experiences of parental love withdrawal, oxytocin, and asymmetric frontal brain activity (reflecting basic motivational tendencies) on the one hand, and (neural) processing of and responses to socio-emotional stimuli on the

  16. Caregiver wellbeing: an examination of the coping-appraisel process of caring for individuals with an acquired brain injury

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-12-09

    Objective: Previous literature has demonstrated empirical support for a stress process model of caregiving (Chronister & Chan, 2006). This study examined whether a coping–appraisal stress model helps in our understanding of the experience of caregiving for people with an acquired brain injury.\\r\

  17. Banking in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Cull, R.; Berger, A.; Molyneux, P.; Wilson, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes stock of the current state of banking systems across Sub-Saharan Africa and discusses recent developments including innovations that might help Africa leapfrog more traditional banking models. Using an array of different data, the paper documents that African banking systems are

  18. Bank profitability during recessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Wilko; de Haan, Leo; Hoeberichts, Marco; van Oordt, Maarten R C; Swank, Job

    This paper contributes to the literature on the relation between bank profitability and economic activity. When allowing for stronger co-movement of bank profit with economic activity during deep recessions, we find a much larger impact of output growth on bank profitability than commonly found in

  19. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  20. Pattern Analysis On Banking Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritpal Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Everyday refinement and development of technology has led to an increase in the competition between the Tech companies and their going out of way to crack the system andbreak down. Thus providing Data mining a strategically and security-wise important area for many business organizations including banking sector. It allows the analyzes of important information in the data warehouse and assists the banks to look for obscure patterns in a group and discover unknown relationship in the data.Banking systems needs to process ample amount of data on daily basis related to customer information their credit card details limit and collateral details transaction details risk profiles Anti Money Laundering related information trade finance data. Thousands of decisionsbased on the related data are taken in a bank daily. This paper analyzes the banking dataset in the weka environment for the detection of interesting patterns based on its applications ofcustomer acquisition customer retention management and marketing and management of risk fraudulence detections.

  1. Microscale Insight into Microbial Seed Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locey, Kenneth J; Fisk, Melany C; Lennon, J T

    2016-01-01

    Microbial dormancy leads to the emergence of seed banks in environmental, engineered, and host-associated ecosystems. These seed banks act as reservoirs of diversity that allow microbes to persist under adverse conditions, including extreme limitation of resources. While microbial seed banks may be influenced by macroscale factors, such as the supply of resources, the importance of microscale encounters between organisms and resource particles is often overlooked. We hypothesized that dimensions of spatial, trophic, and resource complexity determine rates of encounter, which in turn, drive the abundance, productivity, and size of seed banks. We tested this using >10,000 stochastic individual based models (IBMs) that simulated energetic, physiological, and ecological processes across combinations of resource, spatial, and trophic complexity. These IBMs allowed realistic dynamics and the emergence of seed banks from ecological selection on random variation in species traits. Macroscale factors like the supply and concentration of resources had little effect on resource encounter rates. In contrast, encounter rates were strongly influenced by interactions between dispersal mode and spatial structure, and also by the recalcitrance of resources. In turn, encounter rates drove abundance, productivity, and seed bank dynamics. Time series revealed that energetically costly traits can lead to large seed banks and that recalcitrant resources can lead to greater stability through the formation of seed banks and the slow consumption of resources. Our findings suggest that microbial seed banks emerge from microscale dimensions of ecological complexity and their influence on resource limitation and energetic costs.

  2. The rise and growth of Serbian banking until World War I: Part three: Serbian banking system - operations and relations of the private banks and the National Bank (1878-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Serbian banking during the 19th century was a gradual process that underwent two distinctive stages with the turning point in 1878 when Serbia became an independent state by the international agreement concluded at the Berlin Congress. During the second stage, after 1878, a decisive programme of economic development and modernization resulted in the mushrooming growth of banks and creation of the national banking system that consisted of the Privileged National Bank of the Kingdom of Serbia (National Bank as a bank of note issue, private banks, state banks and farm cooperative societies. The majority of private banks were small joint-stock unit and universal banks which developed basic banking (discounting, savings deposits, passive and active current accounts, cashless payments, Lombard credits, trade in securities and non-banking activities (establishment of industrial firms and conducting domestic and foreign trade. Relations between banks and the National Bank had been intensified until 1908 on voluntary basis, primarily by the National Bank's everyday credit operations, undertaken rules and measures. From 1908, however, these relations were regulated by the new Act on the National Bank (1908 through the instrument of interest rate ceiling (Article 6e and thus became obligatory for both parties. Unfortunately, implementation of this new instrument led to deteriorating of relations between the banks and the National Bank, thus preventing the National Bank to continue with strengthening its role as a central bank. The Serbian National Bank succeeded in achieving two main aims of a central bank - monetary stability and helping in development of national trade and production, particularly industry. However, it was limited in achieving stability of the banking system because it could not fully perform its lender of the last resort function. This function was constrained, not by unwillingness or incapability of the National bank

  3. On longevity and the aging process : a magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the radiological phenotype of the human brain in familial longevity with regard to brain structure. This study was performed as part of the Leiden Longevity Study – a study population consisting of offspring of long-lived Dutch people who are genetically

  4. NRC/RSR Data Bank Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankert, S.F.; Evans, C.D.; Hardy, H.A.; Litteer, G.L.; Schulz, G.L.; Smith, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established the NRC/Reactor Safety Research (RSR) Data Bank Program to provide a means of collecting, processing, and making available experimental data from the many domestic and foreign water reactor safety research programs. The NRC/RSR Data Bank Program collects qualified engineering data from experimental program data bases, stores the data in a single data bank in a common format, and makes the data available to users. The program is designed to be user oriented to minimize the effort required to obtain and manipulate data of interest. The data bank concept and structure embodied in the data bank processing system are applicable to any program where large quantities of scientific (numeric) data are generated and require compiling, storage, and accessing in order to be collected and made available to multiple users. 3 figures

  5. Deterministic multivalued logic scheme for information processing and routing in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezrukov, Sergey M.; Kish, Laszlo B.

    2009-01-01

    Driven by analogies with state vectors of quantum informatics and noise-based logic, we propose a general scheme and elements of neural circuitry for processing and addressing information in the brain. Specifically, we consider random (e.g., Poissonian) trains of finite-duration spikes, and, using the idealized concepts of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, offer a procedure for generating 2 N -1 orthogonal vectors out of N partially overlapping trains ('neuro-bits'). We then show that these vectors can be used to construct 2 2 N -1 -1 different superpositions which represent the same number of logic values when carrying or routing information. In quantum informatics the above numbers are the same, however, the present logic scheme is more advantageous because it is deterministic in the sense that the presence of a vector in the spike train is detected by an appropriate coincidence circuit. For this reason it does not require time averaging or repeated measurements of the kind used in standard cross-correlation analysis or in quantum computing.

  6. Developing a multiscale, multi-resolution agent-based brain tumor model by graphics processing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Le

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiscale agent-based modeling (MABM has been widely used to simulate Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM and its progression. At the intracellular level, the MABM approach employs a system of ordinary differential equations to describe quantitatively specific intracellular molecular pathways that determine phenotypic switches among cells (e.g. from migration to proliferation and vice versa. At the intercellular level, MABM describes cell-cell interactions by a discrete module. At the tissue level, partial differential equations are employed to model the diffusion of chemoattractants, which are the input factors of the intracellular molecular pathway. Moreover, multiscale analysis makes it possible to explore the molecules that play important roles in determining the cellular phenotypic switches that in turn drive the whole GBM expansion. However, owing to limited computational resources, MABM is currently a theoretical biological model that uses relatively coarse grids to simulate a few cancer cells in a small slice of brain cancer tissue. In order to improve this theoretical model to simulate and predict actual GBM cancer progression in real time, a graphics processing unit (GPU-based parallel computing algorithm was developed and combined with the multi-resolution design to speed up the MABM. The simulated results demonstrated that the GPU-based, multi-resolution and multiscale approach can accelerate the previous MABM around 30-fold with relatively fine grids in a large extracellular matrix. Therefore, the new model has great potential for simulating and predicting real-time GBM progression, if real experimental data are incorporated.

  7. Co-speech gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing semantic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Hasson, Uri; Skipper, Jeremy I; Small, Steven L

    2009-11-01

    Everyday communication is accompanied by visual information from several sources, including co-speech gestures, which provide semantic information listeners use to help disambiguate the speaker's message. Using fMRI, we examined how gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing semantic information. The BOLD response was recorded while participants listened to stories under three audiovisual conditions and one auditory-only (speech alone) condition. In the first audiovisual condition, the storyteller produced gestures that naturally accompany speech. In the second, the storyteller made semantically unrelated hand movements. In the third, the storyteller kept her hands still. In addition to inferior parietal and posterior superior and middle temporal regions, bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and left anterior inferior frontal gyrus responded more strongly to speech when it was further accompanied by gesture, regardless of the semantic relation to speech. However, the right inferior frontal gyrus was sensitive to the semantic import of the hand movements, demonstrating more activity when hand movements were semantically unrelated to the accompanying speech. These findings show that perceiving hand movements during speech modulates the distributed pattern of neural activation involved in both biological motion perception and discourse comprehension, suggesting listeners attempt to find meaning, not only in the words speakers produce, but also in the hand movements that accompany speech.

  8. Audio-visuomotor processing in the musician's brain: an ERP study on professional violinists and clarinetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Calbi, Marta; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto

    2014-07-29

    The temporal dynamics of brain activation during visual and auditory perception of congruent vs. incongruent musical video clips was investigated in 12 musicians from the Milan Conservatory of music and 12 controls. 368 videos of a clarinetist and a violinist playing the same score with their instruments were presented. The sounds were similar in pitch, intensity, rhythm and duration. To produce an audiovisual discrepancy, in half of the trials, the visual information was incongruent with the soundtrack in pitch. ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. Only in musicians for their own instruments was a N400-like negative deflection elicited due to the incongruent audiovisual information. SwLORETA applied to the N400 response identified the areas mediating multimodal motor processing: the prefrontal cortex, the right superior and middle temporal gyrus, the premotor cortex, the inferior frontal and inferior parietal areas, the EBA, somatosensory cortex, cerebellum and SMA. The data indicate the existence of audiomotor mirror neurons responding to incongruent visual and auditory information, thus suggesting that they may encode multimodal representations of musical gestures and sounds. These systems may underlie the ability to learn how to play a musical instrument.

  9. Brain insulin signaling: a key component of cognitive processes and a potential basis for cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, Ewan C.; Recknagel, Andrew K.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding of the role of insulin in the brain has gradually expanded, from initial conceptions of the brain as insulin-insensitive through identification of a role in regulation of feeding to recent demonstration of insulin as a key component of hippocampal memory processes. Conversely, systemic insulin resistance such as that seen in type 2 diabetes is associated with a range of cogntive and neural deficits. Here we review the evidence for insulin as a cognitive and neural modulator, including potential effector mechanisms, and examine the impact that type 2 diabetes has on these mechanisms in order to identify likely bases for the cognitive impairments seen in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:21907815

  10. The importance of business intelligence in the bank strategic marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bojan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing philosophy today is inevitable for many financial institutions which are dealing with big competition in the market. Banking institutions while transforming from traditional to modern banks, must put in a first place acceptance of marketing principals, i.e. they must focus on consumers (users of bank's products & services. Implementing new technologies in business, banking market competitors are facing many innovations in products/services and processes, and a wide range of offers in banking and non-banking financial organizations. That invokes the need for modern technological solutions in gathering and processing a lot of market information and individual tracking of every client's activities (one-to-one. In those circumstances, there's great necessity to implement business intelligence system in banks, that can significantly help in finding and realization of adequate marketing strategies in banking business.

  11. Mapping the brain pathways of traumatic memory: inactivation of protein kinase M zeta in different brain regions disrupts traumatic memory processes and attenuates traumatic stress responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagit; Kozlovsky, Nitsan; Matar, Michael A; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    Protein kinase M zeta (PKMzeta), a constitutively active isoform of protein kinase C, has been implicated in protein synthesis-dependent maintenance of long-term potentiation and memory storage in the brain. Recent studies reported that local application of ZIP, a membrane-permeant PKMzeta inhibitor, into the insular cortex (IC) of behaving rats abolished long-term memory of taste associations. This study assessed the long-term effects of local applications of ZIP microinjected immediately (1 h) or 10 days after predator scent stress exposure, in a controlled prospectively designed animal model for PTSD. Four brain structures known to be involved in memory processes and in anxiety were investigated: lateral ventricle (LV), dorsal hippocampus (DH), basolateral amygdala and IC. The outcome measures included behavior in an elevated plus maze and acoustic startle response 7 days after microinjection, and freezing behavior upon exposure to trauma-related cue 8 days after microinjection. Previously acquired/encoded memories associated with the IC were also assessed. Inactivation of PKMzeta in the LV or DH within 1h of exposure effectively reduced PTSD-like behavioral disruption and trauma cue response 8 days later. Inactivation of PKMzeta 10 days after exposure had equivalent effects only when administered in the IC. The effect was demonstrated to be specific for trauma memories, whereas previously acquired data were unaffected by the procedure. Predator scent related memories are located in different brain areas at different times beginning with an initial hippocampus-dependent consolidation process, and are eventually stored in the IC. These bring the IC to the forefront as a potential region of significance in processes related to traumatic stress-induced disorders. 2010 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Does processing speed mediate the effect of pediatric traumatic brain injury on working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Stephanie; Barnes, Marcia A; Swank, Paul R; Prasad, Mary; Cox, Charles S; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda

    2016-03-01

    Processing speed (PS) and working memory (WM), core abilities that support learning, are vulnerable to disruption following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Developmental increases in WM are related to age-related changes in PS. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether WM deficits in children with TBI are mediated by PS. The performance of children with complicated mild, moderate, and severe TBI (n = 77) was examined relative to an orthopedic injury (n = 30) and a healthy comparison group (n = 40) an average of 4 years after injury (range 8 months to 12 years). Coding was utilized as a measure of PS, while the WM measures included complex verbal and visual-spatial span tasks with parallel processing requirements. Mediation analysis examined whether TBI might have an indirect effect on WM through PS. Children in the TBI group performed more poorly than the combined comparison groups on coding and visual-spatial WM. Verbal WM scores were lower in TBI and the healthy comparison relative to the orthopedic group. TBI severity group differences were found on coding, but not WM measures. The relation between coding and both the WM tasks was similar. Bootstrap regression analyses suggested that PS, as measured by coding, might partially mediate the effect of group performance on WM. TBI disrupts core PS and WM abilities that scaffold more complex abilities. Importantly, slowed PS was associated with WM deficits commonly identified following pediatric TBI. Implications of our findings regarding the relation between PS and WM may suggest interventions for children and adolescents following TBI. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Brain processing of consonance/dissonance in musicians and controls: a hemispheric asymmetry revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Orlandi, Andrea; Pisanu, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    It was investigated to what extent musical expertise influences the auditory processing of harmonicity by recording event-related potentials. Thirty-four participants (18 musicians and 16 controls) were asked to listen to hundreds of chords, differing in their degree of consonance, their complexity (from two to six composing sounds) and their range (distance of two adjacent pitches, from quartertones to more than 18 semitone steps). The task consisted of detecting rare targets. An early auditory N1 was observed that was modulated by chord dissonance in both groups. The response was generated in the right medial temporal gyrus (MTG) for consonant chords but in the left MTG for dissonant chords according to swLORETA reconstruction performed. An anterior negativity (N2) was enhanced only in musicians in response to chords featuring quartertones, thus suggesting a greater pitch sensitivity for simultaneous pure tones in the skilled brain. The P300 was affected by the frequency range only in musicians, who also showed a greater sensitivity to sound complexity. A strong left hemispheric specialization for processing quartertones in the left temporal cortex of musicians was observed at N2 level (250-350 ms), which was observed on the right side in controls. Additionally, in controls, widespread activity of the right limbic area was associated with listening to close frequencies causing disturbing beats, possibly suggesting a negative aesthetic appreciation for these stimuli. Overall, the data show a finer and more tuned neural representation of pitch intervals in musicians, linked to a marked specialization of their left temporal cortex (BA21/38). © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Predictive Brain Mechanisms in Sound-to-Meaning Mapping during Speech Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Bingjiang; Ge, Jianqiao; Niu, Zhendong; Tan, Li Hai; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2016-10-19

    Spoken language comprehension relies not only on the identification of individual words, but also on the expectations arising from contextual information. A distributed frontotemporal network is known to facilitate the mapping of speech sounds onto their corresponding meanings. However, how prior expectations influence this efficient mapping at the neuroanatomical level, especially in terms of individual words, remains unclear. Using fMRI, we addressed this question in the framework of the dual-stream model by scanning native speakers of Mandarin Chinese, a language highly dependent on context. We found that, within the ventral pathway, the violated expectations elicited stronger activations in the left anterior superior temporal gyrus and the ventral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) for the phonological-semantic prediction of spoken words. Functional connectivity analysis showed that expectations were mediated by both top-down modulation from the left ventral IFG to the anterior temporal regions and enhanced cross-stream integration through strengthened connections between different subregions of the left IFG. By further investigating the dynamic causality within the dual-stream model, we elucidated how the human brain accomplishes sound-to-meaning mapping for words in a predictive manner. In daily communication via spoken language, one of the core processes is understanding the words being used. Effortless and efficient information exchange via speech relies not only on the identification of individual spoken words, but also on the contextual information giving rise to expected meanings. Despite the accumulating evidence for the bottom-up perception of auditory input, it is still not fully understood how the top-down modulation is achieved in the extensive frontotemporal cortical network. Here, we provide a comprehensive description of the neural substrates underlying sound-to-meaning mapping and demonstrate how the dual-stream model functions in the modulation of

  15. IT use, productivity, and market power in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetter, Michael; Noth, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Information management is a core process in banking that can resolve information a symmetries and thereby help to mitigate competitive pressure. We test if the use of information technology (IT) contributes to bank output, and how IT-augmented bank productivity relates to differences in market

  16. Information Compression, Multiple Alignment, and the Representation and Processing of Knowledge in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, J Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The SP theory of intelligence , with its realization in the SP computer model , aims to simplify and integrate observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. This paper describes how abstract structures and processes in the theory may be realized in terms of neurons, their interconnections, and the transmission of signals between neurons. This part of the SP theory- SP-neural -is a tentative and partial model for the representation and processing of knowledge in the brain. Empirical support for the SP theory-outlined in the paper-provides indirect support for SP-neural. In the abstract part of the SP theory (SP-abstract), all kinds of knowledge are represented with patterns , where a pattern is an array of atomic symbols in one or two dimensions. In SP-neural, the concept of a "pattern" is realized as an array of neurons called a pattern assembly , similar to Hebb's concept of a "cell assembly" but with important differences. Central to the processing of information in SP-abstract is information compression via the matching and unification of patterns (ICMUP) and, more specifically, information compression via the powerful concept of multiple alignment , borrowed and adapted from bioinformatics. Processes such as pattern recognition, reasoning and problem solving are achieved via the building of multiple alignments, while unsupervised learning is achieved by creating patterns from sensory information and also by creating patterns from multiple alignments in which there is a partial match between one pattern and another. It is envisaged that, in SP-neural, short-lived neural structures equivalent to multiple alignments will be created via an inter-play of excitatory and inhibitory neural signals. It is also envisaged that unsupervised learning will be achieved by the creation of pattern assemblies from sensory information and from the

  17. Effects of prosody on spoken Thai word perception in pre-attentive brain processing: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipun Arunphalungsanti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of the unfamiliar stressed prosody on spoken Thai word perception in the pre-attentive processing of the brain evaluated by the N2a and brain wave oscillatory activity. EEG recording was obtained from eleven participants, who were instructed to ignore the sound stimuli while watching silent movies. Results showed that prosody of unfamiliar stress word perception elicited N2a component and the quantitative EEG analysis found that theta and delta wave powers were principally generated in the frontal area. It was possible that the unfamiliar prosody with different frequencies, duration and intensity of the sound of Thai words induced highly selective attention and retrieval of information from the episodic memory of the pre-attentive stage of speech perception. This brain electrical activity evidence could be used for further study in the development of valuable clinical tests to evaluate the frontal lobe function in speech perception.

  18. The Response of Performance to Merger Strategy in Indonesian Banking Industry: Analyses on Bank Mandiri, Bank Danamon, and Bank Permata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murti Lestari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the responses of performances of BankMandiri, Bank Danamon, and Bank Permata to merger strategy.This paper harnesses the quantitative approach with structuralbreak analysis method and impulse response function. Theplausible findings indicate that the merger of Bank Permataproduces a better performance response in comparison to theconsolidation of Bank Mandiri and the merger of Bank Danamon.The merger of Bank Permata does not result in performanceshocks, and the structural break does not prevail either. On theother hand, the consolidation of Bank Mandiri and the mergerof Bank Danamon result in structural breaks, particularly in thespread performance. In order to return to the stable position, themergers of Bank Mandiri and Bank Danamon require a longertime than does the merger of Bank Permata. This researchindicates that for large banks, the mergers and acquisitions(retaining one existing bank will deliver a better performanceresponse than will the consolidations (no existing bank. Keywords: impulse response function; merger; structural break

  19. BANKING WITHOUT INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ilieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increased global awareness of Islamic finance. This topic is mainly opened with respect to the great financial crisis that mostly hit the banking system and the financial markets and caused many bank bankruptcies and state interventions. This paper analyzes the basic principles of Islamic banking. The absolute prohibition of receiving and giving interest (Riba and profit-and-loss sharing (PLS paradigms are elaborated in detail; they are primarily based on mudarabah (profit-sharing and musyarakah (joint venture concepts which nowadays are becoming an accepted way of doing business in several Western multinational banks. An overall comparison of the advantages of Islamic vs. conventional banking is also given. Islamic finance technology solutions have matured and they will face various challenges in the following decades, due to conventional banks offering, increasingly, Islamic products. The need for a more comprehensive environment and regulatory framework is emphasized, so that Islamic banking development can be ensured.

  20. THE IMPACT OF FINANCIAL LIBERALIZATION ON ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciupac-Ulici Maria-Lenuta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades, many emerging countries have moved away from a system of restrictive monetary and financial controls to a more liberalized financial sector. The restrictive imposed policies were expected to contribute to industrialization of the economy and to the stability of the banking sector. However, financial liberalization had big costs on the banking system's competitiveness and efficiency. Financial liberalization has a different impact on banking markets. Thus, there is no size that fits all policies concerning banking liberalization process. For highly efficient banks, competition is improving their efficiency standard, while less efficient banks can`t compete with foreign banks and further are decreasing in efficiency or are driven out of the market. Overall, the average efficiency of domestic banking markets should be an important variable in deciding to open up their banking market. Banks that are operating close to the frontier, in general are improving their efficiency following financial liberalization process. Banks that are operating in a further distance can`t manage to compete with foreign market entrants, so, they are losing from liberalization process. In this article we propose to measure the impact of financial liberalization process on Romanian banking system. We used the panel regression to study the informational efficiency of three Romanian banks during 2004 - 2012. The dependent variable of the model was the price of stock bank, and the independent variables were the financial indicators (return on equity, return on assets, net profit margin. In the second regression we introduce a dummy variable for crisis period. Our results show that the financial indicators choose do not affect the efficiency of Romanian bank, but the crisis had a negative impact on them. International context, credit risk, the implementation of Basel III and reducing exposures in the absence of investment alternatives remains key

  1. Deep brain stimulation reveals emotional impact processing in ventromedial prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Geday, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    -noradrenaline reuptake sites. We tested the hypothesis in patients with Parkinson's disease in whom we had measured the changes of blood flow everywhere in the brain associated with the deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. We determined the emotional reactivity of the patients as the average impact......We tested the hypothesis that modulation of monoaminergic tone with deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of subthalamic nucleus would reveal a site of reactivity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex that we previously identified by modulating serotonergic and noradrenergic mechanisms by blocking serotonin...

  2. Brain activation during dual-task processing is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea N Wong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance and enhanced brain activation. Yet, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness-related brain activation is associated with better cognitive performance is not well understood. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function was mediated by greater prefrontal cortex activation in healthy older adults. Brain activation was measured during dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 128 healthy older adults (59-80 years. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with greater activation during dual-task processing in several brain areas including the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortex (ACC/SMA, thalamus and basal ganglia, right motor/somatosensory cortex and middle frontal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex, controlling for age, sex, education, and gray matter volume. Of these regions, greater ACC/SMA activation mediated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dual-task performance. We provide novel evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness may support cognitive performance by facilitating brain activation in a core region critical for executive function.

  3. BANKING UNION - ROMANIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina Ioana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis showed that banks were not able to face the loss, because there is no framework for a resolution, so that it intervened with money from taxpayers. So, it has been highlighted the need to update the regulations applicable to the banking sector. Creating a single supervisory mechanism in the fall of 2014 was a time reference point to achieve a banking union in Europe. Banking Union is one of the four foundations for a genuine Economic and Monetary Union. The paper’s purpose is to analyze the Banking Union structure, based on three pillars: (i The Single Supervisory Mechanism - the transfer of the main responsibility regarding banking supervision from national to European level, (ii The Single Resolution Mechanism - introduction of common provisions to ensure legal support required to manage bank failures problem, (iii The Deposit Guarantee Schemes - harmonization of deposit guarantee rules. These measures were adopted at European Union level to ensure the stability of the European banking system and to prevent future crises. Because countries that are not part of the euro area are not required to join the Banking Union, the dilemma of these countries lies in the decision to join the Banking Union quickly or to wait. It is the case of Romania, also, so, this paper analyze the opportunity of Romania's accession to the Banking Union before adopting the euro. There are analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the Banking Union, showing that, in the context of single currency introduction, Romania's participation is required. So far, there are reduced debates regarding the need, advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the European Banking Union, the top representatives of the National Bank of Romania being among the few who expressed their views in public and published papers on the subject.

  4. Deep Neural Networks: A New Framework for Modeling Biological Vision and Brain Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-11-24

    Recent advances in neural network modeling have enabled major strides in computer vision and other artificial intelligence applications. Human-level visual recognition abilities are coming within reach of artificial systems. Artificial neural networks are inspired by the brain, and their computations could be implemented in biological neurons. Convolutional feedforward networks, which now dominate computer vision, take further inspiration from the architecture of the primate visual hierarchy. However, the current models are designed with engineering goals, not to model brain computations. Nevertheless, initial studies comparing internal representations between these models and primate brains find surprisingly similar representational spaces. With human-level performance no longer out of reach, we are entering an exciting new era, in which we will be able to build biologically faithful feedforward and recurrent computational models of how biological brains perform high-level feats of intelligence, including vision.

  5. Auditory Brain Stem Processing in Reptiles and Amphibians: Roles of Coupled Ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willis, Katie L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Comparative approaches to the auditory system have yielded great insight into the evolution of sound localization circuits, particularly within the nonmammalian tetrapods. The fossil record demonstrates multiple appearances of tympanic hearing, and examination of the auditory brain stem of variou...

  6. Preliminary Evidence for Impaired Brain Activity of Neural Reward Processing in Children and Adolescents with Reactive Attachment Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment, which markedly increases risks for psychopathology, is associated with structural and functional brain differences. Especially, exposure to parental verbal abuse (PVA) or interparental violence during childhood is associated with negative outcomes such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and reduced cognitive abilities. Other forms of childhood maltreatment have been associated with brain structure or developmental alteration. Our earlier studies elucidated potential discernible effects of PVA and witnessing domestic violence during childhood on brain morphology, including gray matter volume or cortical thickness. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse might be modified specifically by such experiences, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in the corticolimbic regions. These findings fit with preclinical studies showing that sensory cortices are highly plastic structures. Using tasks with high and low monetary rewards while subjects underwent functional MRI, we also examined whether neural activity during reward processing was altered, or not, in children and adolescents with reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Significantly reduced activity in the caudate and nucleus accumbens was observed during a high monetary reward condition in the RAD group compared to the typically developed group. The striatal neural reward activity in the RAD group was also markedly decreased. The present results suggest that dopaminergic dysfunction occurred in the striatum in children and adolescents with RAD, potentially leading to a future risk of psychiatric disorders such as dependence.

  7. How real-life health messages engage our brains: Shared processing of effective anti-alcohol videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Martin A; Schmälzle, Ralf; Renner, Britta; Schupp, Harald T

    2017-07-01

    Health communication via mass media is an important strategy when targeting risky drinking, but many questions remain about how health messages are processed and how they unfold their effects within receivers. Here we examine how the brains of young adults-a key target group for alcohol prevention-'tune in' to real-life health prevention messages about risky alcohol use. In a first study, a large sample of authentic public service announcements (PSAs) targeting the risks of alcohol was characterized using established measures of message effectiveness. In the main study, we used inter-subject correlation analysis of fMRI data to examine brain responses to more and less effective PSAs in a sample of young adults. We find that more effective messages command more similar responses within widespread brain regions, including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, insulae and precuneus. In previous research, these regions have been related to processing narratives, emotional stimuli, self-relevance and attention towards salient stimuli. The present study thus suggests that more effective health prevention messages have greater 'neural reach', i.e. they engage the brains of audience members' more widely. This work outlines a promising strategy for assessing the effects of health communication at a neural level. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. How real-life health messages engage our brains: Shared processing of effective anti-alcohol videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmälzle, Ralf; Renner, Britta; Schupp, Harald T.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Health communication via mass media is an important strategy when targeting risky drinking, but many questions remain about how health messages are processed and how they unfold their effects within receivers. Here we examine how the brains of young adults—a key target group for alcohol prevention—‘tune in’ to real-life health prevention messages about risky alcohol use. In a first study, a large sample of authentic public service announcements (PSAs) targeting the risks of alcohol was characterized using established measures of message effectiveness. In the main study, we used inter-subject correlation analysis of fMRI data to examine brain responses to more and less effective PSAs in a sample of young adults. We find that more effective messages command more similar responses within widespread brain regions, including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, insulae and precuneus. In previous research, these regions have been related to processing narratives, emotional stimuli, self-relevance and attention towards salient stimuli. The present study thus suggests that more effective health prevention messages have greater ‘neural reach’, i.e. they engage the brains of audience members’ more widely. This work outlines a promising strategy for assessing the effects of health communication at a neural level. PMID:28402568

  9. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Chronically Impairs Sleep- and Wake-Dependent Emotional Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantua, Janna; Henry, Owen S; Garskovas, Nolan F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2017-06-01

    A single traumatic brain injury (TBI), even when mild (ie, concussion), can cause lasting consequences. Individuals with a history of chronic (>1-year prior) mild TBI have an increased risk of mood disturbances (eg, depression, suicide). This population also has lingering sleep alterations, including poor sleep quality and changes in sleep stage proportions. Given these sleep deficits, we aimed to test whether sleep-dependent emotional memory consolidation is reduced in this population. We utilized a mild TBI group (3.7 ± 2.9 years post injury) and an uninjured (non-TBI) population. Participants viewed negative and neutral images both before and after a 12-hour period containing sleep ("Sleep" group) or an equivalent period of time spent awake ("Wake" group). Participants rated images for valence/arousal at both sessions, and memory recognition was tested at session two. The TBI group had less rapid eye movement (REM), longer REM latency, and more sleep complaints. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation of nonemotional images was present in all participants. However, consolidation of negative images was only present in the non-TBI group. A lack of differentiation between the TBI Sleep and Wake groups was due to poor performance in the sleep group and, unexpectedly, enhanced performance in the wake group. Additionally, although the non-TBI participants habituated to negative images over a waking period, the TBI participants did not. We propose disrupted sleep- and wake-dependent emotional processing contributes to poor emotional outcomes following chronic, mild TBI. This work has broad implications, as roughly one-third of the US population will sustain a mild TBI during their lifetime. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A simple model of bank bankruptcies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksiejuk, Agata; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    2001-10-01

    Interbank deposits (loans and credits) are quite common in banking system all over the world. Such interbank co-operation is profitable for banks but it can also lead to collective financial failures. In this paper, we introduce a new model of directed percolation as a simple representation for contagion process and mass bankruptcies in banking systems. Directed connections that are randomly distributed between junctions of bank lattice simulate flows of money in our model. Critical values of a mean density of interbank connections as well as static and dynamic scaling laws for the statistics of avalanche bankruptcies are found. Results of computer simulations for the universal profile of bankruptcies spreading are in a qualitative agreement with the third wave of bank suspensions during The Great Depression in USA.

  11. Control of Bank Consolidated Financial Statements Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita S. Ambarchyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author presents the multiple linear regression model of bank consolidated financial statements quality. The article considers six characteristics that can be used to estimate the level of bank consolidated financial statements quality. The multiple linear regression model was developed, using the results of point-based system of consolidated financial statements of thirty European bank and financial groups on the basis of the developed characteristics. The author offers to use the characteristic significance factor in the process of consolidated financial statements appraisal by points. The constructed regression model is checked on accuracy and statistical significance. The model can be used by internal auditors and financial analytics as an instrument for bank and non-bank consolidated financial statements quality control

  12. The Influence of Large-scale Bank Roughness and Floodplain Composition on Spatial and Temporal Variations in Bank Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, C. R.; Darby, S. E.; Leyland, J.; Aalto, R. E.; Best, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Nicholas, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of bank erosion processes and rates along the world's largest rivers remains incomplete, primarily due to the difficulties of obtaining data pertaining to the key driving processes (i.e., during the floods that drive most bank retreat). Recently, larger scale bank roughness elements (slump blocks and embayments) have been shown to impact upon rates and locations of bank erosion. However, a complete understanding of the way such features affect rates of bank erosion is currently hindered by the lack of detailed concurrent observations of slump block geometry, embayment geometry and flow at formative discharges in natural environments. Here, we report on high spatial resolution topographic (Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Multibeam Echo Souder) and flow (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) surveys undertaken on the Mekong River, Cambodia, from which we extract the geometric properties of roughness elements across a range of scales. We combine this data with sub-bottom profile data, revealing the composition of the surrounding floodplain, to link, for the first time, scales of bank roughness to bank material composition. Through the categorisation of a series of cut river banks by roughness geometry, we show how rates and locations of bank erosion are dependent on that roughness and associated bank material changes. We test how observed patterns of bank erosion conform to previously detailed models of embayment development, and provide new insight into processes affecting the retreat of large river banks.

  13. Contextual and perceptual brain processes underlying moral cognition: a quantitative meta-analysis of moral reasoning and moral emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinc, Gunes; Spreng, R Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Human morality has been investigated using a variety of tasks ranging from judgments of hypothetical dilemmas to viewing morally salient stimuli. These experiments have provided insight into neural correlates of moral judgments and emotions, yet these approaches reveal important differences in moral cognition. Moral reasoning tasks require active deliberation while moral emotion tasks involve the perception of stimuli with moral implications. We examined convergent and divergent brain activity associated with these experimental paradigms taking a quantitative meta-analytic approach. A systematic search of the literature yielded 40 studies. Studies involving explicit decisions in a moral situation were categorized as active (n = 22); studies evoking moral emotions were categorized as passive (n = 18). We conducted a coordinate-based meta-analysis using the Activation Likelihood Estimation to determine reliable patterns of brain activity. Results revealed a convergent pattern of reliable brain activity for both task categories in regions of the default network, consistent with the social and contextual information processes supported by this brain network. Active tasks revealed more reliable activity in the temporoparietal junction, angular gyrus and temporal pole. Active tasks demand deliberative reasoning and may disproportionately involve the retrieval of social knowledge from memory, mental state attribution, and construction of the context through associative processes. In contrast, passive tasks reliably engaged regions associated with visual and emotional information processing, including lingual gyrus and the amygdala. A laterality effect was observed in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, with active tasks engaging the left, and passive tasks engaging the right. While overlapping activity patterns suggest a shared neural network for both tasks, differential activity suggests that processing of moral input is affected by task demands. The results provide novel

  14. Image processing and Quality Control for the first 10,000 brain imaging datasets from UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Almagro, Fidel; Jenkinson, Mark; Bangerter, Neal K; Andersson, Jesper L R; Griffanti, Ludovica; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N; Jbabdi, Saad; Hernandez-Fernandez, Moises; Vallee, Emmanuel; Vidaurre, Diego; Webster, Matthew; McCarthy, Paul; Rorden, Christopher; Daducci, Alessandro; Alexander, Daniel C; Zhang, Hui; Dragonu, Iulius; Matthews, Paul M; Miller, Karla L; Smith, Stephen M

    2018-02-01

    UK Biobank is a large-scale prospective epidemiological study with all data accessible to researchers worldwide. It is currently in the process of bringing back 100,000 of the original participants for brain, heart and body MRI, carotid ultrasound and low-dose bone/fat x-ray. The brain imaging component covers 6 modalities (T1, T2 FLAIR, susceptibility weighted MRI, Resting fMRI, Task fMRI and Diffusion MRI). Raw and processed data from the first 10,000 imaged subjects has recently been released for general research access. To help convert this data into useful summary information we have developed an automated processing and QC (Quality Control) pipeline that is available for use by other researchers. In this paper we describe the pipeline in detail, following a brief overview of UK Biobank brain imaging and the acquisition protocol. We also describe several quantitative investigations carried out as part of the development of both the imaging protocol and the processing pipeline. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatiotemporal brain dynamics of emotional face processing modulations induced by the serotonin 1A/2A receptor agonist psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, Fosco; Schmidt, André; Pokorny, Thomas; Kometer, Michael; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2014-12-01

    Emotional face processing is critically modulated by the serotonergic system. For instance, emotional face processing is impaired by acute psilocybin administration, a serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptor agonist. However, the spatiotemporal brain mechanisms underlying these modulations are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal brain dynamics underlying psilocybin-induced modulations during emotional face processing. Electrical neuroimaging analyses were applied to visual evoked potentials in response to emotional faces, following psilocybin and placebo administration. Our results indicate a first time period of strength (i.e., Global Field Power) modulation over the 168-189 ms poststimulus interval, induced by psilocybin. A second time period of strength modulation was identified over the 211-242 ms poststimulus interval. Source estimations over these 2 time periods further revealed decreased activity in response to both neutral and fearful faces within limbic areas, including amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus, and the right temporal cortex over the 168-189 ms interval, and reduced activity in response to happy faces within limbic and right temporo-occipital brain areas over the 211-242 ms interval. Our results indicate a selective and temporally dissociable effect of psilocybin on the neuronal correlates of emotional face processing, consistent with a modulation of the top-down control. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Banche, territorio e sviluppo (Banks, Regions and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Alessandrini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards the banking sectors in all the industrialised countries have been experiencing intense restructuring, aggregation and consolidation, radically changing their ownership structures and geography. Whatever the reasons behind such restructuring processes, the globalisation of the credit markets, the consolidation of banking structures, the removal of barriers to the free location of banks and their penetration of peripheral markets pose two main questions. Will integration of the banking systems lead to a narrowing or a widening of the development gap between regions? What relations will there be between financial centres and the periphery, and how will financial labour be divided between national (international banks and local (regional banks? The aim of this paper is to address such questions in the light of recent developments in the theoretical and empirical literature on financial integration.  JEL Codes: G21, G28, G34Keywords: Bank, Banking, Credit, Globalization, Restructuring

  17. Adopting Internet Banking in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo; Betty A. Dankwah

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at the benefits, challenges and barriers in adopting Internet banking at a major bank in Ghana. The development of the Internet is changing the way financial services are provided in Ghana. The Internet banking facility has resulted in new ways of delivering banking services. The research is a case study based on the staffs that has worked with the bank for more than three years. In evaluating benefits, challenges and barriers to the bank in adopting Internet banking, intervi...

  18. Effects Of On–Line Banking On External Audit And Banks\\' External ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the appeal of information technology in enhancing service delivery, it is important for regulatory authorities and examiners to upgrade their processing and monitoring systems to align with the private sector banking innovation pace. This paper presents the effect of on-line banking on external audit and external ...

  19. Processing of basic speech acts following localized brain damage: a new light on the neuroanatomy of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroker, Nachum; Kasher, Asa; Giora, Rachel; Batori, Gila; Corn, Cecilia; Gil, Mali; Zaidel, Eran

    2005-03-01

    We examined the effect of localized brain lesions on processing of the basic speech acts (BSAs) of question, assertion, request, and command. Both left and right cerebral damage produced significant deficits relative to normal controls, and left brain damaged patients performed worse than patients with right-sided lesions. This finding argues against the common conjecture that the right hemisphere of most right-handers plays a dominant role in natural language pragmatics. In right-hemisphere damaged patients, there was no correlation between location and extent of lesion in perisylvian cortex and performance on BSAs. By contrast, processing of the different BSAs by left hemisphere-damaged patients was strongly affected by perisylvian lesion location, with each BSA showing a distinct pattern of localization. This finding raises the possibility that the classical left perisylvian localization of language functions, as measured by clinical aphasia batteries, partly reflects the localization of the BSAs required to perform these functions.

  20. Nuclear fuel banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    In december 2010 IAEA gave its agreement for the creation of a nuclear fuel bank. This bank will allow IAEA to help member countries that renounce to their own uranium enrichment capacities. This bank located on one or several member countries will belong to IAEA and will be managed by IAEA and its reserve of low enriched uranium will be sufficient to fabricate the fuel for the first load of a 1000 MW PWR. Fund raising has been successful and the running of the bank will have no financial impact on the regular budget of the IAEA. Russia has announced the creation of the first nuclear fuel bank. This bank will be located on the Angarsk site (Siberia) and will be managed by IAEA and will own 120 tonnes of low-enriched uranium fuel (between 2 and 4.95%), this kind of fuel is used in most Russian nuclear power plants. (A.C.)

  1. BrainK for Structural Image Processing: Creating Electrical Models of the Human Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BrainK is a set of automated procedures for characterizing the tissues of the human head from MRI, CT, and photogrammetry images. The tissue segmentation and cortical surface extraction support the primary goal of modeling the propagation of electrical currents through head tissues with a finite difference model (FDM or finite element model (FEM created from the BrainK geometries. The electrical head model is necessary for accurate source localization of dense array electroencephalographic (dEEG measures from head surface electrodes. It is also necessary for accurate targeting of cerebral structures with transcranial current injection from those surface electrodes. BrainK must achieve five major tasks: image segmentation, registration of the MRI, CT, and sensor photogrammetry images, cortical surface reconstruction, dipole tessellation of the cortical surface, and Talairach transformation. We describe the approach to each task, and we compare the accuracies for the key tasks of tissue segmentation and cortical surface extraction in relation to existing research tools (FreeSurfer, FSL, SPM, and BrainVisa. BrainK achieves good accuracy with minimal or no user intervention, it deals well with poor quality MR images and tissue abnormalities, and it provides improved computational efficiency over existing research packages.

  2. Behavioral and molecular processing of visceral pain in the brain of mice: impact of colitis and psychological stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush eJain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal disorders with abdominal pain are associated with central sensitization and psychopathologies that are often exacerbated by stress. Here we investigated the impact of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS and repeated water avoidance stress (WAS on spontaneous and nociception-related behavior and molecular signaling in the mouse brain. DSS increased the mechanical pain sensitivity of the abdominal skin while both WAS and DSS enhanced the mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity of the plantar skin. These manifestations of central sensitization were associated with augmented c-Fos expression in spinal cord, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex. While WAS stimulated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK p42/44, DSS activated another signaling pathway, both of which converged on c-Fos. The DSS- and WAS-induced hyperalgesia in the abdominal and plantar skin and c-Fos expression in the brain disappeared when the mice were subjected to WAS+DSS treatment. Intrarectal allyl isothiocyanate (AITC evoked aversive behavior (freezing, reduction of locomotion and exploration in association with p42/44 MAPK and c-Fos activation in spinal cord and brain. These effects were inhibited by morphine, which attests to their relationship with nociception. DSS and WAS exerted opposite effects on AITC-evoked p42/44 MAPK and c-Fos activation, which indicates that these transduction pathways subserve different aspects of visceral pain processing in the brain. In summary, behavioral perturbations caused by colitis and psychological stress are associated with distinct alterations in cerebral signaling. These findings provide novel perspectives on central sensitization and the sensory and emotional processing of visceral pain stimuli in the brain.

  3. GenBank

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    GenBank? is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 300 000 organisms named at the genus level or lower, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank? staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Molecular Biology Labo...

  4. GenBank

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Dennis A.; Cavanaugh, Mark; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2012-01-01

    GenBank? (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for almost 260 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assig...

  5. Banking: shop and compare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer A; DeJarnette, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    There are many reasons to take a critical look at the practice's banking relationship(s)--technology advancements, security measures, improvements in available services, recent banking enhancements designed specifically for medical practices, the impact of the financial crisis on bank ratings and stability, changing practice needs, opportunities for operational automation at the practice--and it is just simply smart to periodically evaluate and compare the features, pricing, and potential savings offered by vendors.

  6. Shareholder activism in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Raluca

    2015-01-01

    This paper conducts the first assessment of shareholder activism in banking and its effects on risk and performance. The focus is on the conflicts among bank shareholders, managers, and creditors (e.g., regulators, deposit insurer, taxpayers, depositors). This paper finds activism may generally be a destabilizing force, increasing bank risk-taking, but creating market value for shareholders, and leaving operating returns unchanged, consistent with the empirical dominance of the Shareholder-Cr...

  7. Watching the Healing Brain: Multimodal and Non-invasive Imaging of Regenerative Processes after Experimental Cerebral Ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczak, Joanna Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is a severe disease of the brain, which leads to cell death and loss of function. Neuroprotective therapy to prevent neuronal loss has not been effective in human stroke patients. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are needed. Spontaneous recovery can be observed in some patients. However, the basis of this phenomenon is not completely understood yet. Several endogenous regenerative processes have been observed following cerebral ischemia, which may be the reason for functional reco...

  8. Effect of second language exposure on brain activity for language processing among preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Souta; Shibata, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Michiyo; Tanaka, Akihiro; Konno, Akitsugu; Maruyama, Suguru; Gyoba, Jiro; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Koizumi, Masatoshi

    2012-05-01

    We investigated brain activity in 3-5-year-old preschoolers as they listened to connected speech stimuli in Japanese (first language), English (second language), and Chinese (a rarely exposed, foreign language) using near-infrared spectroscopy. Unlike the younger preschoolers who had been exposed to English for almost 1 year, brain activity in the bilateral frontal regions of the older preschoolers who had been exposed to English for almost 2 years was higher for Japanese and English speech stimuli than for Chinese. This tendency seemed to be similar to that observed in adults who had learned English for some years. These results indicate that exposure to a second language affects brain activity to language stimuli among preschoolers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Smart cloud system with image processing server in diagnosing brain diseases dedicated for hospitals with limited resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmi, Fahmi; Nasution, Tigor H; Anggreiny, Anggreiny

    2017-01-01

    The use of medical imaging in diagnosing brain disease is growing. The challenges are related to the big size of data and complexity of the image processing. High standard of hardware and software are demanded, which can only be provided in big hospitals. Our purpose was to provide a smart cloud system to help diagnosing brain diseases for hospital with limited infrastructure. The expertise of neurologists was first implanted in cloud server to conduct an automatic diagnosis in real time using image processing technique developed based on ITK library and web service. Users upload images through website and the result, in this case the size of tumor was sent back immediately. A specific image compression technique was developed for this purpose. The smart cloud system was able to measure the area and location of tumors, with average size of 19.91 ± 2.38 cm2 and an average response time 7.0 ± 0.3 s. The capability of the server decreased when multiple clients accessed the system simultaneously: 14 ± 0 s (5 parallel clients) and 27 ± 0.2 s (10 parallel clients). The cloud system was successfully developed to process and analyze medical images for diagnosing brain diseases in this case for tumor.

  10. Neuropeptide processing in regional brain slices: Effect of conformation and sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.W.; Bijl, W.A.; van Nispen, J.W.; Brendel, K.; Davis, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    The central enzymatic stability of des-enkephalin-gamma-endorphin and its synthetic analogs [cycloN alpha 6, C delta 11]beta-endorphin-[6-17] and [Pro7, Lys(Ac)9]-beta-endorphin[6-17] was studied in vitro using a newly developed, regionally dissected rat brain slice, time course incubation procedure. Tissue slice viability was estimated as the ability of the brain slice to take up or release gamma-[3H]aminobutyric acid after high K+ stimulation. Results demonstrated stability of uptake/release up to 5 hr of incubation, suggesting tissue viability over this period. The estimated half-life of peptides based on the results obtained in our incubation protocol suggest that the peptides studied are metabolized at different rates in the individual brain regions tested. A good correlation exists between the high enzyme activity of neutral endopeptidase and the rapid degradation of des-enkephalin-gamma-endorphin and [cycloN alpha 6, C delata 11]beta-endorphin-[6-17] in caudate putamen. Proline substitution combined with lysine acetylation appears to improve resistance to enzymatic metabolism in caudate putamen and hypothalamus. However, cyclization of des-enkephalin-gamma-endorphin forming an amide bond between the alpha-NH2 of the N-terminal threonine and the gamma-COOH of glutamic acid did not improve peptide stability in any brain region tested. The present study has shown that the brain slice technique is a valid and unique approach to study neuropeptide metabolism in small, discrete regions of rat brain where peptides, peptidases and receptors are colocalized and that specific structural modifications can improve peptide stability

  11. Neuropeptide processing in regional brain slices: Effect of conformation and sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.W.; Bijl, W.A.; van Nispen, J.W.; Brendel, K.; Davis, T.P. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The central enzymatic stability of des-enkephalin-gamma-endorphin and its synthetic analogs (cycloN alpha 6, C delta 11)beta-endorphin-(6-17) and (Pro7, Lys(Ac)9)-beta-endorphin(6-17) was studied in vitro using a newly developed, regionally dissected rat brain slice, time course incubation procedure. Tissue slice viability was estimated as the ability of the brain slice to take up or release gamma-(3H)aminobutyric acid after high K+ stimulation. Results demonstrated stability of uptake/release up to 5 hr of incubation, suggesting tissue viability over this period. The estimated half-life of peptides based on the results obtained in our incubation protocol suggest that the peptides studied are metabolized at different rates in the individual brain regions tested. A good correlation exists between the high enzyme activity of neutral endopeptidase and the rapid degradation of des-enkephalin-gamma-endorphin and (cycloN alpha 6, C delata 11)beta-endorphin-(6-17) in caudate putamen. Proline substitution combined with lysine acetylation appears to improve resistance to enzymatic metabolism in caudate putamen and hypothalamus. However, cyclization of des-enkephalin-gamma-endorphin forming an amide bond between the alpha-NH2 of the N-terminal threonine and the gamma-COOH of glutamic acid did not improve peptide stability in any brain region tested. The present study has shown that the brain slice technique is a valid and unique approach to study neuropeptide metabolism in small, discrete regions of rat brain where peptides, peptidases and receptors are colocalized and that specific structural modifications can improve peptide stability.

  12. Multimodal brain-tumor segmentation based on Dirichlet process mixture model with anisotropic diffusion and Markov random field prior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yisu; Jiang, Jun; Yang, Wei; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2014-01-01

    Brain-tumor segmentation is an important clinical requirement for brain-tumor diagnosis and radiotherapy planning. It is well-known that the number of clusters is one of the most important parameters for automatic segmentation. However, it is difficult to define owing to the high diversity in appearance of tumor tissue among different patients and the ambiguous boundaries of lesions. In this study, a nonparametric mixture of Dirichlet process (MDP) model is applied to segment the tumor images, and the MDP segmentation can be performed without the initialization of the number of clusters. Because the classical MDP segmentation cannot be applied for real-time diagnosis, a new nonparametric segmentation algorithm combined with anisotropic diffusion and a Markov random field (MRF) smooth constraint is proposed in this study. Besides the segmentation of single modal brain-tumor images, we developed the algorithm to segment multimodal brain-tumor images by the magnetic resonance (MR) multimodal features and obtain the active tumor and edema in the same time. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using 32 multimodal MR glioma image sequences, and the segmentation results are compared with other approaches. The accuracy and computation time of our algorithm demonstrates very impressive performance and has a great potential for practical real-time clinical use.

  13. MODEL KONSEPTUAL UNTUK MENGUKUR ADAPTABILITAS BANK SAMPAH DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena J Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Munculnya bank sampah sebagai upaya penerapan dari UU No18 thn 2008, merupakan suatu cara pengelolaan sampah dalam aksi nyata melalui gerakkan 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle dengan melibatkan langsung masyarakat. Untuk pemerintah sendiri, bank sampah menjadi langkah awal yang baik untuk melakukan pemberdayaan masyarakat dalam memperlakukan sampah sebagai sesuatu yang mempunyai nilai guna dan manfaat. Program bank sampah yang diberdayakan di Indonesia tentunya diharapkan dapat memberikan sebuah sistem yang efektif dan efisien sehingga proses bisnis dari bank sampah yang diselenggarakan dapat maksimal. Sistem yang efektif dan efisien ini terangkum dalam suatu proses yang dikenal dengan proses adaptabilitas. Adaptabilitas bank sampah adalah kemampuan sistem bank sampah untuk bereaksi secara positip ketika proses atau kondisi faktor kunci mengalami perubahan.  Belum adanya penelitian mengenai sistem pengukuran adaptabilitas bank sampah di Indonesia, maka makalah ini menyajikan suatu ide model konseptual untuk mengukur adaptabilitas bank sampah, dengan harapan akan terbentuk pemahaman yang mendalam dari keseluruhan permasalahan atau sistem elemen yang membentuk sistem adaptabilitas bank sampah. Jika sistem adaptabilitas ini kelak bisa teramati dan terukur, maka akan berguna bagi pengambilan keputusan dalam pengalokasian sumber daya dan membuat perencanaan keberlanjutan dalam proses manajemen bank sampah. Kata kunci: bank sampah, adaptabilitas, keberlanjutan   Abstract The emergence of garbage banks as an effort to implement UU No18, 2008, is a method of waste management in a real action through the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle by involving the public directly. For the government, a garbage bank is a good initial step for community empowerment in treating waste as something of value and beneficial. Garbage bank program empowered in Indonesia is, of course, expected to provide an effective and efficient system so that the business processes of the program

  14. Human Reliability Data Bank: evaluation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, M.K.; Donovan, M.D.; Gaddy, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and General Physics Corporation are conducting a research program to determine the practicality, acceptability, and usefulness of a Human Reliability Data Bank for nuclear power industry probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). As part of this program, a survey was conducted of existing human reliability data banks from other industries, and a detailed concept of a Data Bank for the nuclear industry was developed. Subsequently, a detailed specification for implementing the Data Bank was developed. An evaluation of this specification was conducted and is described in this report. The evaluation tested data treatment, storage, and retrieval using the Data Bank structure, as modified from NUREG/CR-2744, and detailed procedures for data processing and retrieval, developed prior to this evaluation and documented in the test specification. The evaluation consisted of an Operability Demonstration and Evaluation of the data processing procedures, a Data Retrieval Demonstration and Evaluation, a Retrospective Analysis that included a survey of organizations currently operating data banks for the nuclear power industry, and an Internal Analysis of the current Data Bank System

  15. THE BANKING UNION – THE SOLUTION TO REDUCE THE EUROPEAN BANKING SYSTEM RISKS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA LIGIA DUMITRESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The banking union has been seen as "a panacea" for solving the system risks of the EU banking system. This paper objectives are to find out if is the banking union, with is strong and week sides, will be right answer to solve the actual issues that EU banking system has as: the fragmentation in the EU single market, the deterioration in asset quality, the need for recapitalization and the quality of banks’ loan portfolios. According with most of the experts the banking union will strength the process of economic integration. On the other side, the non-euro area member states are questioning about "equal rights and obligations for all Member States" inside the banking union. But, with all pros and cons of the banking union, the ECB's making decisions and tasks can be questioned, although its role of supervisor can not be disputed. The most important thing is that the banking union breaks the vicious circle between banks and sovereign debts, and ends "to big to fail"

  16. Stress Testing of the Montenegrin Banking System with Aggregated and Bank-Specific Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Sanja

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many different approaches to the process of stress testing and two of them will be investigated in this paper. The first one is a stress test performed on aggregated data i.e. the banking system as a whole. The variable of interest in both exercises is the Loan Loss Provision ratio (hereinafter: the LLP. The main goal of the thesis is to find an answer to the following question: what are the macroeconomic variables that influence LLP the most and how will LLP, as a variable of interest, behave in a situation when all these variables were to experience negative performance at the same time? The resilience of the banking system to such scenario will be tested through the capital adequacy ratio. In order to find out more about the management practices of banks, microlevel data on banks were also used in the analysis. The focus was to see which of the variables are able to explain the LLP ratio for each bank individually and how is this information helpful for possible improvements in the banking sector. The relations between these variables will be able to explain some of the banks’ losses and some of the banks’ practices regarding credit activities. The analysis there will provide for some recommendations for the banks but also for the Central Bank and its way to influence the practices in the banking sector.

  17. Unraveling the central processing of pain by studying brain activity and behaviour in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, M.W.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314411488

    2013-01-01

    Pain is described as a subjective unpleasant sensory and emotional experience, which is generated in the brain. In both humans and animals, pain is frequently undertreated. The primary barrier to an effective pain treatment is the incomplete knowledge about underlying central mechanisms. In animals,

  18. Neural Processing of Calories in Brain Reward Areas Can be Modulated by Reward Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Inge; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    A food's reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food's acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity), however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth

  19. Impaired social brain network for processing dynamic facial expressions in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Wataru

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impairment of social interaction via facial expressions represents a core clinical feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. However, the neural correlates of this dysfunction remain unidentified. Because this dysfunction is manifested in real-life situations, we hypothesized that the observation of dynamic, compared with static, facial expressions would reveal abnormal brain functioning in individuals with ASD. We presented dynamic and static facial expressions of fear and happiness to individuals with high-functioning ASD and to age- and sex-matched typically developing controls and recorded their brain activities using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Result Regional analysis revealed reduced activation of several brain regions in the ASD group compared with controls in response to dynamic versus static facial expressions, including the middle temporal gyrus (MTG, fusiform gyrus, amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG. Dynamic causal modeling analyses revealed that bi-directional effective connectivity involving the primary visual cortex–MTG–IFG circuit was enhanced in response to dynamic as compared with static facial expressions in the control group. Group comparisons revealed that all these modulatory effects were weaker in the ASD group than in the control group. Conclusions These results suggest that weak activity and connectivity of the social brain network underlie the impairment in social interaction involving dynamic facial expressions in individuals with ASD.

  20. First and Second Language in the Brain: Neuronal Correlates of Language Processing and Spelling Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Patricia; Kozel, Nadja; Purgstaller, Christian; Kargl, Reinhard; Schwab, Daniela; Fink, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This study explores oscillatory brain activity by means of event-related synchronization and desynchronization (%ERS/ERD) of EEG activity during the use of phonological and orthographic-morphological spelling strategies in L2 (English) and L1 (German) in native German speaking children. EEG was recorded while 33 children worked on a task requiring…

  1. Brain Bases of Morphological Processing in Chinese-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Ka I; Hsu, Lucy Shih-Ju; Arredondo, Maria M.; Tardif, Twila; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-01-01

    Can bilingual exposure impact children's neural circuitry for learning to read? To answer this question, we investigated the brain bases of morphological awareness, one of the key spoken language abilities for learning to read in English and Chinese. Bilingual Chinese-English and monolingual English children (N = 22, ages 7-12) completed…

  2. Some Clarity on Banks as Financial Intermediaries and Money 'Creators'

    OpenAIRE

    Robert W Vivian and Nicholas Spearman

    2015-01-01

    Although the phrase ‘banks create money’ forms part of popular discourse, it has precipitated a factually incorrect understanding of a bank’s role in the money creation process. Bank money creation is the result of an underlying value-for-value exchange transaction; the bank facilitates the transaction, takes over responsibility for obligations created and records the money created—the bank is not the source of money creation. This has long been understood, even if it is not immediate...

  3. The Drosophila surface glia transcriptome: evolutionary conserved blood-brain barrier processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, Michael K; Hindle, Samantha J; Rusan, Zeid M; Orng, Souvinh; Eddison, Mark; Halliwill, Kyle; Bainton, Roland J

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) function is dependent on the stringent regulation of metabolites, drugs, cells, and pathogens exposed to the CNS space. Cellular blood-brain barrier (BBB) structures are highly specific checkpoints governing entry and exit of all small molecules to and from the brain interstitial space, but the precise mechanisms that regulate the BBB are not well understood. In addition, the BBB has long been a challenging obstacle to the pharmacologic treatment of CNS diseases; thus model systems that can parse the functions of the BBB are highly desirable. In this study, we sought to define the transcriptome of the adult Drosophila melanogaster BBB by isolating the BBB surface glia with fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and profiling their gene expression with microarrays. By comparing the transcriptome of these surface glia to that of all brain glia, brain neurons, and whole brains, we present a catalog of transcripts that are selectively enriched at the Drosophila BBB. We found that the fly surface glia show high expression of many ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and solute carrier (SLC) transporters, cell adhesion molecules, metabolic enzymes, signaling molecules, and components of xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Using gene sequence-based alignments, we compare the Drosophila and Murine BBB transcriptomes and discover many shared chemoprotective and small molecule control pathways, thus affirming the relevance of invertebrate models for studying evolutionary conserved BBB properties. The Drosophila BBB transcriptome is valuable to vertebrate and insect biologists alike as a resource for studying proteins underlying diffusion barrier development and maintenance, glial biology, and regulation of drug transport at tissue barriers.

  4. The Drosophila surface glia transcriptome: evolutionary conserved blood-brain barrier processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K DeSalvo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCentral nervous system (CNS function is dependent on the stringent regulation of metabolites, drugs, cells, and pathogens exposed to the CNS space. Cellular blood-brain barrier (BBB structures are highly specific checkpoints governing entry and exit of all small molecules to and from the brain interstitial space, but the precise mechanisms that regulate the BBB are not well understood. In addition, the BBB has long been a challenging obstacle to the pharmacologic treatment of CNS diseases; thus model systems that can parse the functions of the BBB are highly desirable. In this study, we sought to define the transcriptome of the adult Drosophila melanogaster BBB by isolating the BBB surface glia with FACS and profiling their gene expression with microarrays. By comparing the transcriptome of these surface glia to that of all brain glia, brain neurons, and whole brains, we present a catalog of transcripts that are selectively enriched at the Drosophila BBB. We found that the fly surface glia show high expression of many ABC and SLC transporters, cell adhesion molecules, metabolic enzymes, signaling molecules, and components of xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Using gene sequence-based alignments, we compare the Drosophila and Murine BBB transcriptomes and discover many shared chemoprotective and small molecule control pathways, thus affirming the relevance of invertebrate models for studying evolutionary conserved BBB properties. The Drosophila BBB transcriptome is valuable to vertebrate and insect biologists alike as a resource for studying proteins underlying diffusion barrier development and maintenance, glial biology, and regulation of drug transport at tissue barriers.

  5. Bank profitability: Insights from the rural banking industry in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Adusei, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the profitability of 112 rural banks (special unit banks created to promote rural financial intermediation in Ghana). The results generally show that bank size, funding risk, diversification, liquidity risk, and bank stability are significant predictors of rural bank profitability. Whereas an improvement in the funding risk of a rural bank in a particular period portends a drop in its profitability in the future, an improvement in the size, diversification, liquidity risk,...

  6. Methods of Payment to Banks: e-Banking. Comparative Study on Three Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Petronella VLAD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accounts at any time; information about foreign exchange rates; view and print account statements; the definition of beneficiaries of direct payments by the client.

  7. Brain processing of visual stimuli representing sexual penetration versus core and animal-reminder disgust in women with lifelong vaginismus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Borg

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that disgust evolved to protect humans from contamination. Through eliciting the overwhelming urge to withdraw from the disgusting stimuli, it would facilitate avoidance of contact with pathogens. The physical proximity implied in sexual intercourse provides ample opportunity for contamination and may thus set the stage for eliciting pathogen disgust. Building on this, it has been argued that the involuntary muscle contraction characteristic of vaginismus (i.e., inability to have vaginal penetration may be elicited by the prospect of penetration by potential contaminants. To further investigate this disgust-based interpretation of vaginismus (in DSM-5 classified as a Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder, GPPPD we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine if women with vaginismus (n = 21 show relatively strong convergence in their brain responses towards sexual penetration- and disgust-related pictures compared to sexually asymptomatic women (n = 21 and women suffering from vulvar pain (dyspareunia/also classified as GPPPD in the DSM-5, n = 21. At the subjective level, both clinical groups rated penetration stimuli as more disgusting than asymptomatic women. However, the brain responses to penetration stimuli did not differ between groups. In addition, there was considerable conjoint brain activity in response to penetration and disgust pictures, which yield for both animal-reminder (e.g., mutilation and core (e.g., rotten food disgust domains. However, this overlap in brain activation was similar for all groups. A possible explanation for the lack of vaginismus-specific brain responses lies in the alleged female ambiguity (procreation/pleasure vs. contamination/disgust toward penetration: generally in women a (default disgust response tendency may prevail in the absence of sexual readiness. Accordingly, a critical next step would be to examine the processing of penetration stimuli following

  8. Brain processing of visual stimuli representing sexual penetration versus core and animal-reminder disgust in women with lifelong vaginismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Charmaine; Georgiadis, Janniko R; Renken, Remco J; Spoelstra, Symen K; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord; de Jong, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that disgust evolved to protect humans from contamination. Through eliciting the overwhelming urge to withdraw from the disgusting stimuli, it would facilitate avoidance of contact with pathogens. The physical proximity implied in sexual intercourse provides ample opportunity for contamination and may thus set the stage for eliciting pathogen disgust. Building on this, it has been argued that the involuntary muscle contraction characteristic of vaginismus (i.e., inability to have vaginal penetration) may be elicited by the prospect of penetration by potential contaminants. To further investigate this disgust-based interpretation of vaginismus (in DSM-5 classified as a Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder, GPPPD) we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine if women with vaginismus (n = 21) show relatively strong convergence in their brain responses towards sexual penetration- and disgust-related pictures compared to sexually asymptomatic women (n = 21) and women suffering from vulvar pain (dyspareunia/also classified as GPPPD in the DSM-5, n = 21). At the subjective level, both clinical groups rated penetration stimuli as more disgusting than asymptomatic women. However, the brain responses to penetration stimuli did not differ between groups. In addition, there was considerable conjoint brain activity in response to penetration and disgust pictures, which yield for both animal-reminder (e.g., mutilation) and core (e.g., rotten food) disgust domains. However, this overlap in brain activation was similar for all groups. A possible explanation for the lack of vaginismus-specific brain responses lies in the alleged female ambiguity (procreation/pleasure vs. contamination/disgust) toward penetration: generally in women a (default) disgust response tendency may prevail in the absence of sexual readiness. Accordingly, a critical next step would be to examine the processing of penetration stimuli following the

  9. 12 CFR 1261.7 - Election process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election process. 1261.7 Section 1261.7 Banks... Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.7 Election process. (a... at least 20 percent of the votes eligible to be cast, the Bank shall continue the election process...

  10. Essays on historical banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwarkasing, N.R.D.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation studies the British banking sector from the end of the 19th century until the beginning of the 20th century. The British banking sector at that time was one of the most developed ones and was characterized by the fact that very little regulation existed concerning, amongst others,

  11. nigeria's banking sector reforms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NESG PUBLICATIONS

    institution in the financial market. This is due to the very nature of banks whose failure is viewed to have greater effect on the economy than the failure of other types of businesses (Ogunleye (2005: 3). Along with the traditional banks, Non-. Financial Institutions (NBFIs) also play intermediation role in the financial system by ...

  12. The macroeconomics of banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kwaak, C.G.F.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the macroeconomic effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in an environment where commercial banks are undercapitalized after a financial crisis and have large holdings of (risky) government bonds on their balance sheets. An undercapitalized banking system cannot perfectly

  13. iBank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermundo, Cesar B.; Bermundo, Alex B.; Ballester, Rex C.

    2012-01-01

    iBank is a project that utilizes a software to create an item Bank that store quality questions, generate test and print exam. The items are from analyze teacher-constructed test questions that provides the basis for discussing test results, by determining why a test item is or not discriminating between the better and poorer students, and by…

  14. Competition in EU banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonghe, Olivier; Diepstraten, Maaike; Schepens, Glenn; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses recent EU-wide movements in bank competition and concentration. We start with a concise overview of the most frequently used competition and concentration measures. Given that different measures may capture different aspects of bank competition, we focus on the differences and

  15. International fuel bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group discusses the establishment of an international bank for nuclear fuels. The statements by representatives of seven countries discuss the specific features of a bank of this kind which is set up to facilitate access to nuclear fuels but also to permit a more rigid control in the sense of the non-proliferation philosophy

  16. Destroy The Bank! (case)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Van der Star; dr. A. Maas

    2016-01-01

    DZ Bank faces some significant challenges for the near future. One of them is the way payments are being made. This case is about Stefan, the Strategic Management Consultant of DZ Bank. He struggles with innovations and new technologies, such as Bitcoins. What does this mean for the future of the

  17. Three essays on banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlahu, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on banking and concentrates on two topics. The first two essays deal with strategic behavior of borrowers. The third essay explores the relation between bank capital and risk-taking. The first essay, Collective Strategic Defaults: Bailouts and Repayment

  18. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital

  19. Geographic diversification in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Yiwei; van Lelyveld, Iman

    2014-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2007-2009 crisis, banks claiming positive diversification benefits are being met with skepticism. Nevertheless, diversification might be important and sizable for some large internationally active banking groups. We use a universally applicable correlation matrix approach to

  20. THE BANKING SECTOR - INFLUENCE FACTORS OF BANKING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela CIOCAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines how the banking system is organised in Romania. By comparing the organization of the banking system in Romania with banking systems of certain countries in the European Union, banks typology is highlighted at the international level. The aim of this paper is to highlight the factors influencing the Romanian banking system, the banking system role in the economy as well as the objectives of Romanian banking system. This paper examines indicators as: return on equity, return on assets, leverage effect, profit rate and the rate of assets utilization, in order to identify the methods of quantifying the performance of the Romanian banking system, by reference to two commercial banks, namely Transilvania Bank and Intesa Sanpaolo Bank. After the analysis and calculation of these indicators, we can notice a good situation of the banks concerned. In order to improve Romanian banking system are under consideration: reducing the costs of banking intermediation, raising the coverage levels at European level and reducing the compulsory reserves. After the analysis of organization the banking system in Romania and comparing banking systems at the level of some countries of the European Union we can conclude that national banking system has its own particularities, in terms of banks name, types of activities covered under this name as well as those at European Union level.

  1. Bank profitability: Insights from the rural banking industry in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adusei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the profitability of 112 rural banks (special unit banks created to promote rural financial intermediation in Ghana. The results generally show that bank size, funding risk, diversification, liquidity risk, and bank stability are significant predictors of rural bank profitability. Whereas an improvement in the funding risk of a rural bank in a particular period portends a drop in its profitability in the future, an improvement in the size, diversification, liquidity risk, and stability of a rural bank signifies an improvement in the future profitability of the bank.

  2. South-east frontier of the Russian Empire and the processes on the division of the Ural River left bank area between Kirghiz-Kaysaks and Ural Cossacks in the second half of the XIX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Kortunov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the issue related to the peculiarities of formation of the south-east frontier of the Russian Empire and with the process on separation of the border areas of the Orenburg line (in particular of the Ural River left bank area between Kirghiz-Kaysaks and Ural Cossacks in the second half of XIX century. The author pays particular attention to the problem of the resolution of disputes between the Ural Cossacks and Kirghiz-Kaysaks by local and central authorities.

  3. Too many betas do not spoil the broth: The role of beta brain oscillations in language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eWeiss

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years, brain oscillations have proven to be a gateway to the understanding of cognitive processes. It has been shown that different neurocognitive aspects of language processing are associated with brain oscillations at various frequencies. Frequencies in the beta range (13-30 Hz turned out to be particularly important with respect to cognitive and linguistic manipulations during language processing. Beta activity has been involved in higher-order linguistic functions such as the discrimination of word categories and the retrieval of action semantics as well as semantic memory, and syntactic binding processes, which support meaning construction during sentence processing. From a neurophysiological point of view, the important role of the beta frequencies for such a complex cognitive task as language processing seems reasonable. Experimental evidence suggests that frequencies in the beta range are ideal for maintaining and preserving the activity of neuronal assemblies over time. In particular, recent computational and experimental evidence suggest that beta frequencies are important for linking past and present input and the detection of novelty of stimuli, which are essential processes for language perception as well as production. In addition, the beta frequency’s role in the formation of cell assemblies underlying short-term memory seems indispensable for language analysis. Probably the most important point is the well-known relation of beta oscillations with motor processes. It can be speculated that beta activities reflect the close relationship between language comprehension and motor functions, which is one of the core claims of current theories on embodied cognition.In this article, the importance of beta oscillations for language processing is reviewed based both on findings in psychophysiological and neurophysiological literature.

  4. "Too Many betas do not Spoil the Broth": The Role of Beta Brain Oscillations in Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sabine; Mueller, Horst M

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, brain oscillations have proven to be a gateway to the understanding of cognitive processes. It has been shown that different neurocognitive aspects of language processing are associated with brain oscillations at various frequencies. Frequencies in the beta range (13-30 Hz) turned out to be particularly important with respect to cognitive and linguistic manipulations during language processing. Beta activity has been involved in higher-order linguistic functions such as the discrimination of word categories and the retrieval of action semantics as well as semantic memory, and syntactic binding processes, which support meaning construction during sentence processing. From a neurophysiological point of view, the important role of the beta frequencies for such a complex cognitive task as language processing seems reasonable. Experimental evidence suggests that frequencies in the beta range are ideal for maintaining and preserving the activity of neuronal assemblies over time. In particular, recent computational and experimental evidence suggest that beta frequencies are important for linking past and present input and the detection of novelty of stimuli, which are essential processes for language perception as well as production. In addition, the beta frequency's role in the formation of cell assemblies underlying short-term memory seems indispensable for language analysis. Probably the most important point is the well-known relation of beta oscillations with motor processes. It can be speculated that beta activities reflect the close relationship between language comprehension and motor functions, which is one of the core claims of current theories on embodied cognition. In this article, the importance of beta oscillations for language processing is reviewed based both on findings in psychophysiological and neurophysiological literature.

  5. Considerations on the Role of Foreign Banks in the Improvement of Romanian Bank System’s Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Badulescu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On the general background of restructuring and privatization processes in Romanian banking system, the presence of foreign capital recorded an increasingly trend after 1996, especially in the form of banks located in Romania. The foreign banks involved in Romania, especially multinational banks’ affiliates, proved to be remarkable about capital adequacy and profitability. All these developments are driven both by the access to cheaper resources from their parent bank or other banks in the group and by a more pronounced propensity to risk, as they are fully covered.

  6. GREEN BANKING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrascu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the green banking in Romania, a new approach of conducting the banking business through considering the corporate social responsibility and environmental aspects. Nowadays, it is difficult to face the globalization and competition in order to asssure the implementation of the green banking practices. The aim of the present study is to identify corporations that have sustainability concerns. To achieve this objective, we set some hypothesis and after this we showed that the corporations are more likely to be included in the list of top banks in the world. Our study is relevant for future research in this area, because of the importance of such aspects in corporations nowadays.The conclusions of our study is that green banking practices in Romania is in an incipient stage

  7. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  8. BANKING SUPERVISION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU; Vasile ILIE

    2013-01-01

    The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences ca...

  9. Bank and sovereign debt risk

    OpenAIRE

    Darracq Paries, Matthieu; Faia, Ester; Rodriguez-Palenzuela, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Euro area data show a positive connection between sovereign and bank risk, which increases with banks' and sovereign long run fragility. We build a macro model with banks subject to incentive problems and liquidity risk (in the form of liquidity based banks' runs) which provides a link between endogenous bank capital and macro and policy risk. Our banks also invest in risky government bonds used as capital buffer to self-insure against liquidity risk. The model can replicate the positive conn...

  10. Cognitive Load in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pupillometric Assessment of Multiple Attentional Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    sincerely thank my team for their support on this project. Ashley Safford, Jessica Kegel, and Evelyn Cordero--my life is greatly enriched by your...such as Schizophrenia and ADHD (27; 77). Another such condition is mild traumatic brain injury. Mild TBI is caused by a closed head injury (e.g., car...participants for not completing the task; and 2 participants excluded for poor pupillary data quality . After exclusion, 25 participants with a history of mild

  11. Audio-visuomotor processing in the Musician's brain: an ERP study on professional violinists and clarinetists

    OpenAIRE

    Mado Proverbio, Alice; Calbi, Marta; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of brain activation during visual and auditory perception of congruent vs. incongruent musical video clips was investigated in 12 musicians from the Milan Conservatory of music and 12 controls. 368 videos of a clarinetist and a violinist playing the same score with their instruments were presented. The sounds were similar in pitch, intensity, rhythm and duration. To produce an audiovisual discrepancy, in half of the trials, the visual information was incongruent with the...

  12. Diffusion MRI of the neonate brain: acquisition, processing and analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannek, Kerstin [University of Queensland, Centre for Clinical Research, Brisbane (Australia); University of Queensland, School of Medicine, Brisbane (Australia); University of Queensland, Centre for Advanced Imaging, Brisbane (Australia); Guzzetta, Andrea [IRCCS Stella Maris, Department of Developmental Neuroscience, Calambrone Pisa (Italy); Colditz, Paul B. [University of Queensland, Centre for Clinical Research, Brisbane (Australia); University of Queensland, Perinatal Research Centre, Brisbane (Australia); Rose, Stephen E. [University of Queensland, Centre for Clinical Research, Brisbane (Australia); University of Queensland, Centre for Advanced Imaging, Brisbane (Australia); University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia)

    2012-10-15

    Diffusion MRI (dMRI) is a popular noninvasive imaging modality for the investigation of the neonate brain. It enables the assessment of white matter integrity, and is particularly suited for studying white matter maturation in the preterm and term neonate brain. Diffusion tractography allows the delineation of white matter pathways and assessment of connectivity in vivo. In this review, we address the challenges of performing and analysing neonate dMRI. Of particular importance in dMRI analysis is adequate data preprocessing to reduce image distortions inherent to the acquisition technique, as well as artefacts caused by head movement. We present a summary of techniques that should be used in the preprocessing of neonate dMRI data, and demonstrate the effect of these important correction steps. Furthermore, we give an overview of available analysis techniques, ranging from voxel-based analysis of anisotropy metrics including tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to recently developed methods of statistical analysis addressing issues of resolving complex white matter architecture. We highlight the importance of resolving crossing fibres for tractography and outline several tractography-based techniques, including connectivity-based segmentation, the connectome and tractography mapping. These techniques provide powerful tools for the investigation of brain development and maturation. (orig.)

  13. Mood-dependent integration in discourse comprehension: happy and sad moods affect consistency processing via different brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egidi, Giovanna; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2014-12-01

    According to recent research on language comprehension, the semantic features of a text are not the only determinants of whether incoming information is understood as consistent. Listeners' pre-existing affective states play a crucial role as well. The current fMRI experiment examines the effects of happy and sad moods during comprehension of consistent and inconsistent story endings, focusing on brain regions previously linked to two integration processes: inconsistency detection, evident in stronger responses to inconsistent endings, and fluent processing (accumulation), evident in stronger responses to consistent endings. The analysis evaluated whether differences in the BOLD response for consistent and inconsistent story endings correlated with self-reported mood scores after a mood induction procedure. Mood strongly affected regions previously associated with inconsistency detection. Happy mood increased sensitivity to inconsistency in regions specific for inconsistency detection (e.g., left IFG, left STS), whereas sad mood increased sensitivity to inconsistency in regions less specific for language processing (e.g., right med FG, right SFG). Mood affected more weakly regions involved in accumulation of information. These results show that mood can influence activity in areas mediating well-defined language processes, and highlight that integration is the result of context-dependent mechanisms. The finding that language comprehension can involve different networks depending on people's mood highlights the brain's ability to reorganize its functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Increasing the competitiveness of banks

    OpenAIRE

    Badaeva V.; Makukhina Y.

    2017-01-01

    The article examines about the essence of competitiveness of banks, the ways of improving it, competitive advantages and factors which influence the effectiveness and competitiveness of banking institutions.

  15. Brain-based Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ruth Palombo

    2000-01-01

    Discusses brain research and how new imaging technologies allow scientists to explore how human brains process memory, emotion, attention, patterning, motivation, and context. Explains how brain research is being used to revise learning theories. (JOW)

  16. Liquidity Risk and its Management in Lithuanian Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Bareikaitė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are the main part of financial sector in each economy and strength of banking system becomes vital for ensuringfavourable economic stability and growth. Recent failure of two commercial banks in Lithuania showed that managershaven’t evaluated liquidity risk or haven’t dealt with it properly. The tasks of the paper are to investigate Lithuanian banksposition towards liquidity risk, analyse what kind of management tools banks use for ensuring favourable position towardsliquidity and to explore the liquidity influence to profitability in Lithuanian banking sector. The article examines liquidity andits management processes in Lithuanian banking sector. Description of liquidity importance is presented. Liquidity risk and itsmeasurement as well as the ways of managing the above mentioned risk is analysed in the article. In order to analyse the relationshipbetween liquidity risk and profitability of banks, analysis of scientific literature, research synthesis and generalizationshave been made.

  17. INDONESIA PUBLIC BANKS PERFORMANCE EVALUATION USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiarto Sugiarto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Return on Asset (ROA is a variable that has the greatest ability in predicting public banks stock prices in Indonesia. The coefficient of determination of ROA on public banks stock prices in Indonesia reached 54.8%. ROA has a significant positive influence on public bank stock prices in Indonesia. Fuzzy logic process on the performance of the 15 public banks in Indonesia have been carried out using the data of ROA for the period 2010 up to 2013. Bank reference performance according to ROA is based on Bank Indonesia Letter No. 6 / 23DPNP / 2011. The performance of each bank was analyzed by conventional methods and as a comparison used fuzzy logic. The evaluation with fuzzy logic method able to provide added value to the currently enforced performance evaluation method. There is significant difference in conclusion between the determination of fuzzy logic models and conventional method

  18. Albania among Bank Based System’s Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Rovena Troplini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Albanian financial system has entered a new phase of its development. Financial system in Albania is bank oriented, as financial market is not active. Because of the important and deep changes that have altered the image of the banking system, the conditions for more dynamic development of non-banking intermediaries and capital markets have been created. The analysis is based on the standard indicators of size and activity of banking intermediaries. The results of the analysis show that the size and activity of Albanian banking system is growing faster but limiting the crediting process only on banks. However, the achieved level of development of banking intermediaries is still below of other advanced transition economies. Albanian financial system needs to develop quickly the activities of pension funds, investment funds and bond/asset markets in order to create great opportunities to the Albanian economy.

  19. Efficient Implementation of Complex Modulated Filter Banks Using Cosine and Sine Modulated Filter Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viholainen Ari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently introduced exponentially modulated filter bank (EMFB is a -channel uniform, orthogonal, critically sampled, and frequency-selective complex modulated filter bank that satisfies the perfect reconstruction (PR property if the prototype filter of an -channel PR cosine modulated filter bank (CMFB is used. The purpose of this paper is to present various implementation structures for the EMFBs in a unified framework. The key idea is to use cosine and sine modulated filter banks as building blocks and, therefore, polyphase, lattice, and extended lapped transform (ELT type of implementation solutions are studied. The ELT-based EMFBs are observed to be very competitive with the existing modified discrete Fourier transform filter banks (MDFT-FBs when comparing the number of multiplications/additions and the structural simplicity. In addition, EMFB provides an alternative channel stacking arrangement that could be more natural in certain subband processing applications and data transmission systems.

  20. Follow-up of pain processing recovery after ketamine in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia patients using brain perfusion ECD-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric; Cammilleri, Serge; Colavolpe, Cecile; Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Marseille, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille, Cedex 5 (France); Niboyet, Jean [Clinique La Phoceanne, Unite d' Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur, Marseille (France)

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the follow-up of pain processing recovery in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia (FM) could be objectively evaluated with brain perfusion ethyl cysteinate dimer single photon computerized tomography (ECD-SPECT) after administration of ketamine. We enrolled 17 hyperalgesic FM women patients (48.5 {+-} 11 years, range 25-63). After treatment with subcutaneous ketamine, 11 patients were considered as 'good responders', with a decrease in pain intensity, evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS), greater than 50%. On the other hand, six patients were considered as 'poor responders'. A voxel-based analysis of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was conducted (p{sub voxel} < 0.001uc), in the two subgroups of patients, before and after treatment, in comparison to a group of ten healthy subjects, matched for age and gender. In comparison to baseline brain SPECT, midbrain rCBF showed a greater increase after ketamine in the responder group than in the nonresponder group (p{sub cluster} = 0.016c). In agreement with the clinical response, the change in midbrain rCBF after ketamine was highly correlated with the reduction of VAS pain score (r = 0.7182; p = 0.0041). This prospective study suggests that blockade of facilitatory descending modulation of pain with ketamine can be evaluated in the periaqueductal grey with brain perfusion SPECT. (orig.)

  1. Age differences in brain systems supporting transient and sustained processes involved in prospective memory and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peira, Nathalie; Ziaei, Maryam; Persson, Jonas

    2016-01-15

    In prospective memory (PM), an intention to act in response to an external event is formed, retained, and at a later stage, when the event occurs, the relevant action is performed. PM typically shows a decline in late adulthood, which might affect functions of daily living. The neural correlates of this decline are not well understood. Here, 15 young (6 female; age range=23-30years) and 16 older adults (5 female; age range=64-74years) were scanned with fMRI to examine age-related differences in brain activation associated with event-based PM using a task that facilitated the separation of transient and sustained components of PM. We show that older adults had reduced performance in conditions with high demands on prospective and working memory, while no age-difference was observed in low-demanding tasks. Across age groups, PM task performance activated separate sets of brain regions for transient and sustained responses. Age-differences in transient activation were found in fronto-striatal and MTL regions, with young adults showing more activation than older adults. Increased activation in young, compared to older adults, was also found for sustained PM activation in the IFG. These results provide new evidence that PM relies on dissociable transient and sustained cognitive processes, and that age-related deficits in PM can be explained by an inability to recruit PM-related brain networks in old age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cardiorespiratory concerns shape brain responses during automatic panic-related scene processing in patients with panic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldker, Katharina; Heitmann, Carina Yvonne; Neumeister, Paula; Brinkmann, Leonie; Bruchmann, Maximillan; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Straube, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Background Increased automatic processing of threat-related stimuli has been proposed as a key element in panic disorder. Little is known about the neural basis of automatic processing, in particular to task-irrelevant, panic-related, ecologically valid stimuli, or about the association between brain activation and symptomatology in patients with panic disorder. Methods The present event-related functional MRI (fMRI) study compared brain responses to task-irrelevant, panic-related and neutral visual stimuli in medication-free patients with panic disorder and healthy controls. Panic-related and neutral scenes were presented while participants performed a spatially non-overlapping bar orientation task. Correlation analyses investigated the association between brain responses and panic-related aspects of symptomatology, measured using the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI). Results We included 26 patients with panic disorder and 26 heatlhy controls in our analysis. Compared with controls, patients with panic disorder showed elevated activation in the amygdala, brainstem, thalamus, insula, anterior cingulate cortex and midcingulate cortex in response to panic-related versus neutral task-irrelevant stimuli. Furthermore, fear of cardiovascular symptoms (a subcomponent of the ASI) was associated with insula activation, whereas fear of respiratory symptoms was associated with brainstem hyperactivation in patients with panic disorder. Limitations The additional implementation of measures of autonomic activation, such as pupil diameter, heart rate, or electrodermal activity, would have been informative during the fMRI scan as well as during the rating procedure. Conclusion Results reveal a neural network involved in the processing of panic-related distractor stimuli in patients with panic disorder and suggest an automatic weighting of panic-related information depending on the magnitude of cardiovascular and respiratory symptoms. Insula and brainstem activations show function

  3. Cardiorespiratory concerns shape brain responses during automatic panic-related scene processing in patients with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldker, Katharina; Heitmann, Carina Yvonne; Neumeister, Paula; Brinkmann, Leonie; Bruchmann, Maximillan; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Straube, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Increased automatic processing of threat-related stimuli has been proposed as a key element in panic disorder. Little is known about the neural basis of automatic processing, in particular to task-irrelevant, panic-related, ecologically valid stimuli, or about the association between brain activation and symptomatology in patients with panic disorder. The present event-related functional MRI (fMRI) study compared brain responses to task-irrelevant, panic-related and neutral visual stimuli in medication-free patients with panic disorder and healthy controls. Panic-related and neutral scenes were presented while participants performed a spatially nonoverlapping bar orientation task. Correlation analyses investigated the association between brain responses and panic-related aspects of symptomatology, measured using the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI). We included 26 patients with panic disorder and 26 heatlhy controls in our analysis. Compared with controls, patients with panic disorder showed elevated activation in the amygdala, brainstem, thalamus, insula, anterior cingulate cortex and midcingulate cortex in response to panic-related versus neutral task-irrelevant stimuli. Furthermore, fear of cardiovascular symptoms (a subcomponent of the ASI) was associated with insula activation, whereas fear of respiratory symptoms was associated with brainstem hyperactivation in patients with panic disorder. The additional implementation of measures of autonomic activation, such as pupil diameter, heart rate, or electrodermal activity, would have been informative during the fMRI scan as well as during the rating procedure. Results reveal a neural network involved in the processing of panic-related distractor stimuli in patients with panic disorder and suggest an automatic weighting of panic-related information depending on the magnitude of cardiovascular and respiratory symptoms. Insula and brainstem activations show function-related associations with specific components of

  4. Biological Activity Alterations of Human Amniotic Membrane Pre and Post Irradiation Tissue Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Waleed; Bashandy, A S; Araby, Eman; Khamiss, O

    Innate immunity of Human Amniotic Membrane (HAM) and its highly active secretome that rich with various types of growth factors and anti-inflammatory substances proposed it as a promising material for many medical studies and applications. This study evaluate the biological activity of cultivated HAM pre and post tissue banking process in which freeze-dried HAM was sterilized by 25 KGray (kGy) dose of γ radiation. The HAM's antimicrobial activity, viability, growth of isolated human amniotic epithelial cells (HAECs), hematopoietic stimulation of co-cultivated murine bone marrow cells (mammalian model), scaffold efficiency for fish brain building up (non-mammalian model) and self re-epithelialization after trypsin denuding treatment were examined as supposed biological activity features. Native HAM revealed viability indications and was active to kill all tested microorganisms; 6 bacterial species (3 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative) and Candida albicans as a pathogenic fungus. Also, HAM activity promoted colony formation of murine hematopoietic cells, Tilapia nilotica brain fragment building-up and self re-epithelialization after trypsin treatment. In contrary, radiation-based tissue banking of HAM caused HAM cellular death and consequently lacked almost all of examined biological activity features. Viable HAM was featured with biological activity than fixed HAM prepared by irradiation tissue banking.

  5. Ethical and legal issues raised by cord blood banking - the challenges of the new bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Cameron L; Aparicio, Lorena C; Kerridge, Ian H

    2013-08-19

    • Cord blood banking raises ethical and legal issues which highlight the need for careful regulatory approaches to the emerging bioeconomy. • Consent processes for both private and public banking should be inclusive and representative of the different familial interests in the cord blood. • Property law is a potentially useful way of understanding the mechanisms for donation to both public and private banks. • Increasing tensions between public and private models of banking may require the adoption of hybrid forms of banking.

  6. Evaluating Sensory Processing in Fragile X Syndrome: Psychometric Analysis of the Brain Body Center Sensory Scales (BBCSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolacz, Jacek; Raspa, Melissa; Heilman, Keri J; Porges, Stephen W

    2018-02-07

    Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS), especially those co-diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), face many sensory processing challenges. However, sensory processing measures informed by neurophysiology are lacking. This paper describes the development and psychometric properties of a parent/caregiver report, the Brain-Body Center Sensory Scales (BBCSS), based on Polyvagal Theory. Parents/guardians reported on 333 individuals with FXS, 41% with ASD features. Factor structure using a split-sample exploratory-confirmatory design conformed to neurophysiological predictions. Internal consistency, test-retest, and inter-rater reliability were good to excellent. BBCSS subscales converged with the Sensory Profile and Sensory Experiences Questionnaire. However, data also suggest that BBCSS subscales reflect unique features related to sensory processing. Individuals with FXS and ASD features displayed more sensory challenges on most subscales.

  7. Enhanced structural connectivity within a brain sub-network supporting working memory and engagement processes after cognitive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Francisco J; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Martínez, Kenia; Karama, Sherif; Burgaleta, Miguel; Evans, Alan C; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Colom, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    The structural connectome provides relevant information about experience and training-related changes in the brain. Here, we used network-based statistics (NBS) and graph theoretical analyses to study structural changes in the brain as a function of cognitive training. Fifty-six young women were divided in two groups (experimental and control). We assessed their cognitive function before and after completing a working memory intervention using a comprehensive battery that included fluid and crystallized abilities, working memory and attention control, and we also obtained structural MRI images. We acquired and analyzed diffusion-weighted images to reconstruct the anatomical connectome and we computed standardized changes in connectivity as well as group differences across time using NBS. We also compared group differences relying on a variety of graph-theory indices (clustering, characteristic path length, global and local efficiency and strength) for the whole network as well as for the sub-network derived from NBS analyses. Finally, we calculated correlations between these graph indices and training performance as well as the behavioral changes in cognitive function. Our results revealed enhanced connectivity for the training group within one specific network comprised of nodes/regions supporting cognitive processes required by the training (working memory, interference resolution, inhibition, and task engagement). Significant group differences were also observed for strength and global efficiency indices in the sub-network detected by NBS. Therefore, the connectome approach is a valuable method for tracking the effects of cognitive training interventions across specific sub-networks. Moreover, this approach allowsfor the computation of graph theoretical network metricstoquantifythetopological architecture of the brain networkdetected. The observed structural brain changes support the behavioral results reported earlier (see Colom, Román, et al., 2013

  8. Processing of targets in smooth or apparent motion along the vertical in the human brain: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Vincenzo; Macaluso, Emiliano; Indovina, Iole; Orban, Guy; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Neural substrates for processing constant speed visual motion have been extensively studied. Less is known about the brain activity patterns when the target speed changes continuously, for instance under the influence of gravity. Using functional MRI (fMRI), here we compared brain responses to accelerating/decelerating targets with the responses to constant speed targets. The target could move along the vertical under gravity (1g), under reversed gravity (-1g), or at constant speed (0g). In the first experiment, subjects observed targets moving in smooth motion and responded to a GO signal delivered at a random time after target arrival. As expected, we found that the timing of the motor responses did not depend significantly on the specific motion law. Therefore brain activity in the contrast between different motion laws was not related to motor timing responses. Average BOLD signals were significantly greater for 1g targets than either 0g or -1g targets in a distributed network including bilateral insulae, left lingual gyrus, and brain stem. Moreover, in these regions, the mean activity decreased monotonically from 1g to 0g and to -1g. In the second experiment, subjects intercepted 1g, 0g, and -1g targets either in smooth motion (RM) or in long-range apparent motion (LAM). We found that the sites in the right insula and left lingual gyrus, which were selectively engaged by 1g targets in the first experiment, were also significantly more active during 1g trials than during -1g trials both in RM and LAM. The activity in 0g trials was again intermediate between that in 1g trials and that in -1g trials. Therefore in these regions the global activity modulation with the law of vertical motion appears to hold for both RM and LAM. Instead, a region in the inferior parietal lobule showed a preference for visual gravitational motion only in LAM but not RM.

  9. Reorganization of syntactic processing following left-hemisphere brain damage: does right-hemisphere activity preserve function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Lorraine K; Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2010-11-01

    The extent to which the human brain shows evidence of functional plasticity across the lifespan has been addressed in the context of pathological brain changes and, more recently, of the changes that take place during healthy ageing. Here we examine the potential for plasticity by asking whether a strongly left-lateralized system can successfully reorganize to the right-hemisphere following left-hemisphere brain damage. To do this, we focus on syntax, a key linguistic function considered to be strongly left-lateralized, combining measures of tissue integrity, neural activation and behavioural performance. In a functional neuroimaging study participants heard spoken sentences that differentially loaded on syntactic and semantic information. While healthy controls activated a left-hemisphere network of correlated activity including Brodmann areas 45/47 and posterior middle temporal gyrus during syntactic processing, patients activated Brodmann areas 45/47 bilaterally and right middle temporal gyrus. However, voxel-based morphometry analyses showed that only tissue integrity in left Brodmann areas 45/47 was correlated with activity and performance; poor tissue integrity in left Brodmann area 45 was associated with reduced functional activity and increased syntactic deficits. Activity in the right-hemisphere was not correlated with damage in the left-hemisphere or with performance. Reduced neural integrity in the left-hemisphere through brain damage or healthy ageing results in increased right-hemisphere activation in homologous regions to those left-hemisphere regions typically involved in the young. However, these regions do not support the same linguistic functions as those in the left-hemisphere and only indirectly contribute to preserved syntactic capacity. This establishes the unique role of the left hemisphere in syntax, a core component in human language.

  10. Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria | Abaenewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the profitability performance of Nigerian banks following the full adoption of electronic banking system. The study became necessary as a result of increased penetration of electronic banking which has redefined the banking operations in Nigeria and around the world. Judgmental sampling method ...

  11. REPUTATIONAL AND OPERATIONAL RISKS IN EUROPEAN BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana HERGHILIGIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past 20 years operational and reputational risk has become more intriguing due to the public scandals of rogue tranding in banks like Barings Bank, Allied Irish Banks, Enron. The purpose of this study is to find the connections between operational risk and reputational risk. Our research shows that there may be a loss of reputation due to operational loss events. Moreover, every type of operational risk, from internal fraud, external fraud, legal and liability losses, processing errors, information security breaches, inappropriate business practice, physical security breaches conduct to a loss of reputation. The limitations of this paper are represented by the fact that do not have enough data to show the real impact of the reputation risk to the financial results of the European Banks.

  12. Neural processing of calories in brain reward areas can be modulated by reward sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge eVan Rijn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A food’s reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food’s acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity, however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth and trait reward sensitivity in different hunger states. Firstly, we assessed this in data from a functional neuroimaging study (van Rijn et al., 2015, in which participants (n=30 tasted simple solutions of a non-caloric sweetener with or without a non-sweet carbohydrate (maltodextrin during hunger and satiety. Secondly, we expanded these analyses to regular drinks by assessing the same relationship in data from a study in which soft drinks sweetened with either sucrose or a non-caloric sweetener were administered during hunger (n=18 (Griffioen-Roose et al., 2013. First, taste activation by the non-caloric solution/soft drink was subtracted from that by the caloric solution/soft drink to eliminate sweetness effects and retain activation induced by calories. Subsequently, this difference in taste activation was correlated with reward sensitivity as measured with the BAS drive subscale of the Behavioral Activation System (BAS questionnaire.When participants were hungry and tasted calories from the simple solution, brain activation in the right ventral striatum (caudate, right amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (bilaterally correlated negatively with BAS drive scores. In contrast, when participants were satiated, taste responses correlated positively with BAS drive scores in the left caudate. These results were not replicated for soft drinks. Thus, neural responses to oral calories from maltodextrin were modulated by reward sensitivity in reward-related brain areas. This was not the case for sucrose. This may be due to the direct detection of maltodextrin, but not sucrose in the oral cavity. Also, in a familiar beverage, detection of calories per

  13. Neural Processing of Calories in Brain Reward Areas Can be Modulated by Reward Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    A food's reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food's acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity), however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth and trait reward sensitivity in different hunger states. Firstly, we assessed this in data from a functional neuroimaging study (van Rijn et al., 2015), in which participants (n = 30) tasted simple solutions of a non-caloric sweetener with or without a non-sweet carbohydrate (maltodextrin) during hunger and satiety. Secondly, we expanded these analyses to regular drinks by assessing the same relationship in data from a study in which soft drinks sweetened with either sucrose or a non-caloric sweetener were administered during hunger (n = 18) (Griffioen-Roose et al., 2013). First, taste activation by the non-caloric solution/soft drink was subtracted from that by the caloric solution/soft drink to eliminate sweetness effects and retain activation induced by calories. Subsequently, this difference in taste activation was correlated with reward sensitivity as measured with the BAS drive subscale of the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) questionnaire. When participants were hungry and tasted calories from the simple solution, brain activation in the right ventral striatum (caudate), right amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (bilaterally) correlated negatively with BAS drive scores. In contrast, when participants were satiated, taste responses correlated positively with BAS drive scores in the left caudate. These results were not replicated for soft drinks. Thus, neural responses to oral calories from maltodextrin were modulated by reward sensitivity in reward-related brain areas. This was not the case for sucrose. This may be due to the direct detection of maltodextrin, but not sucrose in the oral cavity. Also, in a familiar beverage, detection of calories per se may be

  14. RETAIL BANKING BUSINESS: CURRENT STATE ANDSPECIFIC FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Гузель Рефкадовна Фаизова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of the retail banking business in the banking sector continueto grow. The current state of the retail banking business is considered and specific features of this area in the face of growing demand for banking products and services by the public and interest from lending institutions are identified by the article.Purpose: Research of current state of retail banking business and detection specific features of this area.Methodology: In the process of analysis and researchof the question the methods of economical and statistical analysis, methods of comparison and generalizationwereused.Results: The conclusion is that interest in the retail banking business continues to grow.There were revealed the role and the importance of standardized service processes and standardized products and services delivering as one of the main line of development in the segment of retail business.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-2

  15. European banks in Ukraine: Modelling risks, rewards and making forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Kostyuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The new model for banking control and regulation, suggested by Basel III, together with high dividend expectations of shareholders have fostered the transformation of the business model in European banking. The scale of market shares no longer plays an important role in banking business. The emphasis is now laid on its efficiency. It is determined by ROE indicators, the positive dynamics of which serves as: a good indicator for ensuring a proper level of capital adequacy of the bank and reducing systemic risks; a precondition for meeting the dividend expectations of shareholders; evidence of effective management of capital assets and bank costs. Thus, assessing and preventing the outflow of foreign capital from the national banking sector, the national market regulators should clearly understand the motivation behind it and take into account the business strategies of parent European banks, which include the following points: low liquidity of the stock market of the Eurozone, which significantly complicates the process of capitalization of European banking institutions, and inability to attract capital in sufficient amounts; potential opportunity for capitalization of banks (to meet the requirements of Basel III in the context of bank management and shareholders relations (improvement of profit management policy and dividend policy; optimization of asset management policy in order to reduce RWA assets in the assets of both parent and subsidiary banks

  16. Shadow banking, relationship banking, and the economics of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bianco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores whether a theory of banks doing ‘finance through money creation’ implies a reconsideration of demand-side macro theory as well. To this aim, a simple methodological accounting model of the influence of financial markets over the real economy is presented. The model allows a tidy comparison of relationship and shadow banking, interpreted as alternative schemes of liquidity (not credit risk management. The model emphasizes the interdependencies in entrepreneurs’ animal spirits, liquidity risk management schemes adopted by financial institutions, and effective demand of households. The underlying idea is that fluctuations in the composition of property incomes trigger fluctuations in non-financial investment that, in turn, drive fluctuations in spending. The article finds that both relationship and shadow banking must have a pro-cyclical impact, and differences are essentially based on different liquidity risk management aggregate cost functions. The model developed here suggests that securitisation does not per se affect the financial sustainability of the growth process, but regulatory measures aimed at checking predatory lending and re-securitisation activities are needed to avoid possible adverse impacts on animal spirits. JEL codes: E44, G20, O16.

  17. Modification of meander migration by bank failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, D.; Langendoen, E. J.; Abad, J. D.; García, M. H.

    2014-05-01

    Meander migration and planform evolution depend on the resistance to erosion of the floodplain materials. To date, research to quantify meandering river adjustment has largely focused on resistance to erosion properties that vary horizontally. This paper evaluates the combined effect of horizontal and vertical floodplain material heterogeneity on meander migration by simulating fluvial erosion and cantilever and planar bank mass failure processes responsible for bank retreat. The impact of stream bank failures on meander migration is conceptualized in our RVR Meander model through a bank armoring factor associated with the dynamics of slump blocks produced by cantilever and planar failures. Simulation periods smaller than the time to cutoff are considered, such that all planform complexity is caused by bank erosion processes and floodplain heterogeneity and not by cutoff dynamics. Cantilever failure continuously affects meander migration, because it is primarily controlled by the fluvial erosion at the bank toe. Hence, it impacts migration rates and meander shapes through the horizontal and vertical distribution of erodibility of floodplain materials. Planar failures are more episodic. However, in floodplain areas characterized by less cohesive materials, they can affect meander evolution in a sustained way and produce preferential migration patterns. Model results show that besides the hydrodynamics, bed morphology and horizontal floodplain heterogeneity, floodplain stratigraphy can significantly affect meander evolution, both in terms of migration rates and planform shapes. Specifically, downstream meander migration can either increase or decrease with respect to the case of a homogeneous floodplain; lateral migration generally decreases as result of bank protection due to slump blocks; and the effect on bend skewness depends on the location and volumes of failed bank material caused by cantilever and planar failures along the bends, with possible achievement of

  18. Sequential process in brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced functional periodontal tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Akihiro; Takeda, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Kajiya, Mikihito; Matsuda, Shinji; Kittaka, Mizuho; Shiba, Hideki; Kurihara, Hidemi

    2016-04-01

    We recently demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes periodontal tissue regeneration. The purpose of this study was to establish an essential component of a rational approach for the clinical application of BDNF in periodontal regenerative therapy. Here, we assessed the sequence of early events in BDNF-induced periodontal tissue regeneration, especially from the aspect of cementum regeneration. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was applied into experimental periodontal defects in Beagle dogs. The localization of cells positive for neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, osteopontin, integrin αVβ3, and integrin α2β1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The effects of BDNF on adhesion of cultured human periodontal ligament cells was examined by an in vitro study. The results suggest that BDNF could induce rapid cementum regeneration by stimulating adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells in the early regenerative phase, resulting in enhancement of periodontal tissue regeneration. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  19. Healthy and pathological processes in adult development: new evidence from neuroimaging of the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Trey; Gabrieli, John D E

    2005-12-01

    Recent research has revealed that the population of older adults is composed not only of individuals who are either healthy or have an age-related disease, most commonly Alzheimer's disease, but also individuals with mild cognitive impairment who are at-risk for or already in the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease. These variations in cognitive aging can be related to their neural bases via structural and functional neuroimaging methods. Healthy aging appears to primarily affect a frontal-striatal system that undergirds executive control of cognition, while minimally affecting medial temporal lobe structures. Functional imaging studies suggest that enhanced prefrontal engagement may offer compensatory plasticity that minimizes age-related cognitive losses. Mild cognitive impairment appears to affect the entorhinal cortex in particular, with functional consequences in other brain regions. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by severe hippocampal injury, although early-stage Alzheimer's disease may relatively spare some cortical regions. Advances in in-vivo imaging methods are providing the tools for identifying different trajectories of neurocognitive aging, and knowledge about these brain changes may promote opportunities for treatment.

  20. Considering PTSD from the perspective of brain processes: a psychological construction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvak, Michael K; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2011-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex psychiatric disorder that involves symptoms from various domains that appear to be produced by the combination of several mechanisms. The authors contend that existing neural accounts fail to provide a viable model that explains the emergence and maintenance of PTSD and the associated heterogeneity in the expression of this disorder (cf. Garfinkel & Liberzon, 2009). They introduce a psychological construction approach as a novel framework to probe the brain basis of PTSD, where distributed networks within the human brain are thought to correspond to the basic psychological ingredients of the mind. The authors posit that it is the combination of these ingredients that produces the heterogeneous symptom clusters in PTSD. Their goal is show that a constructionist approach has significant heuristic value in understanding the emergence and maintenance of PTSD symptoms, and leads to different and perhaps more useful conjectures about the origins and maintenance of the syndrome than the traditional hyperreactive fear account. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  1. Brain bases of morphological processing in Chinese-English bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Ka I; Hsu, Lucy Shih-Ju; Arredondo, Maria M; Tardif, Twila; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-09-01

    Can bilingual exposure impact children's neural circuitry for learning to read? To answer this question, we investigated the brain bases of morphological awareness, one of the key spoken language abilities for learning to read in English and Chinese. Bilingual Chinese-English and monolingual English children (N = 22, ages 7-12) completed morphological tasks that best characterize each of their languages: compound morphology in Chinese (e.g. basket + ball = basketball) and derivational morphology in English (e.g. re + do = redo). In contrast to monolinguals, bilinguals showed greater activation in the left middle temporal region, suggesting that bilingual exposure to Chinese impacts the functionality of brain regions supporting semantic abilities. Similar to monolinguals, bilinguals showed greater activation in the left inferior frontal region [BA 45] in English than Chinese, suggesting that young bilinguals form language-specific neural representations. The findings offer new insights to inform bilingual and cross-linguistic models of language and literacy acquisition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Knowledge, as the Result of the Processed Information by Human's Sub-particles (substrings)/Mind in our Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan

    In my vision, there are four animated sub-particles (mater, plant, animal and human sub-particles) as the origin of the life and creator of momentum in each fundamental particle (string). They communicate with dimension of information which is nested with space-time for getting a package of information in each Planck time. They are link-point between dimension of information and space-time. Sub-particle which identifies its fundamental particle, processes the package of information for finding its next step. Processed information carry always by fundamental particles as the history of the universe and enhance its entropy. My proposed formula for calculating number of packages is I =tP- 1 . τ , Planck time tP, and τ is fundamental particle's lifetime. For example a photon needs processes 1 . 8 ×1043 packages of information for finding its path in a second. Duration of each process is faster than light speed. In our bodies, human's sub-particles (substrings) communicate with dimension of information and get packages of information including standard ethics for process and finding their next step. The processed information transforms to knowledge in our mind. This knowledge is always carried by us. Knowledge, as the Result of the Processed Information by Human's Sub-particles (sub-strings)/Mind in our Brain.

  3. Protein Data Bank (PDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...

  4. Environmental Data Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1962-06-01

    In an effort to determine the environment to which the equipment designed by Sandia Corporation will be exposed, a "Data Bank" of environmental information was compiled. Measured quantities resulting from actual uses were continually being summarized.

  5. Mitigation Banking Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mitigation bank is an aquatic resource area that has been restored, established, enhanced, or preserved for the purpose of providing compensation for unavoidable impacts to aquatic resources permitted under Section 404

  6. Banking on the Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I analyse the narratives of four Danish central bank governors from the late nineteenth century until the mid-1990s. By conducting a historical analysis informed by neo-institutional theory, I show how these central bank governors were continuously involved in public debates over...... the appropriateness and desirability of their decisions and policies. In these debates, interpretations and reproductions of Danish national identity were central to the governors' claims to legitimacy. I argue that past narratives of the Danish central bank and its governors enabled and framed future legitimacy...... claims and that the central bank and its governors gradually became embedded in national identity. Thus, the article highlights the historical development of the co-configuring relationship between Danish national identity and the legitimacy of monetary organization....

  7. BrainNet Europe's Code of Conduct for brain banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klioueva, Natasja M; Rademaker, Marleen C; Dexter, David T; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Seilhean, Danielle; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Schmitz, Peer; Bell, Jeanne E; Ironside, James W; Arzberger, Thomas; Huitinga, I.

    Research utilizing human tissue and its removal at post-mortem has given rise to many controversies in the media and posed many dilemmas in the fields of law and ethics. The law often lacks clear instructions and unambiguous guidelines. The absence of a harmonized international legislation with

  8. Banking in southern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarević Žarko

    2014-01-01

    The nations discussed here (Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece) have in common - with the exception of Italy, that is - that they used to be on the margins of European economic and social developments. Only Italy succeeded in industrialising itself already prior to World War I. This fundamental trait also determined the developmental path of modern-era banking. Hereby, two important points in the course of development of banking in the Southern European countries need to be emphasised. To begi...

  9. Factors Influencing Customer Trust in Mobile Banking: Case of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skvarciany Viktorija

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector has developed and extended the use of its services in the past decade. In fact, nowadays mobile banking (M-banking is the most developing service offered by a bank. In order to encourage customers to use m-banking services, it is extremely important to get clients to trust the M-banking services provided by the bank. This article discusses private clients’ trust in mobile banking in Latvia. Hence, the goal of the research is to identify the key factors driving individual customer’s confidence in mobile banking. In order to determine the weight of each factor, expert evaluation method based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP was used. The results showed that the most vital factor affecting private clients’ trust in mobile banking is customer characteristics, especially customers’ computer literacy. However, after summarizing all the subfactors, it became clear that the most powerful in the trust-building process is convenience/practicality of using a mobile application. However, there is a limitation – the survey was conducted by interviewing experts, which means that the results may differ from the responses of the clients themselves.

  10. Role of Foreign Banks in Integration of Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Šubić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic development of financial industry in some last ten years that, considering the kind of financial agents, remained bank-oriented represents a suficient reason to investigate the causes that brought to the present structure of banking system. After having presented theoretical bases of the integration forms and banks connection, the paper analyzes the influence of foreign banks on the development of Croatian bank system. Thus, beside the knowledge of quantitative changes in the banking system, the paper researched the motivations of the banks regarding integration that, among other things, brought to creating the effects of scale and scope economies. However, the concentrations among banks can lead to creation of negative externalities that later become potential dangers for the banking. Pre-cognitions on development of banking system are used to create projection of future banking development while the data basis of the countries from the region enabled the comparative analysis of banks integration in these countries. The conclusion is that the foreign banks have been the largest promoters of bank integration in the Republic of Croatia contributing also to qualitative development of banking market and to deepening of financial market spectrum.

  11. Pelaksanaan Hukum Mediasi dalam Penyelesaian Sengketa antara Bank dan Nasabah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Rizky

    2016-04-01

    ABSTRACT. Article 2 of PBI Number 10/1/2008 states that the dispute between Banks and its customers, which is caused by the unfulfilled financial demands by banks in solving the reports of the customers, could be solved through Banking Mediation. However, there is the fact that the settlement of the disputes nominal under the provisions of the PBI as well as the regulation of Bank Mandiri, aiming to provide protection to the rights of customers. This research aims to examine the disputes between the Aceh’s Bank of Mandiri and the customers, the mediation process in the settlement of disputes between the banks and the customer, and the legal force of the mediation process. This is empirical and normative legal research. Despite of de facto, the process of mediation is final by the peace agreement between the parties written in the act binding both parties. The legal force of the document is equal with a final judicial decision, and the decisions cannot be appealed to the appeal or the supreme courts. In conducting the process of banking mediation, the bank is expected to follow the comprehensive provisions of Indonesia Bank Regulation Number 10/1/PBI/2008.

  12. Consciousness and arousal effects on emotional face processing as revealed by brain oscillations. A gamma band analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Lucchiari, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    It remains an open question whether it is possible to assign a single brain operation or psychological function for facial emotion decoding to a certain type of oscillatory activity. Gamma band activity (GBA) offers an adequate tool for studying cortical activation patterns during emotional face information processing. In the present study brain oscillations were analyzed in response to facial expression of emotions. Specifically, GBA modulation was measured when twenty subjects looked at emotional (angry, fearful, happy, and sad faces) or neutral faces in two different conditions: supraliminal (10 ms) vs subliminal (150 ms) stimulation (100 target-mask pairs for each condition). The results showed that both consciousness and significance of the stimulus in terms of arousal can modulate the power synchronization (ERD decrease) during 150-350 time range: an early oscillatory event showed its peak at about 200 ms post-stimulus. GBA was enhanced by supraliminal more than subliminal elaboration, as well as more by high arousal (anger and fear) than low arousal (happiness and sadness) emotions. Finally a left-posterior dominance for conscious elaboration was found, whereas right hemisphere was discriminant in emotional processing of face in comparison with neutral face.

  13. Brain Process for Perception of the “Out of the Body” Tactile Illusion for Virtual Object Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Jin Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “Out of the body” tactile illusion refers to the phenomenon in which one can perceive tactility as if emanating from a location external to the body without any stimulator present there. Taking advantage of such a tactile illusion is one way to provide and realize richer interaction feedback without employing and placing actuators directly at all stimulation target points. However, to further explore its potential, it is important to better understand the underlying physiological and neural mechanism. As such, we measured the brain wave patterns during such tactile illusion and mapped out the corresponding brain activation areas. Participants were given stimulations at different levels with the intention to create veridical (i.e., non-illusory and phantom sensations at different locations along an external hand-held virtual ruler. The experimental data and analysis indicate that both veridical and illusory sensations involve, among others, the parietal lobe, one of the most important components in the tactile information pathway. In addition, we found that as for the illusory sensation, there is an additional processing resulting in the delay for the ERP (event-related potential and involvement by the limbic lobe. These point to regarding illusion as a memory and recognition task as a possible explanation. The present study demonstrated some basic understanding; how humans process “virtual” objects and the way associated tactile illusion is generated will be valuable for HCI (Human-Computer Interaction.

  14. [Event-related brain potentials when Russian verbs being conjugated: to the problem of language processing modularity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan'ko, S G; Boĭtsova, Iu A; Solov'eva, M L; Chernigovskaia, T V; Medvedev, S V

    2014-01-01

    In the light of alternative conceptions of "two-system" and "single-system" models of language processing the efforts have been undertaken to study brain mechanisnis for generation of regular and irregular forms of Russian verbs. The 19 EEG channels of evoked activity were registered along with casual alternations of speech morphology operations to be compared. Verbs of imperfective aspect in the form of an infinitive, belonging either to a group of productive verbs (default, conventionally regular class), or toan unproductive group of verbs (conventionally irregular class) were presented to healthy subjects. The subjects were requested to produce first person present time forms of these verbs. Results of analysis of event related potentials (ERP) for a group of 22 persons are presented. Statistically reliable ERP amplitude distinctions between the verb groups are found onlyin the latencies 600-850 ms in central and parietal zones of the cortex. In these latencies ERP values associated with a presentation of irregular verbs are negative in relation to ERP values associated with the presentation of regular verbs. The received results are interpreted as a consequence of various complexity of mental work with verbs of these different groups and presumably don't support a hypothesis of universality of the "two-system" brain mechanism for processing of the regular and irregular language forms.

  15. Pattern classification of brain activation during emotional processing in subclinical depression: psychosis proneness as potential confounding factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Modinos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Support Vector Machine (SVM to perform multivariate pattern classification based on brain activation during emotional processing in healthy participants with subclinical depressive symptoms. Six-hundred undergraduate students completed the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II. Two groups were subsequently formed: (i subclinical (mild mood disturbance (n = 17 and (ii no mood disturbance (n = 17. Participants also completed a self-report questionnaire on subclinical psychotic symptoms, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences Questionnaire (CAPE positive subscale. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm entailed passive viewing of negative emotional and neutral scenes. The pattern of brain activity during emotional processing allowed correct group classification with an overall accuracy of 77% (p = 0.002, within a network of regions including the amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex. However, further analysis suggested that the classification accuracy could also be explained by subclinical psychotic symptom scores (correlation with SVM weights r = 0.459, p = 0.006. Psychosis proneness may thus be a confounding factor for neuroimaging studies in subclinical depression.

  16. 12 CFR 7.1003 - Money lent at banking offices or at other than banking offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Money lent at banking offices or at other than banking offices. 7.1003 Section 7.1003 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1003 Money lent at banking offices or at other than...

  17. Neuroscience of attentional processes for addiction medicine: from brain mechanisms to practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadardi, Javad Salehi; Cox, W Miles; Rahmani, Arash

    2016-01-01

    The present chapter first argues how having a goal for procuring alcohol or other substances leads to the development of a time-binding, dynamic, and goal oriented motivational state termed current concern, as the origin of substance-related attentional bias. Next, it discusses the importance of attentional bias in the development, continuation of, and relapsing to substance abuse. It further proceeds with a review of selective evidence from cognitive psychology that helps account for making decisions about using an addictive substance or refraining from using it. A discussion on the various brain loci that are involved in attentional bias and other kinds of cue reactivity is followed by presenting findings from neurocognitive research. Finally, from an interdisciplinary perspective, the chapter presents new trends and ideas that can be applied to addiction-related cognitive measurement and training. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional MRI of the vocalization-processing network in the macaque brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eOrtiz-Rios

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in awake behaving monkeys we investigated how species-specific vocalizations are represented in auditory and auditory-related regions of the macaque brain. We found clusters of active voxels along the ascending auditory pathway that responded to various types of complex sounds: inferior colliculus (IC, medial geniculate nucleus (MGN, auditory core, belt, and parabelt cortex, and other parts of the superior temporal gyrus (STG and sulcus (STS. Regions sensitive to monkey calls were most prevalent in the anterior STG, but some clusters were also found in frontal and parietal cortex on the basis of comparisons between responses to calls and environmental sounds. Surprisingly, we found that spectrotemporal control sounds derived from the monkey calls (scrambled calls also activated the parietal and frontal regions. Taken together, our results demonstrate that species-specific vocalizations in rhesus monkeys activate preferentially the auditory ventral stream, and in particular areas of the antero-lateral belt and parabelt.

  19. PENGARUH KUALITAS JASA PERBANKAN DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN INTERNET BANKING TERHADAP LOYALITAS NASABAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanni Husnul Hanifa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - This study aimed to analyze the influence of the quality of banking services using the Internet Banking on customer loyalty to the PT. Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero, Tbk Branch Dayeuh Kolot Bandung. The method used in the descriptive verification by using quantitative data. Population data on the number of customers acquired from users of Internet Banking PT. Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero, Tbk (2014 with a sample of customers of PT. Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero, Tbk (2014 Dayeuh Conservative branch Bandung as many as 100 people. Data processing using SPSS 19.0 software. Results This study suggests that the quality of banking services using the Internet Banking effect of 13.4% on customer loyalty to the PT. Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero.   Keywords: Service quality, customer loyalty     Abstrak - Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh kualitas jasa perbankan dengan menggunakan Internet Banking terhadap loyalitas nasabah pada PT. Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero,Tbk Cabang Dayeuh Kolot Bandung. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam metode deskriptif verifikatif dengan menggunakan data kuantitatif. Populasi diperoleh dari data jumlah nasabah pengguna Internet Banking PT. Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero,Tbk (2014 dengan sampel nasabah PT. Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero,Tbk (2014 cabang Dayeuh Kolot Bandung sebanyak 100 orang. Pengolahan data menggunakan software SPSS 19.0. Hasil Penelitian ini menyatakan bahwa kualitas jasa perbankan dengan menggunakan Internet Banking berpengaruh sebesar 13,4% terhadap loyalitas nasabah pada PT. Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero.   Kata Kunci : Kualitas Jasa, dan  Loyalitas Nasabah

  20. Musical structure is processed in "language" areas of the brain: a possible role for Brodmann Area 47 in temporal coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Daniel J; Menon, Vinod

    2003-12-01

    The neuroanatomical correlates of musical structure were investigated using functional magnetic neuroimaging (fMRI) and a unique stimulus manipulation involving scrambled music. The experiment compared brain responses while participants listened to classical music and scrambled versions of that same music. Specifically, the scrambled versions disrupted musical structure while holding low-level musical attributes constant, including the psychoacoustic features of the music such as pitch, loudness, and timbre. Comparing music to its scrambled counterpart, we found focal activation in the pars orbitalis region (Brodmann Area 47) of the left inferior frontal cortex, a region that has been previously closely associated with the processing of linguistic structure in spoken and signed language, and its right hemisphere homologue. We speculate that this particular region of inferior frontal cortex may be more generally responsible for processing fine-structured stimuli that evolve over time, not merely those that are linguistic.